Sample records for brachiopods argyrotheca cordata

  1. Comparative larval myogenesis and adult myoanatomy of the rhynchonelliform (articulate) brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and Terebratalia transversa

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas


    the ongoing controversy concerning its phylogenetic position. In order to contribute new morphogenetic data for phylogenetic and evolutionary inferences, we describe herein the ontogeny and myoanatomy of larvae and adults of the rhynchonelliform brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and...... very similar in these two species. The first anlagen of the musculature develop in the pedicle lobe, followed by setae muscles and the mantle lobe musculature. Late-stage larvae show a network of strong pedicle muscles, central mantle muscles, longitudinal muscles running from the mantle to the pedicle...... and are thus derived from a common ancestral larval type. Comparison of the muscular phenotype of rhynchonelliform larvae to that of the other two lophophorate phyla, Phoronida and Ectoprocta, does not indicate homology of individual larval muscles. This may be due to an early evolutionary split of...

  2. Comparative larval myogenesis and adult myoanatomy of the rhynchonelliform (articulate brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and Terebratalia transversa

    Wanninger Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant methodological progress, Brachiopoda remains one of the lophotrochozoan phyla for which no recent ontogenetic data employing modern methodologies such as fluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy are available. This is particularly astonishing given the ongoing controversy concerning its phylogenetic position. In order to contribute new morphogenetic data for phylogenetic and evolutionary inferences, we describe herein the ontogeny and myoanatomy of larvae and adults of the rhynchonelliform brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and Terebratalia transversa using fluorescence F-actin labelling combined with confocal laserscanning microscopy. Results Fully grown larvae of A. cordata and T. transversa consist of three distinct body regions, namely an apical lobe, a mantle lobe with four bundles of setae, and a pedicle lobe. Myogenesis is very similar in these two species. The first anlagen of the musculature develop in the pedicle lobe, followed by setae muscles and the mantle lobe musculature. Late-stage larvae show a network of strong pedicle muscles, central mantle muscles, longitudinal muscles running from the mantle to the pedicle lobe, setae pouch muscles, setae muscles, a U-shaped muscle, serial mantle muscles, and apical longitudinal as well as apical transversal muscles. Fully developed A. cistellula larvae differ from the former species in that they have only two visible body lobes and lack setae. Nevertheless, we found corresponding muscle systems to all muscles present in the former two species, except for the musculature associated with the setae, in larvae of A. cistellula. With our survey of the adult myoanatomy of A. cordata and A. cistellula and the juvenile muscular architecture of T. transversa we confirm the presence of adductors, diductors, dorsal and ventral pedicle adjustors, mantle margin muscles, a distinct musculature of the intestine, and striated muscle fibres in the

  3. Larval Myogenesis in the Articulate Brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata (Risso, 1826)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg


    , the first anlagen of the musculature develop in the bristle pouches and the pedicle lobe. Late stage larvae show a network of longitudinal muscles running from the apical to the pedicle lobe as well as transversal muscles situated in the apical lobe. Strong muscles attach to both the bristles and the...... pedicle lobe. Our work reveals only few similarities between the larval myoanatomy and myogenesis of A. cordata and the hitherto investigated phoronid and ectoproct species, which may account for an early distinct evolutionary pathway of the general ontogeny...

  4. Larval Myogenesis in the Articulate Brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata (Risso, 1826)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg


    Brachiopoda is a metazoan phylum with a fossil record dating back tothe lower Cambrium and comprises over 12,000 extinct and 400 recentspecies. Despite some recent progress using mainly palaeontological andmolecular datasets, the discussion concerning the phylogenetic positionof Brachiopoda remains unsettled. While some classic analyses employingmorphological data assign Brachiopoda to Deuterostomia, recent moleculardata propose a sister group relationship of Spiralia to a cladeLophophorata t...

  5. Comparative larval myogenesis and adult myoanatomy of the rhynchonelliform (articulate) brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and Terebratalia transversa

    Wanninger Andreas; Altenburger Andreas


    Abstract Background Despite significant methodological progress, Brachiopoda remains one of the lophotrochozoan phyla for which no recent ontogenetic data employing modern methodologies such as fluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy are available. This is particularly astonishing given the ongoing controversy concerning its phylogenetic position. In order to contribute new morphogenetic data for phylogenetic and evolutionary inferences, we describe herein the ontogeny and myoanatomy o...

  6. Ordovician Rhynchonelliform Brachiopod Biogeography and Faunas

    Liljeroth, Maria

    The distribution of the Ordovician (~444–488 Ma) rhynchonelliform brachiopods was investigated for identification of biogeographic provinces and areas constituting focal points for taxon speciation, and to describe the faunas and biodiversity associated with the provinces, palaeoplates, and terra...

  7. Brachiopod Body Size Through the Stratigraphic Record

    Khong, C.; Payne, J.


    There have been five major mass extinction events in the history of animal life. These events are known from their effects on biodiversity, but their influences on other aspects of organism and ecosystem function remain incompletely understood. For example, larger organisms are often assumed to be at a higher risk of extinction than their smaller relatives. However, the effects of mass extinction events on body size evolution remain poorly documented. There are no systematic studies examining size change within one animal group across all major mass extinction events. In this study, we use brachiopods, a group of marine animals with an extensive fossil record, to examine the relationship between mass extinction events and body size evolution. We chose to study brachiopods for two reasons. First, this group involves more than 4,000 genera. Secondly, it is present in every time period since the Cambrian.

  8. Non-terrestrial food source for Fiordland brachiopods

    Carbon-13 analyses were determined for brachiopods and particulate organic matter from Fiordland waters. Brachiopod delta 13$0C are about -18 per mille which is significantly enriched in 13C relative to the particulate matter (about -23 per mille) and different from local terrestrial matter (about -28 per mille). There is no carbon-13 evidence for non-marine food in the diet of brachiopods

  9. Biostratigraphy of the Middle Ordovician Brachiopods from Central Spain

    Reyes-Abril, Jaime; Gutiérrez-Marco, J. C.; Villas, E.


    A recent taxonomic study on the rhynchonelliformean brachiopods from the Darriwilian dark shales of the Central-Iberian Zone, Central Spain (Reyes-Abril, 2009; Reyes-Abril et al., 2010) has considerably increased the number of orthides and strophomenides known across the whole Iberian Peninsula. The studied brachiopods were collected in 58 localities of 6 provinces from the regions of Castilla-La Mancha, Andalucía and Extremadura. Middle Ordovician brachiopods previously known in ...

  10. Biogenic calcite granules--are brachiopods different?

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Dauphin, Yannicke; Cusack, Maggie


    Brachiopods are still one of the least studied groups of organisms in terms of biomineralization despite recent studies indicating the presence of highly complex biomineral structures, particularly in taxa with calcitic shells. Here, we analyze the nanostructure of calcite biominerals, fibers and semi-nacre tablets, in brachiopod shells by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We demonstrate that basic mechanisms of carbonate biomineralization are not uniform within the phylum, with semi-nacre tablets composed of spherical aggregates with sub-rounded granules and fibers composed of large, triangular or rod-like particles composed of small sub-rounded granules (40-60 nm). Additionally, proteinaceous envelopes surrounding calcite fibers have been shown for the first time to have a dual function: providing a micro-environment in which granules are produced and acting as the organic template for particle orientation as fiber components. In summary, these new findings in brachiopod shells reveal a complex and distinctive style of biomineralization among carbonate-producing organisms. PMID:23026148

  11. Early Ordovician (Tremadocian) brachiopods from the Eastern Alborz Mountains, Iran

    Leonid E. Popov; Mansoureh Ghobadi Pour; Mohammad Reza Kebriaee-Zadeh


    Six linguliform and two rhynchonelliform brachiopods, including three new species Eurytreta ahmadii, Wahwahlingula kharbashi and Nanorthis bastamensis are described from Tremadocian strata (Paltodus deltifer deltifer conodont Biozone) in the Deh-Molla area southwest of Shahrud, Northern Iran. The fauna is dominated by micromorphic lingulides and acrotretides and shows distinct similarity to the contemporaneous micromorphic brachiopod association from Tremadocian chalcedonites of the Holy Cros...

  12. Mechanism on bipolar distribution of Permian brachiopods

    Chengwen WANG; Songmei ZHANG


    By reasearch on geographic distribution, nine genera in bipolar distribution are selected from Permian brachiopods. These taxa originated from middle-high latitude areas in the boreal realm, of which five genera were derived from Late Carboniferous, and other four genera originated from Permian. They were all in bipolar distribution during some different stages in Permian. Specific diversity for each genus was high in the boreal realm, whereas in the Gondwana realm was very low. Perdurability was long in the boreal realm, and short in the Gondwana realm. It was the time when these nine genera came to their maximum diversity that these genera appeared in the Gondwana and formed bipolar distribution; while they also migrated to the low latitude from high latitude. This shows very close relationship between several main cooling events in Permian and the migration of genera from the boreal realm to the Gondwana realm through the Tethys. Therefore, the cooling events might be the main drive which caused these cold-water-type brachiopods migrated to the Gondwana realm and being bipolar distribution. In this process, the planula tolerance to warm water would be another important factor.

  13. Phytochemical and antimicrobial characterization of Macleaya cordata herb

    Kosina, P.; Gregorová, J.; Grúz, Jiří; Vacek, J.; Kolář, M.; Vogel, M.; Roos, W.; Naumann, K.; Šimánek, V.; Ulrichová, J.


    Roč. 81, č. 8 (2010), s. 1006-1012. ISSN 0367-326X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Macleaya cordata * Isoquinoline alkaloids * Phenolic acids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.899, year: 2010

  14. Devonian brachiopods from the sillimanite zone, mount moosilauke, new hampshire.

    Boucot, A J; Rumble, D


    Devonian brachiopods, identifiable at the generic level, have been recovered from calc-silicate rocks more intensely metamorphosed and metasomatized than any other known fossil occurrence. The fossils are a key stratigraphic link between granulite facies rocks of central New Hampshire and fossiliferous rocks of western New Hampshire and Maine. PMID:17793732

  15. Effect of Botanical Insecticide of Macleya cordata on Physiology and Biochemistry of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Gong Li


    Full Text Available In order to improve the effect of Cyhalothrin and botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata in the Brassica oleracea L. investigated, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein were determined. The results showed that under the stress of botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata at the same concentration, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein were significantly lower than those with Cyhalothrin (p<0.05 except the proline content has not significant differences between Cyhalothrin and botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata with a dosage of 50×. The degree of damage with Cyhalothrin is greater than that of botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata.

  16. The Bivalve Yangtzedonta is not the Brachiopod Xianfengella

    YU Wen


    The alleged "holotype" of the bivalve Yangtzedontaprimitiva Yu, 1985 figured by Qian (2001) is a broken and distorted specimen of the brachiopod Xianfengella prima He and Yang, 1982 and not the holotype of Y. primitiva. Qian contends that the oldest recognized monoplacophoran, Maikhanella pristinis (Jiang, 1980), is neither a monoplacophoran nor the oldest molluscan fossil in the Meishucunian Stage of China. Furthermore, he considers that the oldest bivalve Xianfengoconcha elliptica Zhang, 1980 is an inarticulate brachiopod, not a mollusc. Watsonella yunnanensis (He and Yang, 1982), is associated with Yangtzedonta primitiva Yu but indicates no evolutionary relationship between the Classes Rostroconchia and Bivalvia in the Lower Cambrian Zhongyicun Member of the Yuhucun Formation. Qian's confusion in using non-molluscan fossils to discuss the early evolution of shelled molluscs also confuses the basic concepts of the respective groups.

  17. Early Ordovician (Tremadocian brachiopods from the Eastern Alborz Mountains, Iran

    Leonid E. Popov


    Full Text Available Six linguliform and two rhynchonelliform brachiopods, including three new species Eurytreta ahmadii, Wahwahlingula kharbashi and Nanorthis bastamensis are described from Tremadocian strata (Paltodus deltifer deltifer conodont Biozone in the Deh-Molla area southwest of Shahrud, Northern Iran. The fauna is dominated by micromorphic lingulides and acrotretides and shows distinct similarity to the contemporaneous micromorphic brachiopod association from Tremadocian chalcedonites of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. New data on the early ontogeny of the enigmatic lingulide Diencobolus show a very distinct pattern, including the presence of a metamorphic protegulum ornamented with flat-based pits and a single pair of larval setal bundles, which links this taxon to Paterula and suggests close phylogenetic relationships of both taxa to the Discinoidea.

  18. Lower Permian brachiopods from Oman : their potential as climatic proxies

    Angiolini, L.; D. P. F. Darbyshire; Stephenson, Michael; Leng, Melanie; Brewer, T. S.; F. Berra; F. Jadoul


    The Lower Permian of the Haushi basin, Interior Oman (Al Khlata Formation to Saiwan Formation/lower Gharif member) records climate change from glaciation, through marine sedimentation in the Haushi sea, to subtropical desert. To investigate the palaeoclimatic evolution of the Haushi sea we used O, C, and Sr isotopes from 31 brachiopod shells of eight species collected bed by bed within the type-section of the Saiwan Formation. We assessed diagenesis by scanning electron microscopy of ultrastr...




    Full Text Available Here we describe a Guadalupian brachiopod fauna from units III to V of the shallow water carbonate succession cropping out at Djebel Tebaga de Medenine, South Tunisia. The fauna comprises 29 taxa of the orders Productida, Orthotetida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida and Terebratulida, whose distribution is consistent with the Wordian-Capitanian age suggested by the associated fusulinids and conodonts. Most of the brachiopod taxa are pedicle attached genera or cemented ones and thus were permanently attached, and only two were free living concavo-convex semi-infaunal genera; this indicates that they were mostly living in high energy environmental settings, where the settling strategies require firm attachment to the substrate at shallow depth under the influence of fair-weather waves. The brachiopods from South Tunisia are very similar to the fauna from the allochthonous limestones of Pietra di Salomone, Rupe del Passo di Burgio and Rocca di San Benedetto of Sosio Valley, Sicily, Italy, a fauna which is also dominated by cemented and pediculate taxa. Both regions were located at palaeoequatorial latitudes in the western termination of the Tethyan Gulf during Middle Permian time. 

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Articulate Brachiopod Terebratal ia transversa

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.


    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the articulate brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. The circular genome is 14,291 bp in size, relatively small compared to other published metazoan mtDNAs. The 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNA are present; the size decrease is due to the truncation of several tRNA, rRNA, and protein genes, to some nucleotide overlaps, and to a paucity of non-coding nucleotides. Although the gene arrangement differs radically from those reported for other metazoans, some gene junctions are shared with two other articulate brachiopods, Laqueus rubellus and Terebratulina retusa. All genes in the T. transversa mtDNA, unlike those in most metazoan mtDNAs reported, are encoded by the same strand. The A+T content (59.1 percent) is low for a metazoan mtDNA, and there is a high propensity for homopolymer runs and a strong base-compositional strand bias. The coding strand is quite G+T-rich, a skew that is shared by the confamilial (laqueid) specie s L. rubellus, but opposite to that found in T. retusa, a cancellothyridid. These compositional skews are strongly reflected in the codon usage patterns and the amino acid compositions of the mitochondrial proteins, with markedly different usage observed between T. retusa and the two laqueids. This observation, plus the similarity of the laqueid non-coding regions to the reverse complement of the non-coding region of the cancellothyridid, suggest that an inversion that resulted in a reversal in the direction of first-strand replication has occurred in one of the two lineages. In addition to the presence of one non-coding region in T. transversa that is comparable to those in the other brachiopod mtDNAs, there are two others with the potential to form secondary structures; one or both of these may be involved in the process of transcript cleavage.




    Full Text Available Upper Triassic brachiopods from 2 localities in the reef Dachstein Limestone of the SE Hochschwab massif in Styria, Austria are systematically described and illustrated. About 900 variably preserved specimens belong to 28 species, representing thus the most diverse brachiopod fauna known from the North Alpine Dachstein Limestone. This indicates that brachiopods were common inhabitants of reef habitats during the Alpine Norian. Oxycolpella, Sinucosta and Aulacothyropsis are dominant. Seven brachiopod species are known from the Kössen Formation (Rhaetian. Adygella biplicata (Dagys and Ladinian Hungarispira loretzi (Bittner are the newcomers in the Nordalpine Dachstein Limestone. In addition to brachiopods, only some fragments of bivalves were found. Conodonts of the species Epigondolella triangularis (Budurov 1972 indicate the Early Norian age.

  2. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

    Fang, Jun; Martínez, Yordan; Bin, Peng; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Yin, Yulong


    Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. PMID:27525260

  3. Uptake and translocation of {sup 137}Cs by Houttuynia cordata (in water culture)

    Kimura, Shojiro; Yamaoki, Rumi [Osaka Univ. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Takatsuki (Japan)


    The water culture experiment of Houttuynia cordata of the medicinal plant was carried out, and basic study on {sup 137}Cs accumulation characteristic and internal circulation in H. cordata in the fruiting stage was investigated since the flowering season. H. cordata accumulated 80% of {sup 137}Cs absorbed unlike K to the root, rhizome, terminal bud of the underground part for the rhizome reproduction. {sup 137}Cs content to the young leaf, spike, involucre increased in the flowering season. Thereafter, {sup 137}Cs was recirculated to the developing organs in second generations such as the rhizome and bud. (author)

  4. Uptake and translocation of 137Cs by Houttuynia cordata (in water culture)

    The water culture experiment of Houttuynia cordata of the medicinal plant was carried out, and basic study on 137Cs accumulation characteristic and internal circulation in H. cordata in the fruiting stage was investigated since the flowering season. H. cordata accumulated 80% of 137Cs absorbed unlike K to the root, rhizome, terminal bud of the underground part for the rhizome reproduction. 137Cs content to the young leaf, spike, involucre increased in the flowering season. Thereafter, 137Cs was recirculated to the developing organs in second generations such as the rhizome and bud. (author)

  5. Terrestrial-marine carbon cycle coupling in ~500-m.y.-old phosphatic brachiopods

    Cowan, Clinton A.; Fox, David L.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Saltzman, Matthew R.


    Carbon isotope Compositions (??13C) of inarticulate brachiopod shells from Upper Cambrian sandstone in the cratonic interior of Laurentia record a 5??? positive excursion that correlates biostratigraphically with the global Steptoean positive isotopic carbon excursion. A consistent 6??? negative displacement in brachiopod ??13C relative to carbonate values is interpreted to represent an onshore-offshore gradient in the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in Cambrian seawater. Thus, these ???500-m.y.-old chitinophosphatic brachiopod shells preserve evidence for carbon cycle coupling between the ancient atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial reservoirs in the time before embryophytic land plants. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.


    Gulnaz; Savitha


    ABSTRACT: Phyto chemicals are the secondary metabolites produ ce by the plant for its adaptation, which has medicinal value. The plant Sida cordata is a prostrate herb with medicinal value which is found throughout India .The whole pla nt Sidda cordata is used by the tribal people of Madekeri district to treat various aliment like hepatic disorder, dysentery, cholera etc, it is also one of the component in herbal preparation in Tamilnadu used on cut wounds, to re...

  7. Effects of frying oil and Houttuynia cordata thunb on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system of rodents

    Ya-Yen Chen; Chiao-Ming Chen; Pi-Yu Chao; Tsan-Ju Chang; Jen-Fang Liu


    AIM: To evaluate the effects of frying oil and Houttuynia cordata Thunb (H. cordata), a vegetable traditionally consumed in Taiwan, on the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system of rodents.METHODS: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet containing 0%, 2% or 5% H. cordata powder and 15% fresh soybean oil or 24-h oxidized frying oil (OFO)for 28 d respectively. The level of microsomal protein, total cytochrome 450 content (CYP450) and enzyme activities including NADPH reductase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD), aniline hydroxylase (ANH), aminopyrine demethylase (AMD), and quinone reductase (QR) were determined. QR represented phase Ⅱ enzymes, the rest of the enzymes tested represented phase Ⅰ enzymes.RESULTS: The oxidized frying oil feeding produced a significant increase in phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ enzyme systems,including the content of CYP450 and microsomal protein,and the activities of NADPH reductase, EROD, PROD, ANH,AMD and QR in rats (P<0.05). In addition, the activities of EROD, ANH and AMD decreased and QR increased after feeding with H. cordata in OFO-fed group (P<0.05). The feeding with 2% H. cordata diet showed the most significant effect.CONCLUSION: The OFO diet induces phases Ⅰ and Ⅱ enzyme activity, and the 2% H. cordata diet resulted in a better regulation of the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system.

  8. DNA sequence evidence for speciation, paraphyly and a Mesozoic dispersal of cancellothyridid articulate brachiopods

    Luter, C.; Cohen, B L


    Because the classification of extant and fossil articulate brachiopods is based largely upon shell characters observable in fossils, it identifies morphotaxa whose biological status can, in practice, best be inferred from estimates of genetic divergence. Allozyme polymorphism and restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA RFLP) have been used to show that nuclear and mitochondrial genetic divergence between samples of the cancellothyridid brachiopods Terebratulina se...

  9. Larval adaptations and patterns of brachiopod diversity in space and time

    Valentine, J. W.; Jablonski, D.


    Modern biodistributional patterns suggest that modes of larval development are a factor in determining the patterns of diversity in benthic invertebrates. Paleozoic brachiopods had diversity patterns suggesting that they possessed both planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic modes. It is presently hypothesized that the planktotrophic lineages were lost to extinction, largely or entirely during the Permian-Triassic event, and that the failure of the articulate brachiopods to regain their former importance is substantially due to their nonplanktotrophic developmental mode.

  10. New Lower Maastrichtian brachiopods (Gulpen Formation, Vijlen Member) from southern Limburg (The Netherlands)

    E. Simon


    A large suite of Lower Maastrichtian brachiopods, collected by W. M. Felder from strata subsequently assigned to the Vijlen Member (Gulpen Formation; southern Limburg, The Netherlands) and housed in the collections of the Natuurhistorisch Museum Maastricht has been studied. On the basis of these, several new rhynchonellid, terebratulid and terebratelloid generic and specific are erected, and a new family is introduced. These new records considerably augment our knowledge of brachiopod faunas ...

  11. Novi nalazi recentnih ramenonožaca (Brachiopoda) u istočnom dijelu sjevernog Jadrana

    Legac, Mirjana


    Navode se podaci za četiri vrste ramenonožaca nađenih na tri nova nalazišta: u uzorku sedimenta iz morske špilje Medova buža s jednog metra dubine (Novocrania turbinata, Argyrotheca cuneata i Joania cordata), s obraštaja fragmenta amfore u Velom kolu na dubini od 25 m (Argyrotheca cuneata i Megathiris detruncata) otok Rab i u Unijskom kanalu s dubine od 52 m (Joania cordata).

  12. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Amoh, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki


    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  13. Brachiopods hitching a ride: an early case of commensalism in the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale

    Topper, Timothy P.; Holmer, Lars E.; Caron, Jean-Bernard


    Ecological interactions, including symbiotic associations such as mutualism, parasitism and commensalism are crucial factors in generating evolutionary novelties and strategies. Direct examples of species interactions in the fossil record generally involve organisms attached to sessile organisms in an epibiont or macroboring relationship. Here we provide support for an intimate ecological association between a calcareous brachiopod (Nisusia) and the stem group mollusc Wiwaxia from the Burgess Shale. Brachiopod specimens are fixed to Wiwaxia scleritomes, the latter showing no signs of decay and disarticulation, suggesting a live association. We interpret this association as the oldest unambiguous example of a facultative ectosymbiosis between a sessile organism and a mobile benthic animal in the fossil record. The potential evolutionary advantage of this association is discussed, brachiopods benefiting from ease of attachment, increased food supply, avoidance of turbid benthic conditions, biofoul and possible protection from predators, suggesting commensalism (benefiting the symbiont with no impact for the host). While Cambrian brachiopods are relatively common epibionts, in particular on sponges, the association of Nisusia with the motile Wiwaxia is rare for a brachiopod species, fossil or living, and suggests that symbiotic associations were already well established and diversified by the ``middle'' (Series 3, Stage 5) Cambrian.

  14. Population structure, growth and production of a recent brachiopod from the Chilean fjord region

    Baumgarten, Sebastian


    Magellania venosa, the largest recent brachiopod, occurs in clusters and banks in population densities of up to 416 ind m-2 in Comau Fjord, Northern Chilean fjord region. Below 15 m, it co-occurs with the mytilid Aulacomya atra and it dominates the benthic community below 20 m. To determine the question of why M. venosa is a successful competitor, the in situ growth rate of the brachiopod was studied and its overall growth performance compared with that of other brachiopods and mussels. The growth in length was measured between February 2011 and March 2012 after mechanical tagging and calcein staining. Settlement and juvenile growth were determined from recruitment tiles installed in 2009 and from subsequent photocensus. Growth of M. venosa is best described by the general von Bertalanffy growth function, with a maximum shell length (L∞) of 71.53 mm and a Brody growth constant (K) of 0.336 year-1. The overall growth performance (OGP index = 5.1) is the highest recorded for a rynchonelliform brachiopod and in the range of that for Mytilus chilensis (4.8-5.27), but lower than that of A. atra (5.74). The maximal individual production (PInd) is 0.29 g AFDM ind-1 year-1 at 42 mm shell length and annual production ranges from 1.28 to 89.25 g AFDM year-1 m-2 (1-57% of that of A. atra in the respective fjords). The high shell growth rate of M. venosa, together with its high overall growth performance may explain the locally high population density of this brachiopod in Comau Fjord. However, the production per biomass of the population (P/B--ratio) is low (0.535) and M. venosa may play only a minor role in the food chain. Settling dynamics indicates that M. venosa is a pioneer species with low juvenile mortality. The coexistence of the brachiopod and bivalve suggests that brachiopod survival is affected by neither the presence of potential brachiopod predators nor that of space competitors (i.e. mytilids).

  15. Structures, Components and Functions of Secretory Tissues in Houttuynia cordata

    Xi-Lu Ni; Li Peng; Wen-Zhe Liu


    Houttuynia cordata Thunb., traditionally used as a therapeutic plant in folk medicine, has shown antioxidant and anticancer activities.The species, as a core component of paleoherbs, is normally characterized based on the presence of different types of secretory tissue: oil cells, three types of secretory cells and glandular hairs.The aim of this work was to study the structural, componential, and the functional characteristics of the secretory tissues in both the floral and vegetative parts.The results indicate that oll cells and secretory cells are distributed in all organs of the plant, while glandular hairs are situated on the aerial stems and leaves.Both oil cells and glandular hairs initiate from the protoderm, but their developmental processes are different.Although three types of secretory cells initiate from different primary meristems, the developmental pattems of different secretory cells are the same.Also, although the origins of secretory cells are different from oil cells, their early developmental processes are the same.Histochemical results show that oil cells, secretory cells and glandular hairs produce flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, lipids, aldehyde and ketone-compounds.In addition, there are terpenoids and pectic-like substances in oil cells, alkaloids in secretory cells of aerial stems, and terpenoids and alkaloids in glandular hairs.These compounds play very important roles in protecting plants from being eaten by herbivores (herbivory) and infected by microbial pathogens.The oil cell and secretory cell, as unicellular secretory tissues, are intermediates between the primitive surface glandular and secretory cavity and canal during the evolution of secretory structures.

  16. Red tides caused by Exuviaella cordata and Exuviaella marina%卵甲藻Exuviaella cordata 和Exuviaella marina赤潮的初步研究

    周遵春; 闫喜武; 庞军辉; 马志强; 薛克; 雷善敏


    Red tides caused by Exuviaella cordata and biology of Exuviaella marina (the first occurrence in shrimp ponds of Qingdui Fisheries Coorporation of Zhuanghe) were described. The reason why red tide occurred and its harmful effects were evaluated. The conformation characteristic, ecological habits of Exuviaella cordata and Exuviaella marina was briefly described. Three species of raft-cultured shellfishes collected at red tides in Dalian Wan Bay were tested for the shellfish poison.%报道了由心形卵甲藻(Exuviaella cordata)和海洋卵甲藻(Exuviaella marina)引发的赤潮(前者于1991年发生在庄河青堆水产公司虾池中,后者于1999年7月发生在大连湾)。并对赤潮发生的原因、危害进行了分析,对引发赤潮藻类的形态和生活习性进行了描述,对大连湾赤潮区养殖的3种贝类进行了贝毒检测。

  17. Houttuynia cordata targets the beginning stage of herpes simplex virus infection.

    Pei-Yun Hung

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV, a common latent virus in humans, causes certain severe diseases. Extensive use of acyclovir (ACV results in the development of drug-resistant HSV strains, hence, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to treat HSV infection. Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata, a natural herbal medicine, has been reported to exhibit anti-HSV effects which is partly NF-κB-dependent. However, the molecular mechanisms by which H. cordata inhibits HSV infection are not elucidated thoroughly. Here, we report that H. cordata water extracts (HCWEs inhibit the infection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 mainly via blocking viral binding and penetration in the beginning of infection. HCWEs also suppress HSV replication. Furthermore, HCWEs attenuate the first-wave of NF-κB activation, which is essential for viral gene expressions. Further analysis of six compounds in HCWEs revealed that quercetin and isoquercitrin inhibit NF-κB activation and additionally, quercetin also has an inhibitory effect on viral entry. These results indicate that HCWEs can inhibit HSV infection through multiple mechanisms and could be a potential lead for development of new drugs for treating HSV.




