Sample records for brazil caracteristicas isotopicas

  1. Initial isotopic geochemistry ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) of fluids from wells of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Geoquimica isotopica ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) inicial de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)


    de Los Humeros estan constituidos de una mezcla de aguas meteoricas de composicion isotopica muy ligera (paleofluidos) y aguas andesiticas. La relacion {delta} D vs {delta} 18 O para datos previos a la explotacion indica que los fluidos producidos estan constituidos por una mezcla de (al menos) dos fluidos de composicion isotopica diferente. En el extremo mas enriquecido de la relacion de mezcla se encontraron las composiciones isotopicas de los pozos H-23 y H-18 (localizados en el sur del campo), mientras que los fluidos mas ligeros se hallaron en el pozo H-16 original y posteriormente en el pozo H-16 reparado. Se encontro que la fase liquida de los pozos profundos se encuentra mas enriquecida en {delta} 18 O mientras que los pozos mas someros muestran valores mas ligeros, perfil que es indicativo de la ocurrencia de un proceso convectivo en el estado inicial. Con base en este perfil isotopico se establece que aunque la profundidad de las zonas productoras de los pozos H-1, H-12 y H-16 reparado son aproximadamente similares, su composicion isotopica es muy diferente. La composicion {delta} 18 O del pozo H-16 reparado parecia ser la de un vapor condensado, mientras que las de los pozos H-1 y H-12 se encontraron dentro del intervalo de valores de los pozos mas profundos (H-23). Esta caracteristica sugiere que los pozos H-1 y H-12 reciben fluidos muy profundos enriquecidos en {delta} 18 O. Estos resultados podrian ser de utilidad en el modelado conceptual del yacimiento.

  2. Revision of the equation Calculated Cetane Index for the characteristics of diesel commercialized in the Parana-Brazil; Revisao da equacao de Calculo do Indice de Cetano para as caracteristicas do diesel comercializado no Parana

    Souza, Tatiana Bittencourt de; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Cocco, Lilian Cristina [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Analise de Combustiveis Automotivos (LACAUTets)


    This work presents the development of models for Calculated Cetane Index (CCI) determination with the purpose of tailor it to the diesel oil sold in Brazil, using optimization techniques. As the diesel is the main fuel on the Brazilian territory, their quality is of great importance. The CCI calculation is important to evaluate the diesel quality. The standard ASTM D 4737 does not take into account the presence of cetane booster additive and biodiesel, which creates the need to recast the equation of the CCI determination. About 300 representative samples were selected of diesel in Parana, during the 2006 to 2007 period, which had their physic-chemical properties determined using the methodology adopted by the ANP - the Brazilian petroleum, natural gas and biofuel agency. The Derived Cetane Number was obtained in the IQT apparatus and several models were proposed, all with better predictive capability than the equation of the standard ASTM D 4737. It is pointed out that biodiesel can act as cetane booster additive depending upon its origin, mostly in concentrations above 5%. The methodology can be expanded to generate a representative equation for the diesel sold in the whole Brazilian territory. (author)

  3. Study of the distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in Solanum lycocarpum from different tropical environments in Brazil by neutron activation analysis; Estudo das caracteristicas de distribuicao de elementos terras raras em Solanum lycocarpum em diferentes ambientes tropicais do Brasil por ativacao neutronica

    Maria, Sheila Piorino


    In this work, the concentration of eight rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu, was determined by neutron activation analysis (INAA), in plant leaves of Solanum lycocarpum. This species is a typical Brazilian 'cerrado' plant, widely distributed in Brazil. The analysis of the plant reference materials CRM Pine Needles (NIST 1575) and Spruce Needles (BCR 101) proved that the methodology applied was sufficiently accurate and precise for the determination of REE in plants. In order to better evaluate the uptake of the REE from the soil to the plant, the host soil was also analyzed by ESiAA. The studied areas were Salitre, MG, Serra do Cipo, MG, Lagoa da Pampulha and Mangabeiras, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and Cerrado de Emas, in Pirassununga, SP. The results were analyzed through the calculation of transfer factors soil-plant and by using diagrams normalized to chondrites. The data obtained showed different transfer factors from soil to plant as the subtract changes. Similar distribution patterns for the soil and the plant were obtained in all the studied sites, presenting an enrichment of the light REE (La to Sm), in contrast to the heavy REE (Eu to Lu), less absorbed. These results indicate that the light REE remain available to the plant in the more superficial soil layers. The similarity between the distribution patterns indicates a typical REE absorption by this species, in spite of the significant differences in the substratum . (author)

  4. Características epidemiológicas dos óbitos maternos ocorridos em Recife, PE, Brasil (2000-2006 Caracteristicas epidemiológicas de las muertes maternas ocurridas en Recife, PE, Brasil (2000-2006 Epidemiological features of maternal deaths occurred in Recife, PE, Brazil (2000-2006

    Rafaella Araújo Correia


    characteristics of maternal deaths among women living in Recife, PE, Brazil that occurred between 2000 and 2006. The data source consisted of investigation files on maternal deaths. To analyze the data, the EpiInfo 6.04d software was used. The analysis considered 111 deaths, corresponding to a maternal death ratio of 65.99/100,000 live births. The obstetric data showed that these women had had fewer than six prenatal consultations, between one and four previous pregnancies, cesarean deliveries and hospital admission in a severe condition. Hypertensive disorders were the main cause of death. Most of the deaths were considered avoidable. The results indicate the need to improve the healthcare for pregnant women prenatally, at delivery and during the puerperium

  5. Brazil

    Technological advances by newly industrialized countries (NICs) have become a central concern of the recent literature on the political economy of development. Striking a fatal blow to dependency thinking, in so far as it had diagnosed a structural barrier to technological development, these countries have absorbed foreign technology and have developed a very impressive domestic technological capacity. Moreover, their exports have evolved from a traditional reliance on raw materials and unprocessed goods to include increasingly sophisticated manufactured goods and technology itself. The capabilities, motivations, and structures behind nuclear exports must be examined in light of these secular trends. This paper reports on this exploratory analysis of the country's emergence as a nuclear supplier which focuses on six major areas: the balance of motivations and constraints underlying Brazil's nuclear export potential; areas of extant capabilities that would allow the country to play a significant role as a nuclear supplier; formal and informal structures beneath nuclear export policy; patterns of nuclear trade as reflected in past transactions; prospects for continuity and change; generalizability of findings to other emerging suppliers

  6. Isotopic characteristics (Nd and Sr) of the intrusive plutonism at the northwestern Amazonian Craton, Venezuela, and implications for the Paleoproterozoic evolution; Caracteristicas isotopicas (Nd e Sr) do plutonismo intrusivo no extremo NW do Craton Amazonico, Venezuela, e implicacoes para a evolucao paleoproterozoica

    Teixeira, Wilson; Tassinari, Colombro Celso G. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica; Mondin, M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Recursos Minerais e Hidrogeologia


    Nd and Sr analyses were performed on selected granitoid plutons that intrude Archean and Paleoproterozoic domains of the Guyana shield (Venezuela). The isotopic signatures of these plutons together with the geochronologic background of the country rocks are used to constrain their magma genesis and tectonic setting within the Paleoproterozoic evolutions of mobile belts (Maroni-Itacaiunas and Ventuari-Tapajos provinces) of the Amazonian Craton. The Encrucijada Suite (2187 +- 94 Ma), which intrudes Archean rocks of the Imataca Complex, originated predominantly from partial melt of this crust, as supported by negative epsilon{sub Nd(2.1Ga)} values (-2.2 to - 4.9) and T{sub DM} ages between 2.82 and 2.49 Ga. Conversely, the plutons from the Supamo Complex (2230 - 2050 Ma) and Cuchivero Group (1980 - 1830 Ma), occurring within the adjoining Paleoproterozoic provinces, are juvenile in nature (derived from roughly contemporary protoliths). These bodies display T{sub DM} ages between 2.13 and 2.22 Ga, as well as positive epsilon{sub Nd(2.1Ga)} values (+0.74 to + 3.05). Isotopic correlation diagrams (143 Nd/144 Nd vs. 147 Sm/144 Nd and 143 Nd/144 Nd vs. time) plotted together with the plutonic rocks and Imataca Complex rocks were evaluated taking into account the geologic background of the NW part of the Amazonian Craton. Interpretation of these isotopic data supports the idea of tectonic juxtaposition between the Imataca Complex and the Maroni-Itacaiunas province during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.25 - 2.05 Ga). On the other hand, the Cuchivero Group plutons have a contrasting isotopic signature compared to the other Paleoproterozoic plutonic rocks. This is consistent with the existence of a tectonic boundary between the Maroni-Itacaiunas and the Ventuari-Tapajos province in the late Paleoproterozoic. (author)

  7. Lago Pellegrini. Caracteristicas limnologicas

    Amalfi, Marína


    Este trabajo trata el estudio biológico del lago Pellegrini y las características limnológicas del ambiente desde el punto de vista pesquero y turístico en el lapso 1980-1998. Se realizaron monitoreos quincenales de calidad de agua y mensuales de plancton, plaguicidas, bacteriológicos, etc. en estaciones de muestreo situadas en el lago propiamente dicho, en el afluente y alrededores. Se analizan los problemas de eutrofización presentes, en la búsqueda de ensayos que disminuyan el deterioro de...

  8. Water isotopic characterization of hypersaline formation of a petroleum field Reconcavo basin, Brazil; Caracterizacao isotopica de aguas de formacao hipersalinas de um campo de petroleo da Bacia do Reconcavo, Brasil

    Teles, Danilo Ribeiro de Sa; Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes de, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Centro de Pesquisa em Geofisica e Geologia; Santos, Christian Pereira Lopes dos, E-mail: [Instituto Federal Baiano, Salvador, BA (Brazil)


    Formation water is the water present in reservoir rock pores, produced together with petroleum. Usually it is hyper saline with concentrations that can be higher than 250 g/l of dissolved solids. The concentration of the dissolved elements and the isotopic composition of the water and of some of the dissolved elements can be excellent tracers to study the dynamic of underground fluid flux, the mixing of distinct sources and the origin of salinization of these waters. This work reports the isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 2}H , {delta}{sup 18}O) and electrical conductivity (EC) of formation waters from 10 wells of a petroleum field of the Reconcavo Basin, looking for their evolution, interaction with the minerals and rocks and reservoir interconnection. The samples have electric conductivity ranging from 84 to 137 mS/cm, with conductivity increasing with depth of production zone. It is observed an enrichment of deuterium and oxygen-18 with the depth of production zone, probably due to water-rock interactions that were probably increased by higher temperatures of the deeper levels and longer residence times. The samples from the production zone between 1450 to 1520 m, drained by 7 of the 10 wells sampled, show a small range in isotopic composition and in electric conductivity, indicating homogeneity in this level of the reservoir. In the shallow level of 450 m the values of {delta}{sup 2}H , {delta}{sup 18}O and EC are lower, with isotopic composition similar to the oceanic water, possibly representing the original water that entered the reservoir during the sedimentation of the basin. (author)

  9. Effect of alcohol and formaldehyde on the ä13C and ä15N isotopic composition of Plagioscion squamosissimus and Hypophthalmus edentatus (Pisces, Osteichthyes = Efeito do alcool e formol sobre a composicao isotopica de ƒÂ13C e de ƒÂ15N em Plagioscion squamosissimus e Hypophthalmus edentatus (Pisces, Osteichthyes

    Gislaine Iachstel Manetta


    Full Text Available The present study investigates the ƒÂ13C and ƒÂ15N isotopic composition in frozen samples (control, samples in alcohol and in formaldehyde of Plagioscion squamosissimus and Hypophthalmus edentatus. From each individual we extracted a strip of muscle from the region above the lateral line, in the dorsal fin base, that was divided into three equal parts, each one was submitted to one type of treatment: freeze . control group (-15oC, conservation in alcohol 70%and fixation in formaldehyde 4%. Samples were kept under those treatments for 30 days, washed and submerged in distilled water for 4 hours. Afterwards, they were dried up in air oven at 60oC for 48 hours and macerated until the obtaining of a fine powder. A significant difference was found in isotopic values of carbon and nitrogen, between the control and the samples in alcohol and formaldehyde, except for ƒÂ13C from the H. edentatus samples in formaldehyde. The carbon isotopic values of samples in alcohol were mostly enriched compared to control, whereas the samples in formaldehyde presented depleted values in relation to the control. The nitrogen isotopic values for both samples preserved in alcohol and formaldehyde were enriched when compared to the values of frozen samples, independently of used preservatives. Therefore, the isotopic correction should be accomplished according to the isotope and preservative employed for species of freshwater fish.O presente estudo investiga a composicao isotopica de ƒÂ13C e ƒÂ15N entre as amostras congeladas (controle, em alcool e em formol de Plagioscion squamosissimus e Hypophthalmus edentatus. De cada individuo foi extraida uma faixa de musculo localizada na regiao acima da linha lateral, na base da nadadeira dorsal, a qual foi subdividida em tres partes iguais, sendo cada uma delas submetida a um tipo de tratamento: congelamento - grupo control (-15oC, conservacao em alcool 70% e fixacao em formol 4%. As amostras foram mantidas nos

  10. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil

    Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello; Piana de Andrade, Victor; Lucas, Maria da Conceição; Fung, Liang; Gagliardi, Sandra Maria B.; Santos, Sandra Rosalem P.; Mendes, Caio Marcio Figueiredo; Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Dick, Terry


    Cases of human diphyllobothriasis have been reported worldwide. Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi.

  11. Brazil; Selected Issues Paper

    International Monetary Fund


    This Selected Issues paper examines infrastructure investment in Brazil. Brazil has inferior overall infrastructure quality relative to almost all its export competitors. Brazil’s infrastructure endowment ranks low by international standards, and its low quality affects productivity, market efficiency, and competitiveness. Areas in which Brazil’s competitiveness has lagged include, but are not limited to, education, innovation, governance, and justice. Brazil’s infrastructure gap has be...

  12. Datafile: Brazil

    There is as yet little to show for the enormous investment made by Brazil over the past 20 years in nuclear power and the fuel cycle. The only nuclear power plant (657MWe PWR) in operation has had a poor performance record and the two reactors (1309MWe PWRs) under construction are more than ten years behind the original schedule. Aspirations of building commercial fuel cycle facilities have proved extremely optimistic. In the latest reorganization of the industry, the construction and operation of nuclear power stations is entrusted to the national utility and the various civilian/military R and D efforts in the fuel cycle are being integrated under civilian supervision. This should lead to greater accountability and efficiency in the future. (author)

  13. Voltage stability analysis considering the load dynamic characteristics and the voltage control devices; Analisis de estabilidad de voltaje considerando las caracteristicas dinamicas de la carga y dispositivos de control de voltaje

    Hernandez Alvarez, Enrique


    improvement of the voltage stability. Finally, the application of the proposed methods of study to the analysis of voltage stability in an electrical network derived from the Mexican Peninsular system is presented. The influence of voltage control devices in the stability phenomenon is discussed and a comparison with the results obtained by means of other analysis techniques are presented, specifically, the study of the Q-V curves and the modal analysis of the power flow equations. [Spanish] El trabajo de investigacion que se presenta en esta tesis se centra en el analisis de la estabilidad de voltaje de mediano plazo considerando el efecto de las caracteristicas de la carga y su interaccion con los modelos de dispositivos de control de voltaje en la red de transmision. Mas concretamente, se define y estudia un tipo de modelo de carga con caracteristicas deseables para el estudio de la estabilidad de voltaje; los modelos genericos de carga derivados de pruebas de campo o de la aplicacion de tecnicas de identificacion y se analiza la influencia de la aplicacion de dispositivos de control para mejorar los margenes de estabilidad del sistema. Se estudian, asimismo, alternativas al modelado de sistemas de potencia para el estudio de la estabilidad de voltaje en sistemas complejos. Se presenta, en primer lugar, un analisis fundamental de las caracteristicas de estabilidad de voltaje en un sistema simplificado de potencia y se introduce el metodo de analisis adoptado. Se muestra que el fenomeno de inestabilidad se manifiesta como una bifurcacion tipo singular inducida del modo critico de voltaje cuando se opera el sistema bajo condiciones de estres. A continuacion, se analiza la contribucion de la accion de dispositivos de control al margen de estabilidad y se deducen criterios de analisis de estabilidad basados en el estudio de dicho modo. Se propone, a continuacion, un modelo lineal del sistema de potencia con caracteristicas deseables para el estudio de la estabilidad de voltaje

  14. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Vella, F.


