Full text: A household survey was conducted in Zanzibar between May and June 2008 to investigate the impact of the ongoing nationwide Avian and Human Influenza Pandemic (AHIP) awareness campaigns on people's understanding of the pandemic. A total of 500 families in 239 villages; all 10 districts of Zanzibar were interviewed. Factors: administrative district, age, sex, number of family members, level of education, occupational groups (farmer vs. non farmer) and access to AHIP training and other media tools were investigated in different models. Preliminary results showed that over 70 percent of respondents know the disease but less than 40 percent out of them understands the cause and ways to prevent the spread of infection in Zanzibar. The district of residence featured prominently (P < 0.001) as an important factor of people knowing the pandemic, the causative agent, transmission of the pandemic, self-protection, protection of the country and adequacy of the campaign. The level of education significantly influenced people knowing the pandemic (P < 0.05), the causative agent (P < 0.001), transmission of the pandemic (P < 0.001), self protection (P < 0.001), country protection (P < 0.001) and adequacy of the campaign (P < 0.05). The ongoing training on AHIP offered significant understanding of the pandemic, the cause, transmission, self-protection and protection of the country (P < 0.001). The family size appeared as a significant (P < 0.05) factor of the family knowing the cause of the pandemic. Finally, the habit of reading news article among the respondents increased the exposure to the knowledge of self (P < 0.01) and country (P < 0.001) protection against the pandemic. It was concluded that the future AHIP campaigns emphasis on particular disadvantaged districts and widening the use of alternative media of information. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain tumor surgery is limited by the risk of postoperative neurological deficits. Intraoperative neurophysiological examination techniques, which are based on the electrical excitability of the human brain cortex, are thus still indispensable for surgery in eloquent areas such as the primary motor cortex (Brodman Area 4. Methods This study analyzed the data obtained from a total of 255 cerebral interventions for lesions with direct contact to (121 or immediately adjacent to (134 Brodman Area 4 in order to optimize stimulation parameters and to search for direct correlation between intraoperative potential changes and specific surgical maneuvers when using monopolar cortex stimulation (MCS for electrocortical mapping and continuous intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. Results Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs were recorded from the thenar muscles and forearm flexors in accordance with the large representational area of the hand and forearm in Brodman Area 4. By optimizing the stimulation parameters in two steps (step 1: stimulation frequency and step 2: train sequence MCS was successful in 91% (232/255 of the cases. Statistical analysis of the parameters latency, potential width and amplitude showed spontaneous latency prolongations and abrupt amplitude reductions as a reliable warning signal for direct involvement of the motor cortex or motor pathways. Conclusion MCS must be considered a stimulation technique that enables reliable qualitative analysis of the recorded potentials, which may thus be regarded as directly predictive. Nevertheless, like other intraoperative neurophysiological examination techniques, MCS has technical, anatomical and neurophysiological limitations. A variety of surgical and non-surgical influences can be reason for false positive or false negative measurements.
...., if the employee is incapacitated, the employee's spouse, adult child, parent, doctor, etc., may... alternative caregiver for the seriously-ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated timely....
... than anticipated before the birth of a child. Similarly, little opportunity for notice may be given... qualifying exigency or for military caregiver leave (see §§ 825.309, 825.310). When an employee has...
... employee who would otherwise work 40 hours a week takes off 8 hours, the employee would use 1/5 of a week... condition the employee is unable to work more than 40 hours that week, the employee would utilize eight... per week, but works only 20 hours a week under a reduced leave schedule, the......
Helene Jorgensen; Eileen Appelbaum
The United States is the only high-income country that does not mandate paid family and medical leave. Instead American workers rely on a patchwork of employer-provided benefits, private insurance, state programs, public assistance, and savings to make ends meet during a leave event. About 30 percent of private-sector employees taking unpaid leave incur debt as result of their leave. More than 2.5 million employees cannot afford to take leave to care for self, a family member with a serious h...
... providing information on current workplace practices related to family and medical leave. An in-depth... balance of workers and the productivity and work flow of employers. The study enables DOL to shape...
... law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, religion, color, national origin, sex, age, or...). FMLA's legislative history explains that FMLA is “not intended to modify or affect the...
Maureen Diana Sasso
Full Text Available News AnnouncementDavid A. Nolfi, MLS, AHIP, Health Sciences Librarian & Library Assessment Coordinator at Duquesne University’s Gumberg Library, received the 2013 NAHRS Award for Professional Excellence at the One Health Conference in Boston, MA.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Serious health condition. 825.113 Section 825.113 Labor... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.113 Serious health condition. (a) For purposes of FMLA, “serious health condition” entitling an employee to FMLA leave means...