    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Phyto chemicals are the secondary metabolites produ ce by the plant for its adaptation, which has medicinal value. The plant Sida cordata is a prostrate herb with medicinal value which is found throughout India .The whole pla nt Sidda cordata is used by the tribal people of Madekeri district to treat various aliment like hepatic disorder, dysentery, cholera etc, it is also one of the component in herbal preparation in Tamilnadu used on cut wounds, to relive pain etc. The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or bioactive component for the treatment of different health probl ems at affordable cost. Secondary metabolites are responsible for medicinal activity o f plant. Hence, the present study deals with the preliminary phytochemical evaluation of leaf & st em of Sida cordata, the study includes the preparation of different extracts leaf &stem by succe ssive solvent extraction method ,fluorescence analysis of successive extracts & the ir powder are noted under visible &UV light, which showed the visibility of varying colors. Furt her Phytochemical analysis of leaf & stem extracts of Sida cordata was carried out which conf irms the presence of primary metabolites like carbohydrates , amino acids, proteins etc and s econdary metabolites like the alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin etc. Present study is designed t o explore the preliminary phyto-profile and phytochemical analysis of leaf & stem of Sida cordat a, which are responsible for its pharmacological properties

  19. Resolving early Mid-Ordovician (Kundan) bioevents in the East Baltic based on brachiopods

    Rasmussen, Christian Mac Ørum; Harper, David Alexander Taylor


    Bed-by-bed sampling of brachiopods from selected Kundan Stage localities in the East Baltic has permitted the construction of a-diversity curves, unprecedented in detail from this particular stage and region. These a-diversity curves can be correlated between the investigated sections, along an...

  20. Brachiopods from the Upper Triassic reef habitats of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Dachstein Limestone, Hochschwab, Austria)

    Siblík, Miloš; Bryda, G.


    Roč. 111, č. 3 (2005), s. 411-435. ISSN 0035-6883 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/03/1123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Brachiopods * Upper Triassic * Dachstein Limestone Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.569, year: 2005

  1. A Middle Devonian atrypid brachiopod fauna from the Cantabrian Mountains, northwestern Spain, and its stratigraphic significance

    Struve, W.; Mohanti, M.


    This paper records for the first time a rich atrypid brachiopod fauna from the Middle Devonian of the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain. A comparison of the Spanish atrypid fauna with that of Germany reveals a close similarity between the two. Even though the species are not identical, yet a comparison an

  2. Reconstructing Cambro-Ordovician Seawater Composition using Clumped Isotope Paleothermometry on Calcitic and Phosphatic Brachiopods

    Bergmann, K.; Robles, M.; Finnegan, S.; Hughes, N. C.; Eiler, J. M.; Fischer, W. W.


    A secular increase in δ18O values of marine fossils through early Phanerozoic time raises questions about the evolution of climate and the water cycle. This pattern suggests two end-member hypotheses 1) surface temperatures during early Paleozoic time were very warm, in excess of 40°C (tropical MAT), or 2) the isotopic composition of seawater increased by up to 7-8‰. It has been difficult to evaluate these hypotheses because the δ18O composition of fossils depends on both temperature and the δ18O of water. Furthermore, primary isotopic signatures can be overprinted by diagenetic processes that modify geological materials. This too could explain the decrease in δ18O values of marine fossils with age. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry can constrain this problem by providing an independent measure of crystallization temperature and, when paired with classical δ18O paleothermometry, can determine the isotopic composition of the fluid the mineral last equilibrated with. Combined with traditional tools, this method has the potential to untangle primary isotopic signatures from diagenetic signals. We measured the isotopic ordering of CO3 groups (Δ47) substituted into the phosphate lattice of phosphatic brachiopods in Cambrian strata. Phosphatic fossils are generally less soluble than carbonates in surface and diagenetic environments, and so are hypothesized to provide a more robust record of primary growth conditions. They also provide an archive prior to the rise of thick shelled calcitic fossils during the Ordovician Radiation. Additionally, measurements of the δ18O of the CO3 groups can be compared with the δ18O of PO4 groups to test whether their mutual fractionation is consistent with primary growth and the apparent temperature recorded by carbonate clumped isotope measurements. We are constructing a phosphatic brachiopod calibration for carbonate clumped isotope thermometry, and Δ47 values of CO2 extracted from modern phosphatic brachiopods suggest

  3. Protective effects from Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract against acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Yang, Chieh-ling; Yin, Mei-chin


    Background Protective effects of Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract (HCAE) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb/cA mice were examined. Methods HCAE, at 1 or 2 g/L, was added into the drinking water for 4 weeks. Acute liver injury was induced by acetaminophen treatment intraperitoneally (350 mg/kg body weight). Results Acetaminophen treatment significantly depleted hepatic glutathione (GSH) content, increased hepatic malonyldialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ox...

  4. A new method for classification of Brachiopods based on the radon transformation

    Youssef Ait khouya


    Full Text Available Brachiopods have a lateral outline which is quite important in systematic studies. It is often assessed by a qualitative evaluation and linear measurements, which are not clear enough and precise for describing the shape of the shell and its changes In this paper we propose a new method for classification of fossils based on the radon transform from their greyscale image. We take the case of brachiopods which has Complex shapes. We use an adaptation of Radon transform called R-transform which is invariant to common geometrical transformations. Each shape is described by R3D transform. We consider the grayscale image as a set of cuts obtained from successive binarization for each gray level in image, and for each segmentation we compute the R-transform then we obtained the R3D transform. The advantages of the proposed method are robustness to noise, and invariant to common geometrical transformations scale, translation and rotation.

  5. Endophytic fungus strain 28 isolated from Houttuynia cordata possesses wide-spectrum antifungal activity.

    Pan, Feng; Liu, Zheng-Qiong; Chen, Que; Xu, Ying-Wen; Hou, Kai; Wu, Wei


    The aim of this paper is to identify and investigate an endophytic fungus (strain 28) that was isolated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb, a famous and widely-used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Based on morphological methods and a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences, this strain was identified as Chaetomium globosum. An antifungal activity bioassay demonstrated that the crude ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of strain 28 had a wide antifungal spectrum and strong antimicrobial activity, particularly against Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard et Suggs, Botrytis cinerea persoon and Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. Furthermore, the fermentation conditions, extraction method and the heat stability of antifungal substances from strain 28 were also studied. The results showed that optimal antifungal activity can be obtained with the following parameters: using potato dextrose broth (PDB) as the base culture medium, fermentation for 4-8d (initial pH: 7.5), followed by extraction with EtOAc. The extract was stable at temperatures up to 80°C. This is the first report on the isolation of endophytic C. globosum from H. cordata to identify potential alternative biocontrol agents that could provide new opportunities for practical applications involving H. cordata. PMID:26991297

  6. The paleoecology, habitats, and stratigraphic range of the enigmatic cretaceous brachiopod peregrinella.

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available Modern and Cenozoic deep-sea hydrothermal-vent and methane-seep communities are dominated by large tubeworms, bivalves and gastropods. In contrast, many Early Cretaceous seep communities were dominated by the largest Mesozoic rhynchonellid brachiopod, the dimerelloid Peregrinella, the paleoecologic and evolutionary traits of which are still poorly understood. We investigated the nature of Peregrinella based on 11 occurrences world wide and a literature survey. All in situ occurrences of Peregrinella were confirmed as methane-seep deposits, supporting the view that Peregrinella lived exclusively at methane seeps. Strontium isotope stratigraphy indicates that Peregrinella originated in the late Berriasian and disappeared after the early Hauterivian, giving it a geologic range of ca. 9.0 (+1.45/-0.85 million years. This range is similar to that of rhynchonellid brachiopod genera in general, and in this respect Peregrinella differs from seep-inhabiting mollusks, which have, on average, longer geologic ranges than marine mollusks in general. Furthermore, we found that (1 Peregrinella grew to larger sizes at passive continental margins than at active margins; (2 it grew to larger sizes at sites with diffusive seepage than at sites with advective fluid flow; (3 despite its commonly huge numerical abundance, its presence had no discernible impact on the diversity of other taxa at seep sites, including infaunal chemosymbiotic bivalves; and (4 neither its appearance nor its extinction coincides with those of other seep-restricted taxa or with global extinction events during the late Mesozoic. A preference of Peregrinella for diffusive seepage is inferred from the larger average sizes of Peregrinella at sites with more microcrystalline carbonate (micrite and less seep cements. Because other seep-inhabiting brachiopods occur at sites where such cements are very abundant, we speculate that the various vent- and seep-inhabiting dimerelloid brachiopods since

  7. Brachiopods, fusulines and palynomorphs of the Mengkarang Formation (Early Permian, Sumatra) and their palaeobiogeographical significance

    Crippa, G.; Angiolini, L.; Van Waveren, I.; Crow, M. J.; Hasibuan, F.; Stephenson, M. H.; Ueno, K.


    Brachiopods, fusulines and palynomorphs from the Lower Permian Mengkarang Formation (Sumatra, Indonesia) have been studied in order to establish the palaeogeographical position and the palaeolatitude of the West Sumatra Block. The position of the West Sumatra Block within the Palaeo-Tethys and Panthalassa oceans and its relationships to their marginal landmasses, in particular the Gondwana supercontinent and the Cathaysian palaeogeographical area, currently is uncertain.

  8. Species-abundance models for brachiopods across the Ordovician–Silurian boundary of South China

    Bing Huang; Renbin Zhan


    Species-abundance models have been an important method for investigating community structure in modern biology in the past decades. Different species-abundance models can reflect different ecological meanings. The method is relatively new to palaeoecology. We take the latest Ordovician–earliest Silurian Cathaysiorthis brachiopod fauna of South China as an example, program the calculation in the R language, introduce the application of the species-abundance models and discuss the relationship ...

  9. Brachiopods hitching a ride: an early case of commensalism in the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale

    Topper, Timothy P.; Holmer, Lars E.; Jean-Bernard Caron


    Ecological interactions, including symbiotic associations such as mutualism, parasitism and commensalism are crucial factors in generating evolutionary novelties and strategies. Direct examples of species interactions in the fossil record generally involve organisms attached to sessile organisms in an epibiont or macroboring relationship. Here we provide support for an intimate ecological association between a calcareous brachiopod (Nisusia) and the stem group mollusc Wiwaxia from the Burgess...

  10. Brachiopods from the uppermost Lower Ordovician of Peru and their palaeogeographical significance

    Gutiérrez-Marco, J. C.; Villas, E.


    The studied brachiopod assemblages from the uppermost Lower Ordovician beds of Peru are of very low diversity and are among the northernmost known strata of that age in South America. They have been collected at the Carcel Puncco canyon of the Inambari River, near San Gabán in the easternmost Eastern Cordillera. Of the six species described, Euorthisina orthiformis and Paralenorthis immitatrix were already known from the Bolivian outcrops of the same Andean Eastern Cordillera; two species are...

  11. Exceptionally preserved brachiopods from the Chengjiang Lagerstatte (Yunnan, China) : Perspectives on the Cambriane explosion of metazoans

    Zhang, Zhifei; Holmer, L. E.


    The Cambrian explosion was coined to describe the geologically sudden appearance of numerous bilaterian body plans (Phyla) around the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition, around 565-520 million years ago. Many explanations and conjectures have been postulated in order to explain the pattern and duration of this explosive radiation of many different phyla of early metazoans. Here, we focus on the evolution of a phylum of marine suspension-feeding animals – the brachiopods, as exemplified by the exce...

  12. Mass Occurrences of the Brachiopod Halorella in Late Triassic Methane-Seep Deposits, Eastern Oregon

    Peckmann, J.; Kiel, S.; Sandy, M. R.; Taylor, D G; Goedert, J. L.


    The temporally and geographically scattered Phanerozoic record of methane-seep deposits hampers reconstruction of the evolution of life in chemosynthesis-based ecosystems. Unlike modern, Cenozoic, and late Mesozoic seeps, many of the known older seep deposits are typified by assemblages with profuse rhynchonellide brachiopods. Late Triassic (Norian) limestone bodies in eastern Oregon are enclosed in deep-water strata, extend laterally for up to a few hundred meters, and contain th...

  13. Reproductive ecology of Scalesia cordata (Asteraceae), an endangered species from the Galápagos Islands

    Philipp, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard


    The genus Scalesia is endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Scalesia cordata is a tree occurring only in the southern part of Isabela as small, remnant populations of larger forests. We studied the reproductive ecology of a population protected in an enclosure in order to reveal the extent to which the...... of the genus. The small population size, with its potential derived consequences, is most certainly a prominent threat to S. cordata. The pressure from introduced plant species found in the enclosure also contributes to the seemingly poor condition of the population. To recover S. cordata, we suggest...... enlarging the enclosure, removing the introduced plant species and continuing to cultivate plants as a genetic reserve. Introducing new genetic material is likely to increase the seed set of the population...

  14. Lingulate brachiopods from the Acanthopyge Limestone (Eifelian of the Barrandian, Czech Republic

    Mergl M


    Full Text Available The lingulate brachiopod fauna of the mid-Devonian Acanthopyge Limestone, Choteč Formation of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic comprises seven species, of which Kosagitella pulsatilla sp. nov., Microbolus minimus gen. et sp. nov., Chynithele amoena sp. nov., and Opatrilkiella kobyla sp. nov. are described as new. Shell microornaments of all taxa are examined. The pitting on the mature shell of Kosagitella, and diverse types of pitting on discinid shells have been observed, including the imprints of suggested siliceous tablets on the first-formed shells of Acrosaccus and Opatrilkiella.

  15. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland: equatorial offshore migration of the Red River fauna

    Rasmussen, Christian M. Ø.


    thus extended to the easternmost extremity of the Laurentian craton. The assemblage compares specifically with the Hiscobeccus brachiopod fauna, based on key taxa such as notably Hiscobeccus gigas (Wang, 1949), and indicates a late Katian age for this part of the succession. For the first time, this......, 1842) to younger strata exclusively yielding specimens of H.gigas. As H.gigas occurs in the upper part of the Cape Calhoun Formation in Washington Land, it indicates that the upper boundary of the Cape Calhoun Formation is considerably younger than previous estimates, reaching into the uppermost Katian...




    Full Text Available Aim of this note is to describe additional findings of Lopingian brachiopods along the Main Valley section and at Localities 1, 3, and 4 of the Ali Bashi Mountains, N Iran. Here we provide:1 taxonomic descriptions of two newly recorded taxa, one of which is a new species, Meekella julfensis n. sp.;2 more information on the stratigraphic range of brachiopods from the Ali Bashi Mountains, which show a greater abundance and diversity in the upper part of the Julfa Formation, in the Ali Bashi Formation, and in the Boundary Clay. The newly collected faunas are characterized by miniaturization which is considered to be a response to deep water conditions in well oxygenated, but trophic resource-limited settings, and not a Lilliput-effect related to the end-Permian crisis;3 a discussion on the phylogenetic relationships between Araxathyris and Transcaucasathyris , proposing that the former may have evolved from the latter by the convergence of the dental plates to form a spondylium, that was probably a structure that functioned to optimize the muscle length in response to greater shell volumes.

  17. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda


    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrotron light beams are sharply focused like a laser beam. We report encouraging results from the use of SRXTM for purely taxonomic purposes in brachiopods: an attempt to find a non-destructive and more efficient alternative to serial sectioning and several other methods of dissection together with the non-destructive method of X-ray computerised micro-tomography. Two brachiopod samples were investigated using SRXTM. In “Rhynchonella” flustracea it was possible to visualise the 3D shape of the crura and dental plates. In Terebratulina imbricata it was possible to reveal the form of the brachidium. It is encouraging that we have obtained such promising results using SRXTM with our very first two fortuitous samples, which had respectively fine-grained limestone and marl as infilling sediment, in contrast to the discouraging results communicated to us by some colleagues who have tested specimens with such infillings using X-ray micro-tomography. In future the holotypes, rare museum specimens or delicate Recent material may be preferentially subjected to this mode of analysis.




    Full Text Available The Julfa Formation in the Ali Bashi Mountains, northwest Iran, is very rich in brachiopods, particularly in its lower part, which has been dated by fusulinids and conodonts as Wuchiapingian in age. The brachiopod fauna described herein has been collected along the Main Valley section of the Ali Bashi Mountains, several hundred metres away from the historical sections described in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It comprises 39 species of the orders Productida, Orthotetida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida, and Terebratulida, most of which are known in the coeval successions of Transcaucasia, Alborz Mountains in north Iran and in South China, confirming the Wuchiapingian age indicated by other proxies. A few of the brachiopod taxa range up into the Changhsingian Paratirolites Limestone. The shale and marly limestone at the base of the formation are dominated by semi-infaunal productids, that are progressively succeeded near the top of the lower part of the formation by a more diverse range of pedicle attached and cemented taxa, suggesting a shallowing upward trend and a shift to higher nutrient-substrates in more turbulent waters. The successive deepening trend recorded in the upper part of the Julfa Formation and in the overlying Ali Bashi Formation is very unfavourable for the brachiopods and only a few species survive, represented by small sized pediculate taxa that thrive on hardgrounds.

  19. Mollusc and brachiopod skeletal hardparts: Problematic archives of past seawater properties (Invited)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.


    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons may act as support or serves as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hardparts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrix, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth-increments and their respective multi-proxy geochemical signatures that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. We here compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hardparts secreted by molluscs (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hardparts. Despite the fact that molluscs and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil shell hardparts precipitated, under favourable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration, in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or endocytosis and vesicle transport, precursor mineralogies etc.) is surprisingly

  20. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic and antioxidative compounds from lizard tail (Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    Trakul Prommajak


    Full Text Available Lizard tail (Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is an Asian herb which has many biological activities, including antioxidative property from polyphenolic compounds. Response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design were employed to study the effect of extraction temperature (30 to 70°C, extraction time (10 to 30 min, ethanol concentration (30 to 70%, and solvent to sample ratio (2 to 6 ml/g on ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from lizard tail and antioxidant capacity of the herb extract. Extraction temperature was the most relevant factor on the responses. Optimal condition was the extraction temperature of 70°C for 30 min, using 60% ethanol concentration at the solvent to sample ratio of 5 ml/g. Model adequacies were confirmed by extraction at the optimal condition and normality of standardized residuals.

  1. Genetic processes and environmental significance of Lower Devonian brachiopod shell concentrations in Longmenshan area, Sichuan, China

    Li, Fengjie; Qu, Xuelin; Du, Lingchun; Dai, Tingyong; Yang, Yuchuan; Li, Junwu; Yang, Chengjin


    The distinctive features of the Lower Devonian rocks of the Longmenshan area in southwestern China are brachiopod shell concentrations, especially in the Bailiuping, Ganxi and Xiejiawan Formations, where brachiopod shell concentrations occur widely throughout. Depending on the dominant skeletal elements, six types of shell concentrations can be distinguished: Protochonete, Acrospirifer, Howellella, Orientospirifer, polyspecific shell and polyspecific fragments concentrations. According to the shell features, taphonomic signature, host sediments and their relationships, four genetic models of the various shell concentrations are described in this paper. The genetic processes and distributions along an onshore-offshore area were clarified on the base of taphonomic analysis. Pavements of opportunistic species of Protochonetes are autochthonous assemblages living in quieter, deeper, more offshore waters near the maximum storm wave base. The pavements are the result of reduced sedimentation; the substrate was silty and water-saturated with variable turbidity soupy-mud. Transport by high-energy processes is interpreted as the final formation process of polyspecific fragments concentrations with most extensive scope from intertidal zone to the maximum storm wave base. The Acrospirifer, Howellella, and Orientospirifer concentrations have been stirred by storm wave action and quickly buried after short transport tempestite model. They are most easily preserved around the average storm wave-base. The polyspecific shell concentrations, which include large bivalves are autochthonous assemblages living in shallow and relatively quieter water near shore environments. Autochthonous assemblages of the opportunist Protochonetes bailiupingensis occurring in the Bailiuping Formation of the Longmenshan area not only record of storm events, but are also important features to identify and correlate the Bailiuping Formation in the field.

  2. Allergen component of Houttuynia cordata injection%鱼腥草注射液中过敏原成分

    安丹; 陈聪; 廖雪; 王捷; 吴英良; 王智琴


    目的 探索鱼腥草注射液中的过敏原成分及其致敏机理.方法 分别用鱼腥草注射液、鱼腥草蒸馏液、吐温80、阴性对照物和阳性对照物对豚鼠和Brown Norway(BN)大鼠进行全身主动过敏试验,并用吐温80首次静脉注射豚鼠和BN大鼠进行类过敏试验.观察其行为学反应并检测动物血清中组胺、IL-4,IgE,IgG和IgM的水平.结果 阳性对照组、鱼腥草注射液组、吐温80组和鱼腥草蒸馏液组动物都观察到不同程度的行为学过敏反应,且动物血清中的组胺、IgE和IL-4水平,以及阳性对照组和吐温80组的BN大鼠血清中IgM水平与阴性对照组相比显著性升高IgG,IgM及鱼腥草蒸馏液组BN大鼠血清中组胺和IL-4水平无显著变化.吐温80类过敏试验组,动物的行为学及血清中各生化指标均未见显著变化.结论 吐温80为鱼腥草注射液中的主要过敏原,可以引起豚鼠和BN大鼠发生I型全身主动过敏反应,而不引起豚鼠和BN大鼠发生类过敏反应.鱼腥草蒸馏液中含有其他引起过敏反应的过敏原.%Objective To explore the allergen ingredients of Houttuynia cordata injection and the sensitization mechanism.Methods Active systemic anaphylaxis test was carried out on Guinea pigs and the BN rats with Houttuynia cordata injection ,Houttuynia cordata distillate, polysorbate 80, negative control and positive control, and anaphylactoid reactions were carried out by intravenous polysorbate 80 to guinea pigs and BN rats for the first time.The anaphylaxis situations of guinea pigs and BN rats were observed, and the concentrationns of histamine, IgE, IgM, IgG and IL-4 in serum were measured with ELISA.Results Positive control group,Houttuynia cordata injection group ,polysorbate 80 group and Houttuynia cordata distillate group animals had been observed to have various degrees of behavioral hypersensitivity reactions, histamine, meanwhile IgE and IL-4 levels in these groups'serum,and IgM in BN

  3. Development and antioxidant capacity of sapota pulp Jelly (Quararibea cordata Vischer Desenvolvimento e capacidade antioxidante de geleia da polpa de sapota (Quararibea cordata Vischer

    Vania Silva Carvalho


    Full Text Available Sapote (Quararibea cordata Vischer, also known as a chupa-chupa, is originated from the Brazilian, Peruvian and Colombian Amazon. The pulp of the ripe fruit is edible, fibrous, of intense orange color, sweet flavor and aromatic. Since the fruit is known in the Amazon only in its domesticated state, this work becomes necessary. With the aim of meeting the demand for new products in domestic and international markets, sapota pulp jelly has been developed. The jelly was assessed for moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, pectin, pH, total acidity, solids soluble, sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The final product met the standards required by Brazilian law, and 32.68% moisture and 61.06% °Brix. Also, in accordance with the laws attributed to this product, jelly sapota pulp can be considered a food rich in fiber, as presented content above 5%. The jelly, showed content of total phenolics compounds (102 mg GAE. 100 -1 in relation to fresh fruit (21 mg GAE.100 g-1. There was the identification in the antioxidant capacity (9.05% scavering of DPPH radical, giving the final product antioxidant properties. Also were analyzed the microbiological characteristics of the product which was not observed the presence of thermotolerants coliforms, yeast and molds. The sapota can be considered effective raw materials in the preparation of jam and this had an antioxidant activity and source of fiber.A sapota (Quararibea cordata Vischer, também conhecida como chupa-chupa, é originária da Amazônia Brasileira, Peruana e Colombiana A polpa do fruto maduro é comestível, fibrosa, de cor alaranjada intensa, sabor doce e aromática. Por ser conhecida na Amazônia somente no seu estado domesticado, torna-se necessário este trabalho Assim, visando a atender a demanda por novos produtos no mercado nacional e internacional, foi desenvolvida a geleia da polpa de sapota. A geleia foi avaliada quanto

  4. Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of Macleaya cordata: a newly potential plant for sustainable phytoremediation in Cd-contaminated soil.

    Nie, Jian; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Zheng, Bohong; Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Huan; Xie, Jieli; Gan, Chao; Liu, Wei


    Heavy metal pollution is a major concern of the public due to their threats to the safety of food chains. A 60-day pot experiment was conducted using Macleaya cordata as plant material to investigate the phytoremediation potential and anti-oxidative responses of M. cordata under different Cd stress. Significant growth inhibition phenomenon and toxic symptoms were not detected in the experiment. The high biomass of the plant provided high accumulation capacity for Cd with an average dry weight of 3.6 g. The maximum extraction amount of Cd was 393 μg·plant(-1), suggesting that this species had potential for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. A slight increase of chlorophyll (CHL) content was observed in Cd10 treatment. The plant was confirmed to have relatively high tolerance to the Cd stress on the basis of tolerance indexes (TI), relative water content, and CHLa/CHLb ratio. M. cordata could maintain high level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity under Cd stress, indicating strong tolerance capacity for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells. Catalase (CAT) activity show a certain range of decline in the experiment compare to the control. And peroxidase (POD) activity in leaves changed irregularly when compared to the control. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased as Cd concentration elevated compared to the control. In addition, as an inedible crop with relatively high economic value, M. cordata have shown the advantage of high biomass and high tolerance under Cd stress, which can provide a new plant resource for sustainable phytoremediation. PMID:26875820

  5. Chemical Constituents of Malaysian U. cordata var. ferruginea and Their in Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    Nur Hakimah Abdullah; Fatimah Salim; Rohaya Ahmad


    Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were ...

  6. Characterization of Root-Associated Methanotrophs from Three Freshwater Macrophytes: Pontederia cordata, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia†

    Calhoun, A.; King, G. M.


    Root-associated methanotrophic bacteria were enriched from three common aquatic macrophytes: Pontederia cordata, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia. At least seven distinct taxa belonging to groups I and II were identified and presumptively assigned to the genera Methylosinus, Methylocystis, Methylomonas, and Methylococcus. Four of these strains appeared to be novel on the basis of partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. The root-methanotroph association did not appear to be...

  7. In vitro assessment of Macleaya cordata crude extract bioactivity and anticancer properties in normal and cancerous human lung cells.

    Liu, Min; Lin, Yu-ling; Chen, Xuan-Ren; Liao, Chi-Cheng; Poo, Wak-Kim


    The purpose of this study is to assess the bioactivity and anticancer properties of Macleaya cordata crude extract in vitro using normal fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 and adenocarcinomic epithelial cell A549 as model systems,. Treatment of extract induced cell detachment, rounding, and irregularity in shape, in both normal and adenocarcinomic human lung cells, in accompanied of significant reduction in cell proliferation. The data indicated that necrosis appeared to be involved in compromising cell growth in both types of lung cells since membrane permeability and cell granularity were elevated. Although apoptosis was evident, the responses were differential in normal and diseased lung cells. Viability of treated MRC5 cells was reduced in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating that the normal lung cells are sensitive to the extract. Surprisingly, A549 viability was slightly elevated in response to extract exposure at low concentration, implying that cells survived were metabolically active; the viability was reduced accordingly to treatment at higher concentrations. The present findings demonstrate that the crude extract of M. cordata contains agents affecting the functioning of normal and diseased lung cells in vitro. The observed cytotoxic effects against adenocarcinomic lung cells validate the potential of using M. cordata as herbal intervention in combined with conventional chemotherapy for lung cancer treatment. PMID:23238228

  8. The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina in the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina and the dispersal pathways along western Gondwana

    Diego F. Muñoz


    Full Text Available The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina is reported for the first time from the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina. It is represented by a species similar to A. ferrigena from the Tremadocian of the Prague Basin, increasing the faunal affinities between the Central Andean Basin and the South European microcontinents, in particular the Bohemian region (Perunica. Nine out of the fourteen brachiopod genera reported from the Tremadocian of the Central Andean Basin (~64% are shared with the Mediterranean region, four of which (~28% have been recorded in the Prague Basin, and two (Kvania and Apheoorthina are restricted to the Central Andes and Perunica. Dispersal pathways around Gondwana are analyzed in the light of major factors affecting large-scale distribution of brachiopods (environment, larval capacity for dispersal, oceanic currents. The presence in Apheoorthina aff. ferrigena of a well-preserved larval protegulum measuring 420 μm in width and 210 μm in length strongly suggests that this species had planktotrophic larvae capable of long-distance dispersal. According to recent ocean-atmosphere general circulation models for the Ordovician Period, the Central Andean margin was dominated by the cold-water Antarctica Current. Despite the complex non-zonal pattern produced by current deflections around the peri-Gondwanan microcontinents, the general westward circulation sense favoured larval dispersal from the Andean region to North Africa, Avalonia, the Armorican Terrane Assemblage, and Perunica. On the other hand, the eastwards flowing Gondwana Current connected the North Gondwana waters with the South American epicontinental seas, which could explain the reversed migration of some brachiopods.