    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  15. Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae and their associations related to biological control in Brazil Parasitóides (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae de pulgões e suas interações relacionadas ao controle biológico no Brasil

    Petr Starý


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the parasitoid-aphid-plant associations in Brazil with the objective of developing a useful research database for further studies of aphid parasitoid ecology and aphid management. The original material was obtained from collections made in Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo states. The published information on the Aphidiinae in Brazil is revised. The general features of the target parasitoid fauna of Central and South America is summarized and promising biological control programs of some aphid species in Brazil is discussed.Este trabalho avaliou as interações parasitóides-pulgão-planta no Brasil, com o objetivo de desenvolver um banco útil de dados para estudos subseqüentes em ecologia de parasitóides de afídeos e manejo de pulgões. O material original foi obtido de coletas nos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais e São Paulo, sendo revisadas as informações sobre Aphidiinae publicadas no Brasil. Foram também sumarizadas as caracteristicas gerais da fauna de parasitóides das Américas Central e do Sul e discutidos os programas potenciais de controle biológico de algumas espécies de pulgões no Brasil.

  16. Determination of the {delta}{sup 13}C (per mille) isotopic rate of the Brazilian beer pilsen type; Determinacao da razao isotopica {delta}{sup 13}C (per mille) de cerveja clara tipo pilsen nacional

    Rossete, Alexssandra L.R.M.; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Lopes, Fabio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecologia Isotopica; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada


    Beer has been consumed in Brazil since the XIX century. However, at that time, this beverage was imported from England, and the first Brazilian breweries just appeared at the end of the XX century. Basically, beer is made from: malt of barley, Humulus lupulus, water and yeast. In this work, twenty brands of national beer (Pilsen type), and also two different cereals, barley, a C3 metabolism plant, corn, a C4 plant, were analysed to determine their isotope composition {delta}{sup 13} C (per mille) utilizing a mass spectrometer Delta Plus Finigam and Anca S.L. An aliquot of each sample was transferred using a capillary of glass to a tin capsule contends a small amount of sorbitol. The isotope compositions, {delta}{sup 13} C, of barley and corn samples determined were -27.2 and -11.5 per mille, respectively. These results were used to calculate the equation of mixture model. Considering the beer samples, the {delta}{sup 13} C ranged from -18.3 to -23.1 per mille; this result means that the percentage of C3 plant is from 43.3 to 73.9 per mille. In this manner, it is possible to concluded that all beer samples has malted cereals (C4 plant), as far as the low values of C3 plants were presented in these samples as shown through the equation of mixtures model. (author)

  17. Chemical, physical and isotopic characterization of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, for nuclear forensics purposes; Caracterizacao quimica, fisica e isotopica de U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} para fins forenses nucleares

    Rosa, Daniele Scarpim


    In the early 1990's, the first illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials was observed mainly in Europe. A decade marked by numerous cases of seizures of these materials. As a result, these events have become the subject of criminal forensic investigations and develop from there, nuclear forensics. In Brazil there are no illicit trafficking official records of nuclear material, however, is widely known the extraction and illegal transportation of radioactive geological materials, and the materials pieces attachment used as shielding for radioactive sources. One of the main tools used in nuclear forensics is the nuclear materials databases establishment. These documents must contain the most information as possible about the physical, chemical and nuclear material seized, allowing the identification of their origin, manufacturing process or age. Thus, it sets characteristic composition standards of each material, called 'chemical signatures' (chemical finger print). In this work nuclear forensic protocol was adopted as well as the three stages of assessment suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in identifying the origin of uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}). Assays were performed in order to make physical, chemical and isotopic characterization of the studied materials and compared the data with those obtained for other uranium compounds (Uranium tetrafluoride, UF{sub 4}; uranium oxide, UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}; Yellow cake) by establishing a characteristic signature for each one. Through the assays the uranium compounds were classify by origin groups, as far as they are from different manufactured process and/ or origin. It was also possible to show the importance of a nuclear forensic database during an investigation of a nuclear forensic event. (author)

  18. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira; Marta De Souza Albernaz


    The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%). However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006) that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing...

  19. Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil

    World Bank


    The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One...

  20. Focus on Brazil



    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  1. Behavior patterns of chemical and isotopic species (2006-2007) in the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field, as a response to reinjection; Patrones de comportamiento de especies quimicas e isotopicas (2006-2007) en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., en respuesta a la reinyeccion

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Martinez E, Ignacio; Aragon A, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Reyes D, Lisette; Gonzalez, Rubi [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)


    quimicos e isotopicos ({delta}18 O y {delta}D) de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., obtenidos en 2006 y 2007, para investigar los cambios ocurridos en sus patrones de comportamiento y su relacion con el proceso de reinyeccion de fluidos al yacimiento. El analisis de los datos comprendio las estimaciones de cloruros en las descargas totales, temperaturas de yacimiento, exceso de vapor en los fluidos de alimentacion, las concentraciones de CO{sub 2} en las descargas totales y en la fase liquida del yacimiento y las saturaciones de liquido en la formacion. Con los resultados se elaboraron mapas de isovalores de los parametros mencionados correspondientes a 2006 y 2007 para investigar su evolucion con respecto a los mapas obtenidos en 2005, asi como su relacion con las historias de reinyeccion. Se correlacionaron las composiciones isotopicas de los fluidos incluyendo los de reinyeccion para estimar efectos de mezcla de fluidos. Los resultados indican que las variables estudiadas responden a las tasas de reinyeccion en el campo. Las relaciones {delta}D vs {delta}18 O indican que un buen numero de pozos del campo producen diferentes proporciones de retornos de reinyeccion; en la zona norte los pozos AZ-65D, AZ-13, AZ-32, AZ-9A, AZ-9AD, AZ-28A, AZ-69D y AZ-44 producen una mayor proporcion mientras que los pozos AZ-5, AZ-28 y AZ-19 entre otros, producen una menor proporcion. En la zona sur los pozos AZ-2A, AZ-16AD, AZ-46 y AZ-33 producen relativamente altas proporciones de retornos de reinyeccion mientras que los pozos AZ-34, AZ-36 y AZ-37 producen menores proporciones. La distribucion de saturaciones de liquido hallada en 2007 muestra que las areas de maxima saturacion han disminuido con respecto a las distribuciones de este parametro en 2005 y 2006. En 2007 las saturaciones maximas de liquido se localizaron alrededor de los pozos AZ-22 y AZ-23 (zona sur) y AZ-28, AZ-32, AZ-45 y AZ-48 (zona norte), mientras que las saturaciones minimas se localizaron en

  2. Energy in Brazil

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  3. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga


    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  4. Allelopathic research in Brazil

    Manuel Reigosa; Anabele Stefânia Gomes; Alfredo Gui Ferreira; Fabian Borghetti


    In this article, we review allelopathy studies conducted in Brazil or involving plant species that occur in the country. Conceptions and misconceptions associated with allelopathy, as well as some international criteria to be applied in allelopathic research, are presented and discussed. We observed a sharp increase in the number of papers on this subject conducted in Brazil between 1991 and 2010. However, most studies are conducted under laboratory conditions, lack a clear hypothesis or a so...

  5. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country's nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country's economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U3O8 (100 thousand pounds). Brazil's state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U3O8 (600 million pounds U3O8) in reserves

  6. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    World Bank


    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  7. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves


    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  8. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)


    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  9. Brazil: anchoring the region

    The role of Brazil's state-run petroleum company, Petrobras, in providing a national supply of oil and natural gas and their products to Brazil was discussed. Petrobras is the sole state-run enterprise which carries out research, exploration, production, refining, imports, exports and the transportation of oil and gas in Brazil. Petrobras has built a complete and modern infrastructure made up of refineries, distribution bases, terminals and oil and gas pipelines. Recently (1995) the Brazilian National Assembly approved legislation that while confirming the state monopoly, also provides private contractors and other state-owned companies ways to participate in the petroleum sector. There exists a great potential for oil and gas in many of Brazil's 29 sedimentary basins. The regulatory legislation also created two new organs to deal with the partial deregulation of the petroleum sector, the National Board for Energy Policy and the National Petroleum Agency. The first of these will deal with policy issues, measures and guidelines regarding regional energy supply and demand and specific programs such as those affecting natural gas, fuel alcohol, coal and nuclear energy. The National Petroleum Agency will manage the hydrocarbon sector on behalf of the government. Its functions will include regulation and monitoring of the sector, managing the bidding process for concessions for exploration and production, and other related activities. The new legislation opens up new horizons for the Brazilian oil sector, providing opportunities for private investment, both domestic and foreign, as well as for new technological capabilities associated with these investments. 1 tab., 6 figs

  10. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo


    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  11. Evaluation of the energy potential, biogenesis and essential characteristics of the geothermal submarine systems in Mexico; Evaluacion del potencial, biogenesis y caracteristicas esenciales de los sistemas geotermicos submarinos en Mexico

    Suarez Arriaga, Mario Cesar [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)


    profundidad, hasta los recursos geotermicos profundos, a mas de 3000 metros de profundidad. Las fuentes geotermicas no tradicionales incluyen las partes profundas y los limites de los reservorios hidrotermales tradicionales, los sistemas en roca seca o humeda caliente, los yacimientos geopresurizados del Golfo de Mexico y los sistemas submarinos hidrotermales observados principalmente en la costa norte mexicana del Oceano Pacifico. La energia geotermica submarina surge por la existencia de rupturas profundas en el fondo marino, a lo largo de los centros de dispersion oceanicos entre las placas tectonicas. Estos sistemas tienen una longitud total aproximada de 65,000 Km. en la corteza oceanica. Hay dos tipos basicos de sistemas marinos existentes en el Golfo de California: los recursos profundos, localizados a lo largo de las cordilleras entre las placas de la corteza oceanica a mas de 2000 m bajo el nivel del mar, y los recursos poco profundos cerca de las plataformas continentales, entre 20 y 50 metros de profundidad. El calor submarino poco profundo tambien se relaciona con fallas y fracturas en el fondo del mar cerca de algunas costas. Este subsistema se encuentra tambien en la costa de Punta Banda en Ensenada, Baja California. El potencial preliminar de la energia contenida en tales reservorios se estima, en promedio, en 1120 MWt por cada km3 de roca submarina. Las caracteristicas quimicas especificas de las aguas hidrotermales encontradas en esos sistemas oceanicos indican que las interacciones agua-roca, ocurren bajo condiciones de presion y temperatura altas. La energia geotermica submarina soporta ricas variedades de comunidades biologicas a profundidades donde las plantas no tienen acceso a la luz solar para realizar la fotosintesis. Hay indicios de que las posibles condiciones para la sintesis de sustancias y elementos quimicos necesaria para el origen de la vida primitiva, pudieron ser los sistemas hidrotermales submarinos.

  12. Heliostat tailored to Brazil

    Pfahl, Andreas; Bezerra, Pedro; Hölle, Erwin; Liedke, Phillip; Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Hertel, Johannes; Lampkowski, Marcelo; Oliveira, L.


    For Brazil it is important to realize a high local production share because of high import tax rates. The rim drive concept offers an alternative for expensive heliostat drive solutions with slew and linear drives from abroad. By (locally produced) rims the demands on the drives regarding strength and precision are reduced to a very low value and low cost drives can be used. Sandwich facets (which are usually foreseen for rim drive heliostats) are not available from Brazilian manufacturers an...

  13. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil


    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  14. Drought Preparedness in Brazil

    Gutiérrez, Ana Paula A.; Engle, Nathan L.; De Nys, Erwin; Molejón, Carmen; Sávio Martins, Eduardo


    Large portions of Brazil's Northeast have experienced an intense and prolonged drought for the majority of 2010–2013. This drought, along with other droughts that have hit the South in recent years, has sparked a new round of discussions to improve drought policy and management at the federal and state levels. To assist with these efforts, the World Bank recently conducted a series of evaluations on national and sub-national drought preparedness measures and approaches across five country cas...

  15. Brazil: Selected Issues Paper

    International Monetary Fund


    This Selected Issues Paper discusses the macroeconomic implications of pension reforms in Brazil. It assesses empirically the relationship between fiscal policy and the real effective exchange rate in emerging markets and draws policy implications. It reviews the current status of local capital markets in the country, the key challenges, and policy options for further development. The paper also provides a detailed description of consumer credit developments and analyzes recent indicators of ...

  16. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira


    Full Text Available The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%. However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006 that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing of short half-life radiopharmaceuticals, and the recent constitutional amendment project 517/2010, which was approved in the last instance and is waiting for final approval by the President. Thus, in this scenario, there are a total of 417 radiopharmacy services across the country waiting for qualified professionals to fill posts. However, while there are insufficient trained professionals, radiopharmacy services under the aegis of Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria - Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency allow biomedical scientists and biologists to perform specialized functions as developed in radiopharmacy services without the presence of radiopharmacists.


    The recent history of deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil is well known. ajor reason for alarm over the rate and magnitude of deforestation in Brazil has been concern that the reduction in vegetation releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that may contr...

  18. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  19. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.)

  20. Astronomy in Brazil

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.


    A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

  1. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M


    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  2. Fuelwood utilization in Brazil

    The annual consumption of fuelwood in Brazil is approximately equal to 180 million oil barrels, or 13.3% of all Brazilian primary energy use. Fuelwood consumption in the country is greater than the use of wood for industrial use. Fuelwood taken from existing forest has been a very common activity in Brazil. Forest plantations to support the Brazilian fuelwood consumption have not been important. As fuelwood consumption in the country is expected to increase in the future, it is important to increase the supply of wood by sustainable use of the existing natural forests. Even if they are far from the centers of consumption, these are only available reserves capable of supporting the Brazilian future fuelwood requirements. For this reason it is necessary to use advanced technology to convert the energy of wood efficiently into a form (such as electricity) to carry it to the centers of consumption. In addition, forest plantations would be established in the available areas, mainly for specific uses, as for charcoal production for the pig-iron and steel industries. In all the above plans, at least, the US3/2 billion/year that represents the current Brazilian fuelwood consumption should be returned to rehabilitate the forest growing stock. In addition, it would be used to stimulate the development and use of the most suitable systems of fuelwood conversion, improving the efficiency of energy production. (author)

  3. Waste management in Brazil

    The waste management policies set up in developed countries have in general been used by other countries with less experience in the nuclear field as the basis for developing waste disposal rules or guidelines according to their particular political, social and economic conditions. The waste management question became a main concern in Brazil during the licensing period of the Angra I nuclear power plant and the other fuel cycle facilities envisaged under the Agreement between Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany. Before the Angra I licensing period, all final waste products arising from nuclear activities were released into the environment because their radioactive levels were below the standard limits. The Research, Development and Demonstration (RDD) Project initiated by the National Nuclear Energy Commission has the purpose to provide information that may contribute to the formulation of recommendations for a waste disposal policy, as well as to demonstrate the feasibility of the Brazilian waste disposal concept. The paper briefly describes the waste management policy in some countries, their contributions to the studies carried out in the RDD Project, and the recommendations and mechanisms for implementing the waste management proposal, and presents general information concerning the Brazilian repository concept. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  4. Labelling and Packaging in Brazil

    Cavalcante, Tania M; World Health Organization


    Introduction Brazil is the largest country in South America, with an area of 8 547 403.5 square kilometres and a population of 169 799 170 (IBGE, 2000). Its geopolitical structure com-prises 26 states and one Federal District, the capital of Brazil, Brasilia. Each state is divided into municipalities, of which there are a total of 5 507. The primary causes of death in Brazil are cardiovascular diseases and cancer and their major risk factor is tobacco use. Lung cancer is the...

  5. Space activities in Brazil

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  6. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    Gabriela Gualco


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  7. Familial hypercholesterolemia in Brazil.

