Sample records for bovine placental villi

  1. Arrangement of collagen fibers in human placental stem villi

    Sati, Leyla; Demir, Ayse Yasemin; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Demir, Ramazan


    The aim of the study was to investigate the arrangements and related localization patterns of different collagen types in the stroma of placental stem villi by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. A total of 14 normal human term placental tissue samples were studied. Immunohistochemistry wa

  2. 3-D study of vessels in peripheral placental villi

    Jirkovská, M.; Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří; Kaláb, Josef


    Roč. 26, - (2007), s. 165-168. ISSN 1580-3139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : 3-D reconstruction * angiogenesis * placental villi Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  3. Conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by human placental homogenates and villi in vitro

    The authors have previously reported that placental villi in vitro metabolize acetaldehyde (Ach), and that Ach forms adducts with placental subcellular fractions. In the experiments reported here the authors have investigated the capacity of placental homogenates and villi to generate Ach from ethanol (EtOH). When placental homogenates (0.5 g wet weight) prepared in 50 mM Tris. pH 7.5, were incubated with 20 μM [1-14C]ethanol and an NADP- generating system, Ach was formed at the rate of 0.18 nmol/h/g wet weight of tissue, based on counts trappable with semicarbazide. NAD was as effective as NADP. Omission of cofactor resulted in a 69% decrease in activity. The addition of a human serum ultrafiltrate (25,000 m.w. cut-off) to 20% had no effect on Ach formation, whole serum at 20% reduced reaction by 60%. Sodium azide at 40 mM completely abolished Ach formation, 1,10-phenanthroline at 0.4 mM inhibited approximately 50%. In contrast, no Ach formation was detected when 1.0-g fragments of villous tissue were incubated with 20 μM [1-14C]EtOH. The data suggest that villous tissue is capable of Ach formation by a catalase-like activity, but the capacity of intact villi for EtOH oxidation is low

  4. Expressional regulation of genes linked to immunity & programmed development in human early placental villi

    M A Khan


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: During 6 to 8 wk of gestation, human placental villi show a complex pattern of morphogenesis. There is however, no large scale gene expression study exploring the temporal pattern of the developmental molecular networks in placental villi during the early weeks of gestation. We evaluated the transcriptome profiling of humn placental villus samples obtained from fertile women with voluntarily terminated normal pregnancies between 6-8 wk of gestation. Methods: Transcriptomic profiles of individual human placental villous samples from 25 women with normal pregnancies during 6 to 8 wk of gestation were examined using human whole genome expression arrays. Quantitative RT-PCR validation of copy numbers of transcripts for selected 15 genes and exploratory analysis of the microarray data revealed a high degree of quality assurance supportive of further clustering and differential analyses. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis of selected five candidate proteins (CAGE1, CD9, SLC6A2, TANK and VEGFC based on transcript profiles were done to assess the pattern of down stream informational flow. Results: A large number (~9K of genes with known functions were expressed in the experimental samples. The clustering analysis identified three major expression clusters with gestational age, and four co-expressional clusters. Differential analysis identified a highly discrete regulatory process involving only about 160 genes. Immunochemical analysis of selected candidate proteins based on transcript profiles revealed generally synchronous expression in human early placental villi. Interpretation & conclusions: Several signaling pathways linked to immunity (COL1, JAK2, JAK3, IL12, IL13, IL15, IL27, STAT3 and STAT5 were downregulated, while genes of the enriched category of antiviral immunity (ATF/AP1, IL10R and OAS were clearly over-expressed. Transcriptional integration supportive of programmed development was observed in first

  5. Placental Hypoxia Developed During Preeclampsia Induces Telocytes Apoptosis in Chorionic Villi Affecting The Maternal-Fetus Metabolic Exchange.

    Bosco, Cleofina Becerra; Díaz, Eugenia Guerra; Gutierrez, Rodrigo Rojas; González, Jaime Montero; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Rodrigo, Ramón Salinas; Barja, Pilar Yañez


    Telocytes (TC) are a new type of stromal cells initially found and studied in digestive and extra- digestive organs. These cells have a small cell body with 2 to 5 thin and extremely long cytoplasmic prolongations named telopodes. In recent years, TC have also been described in placental chorionic villi, located in a strategical position between the smooth muscle cells from fetal vessels and the myofibroblasts in the stromal villi. Unlike other organs, the placenta is not innervated and considering the strategic location of TC is has been postulated that TC function would be related to signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of the fetal vessels blood flow, as well as in the shortening/lengthening of the chorionic villi, providing the necessary rhythmicity to the process of maternal/fetal metabolic exchange. Preeclampsia (PE) is a systemic syndrome that affects 4%-6% of pregnancies worldwide. It is characterized by a placental state of ischemia-hypoxia which triggers an oxidative stress stage with the concomitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to an increase in the degree of placental apoptosis. Placental vascular tone is regulated by the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and, in PE cases, NO is diverted towards the formation of peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidative agent whose activity leads to an increase of placental apoptosis degree that compromises TC and myofibroblasts, a key feature we would like to emphasize in this work. PMID:25643124

  6. Association between Breus' mole and partial hydatidiform mole: chance or can hydropic villi precipitate placental massive subchorionic thrombosis?