  9. Iowatrypa rotundicollis n. sp., brachiopode atrypidé de la fin du Frasnien

    Godefroid, J


    The specimens belonging to the new species Iowatrypa rotundicollis have been collected in the limestone lentils (bioherms) developed during the late Frasnian on the southern border of the Dinant Synclinorium and in the Roly "massif".The species is one of the latest atrypid brachiopods of which the history ends near the close of Frasnian times. It is an uncommon example of inverse vaulting (ventribiconvex shell) in atrypid shells. The genus Iowatrypa, distributed over several localities of the...

  10. Expression of segment polarity genes in brachiopods supports a non-segmental ancestral role of engrailed for bilaterians.

    Vellutini, Bruno C; Hejnol, Andreas


    The diverse and complex developmental mechanisms of segmentation have been more thoroughly studied in arthropods, vertebrates and annelids-distantly related animals considered to be segmented. Far less is known about the role of "segmentation genes" in organisms that lack a segmented body. Here we investigate the expression of the arthropod segment polarity genes engrailed, wnt1 and hedgehog in the development of brachiopods-marine invertebrates without a subdivided trunk but closely related to the segmented annelids. We found that a stripe of engrailed expression demarcates the ectodermal boundary that delimits the anterior region of Terebratalia transversa and Novocrania anomala embryos. In T. transversa, this engrailed domain is abutted by a stripe of wnt1 expression in a pattern similar to the parasegment boundaries of insects-except for the expression of hedgehog, which is restricted to endodermal tissues of the brachiopod embryos. We found that pax6 and pax2/5/8, putative regulators of engrailed, also demarcate the anterior boundary in the two species, indicating these genes might be involved in the anterior patterning of brachiopod larvae. In a comparative phylogenetic context, these findings suggest that bilaterians might share an ancestral, non-segmental domain of engrailed expression during early embryogenesis. PMID:27561213

  11. Middle and Late Devonian brachiopod assemblages,sea level change and paleogeography of Hunan,China


    Givetian through middle Famennian brachiopods of Hunan are used to define five biozones,comprising,in ascending order,the Stringocephalus Abundance Zone,the Ambocoeliid-Leiorhynchid Assemblage Zone,the Cyrtospiriferid Assemblage Zone,the Yunnanellina-Sinospirifer Assemblage Zone,and the Yunnanella-Hunanospirifer Assemblage Zone.They correspond approximately to the Po.hemiansatus Zone to Po.varcus Zone,S.hermanni Zone to Pa.punctata Zone,Pa.hassi Zone to Pa.linguiformis Zone,Pa.triangularis Zone to Upper Pa.crepida Zone,and Uppermost Pa.crepida Zone to Pa.marginifera Zone,respectively.Intensified rifting activity in South China during the Devonian began in the middle of the Lower Po.varcus Zone(a level marked by the first appearance of Po.rhenanus),which is consistent with the Lower-Middle Givetian substage boundary suggested by the International Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy(SDS).This assumed that rifting activity in the Lower Po.varcus Zone was signified by the deposition of the Baqi Formation in Guangxi and was marked largely by the extensive deposition of the Qiziqiao Formation in central Hunan,which probably led to an opposite pattern of relative sea level change-rising in deeper water trough areas and lowering in carbonate platform areas.The previously recognized S.hermanni Zone sea level rise in platform margin areas of Guangxi can be identified not only in the trough areas but also in platform areas,which probably indicates an overall marine transgression at this time,rather than tectonically induced sea level change.Similarly,this level coincides with the Middle-Upper Givetian substage boundary suggested by the SDS.Although the sea level rise may have occurred in the deeper water trough areas of South China towards the end of the Givetian,platformal areas experienced uplifting at various degrees,especially in the central and northern regions of Hunan where Early Frasnian deposits were apparently absent in many places.Similarly,the end

  12. Biogeographic and bathymetric determinants of brachiopod extinction and survival during the Late Ordovician mass extinction.

    Finnegan, Seth; Rasmussen, Christian M Ø; Harper, David A T


    The Late Ordovician mass extinction (LOME) coincided with dramatic climate changes, but there are numerous ways in which these changes could have driven marine extinctions. We use a palaeobiogeographic database of rhynchonelliform brachiopods to examine the selectivity of Late Ordovician-Early Silurian genus extinctions and evaluate which extinction drivers are best supported by the data. The first (latest Katian) pulse of the LOME preferentially affected genera restricted to deeper waters or to relatively narrow (less than 35°) palaeolatitudinal ranges. This pattern is only observed in the latest Katian, suggesting that it reflects drivers unique to this interval. Extinction of exclusively deeper-water genera implies that changes in water mass properties such as dissolved oxygen content played an important role. Extinction of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges suggests that interactions between shifting climate zones and palaeobiogeography may also have been important. We test the latter hypothesis by estimating whether each genus would have been able to track habitats within its thermal tolerance range during the greenhouse-icehouse climate transition. Models including these estimates are favoured over alternative models. We argue that the LOME, long regarded as non-selective, is highly selective along biogeographic and bathymetric axes that are not closely correlated with taxonomic identity. PMID:27122567

  13. Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract induces cytotoxicity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells: Raman spectroscopic studies

    Chen, Weiwei; Li, Zuanfang; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Huang, Hao; Shi, Hong


    The molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity induced by Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells was investigated by Raman spectroscopy (RS). The average Raman spectra of cell groups treated with HCT (0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 μg ml-1) for 24 h were measured separately. Compared to the control group, the intensities of the selected bands (1002, 1338, and 1448 cm-1) related to protein, DNA, and lipid in the treatment groups decreased obviously as the concentration of HCT increased. Both cell groups treated with 250 and 500 μg ml-1 of HCT could be differentiated from the control group by principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminate analysis (LDA) with a diagnostic accuracy of 100%, suggesting that cytotoxicity occurred and that 250 μg ml-1 was the proper dose for treatment. Simultaneously, the Raman spectra of cells treated with different treatment times with 250 μg ml-1 of HCT were obtained. We can get that treatment with HCT decreased cell viability in a dose and time-dependent fashion. The results indicated that the RS combined with PCA-LDA can be used for pharmacokinetics studies of HCT in NPC cells, which could also provide useful data for clinical dosage optimization for HCT.

  14. Italian alder (Alnus cordata/Loisel./Desf. - new species for Allochtonous dendroflora of Serbia

    Bobinac Martin


    Full Text Available The foreign tree species, Alnus cordata/Loisel./Desf. (Italian alder, (Betulaceae/Loisel./Duby, not previously recorded in the dendroflora of Serbia, is described in this paper. Italian alder trees in an experimental plot in the area of Erdevik, aged 11 years, show good vitality and fast growth, and bear fruits since their 10th year. Tree heights are in range from 10.4 to 16.2 m, and diameters at the breast height range from14.6 to 34.9 cm. The morphological properties of leaves, fruiting organs (“cones” and male catkins are in concordance with the values in literature sources, although they show great variability. Since the time of plantation establishment, the absolute minimum air temperature in the nearby meteorological station of Sremska Mitrovica was -26.50C, so it can be assumed that the species is frost hardy. On the basis of the researched properties of Italian alder, it can be concluded that this species can be cultivated in Serbia as an ornamental in urban areas and as a fast growing species in forest plantations for biomass production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  15. Anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract from Houttuynia cordata poultice.

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Amoh, Takashi; Ogino, Satoshi; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki


    Houttuynia cordata (HC) has been commonly used as many traditional remedies in local areas of Japan. Although many pharmacological activities of HC have been reported, the mechanism underlying the effect of HC remains unknown. We conducted the interview survey in Japan to verify how HC was actually used. The interview survey revealed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC was most frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases including furuncle and carbuncle with high effectiveness. Ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) showed anti-bacterial effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and showed an anti-biofilm activity against MRSA. eHCP showed dose-dependent inhibition of S. aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced interleukin-8 and CCL20 production in human keratinocyte without any cytotoxicity. These results suggest that HCP is effective for skin abscess and its underlying mechanism might be the complicated multiple activities for both bacteria and host cells. PMID:27023331

  16. Do the Available Data Permit Clarifcation of the Possible Dependence of Palaeozoic Brachiopod Generic Diversity Dynamics on Global Sea-Level Changes? A Viewpoint

    Ruban Dmitry A.


    Full Text Available At a glance, progress in palaeontology and eustatic reconstructions in the past decade permits to prove or to disprove the possible dependence of Palaeozoic brachiopod generic diversity dynamics on global sea-level changes. However, the available diversity curve is of much lower resolution than the eustatic curve. This problem can be resolved by decreasing the resolution of the latter. The other restriction linked to the chronostratigraphical incompatibility of the available data allows to focus on the Middle Palaeozoic only. A series of mass extinctions and other biotic crises in the Silurian-Devonian does not allow to interpret correctly the results of direct comparison of the brachiopod generic diversity dynamics with global sea-level changes. With the available data, it is only possible to hypothesize that the eustatic control was not playing a major part in diversity dynamics of Middle Palaeozoic brachiopods. The resolution of the stratigraphic ranges of Palaeozoic brachiopods should be increased signifcantly, and these ranges should be plotted against the most up-to-date geologic time scale. Until this task will be achieved, it is impossible to judge about the existence of any dependence (either full or partial of the Palaeozoic brachiopod diversity dynamics on global sea-level changes.

  17. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

    Se Yeon Oh


    Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW) has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H. cordata Thunb with unpleasant and fishy odors shows a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and insect repellent. The aim of this study is to show a novel quality control by GC/SAW methodology for the discrimination of the three different par...

  18. Nitrogen metabolism of woody plants under various ecological conditions. [Robinia pseudoacacia; Aesculus hippocastanum; Tilia cordata; Quercus robur

    Tarabrin, V.P.; Ignatenko, A.A.; Shatskaya, R.M.


    The leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia. Aesculus hippocastanum, Tilia cordata, and Quercus robur were examined for content of total protein, amine, and nitrate N, and of 13 amino acids. The plants were grown under both urban and forest conditions and then their leaves were compared. The soil and air pollutants of the urban area caused a reduction in the level of arginine, valine, and methionine found in the leaves and an increase in the level of glutamic acid found in the leaves. 16 references, 4 tables.

  19. Global climatic changes during the Devonian-Mississippian: Stable isotope biogeochemistry of brachiopods

    Brand, Uwe


    A progressive trend towards heavier δ 13C values of Devonian-Mississippian brachiopods from North America, Europe, Afghanistan and Algeria probably reflects expansion of the terrestrestrial and/or marine biomass and/or burial of carbon in soils/sediments. Oceanic Productivity crises, based on perturbations in the overall δ 13C trend, are recognized for the Mid Givetian, Early Famennian, Late Kinderhookian, Late Osagean and Early and Late Meramecian. The Givetian productivity crisis was probably accompanied by massive overturn of biologically toxic deep-ocean water. Temperature data, adjusted for the possible secular variation of seawater, support the hypothesis of global greenhouse conditions for the Devonian (mean of 30°C, mean of 26°C if extrinsic data are deleted) and icehouse conditions for the Mississippian (mean of 17°C). During the Mid Givetian, Frasnian and Early Famennian calculated water temperatures for tropical epeiric seas were generally above the thermal threshold limit (˜ 38°C) of most marine invertebrates or epeiric seawater was characterized by unusually low salinities (˜ pp ppt) or a combination of the two. These elevated water temperatures and/or low salinities, in conjunction with the postulated productivity crises and overturning of toxic deep waters are considered prime causes for the biotic crisis of the Late Devonian. In addition, a presumed expanding oxygen-minimum zone and general anoxia in the oceans prevented shallow-water organisms from escaping these inhospitable conditions. Re-population of the tropical seas occurred, after either water temperatures had dropped below the thermal threshold limit and/or salinities were back to normal, and oceanic productivity had increased due to more vigorous oceanic circulation, sometime during the Mid-Late Famennian. Migration of eurythermal, shallow- and deeper-water organisms into the vacant niches of the shallow seas was possible because of, generally, slightly lower sea levels, but, more

  20. Brachiopods and stratigraphy of the Upper Devonian (Frasnian) succession of the Radlin Syncline (Holy Cross Mountains, Poland)

    Baliński, Andrzej; Racki, Grzegorz; Halamski, Adam T.


    The lower part of the Frasnian succession in the Radlin Syncline (Kielce-Łagów Synclinorium, southern region of the Holy Cross Mountains), in the two studied successions: Józefka at Górno and (for the first time) Radlin, consists of the rhythmic marly Szydłówek Beds, the fossil-rich limestones of the Wietrznia Beds (locally) and the atypically developed, calcareous Kostomłoty Beds. The carbon isotope chemostratigraphic pattern overall corresponds well to the global Early-Middle Frasnian biogeochemical perturbation, even if the major punctata positive excursion is only fragmentarily recorded in the Kostomłoty intrashelf basin. Two brachiopod assemblages are abundantly represented in both sections: the Phlogoiderhynchus polonicus Assemblage, typical of the Szydłówek Beds, and the Biernatella lentiformis Assemblage, limited to the middle part of the Wietrznia Beds. Both are highly dominated by the index species. Twenty nine lower Frasnian brachiopod species (Craniida - 1 species, Strophomenida - 1, Productida - 2, Protorthida - 1, Orthida - 5, Pentamerida - 1, Rhynchonellida - 4, Atrypida - 4, Athyridida - 3, Spiriferida - 4, Spiriferinida - 3) are described from the Szydłówek and Wietrznia Beds. Seven new species are introduced: Skenidioides cretus Halamski sp. nov., Biernatium minus Baliński sp. nov., Monelasmina montisjosephi Baliński sp. nov., Atryparia (Costatrypa) agricolae Halamski and Baliński sp. nov., Davidsonia enmerkaris Halamski sp. nov., Leptathyris gornensis Baliński sp. nov., and Echinocoelia parva Baliński sp. nov. Davidsonia enmerkaris Halamski sp. nov. is intermediate between Davidsonia Bouchard-Chantereaux, 1849 and Rugodavidsonia Copper, 1996 and is the youngest known representative of the suborder Davidsonioidea Copper, 1996. Skenidioides cretus Halamski sp. nov. is the last representative of the genus. Statistical investigation of a large sample of Spinatrypina (Exatrypa) explanata did not confirm the existence of two dimorphic

  1. A Review of the Characteristics of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Their Implications for Silviculture in a Changing Climate

    Tanguy De Jaegere


    Full Text Available Tilia cordata Mill. is a minor European broadleaved species with a wide but scattered distribution. Given its scarcity and low value in the wood market, it has received little attention from researchers and forest managers. This review summarizes the main aspects of T. cordata ecology and growth. Its main limiting factor is its need for warm summer temperatures to ensure successful seed production. It has a height growth pattern relatively similar to that of Acer pseudoplatanus L., with a slight delay in the early stages. Yield tables report great productivity, especially in eastern Europe. T. cordata used to be a major species in Europe, in contrast to its present distribution, but it is very likely to receive renewed interest in the future. Indeed, with the potential change of competition between species in some regions and the need for important diversification in others, T. cordata may play an important role in forest adaptation to climate change, especially owing to its wide ecological tolerance and its numerous ecosystem services. It is necessary to increase our knowledge about its regeneration and its responses to environmental and silvicultural factors, to establish clear management recommendations.

  2. An ethyl acetate fraction derived from Houttuynia cordata extract inhibits the production of inflammatory markers by suppressing NF-кB and MAPK activation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Chun, Jin Mi; Nho, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Hyo Seon; Lee, A Yeong; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Kim, Ho Kyoung


    Background Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of an ethyl acetate fraction derived from a Houttuynia cordata extract (HCE-EA) on the production of inflammatory mediators and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Methods To measure the effects of HCE...

  3. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Cryptospirifer Fauna (Middle Permian Brachiopods) in the Tethyan Realm and Its Paleogeographic Implications

    JIN Xiaochi; ZHAN Lipei


    The middle Permian Cryptospirifer fauna (brachiopod) has hitherto been found in more than 30 localities in the Yangtze Platform, South China. Examination of data from various localities shows that it occurs stratigraphically in three intervals in the range from the upper Kungurian to Wordian.In the Baoshan block in western Yunnan the fauna occurs in the basal part of the Daaozi Formation and is of possibly an early Wordian age. Outside China the Cryptospirifer fauna has been reported from central and northwest Iran and central Turkey, where the fauna may have an age around the Wordian\\Capitanian boundary. Rapid global warming since the late Early Permian and possession of other suitable environmental factors such as proper substrate, clastic input and water depth enabled the Gondwana-derived Baoshan Block and related tectono-stratigraphic units in Iran and Turkey to host the Cryptospirifer fauna, a fauna evolved in the Yangtze Platform that is a type area of the Cathaysian province.

  4. Integration of transcriptome, proteome and metabolism data reveals the alkaloids biosynthesis in Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa.

    Jianguo Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Macleaya spp., including Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa, are traditional anti-virus, inflammation eliminating, and insecticide herb medicines for their isoquinoline alkaloids. They are also known as the basis of the popular natural animal food addictive in Europe. However, few studies especially at genomics level were conducted on them. Hence, we performed the Macleaya spp. transcriptome and integrated it with iTRAQ proteome analysis in order to identify potential genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We elaborately designed the transcriptome, proteome and metabolism profiling for 10 samples of both species to explore their alkaloids biosynthesis. From the transcriptome data, we obtained 69367 and 78255 unigenes for M. cordata and M. microcarpa, in which about two thirds of them were similar to sequences in public databases. By metabolism profiling, reverse patterns for alkaloids sanguinarine, chelerythrine, protopine, and allocryptopine were observed in different organs of two species. We characterized the expressions of enzymes in alkaloid biosynthesis pathways. We also identified more than 1000 proteins from iTRAQ proteome data. Our results strongly suggest that the root maybe the organ for major alkaloids biosynthesis of Macleaya spp. Except for biosynthesis, the alkaloids storage and transport were also important for their accumulation. The ultrastructure of laticifers by SEM helps us to prove the alkaloids maybe accumulated in the mature roots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of Macleaya spp. This work provides clues to the identification of the potential modulate genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis in Macleaya spp., and sheds light on researches for non-model medicinal plants by integrating different high-throughput technologies.

  5. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

    Se Yeon Oh


    Full Text Available Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H. cordata Thunb with unpleasant and fishy odors shows a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and insect repellent. The aim of this study is to show a novel quality control by GC/SAW methodology for the discrimination of the three different parts of the plant such as leaves, aerial stems, and underground stems for H. cordata Thunb. Sixteen compounds were identified. β-Myrcene, cis-ocimene and decanal are the dominant volatiles for leaves (71.0% and aerial stems (50.1%. While, monoterpenes (74.6% are the dominant volatiles for underground stems. 2-Undecanone (1.3% and lauraldehyde (3.5% were found to be the characteristic components for leaves. Each part of the plant has its own characteristic fragrance pattern owing to its individual chemical compositions. Moreover, its individual characteristic fragrance patterns are conducive to discrimination of the three different parts of the plant. Consequently, fast GC/SAW can be a useful analytical method for quality control of the different parts of the plant with pharmacological volatiles as it provides second unit analysis, a simple and fragrant pattern recognition.


    Ahmed Shagufa


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to know and compare the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus (EEPT, Hottuynia cordata (EEHC, Curcuma caesia (EECC and Syzygium jumbos (EESJ on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by disc diffusion method. The ethanolic plant extracts were prepared from the bark of Syzygium jumbos and leaves of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Hottuynia cordata and Curcuma caesia by percolation method. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Assam Medical College & Hospital. Disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the standard Kirby Bauer method. The whatmann-1 filter paper discs of 6mm sizes impregnated with the plant extracts were placed on Mueller-Hinton agar plates seeded with bacterial cultures of 0.5 Mc Farland standards. Ciprofloxacin (5μg/disc was used as positive control. The antibacterial activities were assessed by the presence or absence of inhibition zones after incubating the plates at 370c for 24 hours. The ethanolic extracts of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus (EEPT and Hottuynia cordata (EEHC showed significant anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ethanolic extracts of Syzygium jumbos (EESJ showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli while ethanolic extracts of Curcuma caesia (EECC showed significant anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Maximum zones of inhibition to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exhibited by Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Syzygium jumbos and Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus respectively.

  7. The Urban Environment Can Modify Drought Stress of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Astrid Moser


    Full Text Available The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and are therefore advantageous over other, more susceptible species. However, the drought tolerance of urban trees in relation to the specific growth conditions in urban areas remains poorly researched. This study aimed to analyze the annual growth and drought tolerance of two common urban tree species, namely small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. (T. cordata and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. (R. pseudoacacia, in two cities in southern Germany in relation to their urban growing conditions. Marked growth reductions during drought periods and subsequent fast recovery were found for R. pseudoacacia, whereas T. cordata exhibited continued reduced growth after a drought event, although these results were highly specific to the analyzed city. We further show that individual tree characteristics and environmental conditions significantly influence the growth of urban trees. Canopy openness and other aspects of the surrounding environment (water supply and open surface area of the tree pit, tree size, and tree species significantly affect urban tree growth and can modify the ability of trees to tolerate the drought stress in urban areas. Sustainable tree planting of well adapted tree species to their urban environment ensures healthy trees providing ecosystem services for a high quality of life in cities.

  8. 鱼腥草挥发油的化学成分%Chemical constituents of volatile oil from Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    曾虹燕; 蒋丽娟; 张英超


    The volatile oils from Houttuynia cordata Thunb. were obtained with supereritical CO2, steam distillation and petroleum ether extraction and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS. The results showed that the chemical constituents of the volatile oils by three different methods are very different. The extraction rates of volatile oil by above-mentioned three extraction methods are 1.764%, 0.040% and 0.082%, respectively. The volatile oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction, which the content of houttuyninum reached 14.393 %, is better than those with traditional methods.

  9. Field performance of Alnus cordata Loisel (Italian alder) inoculated with Frankia and VA-mycorrhizal strains in mine-spoil afforestation plots

    Lumini, E.; Bosco, M.; Puppi, G.; Isopi, R.; Frattegiani, M.; Burseti, E.; Favili, F.


    Mixed stands of {ital Alnus cordata}, {ital Eleagnus} spp. and broad leaf timber trees have been successfully used for reclamation of mine spoils in surface mined areas of central Italy. Trials showed that the use of mycorrhizal planting stock may improve the establishment of plants on mine spoils. Alder seeds were sown in pots filled with peat moss and lignite mine spoils and Fungal strains {ital Glomus mosscae} and {ital G. fasciculatum} were inoculated into the pots. A Frankia strain isolated from {ital A. cordata} was also tested. Plants were then outplanted after measuring shoot height and collar diameter. The planting was done in mid-January among commercial trees ({ital Quercus robur}, {ital Fraxinus oxyphilla}, and {ital Prunus avium}). Plants became highly nodulated in the pots. Mycorrhizal infection was about 30% on inoculate plants but did not occur on uninoculated plants. Aboveground biomass at out-planting was significantly greater in the Frankia inoculated plants. There was generally more N in plant leaves in the inoculate plants than in the uninoculated ones. Plant survival in the field after one winter was 83% on average. One year after planting, the inoculated plants were significantly bigger as were the Frankia inoculated plants. The combination of Frankia and Glomus was very effective (contrary to other studies).

  10. Paleocommunity Replacements of Benthic Brachiopod in the Middle-Upper Devonian in the Longmenshan Area, Southwestern China: Responses to Sea Level Fluctuations

    CHEN Yuanren; LI Xianghui


    Twelve paleocommunities dominated by benthic brachiopod are recognized in the Givetian-Frasnian stages of the Devonian in the Longmenshan area, southwestern China, in which two kinds of brachiopod community replacement are classified. One is the abrupt replacement, represented by abrupt alternation between the Leiorhynchus community and Zhonghuacoelia-Striatopugnax community in the Frasnian Tuqiaozi Formation. The other is the gradual one, developed in the Givetian Guanwushan Formation, which had been completed by the shift of the Independatrypa lemma-Uncinulus heterocostellis-Emanuella takwanensis community via the Sinospongophyllum irregulare-Pseudomicroplasma fongi community to the Clathrocoilona spissa-Hexagonaria composite reef community. According to analyses of the paleocommunities, either the abrupt or gradual paleocommunity replacement of the Middle-Upper Devonian in the Longmenshan area is suggested as a response to the 5th-order sea level fluctuation due to the replacements of the paleocommunities in a tracts-system of depositional sequence. It is supposed that changes of paleocommunity diversity,one of the results of paleocommunity replacement, are depended on the range and magnitude of sea level fluctuation, but there is not a linear relationship between them. Furthermore, a suggestion is proposed that the concept of paleocommunity succession seem to be abandoned in the paleocommunity analysis because it almost never be practiced to recover the information of community succession in the geological record at present.

  11. Chemical Constituents of Malaysian U. cordata var. ferruginea and Their in Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities.

    Abdullah, Nur Hakimah; Salim, Fatimah; Ahmad, Rohaya


    Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1), 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4), 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol (7), taxifolin (8), loganin (9) and β-sitosterol (10). Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3%) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL) while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus and

  12. Chemical Constituents of Malaysian U. cordata var. ferruginea and Their in Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    Nur Hakimah Abdullah


    Full Text Available Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3, scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4, 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5, quercetin (6, kaempferol (7, taxifolin (8, loganin (9 and β-sitosterol (10. Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS. In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus

  13. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Giannini T


    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  14. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta



    Full Text Available Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchelliiLa incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO, fosfoenolpiruvato

  15. 博落回中两个新苯并菲啶类异喹啉生物碱%Two new benzo phenanthridine isoquinoline alkaloids from Macleaya cordata

    冯锋; 叶冯芝; 李彩莲; 柳文媛; 谢宁


    AIM:To study the chemical constituents of Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R.Br.METHODS:Crude alkaloids were isolated and purified from the fruits with column chromatography of cation exchange,silica gel ad Sephadex LH-20 followed by recrystallization.The structure elucidation was carried out by extensive spectroscopic methods.RESULTS:Two new benzophenanthridine isoquinoline alkaloids,6α-iso-butanonyldihydrosanguinarine (1) and 6α-iso-butanonyldihydrochelerythrine (2),along with other four known alkaloid compounds,6-acetonyldihydrosanguinarine (3),6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (4),dihydrosanguinarine (5)and dihydrocbelerythrine (6) have been isolated from fruits of M.cordata collected in Anhui Province of China.CONCLUSION:Benzophenanthridine isoquinoline alkaloids are featured in M.cordata.Compounds 1 and 2 are new ones.%目的:对中药博落回的化学成分进行研究.方法:依次采用阳离子交换树脂、硅胶、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱法和重结晶等分离技术,对博落回的生物碱进行分离.并运用多种光谱技术对所得生物碱的结构进行鉴定.结果:从博落回中分离并鉴定了6个苯并菲啶类异喹啉生物碱:6α-iso-butanonyldihydrosanguinarine (1),6α-iso-butanonyldihydrochelerythrine (2),6-丙酮基二氢血根碱(6-acetonyldihydrosanguinarine,3),6-丙酮基二氢白屈菜红碱(6-acetonyl-dihydrochelerythrine,4),二氢血根碱(dihydrosanguinarine,5)、二氢白屈菜红碱(dihydrochelerythrine,6).结论:苯并菲啶类异喹啉生物碱是中药博落回的典型化学成分.化合物1和2为新化合物.

  16. Germinação de sementes de Lavoisiera cordata Cogn. e Lavoisiera francavillana Cogn. (Melastomataceae, espécies simpátricas da Serra do Cipó, Brasil Seed germination of Lavoisiera cordata Cogn. and Lavoisiera francavillana Cogn. (Melastomataceae, sympatric plant species from Serra do Cipó, Brazil

    Bernardo D. Ranieri


    Full Text Available Neste estudo verificou-se o comportamento germinativo de sementes de Lavoisiera cordata Cogn. e Lavoisiera francavillana Cogn. (Melastomataceae, espécies que ocorrem em hábitats com características hídricas e nutricionais diferentes nos campos rupestres da Serra do Cipó, Sudeste do Brasil. Sementes coletadas no ano de 2000 foram postas para germinar em quatro réplicas de 25 nas temperaturas de 15, 20, 25 e 30ºC, sob fotoperíodo de 12h. A percentagem de germinação foi mais alta para L. cordata do que para L. francavillana (t=11.803, gl = 30, p0.05, N.S.. As percentagens de germinação correlacionaramse positivamente com as velocidades de emergência para esta espécie (r²=0.63, p0.05, N.S., sendo que as percentagens de germinação se correlacionaram positivamente com as velocidades de emergência (r²=0.90, pIn this study, the seed germination behavior of two sympatric plant species that occur in habitats under diferent nutritional and moisture conditions at Serra do Cipó, Southeastern Brazil, was evaluated. Seeds collected in the year of 2000 were placed to germinate in four replicates of 25 seeds under the temperatures at 15, 20, 25 and 30ºC, and at 12 hour photoperiod. L. cordata showed higher germination percentage than L. francavillana (t=11.803, gl=30, p0.05, N.S.. The germination percentages were correlated with the the radicle emergency rate for this species (r²=0.63, p0.05, N.S.. The germination percentages were also correlated with the radicle emergency rates (r²=0.90, p<0,01, y=4.32x-0.01. Our results indicate fisiological diferences in the seed germination of L. cordata and L. francavillana. Those diferences may reflect adaptations to the diferent microhabitat conditions which the two species are subjected.