    Dos Santos, J E; Zago, M A


    The Brazilian population has heterogeneous ethnic origins and is unevenly distributed in a country of continental dimensions. In addition to the Portuguese colonists until the end of the World War II Brazil received almost 5 million immigrants who settled mainly in the south and southeast. This features of the Brazilian population have two important consequences for the inherited diseases that are associated with an ethnic background: their frequencies are different in various regions of the country reflecting a variety of ethnic origins and variable degrees of admixtures. There was no report about the molecular basis of hypercholesterolemia in Brazil until our report in 1996 that the Lebanese allele is the most common cause of the disease in our country: 10 out of the 30 families were of Arab origin, and the Lebanese allele was detected in 9 of the 10 unrelated families of Arab origin. In addition, the abnormal gene is associated with the same haplotype at the LDL-R locus in all but one family, suggesting single origin for this mutation. Recently we described seven mutations in exons 4, 7, 12 and 14 and a new mutation in exon 15. In another region of our state, eight mutation already described and seven new mutations were described and interesting no common mutations were find. We can conclude that the complex history and structure of the Brazilian population, which was formed by the contribution of a large number of ethnic components that are in a state of increasing miscegenation, is reflected in the frequency and regional distribution of the more common hereditary diseases. PMID:14615271

  8. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    ... page: Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, ... been the country hit hardest by the ongoing Zika virus epidemic and its potential for birth defects. ...

  9. The Espinharas uranium occurrence, Brazil

    Nuclam has been exploring for uranium in Brazil since 1976. During this period one uranium ore body has been found in the vicinity of Espinharas, a village in Paraiba State, northeast Brazil. According to present knowledge, the mineralized ore body is caused by metasomatic action. The history of discovery and the exploration work until the end of 1979 is given, showing the conceptual change with increasing knowledge of the mineralized zone. (author)

  10. Automobile Pollution Control in Brazil

    Claudio Ferraz; Ronaldo Seroa da Motta


    Air pollution concentrations have been rapidly increasing in the major urban areas of Brazil caused mainly by the increasing use of vehicles. In the presence of this negative externality, environmental regulation is required. Car emission control policies in Brazil have relied basically on mandatory emission standards and subsidies for specific cleaner technology resulting in substantial decrease of car emission rates. Nevertheless, car sale taxes, differentiated by vehicles’ size and fuel, h...

  11. Country watch. Brazil.

    Turra, M D


    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere. PMID:12288109

  12. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  13. Argentina and Brazil

    This paper reports that security is defined in different ways by many international actors. To some, security is tied to the definition of an external threat to borders, as in the case of the NATO countries. To other, security is related to development, as in the case of most Third World countries. but notwithstanding different definitions, all countries recognize that the essence of security is the survival of the nation-state itself. The nuclear programs of Argentina and Brazil are among the oldest, most sophisticated and advanced nuclear programs anywhere in the Third World. The programs have never been explained on the basis of threat perception, and in this regard perhaps they constitute the most atypical form of nuclear proliferation known to date. Not surprisingly, any attempt to explain the rationale for the Brazilian and Argentine nuclear programs based on common issues of threat =merely confuses the issue. Thus, nationalism, the search for national identity and pride, the need to express self-sufficiency and the desire to keep options open in an insecure and evolving world order must all be analyzed to comprehend the likelihood of future types of nuclear proliferation. Meanwhile, the study of the contemporary era of Argentine-Brazilian nuclear rapprochement may provide new insights into the complex reasoning behind the decision of countries to go nuclear

  14. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Sena, E


    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities. PMID:12295035

  15. Essays on Municipal Public Finance in Brazil

    Gardner, Rachel Elizabeth


    This dissertation studies local public finance in Brazil, with a focus on how federal and state government policies affect local spending and revenue generation. In Chapter I, I provide a descriptive analysis of local public finance in Brazil, with a focus on local revenue generation. In addition to describing the system of public finance in Brazil from a municipal perspective, I discuss the major challenges facing local governments in Brazil and in other low and middle income countries and ...

  16. Brazil, China, US: a triangular relation?

    José-Augusto Guilhon-Albuquerque


    Full Text Available This article is divided in three sections. The first one explores the so-called "strategic partnership" between Brazil and China. In the second section we shall examine how US-China relations in the global system could affect both Brazil-US, and Brazil-China bilateral relations. A final section presents some recommendations for Brazil strategic orientations regarding the current systemic transition in the allotment of global power.

  17. The Evolution of Reforestation in Brazil

    Bacha, Carlos


    This paper analyzes the evolution of reforestation in Brazil and makes an evaluation of federal government policies used to stimulate that activity. Despite the huge increase of reforestation areas in Brazil since the 1970s, what put up Brazil as the sixth large country with reforested areas, a scarcity of roundwood from reforested areas is happing in that country during the first decade of the 21st century. Federal government implemented three programs to foster the reforestation in Brazil d...

  18. OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil

    The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil

  19. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano


    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak. PMID:26927450

  20. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    Suplicy, M


    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects. PMID:12287356

  1. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper. (Kaihara, S.)

  2. Country watch: Brazil.

    Szterenfeld, C


    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised. PMID:12346918

  3. Consumers' healthcare rights in Brazil.

    Schmidt, M J


    In many countries the rights of patients and consumers of health services are gaining ground and becoming law. As elsewhere, consumers in Brazil are becoming increasingly knowledgeable and demanding respect for their rights. Yet many Brazilian health services--public and private--are still reluctant to accept public evaluation and criticism. But with Brazil's new consumer's code the stage is set for a more active role of patients in their health decisions and for nurses and health professionals to acquiesce to consumers' dissatisfaction and respond with improved professional performance. PMID:8894838

  4. Labour market of bachue Brazil.

    Rato Mhc; Braganca SL


    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper on the labour market of Brazil - discusses theoretical aspects of labour market and labour law, effects of government's wage policy, minimum wage laws, underemployment, unemployment, labour market segmentation, labour demand and labour supply in the agricultural sector and the non-agricultural sector, the number of self employed, labour mobility, etc. Diagram, references and statistical tables.

  5. Violence in Schools in Brazil.

    Pino, Angel


    The causes of violence in schools, as in society, are multiple and complex; they are rooted in the intolerable economic and social conditions created by Brazil's development model, characterized by unequal wealth distribution, widespread poverty, and an exclusive society. By mirroring this exclusionary process, the educational system is inherently…

  6. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva


    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  7. Brazil and CERN get closer


    The map of countries affiliated to CERN may in future include Brazil. On a visit to CERN last week, the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology, Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg, expressed his country's interest in closer links to the Laboratory.   Luciano Maiani and the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg shake hands on CERN-Brazil co-operation. During his visit, the Minister and CERN Director General Luciano Maiani issued a joint statement for the continuation of a Co-operation Agreement first established in 1990. They also agreed to study the possibility of Brazil joining CERN-led Grid computing infrastructure projects. Brazilian physicists are already involved in the LHCb, ATLAS and CMS experiments. At the conclusion of the Minister's visit, he and Director-General Maiani agreed to establish a Working Group to examine ways of strengthening Brazil's links with CERN, and to prepare the way for a Brazilian request to CERN Council to become an Observer at th...

  8. The population question in Brazil.


    Population control programs were instituted in Brazil in the 1960s and resulted in as 50% reduction of the fertility rate in 20 years with a reduction in population growth from 2.9%/year in the 1960s to 2.1% in the 1980s. The rapid urbanization which has occurred in Brazil also contributed to this process. While the Brazilian government has eschewed foreign intervention, it encourages the population control programs which are funded by international agencies. The women's movement became involved in policies relating to reproductive rights in 1980, and attempts were made to change the focus of women's health care and the right of women to make reproductive choices. 71% of Brazilian women of reproductive age who are married or living in consensual union use contraception. This compares with 70% of women in developed countries. In Brazil, however, 44% of the women have been sterilized, 41% use oral contraceptives (OCs), and 12% use natural or barrier methods, compared to 7, 13, and 41%, respectively, in developed countries. Sterilization is illegal in Brazil, although it is widespread; the high number of Cesarean section births may determine a medical need for sterilization (after three such deliveries, for example). Abortion is also illegal (except in cases of rape or if the mother's life is in danger) and widespread. The 2 to 3 million abortions each year are thought to be the third cause of maternal mortality. Studies of OC use have shown that Brazilian women often use OCs without medical monitoring or in cases when the contraceptive is absolutely contraindicated. In the past few years, Brazilian women's groups have demanded that the government deal with the issue of family planning in order to stop the intervention of international population control agencies. Brazil has never had the sufficiently modern and effective policy to help women to use contraception safely during the various stages of their reproductive lives. PMID:12286343

  9. 76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...


    ... COMMISSION Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected... No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in... competitive factors in Brazil affecting U.S. and Brazilian agricultural sales in third country markets....

  10. Effects on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of honey bee samples submitted to gamma radiation; Efeitos nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas, microbiologicas e sensoriais em amostras de mel de abelhas submetidas a radiacao gama

    Bera, Alexandre


    Honey production in Brazil has increased considerably and gaining pro eminence on the international market, as a result many demands have become part of the productive honey chain. In addition to the analyses provided for the Brazilian legislation, international market demand products that meet the most stringent quality standards. Honey has interesting characteristics due to its constitution, but even so there are problems that can change some how your identity and quality. The application of gamma radiation is a viable proposal which promotes the reduction of bio burden without changing the constitution and most importantly the physicochemical properties, with smaller nutritional losses when compared to other treatments used in foods. This study beyond the physicochemical parameters required by Brazilian regulation also included other relevant analyses, including FT-IR ATR. Microbiological analyses were carried out on samples of pure honeys and subsequently inoculated microbial known loads to assess the action of gamma radiation in doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The triangular test was used to differentiate the irradiated and not irradiated. samples The major changes that have occurred in samples of honeys were mainly in concentrations of HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural) and diastase activity occurring a significant decrease in all analyzed samples. There was a reduction microbiological from the application of the 5 kGy, reaching absence with 10 kGy dose except Paenibacillus larvae. The sensory analysis conducted on samples of honey and honey irradiated with 5, 10 and 15 kGy doses, pointed out that there is no significant difference (5%) between irradiated and control samples. The application of gamma radiation in honeys proved a very useful method in microbiological decontamination, featuring few changes in the product at doses up to 10 kGy. (author)

  11. Brazil, oil and statoil: challenges and opportunities

    Linchausen, Harald Christoffer


    This thesis aims to shed some light on what challenges Brazil faces concerning its oil reserves. It also considers Statoil’s situation and attempts to analyse the challenges both face. Hotelling’s rule and Dunning’s OLI framework are presented and used in order to complete this analysis. The thesis starts by looking at the history of petroleum in Brazil and Norway. Next, the theoretical framework is outlined. The challenges for both Brazil and Statoil are presented and anal...

  12. Corruption - Can Brazil win this war?

    Washington de Queiroz, Jorge


    Corruption in Brazil is endemic and has increased since the end of the military transition regime in 1985, a year marked by an indirect presidential election, which was followed by the 1988 Constitutional Reform. The present thesis answers the research question of how corruption affects well-being in Brazil" by investigating the existing cause-effect relationships and complex dynamics and logic between corruption and related variables in Brazil, with each of the twenty-s...

  13. Brazil: The Future of Modern Agriculture?

    Holger Matthey; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Fuller, Frank H.


    In an attempt to understand better Brazil's future role in agricultural markets, the authors of this report traveled to Brazil on a fact-finding mission in September 2003. The goal was to get a first-hand impression of Brazil's agricultural sector and especially its future potential. In this report we provide a general description of crop and livestock production, government policies, public and private cooperation, and transportation and biotechnology issues. The most striking observations m...

  14. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian


    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The fol...

  15. Brazil's Economy:Too Hot


    @@ Brazil has a lot to be proud of.A decade of faster growth and progressive social policies has brought a prosperity that is ever more widely shared.The unemployment rate for April, at 6.4%, is the lowest on record.Credit is booming, particularly to the swelling numbers who have moved out of poverty and into the middle class.Income inequality, though still high, has fallen sharply.For most Brazilians life has never been so good.

  16. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)


    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  17. State Government Bailouts in Brazil

    Bevilaqua, Afonso S.


    As a result of the consolidation of democracy after the end of the military regime in the mid-1980s, Brazil has gone through a period of remarkable decentralization both in fiscal and political terms. The move towards decentralized management and control of public finances has been followed by a series of bailouts of state governments by the federal government. The lack of effective control on borrowing, coupled with reputational effects originating from these repeated bailout operations, red...

  18. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  19. Brazil: Mechanisms of Direct Democracy

    Bovo, Raquel


    In the structure of Brazilian Government, regarding both the executive as well as the executive powers, the increase in ways in which society can participate in decisions of public interest, stands out. Among the shared or participatory managerial policies implemented in Brazil, the following are noteworthy: the participatory budget, managerial councils, committees dealing with watersheds, thematic conferences, plebiscites, public meetings and referenda. However, if compared to the size of Br...

  20. Brazil-Africa geological links

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.


    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  1. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Fabiano Toni


    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  2. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    Janoff, D


    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  3. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  4. History of nuclear power in Brazil

    Rosa, L.P.


    The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)

  5. Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Waste

    World Bank


    This report synthesis the findings for the waste sector of a broader study, the Brazil low carbon study, which was undertaken by the World Bank in its initiative to support Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) while promoting long term development. The purpose of the present report is to assist in the preparation of public poli...

  6. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  7. Inequality and Economic Development in Brazil

    World Bank


    This study addresses three questions : why do inequalities matter for Brazil's development? Why does Brazil occupy a position of very high inequality in the international community? And, What should public policy do about it? Excessive income inequality is unfair, and undesirable on ethical grounds, and can bring adverse effects on economic growth, health outcomes, social cohesion, and cri...

  8. An overview on small hydro in Brazil

    An overview of small-scale hydro development in Brazil was presented in the context of the Brazilian energy sector. Brazil's energy sector is currently comprised of 45 per cent renewable energy. Brazil is the tenth largest energy producer in the world, with an installed capacity of 105.986 MW. Brazil currently has an estimated 258.410 MW of hydroelectric power potential. Small hydropower (SHP) plants in Brazil are defined as plants capable of producing up to 30 MW of power, with a reservoir area smaller than 12 km2. It is estimated that SHP plants will provide 5 per cent of Brazil's electrical supply by 2030. SHP plants in Brazil typically use Kaplan and Pelton hydraulic turbines, as well as Michell-Banki cross-flow turbines. Hydrokinetic turbine prototypes are also being designed at the Federal University of Brazil. Researchers are currently developing a diffuser enhancement design. However, there are currently no designs available that use peripheric generators. Researchers are currently investigating the design of fish-friendly turbines as well as mobile dams. Development projects in the Amazon region were outlined. tabs., figs.

  9. Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Transport

    World Bank


    This report summarizes the results for the transportation sector from a larger study, the low carbon study for Brazil, developed by the World Bank as part of its initiative to support the integrated efforts of Brazil to reduce global and national greenhouse gases emissions, while promoting long-term development. The study covers four key areas with potential low carbon options: 1) Land Use...

  10. Características epidemiológicas dos óbitos maternos ocorridos em Recife, PE, Brasil (2000-2006) Caracteristicas epidemiológicas de las muertes maternas ocurridas en Recife, PE, Brasil (2000-2006) Epidemiological features of maternal deaths occurred in Recife, PE, Brazil (2000-2006)

    Rafaella Araújo Correia; Hallana Cristina Araújo; Betise Mery Alencar Furtado; Cristine Bonfim


    Estudo de corte transversal que objetivou descrever as características epidemiológicas dos óbitos maternos de residentes no Recife, PE, Brasil, ocorridos entre 2000 e 2006. A fonte de dados foi constituída pelas fichas de investigação de óbito materno da Secretaria de Saúde do Recife. Para a análise dos dados, utilizou-se o programa EpiInfo 6.04d. Foram estudados 111 óbitos, correspondendo a uma Razão de Morte Materna de 65,99/100.000 nascidos vivos. Os dados obstétricos mostraram a realizaçã...

  11. The ethanol program in Brazil

    Goldemberg, José


    The number of automobiles in the world has been growing fast and today requires one quarter of the global petroleum consumption. This problem requires adequate solutions, one of which Brazil has achieved with the Sugarcane Ethanol Program. This paper presents the history of this program, from its launch in the 1970s to the today's condition of full competitiveness in a free market. It also shows how it can be replicated to other countries, in order to replace 10 per cent of the world's gasoline consumption.