.... Documenting Family Relationship . An employer may require an employee giving notice of the need for FMLA leave to provide reasonable documentation or statement of family relationship. This ] documentation may... Pending Cancellation of Health Benefits: 5 minutes. Documenting Family Relationship: 5...
While employees need not use the specific words "FMLA leave" when providing such a request, they need to provide sufficient notice to the employer to make it aware of their needs for qualified leave. PMID:25181817
The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses. PMID:27066615
The agricultural high-tech investment project (AHIP) is characterized by technology-intensive, high risk and great profit. This article analyzes essential factors of the risks of the agricultural high-tech investment projects and the traditional risk evaluation method of agricultural projects. We think that the applications of the sensitivity analysis and probability are defective. Therefore, this article introduces a structural model to evaluate the risks of the agricultural high-tech investment projects and the system of the concrete evaluation indexes.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered employer. 825.104 Section 825.104 Labor Regulations... LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An employer covered by FMLA is any person engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Joint employer coverage. 825.106 Section 825.106 Labor... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.106 Joint employer... employee, the businesses may be joint employers under FMLA. Joint employers may be separate and...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer notice requirements. 825.300 Section 825.300 Labor... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.300 Employer notice requirements. (a) General notice. (1) Every employer covered by the FMLA is required...
... the new premium rates. Maintenance of health insurance policies which are not a part of the employer's... FMLA leave is unpaid, the employer has a number of options for obtaining payment from the employee. The... charge may be added to the employee's premium payment for administrative expenses. The employer...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intent to return to work. 825.311 Section 825.311 Labor... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.311 Intent to return to work. (a) An employer may require an employee on FMLA leave to report periodically...
... may take leave to care for the covered servicemember in a continuous block of time or on an... is sufficient certification for an employee entitled to take FMLA leave to care for a covered... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification for leave taken to care for a...
... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of... child (i.e., bonding time) during the 12-month period beginning on the date of birth. An employee's... daughter or to care for the child after birth, for placement of a son or daughter with the employee...
... foster care, or to care for a parent, the husband and wife would each be entitled to the difference... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave to care for a parent. 825.201 Section 825.201 Labor....201 Leave to care for a parent. (a) General rule. An eligible employee is entitled to FMLA leave...
... not increase in the event the employment relationship terminates. (b) The same group health plan..., hospital care, dental care, eye care, mental health counseling, substance abuse treatment, etc., must be... FMLA ceases if and when the employment relationship would have terminated if the employee had not...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121... Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for placement with the employee of a son or daughter for adoption or foster care as follows: (1) Employees...
... covered servicemember's biological, adopted, or foster child, stepchild, legal ward, or a child for whom... for purposes of military caregiver leave under the FMLA. When no such designation is made, and there... 12-month periods” corresponding to the different military caregiver leave entitlements overlap,...
Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.
In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of the Act. 825.101 Section 825.101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY... stability in the family and productivity in the workplace. FMLA will encourage the development of...
Abstract In this paper, I discuss the shortcomings of the legal protections that exist for pregnancy, breastfeeding, and parenting for United States' workers. The two main sources of protection for pregnancy and parenting in United States employment law are the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) and the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Both, I argue, contain inadequate protections for the needs of pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers, as well as their infants. I consider what it is ab...
Full Text Available As propriedades morfológicas e fonológicas da formação diminutivapor reduplicação são estudadas em função das hipóteses deLowenstamm (1996, 1999 sobre a organização universal dossegmentos fonológicos e mais particularmente sobre a presençade um sítio morfológico ao inicial das palavras de categorias lexicaisessenciais. É proposto que o sítio inicial seja o lugar da reduplicaçãodiminutiva em francês. Factos do francês quebequeses bem comodo antigo grego são apresentados sequidamente papa apoiar ahipótese segundo a qual as palavras são representadasuniversalmente por uma sequência estrita de consoantes e de vogais(CVCV....
Predicting Future Information Resource Utilization Under Conditions of Scarcity: The First Cohort Study in Health Sciences Librarianship. A review of: Postell, William Dosité. “Further Comments on the Mathematical Analysis of Evaluating Scientific Journals.” Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 34.2 (1946: 107-9.