  17. Quantitative analysis of intraspecific variations in the carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of the modern cool-temperate brachiopod Terebratulina crossei

    Takayanagi, Hideko; Asami, Ryuji; Otake, Tsuguo; Abe, Osamu; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Iryu, Yasufumi


    This study unravels intraspecific variations in the carbon isotope (δ13C) and oxygen isotope (δ18O) compositions of shells of the modern cool-temperate brachiopod Terebratulina crossei collected at a water depth of 70 m in Otsuchi Bay, northeastern Honshu, Japan. Brachiopod shells have been used as proxies of the δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (δ13CDIC) and seawater temperature/δ18O (δ18OSW) values to reconstruct the evolution of Phanerozoic oceans. To identify more reliable shell portions as the proxies, we conducted a rigorous time-series comparison of δ13C and δ18O values between the brachiopod shells and calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater (equilibrium calcite) (δ13CEC and δ18OEC values, respectively). Samples were collected from the outer and inner surfaces of the secondary shell layer along the maximum growth axis (ontogenetic-series and inner-series samples, respectively). The ontogenetic-series δ13C values, which showed regular annual and irregular non-annual cycles, partly fell in but were mostly less than the range of the δ13CEC values. The δ13C cycles were often associated with one or two minor negative peaks. The peaks were likely resulted from an increased incorporation of respiration-derived 12C due to elevated metabolic activity during spawning. The ontogenetic-series δ18O values showed distinct seasonal variations and were mostly within the range of δ18OEC values. The amplitude of the δ18O profiles was relatively large during the younger fast-growth stage, and decreased during the senescent slow-growth stage. The inner-series δ13C and δ18O values of individual shells varied within narrow ranges. The inner-series δ13C values were close to the minimum δ13CEC values. The inner-series δ18O values were in the upper range of the δ18OEC values. Kinetic isotope fractionation effects were evident, but its degree varied among different shells. We identified the shell portions reliably

  18. Mite species (Acari: Mesostigmata new and rare to Polish fauna, inhabiting the soil of broadleaved forests dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. in Kwidzyn Forest District (N Poland



    Full Text Available During a two-year study on mites of the order Mesostigmata in broadleaved forest stands dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill., 117 mite species were identified. Among them, 3 had been so far rarely recorded in Poland (Haemogamasus nidi, Stylochirus rovenensis and Eugamasus crassitarsis and 2 were classified as new to the Polish fauna (Veigaia sibirica and Digamasellus perpusillus.

  19. 不同居群鱼腥草中As和Hg及666·DDT的测定%Determination of As, Hg and 666, DDT of different Houttuynia cordata Accessions

    陈黎; 龚寒; 吴卫


    [目的]测定鱼腥草中重金属As、Hg以及666、DDT农药残留的含量,比较不同鱼腥草资源间在相同栽培条件下对其积累的差异.[方法]采用海光AFS-3000型双道原子荧光光度计测定As和Hg含量;采用岛津GC-9A型气相色谱仪,按GB/T14551-2003测定666和DDT的含量.[结果]鱼腥草幼嫩地上部分中As平均含量为0.161 mg/kg,Hg平均含量为0.004 mg/kg,地下部分中两者的平均含量分别为0.130和0.0025 mg/kg;仅小部分材料中检出痕量δ-666.[结论]鱼腥草资源间对As、Hg以及666、DDT积累的差异不显著;根据国标规定,鱼腥草中As、Hg以及666、DDT的含量均低于限量.%[Ohjective] The aim was to determine the content of heavy metals As, Hg and 666, DDT pesticides in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. and compare the accumulation of As, Hg and 666, DDT of different H. cordata accessions, which were cultivated in the same environment. [Method] The contents of As and Hg were determined using Haiguang AFS-3000 atomic fluorescence spectrum instrument; the remains of 666, DDT pesticides were determined according to GB/T14551 -2003 using Simadzu GC-9A gas chromatography instrument. [Result] The average content of As was 0.161 mg/kg and the average content of Hg was 0.004 mg/kg in the young aerial parts of H. cordata, and in the underground parts, the average contents of As and Hg were 0. 130 and 0.002 5 mg/kg, respectively; the trace of δ-666 was detected in few accessions. [Conclusion] The accumulation of As, Hg and 666, DDT among different H. cordata accessions was not remarkable. According to national standard, the content of As, Hg and 666, DDT were lower the prescript in H. cordata.

  20. Flavonol glycosides found in hydroethanolic extracts from Tilia cordata, a species utilized as anxiolytics Flavonóides glicosídeos encontrados no extrato hidroalcoólico de Tilia cordata, espécie usada como ansiolítico

    G. Negri


    Full Text Available Tilia species, among which is Tilia cordata Mill. (Tiliaceae, have been used in folk medicine as anxiolytic. The hydroethanolic extract was analyzed by using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS in negative ion mode, and its chemical composition was compared to flavonoids reported as anxiolytics. The major flavonoids found were: quercetin-3,7-di-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3,7-di-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-(6"-p-coumaroyl glucoside or tiliroside. The anxiolytic activity of the genus Tilia has been attributed to the presence of quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, while the anxiolytic activity of T. americana var. Mexicana was attributed to tiliroside, which was also found among the major constituents of this species.As espécies de Tilia, entre elas, a Tilia cordata Mill. (Tiliaceae são utilizadas como ansiolíticas na medicina popular. O extrato hidroalcoólico foi analisado usando cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massas HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS/MS no modo negativo e a sua composição química foi comparada com os flavonóides já reportados como ansiolíticos. Os principais flavonóides encontrados foram: quercetina-3,7-di-O-rhamnosideo, canferol-3,7-di-O-rhamnosideo, e canferol 3-O-(6"-p-cumaroil glucosideo ou tilirosideo. A atividade ansiolítica do gênero Tília tem sido atribuída à presença de derivados de canferol e quercetina, enquanto que a atividade ansiolítica da T. americana var. Mexicana foi atribuída ao tilirosideo, o qual também foi encontrado entre os principais constituintes desta espécie.

  1. The Evaluation of CP-001 (a Standardized Herbal Mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus for Cytochrome P450-Related Herb-Drug Interactions

    Hye Hyun Yoo


    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of CP-001, a standardized herbal mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus, on cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme-mediated drug metabolism was investigated in vitro to evaluate the potential for herb-drug interactions. CP-001 was tested at concentrations of 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 μg/mL. A CYP-specific substrate mixture was incubated with CP-001 in human liver microsomes, and the metabolites generated by each CYP-specific metabolic reaction were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CP-001 seemed to slightly inhibit some CYP isozymes, but the IC50 values for all CYP isozymes were greater than 100 μg/mL. Furthermore, CP-001 did not exhibit time-dependent CYP inhibitory activities, indicating that it does not act as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP enzymes. In conclusion, the effects of CP-001 on CYP isozyme activities were negligible at the concentrations tested. Therefore, the likelihood of herbal mixture-drug interaction is considered minimal.

  2. The relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function (productivity) of the late Middle Permian brachiopods community at the region of Hechuan, Chongqing, China

    ZENG Yong; JIANG LiJun; KE Yan; L(U) Qian; ZHAO Li; LIANG JiaDong; HU Han; LINGHU Bo


    The relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function is a hot topic in ecology and environics.This paper investigates the evolution of diversity of the late Middle Permian brachiopods community in Hechuan,Chongqing,China,and discusses the relationship between species diversity and community productivity in terms of the geohistorical development.This paper shows that the species diversity is externalized by several indexes,and the relationship between diversity and productivity is too complex to be described by a single assumption.The relationship between species diversity and community productivity is restricted by environment and community evolution.When the community succeeds normally,the relationship between species richness index,species diversity index,and species evenness index to productivity is in linear dependence relation to each other,which is met with the third assumption.But,when the environment interference surpasses the bearing capability of the community,not only the community succession will be terminated and be replaced by another one,but also the relationship between species richness index,species diversity index,and species evenness index to productivity is also inversed to negative correlation by the interference from environment.Only the relationship between ecological dominance and productivity is in linear dependence relation to each other and approximately met with the third assumption.It is illustrated that the assumption that the productivity is in linear dependence relation with diversity should be established on the presupposition that the community succession is normal.

  3. 鱼腥草水培营养液的筛选%Screening of the Nutritive Medium for Water Culture of Houttuynia Cordata Thunb

    许娜; 储俊; 朱明兰; 余琴


    Water culture method was used to study Six kinds of common nutritive medium effect for growth and quality of Houttuynia Cordata Thunb. , and to explore the suitable nutritive medium of Houttuynia. The results showed that six kinds of nutritive medium had no significant impact on the growth of Houttuynia, but its content of soluble sugar and chlorophyll had a significant effect. The soluble sugar content of Houttuynia in Hoagland for- mula had the increase of 179.26% compared with the control, and the highest chlorophyll content in Hoagland formula increasing 56.15% compared with the control. Hoagland nutrient solution formula was suitable for water culture of Houttuynia.%采用水培方式研究了6种常用营养液配方对鱼腥草生长和品质的影响,探讨了鱼腥草水培适宜的营养液配方。结果表明,6种营养液配方对水培鱼腥草生长无显著影响,但对其可溶性糖含量和叶绿素含量有显著影响。水培鱼腥草可溶性糖含量以霍格兰配方最高,较对照增加179.26%;叶绿素含量以霍格兰配方最高,较对照增加56.15%。鱼腥草水培营养液配方以霍格兰配方较为适宜。

  4. 鱼腥草注射液致食蟹猴类过敏反应的实验研究%Experimental Study on Macaca Fascicularis Anaphylactoid Reactions Induced by Houttuynia Cordata Injection

    孙伟伟; 李贻奎; 张金艳; 张美玉; 郝伟; 赵乐; 王乃捷; 杜丰; 李连达


    Objective To evaluate the sensitization of Houttuynia Cordata Injection containing Tween-80 of different concentration and from different producer on Macaca fasciculari by intravenous injection. Methods Macaca fascicularis were randomized into 4 groups with 3 in each,i. e. normal saline group, Houttuynia Cordata Injection containing 0.25 % Guangzhou chemical Tween-80 group (0. 25% Guangzhou group), Houttuynia Cordata Injection containing 0. 25% Nanjing Weir Tween- 80 group (0. 25% Nanjing group), and Houttuynia Cordata Injection containing 0. 30% Nanjing Weir Tween-80 group (0. 30% Nanjing group). The general situations and reactions of animals were observed before intravenous infusion and within 24 hours. The reaction severity was determined according to the grading standard. Blood samples were collected before infusion and at the moment of 10min after infusion ended in order to measure the concentrations of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and the reaction severity was also taken into consideration to evaluate comprehensively the sensitization of different injections on Macaca fascicularis. Results There were no typical anaphylactoid reactions on Macaca fascicularis induced by intravenous infusion of Houttuynia cordata injections, and the content of plasma histamine was not changed significantly compared with that before treatment.Conclusion By controlling the quality of Tween-80 and circumscribing its concentration to below 0. 30%, it is possible to avoid the occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions and ensure the effect of solubilization at the same time.%目的 评价不同浓度不同产地的吐温80配制的鱼腥草注射液静脉给药对食蟹猴的致敏性.方法 将食蟹猴随机分为生理盐水组、含0.25%广州化学吐温80鱼腥草注射液组(0.25%广州组)、含0.25%南京威尔吐温80鱼腥草注射液组(0.25%南京组)、含0.30%南京威尔吐温80鱼腥草注射液组(0.30%南京组),每组3只.给药前及给药后24

  5. 鲜鱼腥草及其内生菌挥发性成分分析%Study on volatile components from fresh Houttuynia cordata Thunb. And its endophytes fungus by GC/MS

    王鸿; 蓝丽华; 易喻; 梅建凤; 应国清; 曹小吉; 周华康


    The volatile oil from fresh leaves and stems of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Was extracted by steam distillation. The volatile components from the endophytes Fungus of fresh H. Cordata T. Were extracted by ethyl acetate. All of the extracts were analysed by GC-MS. Twelve compounds were identified from leaves and fifteen compounds were determined from stems. The results showed that the essential oil of leaves and stems have little differences in chemical composition. The relative contents of 2-undecanone as main antibacterial ingredient were 1. 21% and 3. 51%, separately. However, three endophyte fungus compare with fresh leaves and stems of fresh H. Cordata T. , they have different volatile components, but three endophyte fungus contain some decanal analogues such as trans-2-Decenoic acid and trans-crotonic acid, which is an important medicine intermediate.%利用气相色谱-飞行时间质谱(GC-MS)联用技术对鱼腥草及其内生茵挥发性成分进行研究,分析比较鲜鱼腥草不同部位及其内生菌挥发性成分.在鱼腥草叶挥发油组分中鉴定了其中的12个化合物,占叶挥发油总量的80.15%;鱼腥草茎挥发油组分中鉴定了其中的15个化合物,占茎挥发油总量的76.94%,其中主要活性成分甲基正壬酮相对含量在叶和茎中分别占到1.21%和3.51%.另外,在鱼腥草内生菌中未发现鱼腥草有效成分甲基正壬酮、癸醛和乙酸龙脑酯等,但鉴定出了其结构类似物反式-2-癸烯酸,以及具有重要价值的医药中间体巴豆酸等化学成分.

  6. 药食植物鱼腥草对亚硝化反应抑制作用的研究%Study on Inhibition of Nitrosation by Extracts of Food and Medicine Plant Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    陈达畅; 陈莉丽; 许国权


    在固液比1∶10,提取温度80℃,提取时间60 min条件下,研究五种溶剂提取鱼腥草活性物质中的总黄酮和总酚含量及其对亚硝胺合成的阻断作用与对亚硝酸钠的清除效果.结果表明,55%丙酮提取鱼腥草活性物质中的总黄酮和总酚含量最高,对亚硝胺合成的阻断作用与对亚硝酸钠的清除效果最好,其最佳浓度下提取的鱼腥草活性物质对亚硝胺合成的阻断率达92.81%,对亚硝酸钠的清除率达89.53%;当提取物中的总黄酮含量和VC溶液浓度均为2 mg/mL时,二者对亚硝胺的阻断率分别为51.08%和66.91%,对亚硝酸钠的清除率分别为23.04%和38.22%.%This papier studied the content of total flavonoids and total phenols in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Active substance extracted by five different solvents, when the solid-to-liquid ration was 1:10, extraction temperature was 80 ℃, extraction time was 60 minutes. And their blocking effects on the formation of NDMA and scavenging effects on sodium nitrite were studied. The results showed that, the contents of total flavonoids and total phenols in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Active substance was the highest which extracted by 55% acetone, and with the optimum concentration of acetone, the blocking rate of NDMA of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Active substance could reach to 92.81%, and clearance rate of sodium nitrite could reach to 89.53%. When the content of total flavonoids of extract and concentration of VC solution were both 2 mg/mL, their blocking rate of NDMA were 51.08% and 66.91% respectively, and their clearance rate of sodium nitrite were 23.04% and 38.22% respectively.

  7. 博落回内生真菌的分离及其抗菌活性的初步研究%A Preliminary Study on Isolation of Endophytic Fungi from Macleaya Cordata and Its Antimicrobial Activity

    闵长莉; 王允; 汪学军


    从健康博落回植株中分离内生真菌,用PDA培养基分离纯化菌株,结果纯化得到19株内生真菌,用琼脂块法对获取的菌株进行抗菌活性筛选,其中有2株博落回内生真菌对指示菌株有抑菌作用,占总分离菌株的10.53%,其中有一株内生真菌具有较强的抑菌活性。%Nineteen endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the healthy Macleaya cordata by flat-panel separation.Agar block method was used to obtain the strain for antimicrobial activity screening.The results showed that two endophytic fungi(10.53% of the total strains isolated)had inhibitory activities to the test strains,and a strong inhibitory activity of endophytic fungus was also be found.

  8. Oxygen Isotope of Brachiopods from the Pennsylvanian Coral Reef Area in South Guizhou Province and Its Significance%黔南宾夕法尼亚亚纪珊瑚礁相腕足动物氧同位素组成及其古水温信息

    杨丽丽; 巩恩普; 张永利; 关长庆; 孙宝亮; 常洪伦


    黔南宾夕法尼亚亚纪Triticites带内大型Fomitchevella珊瑚礁群落中见附礁生长的腕足动物Striatifera striata 和Enteletoides shuichengensis,XRD测试结果显示Striatifera striata壳体次生层为保存较好、成分纯净的低镁方解石,完全未受到成岩作用改造;Enteletoides shuichengensis壳层中则含少量Fe、Ni,可能与成岩作用改造有关.两种腕足动物壳体横切面同一生长带棱柱层中的Ni、Fe、Mn、Na、Sr呈对称性分布,表明这两个种壳体原始信息保存良好,可忽略成岩改造对Enteletoides shuichengensis壳体的影响.测得Striatifera striata和Enteletoides shuichengensis壳体棱柱层中的δ18OPDB分别为-3.249‰和-3.385‰,据此推算出古海水温度为21.60~31.18℃.腕足动物壳体具有较高的δ13CPDB值,分别为4.784‰,4.782‰.利用碳氧同位素分析结果计算得到Z值接近135,表明珊瑚礁区古海水盐度正常.%Phylloid algal reefs are dominant in Pennsylvanian all over the world and well exposed in the southGuizhou, China. While the metazoan framework reefs develop well in this area, especially the presence of a rarelylarge-scale Fomitehevella coral reef, which is constructed mostly by big phacelloid Fomitchevella. As a result, SouthGuizhou becomes a unique case of the Carboniferous reef. Stratigraphically, South Guizhou reefs belong to the Maping Formation (the Triticites Zone, Gzhelian, uppermost Pennsylvanian). The depositional environment of the Maping Formation is at shallow marine carbonate platform margin. Furthermore, the faunal association recorded point to a paleogeographical position in a low-latitude close to the equatorial realm in south China during the Pennsylvanian time. Thus, it can be inferred that the growth environment of Fomitchevella reefs is in a relative warm water, fitting the development of coral reefs.Surely we can use fossil brachiopod shells to attain part of environmental information with respect to the

  9. 产学研合作模式研究--以湖南农大“博落回”产学研合作模式为例%Study on Production-Study-Research Cooperation Mode:Taking the"Macleaya Cordata"Production-Study-Research Cooperation Mode in Hunan Agricultural University as an Example

    潘赛; 王奎武


    Based on the analysis of the problems of production-study-research cooperation in colleges and universities, this paper deeply studies the "macleaya cordata" production-study-research cooperation mode in Hunan Agricultural University: relying on the superior discipline, constructing the platform of production-study-research cooperation and innovating management and incentive system, strengthening the team construction and so on, to promote the development of veterinary medicine which takes "macleaya cordata" as the main research object, leading to technology innovation and industrialization achievement.%本文在分析目前我国高校产学研合作存在问题的基础上,深入研究湖南农业大学“博落回”产学研合作模式:依托学校优势学科,通过搭建产学研合作平台、创新管理与激励制度、加强团队建设等方式,促进以博落回为主要研究对象的中兽药创制,产生了技术创新和产业化成果。

  10. Characteristics and geological age of Middle Permian brachiopod fauna from Ejin Banner and its vicinities, western Inner Mongolia%内蒙古西部额济纳旗及邻区中二叠统腕足类动物群的特征和时代

    卜建军; 段先锋; 牛志军


    额济纳旗及其邻区中二叠统产丰富的腕足动物群,该动物群具有北方冷水动物和特提斯暖水动物混生的特点,划分为Spiriferella-Kochiproductus-yakovlevia组合,称为"哲斯动物群".在生物古地理分区上,该区为北方生物大区和特提斯生物大区之间的过渡带,称为中蒙生物省.动物群的组成、丰度和分异度等特征在银-额(银根-额济纳旗)盆地的东西部有明显的差异:盆地西部北山地区海水较浅,腕足动物群丰度高,分异度略低,以个体较大、壳体较厚的冷水分子占优势,共生少量的双壳类和珊瑚;东部杭乌拉地区海水略深,腕足动物群丰度稍低,分异度较高,舍有大量的小个体腕足,共生冷水型珊瑚和丰富的海百合类,世界广布分子和暖水分子超过一半.说明该腕足动物群在受纬度和温度控制的同时,也受水体深度的影响,在同一海盆的不同环境中表现出不同的特点.通过对该动物群的起源、区域分布特点和共生生物的分析,认为额济纳旗及其邻区的哲斯动物群的时限为罗甸期-孤峰期.%Abundant brachiopods have been recorded from the Middle Permian strata of Ejin Banner and its vicinities.This fauna,called Zhesi Fauna, is characterized by a mixed fauna composed of boreal cool-water elements and Tethyan warm-water elements.The brachiopod Spiriferella-Kochiproductus-Yakovlevia assemblage has been recognized from this fauna.In paleobiogeography, Ejin Banner and its vicinities were located in a transitional position between Boreal and Tethyan provinces, called Sino-Mongolia province.The fauna pattern in eastem Yine basin is different from that in western Yine basin.In the shallow-water Beishan of western Yine Basin, the brachiopod is dominated by large-sized and thick-shelled cool-water elements, with a higher abundance and a slightly lower diversity in association with a few bivalves and corals, while in the relatively deep-water Hangwula of

  11. 不同水分条件下先锋植物博落回对氮磷胁迫的生物学响应%Biological response of pioneer plant Macleaya cordata to N and P stresses under different water conditions

    王慧; 孙泰森


    氮及施磷三者之间具有明显的加合效应。磷是襄汾“9.8”溃坝区生土地上博落回生物量形成的第一限制因素。博落回根际土壤微生物数量及土壤酶活性与其根系的活性及生长状况呈显著正相关关系,表明发达的根系促进了根际微生物群落的繁殖,从而提高了根际土壤脲酶和磷酸酶的活性。这一结果最终可促进博落回“根土系统”向熟化方向发展。【结论】博落回能较好地适应当地的环境条件,其抗旱耐瘠,且具有一定的药用价值,故可作为襄汾“9.8”溃坝区的重要备选栽培植物。%[Objectives]On September 8 , 2008 , a catastrophic dam failure accident occurred in the tailing pond of the Xinta Mining Ltd. Co. Xiangfen County, Shanxi Province, China. Residual tailings from the 9. 8Xiangfen tailings dam failure covered the land and mixed with surface soil, and formed immature soil. With the immature soil as culture medium, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate effect of nitrogen ( N ) and phosphorous ( P ) applications on growth and physiological indicators of Macleaya cordata as well as associated soil enzyme activities and rhizosphere microbial quantity under different water conditions, aiming to provide a reference for screening and management of local alternative cultivated plants in the disaster area of the “9. 8” Xiangfen tailings dam failure.[Methods] The experiment was conducted in the Experimental Farm of Shanxi Agricultural University from March to December, 2013. N and P fertilizer was applied at two levels:intermediate N(N 0. 2 g/kg, N1)and low N(N 0 g/kg, N0);and intermediate P(P2O5 0. 2 g/kg, P1)and low P(P2O5 0 g/kg, P0). Water conditions were set at three levels:low water(35%-40% of field capacity, W1 ) , intermediate water(45%-50% of field capacity, W2 ) , and high water ( 75%-80% of field capacity W3 ) . Totally 12 treatments were included: W1 N0 P 0 , W2 N0 P 0 , W3N0P0, W1N0P1, W2N0P1, W3N0P

  12. A permian productoid brachiopod: Life history

    Grant, R.E.


    Spine arrangements on silicified specimens of Waagenoconcha abichi (Waagen) from the Khisor Range of West Pakistan suggest that the juvenile shell attached itself to a foreign object, and that the adult shell lay on its ventral valve in the substrate, anchored and stabilized by a dense corona of long slender spines around the ventral visceral disc.

  13. Anaphylactoid Reactions Inducing Effect of Polysorbate 80 and Polysorbate 80 Contained Houttuynia Cordata Injection on Beagle%聚山梨酯80及其配制的鱼腥草注射液致Beagle犬类过敏反应实验研究

    孙伟伟; 李贻奎; 张金艳; 张美玉; 何萍; 郝伟; 赵乐; 李连达


    目的 评价多种聚山梨酯80及其配制的鱼腥草注射液静脉给药对Beagle犬的致敏性.方法 Beagle犬是类过敏反应的敏感动物,以动物反应症状与血浆组胺升高为判断标准,综合判定类过敏反应.Beagle犬随机分为18组,每组3只,分别静脉注射不同厂家0.25%、0.10%、0.05%浓度的聚山梨酯80灭菌水溶液,或分别含0.25%、O.30%不同厂家聚山梨酯80的鱼腥草注射液.给药体积10 mL/kg,前肢静脉恒速注射(速度5 mL/min).观察给药前至给药后24 h每只犬的变化,记录症状出现、消失时间,并根据反应症状的轻重判定级别.给药前及停药后10 min取血,EusA方法检测血浆组胺含量,并结合反应症状级别,综合判定致敏性.结果 各厂家、各浓度(0.05%、0.10%、0.25%)聚山梨酯80灭菌液以及各组鱼腥草注射液,均未导致Beagle犬出现典型的类过敏反应症状及血浆组胺升高1倍以上.综合判定,各组受试液均未诱发Beagle犬出现典型的类过敏反应.结论 控制聚山梨酯80质量,并将使用浓度限定在0.30%或0.25%以下,可以在保证药物增溶效果的同时避免类过敏反应的发生.%Objective To evaluate the sensitization effect of polysorbate 80 and polysorbate 80 contained Houttuynia cordata Injection in different concentrations on Beagle. Methods Beagles, a kind of animal highly sensitive to sensitizing agents, were randomly divided into 18 groups, 3 in each group. They received respectively the intravenous infusion of polysorbate 80 made by different factories in different concentrations (0. 25%,0. 10%, 0.05%), and Houttuynia cordata Injection containing polysorbate 80 in concentration of 0.25% or 0. 30%, with the constant infusing speed of 5 mL/min and volume of 10 mL/kg. Changes of animals' condition were observed before infusion and in the 24 h after infusion, time of symptom appearance and disappearance was recorded, and the grade of response was determined. Moreover

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa with cDNA encodina S6PDH(NADP-dependent sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) from Prunus salicina var.cordata%根癌农杆菌介导的榇S6PDH基因转化香蕉研究

    匡云波; 赖钟雄


    研究以香蕉栽培品种“天宝蕉”(Musa横切薄片(Thin cross-sections,TCSs)为材料,采用根癌农杆菌介导的方法,进行棒S6PDH基因转化香蕉的研究.结果表明,在横切薄片继代增殖培养基M4中添加5%~7%(V/V)的椰汁明显增强了香蕉芽苗的生长势;GUS基因瞬时表达检测表明,长势旺盛的香蕉芽苗(直径为7~8 mm)适宜作为香蕉遗传转化的受体材料,横切薄片厚度以2mm左右为佳;采用两步法进行抗性芽的筛选得到37个抗性芽苗,生根移栽后获得31株成活苗;目的基因S6PDH和报告基因GUS的PCR检测表明其中4株是转基因植株.该研究为将蔷薇科山梨醇代谢途径引入香蕉以提高其耐渗透胁迫的能力奠定了重要的基础.%Musa spp. cv. Tianbao was transformed with cDNA encoding S6PDH(NADP-dependent sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) isolated from Prunus sa/icina var. cordata by an Agrobacterium-mediated thin cross-sections (TCSs) transformation system. The condition of the buds was effectively improved when the TCSs were transferred onto the medium M4 adding 5%-7%(V/V) coconut water. And the highest GUS transient expression occurred while 2 mm thin TCSs from the healthy and strong buds were used as the recepted material. Total 37 putative transformants were selected via the two-step method and 31 putative transformants survived after transplanting. Finally, four transgenic lines were conformed by PCR analysis of S6PDH gene and GUS gene. Sorbitol synthesis pathway which was unique to the Rosaceae plants had been introduced into Musa, laying the groundwork to increase its tolerance to environmental stress.

  15. Isotopic and elemental proxies in mollusc and brachiopod calcite

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    composition of the oceans have changed. These changes of environmental conditions and seawater composition are primarily caused by plate tectonic processes, the cyclic variations of the Earth’s orbital parameters and living organisms, actively causing, and passively adapting to shifting conditions in their...

  16. Biodiversity, biogeography and phylogeography of Ordovician rhynchonelliform brachiopods

    Harper, David A T; Rasmussen, Christian M Ø; Liljeroth, Maria;


    local biodiversity epicentres, notably on the South China Palaeoplate; low-latitude porambonitoid-dominated faunas with early plectambonitoid and clitambonitoid representatives, as well as high-latitude assemblages mostly dominated by orthoids, can be recognized, but many taxa are rooted in Late....... Biodiversity epicentres were located on most of the larger palaeoplates, as well as within the Iapetus Ocean. Provincial patterns were disrupted during the Sandbian and early Katian with the migration of many elements of the benthos into deeper-water regimes, enjoying a more cosmopolitan distribution. Later...

  17. Geochemical signatures in Late Triassic brachiopods from New Caledonia

    Ullmann, C. V.; Campbell, H. J.; Frei, R.;


    Otapirian (Norian to Rhaetian) fossil localities of the Baie de St.-Vincent area. Post-depositional impacts on the geochemical proxies were investigated by analysing calcite cements and partly recrystallized shell material. Diagenetic fluids carried strontium with a low 87Sr/86Sr ratio of c. 0.7065, and...