  12. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole


    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP,, responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  13. Brazil: World Oil Report 1991

    This paper reports that Brazil's state oil company Petrobras has racked up a significant period of achievement over the last 12 months. Average daily oil production hit a new high. A small portion of deepwater giant Marlim field came onstream. Risk contracts ended, and the firm assumed all responsibility for exploration activity in Brazil. Furthermore, Santos basin proved to be the nation's most recent oil province after two discoveries. Last, but not least, Petrobras assumed a dominant position worldwide in development of new deepwater technology, as evidenced by papers presented at the 1991 Offshore Technology Conference. What is remarkable is that all this was achieved while the company was experiencing political turmoil. Last Oct. 19, Petrobras President Luis Octavio Motta Veiga resigned in a dispute with the Ministry of Economy (MOE) over refined product pricing levels. His replacement, interestingly enough, was the 36-year-old executive secretary of the MOE, Eduardo de Freitas Teixeira. His term at Petrobras lasted less than six months

  14. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  15. Hereditary haemoglobin disorders in Brazil.

    Zago, M A; Costa, F F


    The data on the incidence and variability of hereditary haemoglobin (Hb) disorders in Brazil are reviewed. The most common abnormalities are HbS, HbC and beta-thalassaemias. Both homozygotes and compound heterozygotes for these genes (i.e., HbS/HbC disease, S/beta-thalassaemia, C/beta-thalassaemia) are common, owing to the free miscegenation of populations of Mediterranean and African ancestry. The diversity of beta-thalassaemias is similar to that observed in other regions. beta(0)-Thalassaemia is more frequent than the beta(+) variant among affected individuals. Most patients are descendants of Italian immigrants but occasional cases have other racial origins. Patients with thalassaemia major are mostly beta (0) homozygotes, while thalassaemia intermedia is more heterogeneous, including a variety of genotypes. alpha-Thalassaemias are not common although cases of HbH disease have been reported. Isolated examples of several Hb variants have been described, and two abnormal Hb were first found in Brazil: Hb Porto Alegre and Hb Niteroi. PMID:3898485

  16. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    Uziel, A P


    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not. PMID:11765396

  17. Brazil: World Oil Report 1991


    This paper reports that Brazil's state oil company Petrobras has racked up a significant period of achievement over the last 12 months. Average daily oil production hit a new high. A small portion of deepwater giant Marlim field came onstream. Risk contracts ended, and the firm assumed all responsibility for exploration activity in Brazil. Furthermore, Santos basin proved to be the nation's most recent oil province after two discoveries. Last, but not least, Petrobras assumed a dominant position worldwide in development of new deepwater technology, as evidenced by papers presented at the 1991 Offshore Technology Conference. What is remarkable is that all this was achieved while the company was experiencing political turmoil. Last Oct. 19, Petrobras President Luis Octavio Motta Veiga resigned in a dispute with the Ministry of Economy (MOE) over refined product pricing levels. His replacement, interestingly enough, was the 36-year-old executive secretary of the MOE, Eduardo de Freitas Teixeira. His term at Petrobras lasted less than six months.

  18. Brazil, the United States, and the missile technology control regime

    Tollefson, Scott D.


    This technical report analyzes Brazil's development of ballistic missiles in light of U.S. pressures to stifle that development. The first section describes and critiques the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR); the second analyzes the U.S. application of MTCR guidelines toward Brazil; the third assesses Brazil's ballistic missile capabilities; and the fourth considers Brazil's response. The report concludes that the U.S. policy of restricting space and missile technology to Brazil under...

  19. Brazil in the global energy world

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)


    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  20. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;


    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS...... sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic...

  1. Biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil

    A study of the status of biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil was conducted including determination of the availability and characteristics of the agro-residues for briquetting. Wood residues, rice husk and coffee husk were characterized and identified as the more promising agro-residues for briquetting in the short-term in Brazil. A survey was carried out in order to determine the number of briquetting factories in Brazil, and also to determine: used briquetting technologies, briquettes production, briquettes sale prices, the status of biomass briquetting market and its future perspectives. (author)

  2. Biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil

    Felfli, Felix Fonseca; Mesa P, Juan M. [BIOWARE Ltda., Caixa Postal 6086, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio [EMBRAPA-Agroenergia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Filippetto, Daniele; Luengo, Carlos A.; Pippo, Walfrido Alonso [Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos/Departamento de Fisica Aplicada/IFGW/UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6165, Barao Geraldo 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    A study of the status of biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil was conducted including determination of the availability and characteristics of the agro-residues for briquetting. Wood residues, rice husk and coffee husk were characterized and identified as the more promising agro-residues for briquetting in the short-term in Brazil. A survey was carried out in order to determine the number of briquetting factories in Brazil, and also to determine: used briquetting technologies, briquettes production, briquettes sale prices, the status of biomass briquetting market and its future perspectives. (author)

  3. Wind / hydro complementary seasonal regimes in Brazil

    Amarante, O.A.C. do [CAMARGO SCHUBERT Engenharia Eolica, Curitiba PR (Brazil); Schultz, D.J. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bittencourt, R.M. [CHESF - Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco, Recife PE (Brazil); Rocha, N.A. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In the last decades, wind power generation has proven its suitability to the Gigawatt scale, necessary to an effective contribution to electric systems. This paper demonstrates, from existing data, the wind / hydro seasonal complementarity in the relevant areas of Brazil, and discusses its possible effect on the feasibility of seasonal stabilization of the energy supply in the Brazilian interconnected grid, taking advantage of the country's large natural resources available. Case studies for the southern/southeastern and the northeastern regions of Brazil are presented. A brief analysis is included regarding the geographic location of the interconnected grid, main hydro power plants, and estimated promising wind farm areas in Brazil. (orig.)

  4. Scaling-up Local Development Initiatives: Brazil?s Food Procurement Programme

    Ryan Nehring; Ben McKay


    Brazil aims to eradicate extreme poverty in the country by scaling-up policy initiatives for ?productive inclusion? and incorporating all extreme poor households into the country?s non-contributory social protection scheme. Brasil sem Miséria (Brazil without Misery), targets the Brazilian population living below the extreme poverty line of R$70 (US$35) a month? approximately 16.2 million people (Gov. of Brazil, 2012). According to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) alm...

  5. Brazil's competitiveness in the soybean sector: will Brazil lose its competitiveness due to its patchy infrastructure ?

    Blaich, Eli Elisa; PIller, Robert


    This paper seeks to analyze the competitiveness of Brazil within the soybean sector based on certain criteria. In particular it will assess one of Brazil’s main bottlenecks, its infrastructure, as well as expose what Brazil’s key competitive advantages toward its main competitor, the United States, are. Brazil has a long export history and its main exports have always been in the agricultural sector. Soybeans gained on importance in Brazil in the mid seventies and introduced a socioeconomic a...

  6. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014


    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  7. An Energy Overview of Brazil

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Brazil. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  8. Misunderstanding International News in Brazil

    Jacques Wainberg


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the nature of the Brazilian public comprehension of international news by revealing the quality of such reception with regard to a sample of 170 subjects randomly selected in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A questionnaire was created taking as a basis the directives of Bloom et al(1972. Evaluated in it are the cognitive and aff ective dimensions of thought. In the fi rst case, questions were formulated that allowed the establishment of the level of knowledge of individuals, as well as their comprehension abilities, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of a wide range of international news topics. For the aff ective dimension the following abilities were evaluated: attention, response, valorization, organization and the structuring of a value scale.

  9. The role of nuclear energy in Brazil

    Electricity consumption in Brazil continues to grow at a faster rate than electricity generation, and in 1991 consumption reached 227 TWh, surpassing generation by more than 22 TWh. Thus, for Brazil to achieve its ambitious economic development plan, in addition to solving its current political and macroeconomic issues, the development and diversification of alternative energy resources remains a high priority. As early as the 1970s, Brazil began to seriously consider nuclear energy as the main alternative source of energy that could help the country meet its projected electricity requirements through the end of the century. This decision was based primarily on the fact that Brazil's known reserves of uranium are far greater in energy content than that of its coal or oil reserves

  10. Lycopodiaceae in Brazil. Conspectus of the family

    Øllgaard, Benjamin; Windisch, Paulo G.


    in three genera: Lycopodium, Lycopodiella, and Huperzia. Within each genus, the diversity (treated under various subgenera, sections, and subsections) has been discussed. In our new approach, these three genera are treated as subfamilies Lycopodiodeae (four genera in Brazil), Lycopodielloideae (three...

  11. Phytotherapy in Brazil: recovering the concepts

    Eliana Martino Bufaino


    This article shows the evolution of the Brazilian legislation in recent years in the area of herbal products and discusses the concept of phytotherapy in Brazil, bringing information about how it works in Europe.

  12. Phytotherapy in Brazil: recovering the concepts

    Eliana Martino Bufaino


    Full Text Available This article shows the evolution of the Brazilian legislation in recent years in the area of herbal products and discusses the concept of phytotherapy in Brazil, bringing information about how it works in Europe.

  13. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited

    Szybisz, M. A.; Szybisz, L.


    The aim of this work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimes in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent $\\beta>0$. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite ...

  14. Journalism as a profession in Brazil

    Andrea Ferraz Fernandez; Cláudia Lago


    Journalism as a profession in Brazil discusses the professional characteristics of Journalism in Brazil under the following aspects: 1) formal conditions of access, 2) conditions and effects of the monopoly on the journalistic activity 3) presence of a distinct culture and ethic, based on the notion of the journalist’s social responsibility and 4) characteristics of the real community of individuals who share the journalistic identity. Based on this scope, we can perceive the singularity of t...


    Mitchell, Colter; Fu, Xuaning; Heaton, Tim B; Cardell K. Jacobson


    Urbanization and education have brought numerous changes in societies around the world. One change is the contact of different groups, often with an attendant increase in intergroup marriage. In this paper we examine the intergroup intermarriage in Brazil in the context of changing urbanization and education. While intergroup marriage has been intensively examined in the United States, the topic has received less attention in Brazil. We use census data from 1991 and 2000, and national survey ...

  16. State of endocrinology and diabetology in Brazil

    Daniel Giannella-Neto


    Brazil is a large, populous country in South America, which has one of the biggest concentrations of people with diabetes. This article reviews the current status of diabetes care, medical education and training, and diabetes/endocrine research in Brazil. It highlights achievements in public health and research, which can be emulated by other countries. In Endocrine/Diabetes fields, a more realistic and responsible policies in terms of medical traineeship, patient education, and mainly scient...

  17. Distribution of dental schools in Brazil, 2015

    Emilio Prado da Fonseca; Carla Martins Rocha; Estie Kruger; Marc Tennant; Fabio Luiz Mialhe; Marcelo de Castro Meneghim


    Introduction: The geographical distribution of dentistry schools has been the object of study in Brazil and in other parts of the world. Aim: To analyze the distribution of dentistry schools in Brazil by states and to correlate with the number of dentists in 2015. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The analysis of the courses distribution was carried out by states and categorized by public or private schools. All the institutions′ addresses were geocoded and mapped to illustrate the sp...

  18. Energy issues and policies in Brazil

    Initiative taken in Brazil to achieve 'energy autonomy' in vien of the petroleum crisis is analyzed. The dynamics of the movement away from oil and the desire to base the development of the country on locally available resources such as hydroelectricity and biomass derived fuels are emphasized. Energy resources, energy comsumption, issues and policies, energy projections and social issues are discussed, as well as the relevance and applicability to other countries of policies followed in Brazil. (I.C.R.)

  19. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

    Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Souza, Katia P. R.; Germán Añez; Maria Rios


    Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the num...

  20. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America


    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  1. Comparing the Power of Mexico and Brazil

    Pavchenko, Kristina


    Mexico and Brazil are the two powers, who enjoy significant influence and contribute not only on the regional level, but to a certain extent on the global level as well. Having this common feature, the two centers of power differ dramatically in many aspects, starting from geopolitics, relation towards the super power and finishing with identity perception. The main aim of the research is to compare Mexico and Brazil during 2000 -- 2012, which will allow not only predicting possible developme...

  2. Brazil : Growth and Poverty Reduction in Pernambuco

    World Bank


    Despite its origin as one of the pioneering and richest states of Brazil, Pernambuco today has a history of slower economic growth than Brazil as a whole. Pernambuco began as a sugar producing state and the expansion of sugar production led its economic development until the mid 1600s. Then Pernambuco declined, as sugar production became more profitable elsewhere in the world. It is estima...

  3. Land reform and landholdings in Brazil

    Assunção, Juliano


    Land and wealth are closely related in rural Brazil, a country characterized by high levels of inequality in terms of income or landholdings. After presenting a historical retrospective of land concentration and land reform in Brazil, this study evaluates the impact of the land reform programme undertaken in the 1990s on land ownership and land distribution. It is shown that the programme increased landownership among poor rural families and those with less educated household heads, reducing ...

  4. Brazil, Preservation of Forest and Biodiversity



    Increased number of extinct, endangered species in South America, especially plants in Brazil and Equator, impose question of importance of Amazon forest. Its declining trend requires constant attention not just from population in Brazil, but as well as in region and world which have their interest in direct/ indirect monetary and non-monetary values. GDP decline can further deteriorate forest areas so it is of importance to diversify and strengthen energy inputs and work on different rene...

  5. La geochimica isotopica applicata a reperti scheletrici fossili di mammiferi terrestri: considerazioni paleoclimatiche e paleoambientali

    Di Matteo, Antonietta


    In questo progetto di ricerca i principi e le tecniche della Geochimica degli isotopi stabili vengono applicati ad un particolare record paleoclimatico rappresentato dai reperti scheletrici fossili dei mammiferi terrestri: umani e animali. Su tale materiale è possibile misurare, tra gli altri, i valori isotopici di C, N, e O nella frazione minerale (carbonato-idrossiapatite) e in quella organica (collagene) di ossa e denti. Questi parametri risultano per svariati motivi indicatori, diretti o ...

  6. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies; Separacao isotopica de litio: estudos preliminares

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de


    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  7. NEWS:Introduction of Brazil upland rice in China



    In 1992, the government of Brazil presented nine crop varieties to China. One of them is Brazil upland rice IAPAR9. It was evaluated for commercial usage in China by China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI).

  8. Brazil: A Portrait of Diparities

    Claudio Weber Abramo


    Full Text Available Transparencia Brasil (an NGO dedicated to fi ghting corruption in the country involves systematically gathering stories about corruption and associated themes published in the daily press.Titled “Deu no Jornal” (It Made the News, the initiative has been collecting news stories published in 59 dailies and four weeklies since January 2004. The publications covered by the project comprise all the main newspapers from all 26 states, plus the Federal District. No signifi cant newspaper from any state is absent. News is taken from the newspapers’ web editions and introduced into a data base. Each story is fi led under a specifi c “case”2 and cases are categorized according to several descriptive criteria. At the time of this writing, Deu no Jornal included about 142,500 stories distributed among 3,586 diff erent cases, corresponding to an aggregate of about 326 million characters. On the average, about 3.5 new cases of corruption are reported by the Brazilian press somewhere every day. Deu no Jornal is the most comprehensive database of news stories on corruption in existence, not only in Brazil but worldwide.

  9. [The health system of Brazil].

    Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana


    This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde. PMID:21877078

  10. Light, distribution company in Brazil

    Since the publication of the Roulet Report, Electricite de France (EDF), the French group is crossing tormented hours. Despite its good financial results in 2004 with a turnover of 46.9 Mds euros its debts are around 19.7 Mds euros and are mainly due to its international investments which were not all very profitable. The first source of concern remains the Latin America markets and more particularly the Brazilian one which recorded 1.6 Md euros of losses. The future of EDF investment in Brazil, through its acquisition of the distribution company, Light, is uncertain. Within a new electric power industry framework, after currency devaluation and a rationing, Light is now in a catastrophic financial situation. The last tariff revisions given by the Brazilian authorities and the economic characteristics of the concession put the distributor at the edge of the bankruptcy. This article presents the situation of EDF group and Light at the end of 2004. The main question is the future of the Brazilian distributor in general and more particularly within the French group EDF. (author)

  11. Estimation of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of the permeability of rocky formations through one single mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) measurement at the wellhead; Estimacion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de permeabilidades de formaciones rocosas a partir de una sola medicion flujo masico-presion- entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo

    L Moya, Sara; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    The proposed methodology described ahead (Moya et al.,1996; Moya et al.,1997a, 1997b and 1997c) simplifies the construction of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of its associated thermal productivity, in requiring one single measurement of mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) at the wellhead. Therefore it is an ecological option, technically and economically more feasible. On the other hand, the methodology also allows to diagnose the rocky formation absolute permeability in the well feeding zone. This permeability is usually determined through well bottom pressure tests, than in some cases are difficult to interpret. The permeability inferred by means of the proposed technology represents a complementary tool for these field tests and for the laboratory measurements on drilling cores. [Espanol] La metodologia propuesta que se describe a continuacion [Moya et al., 1995d; Moya et al., 1996; Moya et al., 1997a, 1997b y 1997c] simplifica la construccion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de su productividad termica asociada al requerir solo una medicion de flujo masico-presion-entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo. Es por tanto una alternativa ecologica, tecnica y economicamente mas factible. Por otra parte, la metodologia tambien permite diagnosticar el valor de la permeabilidad absoluta de la formacion rocosa en la zona de alimentacion al pozo. Esta permeabilidad se determina usualmente a partir de pruebas de presion a fondo de pozo que en algunos casos son dificiles de interpretar. La permeabilidad inferida mediante la metodologia propuesta representa una herramienta complementaria a estas pruebas de campo y a las mediciones de laboratorio sobre nucleos de perforacion.