Jonathan D. Eldredge
Full Text Available Objective – To predict future use of journal titles for making subscription decisions.Design – Retrospective cohort study.Setting – Louisiana State University School of Medicine Library in New Orleans.Subjects – All library users, estimated to consist of primarily faculty members or their designees such as research assistants.Methods – Estelle Brodman’s previous citation analysis and reputational analysis (1944 that produced a list of eleven top-ranked physiology journal titles served as the catalyst for Postell’s retrospective cohort study. Postell compiled data on all checkouts for these specific eleven journal titles in his library for the years 1939 through approximately 1945.Main Results – Postell performed a Spearman rank-difference test on the rankings produced from his own circulation use data in order to compare it against journal title rankings produced from three other sources: (1 citation analysis from the references found in the Annual Review of Physiology based upon a system pioneered in 1927 by Gross and Gross; (2 three leading national physiology journals; and, (3 a reputational analysis list of top-ranked journals provided by the faculty members at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons Department of Physiology. Postell found a relatively high correlation (.755, with 1.000 equaling a perfect correlation between his retrospective cohort usage data and the reputational analysis list of top-ranked journals generated by the Columbia faculty members. The two citation analyses performed by Brodman did not correlate as highly with Postell’s results. Conclusion – Brodman previously had questioned the use of citation analysis for journal subscription purchase decisions. Postell’s retrospective cohort study produced further evidence against basing subscription purchases on citation analysis. Postell noted that the citation analysis method “cannot always be relied upon as a valid criterion” for
Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Sawano, Toshio; Yao, Teruyoshi; Kobayashi, Katsuyoshi; Asai, Satoru
Process windows have become narrower as nano-processing technology has advanced. The semiconductor industry, faced with this situation, has had to impose extremely severe tool controls. Above all, with the advent of 90-nm device production, demand has arisen for strict levels of control that exceed the machine specifications of ArF exposure systems. Consequently, high-accuracy focus control and focus monitoring techniques for production wafers will be necessary in order for this to be achieved for practical use. Focus monitoring techniques that measure pattern placement errors and resist features using special reticle and mark have recently been proposed. Unfortunately, these techniques have several disadvantages. They are unable to identify the direction of a focus error, and there are limits on the illumination conditions. Furthermore, they require the use of a reticle that is more expensive than normal and they suffer from a low level of measurement accuracy. To solve these problems, the authors examined methods of focus control and focus error measurement for production wafers that utilize the lens aberration of the exposure tool system. The authors call this method FMLA (focus monitoring using lens aberration). In general, astigmatism causes a difference in the optimum focal point between the horizontal and vertical patterns in the same image plane. If a focus error occurs, regardless of the reason, a critical dimension (CD) difference arises between the sparse horizontal and vertical lines. In addition, this CD difference decreases or increases monotonously with the defocus value. That is to say, it is possible to estimate the focus errors to measure the vertical and horizontal line CD formed by exposure tool with astigmatism. In this paper, the authors examined the FMLA technique using astigmatism. First, focus monitoring accuracy was investigated. Using normal scholar type simulation, FMLA was able to detect a 32.3-nm focus error when 10-mλ astigmatism was
Full Text Available Background: Hip fractures are among the most commoncauses of disability and hospitalisation in the elderly. There are no studies inSouth Africa that determine the effect of pre-fracture functional mobility onearly post-operative functional outcome in elderly patients with a hip fracture.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-fracture functionalmobility on early post-operative functional outcome in elderly patients with ahip fracture.Methodology: A prospective pre-test post-test observational study designwas done. Assessments were conducted pre-operatively, at discharge and sixweeks post discharge at two public hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Thepre-fracture functional mobility of the participants was determined using theNew Mobility Score (NMS pre-operatively. At discharge and at six weeks post discharge the participants post-operative functionallevel was assessed using the Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS.Results: More than two thirds of participants were independently mobile prior to the fracture. Pre-fracture functional mobilityis a strong determinant of early post operative functional outcome in elderly patients with a hip fracture(β = 1.39, p = 0.0001.Conclusion: Independent pre-fracture mobility predicts better early post-operative functional outcomes in the elderly.
Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Byeong Il; Song, Ho Chun; Min, Jung Joon; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The preprocessing step of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) requires the procedure of spatial normalization that consists of applying the nonlinear deformations needed to force every particular PET scan to match a reference template. The purpose of this study is to asses the statistic influence of using 2 different templates (the standard SPM2-PET template and Korean-standard PET template) in the normalization. We compared the regional metabolic patterns on 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) images obtained from 4 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 16 normal subjects. The statistical outcome of between- group comparison was analyzed with SPM2 and was applied into two levels of thresholds (an uncorrected P value of P <0.001, a corrected P value of P < 0.05). As a result, the most significant hypometabolic region was commonly found in the left temporal gyrus regardless of template type or thresholds. However, inconsistent results including different extent and the t-score statistics representing metabolic changes could be also observed between two templates. While the standard SPM2 template showed hypometabolic regions corresponding to Brodman area (BA) 7 and 9, Korean-standard template was not observed these regions. In addition, hypometabolic regions corresponding to BA 38 and 46 indicated not the standard SPM2 template but Korean-standard template. Statistic result showed that the standard SPM2 template effectively reflects the dorsal region of the brain while Korean-standard template is more sensitive to the medial region of the brain.
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, I discuss the shortcomings of the legal protections that exist for pregnancy, breastfeeding, and parenting for United States' workers. The two main sources of protection for pregnancy and parenting in United States employment law are the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA and the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA. Both, I argue, contain inadequate protections for the needs of pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers, as well as their infants. I consider what it is about the way these statutes conceptualize the needs of pregnant women, mothers, and their babies, that prevents more robust protection of their needs. I then compare the minimal protection afforded American women and families with more progressive policies in other countries to highlight the possibilities that arise when the state affirmatively supports working parents and their children.
Liu, Chun-Li; Yuan, Wai-Hua; Yuan, Wei-Wei; Fu, Qiang
387 cases of various skin pigmentous diseases were treated by Versapulse 'C' laser in our department Versapulse 'C' laser consist of 4 kinds of laser with wavelength of VP532nm, Q532nrn, Q755nm, Q1064nm. The vascular lesions, prot wine strain, cherry angioma, strawberry nevus, perckles, solar lentigines, melasma and junctional moles were treated by VP532 or Q532 laser; the nevus of Ota and tattoo were treated by Q755 or Q1064 laser. Satisfactory results were obtained in this paper, we also discussed the therapeutic and the main points of varying diseases with varying laser of wavelength, the use of FMLA anesthesia, controlled cold therapy an the physical protection to laser.
One part of the safety analysis of offsite hazards for a nuclear power plant is consideration of accidents which could release toxic gases or vapors and thus jeopardize plant safety through incapacitation of the control room operators. The purpose of this work is to provide generic, bounding estimates of the maximum allowable shipping frequencies for the transport of a chemical near the plant, such that the regulatory criteria for the protection of the operators are met. A probabilistic methodology was developed and then applied to the truck and rail transport of an example chemical, chlorine. The current regulatory criteria are discussed in detail. For this study, a maximum allowable probability of occurrence of operator incapacitation of 10-5 per year was used in the example calculation for each mode of transport. Comprehensive tables of conditional probabilities are presented. Maximum allowable ahipping frequencies are then derived. These frequencies could be used as part of a generic, bounding criterion for the screening of toxic hazards safety analyses. Unless a transport survey assures shipping frequencies within 8 km of the plant on the order of or lower than 4/week for rail or 35/week for truck, the contol room should be isolatable and the shipping frequency then determines the degree of isolation needed. The need for isolation implies the need for toxic chemical detection at the air intake.For a self-detection case in which the smell threshold is significantly lower than the incapacitation threshold and the control room is isolatable, the corresponding trequencies are 11/week for rail or 115/week for truck. Self-contained breathing equipment is assumed to be used after 5 minutes
Hippius, Hanns; Müller, Norbert