    传统的古生物学采样方法通常很少对同一化石层面展开进行,由此得到的多样性信息往往难以反映化石组合的真实情况.通过观察稀疏化曲线平缓程度来判断化石采样是否充分的经验方法并不严谨.本文在介绍古生物化石采样方法的基础上,提出采样是否充分的本质是采样获得的多样性与所属化石群落潜在多样性之间的接近程度.借鉴现代生物学中的多样性估计方法,以华夏正形贝腕足动物群为例,本研究采用EstimateS软件,定量估计4个化石点的潜在多样性;探讨客观判断采样充分的方法,同时通过曲线拟合法预测达到特定多样性可能需要的样本数量,为二次研究提供重要信息.该多样性估计方法是古生物研究中一个较新的领域,在多样性对比及特定化石群的多样性评估中均有较好应用前景.为得到更全面的多样性信息,文章建议相关研究在使用稀疏化的同时辅以多样性估计方法.%Traditionally? a single fossil bed seldom serves as the target when sampling methods are applied in palaeontological research. So the diversity information extracted cannot reflect the real situation of individual fossil assemblages. The method of relying on the flatness of rarefaction curves is often adopted to test sampling sufficiency; however, such measures are not strict. This paper indicates that sufficiency of sampling can be determined by comparing the consistency between acquired diversity and underlying diversity of fossil assemblages. According to method for estimating species richness introduced from modern biology, the present study took four localities from the Cathaysiorthis brachiopod fauna as an example. Their underlying diversity was estimated by the software Estimates. By means of curve fitting, the calculation of sample size corresponding to a given diversity was made, which can provide important information for future sampling. Such diversity

  19. Cloning,Expression Analysis and Promoter Isolation of Chalcone-synthase Gene from Fruits of Nane,Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata%油果实中查尔酮合成酶基因 PsCHS 的克隆表达分析及其启动子的分离

    姜翠翠; 王玉珍; 叶新福


    Chalcone-synthase (CHS,EC an important enzyme involved inflavonoids synthesis pathway in plants.This study aimed to investigate the gene structure and expression profile of CHS gene in the fruits of nane (Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata).A full-length cDNA sequence harboring a CHS gene,named PsCHS ,was successfully separated from a normalized full-length cDNA library of matured nane fruits.The up-stream promoter sequence of PsCHS was separated by genome walking strategy using primer pair designed byPsCHS sequence.The length of PsCHS was 1 442 bp with ORF of 1 176 bp and deduced amino acid of 392 aa.From the prediction by an online software,the promoter sequence of PsCHS have typical structure element TATA-box and CAAT-box, photon-response element, anaerote-induced element, endosperm-related element, MYB-bingding element and hormone-response element,etc.RT-PCR indicated that PsCHS had higher expression level at the earlier stage of development of the fruit,especially 40 d after blossom,then decreased to a lower level at the maturing stage. PsCHS seperated in this study was a member of the CHS gene family.Since CHS is a key enzyme involved in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway,PsCHS might act with a regulatory role in biosynthesis of flavonoids.%从成熟果实均一化全长 cDNA 文库中分离了编码 CHS 基因的全长 cDNA 序列,命名为 PsCHS ,根据其序列设计引物,采用 Genome Walking 方法从基因组 DNA 中分离获得 PsCHS 基因上游的调控序列,命名为 PsCHSp ,PsCHS 基因全长1442 bp,其中 ORF 1176 bp,编码392个氨基酸;采用 APA-Walking 技术,获得该基因的5′端调控区,经在线软件预测,启动子序列含有典型的结构特征元件 TATA-box 和 CAAT-box,还包含光响应元件、厌氧诱导元件、胚乳表达相关元件、MYB 结合位点以及激素响应元件;RT-PCR 结果显示,PsCHS 基因在果实发育的前期表达量较高,花后40 d 表达量最高,随

  20. Macleaya cordata Extracts: Effects on Stress Parameters and mRNA Expressions of Immunoglobulin G and Superoxide Dismutase of Cells Challenged by Lipopolysaccharide in Pigs%博落回提取物对脂多糖诱导猪应激细胞应激参数及免疫球蛋白G和超氧化物歧化酶mRNA表达的影响

    满意; 张春勇; 陈克嶙; 李美荃; 郭荣富


    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Macleaya cordata (MC) extracts on stress parameters and mRNA expressions of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of cells challenged by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in pigs. Embryo fibroblasts cells on the back of pigs were select-ed as the experimental material. The experiment was carried on normal cells and the stress model challenged by LPS. A basal culture medium was used in the control group, the basal culture medium supplemented with 50 μg/mL oxytetracycline was used in oxytetracycline group ( negative control) , and the basal culture medium supplemented with 50, 100 and 150 ng/mL MC extracts were used in MC groups, respectively. Contents of IgG, lysozyme (LSZ) , nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) , lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH) activity, as while as mRNA expression levels of IgG and SOD were determined. The results showed as fol-lows : 1) contents of IgG, NO, NOS and LSZ in MC group were all significantly higher than those in the con-trol group (P <0. 01) , and contents of IgG and LSZ in oxytetracycline group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P <0. 01). 2) For stressed and normal cells, IgG mRNA expression level in MC groups was significantly higher than that in the control group and oxytetracycline group (P <0. 01) , and 50 and 150 ng/mL MC groups were significantly higher than 150 ng/mL MC group (P <0. 01). IgG mRNA ex-pression level in oxytetracycline group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P <0. 01). IgG mRNA expression level of stressed cells was significantly higher than that of normal cells in 100 ng/mL MC group (P<0.01). 3) For stressed and normal cells, compared with the control group, supplementation of 50, 100 and 150 ng/mL MC extracts significantly increased SOD mRNA expression level (P <0.01). SOD expression level in oxytetracycline group was significantly higher than that in the control group and MC group (P

  1. Late Ordovician brachiopod distribution and ecospace partitioning in the Tvären crater system, Sweden

    Frisk, Asa M.; Harper, David A. T.


    succession accumulated. Within this narrow space environments varied from shallow-water to deeper-waters, about 200 m in depth, and from well oxygenated to hypoxic. Such varied environments generated a rough ecological landscape, facilitating niche partitioning across a relatively small geographic area...

  2. Rhynchonellides (Brachiopodes du Jurassique moyen de la Sierra de los Cameros province de Soria. Espagne

    Laurin, B.


    Full Text Available The outcrops of middle Bathonian and lower Callovian of the Sierra de los Cameros contains 4 rhynchonellids species with large morphologic variability. These species, one of which is new, are defined by both qualitative and quantitative analysis, Questions resulting ofvariability of external and internal features are discussed . The two bathonian species , Rhacthorhynchia cf. dumortieri(SZAJN. and Globirhynchia pinillensis nov. sp., are close of north african forms whereas the callovian ones, Rhynchonelloidella spathica (LMK and Septaliphoria mourdoni LAURIN, are still well known in the north-tethysian european realm. Their occurrence in Spain confirm their biostratigraphic interest.

    Les gisements du Bathonien supérieur el du Callovien inférieur de la Sierra de los Cameros renferment quatre espèces de rhynchonelles a large variabilité morphologique, Ces espèces, dont une nouvelle, sont étudiées et définies par des analyses qualitatives et quantitatives. Les problèmes posés par la variabilité de la morphologie externe et des structures internes sont discutés, Les deux espèces bathoniennes Rhacthorhynchia cf. dumortieri(SZAJN. et Globirhynchia pinillensis nov. sp, présentent des affínités avec des faunes d'Afrique du Nord tandis que Rhynchonelloidella spathica (LMK et Septaliphoria mourdoni LAURIN sont dejà bien connues dans le Callovien européen nord-téthysien. Leur présence en Espagne confirme leur intérêt biostratigraphique.
    En los yacimientos del Bathoniense superior y del Calloviense inferior de la Sierra de los Cameros se encuentran cuatro especies de Rhynchonellidae. Presentan una variabilidad morfológica amplia y, además, una de ellas es nueva. El estudio y la definición de todas se efectuaron por análisis cuantitativos y cualitativos. También se discuten aquí los problemas planteados por la variabilidad de la morfología externa y de las estructuras internas. Las dos especies del Bathoniense: Rhacthorhynchia cf. dumortieri(SzAJN. y Globirhynchia pinillensis nov. sp. presentan afin idades con faunas de Africa del Norte, mientras que Rhynchonelloidella spathica (LMK y Septaliphoria mourdoni LAURIN ya están bien conocidas en el Calloviense europeano norte-tethysiano. Por eso, su existencia en España confirma su interés bioestratigráfico.

  3. Biogeographic and bathymetric determinants of brachiopod extinction and survival during the Late Ordovician mass extinction

    Finnegan, Seth; Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian; Harper, David A. T.


    latest Katian, suggesting that it reflects drivers unique to this interval. Extinction of exclusively deeper-water genera implies that changes in water mass properties such as dissolved oxygen content played an important role. Extinction of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges suggests that interactions......–Early Silurian genus extinctions and evaluate which extinction drivers are best supported by the data. The first (latest Katian) pulse of the LOME preferentially affected genera restricted to deeper waters or to relatively narrow (less than 35°) palaeolatitudinal ranges. This pattern is only observed in the...

  4. Brachiopod associations from the Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway

    Candela, Yves; Hansen, Thomas


    The marine upper Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Elnes Formation of southern Norway contains very rich and diverse invertebrate faunas. Stratigraphically detailed recent collections of these well-preserved faunas have permitted a more thorough description of the various faunal groups and their...

  5. Phylogenomic analyses of lophophorates (brachiopods, phoronids and bryozoans) confirm the Lophotrochozoa concept

    Helmkampf, Martin; Bruchhaus, Iris; Hausdorf, Bernhard


    Based on embryological and morphological evidence, Lophophorata was long considered to be the sister or paraphyletic stem group of Deuterostomia. By contrast, molecular data have consistently indicated that the three lophophorate lineages, Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda and Phoronida, are more closely related to trochozoans (annelids, molluscs and related groups) than to deuterostomes. For this reason, the lophophorate groups and Trochozoa were united to Lophotrochozoa. However, the relationships of...

  6. Transition areas in the domain patterns of storeyed cambium of Tilia cordata Mill.

    Wiesław Włoch


    Full Text Available The occurrence of interlocked grain, generated by storeyed cambium, was observed in the wood of linden. The inclination of the grain changed periodically every two to four years. In general, the direction of the change of grain was compatible with the occurrence of configuration Z or S of cellular events. 1f, in the cambium during the generation of a growth ring, the domain border did not pass the examined area, the events were of one configuration type only, otherwise, there were two types of events aggregated into microareas. The microareas were the result of unsynchronous activities of groups of cambium cells. A growth ring area through which a domain border passed during the year under consideration was called the transition area.

  7. Origin and Lifestyles of early Brachiopods and other Lophotrochozoans : Insights from the Chengjiang and Guanshan Fossil-Lagerstätten

    Wang, Haizhou


    One of the great unsolved evolutionary questions concerns the origin and phylogeny of the major animal phyla that appeared in the fossil record more than 540 million years ago, during the Cambrian explosion. Although new molecular information has been very useful, we still have little understanding about the origin of most of the phyla of bilaterians living today. The richly diverse fossil remains from this critical early Cambrian interval are particularly well exposed in China, where excepti...

  8. The intrusive growth of initial cells in re-arangement of cells in cambium of Tilia cordata Mill.

    Wiesław Włoch


    Full Text Available In the cambium of linden producing wood with short period of grain inclination change (2-4 years, the intensive reorientation of cells takes place. This is possible mainly through an intrusive growth of cell ends from one radial file entering space between tangential walls of neighboring file and through unequal periclinal divisions that occur in the "initial surface". The intrusive growth is located on the longitudinal edge of a fusiform cell close to the end, and causes deviation of cell ends in a neighbouring file from the initial surface. Unequal periclinal division divides a cell with a deviated end into two derivatives, unequal in size. The one of them, which inherits the deviated end, leaves the initial surface becoming a xylem or phloem mother cell. This means that the old end is eliminated. The intensity of intrusive growth and unequal periclinal divisions is decisive for the velocity of cambial cell reorientation. The oriented intrusive growth occurs only in the initial cells. For that reason, changes in cell-ends position do not occur within one packet of cells but are distinct between neighbouring packets.

  9. The storeyed and non-storeyed arrangement of rays in the storeyed cambium of Tilia cordata Mill.

    Wiesław Włoch


    Full Text Available Due to restructuring of the cellular arrangement, rays in storeyed cambium undergo transformations, that is, uniting and splitting on the borders of storeys, when their height during development exceeds that of the storeys of fusiform cells. The primordial rays on the cambium surface have a non-storeyed arrangement. Prolonged predominance of splitting over uniting can lead to a situation in which the height of the rays does not exceed that of fusiform cell storeys. A storeyed arrangement of rays is thus formed. The maintenance of a given arrangement of rays in successive annual growths is the result of the cumulation of several traits, such as: 1 the seriation of rays, 2 the magnitude of grain inclination, 3 the rate of the restructuring of the cell arrangement. For example, the quicker a storeyed arrangement of rays will be formed the less the rays are seriated, the quicker the cells are restructured and the greater the inclination of their arrangement. The magnitude of the inclination of the grain and the rate of cell restructuring are traits connected with the arrangement of fusiform cells. The seriate nature of rays, however, is characteristic of rays and, moreover, it is a characteristic individual trait. It seems that the seriation of rays can play a valuable role in taxonomic analysis.

  10. Evolution of Silurian and Devonian sedimentary environments in the Prague basin: evidence from isotopic compositions of carbon and oxygen and trace element contents in brachiopod shells

    Hladíková, J.; Hladil, Jindřich; Košler, J.; Jačková, I.

    Frankfurt am Main : European Palaeontological Association, 2000 - (Oschmann, W.; Steininger, F.; Fürsich, F.), s. 43- 45+ 1 nečíslovaná [European Palaeontological Association Workshop 2000 - Biomarkes and Stable Isotopes in Palaeontology. Frankfurt am Main (DE), 30.06.2000-02.07.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/98/0454 Grant ostatní: XX(XX) IGCP386; XX(XC) IGCP421 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  11. Experimental Study on Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions of Houttuynia Cordata Injections%鱼腥草注射液过敏及类过敏实验研究

    张美玉; 李贻奎; 张嘉; 李连达


    目的 评价鱼腥草注射液及其辅料吐温80(Tween-80)静脉给药的致敏性.方法 采用Beagle犬类过敏及过敏实验,观察给药后动物行为变化和检测血浆中组胺、IgE、IgM、IgG的含量.结果 含有Tween-80的鱼腥草注射液及Tween-80组动物给药后出现显著的行为异常,血浆组胺升高,而IgE变化不规律,IgG、IgM则无明显改变.结论 鱼腥草注射液中导致犬严重类过敏反应与Tween-80有关.建议Beagle犬的过敏及类过敏试验,应作为中药注射液致敏试验的必做实验,行为异常及血浆中组胺为主要的判定指标,IgE作为辅助判定指标.

  12. Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc


    The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilu...

  13. The Urban Environment Can Modify Drought Stress of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)

    Astrid Moser; Thomas Rötzer; Stephan Pauleit; Hans Pretzsch


    The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and are therefore advantageous over other, more susceptible species. However, the drought tolerance of urban trees in relation to the specific growth conditions in urban areas remains poorly researc...

  14. Experimental Study on Anaphylactoid Reactions of Houttuynia Cordata Injections in Rhesus Macaque%鱼腥草注射液对食蟹猴类过敏实验研究

    张美玉; 李连达; 李贻奎; 张金艳; 何萍; 孙伟伟



  15. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system.

    Hay-Schmidt, A


    The pattern of development of the serotonergic nervous system is described from the larvae of ctenophores, platyhelminths, nemerteans, entoprocts, ectoprocts (bryozoans), molluscs, polychaetes, brachiopods, phoronids, echinoderms, enteropneusts and lampreys. The larval brain (apical ganglion) of spiralian protostomes (except nermerteans) generally has three serotonergic neurons and the lateral pair always innervates the ciliary band of the prototroch. In contrast, brachiopods, phoronids, echi...

  16. Ciliary and mucus-net filter feeding, with special reference to fluid mechanical characteristics

    Jørgensen, C.B.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.; Riisgård, H.U.


    feeding characterized by processing of water at low pressures (.ltoreq. 1 mm H2O). Mechanisms of water processing and particle retention in brachiopods and bivalves are compared. Laminar flow of through-currents and surface-currents in brachiopods is consistent with the hypothesis of capture of suspended...

  17. The Evolution of Brachiopoda

    Carlson, Sandra J.


    Brachiopods are (perhaps all too) familiar to any geology student who has taken an invertebrate paleontology course; they may well be less familiar to biology students. Even though brachiopods are among the most significant components of the marine fossil record by virtue of their considerable diversity, abundance, and long evolutionary history, fewer than 500 species are extant. Reconciling the geological and biological perspectives is necessary in order to test hypotheses, not only about phylogenetic relationships among brachiopods but also about their spectacular decline in diversity in the end-Permian mass extinction, which permanently reset their evolutionary trajectory. Studying brachiopod ontogeny and development, population genetics, ecology, physiology, and biogeography, as well as molecular systematics and phylogenomics, enables us to better understand the context of evolutionary processes over the short term. Investigating brachiopod morphological, taxonomic, and stratigraphic records over the Phanerozoic Eon reveals historical patterns of long-term macroevolutionary change, patterns that are simply unknowable from a biological perspective alone.

  18. Evolutionary patterns of Productida (Brachiopoda) morphology during the Permian in South China


    The evolutionary patterns of Productida (brachiopod) morphology throughout the Permian show that while the percentage proportion of Productida (brachiopod) with strongly concentric and radial ornamentation declined from the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian, and then increased towards the Changhsingian via Wuchiapingian, the percentage proportion of Productida (brachiopod) with fine concentric and radial ornamentation distinctly increased from the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian, slightly declined towards the Wuchiapingian, and then increased towards the Changhsingian. From the Cisuralian to the Changhsingian, the percentage proportion of brachiopods with spinose ornamentation shows a persistent declining trend. The shell size generally indicates a miniaturization trend at species level during the Wuchiapingian to Changhsingian (including the transitional bed). These evolutionary patterns of brachiopod ornamentation and size are possibly related to the anoxia, food shortage, sea-level fluctuation, and change of substrate in the Permian (including the Permian-Triassic transitional interval) in South China.

  19. Metamorphosis in Craniiformea revisited: Novocrania anomala shows delayed development of the ventral valve

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg; Holmer, Lars E.


    We revisited the brachiopod fold hypothesis and investigated metamorphosis in the craniiform brachiopod Novocrania anomala. Larval development is lecithotrophic and the dorsal (brachial) valve is secreted by dorsal epithelia. We found that the juvenile ventral valve, which consists only of a thin...... brachiopods during metamorphosis to cement their pedicle to the substrate. N. anomala is therefore not initially attached by a valve but by material corresponding to pedicle cuticle. This is different to previous descriptions, which had led to speculations about a folding event in the evolution of Brachiopoda...

  20. 星点设计效应面法优选鱼腥草分散片的处方工艺%Optimization of the Formulation Technology of Houttuynia cordata Dispersible Tablets by Central Composite Design and Response Surface Method



    目的:优选鱼腥草分散片的处方工艺.方法:以交联聚维酮(PVPP)、交联羧甲基纤维素钠(CCNa)、羧甲基淀粉钠(CMS)用量为考察因素,以崩解时限和累积溶出度为评价指标,采用星点设计效应面法优选鱼腥草分散片的处方工艺.结果:最优处方工艺为PVPP用量为19~20 mg,CCNa用量为29~37 mg,CMS用量为21~27 mg.结论:优选的处方工艺稳定、可行,可用于制备鱼腥草分散片.

  1. Biochemostratigraphy of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary Global Stratotype Section and Point, Griotte Formation, La Serre, Montagne Noire, France

    Brand, U.; Legrand-Blain, M.; Streel, Maurice


    The Griotte Formation and the base of Bed 89 exposed at La Serre, Montagne Noire, France represent the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Devonian-Carboniferous (D-C) boundary. This study represents the geochemical work on brachiopods and matrix covering the Siphonodella praesulcata to Siphonodella sulcata Zones at the GSSP. Values of Sr-87/Sr-86 of unaltered brachiopods provide the most powerful biochemostratigraphic tool in recognizing and correlating the Devonian-Carbonifer...

  2. The demosponge Leptomitus cf. L. lineatus, first occurence from the Middle Cambrian of Spain (Murero Formation, Western Iberian Chain)

    García-Bellido, Diego


    The Middle Cambrian Murero Formation in the Iberian Chain (NE Spain) has yielded a small collection of softbodied fossils (palaeoscolecid worms, onychophorans, algae), a host of fossils from organisms with mineralized skeletons such as trilobites and brachiopods, and some trace fossils. This paper deals with the description of the only specimen of the demosponge Leptomitus known so far from Spain and its association with the brachiopod Micromitra, showing a probable case of commensalism by th...

  3. 77 FR 34463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...


    ... erecta...... Asplenium New scientific name. No. dielerectum. 64 FR 48307 Rubiaceae Hedyotis Kadua cordata ssp. New scientific name. No. schlechtendahliana remyi. var. remyi 57 FR 46325 Rubiaceae Hedyotis... for 124 Species (76 FR 46362). Previous Federal Actions Twenty of the 40 species proposed...

  4. Behavior of lophophorates during the end-Permian mass extinction and recovery

    Powers, Catherine M.; Bottjer, David J.


    The end-Permian mass extinction devastated most marine communities and the recovery was a protracted event lasting several million years into the Early Triassic. Environmental and biological processes undoubtedly controlled patterns of recovery for marine invertebrates in the aftermath of the extinction, but are often difficult to single-out. The global diversity and distribution of marine lophophorates during the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction indicates that stenolaemate bryozoans, rhynchonelliform brachiopods, and lingulid brachiopods displayed distinct recovery patterns. Bryozoans were the most susceptible of the lophophorates, experiencing relatively high rates of extinction at the end of the Permian, and becoming restricted to the Boreal region during the Early Triassic. The recovery of bryozoans was also delayed until the Late Triassic and characterized by very low diversity and abundance. Following the final disappearance of Permian rhynchonelliform brachiopod survivors, Early Triassic rhynchonelliform brachiopod abundance remained suppressed despite a successful re-diversification and a global distribution, suggesting a decoupling between global taxonomic and ecological processes likely driven by lingering environmental stress. In contrast with bryozoans and rhynchonelliforms, lingulid brachiopods rebounded rapidly, colonizing shallow marine settings left vacant by the extinction. Lingulid dominance, characterized by low diversity but high numerical abundance, was short-lived and they were once again displaced back into marginal settings as environmental stress changed through the marine recovery. The presence in lingulid brachiopods of the respiratory pigment hemerythrin, known to increase the efficacy of oxygen storage and transport, when coupled with other morphological and physiological adaptations, may have given lingulids a survival advantage in environmentally stressed Early Triassic settings.

  5. The Middle Givetian pumilio-Events a tool for high time resolution and event-stratigraphical correlation

    Lottmann, Jan

    The Givetian pumilio Horizons consist of two dark brachiopod packstones intercalated in sequences of cephalopod limestones in Germany, S-France and North Africa. Their exceptional character is not only based on the mass occurrence of Terebratula pumilio (a small brachiopod), but also on additional biofacial and special sedimentological features. Due to their synchronous, extremely short-term deposition the pumilio Horizons are excellent index horizons for a basin-wide correlation of Givetian pelagic limestones and for a further refinement of the middle Givetian time-scale. An interpretation of the pumilio Horizons as tsunami deposits is given.

  6. The lower Maastrichtian Hivdskud succession, Møns Klint, Denmark

    Jelby, M.E.; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Surlyk, Finn; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Harlou, Rikke; Korte, Christoph


    age of ~70.9 Ma for the base of the succession and a duration of >680 kyr for the investigated interval. The Hvidskud succession is well-exposed, easily accessible, and the new stratigraphic framework and precise age model suggest that it can be used as a key locality for stratigraphic correlation of...... the lower Maastrichtian in north-western Europe. Information on palaeo-seawater temperatures can be drawn from oxygen isotope records obtained from bulk rock samples and 24 micromorphic brachiopod specimens (Terebratulina faujasii). The brachiopod data show a clear diagenetic trend but point to an...

  7. Interrogation of distributional data for the End Ordovician crisis interval

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian; Harper, David Alexander Taylor


    The uppermost Ordovician–lowermost Silurian (Upper Katian–Rhuddanian) is surveyed with respect to the a- and ß-diversity of rhynchonelliformean brachiopods. The survey is based on new collections as well as existing literature, compiled in a large, georeferenced database. The brachiopod faunas......–earliest Silurian crisis interval, following the concept of Benthic Assemblage zones. Both analyses support the view of a two-phased late Ordovician (Hirnantian) decline in diversity followed by a radiation in the early Silurian (Rhuddanian). These data show that the main taxonomic loss was geographically located...


    Nicoleta IANOVICI


    Full Text Available Această cercetare prezintă date obţinute prin prelevarea polenului de la patru specii (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Tilia cordata şi testarea viabilităţii acestuia prin tratare cu TTC. Aceste date preliminare sunt insuficiente pentru a da o concluzie specifică. Oricum, se poate spune că viabilitatea polenului poate fi un parametru reprezentativ pentru a stabili care plante sunt mai bine adaptate mediului urban. Modificarea viabilităţii polenului indică prezenţa gazelor cu caracter poluant, rezultate mai ales din traficul rutier, la toate cele patru specii. Polenul de Plantago lanceolata şi Tilia cordata ar putea fi folosit ca bio-indicator al calităţii aerului într-un ecosistem urban.

  9. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2011-31 July 2011.

    Barker, F Keith; Bell, James J; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Bonatto, S L; Cezilly, Frank; Collins, Sarah M; Dubreuil, Christine; Dufort, Matthew J; Eraud, Cyril; Fuseya, Reiko; Heap, E A; Jacobsen, N; Madders, M; McEwing, R; Michel, Andrew P; Mougeot, F; Ogden, R S; Orantes, Lucia C; Othman, A S; Parent, Eric; Pulido-Santacruz, P; Rioux-Paré, Rachel; Roberts, M F; Rosazlina, R; Sakamoto, Takashi; De-León, Pelayo Salinas; Sévigny, Jean-Marie; St-Onge, Philippe; Terraube, J; Tingay, R E; Tremblay, Réjean; Watanabe, Seiichi; Wattier, Rémi A


    This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus, Circus macrourus, Circus pygargus, Cryptocoryne × purpurea Ridl. nothovar. purpurea, Mya arenaria, Patagioenas squamosa, Prochilodus mariae, Scylla serrata and Scytalopus speluncae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Cryptocoryne × purpurea nothovar. purpurea, Cryptocoryne affinis, Cryptocoryne ciliata, Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata, Cryptocoryne elliptica, Cryptocoryne griffithii, Cryptocoryne minima, Cryptocoryne nurii and Cryptocoryne schulzei. This article also documents the addition of 24 sequencing primer pairs and 24 allele-specific primers or probes for Aphis glycines. PMID:21951598

  10. Comparison of Torpedograss and Pickerelweed Susceptibility to Glyphosate

    Gettys, Lyn A.; Sutton, David L.


    Torpedograss (Panicum repens L.) is one of the most invasive exotic plants in aquatic systems. Repeat applications of (N-phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate) herbicides provide limited control of torpedograss; unfortunately, glyphosate often negatively impacts most non-target native species that grow alongside the weed. This experiment studied the effect of glyphosate on pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.), a native plant that shares habitats with torpedograss. Actively gr...


    Alexander Vatľák; Adriana Kolesárová; Nenad Vukovič; Katarína Rovná; Jana Petrová; Viktória Vimmerová; Lukáš Hleba; Martin Mellen; Miroslava Kačániová


    In this study, methanolic extracts of Tilia cordata Mill. and Aesculus hippocastanum which had been described in herbal books, were screened for their antimicrobial activity against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The following strains of bacteria for antimicrobial activity were used gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix ...


    Konoshina, S.; Khilkova, N.


    Analysis of heavy metal accumulation of leaf litter of woody plants: Aesculus hippocastanum Aesculus hippocastanum, heart-shaped linden Tilia cordata, Siberian larch Larix sibirica, mountain ash Sorbus aucuparia, warty birch Betula verrucosa, growing within Orel City is given. The kinds of woody plants, which leaf litter has the largest accumulation of heavy metals are determined. The maximum total content of heavy metals in leaf litter was observed in mountain ash and birch.

  13. Compostos voláteis em méis florais Volatile compounds in floral honeys

    Carlos Alberto Bastos De Maria; Ricardo Felipe Alves Moreira


    A review about origin, composition and importance of volatile compounds in floral honeys is presented. Hydrocarbons, aromatic components, acids, diacids, terpenoids, ketones, aldehydes, esters and alcohols have been found in honey aroma of different botanical origin. Cis-rose oxide has been proposed as an indicator for Tilia cordata honey. Citrus honeys are known to contain methyl anthranilate, a compound which other honeys virtually lack. Linalool, phenylethylalcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, p-a...