  12. Brazil : The New Growth Agenda, Volume 1. Policy Briefing

    World Bank


    During the last century, Brazil was one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Between 1901 and 2000, Brazil's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita grew at an average annual rate of 4.4 percent. Brazil's long-run growth has rivaled that of counties such as South Korea, universally praised as a stellar performer. Brazil does not received the same praise. Perhaps one reason is tha...

  13. Brazil : The New Growth Agenda, Volume 2. Detailed Report

    World Bank, (WB)


    During the last century, Brazil was one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Between 1901 and 2000, Brazil's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita grew at an average annual rate of 4.4 percent. Brazil's long-run growth has rivaled that of counties such as South Korea, universally praised as a stellar performer. Brazil does not received the same praise. Perhaps one reason is tha...

  14. Caracteristicas distintivas en la gestion del servicio educativo

    Horacio V. Barreda Tamayo


    Full Text Available La gestión de la producción del Servicio Educativo, -que incluye la Educación Superior- es um proceso muy complejo. Tiene características muy particulares, que invalidan cualquier intento de aplicación directa de los modelos y teorías de gestión empresarial vigentes. Para una real gestión educativa, todavía no existe una definición clara sobre el perfil de competencias de los egresados. Que vienen a ser los “productos esperados”, después del “proceso de producción” del servicio educativo universitario. Por otro lado, hay varios modelos de gestión educativa. Pero no existe un modelo propio para la gestión del servicio educativo; que es básicamente um Servicio Profesional. Además, se cuenta con diferentes enfoques pedagógicos, últimamente correlacionados al avance de las TIC’s y los nuevos descubrimientos sobre el sistema cognitivo de las personas. Casi la totalidad de Proyectos y Planes Educativos, contienen objetivos, metas y “resultados” totalmente cualitativos. Que sólo reflejan los buenos deseos de lo que se quiere en nuestros egresados, pero que no se pueden medir objetivamente en cuanto a su consecución. Como decía J. Harrington: “Si usted no puede medir lo que hace, no puede controlarlo. Si no puede controlarlo, no puede dirigirlo. Si no puede dirigirlo, no puede mejorarlo”. En el presente artículo, queremos resaltar algunas características y requisitos para la “gestión de la producción” del servicio educativo. Los cuales debemos tener presentes, cuando pretendemos mejorar los resultados de la Educación.

  15. Caracteristicas distintivas en la gestion del servicio educativo

    Horacio V. Barreda Tamayo


    La gestión de la producción del Servicio Educativo, -que incluye la Educación Superior- es um proceso muy complejo. Tiene características muy particulares, que invalidan cualquier intento de aplicación directa de los modelos y teorías de gestión empresarial vigentes. Para una real gestión educativa, todavía no existe una definición clara sobre el perfil de competencias de los egresados. Que vienen a ser los “productos esperados”, después del “proceso de producción” del servicio educativo univ...

  16. A new species of Fernandezina (Araneae, Palpimanidae from southern Brazil

    Ricardo Ott


    Full Text Available A new species of Fernandezina Birabén, 1951, F. nica sp. nov. is described from Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. Fernandezina pulchra Birabén, 1951, is registered for Brazil and a new geographic record in Brazil is presented for F. pelta Platnick, 1975.

  17. Architecture of Brazil 1900-1990

    Segawa, Hugo


    Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990 examines the processes that underpin modern Brazilian architecture under various influences and characterizes different understandings of modernity, evident in the chapter topics of this book. Accordingly, the author does not give overall preference to particular architects nor works, with the exception of a few specific works and architects, including Warchavchik, Niemeyer, Lucio Costa, and Vilanova Artigas. In summary, this book: Meticulously examines the controversies, achievements, and failures in constructing spaces, buildings, and cities in a dynamic country Gives a broad view of Brazilian architecture in the twentieth century Proposes a reinterpretation of the varied approaches of the modern movement up to the Second World War Analyzes ideological impacts of important Brazilian architects including Oscar Niemeyer, Lucio Costa and Vilanova Artigas Discusses work of expatriate architects in Brazil Features over 140 illustrations In Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990, S...

  18. US/Brazil joint pilot project objectives



    This paper describes a joint US/Brazil pilot project for rural electrification, whose major goals are: to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy (PV and wind) to meet the needs of the citizens of rural Brazil; to establish on-going institutional, individual and business relationships necessary to implement sustainable programs and commitments; to lay the groundwork for larger scale rural electrification through the use of distributed renewable technologies. The projects have supported low power home lighting systems, lighting and refrigeration for schools and medical centers, and water pumping systems. This is viewed as a long term project, where much of the equipment will come from the US, but Brazil will be responsible for program management, and sharing data gained from the program. The paper describes in detail the Brazilian program which was instituted to support this phased project.

  19. The victory against Greenpeace-Brazil

    The author writes down an interview with the President of the Brazilian association for nuclear energy (ABEN). ABEN has actively participated to the rebirth of nuclear energy in Brazil. During the beginning of the nineties Brazil underwent several anti-nuclear campaigns led by Greenpeace-Brazil, these campaigns found a favorable echo among the public because of the radiation accident of Goiania (1987) when a Cesium-137 source found in a dump site irradiated several families, killing 4 people, and of the technical difficulties that appeared during the first operating months of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant. The public controversy was so strong that it was in the air to stop the building work on the Angra-2 site. A counter campaign showing the dark sides of the Greenpeace organisation, opened the eyes to Brazilian politicians and now nuclear energy is re-established in the public esteem. (A.C.)

  20. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Schultz, Colin


    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  1. Brazil research in selected scientific areas

    Ingwersen, Peter


    applies publication growth as well as Citedness and Field Crown Indicators (FCI). Results show that across all research fields, including the Social Sciences, from 1996 the absolute citation impact of Brazil and Mexico are alike, steadily increasing, and just below that of RSA. Publication growth patterns......  The paper analyses the general development of research in Brazil, 1981-2005 and compares to Mexico, Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the world. Publications from 15 research areas and their citations are analyzed for the three countries covering two five-year periods 1996-2005. The paper...... for Brazil and Mexico are identical, with a vast increase since 1991. In contrast, RSA follows the global growth rate. From 1996 to 2005 both Latin American countries almost doubles their research publications in English, probably influencing the growth in relative citation impact, as measured by FCI...

  2. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Denize Mirian da Silva


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  3. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C


    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas. PMID:27206924

  4. Dengue situation in Brazil by year 2000

    Schatzmayr Hermann G


    Dengue virus types 1 and 2 have been isolated in Brazil by the Department of Virology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, in 1986 and 1990 respectively, after many decades of absence. A successful continental Aedes aegypti control program in the Americas, has been able to eradicate the vector in most countries in the 60's, but the program could not be sustained along the years. Dengue viruses were reintroduced in the American region and the infection became endemic in Brazil, like in most Central and So...

  5. Class, race, and social mobility in Brazil

    Carlos Antonio Costa Ribeiro


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the differences in inter-generational social mobility and schooling between white, brown, and black men in Brazil. The main objective is to analyze inequality of opportunities for mobility and educational transitions. The results indicate that for individuals from lower social origins, inequality of opportunities is significantly marked by racial differences, and that for persons originating in the upper classes, racial inequality influences the odds of social mobility. The results suggest that theories of stratification by race and class in Brazil should be rethought, taking into account the observed interactions between race and class.

  6. Family therapy in Brazil: current status.

    Picon, Felipe


    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance. PMID:22515454


    Laércio Baptista da Silva; Antonio Guerra Junior


    This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial s...

  8. Demographic dynamics and environmental change in Brazil

    Hogan Daniel Joseph


    Full Text Available In its first part, the text examines the evolution of research on demographic dynamics and environmental change in Brazil. While concern for the deforestation of the Amazon region was an important starting point for the concerns of demographers, the first systematic studies dealt with the "brown agenda." It was a question of urban environmental quality which motivated specialists to enter this field. In the second part, the text presents a preliminary analysis of demographic dynamics in the principal ecological formations of Brazil, with considerations on the relationships between processes of population distribution and environmental sustainability.

  9. Hard times for Brazil's nuclear programs

    Brazilian scientists are strongly criticizing their government's ability to manage nuclear technology since the accidental release of highly radioactive cesium from a cancer therapy machine. the machine had been abandoned and was opened up by scavengers. Four people died and several others were exposed before the spill was contained. A joint statement issued by two of Brazil's main science organizations calls for the restructuring of Brazil's Commission for Nuclear Energy so that it no longer controls both the development and the regulation and licensing of nuclear energy

  10. Will Brazil's cars go on the wagon?

    The use of ethanol as an alternative fuel for cars in Brazil, may shortly be reduced. Falling world oil prices have meant that ethanol, derived from sugar cane, following a fourteen year research program, has ceased to be a financially viable replacement for petrol. Although about a third of Brazil's cars are at present powered by ethanol, only substantial government subsidies could reinstate this fuel despite its reduced pollutant status. Government officials now predict that ethanol will become merely a petrol additive and production of ethanol cars will have stopped by the year 2000. (UK)


    Laércio Baptista da Silva


    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial system by offering credit and return on capital with fairer interest rates.

  12. Fast reactor research activities in Brazil

    Fast reactor activities in Brazil have the objective of establishing a consistent knowledge basis which can serve as a support for a future transitions to the activities more directly related to design, construction and operation of an experimental fast reactor, although its materialization is still far from being decided. Due to the present economic difficulties and uncertainties, the program is modest and all efforts have been directed towards its consolidation, based on the understanding that this class of reactors will play an important role in the future and Brazil needs to be minimally prepared. The text describes the present status of those activities, emphasizing the main progress made in 1996. (author)

  13. The sustainability of hydropower projects in Brazil

    de Methodio Maranhao Neto, Gil; Yana, Laurent


    The construction of hydropower plants unquestionably impacts the environment and communities. But countries such as Brazil have been able to build up a sophisticated socio-environmental legislation and institutions as well as a democratic and participative licensing process to protect the nature and the population affected. In some cases, plants greatly contribute towards the creation of local welfare to the population as well as good environmental practices. As a good example of best practices on socio-environmental standards, we will analyze Jirau Hydropower Project, currently under construction on the Madeira River, north of Brazil.

  14. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues; Celia Landmann Szwarcwald; Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza Junior; Maria do Carmo Leal


    OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during ...

  15. Brazils Role in environmental governance: Analysis of possibilities for increased Brazil-Norway cooperation

    Valberg, Anna Helene


    This report examines the role played by Brazil in connection with certain international negotiations, such as the climate negotiations and the CBD. It identifies the driving factors that have influenced environmental politics and standards in Brazil, and take note of conflicts that must be discussed when Norway is seeking expanded cooperation with Brazil. In line with the mandate, FNI identifies areas of particular interest for further collaboration between the two countries, and recommend directions for supplementary Norwegian policy-making in light of a broadened scope for Norway-Brazil interaction. In recent years, the Norwegian government has initiated an extensive process aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). This is the most obvious shared environmental scope between Norway and Brazil. However, given the large body of literature that already exists on this field, this report will concentrate instead on issues more on the outskirts of the REDD discourse, such as biodiversity conservation, biofuel efficiency and challenges concerning hydropower, all of which threaten to impact negatively on the Amazonian areas. In our recommendations, we cite tangible examples to illustrate issues where we believe lessons learnt in Norway may have applicability to Brazil.(auth)

  16. Dengue situation in Brazil by year 2000

    Hermann G Schatzmayr


    Full Text Available Dengue virus types 1 and 2 have been isolated in Brazil by the Department of Virology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, in 1986 and 1990 respectively, after many decades of absence. A successful continental Aedes aegypti control program in the Americas, has been able to eradicate the vector in most countries in the 60's, but the program could not be sustained along the years. Dengue viruses were reintroduced in the American region and the infection became endemic in Brazil, like in most Central and SouthAmerican countries and in the Caribbean region, due to the weaning of the vector control programs in these countries. High demographic densities and poor housing conditions in large urban communities, made the ideal conditions for vector spreading. All four dengue types are circulating in the continent and there is a high risk of the introduction in the country of the other two dengue types in Brazil, with the development of large epidemics. After the Cuban episode in 1981, when by the first time a large epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome have been described in the Americas, both clinical presentations are observed, specially in the countries like Brazil, with circulation of more than one dengue virus type. A tetravalent potent vaccine seems to be the only possible way to control the disease in the future, besides rapid clinical and laboratory diagnosis, in order to offer supportive treatment to the more severe clinical infections.

  17. IBM Brazil: and environmental modern view

    Cremonesi, Valter [IBM Brasil, Industria, Maquinas e Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, Rj (Brazil)


    Information of practical experiences on Environmental Affairs at IBM Brazil plant and branch offices is presented, with a modern view of the mission, resources, support, waste management, monitoring programs, recycling, energy conservation, partners programs, nature preservation 2rograms, recognitions and image. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo


    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  19. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.


    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  20. The environmental monitoring and Candiota (Brazil)

    The Electric Power Company of Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil)- CEEE -has thermal power plants by coal in Candiota, since 1961. Aiming to improve its monitoring network in the region, an environmental data bank was developed by CEEE, in order to associate coal use with environmental conservation. A brief analysis of this environmental monitoring is described. 5 refs

  1. Annual Report - Nuclear Industries of Brazil - 1997

    The annual report of 1997 of the Nuclear Industries of the Brazil - INB - Brazilian company responsible for the industrial activities of the nuclear fuel cycle - introduces the following main topics: mineral resource directory main actions; industrial directory main actions; finance and administration directory main actions; transparency; environment, safety and quality; the company; and financial statements

  2. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy


    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the economic…

  3. Environmental sustainability of biodiesel in Brazil

    Biodiesel production in Brazil has grown from 736 m3 in 2007 to 2.7 Mm3 in 2012. It is an emergent bioenergy for which it is important to guarantee environmental sustainability. The objective of this article is to characterise the biodiesel production chain in Brazil, to identify potential environmental impacts and to analyse key drivers and barriers for biodiesel environmental sustainability. This article explores these aspects and focusses on the increasing demand for the main feedstocks for biodiesel production in Brazil: soybean oil and beef tallow. The impacts of land use and land-use change on greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity and water, as well as the energy balance, were found to be critical for the environmental sustainability assessment and development of biodiesel chains. Increasing agriculture yields, diversifying feedstocks and adopting ethyl transesterification can contribute to minimise environmental impacts. It was also found that environmental impacts could be mitigated by appropriate policies aiming at an integrated optimisation of food and bioenergy production and through agro-economic–ecological zoning, allowing adequate use of land for each purpose. Despite the limitation and weakness of some sustainability tools and initiatives, certification and zoning can play an important role in the sustainability of the emerging biodiesel production in Brazil

  4. Pentecostalism and premarital sexual initiation in Brazil

    Ana Paula A. Verona


    Full Text Available Pentecostal denominations in Brazil are recognized for their promotion of conservative norms and punitive sanctions related to the sexual behavior of their young members. Moreover, they have created unique space for their followers to actively participate in a religious environment. Using data from the PNDS-2006 (National Survey on the Demography and Health of Children and Women, Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher de 2006, we examine the associations, in Brazil between religion, as measured by religious affiliation and attendance at religious services, and premarital adolescent sexual initiation. Our main results confirm a strong association between delay in sexual initiation and Pentecostalism in Brazil and suggest that this association be related to frequent attendance at religious services. These findings are intriguing, especially because Pentecostalism has emerged and concentrated among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, including the least-educated women, with lower income, and residents of urban areas. We conclude by suggesting that religion may be taking the place of family and school in communication on adolescent sexual behavior in Brazil. This hypothesis should be carefully investigated, since the religious teachings may sometimes be in favor of what families and the state see as beneficial for adolescents and youth in general, but sometimes in disaccord.