Emil Kraepelin is well known due to his development of the psychiatric classification. The ICD-10 and DSM-IV classification is based on the dichotomy of endogenous psychoses into affective psychoses and schizophrenia as early as 1899. Moreover, beside his classification system he put enormous impact on the development of psychiatry to an empirical field of science. The research activities of Kraepelin and his coworkers show that he was not only the most active researcher in the field of psychiatry in his time but also that his research activities included a lot of clinical and experimental work in different disciplines of psychiatry, including psychology, pharmacology and natural sciences as 'Hilfswissenschaften'. Due to his extraordinary position also in his time he brought together important researchers of this time, in particular after the foundation of a psychiatric research institute. Alois Alzheimer, Franz Nissl, Robert Gaupp, or Korbinian Brodman are only a few of his well known coworkers. Kraepelin tried to bring foreward the empirical knowledge in psychiatry, he did not want to have cessation in psychiatry in general and in the classification of psychiatric disorders in particular. He discussed and partly revisted his view and his theoretical approach in the different editions of his textbook according to the state of his empirical knowledge. This is also true for the dichotomy. More than twenty years after the 6th edition of his textbook, he wrote in an essay 'Die Erscheinungsformen des Irreseins' ('The manifestations of insanity') regarding the dichotomy: "No experienced diagnostician would deny that cases where it seems impossible to arrive to a clear decision, despite extremely careful observation, are unpleasantly frequent." and "....therefore, the increasingly obvious impossibility to separate the two respective illnesses satisfactorily should raise the suspicion that our question is wrong". This contribution shows that Kraepelin himself questioned
Domino, E F; Minoshima, S; Guthrie, S; Ohl, L; Ni, L; Koeppe, R A; Zubieta, J K
The hypothesis for this research was that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) would increase following nasal nicotine administration to overnight abstinent tobacco smokers in relationship to the known brain distribution of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs). Nine male and nine female healthy adult smokers were studied. They abstained overnight from tobacco products for 10 or more hours prior to study the next morning. Nicotine nasal spray was given in doses of 1-2.5 mg total with half in each nostril while the subject was awake and resting in a supine position. Oleoresin of pepper solution in a similar volume was used as an active placebo to control for the irritating effects of nicotine. Both substances were given single blind to the subjects. Positron emission tomography (PET) with H(2)(15)O was used to measure rCBF. The data from each subject volunteer were normalized to global activity to better assess regional brain changes. Both nasal nicotine and pepper spray produced similar increases in CBF in somesthetic area II, consistent with the irritant effects of both substances. The mean rCBF effects of nasal pepper were subtracted from those of nasal nicotine to determine the actions of nicotine alone. The latter produced increases in rCBF in the thalamus, pons, Brodman area 17 of the visual cortex, and cerebellum. Some brain areas that contain a large number of nAChRs, such as the thalamus, showed an increase in CBF. Other areas that have few nAChRs, such as the cerebellum, also showed an increase in relative CBF. The hippocampal/parahippocampal areas showed greater regional decreases (left) and lesser increases (right) in CBF that correlated with the increase in plasma arterial nicotine concentrations. The results obtained indicate complex primary and secondary effects of nicotine in which only some regional brain CBF changes correlate with the known distribution of nAChR. No gender differences were noted. PMID:11020234
Robert W. Thatcher
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources located in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA of the human electroencephalogram (EEG. Methods: The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodman areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st & 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Results: Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: 1- 30 msec,, 2- 55 msec and, 3- 65 msec. Phase lock duration present primarily at: 1- 300 to 350 msec and, 2- 350 msec to 450 msec. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. Conclusions: The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a ‘shutter’ that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.
Donghai Li; Honghan Gong; Xiangzuo Xiao; Jinhua Wan
images.Active signal changes in the primary(M1)and secondary motor(M2)areas,as well as the relationship between the hand knobs and M1 area activation,were analyzed.Region of interest was selected for signal change quantitative graphic analysis.RESULTS:All 7 enrolled volunteers were included in the final analysis.In the present study,hand knob structures were recognized on Tl-weighted images in all subjects and were omega-shaped in the axial plane.Significant functional activations were observed in the contralateral primary motor area of all subjects. Activation signals were distributed mainly in the central sulcus around the hand knob.The contralateral primary sensory(S1)cortex was activated in most cases,and ipsilateral M1 was activated in 3 subjects. Contralateral or bilateral supplementary motor area(SMA)was also activated in 6 cases.Premotor area,or super parietal lobe,was activated in two subjects.Three-dimensional reconstruction demonstrated that the active signal of M1 was primarily located at the middle-lateral surface of the contralateral precentral gyrus in Brodman's area 4,and the signal of SMA activation was located in the mesial surface of the premotor area. CONCLUSION:The knob structure of the precentral gyrus is the representative motor area for hand movement.The cerebral cortical motor network was extensively activated during voluntary hand movements in normal subjects.In alert,conscious human subjects,the activated fMRI signal safely and non-invasively localized and lateralized the motor cortical activity associated with simple voluntary repetitive hand movements.Whether higher cognitive functions,such as perception and speech,can be similarly mapped using the fMRI technique and the BOLD method remains to be determined in future well-designed human studies.