  14. La capacidad desfaunante del extracto de plantas en el rumen

    Alejandro Ley de Coss; Jaime Jorge Martínez Tinajero; Francisco Javier Marroquín Agreda; Carlos Gumaro García Castillo; Oziel Dante Montañez Valdez; Enrique Guerra Medina


    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la capacidad de eliminar protozoarios del rumen con el uso del extracto soluble en agua de las plantas Buddleia cordata, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Datura inoxia, Marrubium vulgare, Mentha piperita y Verbesina perymenioides, las cuales contienen compuestos secundarios con posible efecto tóxico sobre los protozoarios ciliados del rumen. La capacidad desfaunante (CD) del extracto soluble en agua de las plantas se realizó inoculando 0,5 mL de un concen...

  15. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  16. Porovnání sezónních změn ekofyziologických charakteristik dvou vybraných stromů pod vlivem stresu městského prostředí

    Šindelářová, Lenka


    This thesis deals with the study of impact of stress to the two types of broadleaved trees in urban environment during the growing season. The studied species were Small-leaved Lime (Tilia cordata) and London Planetree (Platanus acerifolia). Trees are the important part of the urban environment both from an aesthetic standpoint and from the standpoint of the reduction of negative effects of the urban environment. However, these trees are under the constant influence of stress factors with whi...

  17. Chemical Constituents and Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Two Aglaia Species

    WANG,Bin-Gui; LI,Xiao-Ming; PROKSCH,Peter


    @@ In the course of searching bioactive natural products from the plant genus Aglaia, we selected two species, A. cordata and A. testicularis, for further chemical study. Totally twenty natural compounds were obtained and structurally elucidated with which eleven of them were discovered for the first time. Among these compounds, lignans, rocaglamides,aglains and bisamides were the main constituents of the two plant species. The results from a bioactive screening indicated that some of the lignans possess potent antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  18. Popis gnezditvene naselbine brinovke Turdus pilaris v Ključih pri Rodinah: Survey of a breeding colony of the Fieldfare Turdus pilaris at Ključi near Rodine:

    Kozinc, Boris


    The breeding colony of Fieldfares discovered on April 25th 1998 at Ključi comprised 18 nests. The breeding success was poor, for only 11 young left three nests (or o.61 young per nest). All the nests were situated in lime trees. Tilia platyphyllos and Tilia cordata at an average height of 9.5 metresfrom the ground. Half of the nests were hidden in mistletoe.

  19. Surface energy balance affects gas exchange and growth of two transplanted landscape trees

    Montague, Thayne; Kjelgren, Roger; Rupp, Larry


    Research was conducted to investigate how energy balance of bark mulch and turf surfaces influence gas exchange and growth of recently transplanted trees. On several occasions over a 3-year period, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature were measured throughout the day on `Emerald Queen' Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) and `Greenspire' littleleaf linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) trees growing over each surface. Tree water loss was estimated using a general transport flux equation applied to...

  20. Taphonomy of a thick Terebratula bioherm from the Pliocene of southeastern Spain

    García-Ramos, Diego A.


    Brachiopods were extremely abundant during the Paleozoic era but underwent a dramatic loss of biodiversity at the Permo-Triassic boundary. The comparison of brachiopod and bivalve diversity through geological time shows that the latter were the most successful counterpart at best recovering from mass extinction events. Nonetheless, there are cases where Post-Paleozoic brachiopods stand out as the dominant marine benthos in particular environments, forming paucispecific brachiopod-dominated bioherms. This note describes an example of shallow-water brachiopod bioherm dominated by the terebratulid Terebratula calabra. The shell bed is found in mixed siliciclastic-temperate carbonate deposits of late Early Pliocene age nearby Águilas (southeastern Spain). This unique brachiopod concentration may be helpful to understand the particular success of large-sized brachiopods like Terebratula in Cenozoic environments typically dominated by bivalves. The bioherm attains 1.5 meters in thickness and crops out along a band up to 140 meters wide. The lithology consists of bioturbated fine-grained sands containing poorly sorted bioclasts, mostly fragments of Terebratula. This shell bed also records a diverse fauna, including five brachiopod genera, pectinids (4 genera), oysters (3 genera), in addition to rare gastropods, echinoids, bryozoans, etc. The density and sorting of bioclasts is laterally variable, and the biofabrics range from loosely dispersed to densely-packed, including examples of concave-up vertical stacking and nesting of shells. Most of the fragments of Terebratula preserve the posterior part of the shell only. These fragments generally display corrasion (rounded fractured margins, rounded to completely missing symphytium), bioerosion (prevailing the ichnogenera Entobia, Gnathichnus and Podichnus) and encrustation (mainly by bryozoans, Ancistrocrania, and Pododesmus). The good preservation of Pododesmus contrasts with that of most fragments of Terebratula, although


    Alexander Vatľák


    Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of Tilia cordata Mill. and Aesculus hippocastanum which had been described in herbal books, were screened for their antimicrobial activity against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The following strains of bacteria for antimicrobial activity were used gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix thermosphacta CCM 4769, Enterococcus raffinosus CCM 4216, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1828, Paenobacillus larvae CCM 4483 and Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418 using disc diffusion method and microbroth dilution technique according to CLSI. Probit analysis was used in this experiment. Of the 2 plant extracts tested, all extracts showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The highest antibacterial activity of Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum methanolic extract was measured against gramnegative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa used with disc diffusion method. The strong antimicrobial activity with microbroth dilution method of Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum were found against Listeria ivanovii.

  2. Selective silicification of fossils by syntaxial overgrowths on quartz sand, Oriskany Sandstone (Lower Devonian), New York

    Maliva, Robert G.


    Some fossil fragments in the Oriskany Sandstone (Lower Devonian) of New York were partially replaced by syntaxial quartz overgrowths. These replacive overgrowths are significant in that they provide insights into the mechanism and controls of quartz replacement of calcite. The susceptibility of the different calcite types of quartz replacement was governed by their microstructural complexity. Fossil fragments with finely crystalline microstructures, such as brachiopods, ostracods, and bryozoans, were partially replaced by quartz, whereas echinoderm ossicles, which consist of single large calcite crystals, were not replaced. Calcite cement was also immune to replacement. Brachiopod, bryozoan, and ostracod bioclasts (with minor exceptions) underwent partial replacement by quartz (with its concomitant shell calcite dissolution) only where the shell fragments were in contact with detrital quartz grains. Proximity to authigenic crystal nucleation sites (i.e., quartz sand grains) was thus the prime control over whether host mineral dissolution occurred, which is a situation unique to the force of crystallization-driven replacement mechanism.

  3. New Devonian fossil localities in Bolivia

    Blieck, A.; Gagnier, P.-Y.; Bigey, F. P.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Janvier, P.; Loboziak, S.; Rachebȩuf, P. R.; Sempere, T.; Steemans, P.


    An examination of Palaeozoic sections west of Cochabamba, and west of Lake Poopó, in western Bolivia, was conducted during a field expedition in 1991. The Río Iglesiani valley, west of Cochabamba, surprisingly yielded a Middle Devonian age to all the visited sites, originally supposed to be Ordovician. This result is based on spores, shelly faunas (brachiopods and bivalves), and trilobites. The Copacabana de Andamarca section, west of Lake Poopó, is also dated as Middle Devonian on account of its rather rich fauna (bryozoans, corals, brachiopods, conulariids, hyolithids, tentaculitids, ostracodes, trilobites, crinoids, vertebrates). Both localities correlate to the Icla and/or Huamampampa Formation of the Tarabuco area and Subandean belt, and to the Belén and/or Sica Sica Formation of the northern Altiplano.

  4. A new species of Conchicolites (Cornulitida, Tentaculita from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden

    Olev Vinn


    Full Text Available A new cornulitid species, Conchicolites crispisulcans sp. nov., is described from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden. The undulating edge of C. crispisulcans sp. nov. peristomes is unique among the species of Conchicolites. This undulating peristome edge may reflect the position of setae at the tube aperture. The presence of the undulating peristome edge supports the hypothesis that cornulitids had setae and were probably related to brachiopods.

  5. Earliest report of the genus Phyricodothyris George (Brachiopoda: Reticularioidea) in North America

    Carter, J.L.; Kollar, A.D.; Brezinski, D.K.


    Described from the Wymps Gap Member of the Mauch Chunk Formation of southwestern Pennsylvania and adjacent Maryland is a new species, Phyricodothyris lauriegrahamae, of the Upper Mississippian reticulariod brachiopod Phyricodothyris George, 1932. The Wymps Gap Limestone from which the type material was collected is middle Chesterian (late Visdan) in age. This is the first report of this genus from confirmed Mississippian rocks in North America.

  6. Environmental parameters of a coral assemblage from the Akerchi Formation (Carboniferous), Adarouch Area, central Morocco

    Said, I; Rodríguez, Sergio; Berkhli, M.; Cózar, Pedro; Gómez-Herguedas, Alberto


    [EN] Rich assemblages of rugose corals occur in the Tizra, Akerchi and Idmarrach formations (Mississippian) near El-Hajeb City. The Akerchi Formation, approximately 140 m thick, is divided into two members. The upper part of the lower member contains a biostrome 2 to 5 m thick, composed mainly of rugose corals and gigantoproductid brachiopods embedded in marly limestone. Its local thickness increases from southwest to northeast in an outcrop extending for more than one kilometre. ...

  7. Prolonged Permian–Triassic ecological crisis recorded by molluscan dominance in Late Permian offshore assemblages

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Bottjer, David J.


    The end-Permian mass extinction was the largest biotic crisis in the history of animal life, eliminating as many as 95% of all species and dramatically altering the ecological structure of marine communities. Although the causes of this pronounced ecosystem shift have been widely debated, the broad consensus based on inferences from global taxonomic diversity patterns suggests that the shift from abundant brachiopods to dominant molluscs was abrupt and largely driven by the catastrophic effec...

  8. High-resolution isotope stratigraphy of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in the Namur-Dinant Basin, Belgium

    Amy, K.; Poty, E.; Brand, U.


    The Devonian–Carboniferous (D–C) boundary sequence of the Namur–Dinant Basin in southern Belgium consists of marine platform carbonates. Global biostratigraphic correlation of the boundary has been a dilemma due to the absence of index conodont zones. Despite the scarcity of brachiopods, we managed to sample twenty-five calcitic shells from boundary beds at the Royseux-Gare section, to reconstruct biochemostratigraphic profiles of oxygen-, carbon- and strontium-isotopes for correlations with ...

  9. Trait-based diversification shifts reflect differential extinction among fossil taxa

    Wagner, Peter J; Estabrook, George F.


    Shifts in biological diversity often are associated with particular anatomical traits. Anatomical data from over 300 clades of brachiopods, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms, and chordates show that trait-based diversification shifts are common at even fairly low (genus and species) taxonomic levels. Cambrian taxa present the lone major exception. Among post-Cambrian taxa, diversification shifts correlate strongly with elevated net extinction of primitive taxa rather than elevated net speciat...

  10. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    Wong, Yue Him; Ryu, Taewoo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy


    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula ne...

  11. 18S rRNA suggests that Entoprocta are protostomes, unrelated to Ectoprocta

    Mackey, L.Y.; Winnepenninckx, B.; Wachter, R.; Backeljau, T.; Emschermann, P.; Garey, J.R.


    The Ento- and Ectoprocta are sometimes placed together in the Bryozoa, which have variously been regarded as proto- or deuterostomes. However, Entoprocta have also been allied to the pseudocoelomates, while Ectoprocta are often united with the Brachiopoda and Phoronida in the (super)phylum Lophophorata. Hence, the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa are still much debated. We determined complete 18S rRNA sequences of two entoprocts, an ectoproct, an inarticulate brachiopod, a phoronid, t...

  12. New phylogenomic data support the monophyly of Lophophorata and an Ectoproct-Phoronid clade and indicate that Polyzoa and Kryptrochozoa are caused by systematic bias

    Nesnidal, Maximilian P; Helmkampf, Martin; Meyer, Achim; Witek, Alexander; Bruchhaus, Iris; Ebersberger, Ingo; Hankeln, Thomas; Lieb, Bernhard; Struck, Torsten H; Hausdorf, Bernhard


    Background: Within the complex metazoan phylogeny, the relationships of the three lophophorate lineages, ectoprocts, brachiopods and phoronids, are particularly elusive. To shed further light on this issue, we present phylogenomic analyses of 196 genes from 58 bilaterian taxa, paying particular attention to the influence of compositional heterogeneity. Results: The phylogenetic analyses strongly support the monophyly of Lophophorata and a sister-group relationship between Ectoprocta and Ph...

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata) - compositional bias affects phylogenetic analyses of lophotrochozoan relationships

    Nesnidal Maximilian P; Helmkampf Martin; Bruchhaus Iris; Hausdorf Bernhard


    Abstract Background The phylogenetic relationships of the lophophorate lineages, ectoprocts, brachiopods and phoronids, within Lophotrochozoa are still controversial. We sequenced an additional mitochondrial genome of the most species-rich lophophorate lineage, the ectoprocts. Although it is known that there are large differences in the nucleotide composition of mitochondrial sequences of different lineages as well as in the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins, this bias is often n...

  14. Modern Data on the Innervation of the Lophophore in Lingula anatina (Brachiopoda) Support the Monophyly of the Lophophorates.

    Temereva, Elena N; Tsitrin, Eugeni B


    Evolutionary relationships among members of the Lophophorata remain unclear. Traditionally, the Lophophorata included three phyla: Brachiopoda, Bryozoa or Ectoprocta, and Phoronida. All species in these phyla have a lophophore, which is regarded as a homologous structure of the lophophorates. Because the organization of the nervous system has been traditionally used to establish relationships among groups of animals, information on the organization of the nervous system in the lophophore of phoronids, brachiopods, and bryozoans may help clarify relationships among the lophophorates. In the current study, the innervation of the lophophore of the inarticulate brachiopod Lingula anatina is investigated by modern methods. The lophophore of L. anatina contains three brachial nerves: the main, accessory, and lower brachial nerves. The main brachial nerve is located at the base of the dorsal side of the brachial fold and gives rise to the cross neurite bundles, which pass through the connective tissue and connect the main and accessory brachial nerves. Nerves emanating from the accessory brachial nerve account for most of the tentacle innervation and comprise the frontal, latero-frontal, and latero-abfrontal neurite bundles. The lower brachial nerve gives rise to the abfrontal neurite bundles of the outer tentacles. Comparative analysis revealed the presence of many similar features in the organization of the lophophore nervous system in phoronids, brachiopods, and bryozoans. The main brachial nerve of L. anatina is similar to the dorsal ganglion of phoronids and the cerebral ganglion of bryozoans. The accessory brachial nerve of L. anatina is similar to the minor nerve ring of phoronids and the circumoral nerve ring of bryozoans. All lophophorates have intertentacular neurite bundles, which innervate adjacent tentacles. The presence of similar nerve elements in the lophophore of phoronids, brachiopods, and bryozoans supports the homology of the lophophore and the


    Garcia, Jean-Pierre


    The study deals with the biological impacts of sea-Ievel changes on evolution of a Jurassic benthic fossil group (Ornithellida, Brachiopoda). The different time and scale at which the shifts in marine environments occur leads to the recognition of three interacting dynamic systems: environmental, communities, populations dynamics. The analysis is thus divided into a three steps hierarchy: sequence stratigraphy, analysis of the diversity of brachiopod assemblages, and analysis of morphological...

  16. Early to Middle Jurassic palaeoenvironmental changes: High resolution δ13C and δ18O records from the UK

    Korte, Christoph; Hesselbo, Stephen; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz;

    Low-Mg-calcite fossils, such as bivalves, belemnites and brachiopods, and bulk rocks have been extensively utilized to reconstruct past seawater chemistry and paleoenviron¬mental changes. Recent work on major bioevents demonstrated that particularly higher resolution stable isotope records are...... of second-order depositional sequences though the Early to Middle Juras¬sic supporting the idea that second-order depositional se¬quences are a result of eustatic sea-level changes at that time....

  17. Charles Darwin's 'Gorgonia' : a palaeontological mystery from the Falkland Islands resolved

    Stone, Phil; Rushton, Adrian; Fearnhead, Fiona


    During the celebrated voyage of HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin visited the Falkland Islands twice, in March 1833 and March 1834. He thought the islands bleak and inhospitable, but was much excited during his first visit to discover fossils at Port Louis. These he recognised as brachiopods (a type of shellfish) and crinoids (often described descriptively as ‘sea-lilies’ but actually animals related to sea urchins); an example of the kind of fossils that he saw is shown in Figure 1.

  18. Decoding the fossil record of early lophophorates : Systematics and phylogeny of problematic Cambrian Lophotrochozoa

    Butler, Aodhán D.


    The evolutionary origins of animal phyla are intimately linked with the Cambrian explosion, a period of radical ecological and evolutionary innovation that begins approximately 540 Mya and continues for some 20 million years, during which most major animal groups appear. Lophotrochozoa, a major group of protostome animals that includes molluscs, annelids and brachiopods, represent a significant component of the oldest known fossil records of biomineralised animals, as disclosed by the enigmat...

  19. Oxygen-isotope trends and seawater temperature changes across the Late Cambrian Steptoean positive carbon-isotope excursion (SPICE event)

    Elrick, M.; Rieboldt, S.; Saltzman, M.; McKay, R.M.


    The globally recognized Late Cambrian Steptoean positive C-isotope excursion (SPICE) is characterized by a 3???-5??? positive ??13C shift spanning <4 m.y. Existing hypotheses suggest that the SPICE represents a widespread ocean anoxic event leading to enhanced burial/preservation of organic matter (Corg) and pyrite. We analyzed ??18O values of apatitic inarticulate brachiopods from three Upper Cambrian successions across Laurentia to evaluate paleotemperatures during the SPICE. ??18O values range from ~12.5??? to 16.5???. Estimated seawater temperatures associated with the SPICE are unreasonably warm, suggesting that the brachiopod ??18O values were altered during early diagenesis. Despite this, all three localities show similar trends with respect to the SPICE ??13C curve, suggesting that the brachiopod apatite preserves a record of relative ??18O and temperature changes. The trends include relatively high ??18O values at the onset of the SPICE, decreasing and lowest values during the main event, and an increase in values at the end of the event. The higher ??18O values during the global extinction at the onset of the SPICE suggests seawater cooling and supports earlier hypotheses of upwelling of cool waters onto the shallow shelf. Decreasing and low ??18O values coincident with the rising limb of the SPICE support the hypothesis that seawater warming and associated reduced thermohaline circulation rates contributed to decreased dissolved O2 concentrations, which enhanced the preservation/burial of Corg causing the positive ??13C shift. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.




    Full Text Available The Guadalupian succession of the Huqf area (Sultanate of Oman represents a mega-sequence comprising the fluvial terrigenous Gharif Formation and the overlying marine Khuff Formation. The Khuff Fm. is subdivided into four members and is composed of marls and bioclastic limestones. The Khuff Fm. yields a rich fauna of brachiopods, conodonts, foraminifers, bivalves, gastropods, ostracods and cephalopods. The brachiopod fauna of the Khuff Fm. includes strophomenids, productids, orthids and terebratulids. The associated conodont fauna includes Hindeodus excavatus Behnken, Merrilina sp., M. praedivergens Kozur & Mostler, and Sweetina n. sp. (systematic descriptions of conodonts are given in the Paleontological Appendix. Foraminifers are represented by species of Miliolina and Rotaliina. The Khuff Fm. is given a Wordian age, based on brachiopods and conodonts. The depositional environment of the Khuff Fm. of southeastern Oman corresponds to the outer shelf of a large carbonate platform covering most of the Arabian Platform. The Khuff Fm. is interpreted as a major transgressive-regressive cycle related to differential subsidence. 

  1. Design and Evaluation of Processes to Obtain Antioxidant-Rich Extracts from tropical fruits cultivated in Amazon, Caldas and Northern Tolima Regions

    Cerón Salazar, Ivonne Ximena


    En esta tesis se presenta un análisis del diseño del proceso para la obtención de extractos ricos en antioxidantes a partir de cinco frutas tropicales (Cordata matisia, Physalis peruviana, Solanum betaceum, Theobroma grandiflorum, Renealmia alpinia). Se utilizaron procedimientos de simulación basado en la caracterización experimental para evaluar el rendimiento de las diferentes tecnologías para las etapas de pretratamiento, extracción y concentración utilizando el software Aspen Plus. Se...

  2. Retrospective study of 14C concentration in the vicinity of NPP Jaslovské Bohunice using tree rings and the AMS technique

    Ješkovský, Miroslav; Povinec, Pavel P.; Steier, Peter; Šivo, Alexander; Richtáriková, Marta; Golser, Robin


    Atmospheric radiocarbon has been monitored around the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Jaslovské Bohunice (Slovakia) using CO2 absorption in NaOH solution since 1969. In 2012, tree ring samples were collected from Tilia cordata using an increment borer at Žlkovce monitoring station situated close to the Bohunice NPP. Each tree ring was identified and graphite targets were produced for 14C analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C concentrations obtained from the tree-ring samples have been in a reasonable agreement with the averaged annual 14C concentrations in atmospheric CO2.

  3. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  4. Preliminary Exploration of a Novel Type High-effi-ciency Mosquito-repellent Compound Essential Oils

    Pei; Jing; Zhou; Yin; Sun; Yizhe; Wang; Tao; Yang; Jingya


    The essential oils were extracted from flowers and branches of Cestrum genus plant Telosma cordata(Burm. F.) Merr.,and used for purifying the mosquito-repellent refined oils. The yielded extracts were mixed with single nerve-smoothing or nerve-exciting components from lavender and peppermint or mixed with basal oils(like evening primrose),in order to prepare the novel type compound essential oils conferring mosquito-repellent and air-refreshing actions. The resulted compound was prepared into solid air freshener.

  5. Evaluation of Alnus species and hybrids. [For biomass energy production

    Hall, R.B. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US). Dept. of Forestry); Burgess, D. (Petawawa National Forestry Inst., Chalk River, Ontario (CA))


    Trials of a common set of seed lots representing 39 parents and five species of Alnus have been started in four countries: Belgium, Canada, the UK, and the US. Initial results indicate that cold hardiness is a problem in using A. acuminata but that sufficiently hardy A. rubra sources are available. A. glutinosa had the best growth in the nursery, and A. cordata had the best survival under severe moisture-stress conditions. A summary also is given of a workshop on alder improvement that further demonstrates the potential for developing the genus for biomass energy production. (author).

  6. Números cromosómicos de Asteraceae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA), México, Distrito Federal Chromosome numbers in Asteraceae of the Ecological Reserve of the Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA), Mexico City, Mexico

    Fabiola Soto-Trejo; Guadalupe Palomino; José Luis Villaseñor


    Se registraron los números cromosómicos mitóticos o meióticos de 31 especies de Asteraceae en la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA), y por primera vez, los conteos cromosómicos de 3 especies endémicas de México: Acourtia cordata (2n= 54), Ageratina cylindrica (2n= 34) y Viguiera buddleiiformis (n= 17). Se discuten los resultados obtenidos de acuerdo con los datos disponibles para cada especie analizada.Mitotic or meiotic chromosome numbers are recorded for 31 species of Aster...

  7. Měkkýši PR Velké Doly u Českého Těšína (Slezsko, Česká republika) Molluscs of the Velké Doly Natural Reserve near the town of Český Těšín (Silesia, Czech Republic)

    Jiří Kupka


    The molluscan fauna of the Velké Doly Natural Reserve was surveyed in 1999 and 2006. In total, 27 snail species were found (26 terrestrial gastropods and 1 bivalve). The Natural Reserve is only 1.5 km far from ironworks “Třinecké železárny”. In the 18th century, there was a limestone quarry and beech plantation (as a fuel for ironworks) in the reserve. At the present time the reserve represents the secondary forests society Tilio cordatae-Carpinetum with protected and regional notable plants ...

  8. Tratamiento de aguas residuales por humedales artificiales tropicales en Tabasco, México

    Cristian Marín Acosta


    Full Text Available En las dos últimas décadas, los humedales artificiales han incrementado mundialmente su desarrollo para el tratamiento de aguas residuales. En el presente estudio, doce humedales artificiales tropicales de flujo subsuperficial (HAFS fueron diseñados y operados específicamente para el tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas. La eficiencia de remoción de contaminantes básicos (DBO5, DQO, SST, NT, PT, Turbiedad y Color fue evaluada bajo tres tratamientos: 1 Pontederia cordata (HAFS-Tule, 2 Phragmites australis (HAFS-Carrizo y 3 grava como prueba testigo (HAFS-Grava.

  9. As espécies de Euglossa Latreille do nordeste de São Paulo (Apidae, Euglossinae The species of Euglossa Latreille from the northeast of São Paulo, Brazil (Apidae, Euglossinae

    José Manuel Macário Rebelo


    Full Text Available A key and short descriptions are given to the males of the eleven species of Euglossa Latreillle, 1802. collected in cineole; eugenol and vanillin in natural forest reserves of the Northeast of São Paulo State (Cajuru, Sertãozinho, Dumont, Ribeirão Preto, Luís Antônio and Pedregulho. Namely: E. imperialis Cockerell. 1922; E. annectans Dressler. 1982; E. pleosticta Dressler. 1982; E. townsendi Cockerell. 1904; E. melanotricha Moure, 1967; E. cordata (Linaeus, 1758; E. securigera Dressler, 1982; E. fimbriata. sp.n.; E. leucotricha. sp.n.; E. truncata, sp.n. and E. violaceifrons, sp.n..

  10. The impact of urban conditions on different tree species in public green areas in the city of Poznan

    Krzyżaniak Michał; Świerk Dariusz; Walerzak Miłosz; Urbański Piotr


    Parks in urbanised areas fulfil an important function as they create a positive climate in cities and contribute to the good health of their inhabitants. The study gives an answer to the question of which of the species under investigation is the most suitable for planting in urbanised areas. The aim of the research conducted from 2013 to 2014 at selected sites in Poznan (Poland) was to determine the state of health of Tilia cordata Mill., Acer platanoides L. and Quercus robur L. trees and to...

  11. Vegetative propagation of native species potentially useful in the restoration of México City's vegetation Propagación vegetativa de especies nativas potencialmente útiles en la restauración de la vegetación de la ciudad de México

    Renato Ramos-Palacios


    Full Text Available Hardwood and softwood cuttings of Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq and Senecio praecox D.C. were tested to know their ability to form adventitious roots. Cuttings were prepared in 2 different seasons (wet and dry and treated with different microclimatic conditions and auxin concentrations (IBA and NAA. Hardwood and softwood cuttings of B. cordata rooted during the dry and wet season, whilst hardwood and softwood cuttings of D. viscosa rooted only in the wet season, cuttings of S. praecox rooted only in wet season with a higher rooting for hardwood than softwood cuttings. Low hormone concentrations (10 - 100 ppm favored the rooting percentage more than high concentrations (1000 - 10 000 ppm. However, high hormone concentrations favored number, length of roots and number of developed shoots. Natural regeneration of these species is limited and the species are difficult to propagate from seeds. Vegetative propagation of these species could be an alternative to get clonal planting stock for reforestation programs in some Mexico City areas.Se probó la habilidad de estacas lignificadas y suaves de Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq y Senecio praecox D.C. para formar raíces adventicias. Las estacas se prepararon en las estaciones húmeda y seca; se trataron con diferentes concentraciones de auxinas (IBA y NAA y en diferentes condiciones microclimáticas. Las estacas de madera lignificadas y madera suave de B. cordata enraizaron durante la estación seca y húmeda, mientras que las de D. viscosa lo hicieron sólo en la época húmeda, las estacas de S. praecox sólo en la estación seca teniendo las estacas lignificadas un mayor enraizamiento que las de madera suave. Las concentraciones bajas de hormonas (10 - 100 ppm favorecieron más el porcentaje de enraizamiento que las altas concentraciones (1000 - 10 000 ppm. . Sin embargo, las concentraciones altas de hormonas favorecieron el número y la longitud de las raíces, además del

  12. Intoxicação por plantas que contêm swainsonina no Brasil Poisoning by swainsonine-containing plants in Brazil

    Carlos Alberto de Oliveira Júnior; Gabriela Riet-Correa; Franklin Riet-Correa


    No Brasil, as plantas que contêm swainsonina compõem um grupo muito importante de plantas tóxicas, incluindo Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Ipomoea riedelii, Ipomoea sericophyla, Ipomoea verbascoidea, Turbina cordata e Sida carpinifolia, que causam armazenamento de oligossacarídeos em caprinos e, com menor frequência, em bovinos, equinos, ovinos e cervídeos. Uma característica das plantas que contêm swainsonina é que os animais que iniciam a ingerir essas plantas desenvolvem o hábito de ing...

  13. Comparative analysis of species-based specificity in Sz90 and Cs137 accumulation demonstrated by ligneous plant forest communities

    Field-proven study of Sr90 and Cs137 absorption activity demonstrated by pinus silvestris l., piceae abies (l) roth, quercus rubra l., acer platanoides l., betula pendula roth., tilia cordata mill. under identical habitat conditions. The above plants were examined after 5-year growth period on radionuclide-contaminated soil. To a great extent, such parameters as radionuclide accumulation in experimental plants and accumulation activity were determined by the plants' bio-ecological properties. Differences relevant to these parameters could reach 15-fold value

  14. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs

    Cho, J.H.; Zhang, S; Kim, I. H.