  5. From Political to Economic Siege in Brazil.

    Academe, 1990


    Political forces in Brazil have caused significant economic changes, including hyperinflation, and policy that threaten higher education in a variety of ways, including failure to expand during a period of economic strength, severe loss of academic autonomy, lowering of academic and administrative standards, and declines in teacher education and…

  6. Brazil Gender Review : Issues and Recommendations

    World Bank


    The report, which documents findings of a review on gender issues in Brazil, during 1999, and updated in 2001, is responsive to the recognition of gender as an important issue in increasing socioeconomic well-being, and reducing poverty. The review examines gender in terms of demographic trends, health indicators, the effects and causes of violence, education indicators, labor market trend...

  7. Brazil : Assessment of the Bolsa Escola Programs

    World Bank


    The report assesses the "Bolsa Escola" programs in Brazil, which are poverty-targeted social assistance programs, that provide cash grants to poor families with school-age children between the ages of seven to fourteen. These programs aim at increasing educational attainment, to reduce current, and future poverty, as well as child labor, and, implicitly, to act as a partial safety net. The...

  8. Microcephaly in Infants, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2015


    We studied the clinical characteristics for 104 infants born with microcephaly in the delivery hospitals of Pernambuco State, Brazil, during 2015. Testing is ongoing to exclude known infectious causes. However, microcephaly peaked in October and demonstrated central nervous system abnormalities with brain dysgenesis and intracranial calcifications consistent with an intrauterine infection. PMID:27071041

  9. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil


    ... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... juice from Brazil (71 FR 12183). The Commission is conducting a review to determine whether revocation...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with...

  10. Biodigesters for rural energy in Brazil

    Prakasan, K.

    Only since 1977 have bioreactors been introduced into Brazil. The types of bioreactors that are in use are described. The problems to be overcome in the further extension of this technology are discussed: lack of trained experts, availability of financial loans, manufacture of bioreactors and accessory equipment, and research objectives.

  11. Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil

    Leite, Juliana A.; Drumond, Betânia P.; Trindade, Giliane S; Zélia I P Lobato; da Fonseca, Flávio G.; dos Santos, João R.; Madureira, Marieta C.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Ferreira, Jaqueline M. S.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Kroon, Erna G.


    Passatempo virus was isolated during a zoonotic outbreak. Biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and circulation of vaccinia virus in Brazil. Molecular polymorphisms indicated that Passatempo virus is a different isolate.

  12. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

    Alves Rômulo RN


    Full Text Available Abstract Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology - reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves, presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements.

  13. Perspectives for the uranium enrichment in Brazil

    Through an analysis of the electrical energy future in Brazil, the needs for enriched uranium are discussed, and therefore the importance of developing local capability for self-production. A description of the production processes that are well established is given first, then the analysis itself is performed and finally a visualization of the International Market for enriched uranium is shown. (author)

  14. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.;


    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues are...

  15. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    Guedes, A C


    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system. PMID:11424252

  16. Status of Research Reactor Utilization in Brazil

    Brazil has four research reactors in operation: the IEA-R1, a pool type research reactor of 5 MW; the IPR-R1, a TRIGA Mark I type research reactor of 100 kW; the ARGONAUTA, an Argonaut type research reactor of 500 W; and the IPEN/MB-01 a critical facility of 100 W. Research reactor utilization has more than fifty years in Brazil. The first three reactors, constructed in the late 50's and early 60's at university campus in Sao Paulo, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro, had their utilization for training, teaching and nuclear research. The IPEN/MB-01, designed and constructed in IPEN in the late 80's, is utilized for the development and qualification of reactor physics calculation for PWR core application. The IEA-R1 has had its application and utilization increased through the years and it is presently used for radioisotope production, neutron beam application, neutrongraphy, neutron activation analysis, and limited fuel and material irradiation tests, besides the regular use for training and teaching. The low power of the reactor and the lack of hot cells for post irradiation analysis limits its technical application for the nuclear fuel industry. Brazil has two nuclear power plants in operation, one unit starting construction and four more units planned for the next two decades. Brazil has significant quantities of uranium ore and has expertise in all the fuel cycle steps, including uranium enrichment, and produces the fuel assemblies for the nuclear power plants. These industrial activities demand the need of material and fuel irradiation tests. IPEN produces radiopharmaceutical kits for the treatment of more than three million patients each year. The majority of the radiopharmaceutical kits is produced from imported radioisotopes. The increasing price and shortage of world supply of 99mTc leads also to the need of increasing the radioisotope production in Brazil. Due to these new demands, the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission is analyzing the costs and benefits

  17. Biochar: An emerging policy arrangement in Brazil?

    Highlights: • The Brazilian biochar debate is driven by Embrapa experts. • The dominant ADE/biochar discourse has been replaced by biochar/technology discourse. • The international biochar/climate change discourse hardly resonates in Brazil. • Biochar topic is not covered by any formal procedure in Brazil so far. - Abstract: Biochar, the solid product of pyrolysis, has emerged as a new technology and policy tool to address various environmental challenges (climate change, food production and agricultural waste management). The concept of biochar drew its inspiration from Amazonian practices that had led to the creation of Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE): fertile soils rich in (bio)char and human artefacts. In this article, we conceptualize biochar as an emerging policy arrangement, and examine it along the four dimensions of the Policy Arrangement Approach (PAA), which are actors, discourse, power and rules. We focus on Brazil as an important player in the international biochar debate. Our analysis shows that science experts are the predominant players in the network, while policy-makers, businessmen and farmers are marginally positioned. Experts from Embrapa occupy central positions and thus exercise most power in the network. Moreover, experts linked to ADE have lost prominence in the network. The reason for this is to be found in the shift from the ADE/biochar to the biochar/technology discourse. The latter discourse includes different coalitions such as ‘climate change mitigation’, the ‘improvement of soil fertility’ and ‘improving crop residue management’. Although the biochar/climate coalition is dominant at the international level, it is far less prominent in Brazil. Nationally, it is particularly the discourses of ‘improvement of soil fertility’ and ‘improving crop residue management’ which have prompted actors’ relationships and practices. However, the biochar/technology discourse has not (yet) been formally institutionalized in

  18. Demand for fisheries products in Brazil

    Daniel Yokoyama Sonoda


    Full Text Available Fish consumption per capita in Brazil is relatively modest when compared to other animal proteins. This study analyses the influence of protein prices, other food prices and population income on the fish demand in Brazil. First, the problem of fish supply in Brazil is characterized. It is followed by reviews of the relevant economic theory and methods of Almost Ideal Demand System - AIDS and their elasticity calculations. A descriptive analysis of fish demand in Brazil using the microdata called "Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar" (Familiar Budget Research - POF 2002-2003 is presented. Finally, demand functions and their elasticities are calculated for two different cases: one considering five groups of animal proteins (Chicken; Milk and Eggs; Fish; Processed Proteins and Red Meat and other with seven groups of food categories (Cereals; Vegetables and Fruits; Milky and Eggs; Oils and Condiments; Fish; Other processed foods; and Meats. The main results are: per capita consumption of fish (4.6 kg per inhabitant per year is low in Brazil because few households consume fish. When only households with fish consumption are considered, the per capita consumption would be higher: 27.2 kg per inhabitant per year. The fish consumption in the North-East Region is concentrated in the low-income class. In the Center-South Region, the fish consumption is lower and concentrated in the intermediate income classes. The main substitutes for fish are the processed proteins and not the traditional types of meat, such as chicken and red meat.

  19. Allergens from Brazil nut: immunochemical characterization.

    Bartolomé, B; Méndez, J D; Armentia, A; Vallverdú, A; Palacios, R


    The increase in the consumption of tropical nuts in the Northern Hemisphere during the last years, has evolved in a simultaneous enhancement of allergic IgE mediated (Hypersensitivity type 1) reported cases produced by this kind of food. The Brazil nut is the seed of the Bertholletia excelsa tree (Family Lecythidaceae) and, as in other seeds, proteins represent one of its major components making up 15-17% of its fresh weight and 50% of defatted flour. Of these, storage proteins are the most important ones, and the 12 S globulin legumin-like protein and the 2 S albumin have been described as the most representative. The 2 S protein, due to its high sulfur-rich amino acid content (3% cysteine and 18% methionine), is being studied, cloned and expressed in some important agronomic seeds (soybean, bean, oilseed rape) in order to enrich the nutritional quality of them. The case of a patient with serious clinical allergic symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of consciousness) caused by oral contact with the Brazil nut, is presented. The patient gave a positive Skin Prick Test response to Brazil nut, kiwi and hazelnut extracts, and negative to regionally specific aeroallergens and other food extracts. The patient serum showed a high level of specific IgE by RAST to Brazil nut (> 17.5 PRU/ml, Class 4), and significative levels to hazelnut, and mustard. In vitro immunological studies (SDS-Immunoblotting and IEF-Immunoblotting) revealed IgE-binding proteins present in the extract. It was shown that not only the heavy (Mr 9) and light (Mr 4) subunits of the known allergenic 2 S albumin but also the alpha-subunits (Mr approximately 33.5 and 32) and at least one of the beta-subunits (Mr approximately 21) of the 12 S Brazil nut globulin, hitherto never involved in allergic problems, showed a strong IgE-binding capacity. PMID:9208050

  20. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Dantas-Torres Filipe


    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  1. Waste management experience at IPEN-Brazil

    The Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares--IPEN) is the biggest nuclear research center in Brazil. Located in the campus of the University of Sao Paulo, it is maintained and operated by the National Commission on Nuclear Energy (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear--CNEN). Its objectives are the development of nuclear energy and its fuel cycle, the applications of radiation and radioisotopes in industry, medicine, agriculture, research, education, and environmental preservation, and the realization of basic and applied research in related fields. This paper describes the history and the practices of the waste management at a nuclear research center in Brazil where research on the nuclear fuel cycle and on the applications of radioisotopes are in progress

  2. [Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil].

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto


    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increased from 3.1% to 41.0% in the period. The results indicate important challenges in accelerating the rhythm at which this practice in Brazil moves towards meeting international recommendations. PMID:24626558

  3. Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto


    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increased from 3.1% to 41.0% in the period. The results indicate important challenges in accelerating the rhythm at which this practice in Brazil moves towards meeting international recommendations. PMID:24626558

  4. Argentina and Brazil: an evolving nuclear relationship

    Argentina and Brazil have Latin America's most advanced nuclear research and power programs. Both nations reject the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and have not formally embraced the Tlatelolco Treaty creating a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone. Disturbing ambiguities persist regarding certain indigenous nuclear facilities and growing nuclear submarine and missile capabilities. For these, and other reasons, the two nations are widely considered potential nuclear weapon states. However both nations have been active supporters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and have, in recent years, assumed a generally responsible position in regard to their own nuclear export activities (requiring IAEA safeguards). Most important, however, has been the advent of bilateral nuclear cooperation. This paper considers the evolving nuclear relationship in the context of recent and dramatic political change in Argentina and Brazil. It discusses current political and nuclear developments and the prospects for maintaining and expanding present bilateral cooperation into an effective non-proliferation arrangement. (author)

  5. Genetic diversity of noroviruses in Brazil

    Julia Monassa Fioretti


    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV infections are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks around the world. In Brazil, the surveillance system for acute diarrhoea does not include the diagnosis of NoV, precluding the ability to assess its impact on public health. The present study assessed the circulation of NoV genotypes in different Brazilian states by partial nucleotide sequencing analysis of the genomic region coding for the major capsid viral protein. NoV genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4 was the prevalent (78% followed by GII.6, GII.7, GII.12, GII.16 and GII.17, demonstrating the great diversity of NoV genotypes circulating in Brazil. Thus, this paper highlights the importance of a virological surveillance system to detect and characterize emerging strains of NoV and their spreading potential.

  6. Observing exoplanets from Brazil: the first try

    Saito, Roberto; Silva, Paulo Henrique; Kanaan, Antonio; Schoenell, William; Fraga, Luciano; Bruch, Albert


    This project consists in mapping a 4-square-degree region searching for exoplanets using the transit method. This “mini-survey” will be the first use of the 16″ robotic telescope developed by Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC-Brazil) and Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA/MCT-Brazil). The chosen region is over the Columba constellation and our first observations have shown that we have enough signal-to-noise ratio to search for transits on about 20,000 stars with ~13 < I < 16 mag, a magnitude range between the OGLE and HAT projects. In this star sample we expect to find about a dozen planets with transits duration of 1-3 hours and magnitude depth from 0.001 to 0.010 mag. As for other projects, all information will became public as a VO service.

  7. A report about Zika virus in Brazil

    Rosangela Cipriano


    Full Text Available Zika vírus, a Flavivirus first isolated in Africa, has spread to many countries around the world including Brazil. In this country, seven months after the football world cup, it was registered the occurrence of a epidemic, subsequently related to cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The virus is transmited via mosquito from Aedes genus, often following the bite from an infected vector. The febrile disease is self-limited, and there is no specific treatment. Few months after this outbreak in Brazil, the authorities recognized the relationship between the Zika vírus and the occurrence of Guillain Barré syndrome and microcephaly in newborns, correponding to fetal cerebral malformation or brain lesions. This finding is being a worldwide alert for strengthening the preventive measures, restricted to prevent insect bites and care for the environment.

  8. The legacy of monazite processing in Brazil

    The exploitation of natural resources containing naturally occurring radionuclides may lead to enhanced levels of radioactive isotope and enhanced potential for exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in products, by-products, residues or wastes. Such resources include, for instance, monazite, the processing of which, in Brazil, generated a great amount of radioactive residues, being stored in buried concrete tanks, in temporary storage buildings and in sealed trenches. In addition, during the 1980's there were no radiological protection rules concerning the storage and transportation of these kinds of residues. Mineral radioactive residues were used as landfills and the residues of chemical processes contaminated floors and buildings. The decommissioning process and cleaning of old plants have generated tons of wastes that has been added to previously produced wastes. This paper reports and discusses the cycle of monazite in Brazil and its consequences in terms of site remediation and amount of wastes and residues generated and stored. (authors)

  9. Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation in Northeast Brazil

    Coirolo, Luis; Barbosa, Tulio


    The Northeast region of Brazil has long been the single largest pocket of rural poverty in Latin America. With a combined area of 1.6 million square kilometers-16 percent of Brazil's total-the Northeast is home to 45 million people, 28 percent of Brazil's total population , of whom 5.4 million people live on about $1 a day and a total of 10.7 million on $1.60 or less per day. Nearly half o...

  10. Agriculture in Brazil and China : challenges and opportunities

    Marcos Sawaya Jank; Shunli Yao; Carter, Colin A.; Mário Queiroz de Monteiro Jales


    This paper analyzes the asymmetries and complementarities between Brazil's and China's agricultural sectors. Brazil and China are key players in world agriculture. Both countries are among the world's top five producers and exporters of agricultural products and have a significant portion of their population working in agriculture. However, four significant facts profoundly differentiate Brazilian and Chinese agriculture. First, while Brazil has one of the world's most liberal agricultural se...

  11. Knowledge production and firm growth in Brazil

    João Alberto De Negri; Luiz Esteves; Fernando Freitas


    The aim of this study is to gauge the impact of the production of knowledge on the accumulation of fixed capital in Brazil. The hypothesis is that investment in R&D causes investment in fixed capital in Brazilian industrial firms. The empirical estimates rest on an IPEA database for information on firms and the workers linked to these firms during the period 1996-2003 and on the National Innovation Survey (PINTEC) for information on technological development. In the article, various estimates...

  12. Annual Report - Nuclear Industries of Brazil - 1996

    The annual report of 1996 of the Nuclear Industries of the Brazil - INB - Brazilian company responsible for the industrial activities of the nuclear fuel cycle - introduces the following main topics: mineral resource directory main actions; nuclear power an option as alternative of supply of the electric system; strategic uranium reserve in upstate State of Ceara; industrial directory main actions; finance and administration directory main actions; transparency; environment, safety and quality; the company; and financial statements

  13. International Liquidity and Growth in Brazil

    Nelson H. Barbosa Filho


    This paper analyzes the relation between international liquidity and growth for Brazil in 1966-2000. Defining the former as the ratio of foreign reserves to foreign (interest-bearing) debt, the objective is to build a model connecting growth with international liquidity, and then check whether the results from such a model hold up in practice. The model builds upon Thirlwall's (1979) law and uses some basic accounting identities to specify a liquidity constraint on small open economies. The m...