    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg l...

  15. Inventory of Green Spaces and Woody Plants in the Urban Landscape in Ariogala

    Lina Straigytė


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Regulation of urban greenery design, management and protection was approved in 2008 in Lithuania after the Green Space Law was passed, allowing protection of public green spaces and woody plants. Protection of these resources first requires an inventory, and we have created a digital database that will help in management of urban green spaces. Material and Methods: An inventory of green spaces and woody plants was conducted in the public urban territory of Ariogala, using GIS technology. A digital cartographic database was created using ArcGis 9.1 software. Results and Conclusion: Most of the woody plants in the survey area are deciduous trees, and the survey results highlighted the major green space management problems. Often, planted trees grow under power lines, and their crowns touch the power cables. Near blocks of flats, trees are often in the wrong place-planted too close to buildings, trees shade windows and their roots heave pavers and penetrate building foundations. According to the inventory, street trees sustain the most damage, most commonly showing injuries on their trunks and roots. Leaves of Aesculus hipocastanum L. show massive damage from Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić, and Tilia cordata Mill. are damaged by Cercospora microsora Sacc. T. cordata is a favourite city tree, but is susceptible to infestation and when damaged appears unsightly, ending its vegetation period very early. The inventory of green spaces also showed that there are sufficient public parks.

  16. Tree Species and Their Space Requirements in Six Urban Environments Worldwide

    Jens Dahlhausen


    Full Text Available Urban trees have gained in importance during recent decades, but little is known about the temporal dynamic of tree growth in urban areas. The present study investigated the allometric relationships of stem diameter, tree height, and crown radius for six different tree species in six metropolises worldwide. Increment cores of the trees were used for identifying the relationship of basal area and basal area increment and for extrapolating the temporal dynamics for each species in relation to the allometric parameters and growth extensions. Space limitation and its direct influence on growth were quantified, as well as the aboveground woody biomass and the carbon storage capacity. The results show that, among the investigated species, Quercus nigra and Khaya senegalensis have the highest growth rates for stem diameter and crown radius, whereas Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum remain on a lower level. A significant reduction of tree growth due to restricted non-paved area was found for Aesculus hippocastanum and Khaya senegalensis. Estimations of aboveground biomass were highest for Quercus nigra and lowest for Tilia cordata. These results show the species-specific allometries of urban trees over a projected time period. Thus, the data set is highly relevant for planners and urban green managers.

  17. Reduction of nutrient contaminants into shallow eutrophic waters through vegetated treatment beds.

    Han, P; Vijayaraghavan, K; Reuben, S; Estrada, E S; Joshi, U M


    One of the most effective mitigative approaches to eutrophication is the reduction of nutrient loading into water bodies. Bioremediation presents an economically viable and ecologically sustainable technology to nutrient pollution control taking advantage of the remarkable ability of plants and their associated microbial community to assimilate and remove nutrients from the environment. In this study, four emergent macrophytes (Cyperus haspan, Pandanus amaryllifolius, Pontederia cordata and Thalia geniculata) and two floating plants (Hygroryza aristata and Pistia stratiotes) were deployed in bank-side treatment beds and comparatively assessed for their remediative capabilities for nutrient control. P. stratiotes exhibited the highest removal efficiency for both nitrate and phosphate among the six plant species studied. Emergent macrophytes, P. amaryllifolius, C. haspan and P. cordata, were also found to be highly effective in nutrient uptake exhibiting removal efficiencies up to 100%. With the exception of T. geniculata, depletion of nutrients as a result of plant uptake significantly impeded the natural colonization of algae invariably leading to improvements in water quality in terms of turbidity and pH. Suppression of algae proliferation by T. geniculata was not preceded by a reduction in nutrient concentrations suggesting that T. geniculata may be directly inhibiting algal growth through allelopathy. PMID:24056424

  18. Early Silurian (Aeronian East Point Coral Patch Reefs of Anticosti Island, Eastern Canada: First Reef Recovery from the Ordovician/Silurian Mass Extinction in Eastern Laurentia

    Jisuo Jin


    Full Text Available An extensive late Aeronian patch reef swarm outcrops for 60–70 km on Anticosti Island, eastern Canada, located in the inner to mid-shelf area of a prominent tropical carbonate platform of southeastern Laurentia, at 20°–25° S paleolatitude of the southern typhoon belt. This complex, described here for the first time, includes more than 100 patch reefs, up to 60–80 m in diameter and 10 m high. Reefs are exposed three-dimensionally on present-day tidal flats, as well as inland along roads and rivers. Down the gentle 1°–2° paleoslope, the reefs grade into coral-sponge biostromes, and westerly they grade into inter-reef or deeper ‘crinoidal meadow’ facies. The reef builders were dominantly tabulate and rugose corals, with lesser stromatoporoids. Other components include crinoids, brachiopods, green algae (especially paleoporellids, and encrusting cyanobacteria: reefs display some of the earliest known symbiotic intergrowths of corals and stromatoporoids. Reefs were variably built on a base of crinoidal grainstones, meadows of baffling tabulate corals, brachiopod shells, or chlorophytes. These reefs mark an early phase of reef recovery after a prominent reef gap of 5–6 million years following the Ordovician/Silurian mass extinction events. The reefs feature a maximal diversity of calcifying cyanobacteria, corals and stromatoporoids, but low diversity of brachiopods, nautiloids and crinoids. Following the North American Stratigraphic Code, we define herein the Menier Formation, encompassing the lower two members of the existing Jupiter Formation.

  19. Community structure and composition of the Cambrian Chengjiang biota


    Based on previously published species data(228 species in over 18 phyla) and field sampling(114 species and 18406 individuals) in the Chengjiang-Haikou-Anning area,we analyzed quantitatively the paleocommunity composition and structure of the Cambrian Chengjiang biota(Cambrian Series 2,eastern Yunnan,China).Arthropods dominate the community both in species diversity(species:37%) and in abundance(individuals:51.8%).Priapulids(individuals:22.6%) and brachiopods(individuals:16.3%) follow in abundance rank.The arthropod Kunmingella douvillei(26.2%),the priapulid Cricocosmia jinning-ensis(15.4%),and the brachiopod Diandongia pista(11%) are the three most abundant species.Ecological analyses show that the community was dominated by epifaunal organisms(species:63%,individuals:68.4%) followed by infaunal organisms(species:11.9%,individuals:25.9%),nektobenthic organisms(species:11.5%,individuals:2.6%),and pelagic organisms(species:5.3%,individuals:3.1%).The diverse feeding strategies,dominated by suspension feeders(species:35.6%,individuals:26.1%) and hunter/scavengers(species:31.1%,individuals:40.4%),indicate the former existence of a complex food chain and intense competition.Epifaunal vagrant omnivores(28.2%),infaunal vagrant hunter/scavengers(19.8%),epifaunal sessile suspension feeders(17.7%),and epifaunal vagrant hunter/scavengers(15.3%) were the most abundant ecological groups,represented primarily by arthropods,poriferans,priapulids,and brachiopods.Ecological group analyses reveal that the early Cambrian Chengjiang biota is similar in community patterns and functional relations to modern biotas in shallow marine settings.

  20. Constraints on Phanerozoic paleotemperature and seawater oxygen isotope evolution from the carbonate clumped isotope compositions of Late Paleozoic marine fossils (Invited)

    Henkes, G. A.; Passey, B. H.; Grossman, E. L.; Pérez-Huerta, A.; Shenton, B.; Yancey, T. E.


    A long-standing geoscience controversy has been the interpretation of the observed several per mil increase in the oxygen isotope compositions of marine calcites over the Phanerozoic Eon. Explanations for this trend have included decreasing seawater paleotemperatures, increasing seawater oxygen isotope values, and post-depositional calcite alteration. Carbonate clumped isotope paleothermometry is a useful geochemical tool to test these hypotheses because of its lack of dependence on the bulk isotopic composition of the water from which carbonate precipitated. This technique is increasingly applied to ancient marine invertebrate shells, which can be screened for diagenesis using chemical and microstructural approaches. After several years of clumped isotope analysis of these marine carbonates in a handful of laboratories, a long-term temperature and isotopic trend is emerging, with the results pointing to relatively invariant seawater δ18O and generally decreasing seawater temperatures through the Phanerozoic. Uncertainties remain, however, including the effects of reordering of primary clumped isotope compositions via solid-state diffusion of C and O through the mineral lattice at elevated burial temperatures over hundred million year timescales. To develop a quantitative understanding of such reordering, we present data from laboratory heating experiments of late Paleozoic brachiopod calcite. When combined with kinetic models of the reordering reaction, the results of these experiments suggest that burial temperatures less than ~120 °C allow for preservation of primary brachiopod clumped isotope compositions over geological timescales. Analyses of well-preserved Carboniferous and Permian brachiopods reinforce these results by showing that shells with apparent clumped isotope temperatures of ~150 °C are associated with deep sedimentary burial (>5 km), whereas those with putatively primary paleotemperatures in the 10-30 °C range experienced no more than ~1.5 km

  1. Late Devonian (Frasnian) bivalves from the Nocedo Formation: the results of Wilhelm Kegel’s 1927 field trip to northern Spain

    Amler, M.R.W.


    During a field trip to the Peña-Corada Unit of the southernmost Esla region of the Cantabrian Mountains in 1927, the German stratigrapher Wilhelm Kegel sampled brachiopods and bivalves from a section in the Laoz valley near La Ercina. The stratigraphic position is believed to be part of the Nocedo Formation of Frasnian age. This fauna includes poorly preserved steinkerns of a near-shore bivalve fauna that was prepared for publication including labels and proposed names, but never published. T...

  2. Uranium laterite from Ipora/Amorinopolis region- Goias, Brazil

    The present study gives an account of the uranium bearing laterite in the district of Amorinopolis, GO. Emphasis is given in the study of its mineralogy and of the mineralization controls. The uranium mineralization is chiefly found within the arkosic sandstones at the base of the Devonian Ponta Grossa Formation. The ore is tabular and concordant with the bedding, the controls being simultaneously litho-stratigraphic and biochemical. Narrow permeable horizons of arkosic sandstone lie between impermeable shale an siltstone layers. Within the permeable horizon fossil remains (probably brachiopods) are replaced by uranium minerals. The oxidized iron minerals may have acted to insulate and preserve the secondary soluble uranium minerals. (author)

  3. Sedimentary uranium deposit of the Ipora/Amorinopolis region, state of Goias, Brazil

    The uranium mineralization is chiefly found within arkosic sandstones at the base of the Devonian Ponta Grossa Formation. The ore is tabular and concordant with the bedding, the controls being simultaneously litho-stratigraphical and biochemical. Narrow permeable horizons of arkosic sandstone lie between impermeable shale and siltstone layers. Within the permeable horizon, the fossil remains (probably brachiopods) are replaced by uranium minerals. The oxidized iron minerals may have acted as to insulate and preserve the secondary soluble uranium minerals. The mineral paragenesis is represented by renardite, meta - autunite I, fourmarierite, Koninckite, ranquilite, meta-uranocircite II, barite, apatite, calophane, wavelite, varscite, an unnamed uranium mineral, quartz, calcedony, goethite, lepidocrocite and hematite. (Author)

  4. Dating the Cambrian Purley Shale Formation, Midland Microcraton, England

    Williams, Mark; Rushton, Adrian W.A.; Cook, Alan F.; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Martin, Adam P.; Condon, Daniel J.; Winrow, Paul


    Zircons from a bentonite near the base of the Purley Shale Formation in the Nuneaton area, Warwickshire, yield a 206Pb/238U age of 517.22±0.31 Ma. Based on the fauna of small shelly fossils and the brachiopod Micromitra phillipsii in the underlying Home Farm Member of the Hartshill Sandstone Formation, trilobite fragments that are questionably referred to Callavia from the basal Purley Shale Formation, and the presence of trilobites diagnostic of the sabulosa Biozone 66 m above ...

  5. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland.

    Brom, Krzysztof R; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A


    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution. PMID:26373558

  6. First recognition of the genus Verneuilia Hall and Clarke (Brachiopoda, Spiriferida) from North America (west-central Alaska)

    Blodgett, R.B.; Johnson, J.G.


    The brachiopod genus Verneuilia Hall and Clarke, 1893, is recognized for the first time in North America, where it is represented by a new species described here. V. langenstrasseni. This occurrence extends not only the geographic range of the genus, but also the lower age and stratigraphic limit into the Eifelian (early Middle Devonian). Previously, the oldest known species was the type, V. cheiropteryx d'Archiac and de Verneuil, 1842, from the Givetian (late Middle Devonian) of Germany. Internal structures of V. langenstrasseni n.sp. are similar to those of genera in the ambocoeliid subfamily Rhynchospiriferinae, providing the first good evidence of a systematic relationship. -Authors

  7. Significance of Caucasian Sections for Working out Carbon-Isotope Standard for Upper Permian and Lower Triassic (Induan) and Their Correlation with the Permian of North-Eastern Russia

    Yuri D Zakharov; Alexander S Biakov; Aymon Baud; Heinz Kozur


    Data obtained on conodont distribution in the Permian-Triassic Sovetashen Section of Transcaucasia provide further limitations on the age of the carbon-isotopic anomalies discovered by Baud et al. (1989). The significance of Caucasian sections for working out the carbon-isotope standard for the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic (Induan) is shown. Original data on carbon-isotope composition of bivalve and brachiopod shells from Permian sediments of North-Eastern Russia (Omolon and Okhotsk areas) have been obtained, which may be used for their correlation.

  8. Precisely locating the Ordovician equator in Laurentia

    Jin, Jisuo; Harper, David A.T.; Cocks, L. Robin M.;


    The Late Ordovician equatorial zone, like the zone today, had few hurricane-grade storms within 100 of the equator, as emphasized by the preservation of massive-bedded Thalassinoides ichnofacies in a trans-Laurentian belt more than 6000 km long, from the southwestern United States to North...... Greenland. That belt also includes nonamalgamated shell beds dominated by the brachiopod Proconchidium, which would not have been preserved after hurricane-grade storms. The belt lacks such storm-related sedimentary features as rip-up clasts, hummocky cross-stratification, or large channels. In contrast...

  9. Microfossils in the Ordovician erratic boulders from South-western Finland

    Nõlvak, J.


    Full Text Available Chitinozoans, ostracods and acritarchs found in four glacially transported limestone boulders from the south-western coast of Finland have been studied in order to test the usefulness of these microfossil groups in age determinations. Also rare specimens of conodonts, inarticulated brachiopods and foraminifers were found. Baltic limestone (or Östersjö limestone was the most problematic, because only fossils with calcitic or phosphatic shells are preserved. It is concluded that the boulders identified correlate with the Uhaku and Rakvere stages of the Middle Ordovician.

  10. Fossils from the Falkland Islands in the collection of the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff

    Stone, Phil; Sharpe, Tom; Owens, Robert


    A small collection of fossils from the Falkland Islands, hitherto resting in obscurity, is to be found in Cardiff, at the National Museum of Wales (NMW). It comprises twelve specimens illustrating four of the well-known species that are fairly widely preserved in the sandstone of the Fox Bay Formation (Devonian Period, about 405 million years old), three brachiopods and a trilobite. The museum reference numbers are NMW20.328.G1 to G12, assigned as follows: G1-G3 … Schellwien...

  11. First Report of a Trilobite in the Carboniferous of Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey



    The pre-Mesozoic basement of the Eastern Pontides consists of a Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary sequence including the Çatalçeşme and Hardişi formations. The Çatalçeşme Formation has yielded rich assemblages of fusulinids, corals, gastropods, brachiopods, bryozoans, algae, conodonts and plants. Hitherto trilobites were unknown from this formation; here we report the discovery of a pygidium from a dark grey limestone bed near the top. Trilobites are a minor component of benthic marine communit...

  12. Microbialites in the shallow-water marine environments of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian biotic crisis

    Rakociński, Michał; Racki, Grzegorz


    Microbial carbonates, consisting of abundant girvanellid oncoids, are described from cephalopod-crinoid and crinoid-brachiopod coquinas (rudstones) occurring in the lowermost Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. A Girvanella-bearing horizon (consist with numerous girvanellid oncoids) has been recognised at the Psie Górki section, and represents the northern slope succession of the drowned Dyminy Reef. This occurrence of microbialites in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian event is interpreted as the result of opportunistic cyanobacteria blooms, which, as 'disaster forms', colonised empty shallow-water ecological niches during the survival phase following the Frasnian metazoan reef collapse, due to collapsed activity of epifaunal, grazing, and/or burrowing animals. The anachronistic lithofacies at Psie Górki is linked with catastrophic mass mortality of the cephalopod and crinoid-brachiopod communities during the heavy storm events. This mass occurrence of girvanellid oncoids, along with Frutexites-like microbial shrubs and, at least partly, common micritisation of some skeletal grains, records an overall increase in microbial activity in eutrophic normal marine environments. Microbial communities in the Holy Cross Mountains are not very diverse, being mainly represented by girvanellid oncoids, and stand in contrast to the very rich microbial communities known from the Guilin area (China), Canning Basin (Australia) and the Timan-northern Ural area (Russia). The association from Poland is similar to more diverse microbial communities represented by oncoids, trombolites and stromatolites, well known from the Canadian Alberta basin.

  13. An abrupt extinction in the Middle Permian (Capitanian) of the Boreal Realm with a causal link to anoxia, acidification and mercury poisoning

    Bond, David; Wignall, Paul; Joachimski, Michael; Sun, Yadong; Savov, Ivan; Grasby, Stephen; Beauchamp, Benoit; Blomeier, Dierk


    The controversial Capitanian (Middle Permian, 262 Ma) extinction event is mostly known from equatorial latitudes and consequently its global extent is poorly resolved. We demonstrate that there were two, severe extinctions amongst brachiopods in northern Boreal latitudes (Spitsbergen), in the Middle to Late Permian, separated by a recovery phase. New age dating of the Kapp Starostin Formation of Spitsbergen using strontium and carbon isotopic trends suggests that the first crisis occurred in the Capitanian. This age assignment indicates that this Middle Permian extinction is manifest at higher latitudes. Redox proxies (pyrite framboids and trace metals) show that the Boreal crisis coincided with an intensification of oxygen depletion, implicating anoxia in the extinction scenario. The highly toxic metal mercury becomes enriched in strata at the Middle Permian extinction level implicating death-by-toxicity (and a possible link to volcanism). Finally, the near-total loss of carbonates across the Boreal Realm in the Middle to Late Permian also suggests a role for acidification. New in prep. data from Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (samples collected July 2015) tentatively suggests that this potent "three strikes and you're out" extinction mechanism was a Boreal-wide phenomenon. The Late Permian recovery interval saw the appearance of new brachiopod and bivalve taxa alongside survivors, and an increased mollusk dominance, resulting in an assemblage reminiscent of younger Mesozoic assemblages. The subsequent end-Permian mass extinction terminated this Late Permian radiation.

  14. A preliminary biogeochemistry-based quantification of primary productivity of end-Permian deep-water basin in Dongpan Section ,Guangxi ,South China

    ZHANG Yang; HE Weihong; FENG Qinglai


    In this Paper,the mean primary productivity of the Talung Formation in the deep-water basin(50-500 m depth)of Dongpan,Guangxi,South China,was calculated,of the content of the trace element Cu.Results showed that the primary productivity obtained was comparable with the previously-reported data for the black shale of the Phosphoria Formation,a Permian phosphate deposit in the northwest United States,and also similar to that of the modern deposit in the Cariaco basin,Venezuela.It was observed that the primary productivity increased with the enhanced abundance of algae and photosynthetic bacteria,and with the decrease in both the radiolarian individuals and the body size of brachiopods during the faunal mass extinction.This ecological coupling indicates that the changes of primary productivity are closely related to the propagation and the decline of producers(algae and bacteria),and that consumers(radiolarians and brachiopods)probably have little influence on the changes of primary productivity.

  15. Characteristics of Late Permian Deep-Water Sedimentary Environments: A Case Study of Shaiwa Section, Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    Gao Yongqun; Yang Fengqing; Peng Yuanqiao


    Sediments of carbonate gravity flows and terrigenous debris turbidites, and normal bathyal deposits were found at the Shaiwa Section, Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Through grain-size analysis of some typical sediments at this section, the changing patterns of the grain parameters and the grain-size cumulations were recovered. Results show that the study area was deposited under turbidite control during the Late Permian period, which we also recognized at the outcrop section upon sedimentary characteristics of the sediments. In addition, fossils are abundant in the Upper Permian of the Shaiwa Section, including radiolarians, sponge-spicules, bivalves, brachiopods, ammonoids and trace fossils. Radiolarians and siliceous sponge-spicules are typical deep water assemblages. Bivalves are dominated by genera of Hunanopecten and Claraia, both showing deep water living characteristics. Ammonoids are composed of planktonic types, showing characteristics of smooth and flat shells. Brachiopods are dominated by a small and thin shelled assemblage, which are commonly flat in shape and usually of slight ornamentations on shells. In addition, trace fossils found at the Shaiwa Section are also common types of deep water facies. Thus, the fossil evidence of the Shaiwa Section also suggests a deep water environment, possibly from the bathyal slope to the basin margin facies, of the studied area during the Late Permian period.

  16. Phylogeny and mitochondrial gene order variation in Lophotrochozoa in the light of new mitogenomic data from Nemertea

    von Döhren Jörn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new animal phylogeny established several taxa which were not identified by morphological analyses, most prominently the Ecdysozoa (arthropods, roundworms, priapulids and others and Lophotrochozoa (molluscs, annelids, brachiopods and others. Lophotrochozoan interrelationships are under discussion, e.g. regarding the position of Nemertea (ribbon worms, which were discussed to be sister group to e.g. Mollusca, Brachiozoa or Platyhelminthes. Mitochondrial genomes contributed well with sequence data and gene order characters to the deep metazoan phylogeny debate. Results In this study we present the first complete mitochondrial genome record for a member of the Nemertea, Lineus viridis. Except two trnP and trnT, all genes are located on the same strand. While gene order is most similar to that of the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, sequence based analyses of mitochondrial genes place nemerteans close to molluscs, phoronids and entoprocts without clear preference for one of these taxa as sister group. Conclusion Almost all recent analyses with large datasets show good support for a taxon comprising Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida and Nemertea. But the relationships among these taxa vary between different studies. The analysis of gene order differences gives evidence for a multiple independent occurrence of a large inversion in the mitochondrial genome of Lophotrochozoa and a re-inversion of the same part in gastropods. We hypothesize that some regions of the genome have a higher chance for intramolecular recombination than others and gene order data have to be analysed carefully to detect convergent rearrangement events.

  17. Mass extinctions: Ecological selectivity and primary production

    Rhodes, Melissa Clark; Thayer, Charles W.


    If mass extinctions were caused by reduced primary productivity, then extinctions should be concentrated among animals with starvation-susceptible feeding modes, active lifestyles, and high-energy budgets. The stratigraphic ranges (by stage) of 424 genera of bivalves and 309 genera of articulate brachiopods suggest that there was an unusual reduction of primary productivity at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary extinction. For bivalves at the K/T, there were (1) selective extinction of suspension feeders and other susceptible trophic categories relative to deposit feeders and other resistant categories, and (2) among suspension feed-ers, selective extinction of bivalves with active locomotion. During the Permian-Triassic (P/Tr) extinction and Jurassic background time, extinction rates among suspension feeders were greater for articulate brachiopods than for bivalves. But during the K/T event, extinction rates of articulates and suspension-feeding bivalves equalized, possibly because the low-energy budgets of articulates gave them an advantage when food was scarce.

  18. Seawater temperature and salinity controls on Li/Ca ratios in Mytilus edulis (bivalvia) shells

    Clarke, L. J.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.; Kreutz, K. J.; Borns, H. W., Jr.; Introne, D. S.


    In this study we have investigated the effects of seawater temperature and salinity on Li/Ca ratios in newly precipitated shell calcite in Mytilus edulis shells, since this potential temperature proxy has not been widely applied beyond brachiopods and inorganic calcite. Juvenile specimens of M. edulis collected from western Greenland were cultured in laboratory aquaria using a four-by-three factorial design that consisted of four circulating temperature baths and three salinities. New shell growth precipitated during the constrained culturing experiment was identified carefully and subsequently dissected from the shells. Following acid dissolution, Li/Ca ratios were measured by ICP-MS, enabling an assessment of temperature and salinity controls on shell Li/Ca ratios. Furthermore, measurement of Li/Ca ratios in the aquaria seawaters has enabled calculation of Li/Ca ratio partition coefficients and direct comparison to Li/Ca ratio to temperature relationships observed for brachiopods and inorganic calcite. The results of this study suggest that bivalve shell Li/Ca ratios can be used as a new temperature proxy.

  19. Características de la fauna de braquiópodos del Toarciense superior en el Sector Central de la Cordillera Ibérica (noroeste de España

    García Joral, F.


    Full Text Available Studying brachiopod faunas from the Upper Toarcian beds of the Iberian Range (Central Sector, bring out the few number of species and the local range for the majority of them. In relation with that, populations show characteristics (polymorphism, gregarism and generalism that suggest an unstable environment, probably produced by the progressive isolation of the basin, the shallowing trend and the tectosedimentary instability quoted by differents authors, As a consequence of this situation there is a faunistic turnover for the brachiopods at this time, that could be the origin of some lineages developped in the Western European Dogger.

    En el estudio de la fauna de braquiópodos del Toarciense superior del Sector Central de la Cordillera Ibérica destacan el bajo. número de especies que la componen y el ámbito local de la mayoría de ellas. En relación con esto, las poblaciones muestran unas características (polimorfismo, gregarismo y forma generalizada que sugieren un ambiente inestable, provocado probablemente por el aislamiento progresivo de la cuenca, la tendencia somerizadora y la inestabilidad tectosedimentaria que han señalado diversos autores. La consecuencia de esta situación es una renovación faunística para el grupo en esta edad, que puede haber dado origen a algunas de las ramas filéticas que se desarrollan en el Dogger de Europa Occidental.

  20. Patterns of fossil distributions within their environmental context from the Middle Triassic in South Canyon,Central Nevada,USA

    Pedro; M.Monarrez; Nicole; Bonuso


    The Middle Triassic records the return of diverse marine communities after the severe effects of the end-Permian mass extinction.This diversification leads to the Mesozoic/modern adaptive radiation resulting in substantial changes in marine communities in comparison to their Paleozoic predecessors.This analysis focuses on the faunal abundance,ecological patterns,and environmental interpretation of a Middle Triassic section in Central Nevada.Twelve bulk samples were collected.Visible fossils were identified and tallied from hand samples and thin-sections were used to aid in environmental interpretation.Beginning in the Late Anisian,we observed an ammonoid dominated to flat-clam,epifaunal dominated benthic community within a muddy,quiet,inner shelf depositional environment.Through time,epifaunal bivalves dominate within a middle shelf environment followed by an increase in infaunalization and shell-thickness.During this time the presence of oncoids and the reported finding of corals suggest the middle shelf environment gave way to a higher energy patch reef shelf edge environment.Finally,we observe epifaunal brachiopods communities at the top of our section deposited in a middle shelf environment.In sum,we observe the dominance of modern taxa(i.e.,bivalves)with Paleozoic ecologies(i.e.,epifaunal),followed by the dominance of modern taxa with Modern ecologies(i.e.,infaunal,thick shells)and then a return to Paleozoic taxa(i.e.,brachiopods)and Paleozoic ecologies within an overall transgressive environment.




    Full Text Available The Guadalupian (Middle Permian "Gymnocodiacean Limestones" cropping out in the north-eastern part of the Greek island of Chios (eastern Aegean Sea are amongst the most fossiliferous in the western Tethys. They contain rich assemblages of corals, brachiopods, molluscs, calcareous algae, foraminifers and ostracods. Scant attention was given till now to mollusc faunas compared with brachiopods and foraminifers. In the present paper the new genus Marmaronia, with type-species M. angiolinii n. sp., is established to distinguish some bivalves of the Bakevelliidae King, 1850, from the middle Guadalupian successions of the Marmaro locality in Chios Island. M. angiolinii n. gen. n. sp. is strongly inequivalve, with valves differing in convexity, umbo development and ornamentation. The left valve shows a radial furrow running from the anterior part of the umbonal region anteroventrally and is ornamented by strong radial costae; the right valve is ornamented by concentric sculpture and by thin rugae in the first growth stages of the posterior part of the shell. Both valves have a wide posterior wing. Two hypotheses concerning the epi- or endobyssate adaptation of Marmaronia are also discussed briefly in the present paper.   