    Sérgio Antonio Röhm; José Augusto de Lollo


    The proposal and implementation of parceling real estate into smaller lots in Brazil is done according to legal and technical formalities. However, these instruments have proved inefficient in reducing the resulting environmental impacts. The ambiguities of the federal, state and municipal laws and regulations have limited the effectiveness of the actions of urban administrators. Law 10257/2001 emerged as an alternative to overcome these difficulties, proposing the adoption of neighborhood im...

  15. Air quality forecasting system for Southeastern Brazil

    Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita Y.; Freitas, Edmilson Dias; Todesco, Enzo; Vara Vela, Angel; Ibarra, Sergio; Martins, Leila Droprinchinski; Martins, Jorge Alberto; Carvalho, Vanessa Silveira Barreto


    Southeastern Brazil, the most populous and developed region of the country, faces various environmental problems associated with the growth of its population in urban areas. It is the most industrialized area in the country, comprising the metropolitan areas of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and other major cities. Air quality is a major concern, because the reported concentrations of certain regulated pollutants, typically ozone and fine particulate, have exceeded national standa...

  16. Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto


    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increas...

  17. Brazil: Shadow WTO agricultural domestic support notifications

    Nassar, Andre M.; Ures, Diego


    "This paper is devoted to better understanding of the Brazilian agricultural national policies towards domestic support and implications related to WTO rules. Domestic support has taken central stage in the last years and in light of a global economic crisis will play an even greater role in international trade politics. The paper focuses on Brazil and lays out the different domestic support policies used by the government. It is divided into five distinct parts for better comprehension. Thes...

  18. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

    Alves Rômulo RN; Souto Wedson MS


    Abstract Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology - reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals ...

  19. Medical and occupational exposures in Brazil

    It is evident from statistical reviews of medical exposure in Brazil that appropriate standards of availability and quality of diagnostic X ray examinations are not reached. Furthermore, the effectiveness of worker protection could be improved by more frequent use of more efficient personal monitoring. An analysis of the distributions of individual exposures and, consequently, the initiation of an optimisation process would enhance dose limitation. (Author)

  20. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil

    Wzorek LF; Correr CJ; Trindade ACB; Pontarolo R


    Objective: To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods: Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as print...

  1. The determinants of migration in Brazil


    In the present study, the neoclassic human capital model was used as the theoretical foundation for the analyses of the determinants of migration in Brazil. The empirical studies were carried on with the application of a multiple regression macro model based on the gravitational model and on the Poisson distribution. In the empirical model, the number of migrants between Brazilian mesoregions was the response variable. Many socioeconomic and criminal aspects of the origin and the destiny of t...

  2. "Labor Turnover and Labor Legislation in Brazil"

    Gustavo Gonzaga


    One of the main characteristics of the Brazilian labor market is its impressively high job and worker turnover rates. Although labor legislation in Brazil is very restrictive, dismissal costs are not high when compared with other Latin American countries. Moreover, many authors argue that the design of some job security programs creates perverse incentives that generate labor turnover. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we describe Brazilian labor legislation, with emphasis on job...

  3. Occupation and urbanization of Roraima State, Brazil.

    Diniz, A


    The author examines settlement patterns and urbanization of the remote area of Roraima State, Brazil. "A survey conducted in the capital city, Boa Vista, provides information on migration histories and migrants' characteristics.... Current views of urbanization of the Amazon [region] are focused on the displacement factor that development and state geopolitics have upon rural settlements...." The author also suggests that more attention needs to be paid to the characteristics of migrants in the urban areas. (EXCERPT) PMID:12294841

  4. Enterovirus meningitis in Brazil, 1998-2003.

    Dos Santos, Gina P L; Skraba, Irene; Oliveira, Denise; Lima, Ana A F; de Melo, Maria Mabel M; Kmetzsch, Claudete I; da Costa, Eliane V; da Silva, Edson E


    Acute viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) such as acute flaccid paralysis, meningitis, and encephalitis, are responsible for a high morbidity, particularly in children. Non-Polio enteroviruses (NPEV) are known to be responsible for over 80% of viral meningitis in which the etiologic agent is identified. In the present study, we show the frequency of enterovirus meningitis in Brazil from December 1998 to December 2003. Enterovirus were isolated from 162 (15.8%), of a total of 1,022 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens analyzed. Echovirus 30 was identified in 139 of these isolates (139/162-85.2%). Other identified enteroviruses were: Coxsackievirus B5 (3.7%), Echovirus 13 (3.7%), Echovirus 18 (3%), Echovirus 6 (1.2%), Echovirus 25 (1.2%), Echovirus 1 (0.6%), and Echovirus 4 (0.6%). Patients's age ranged from 28 days to 68 years old. The most frequent symptoms were fever (77%), headache (69.5%), vomiting (71.3%), neck stiffness (41.3%), convulsion (7.1%), and diarrhea (3.7%). Although, the majority of the patients recovered without any complication or permanent squeal, five deaths occurred. Throughout the surveillance period, five viral meningitis outbreaks were confirmed: four in the Southern Brazil and one in the Northeast Brazil. Echovirus 30 was responsible for four out of the five outbreaks while Echovirus 13 caused the fifth one. Besides the outbreaks, 734 sporadic cases were also identified during the study period and 59 of these were positive for virus isolation (8%). Echovirus 30 accounted for 70% of the isolates. Our results showed that Echovirus 30 was the most prevalent etiological agent of viral meningitis in Brazil, causing both outbreaks and sporadic cases. PMID:16299728

  5. Labor Turnover and Labor Legislation in Brazil

    Gustavo Gonzaga


    One of the main characteristics of the Brazilian labor market is its impressively high job and worker turnover rates. Although labor legislation in Brazil is very restrictive, dismissal costs are not high when compared with other Latin American countries. Moreover, many authors argue that the design of some job security programs creates perverse incentives that generate labor turnover. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we describe Brazilian labor legislation, with emphasis on job...

  6. Periodontal conditions of elders in Northeastern Brazil

    Maria Vieira de Lima Saintrain; Maria Daucirlene Costa Aquino


    Objective: To evaluate the periodontal conditions of elderly patients assisted in a Specialized Dentistry Center in Northeastern of Brazil. Methods: Quantitative and cross-sectional study conducted with 152 elders. It was used a questionnaire to get information about socio-demographic aspects (age, sex, gender, income, and education), general healthand periodontal clinical examination based on the Communitarian Periodontal Index (CPI), an indicator recommended by the World Health Organization...

  7. Brazil: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper analyzes several issues regarding fiscal sustainability and fiscal adjustment in Brazil during 1990 and searches for econometric evidence of a monetary dominant regime during some subperiods. The following statistical data are also presented in detail: macroeconomic flows and balances, industrial production, consumer price index, relative public sector prices and tariffs, minimum wage statistics, financial system loans, monetary aggregates, exports by principal commodity groups, di...

  8. New Sycoracinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from southern Brazil.

    Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio


    Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15. PMID:24699606

  9. Debt Sustainability, Brazil, and the IMF

    Morris Goldstein


    Those who have watched financial crises in emerging economies over the past two years would have noticed two things. First, there has been a high concentration of financial crises in Latin America. Second, debt problems have been at the heart of several recent crises, including the prominent ones in Argentina, Brazil, Turkey, and Uruguay. This paper discusses issues of debt sustainability in emerging economies. After providing in section II a brief account of the hard times that have recently...

  10. Internationalization strategy of Origama to Brazil

    Costa, Maria Tersa Louro Ribeiro da


    This work project studies Origama and its internationalization process to Brazil, specifically to Rio de Janeiro. Origama is a Portuguese start up succeeding in the beach products market and aiming to expand to international markets, in the quest for growth and sustainability. The key success factors in the domestic market were identified and compared with the foreign factors in order to investigate what were the barriers to entry and possible solutions to overcome them. The market research c...

  11. The control of radioactive sources in Brazil

    The radiological accident of Goiania in 1987 brought to light several deficiencies in the licensing of medical, industrial and research facilities, which handle radioisotopes, as well as in the control of radioactive sources in Brazil. The article describes some of the technical and administrative measures taken to ensure the adoption of appropriate radiological safety standards throughout the country and thereby reduce the incidence of radiological accidents. (author)


    H. G. Cordeiro


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The economic and social development of Brazil in the last decade has contributed to the installation of new graduate and undergraduate programs, as are the case with bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. These graduates are prepared to work in industry, research institutes and universities in areas of knowledge involving Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This is happening in developed countries since the first half of the last century, surprising and late is the implementation of bachelor of Biochemistry in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the Bachelor in Biochemistry in Brazil from the perspective of the main difficulties of implementing and courses maintenance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach. Interviews were conducted with undergraduate students, graduates, professors, staff and managers from bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. The sampling procedure was non probabilistic for judgment (choice of the subjects involved and interested in the course of biochemistry to undergraduate students, graduates, professors and staff and non probabilistic for convenience to managers. The qualitative assessment to depict the representative keywords was performed using words cloud by WordleTM. RESULTS: The study included 5 managers, 24 professors, 12 staff, 25 undergraduate students, 5 graduates. For the students the main reason for the course selection should be scientific vocation and affinity with chemistry and biology; most cited positive parameters were faculty and great structure, practical classes and broad playing field; most cited negatives were high mandatory disciplines, little student free time and lack of sophisticated equipment. Despite the conception of the programs have happened in different contexts and regions we noted similarities deficiencies and distresses. CONCLUSION: Difficulties must be

  13. Nuclear power plant safety in Brazil

    The Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants states that: 'In discharging its responsibility for public health and safety, the government should ensure that the operational safety of a nuclear reactor is subject to surveillance by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization'. In Brazil this task is being carried out by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in accordance with the best international practice. (orig./RW)

  14. Sunlover and its internationalization to Brazil

    Barreto, Ana Luísa Correia


    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics The goal of this work project is to study Sunlover and its internationalization process to Brazil. As a first step, it was necessary to collect information, using primary data provided by Sunlover and secondary data from several sources, including articles, books and websites cited in the references. After the data was collected, the company...

  15. Biological Control in Brazil: an overview

    José Roberto Postali Parra


    The use of Biological Control methods is on the increase, mainly as a result of the mobilization of human resources in entomology studies since the establishment of graduate programs in this country in the 1960s. This review approaches the retrospective of Biological Control in Brazil in recent decades, with an emphasis on the "culture of applying agrochemicals" adopted by Brazilian growers, which constrains progress in this area. Successful cases of Biological Control have been reported on i...

  16. Costs comparison of electric energy in Brazil

    A cost comparison study of various sources of electric energy generation was performed using uniform analysis criteria. The results indicate higher costs for coal, followed by nuclear and hidro. It was verified that presently, large hidro-power plants can only be located far from the load centers, with increasing costs of hidro-power energy in Brazil. These costs become higher than the nuclear plant if the hidro plant is located at distances exceeding 1000 Km. (Author)

  17. Nuclear Power in Argentina and Brazil

    Clivia M. Sotornayor Torres; Wolfgang Rudig


    Clivia Sotomayor Torres and Wolfgang Rudig compare nuclear development in the two Latin American countries most likely to develop nuclear weapons: Argentina & Brazil. They pose three main questions.First, was nuclear energy necessary to meet energy needs? Here the answer is a clear no. Both countries have immense undeveloped hydropower resources and used inflated estimates offuture electricity demand in selecting the nuclear option.Second, does either country have the capability to develop nu...

  18. Industrial Scope of Agglomeration Economies in Brazil

    Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi; Eduardo A. Haddad, Peter Nijkamp


    The tendency towards urbanization in the emerging world accompanied by the constant pursuit for higher productivity prompts an urge for studies aiming at understanding agglomeration economies. In the context of Brazil, a country with extremely high regional disparities, exploring this issue is important not only for private stakeholders, but also for public policy practitioners. In the framework of static agglomeration effects, we investigate the industrial scope of agglomeration economies in...

  19. Modeling Tourist Travel Decisions in Brazil

    Alessandro Oliveira; Moisés Vassallo


    This study develops a discrete-choice model for tourism-related trips in order to provide a mapping of preferences and a profile of tourists in Brazil. By using microdata from a recently collected survey conducted by the Institute of Economic Research Foundation (FIPE), we investigate the behavior of domestic tourists from two empirical models: i. a choice model of domestic, routine, excursion and international trips, and ii. a choice model of touristic destination. Travel data were combined ...

  20. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo


    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead. PMID:27050309

  1. SMART GRID: Evaluation and Trend in Brazil

    Ricardo Moreira da Silva


    Full Text Available The Smart Grid is considered the most promising conglomerate of technology to be applied for the improvement and optimization of all power production in electrical engineer. Smart Grid's concept is being more and more recognized for its importance for representing a way to meliorate the energetic efficiency of the electric system, reducing consumption, allowing intensive use of energy generation renewable sources. Therefore, the goal of this article is to explore and present Smart Grid's concepts and its global evolution, so as perform an assessment on Smart Grid's tendencies in Brazil. In order to do this, we shown the concepts of Smart Grid, its benefits and impacts in the electric system's value chain, the barriers to its diffusion in Brazil and the paths of investments' incentives for deployment of the new technology. Accordingly, we reach the conclusion that the researches point to a long and challenging trajectory for the development and implantation of Smart Grid's technology in Brazil, which is still in a embryonic phase of pilot projects for the knowledge and technology development implantation.

  2. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Britaldo Soares-Filho

    Full Text Available Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES. The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  3. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  4. "Health for All" in England and Brazil?

    Duncan, Peter; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Cowley, Sarah; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Chiesa, Anna Maria; de Siqueira França, Francisco Oscar


    This article discusses the achievements and challenges that England and Brazil face in relation to their capacity to address inequalities in health through health promotion and public health policies. Using secondary data (policy texts and related documents), this article contextualizes, explains, and critically appraises health promotion and public health efforts for the reduction of inequalities in health in the 2 countries. A historic documentary analysis was undertaken, with hermeneutics as the methodological framework. The global economic crisis has prompted the so-called developed economies of Europe to reconsider their economic and social priorities. England represents a state facing this kind of challenge. Equally, Brazil is assuming new positions not only on the world stage but also in terms of the relationship it has with its citizens and the priorities it has for state welfare. The United Kingdom continues to finance a health care system allowing universal access in the form of the National Health Service, and state concern about the public health task of reducing inequalities has recently been underlined in policy. For Brazil, although there have been recent achievements related to population access to healthcare, challenges continue, especially with regard to the quality of care. PMID:26077860

  5. Review of plant biogeographic studies in Brazil

    Pedro FIASCHI; José R. PIRANI


    Molecular phylogenetic studies have become a major area of interest in plant systematics, and their impacts on historical biogeographic hypotheses are not to be disregarded. In Brazil, most historical biogeographic studies have relied on animal phylogenies, whereas plant biogeographic studies have largely lacked a phylogenetic component, having a limited utility for historical biogeography. That country, however, is of great importance for most biogeographic studies of lowland tropical South America, and it includes areas from a number of biogeographic regions of the continent. Important biogeographic reports have been published as part of phylogenetic studies, taxonomic monographs, and regional accounts for small areas or phytogeographic domains, hut the available information is subsequently scattered and sometimes hard to find. In this paper we review some relevant angiosperm biogeographic studies in Brazil. Initially we briefly discuss the importance of other continents as source areas for the South American flora. Then we present a subdivision of Brazil into phytogeographic domains, and we cite studies that have explored the detection of biogeographic units (areas of endemism) and how they are historically related among those domains. Examples of plant taxa that could be used to test some biogeographic hypotheses are provided throughout, as well as taxa that exemplify several patterns of endemism and disjunction in the Brazilian angiosperm flora.