  2. A Comparison of the Decontaminating Effects of Hydroponic Plants on Domestic Sewage%几种水培植物对生活污水的净化效果比较

    刘颖; 刘磊; 袁平成; 郭恢财; 胡小飞; 高勇生


    The decontaminating effects of ten wetland plant species including Pontederia cordata,Iris ger-manica,Phragmitas communis, Acorus calamus Linn, Vetiveria zizanoides, Scirpus validus, Zizania latifolia, Cyperus alternifolius,Thalia dealbata,Echinodorus amazonicus were studied by using simulated solution culture experiment .The results showed:( 1 ) the annual average rates of pollutant removal of the ten plants were be-tween 40%and 70%,and the removal ability for 4 pollutants showed the order of TP ﹥NH4+-N﹥TN﹥COD.The highest TP removal rate was that of Thalia dealbata being 78%,the highest NH4+-N removal rate was that of Pontederia cordata being 74%,the highest TN removal rate was that of Iris germanica being 70%, the highest COD removal rate was that of Pontederia cordata being 65%;( 2) the average seasonal TP removal rates of the ten species showed the order of autum ﹥ summer ﹥ spring﹥ winter,however the NH4+-N,TN and COD removal rates showed the order of summer ﹥spring﹥autum﹥winter .%利用模拟自然湿地的静态水培试验法,研究了梭鱼草、鸢尾、芦苇、菖蒲、香根草、水葱、茭白、旱伞草、再力花、大皇冠等10种人工湿地植物对生活污水的净化效果。结果表明:(1)10种植物对污染物的年平均去除率在40%~70%,对4种污染物的去除能力由大到小表现为TP、NH4+-N、TN、COD。 TP去除率最高的为再力花,达78%,NH4+-N去除率最高的为梭鱼草,达74%,TN去除率最高的为鸢尾,达70%,COD去除率最高的为梭鱼草,达65%。(2)对TP的去除率由大到小依次表现为秋季、夏季、春季、冬季,对NH4+-N、TN和COD的去除率由大到小依次表现为夏季、春季、秋季、冬季。

  3. Effects of two kinds of medicinal plant extracts on citrus postharvest preservation%两种药用植物提取物对柑橘保鲜的影响

    戴素明; 曾建国; 程辟; 陈义明; 周翔; 邓子牛


    为筛选能应用于柑橘保鲜的药用植物提取物,测定了博落回和虎杖提取物对柑橘绿霉菌的抑菌活性以及对柑橘保鲜的效果.结果表明:博落回和虎杖提取物均能抑制绿霉菌的生长,二者的有效中质量浓度分别为184.32、538.48 mg/L,博落回的抑菌效果比虎杖好;与清水对照相比,2种提取物处理柑橘的腐烂率均显著降低;与常规化学保鲜剂相比,2种提取物冰糖橙的腐烂率差异均无统计学意义,但椪柑的腐烂率均显著升高;2种提取物处理冰糖橙的失水率与常规化学保鲜剂处理的差异均无统计学意义,但显著高于清水处理,2种提取物对冰糖橙的防腐、保鲜能达到常规化学保鲜剂的效果.%For selection of medicinal plant extracts to be applied into citrus postharvest preservation, the inhibition effect of Macleaya cordata and Polygonum cuspidatum on Penicillium digitatum and its preservation effect during citrus storage were studied. The results were as follows: Both M. Cordata and P. Cuspidatum could inhibit growth of P. Digitatum, ED50 of which were 184.32 and 538.48 mg/L respectively, especially the inhibition effect of M cordata was better. With comparison of water treatment, the two kinds of medicinal plant extracts could both effectively prevent Bingtangcheng from decay. With comparison of conventional chemical preservative, the decay rates of Bingtangcheng respectively treated by the two kinds of medicinal plant extracts had no statistical significance, but Ponkan significantly increased. The water losing rates of Bingtangcheng respectively treated by the two kinds of medicinal plant extracts were no statistical significance compared with conventional chemical preservative, but the water losing rates of these three treatments were significantly lower than water treatment. The effects of the two kinds of medicinal plant extracts on decay and fresh-keeping of Bingtangcheng were similar to conventional chemical

  4. A DNA microarray for the authentication of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants.

    Carles, Maria; Cheung, Matthew Kin; Moganti, Shanti; Dong, Tina T; Tsim, Karl W; Ip, Nancy Y; Sucher, Nikolaus J


    A silicon-based DNA microarray was designed and fabricated for the identification of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes were derived from the 5S ribosomal RNA gene of Aconitum carmichaeli, A. kusnezoffi, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Croton tiglium, Datura inoxia, D. metel, D. tatula, Dysosma pleiantha, Dy. versipellis, Euphorbia kansui, Hyoscyamus niger, Pinellia cordata, P. pedatisecta, P. ternata, Rhododendron molle, Strychnos nux-vomica, Typhonium divaricatum and T. giganteum and the leucine transfer RNA gene of Aconitum pendulum and Stellera chamaejasme. The probes were immobilized via dithiol linkage on a silicon chip. Genomic target sequences were amplified and fluorescently labeled by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction. Multiple toxic plant species were identified by parallel genotyping. Chip-based authentication of medicinal plants may be useful as inexpensive and rapid tool for quality control and safety monitoring of herbal pharmaceuticals and neutraceuticals. PMID:15971136

  5. Proximate analysis and some antinutritional factor constituents in selected varieties of Jamaican yams (Dioscorea and Rajana spp.).

    McAnuff, Marie A; Omoruyi, Felix O; Sotelo-López, Angela; Asemota, Helen N


    Two wild (Dioscorea polygonoides and Rajana cordata) and seven cultivated varieties of Jamaican yams (Dioscorea spp.) were analyzed for their proximate composition and the levels of antinutritional factors. The protein level range was 47.8 +/- 2.6 to 88.0 +/- 2.5 g/kg dry weight. The lowest level was seen in D. cayenensis. The range for the dietary fiber content in the tubers was 16.3 +/- 0.7 to 63.5 +/- 0.4 g/kg dry weight. The wild yam varieties recorded higher levels. Saponins level was lectins and no alkaloids were detected. The levels of antinutritional factors did not clearly delineate the wild varieties from the edible varieties. PMID:16021837

  6. 鲜鱼腥草多糖与总黄酮抗辐射作用机制的对比%Contrast of Fresh Cordate Houttuynia P olysaccharides and Flavones Radiation Mechanism

    王洪生; 洪佳璇; 冯丙江; 孙东海; 蒋婧瑾


    目的:探讨鲜鱼腥草叶提取物对X射线辐射损伤大鼠骨髓造血功能和免疫功能的影响.方法将造模成功的24只大鼠随机分为3个组,分别为模型对照组(模型组)、总黄酮组、多糖组,每组各8只,分别给予等体积的蒸馏水、总黄酮提取液(5.23g/kg)、和多糖粉末混悬液(2g/kg)灌胃.结果鲜鱼腥草多糖与总黄酮皆能够对受X射线辐射损伤的大鼠起到保护和治疗的作用;鱼腥草总黄酮成分可显著增加白细胞数,升高脾脏指数,增加骨髓DNA含量,降低外周血网织红细胞微核率和骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核率,可增加SOD及GSH-Px的含量;鱼腥草多糖可显著升高大鼠胸腺指数和脾脏指数,明显降低外周血和骨髓微核率,显著提高SOD、CAT和GSH-Px含量.结论鲜鱼腥草叶具有较好的抗辐射作用,其提取物的作用机制和作用的有效部位有所不同.%Objective:To investigate the effects of Houttuynia cordata leaf extract damage of bone marrow hemato-poietic function and immune function in rats of X ray radiation. Methods:The rest of the successful model of 24 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:model control group ( model group) , total flavone group and polysac-charide group, each having 8 rats. SLN were poured into the stomach volume of distilled water, total flavonoids extract 5. 23g/kg and polysaccharide powder suspension (2g/kg) gavage. Results:Fresh Houttuynia polysaccha-ride and total flavonoids can have a protective and therapeutic effect on rats injured by x-rays. Houttuynia corda-ta flavonoids can significantly increase the number of white cells, the spleen index and the content of bone mar-row DNA, with the micronucleus rate of red blood cell and the Micronucleus Rate of Bone Marrow Polychromatic Erythrocyte of rats decreased; it can increase the content of SOD and GSH-Px. Polysaccharide of Houttuynia cordata could remarkably increase the thymus index and spleen index of

  7. Elemental composition of annual growth rings in spruce and lime wood

    Trees usually form visible annual growth rings. In order to get a chronological record of trace element pollution in the environment instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine element content (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sm, Sr, W and Zn) in 10-year-old segments of one hundred-old lime Tilia cordata Mill and in 90-old spruce wood Picea abies Karst originating from the area of Central Spis (Slovak Republic) known for the maximum level of pollution with heavy metals [1,2]. Samples were collected from two sides of a lime (SW and NW) and from one side of a spruce. No correlation of elements was observed between two sides of a lime. Correlation of elements in relevant rings of two types of wood was not evident

  8. 福建(木奈)产业发展现状及前景%The Status Survey of Nane Industry in Fujian Province

    姜翠翠; 孙文鹏; 叶新福; 方智振; 周丹蓉; 潘少霖


    (木奈)(Prunus salicina Lindli.var cordata J.Y.Zhang et al.)属蔷薇科(Rosaceae),李属(Prunus),是原产福建的名、特、优水果之一,果桃形李实,酸甜适度,风味极佳,是南方的1种重要落叶果树.本文分析了福建省(木奈)产业发展现状趋势,包括各市(木奈)种植区域、面积和产量等,阐述了(木奈)产业发展的具体优势,明确了福建省(木奈)生产现状,为福建省今后发展种植(木奈)提供参考价值.

  9. 福建产业发展现状及前景

    姜翠翠[1; 孙文鹏[2; 叶新福[1; 方智振[1; 周丹蓉[1; 潘少霖[1


    (Prunus salicina Lindli.var cordata J.Y.Zhang et al.)属蔷薇科(Rosaceae),李属(Prunus),是原产福建的名、特、优水果之一,果桃形李实,酸甜适度,风味极佳,是南方的1种重要落叶果树。本文分析了福建省产业发展现状趋势,包括各市种植区域、面积和产量等,阐述了产业发展的具体优势,明确了福建省生产现状,为福建省今后发展种植提供参考价值。




    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution caused by toxic elements is an emerging problem of concern. Tree leaves have been widely used as indicator of atmospheric pollutions and they are effective alternatives to the moreusual biomonitoring methods. Tree leaves can be used as natural traps of atmospheric deposition. Elemental composition of dust deposited onto leaf surfaces can be used to characterize the urban environment. A pilot survey including 16 Romanian settlements was carried out in order to evaluate the characteristics and sources of air pollutants. Tree leaves (Tilia tomentosa, Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos were collected and used for the measurements. Elemental analyses were carried out by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Principal component and discriminant analyses were used to characterizing and estimating the level of pollution. Settlements were grouped on the basis of discriminant function values. Multivariate comparison of chemical data ordered the settlements into 3 main groups, which showed a systematic geographic distribution.

  11. Compostos voláteis em méis florais Volatile compounds in floral honeys

    Carlos Alberto Bastos De Maria


    Full Text Available A review about origin, composition and importance of volatile compounds in floral honeys is presented. Hydrocarbons, aromatic components, acids, diacids, terpenoids, ketones, aldehydes, esters and alcohols have been found in honey aroma of different botanical origin. Cis-rose oxide has been proposed as an indicator for Tilia cordata honey. Citrus honeys are known to contain methyl anthranilate, a compound which other honeys virtually lack. Linalool, phenylethylalcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, p-anisaldehyde and benzaldehyde are important contributors for the aroma of different unifloral honeys. Both isovaleric acid, gama-decalactone and benzoic acid appears to be important odourants for Anarcadium occidentale and Croton sp. honeys from Brazil. The furfurylmercaptan, benzyl alcohol, delta-octalactone, eugenol, phenylethylalcohol and guaiacol appear to be only relevant compounds for Anarcadium occidentale. The vanillin was considered an important odourant only for Croton sp..

  12. Ecological significance of light controlled seed germination in two contrasting tropical habitats.

    Vàzquez-Yanes, C; Orozco-Segovia, A


    The effects of temperature, photoperiod, phytochrome photoreversion and the response to a R/FR ratio gradient were investigated in seeds of four species from two contrasting tropical habitats; two species from a rain forest (Cecropia obtusifolia and Piper umbellatum) and two from a high altitude lava field covered by low vegetation (Buddleja cordata and Chenopodium ambrosioides). In the rain forest seed species the photoblastic response seems to be adapted to light quality changes due to canopy destruction, on the other hand, the lava field seed species seem to be adapted to instantaneous light stimulus such as would be produced by the sudden exposure of a buried seed to the soil surface light environment. PMID:22160107

  13. A Review of Traditional Medicinal Plants from Kachin State, Northern Myanmar.

    Aung, Hain Thanda; Sein, Myint Myint; Aye, Mya Mu; Thu, Zaw Min


    Medicinal plants are a vital source of medication in developing countries. In Kachin State, Northern Myanmar, the people have a long history of the use of traditional plants for medicinal purposes. This article deals with the 25 most used medicinal plants in Kachin State. They are: Drynariafortunei, Tetrastigma serrulatum, Bauhinia championii, Goniothalamus cheliensis, Juglans regia, Houttuynia cordata, Osmanthus fragrans, Pothos chinensis, Tabemaemontana coronaria, Eryngiumfoetidum, Chloranthus spicatus, Peperomia pellucida, Zanthoxylum armatum, Polygonumfagopyrum, Cymbidiumfloribundum, Amomum kravanh, Coscinium fenestratum, Solanum nigrum, Gnetum parvifolium, Desmodium triquetum, Begonia augustinec, Mappianthus iodoides, Erycibe obtusifolia, Schefflera venulosa, Holarrhena antidysenterica. The different traditional applications, the known chemical constituents and medicinal properties are reported for each plant. The efficacy of several of these plants has been supported by some scientific evidence, while other plants have to be submitted to further investigations to prove the beneficial medicinal properties attributed to them. PMID:27169181

  14. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)


    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  15. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells

  16. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)


    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

  17. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Hae Kyoung [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response.

  18. Development of Acne therapeutic hydrogel patches by radiation technology

    Lim, Younmook; Nho, Youngchang; Gwon, Huijeong; Park, Jongseok; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yongsoo


    In this project, hydrogel patches containing herbal extracts mixture were developed by radiation technology for acne treatment. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, is the cause of inflammatory acne. To find novel mediation for inflammation of P. acnes, we confirmed the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The water extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thumb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were mixed into biocompatible polymers and irradiated by using gamma-ray to prepare hydrogels. The hydrogels containing herbal extracts mixture initiated to decrease the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-{alpha}, IL-8, IL-1{beta} and IL-6, in experiment with human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes at 1 mg/ml of mixture concentration.

  19. 滇东南黄连山秋海棠属一新种%A New Species of Begonia(Begoniaceae)from Mt.Huanglianshan of SE Yunnan,China



    @@ 树生秋海棠新种 (秋海棠组) 图1Begonia arboreta Y.M.Shui,sp.nov.[Sect.Diploclium(Wight)A.D C.]Fig.1Habitu B.garretii Craib.similis,sed planta acaulis,folio 1 basali,capsulis obovoideis,alis obovatis differt.Herba perennis,decidua,basi tuberifera,tuberibus subglobosis,1cm diam.Stipulae caducae.Folium 1 basale;lamina glabra et chartacea,late cordata,14-15cm longa ,14-17cm lata,3-5-fida,basi oblique cordata,lobis longo-acuminatis,margine I rregulariter serratis,nervis palmatis,basilaribus 3-5;petioli 12-14cm longi,gl abri.Cymae terminales,3-4-florae,pedunculo 10-12cm longo;bracteae ovatae,0.6 cm longae,0.2cm latae,caducae.Flores ignoti;pedicelli 3.0-3.3cm longi,p enduli.Ovarium anguste obovoideum,triloculare;styli 3,distincti,1.5mm longi,s tigmatibus lunatis papillosis;laminae placentarum ovariorum superiores mediaeque bifidae,inferiores simplices.Capsulae obovoideae,2.0-2.4cm longae,1.2-1.4 cm latae,subaequaliter trialatae;alae horizontales et obovatae,apice obtusae,r eticulatae,1.8-2.0cm longae,0.5-0.6cm latae.Yunnan(云南):Luchun county(绿春县),Mt.Huanglianshan(黄连山),Hydrologic Station( 水文站),1700-1900m,on trees of the evergreen broad-leaved forest,18 Oct 1995, S.G.Wu(武素功),Y.M.Shui(税玉民),Y.P.Yang(杨永平),L.H.Liu(刘伦辉),J.H.He(何疆海), J.Murata,H.Nagamasu,T.Sugawara,X.Chen(成晓),N.Murakami 144(Holotype:KUN 0773200) .

  20. Dinâmica de populações de Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em mata ciliar, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brasil Population dynamics of Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae in riparian forest, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brazil

    Cristiane C. de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Machos de Euglossina foram coletados por meio de iscas-odores de benzoato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, salicilato de metila, vanilina, durante um ano em área de mata ciliar, no município de Urbano Santos, Maranhão. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre 8 h e 16 h, totalizando 96 horas de amostragem. Foram amostrados 283 indivíduos, 4 gêneros e 16 espécies. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 foi o gênero mais abundante, seguido por Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 e Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. As espécies mais freqüentes foram Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa gaianii Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol foi a essência mais atrativa. As maiores freqüências de visitas ocorreram no período da manhã e a maior diversidade de espécies ocorreu no período chuvoso.Males of Euglossina bees were collected in benzil benzoate, eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate and vanillin scent baits, during one year in a riparian forest area, located in the municipality of Urbano Santos, Maranhão. The collections were carried out monthly, between 8 am and 4 pm, totalling 96 hours of sampling, resulting in 283 individuals, 4 genera and 16 species. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 was the most abundant genus, followed by Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. The most frequent species were Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol was the most attractive chemical bait. The highest frequencies of visits were in the morning and the highest diversity of species occurred in the rainy period.

  1. The Occurrence of Longfengshania in the Early Cambrian from Haikou, Yunnan, China%龙凤山藻在澄江早寒武世生物群中的发现



    Well preserved Early Cambrian small individual megascopic carbonaceous algal fossils have been found from the Chengjiang Biota. This paper deals with the new megascopic algal fossils in the Early Cambrian also from Chengjiang Biota at Ercai Village, Haikou, Kunming, Yunnan, southwest China. Two new taxa, Longfengshania cordata sp. nov. and Plantulaformis sinensis gen. et sp. nov. are described here in detail. These new findings show that the Chengjiang Biota is high in species diversity of fossil algae and might offer new evidence for a better understanding of the Cambrian explosive biological evolution. Moreover, the fossils described here might belong to the megaalgal fossils according to detailed morphological study on the relationships of Longfengshania. Additionally, the occurrence of Longfengshania in the early Cambrian and the Neoproterozoic probably indicates a wide ecological tolerance and flexibility and apparently reflects its evolutionary conservation and a high degree of inherent genetic stability.%主要报道了产自云南昆明海口耳材村早寒武世筇竹寺组玉案山段澄江生物群中可能为自由漂浮生长的宏观藻类化石--心型龙凤山藻(新种)(Longfengshania cordata sp. nov.)和中华豆芽藻(新属、新种)(Plantulaformis sinensis gen. et sp. nov.).这些化石的发现进一步显示了澄江生物群物种多样性,为揭示该生物群爆发性演化提供了新的证据.通过对龙凤山藻属亲缘关系的深入比较研究,进一步证明该类化石应归属宏观藻类以及它们遗传上的稳定性、演化上的保守性和环境上的适应性.

  2. Intoxicações por plantas diagnosticadas em ruminantes e equinos e estimativa das perdas econômicas na Paraíba Plant poisonings diagnosed in ruminants and horses and estimation of the economical losses in Paraíba

    Tales S. Assis


    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento dos surtos de intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equinos diagnosticados no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV, do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Paraíba, no período de 2000-2007. Em bovinos 7,4% dos diagnósticos realizados pelo LPV foram intoxicações por plantas. Foram diagnosticadas intoxicações por Centhraterum brachylepis (um surto, Brachiaria spp. (um surto, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Ipomoea batatas (um surto, Marsdenia sp. (um surto, gramíneas contendo nitratos e nitritos (um surto por Echinochloa polystachya e dois surtos por Pennisetum purpureum, Palicourea aeneofusca (um surto, Prosopis juliflora (três surtos, Nerium oleander (um surto e Mimosa tenuiflora (sete surtos. Na espécie ovina 13% dos diagnósticos foram intoxicações por plantas. Os surtos foram causados por Ipomoea asarifolia (quatro surtos, Brachiaria spp. (três surtos, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Tephrosia cinerea (dois surtos, Panicum dichotomiflorum (um surto, Mascagnia rigida (um surto e malformações associadas à ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (20 surtos. Nos caprinos, 6,4% dos diagnósticos corresponderam à intoxicação por plantas. Sete surtos foram causados por Mimosa tenuiflora, um por Ipomoea asarifolia, um por Ipomoea carnea, um por Ipomoea riedelli, três por Prosopis juliflora, um por Arrabidaea corallina, dois por Aspidosperma pyrifolium, dois por Turbina cordata e um por Opuntia ficus-indica. Na espécie equina 14% das doenças diagnosticadas foram devidas a intoxicações por plantas, sendo 12 surtos por Crotalaria retusa e um por Turbina cordata. As perdas na Paraíba por plantas tóxicas são estimadas em 3.895 bovinos, 8.374 ovinos, 6.390 caprinos e 366 equinos, que representam uma perda econômica anual, por morte de animais, de R$ 2.733.097,00. São relatados alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e patologia de surtos de

  3. Biogenic hardparts: Difficult archives of the geological past (Invited)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.


    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons can act as support or serve as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hard parts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrices, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of many biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth patterns and their ability to record ambient environmental conditions in the form of multiple geochemical properties (multi-proxy archives) that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. Here, we compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hard parts secreted by mollusks (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hard parts. Despite the fact that mollusks and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil hard parts precipitated (under favorable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration) in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or

  4. Strontium isotope evolution of Late Permian and Triassic seawater

    Korte, Christoph; Kozur, Heinz W.; Bruckschen, Peter; Veizer, Ján


    The 87Sr/ 86Sr values based on brachiopods and conodonts define a nearly continuous record for the Late Permian and Triassic intervals. Minor gaps in measurements exist only for the uppermost Brahmanian, lower part of the Upper Olenekian, and Middle Norian, and only sparse data are available for the Late Permian. These 219 measurements include 67 brachiopods and 114 conodont samples from the Tethyan realm as well as 37 brachiopods and one conodont sample from the mid-European Middle Triassic Muschelkalk Sea. The Late Permian/Lower Triassic interval is characterized by a steep 1.3 × 10 -3 rise, from 0.7070 at the base of the Dzhulfian to 0.7082 in the late Olenekian, a rate of change comparable to that in the Cenozoic. In the mid-Triassic (Anisian and Ladinian), the isotope values fall to 0.7075, followed again by a rise to 0.7081 in the Middle/Late Norian. The 87Sr/ 86Sr values decline again in the Late Norian (Sevatian) and Rhaetian to 0.7076. The sharp rise in the 87Sr/ 86Sr values during the Late Permian/Early Triassic was coincident with widespread clastic sedimentation. Because of the paucity of tectonic uplifts, the enhanced erosion may have been due to intermittent humid phases, during mainly an arid interval, coupled with the absence of a dense protective land plant cover following the mass extinction during the latest Permian. The apex of the 87Sr/ 86Sr curve at the Olenekian/Anisian boundary coincides with cessation of the large-scale clastic sedimentation and also marks the final recovery of land vegetation, as indicated by the renewed onset of coal formation in the Middle Triassic. The rising 87Sr/ 86Sr values from the Middle Carnian to the Late Norian coincide with the uplift and erosion of the Cimmeride-Indosinian orogens marking the closure of the Palaeotethys. The subsequent Rhaetian decline that continues into Jurassic (Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary), on the other hand, coincides with the opening of the Vardar Ocean and its eastern continuation

  5. The Li isotope composition of modern biogenic carbonates

    Dellinger, M.; West, A. J.; Adkins, J. F.; Paris, G.; Eagle, R.; Freitas, P. S.; Bagard, M. L.; Ries, J. B.; Corsetti, F. A.; Pogge von Strandmann, P.; Ullmann, C. V.


    The lithium stable isotope composition (δ7Li) of sedimentary carbonates has great potential to unravel weathering rates and intensity in the past, with implications for understanding the carbon cycle over geologic time. However, so far very little is known about the potential influence of fractionation of the stable Li isotope composition of biogenic carbonates. Here, we investigate the δ7Li of various organisms (particularly mollusks, echinoderms and brachiopods) abundant in the Phanerozoic record, in order to understand which geologic archives might provide the best targets for reconstructing past seawater composition. The range of measured samples includes (i) modern calcite and aragonite shells from variable natural environments, (ii) shells from organisms grown under controlled conditions (temperature, salinity, pCO2), and (iii) fossil shells from a range of species collected from Miocene deposits. When possible, both the inner and outer layers of bivalves were micro-sampled to assess the intra-shell heterogeneity. For calcitic shells, the measured δ7Li of bivalve species range from +32 to +41‰ and is systematically enriched in the heavy isotope relative to seawater (31 ‰) and to inorganic calcite, which is characterized by Δ7Licalcite-seawater = -2 to -5‰ [1]. The Li isotope composition of aragonitic bivalves, ranging from +16 to +22‰, is slightly fractionated to both high and low δ7Li relative to inorganic aragonite. The largest intra-shell Li isotope variability is observed for mixed calcite-aragonite shells (more than 20‰) whereas in single mineralogy shells, intra-shell δ7Li variability is generally less than 3‰. Overall, these results suggest a strong influence of vital effects on Li isotopes during bio-calcification of bivalve shells. On the contrary, measured brachiopods systematically exhibit fractionation that is very similar to inorganic calcite, with a mean δ7Li of 27.0±1.5‰, suggesting that brachiopods may provide good

  6. The shifting balance of diversity among major marine animal groups.

    Alroy, J


    The fossil record demonstrates that each major taxonomic group has a consistent net rate of diversification and a limit to its species richness. It has been thought that long-term changes in the dominance of major taxonomic groups can be predicted from these characteristics. However, new analyses show that diversity limits may rise or fall in response to adaptive radiations or extinctions. These changes are idiosyncratic and occur at different times in each taxa. For example, the end-Permian mass extinction permanently reduced the diversity of important, previously dominant groups such as brachiopods and crinoids. The current global crisis may therefore permanently alter the biosphere's taxonomic composition by changing the rules of evolution. PMID:20813951

  7. Aspectos gerais sobre a alimentação do cangulo, Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces - Balistidae no estado de Pernambuco - Brasil

    Técio Luiz Macêdo Costa


    Full Text Available The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustaceans and fishes. Echinoderms, foraminifera, bryozoa, sponges, polychaete worms, coelenterates and brachiopods were also observed in smaller proportions. Both males and females had a carnivorous benthic diet. Growth and changes in the seasons were not reflected by changes in the diet.

  8. Lophotrochozoan mitochondrial genomes

    Valles, Yvonne; Boore, Jeffrey L.


    Progress in both molecular techniques and phylogeneticmethods has challenged many of the interpretations of traditionaltaxonomy. One example is in the recognition of the animal superphylumLophotrochozoa (annelids, mollusks, echiurans, platyhelminthes,brachiopods, and other phyla), although the relationships within thisgroup and the inclusion of some phyla remain uncertain. While much ofthis progress in phylogenetic reconstruction has been based on comparingsingle gene sequences, we are beginning to see the potential of comparinglarge-scale features of genomes, such as the relative order of genes.Even though tremendous progress is being made on the sequencedetermination of whole nuclear genomes, the dataset of choice forgenome-level characters for many animals across a broad taxonomic rangeremains mitochondrial genomes. We review here what is known aboutmitochondrial genomes of the lophotrochozoans and discuss the promisethat this dataset will enable insight into theirrelationships.

  9. Impact Theory of Mass Extinctions and the Invertebrate Fossil Record

    Alvarez, Walter; Kauffman, Erle G.; Surlyk, Finn; Alvarez, Luis W.; Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.


    There is much evidence that the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was marked by a massive meteorite impact. Theoretical consideration of the consequences of such an impact predicts sharp extinctions in many groups of animals precisely at the boundary. Paleontological data clearly show gradual declines in diversity over the last 1 to 10 million years in various invertebrate groups. Reexamination of data from careful studies of the best sections shows that, in addition to undergoing the decline, four groups (ammonites, cheilostomate bryozoans, brachiopods, and bivalves) were affected by sudden truncations precisely at the iridium anomaly that marks the boundary. The paleontological record thus bears witness to terminal-Cretaceous extinctions on two time scales: a slow decline unrelated to the impact and a sharp truncation synchronous with and probably caused by the impact.

  10. Ciliary and mucus-net filter feeding, with special reference to fluid mechanical characteristics

    Jørgensen, C.B.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.;


    Filter characteristics were determined and compared in ciliary and mucus-net filter feeders. The ciliary feeders include the polychaete Sabella penicillus, the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, the marine bivalves Monia squama, Cardium glaucum, and Petricola pholadiformis, and the freshwater...... bivalves Dreissena polymorpha, Unio pictorum and Anodonta cygnea. The mucus-net feeders are the polychaete Chaetopterus variopedatus, the gastropod Crepidula fornicata and the ascidians Styela clava, Ciona intestinalis, Ascidia virginea, A. obliqua and A. mentula. Efficiencies of particle retention as a...... function of particle size was determined by counting of particles in samples of inhalant and exhalant water. The lower threshold for efficient particle retention varied from .apprx. 6 .mu.m in T. retuso to .apprx. 1 .mu.m in D. polymorpha. Mucus nets efficiently retained particles down to 1-2 .mu.m. Filter...