  6. Energy requirements of households in Brazil

    In this study we determine the total (direct plus indirect) energy requirements of a given set of Brazilian households. We use a generalized input-output model in order to calculate the energy embodied in goods and services purchased by households of different income level in 11 capital cities of Brazil. Our results show that, on average, the total energy intensity of household expenditure increases with income level, although there is a considerable spread in energy intensities within income classes as well as disparities between regions of the country. The total yearly average energy requirement per household in Brazil in 1995-96 was 173.6 GJ (61% of which was indirect), with 32.8 GJ for the lower income level (66% of which was indirect), and 602.2 GJ for the higher income level (62% of which was indirect). Of this total average energy requirement, 76% was required for only three consumption categories: utilities (31%), mobility (28%) and shelter (17%). This analysis calls for the attention that has to be given not only to the direct energy consumption (as motor fuels and electricity, for example) but also to the consumption categories that encompass an important part of the indirect energy requirement of households in capital cities in Brazil

  7. Incidence of hepatitis C in Brazil

    Juliét Silveira Hanus


    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C is a public health problem of global dimensions, affecting approximately 200 million people worldwide. The main objective of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of hepatitis C in Brazil during the period between 2001 and 2012. METHODS: An epidemiological, temporal, and descriptive study was performed using data from the Information System for Reportable Diseases. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2012, a total of 151,056 hepatitis C cases were recorded, accounting for 30.3% of all hepatitis notifications in Brazil. The average gross coefficient for the analysis period was 6.7 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The regions with the highest rates were the Southeast region (8.7 new cases/100,000 inhabitants and the South (13.9 new cases/100,000 inhabitants. There was a predominance of men with respect to the incidence rate (8.0 new cases/100,000 inhabitants compared to women (5.5 new cases/100,000 inhabitants. Injection drug use was the most common source of infection, and members of the white race, residents of urban areas, and those aged 60 to 64 years had the highest incidences. CONCLUSIONS: Over the last 10 years, the incidence of hepatitis C in Brazil has increased, mainly in the South and Southeast. The adoption of fast, accurate diagnostic methods, together with epidemiological awareness, can facilitate early intervention measures for adequate control of the disease.

  8. Noise in large cities in Brazil

    Gerges, Samir N. Y.


    Large cities' noise is considered by the World Health Organization to be the third most hazardous pollution, preceded by air and water pollution. In urban centers, in general, and especially in developing countries such as Brazil, large populations are affected by excessive noise due mainly to traffic flow. The Brazilian Federal Government specifies noise limits, but each state can enforce its own set of noise limits, providing they are lower. The rapid economic growth, together with large migration of northern Brazilians to the developing southern urban areas in search of more lucrative jobs in construction and industrial sectors, resulted in a fast increase in activities such as vehicle and bus traffic, home construction, and development of all necessary infrastructures to support this growth. Urban noise in Brazil has been receiving the attention of national authorities only since 1990, when the Federal Government approved the first ``Program of Community Silence,'' based on ISO R 1996-1971. This paper highlights the noise situation in the five largest and most populated cities in Brazil: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre and Curitiba [Zannin et al., Appl. Acoust. 63, 351-358 (2002)].

  9. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini


    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  10. [Paradoxes of health decentralization policies in Brazil].

    Pasche, Dário Frederico; Righi, Liane Beatriz; Thomé, Henrique Inácio; Stolz, Eveline Dischkaln


    The constitution of Brazil directs that the country's health system, the Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saúde), be politically and administratively decentralized. Nevertheless, handing over competencies, responsibilities, and resources to subnational levels, especially to municipal governments, has been a slow process, lasting almost two decades. Advances have been brought about by the Unified Health System, which, from a analytical perspective, is a public and universal system. Despite that, the decentralization process needs to overcome norms that keep all levels of management dependent on Brazil's federal Government. The subnational levels have consistently faced difficulties in performing their macromanagement functions with autonomy, especially when it comes to financing and to the establishment or organization of health care networks. Boldness and responsibility will be needed to prevent Brazil's health decentralization process from leading to fragmentation. New political agreements between different levels of government, with a reassignment of responsibilities and the enhancement of a culture of technical cooperation, are fundamental requisites to making the Unified Health System have a health policy that is truly public and universal. PMID:17341333

  11. The Devonian trilobites of Brazil: A summary

    Carvalho, Maria da Gloria Pires de; Ponciano, Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira


    Devonian trilobites are found in three major Paleozoic intracratonic basins of Brazil (Amazonas, Parnaíba, and Paraná). The trilobites represent the families Homalonotidae, Dalmanitidae, and Calmoniidae. The distribution of these taxa in the Brazilian territory is summarized here because of their remarkable scientific and historical importance, and a revised taxonomy and lithostratigraphy of the Devonian (Pragian - Famennian) trilobites from Brazil is presented, based on new research and recent literature. Homalonotids and dalmanitids are relatively cosmopolitan, whereas calmoniids are more endemic and seem to have been restricted to marine cold-waters of the southern hemisphere (Malvinokaffric Realm). Although the trilobites within the Brazilian intracratonic basins are approximately contemporaneous, they show various patterns of endemism and biogeographical affinities with other Malvinokaffric areas such as Bolivia, South Africa, and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. At family level, therefore, trilobite diversity from Brazil is comparatively low, which may indicate biogeographical filtering related to the distance and/or remoteness of the Brazilian basins from more open oceanic waters.

  12. The problems of nutrition in Brazil.

    Sanders, T G


    Low income is the factor most often associated with the existence of malnutrition. Malnutrition in Brazil is more frequently found among Brazilians with less than 2 minimum salaries/family and who live in the less developed parts of the country. In 1976, 59.2% of urban residents earned 2 or less minimum salaries. A study found that those rural residents engaged in agriculture on their own or someone else's property were better paid than those who live from salaried labor alone; temporary salaried workers are the largest rural class in Brazil and have the lowest levels of nutrition. In urban areas the informal sector represent the lowest nutrition level group. The issue of food consumption by the lower classes is linked to 4 aspects of Brazilian development: 1) structure of food production, 2) distribution of income, 3) government attempts to influence prices and marketing systems, and 4) the role of government food supplementation programs. Brazil suffers today from unbalanced growth among its various economic sectors and regions, inequitable income distribution, and inadequate public services. The misconception of the necessity of a large industrial base for development resulted in the neglect of the rural sector and thus higher malnutrition. Recent regulatory efforts by the government have begun to increase rural production, but production of agricultural exports has increased at a much more rapid pace than that of domestic food commodities. Small farmers have not taken advantage of new financial opportunities offered by the government to balance production levels because: 1) banks do not have enough for the demand, 2) access to the small producer of foods is difficult, and 3) the present hesitation to risk his few possessions. The largest percentage of income in Brazil goes to the richest classes and the economy is oriented towards meeting the demands of the more prosperous classes. The government's program of minimum support prices has not been successful in

  13. Basic Education in Brazil: What's Wrong and How to Fix It. Thinking Brazil. No. 25

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2007


    While Brazil has successfully achieved universal access to basic education, the quality of education remains stubbornly low. A recent study by the Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA) shows that the average 25 years old Brazilian has completed only nine years of education. Almost eleven percent of the population is illiterate and a…

  14. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 1. The future of wind power in Brazil - market analysis

    Husted Rich, N.


    More than 95% of total energy produced in Brazil comes from highly efficient hydroelectric power plants but, faced with a serious shortage of energy after the year 2000, the country is now considering wind energy as one of the basic alternatives for energy supply. It is suggested that biomass, wind energy and biogas may be included in a future supply policy for the north-east region of the land. The structure of, the privatisation, legislation and the tariff system within the Brazilian power sector are described in addition to the present situation regarding wind energy in the country, including current and coming projects in this field, the excellent wind conditions in Northeastern Brazil and investment possibilities. The political activities in this field of the Danish Folkecenter for Renewable Energy are noted and future developments in Brazil are discussed. It is concluded that there are good prospects for Danish windmill technology on the Brazilian market. Wind measurement programs are presently being carried out in various areas of the country, though a number of impediments to the development of wind energy in Brazil remain. (AB)

  15. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 1. The future of wind power in Brazil - market analysis

    More than 95% of total energy produced in Brazil comes from highly efficient hydroelectric power plants but, faced with a serious shortage of energy after the year 2000, the country is now considering wind energy as one of the basic alternatives for energy supply. It is suggested that biomass, wind energy and biogas may be included in a future supply policy for the north-east region of the land. The structure of, the privatisation, legislation and the tariff system within the Brazilian power sector are described in addition to the present situation regarding wind energy in the country, including current and coming projects in this field, the excellent wind conditions in Northeastern Brazil and investment possibilities. The political activities in this field of the Danish Folkecenter for Renewable Energy are noted and future developments in Brazil are discussed. It is concluded that there are good prospects for Danish windmill technology on the Brazilian market. Wind measurement programs are presently being carried out in various areas of the country, though a number of impediments to the development of wind energy in Brazil remain. (AB)

  16. Publishing, Books and Library Resources: Brazil and Argentina.

    National Book Committee, Inc., New York, NY.

    This survey synthesizes and analyzes the book resources and book requirements of Brazil, with particular reference to the educational scene, in terms of local production and distribution resources and capabilities. Information on the geography, political establishment, economy, and educational system of Brazil is presented in the introductory…

  17. Gender dimensions of child labor and street children in Brazil

    Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Pyne, Hnin Hnin


    The authors review child labor and the situation of street children in Brazil from a gender perspective. Relying primarily on Brazil's national household survey for 1996, the authors examine various dimensions of child labor by gender, including participation, intensity, and type of activities; the relationship between child labor, education, and future earnings; and the risks of child lab...

  18. Poverty and Shared Prosperity in Brazil's Metropolitan Regions

    World Bank Group


    In the 20th Century, Brazil rapidly urbanized and is now not only an urban nation but a metropolitan one. Brazils sprawling regioes metropolitanas (metropolitan regions, or RMs, which are municipal clusters) are now home to almost 50 million people and much of the countrys economic vitality. The RM spatial level and its supporting governmental institutions have thus become critical to Braz...

  19. Brazil's alcohol program gets World Bank loan


    The World Bank has approved its first loan for alcohol production - a $250 million credit for Brazil's government program. Brazil's National Alcohol Commission has approved construction of 388 projects of an estimated 500 needed to reach the alcohol program's 1985 output target of 10.7 billion litres/year.

  20. Distance Education and Corporate Training in Brazil: Regulations and Interrelationships

    Porto, Stella C. S.; Berge, Zane L.


    Distance education in Brazil has evolved more slowly than distance education offerings in other developing countries. This is because all aspects of Brazil's publicly-funded educational system are excessively regulated, highly bureaucratic, and tightly centralized. Such highly centralized bureaucracy and strict control has resulted in tremendous…

  1. Macroeconomic and policy implications of population aging in Brazil

    Jorgensen, Ole Hagen


    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic implications of population aging in Brazil. Three alternative yet complementary methodologies are adopted, and depending on policy responses to the fiscal implications of aging, there are two main findings: First, saving rates could increase and not necessarily fall as a consequence of aging in Brazil -- thus contradicting conventional views. Second, l...

  2. Advanced ceramics in Brazil: actual stage and perspectives

    The development of advanced ceramics in Brazil, the perspectives of the world and Brazilian markets, the raw materials, the equipments for industry and research, the human resources, and the disposable technology, are presented. The researches on advanced ceramics in Brazil initiated in the sixty decade, with the nuclear fuel development and production projets. (M.C.K.)

  3. Population structure and virulence of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil

    Recent studies found that the isolates of T. gondii from Brazil are biologically and genetically different from those in North America and Europe. However, so far only a small number of isolates were analyzed from different animal hosts in Brazil. In the present study DNA samples of 46 T. gondii iso...

  4. Brazil - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

    World Bank


    This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Brazil, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. In Brazil, the 5th largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world, agriculture (including land use change and forestry) is the largest contributor to green house gas (GHG) emissions. ...

  5. Brazil’s Booming Agriculture Faces Obstacles

    Valdes, Constanza


    Brazil has emerged as an agricultural superpower in global food and agricultural markets thanks to economic and trade stability and regulatory reforms that encourage investment in agriculture. Brazil is an important producer and the largest exporter of sugar, ethanol, beef, poultry meat, coffee, orange juice, and tobacco.

  6. Revisiting the use of condoms in Brazil

    Inês Dourado


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:It is known that a single prevention strategy is not enough to control multiple HIV epidemics around the world and in Brazil. However, it is not only necessary to recognize the importance of condoms as part of the policy of HIV/AIDS prevention but also discuss its limits. In this article, we aim to investigate the use of condoms in Brazil, draw critical reflections, and understand how they can once again be highlighted in Brazil's prevention strategy going forward.Methods:A narrative review of literature was conducted using keywords in PubMed. Reports from national surveys that guide the epidemiological and behavioral surveillance of the Brazilian Ministry of Health were also included.Results:A total of 40 articles and 3 reports were included in the review and 11 intervention studies to promote the condom use; the main findings were as follows: 1 Despite the increase in national studies on sexual behavior, little attention is given to the role of condom use; 2 There are few studies examining the factors associated with condom use among key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW, drug users (DU, and transvestites and transexuals (TT, while substantial studies focus on adolescents and women; 3 Evidence suggests that a combination of interventions is more effective.Discussion:new prevention technologies must not lose sight of the critical importance of condoms, and efforts to reintroduce them should focus on the role of pleasure in addition to their potential to minimize the risk of HIV.

  7. Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil

    Luciano A. Favorito


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all Brazilian urologists. Their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service, as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease, the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. RESULTS: 283 new cases of penile cancer in Brazil were recorded. The majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02% and southeast (45.54% regions. The majority of patients (224, or 78.96% were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41% were less than 35 years of age. Of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42% had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. A prior medical history positive for HPV infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%. In 101 patients (35.68% tobacco smoking was reported. The vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14% presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. In 48 cases (16.96% the tumor affected the glans, the prepuce and the corpus penis; in 28 cases (9.89% the tumor affected the entire penis. The majority of the patients (n = 123; 75.26% presented with T1 or T2; only 9 patients (3.18% presented with T4 disease. CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is a very frequent pathology in Brazil, predominantly affecting low income, white, uncircumcised patients, living in the north and northeast regions of the country.

  8. Journalism as a profession in Brazil

    Andrea Ferraz Fernandez


    Full Text Available Journalism as a profession in Brazil discusses the professional characteristics of Journalism in Brazil under the following aspects: 1 formal conditions of access, 2 conditions and effects of the monopoly on the journalistic activity 3 presence of a distinct culture and ethic, based on the notion of the journalist’s social responsibility and 4 characteristics of the real community of individuals who share the journalistic identity. Based on this scope, we can perceive the singularity of the Brazilian formal access conditions, albeit currently in transition. The university diploma for professional journalists, a recently eliminated mandatory requirement, created in the past a specific access condition and produced a field of specialized journalists with a university diploma. The journalists debate today about the end of their access card and a total lack of professional regulation. At the same time, there is a reduction of formal job positions, which are more concentrated with the large media groups, and worsening of working conditions and salaries. The emergence of other types of functions, due to new technological characteristics of the communication field, although potentially increasing professional possibilities, generate dilemmas regarding production and distribution of information. To these new challenges old ones have to be added, such as the need to ethically equate the work done by press offices, as these consist today the majority of job positions for journalists in the country. This work expands the discussion about these characteristics of the journalistic profession in Brazil based on quantitative and qualitative dada produced by the Comprehensive Analysis of Brazilian Communications and Telecommunications.

  9. [The cases of China and Brazil].

    Mundigo, A


    Demographic developments and family planning in China and Brazil are described and compared. Postrevolutionary China was characterized by initial rapid economic expansion, followed later by recurrent agricultural crises. Abortion and sterilization were strictly forbidden. The mid-twenties was legal minimum age for marrying, thus increasing the work force. In the early 1960s, population control measures were introduced, legalizing sterilization and abortion, a trend reversed, in 1966, by the cultural revolution, which resulted in a baby boom and an enormous proportion of young women, today, in their reproductive ages. Various stages of increased government involvement finally resulted in a 1 family, 1 child policy adopted in 1978, coercing families and individuals to sign a certificate, severely limiting earning potentials and privileges, if having more than 1 child. By the year 2050, if current policies are being enforced, the population is projected to be 917 million. Brazil traditionally has had an intellectual pro-natality movement, due to its vast internal space, low population density and high economic productive capacity. By 1970, however, the economic miracle had passed. Child mortality and health problems became rampant. Democratizing access to contraceptive means and services, and the economic for migration to large empty spaces of the country were emphasized. The state assumed responsibility for providing contraceptive means instead of leaving it in the hands of private agencies. Brazil refuses to recognize simplistic rhetoric blaming population increases for all ills in the developing countries and espouses the position that planning for children, the more positive term for family planning, is a fundamental right of all human beings and should stem from free and informed choice by couples and individuals. PMID:12280936

  10. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil

    Oliveira Tacyana PR


    Full Text Available Abstract From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income, and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch, and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of