    Kim, Dae Tong; Riddell, D Christie; Welch, J Philip; Scott, Heather; Fraser, Robert B; Wright, James R


    Breus' mole (massive subchorionic hematoma) is a rare entity most often found in the placentae of macerated stillborn fetuses. Previously considered to represent a postmortem event, recent evidence suggests that it occurs prior to fetal demise. A 23-week gestation male neonate was delivered of a 23-year-old gravida 3, para 2 woman and survived for 49 min. An autopsy with chromosomal studies resulted in a diagnosis of triploidy. Placental examination showed the presence of both Breus' mole and also partial hydatidiform mole. DNA samples extracted from portions of the fresh hematoma and from the fetal spleen were compared using molecular techniques. PCR analysis showed the presence of Y chromosome specific DNA in the placental clot, but a semiquantitative Southern blot demonstrated that roughly 85% of the clot DNA was of maternal origin. These findings suggest that Breus' mole represents primarily maternal thrombosis rather than fetal hemorrhage. We hypothesize that the partial mole could have contributed to the formation of the Breus' mole as some of the hydropic villi may have focally obstructed the maternal venous return from the intervillus space causing sluggish flow and promoting thrombosis. A review of the literature on Breus' mole shows that the majority of reported cases have not included cytogenetic findings. However, several authors have reported an association with triploidy and other chromosomal anomalies characterized by scattered placental hydropic villi. Thus, we suggest that obstruction of maternal venous return by hydropic villi may have played a contributory role in some of these other reported cases. PMID:12396900

  7. Human type 2 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA and protein distribution in placental villi at mid and term pregnancy

    Plante Julie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During human pregnancy, the placental villi produces high amounts of estradiol. This steroid is secreted by the syncytium, which is directly in contact with maternal blood. Estradiol has to cross placental foetal vessels to reach foetal circulation. The enzyme 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17beta-HSD2 was detected in placental endothelial cells of foetal vessels inside the villi. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of estradiol to estrone, and of testosterone to androstenedione. It was proposed that estradiol level into foetal circulation could be regulated by 17beta-HSD2. Methods We obtained placentas from 10 to 26 6/7 weeks of pregnancy from women undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy, term placentas were collected after normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries. We quantified 17beta-HSD2 mRNA levels in mid-gestation and term human placenta by RT-QPCR. We produced a new anti-17beta-HSD2 antibody to study its spatio-temporal expression by immunohistochemistry. We also compared steroid levels (testosterone, estrone and estradiol and 17beta-HSD2 mRNA and protein levels between term placenta and endometrium. Results High 17beta-HSD2 mRNA and protein levels were found in both mid-gestation and term placentas. However, we showed that 17beta-HSD2 mRNA levels increase by 2.27 fold between mid-gestation and term. This period coincides with a transitional phase in the development of the villous vasculature. In mid-gestation placenta, high levels of 17beta-HSD2 were found in mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi, more precisely in endothelial cells of the stromal channel. At term, high levels of 17beta-HSD2 were found in the numerous sinusoidal capillaries of terminal villi. 17beta-HSD2 mRNA and protein levels in term placentas were respectively 25.4 fold and 30 to 60 fold higher than in the endometrium. Steroid levels were also significantly higher in term placenta than in the endometrium. Conclusion

  8. Expression and characterization of novel ovine orthologs of bovine placental prolactin-related proteins

    Ohkoshi Katsuhiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prolactin-related proteins (PRPs are non-classical placental-specific members of the prolactin/growth hormone family. Among ruminants, they are expressed in the cotyledonary villi of cattle and goat. We investigated placental PRP in sheep in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the function and evolution of these molecules. We also examined the sequence properties, expression and lactogenic activation of the cloned genes. Results We cloned two novel ovine PRPs, named oPRP1 and oPRP2. oPRP2 had a typical PRP sequence similar to bovine PRP1 (bPRP1. oPRP1 had a short sequence identical with bovine or caprine type PRP but the reading frame was shifted. Both oPRPs were expressed in trophoblast giant binucleate cells (BNC as in cattle and goat. oPRP1 expression declined from the early to the middle stage of gestation. In contrast, oPRP2 expression remained constant throughout the gestation period. oPRP2 was translated to form a mature protein in a mammalian cell expression system. Western blotting showed a molecular mass of 35 kDa for the FLAG-tag fusion oPRP2 protein. This recombinant protein and bPRP1 were bioassayed using Nb2 lymphoma cells; it was confirmed that neither ruminant PRP had lactogenic activity because the Nb2 lymphoma cells did not proliferate. Conclusion We have identified two novel PRPs, oPRP1 and oPRP2, in ovine placenta. Both these ovine PRPs were localized and quantitatively expressed in BNC. Absence of lactogenic activity was confirmed for the oPRP2 molecule. It is anticipated that novel and known ruminant PRPs have common functions, except for lactogenic activity.

  9. Bovine placental lactogen: isolation purification and measurement in biological fluids

    Studies were conducted to isolate and purify bovine placental lactogen (bPL) and to develop a radioimmunoassay to this protein. Bovine placental lactogen was isolated from culture medium after a 24 hr culture of fetal cotyledonary tissue. Cotyledonary explants were stimulated to secrete bPL by either addition of bovine growth hormone (NIH-B8) to the medium or co-culture of cotyledon and caruncular tissue. Production of bPL was greatly affected by explant size and 70% of that produced in a 48 hr culture was released in the first 12 hr. Purification of bPL was accomplished using a column chromatographic scheme that involved gel filtration, ion exchange and chromatofocusing chromatography. A radioimmunoassay to bPL was developed using an antibody raised at the USDA Beltsville (F56). Dose response curves of amniotic or allantoic fluid or fetal and maternal serum were parallel to the standard curve and bPL was quantitatively recovered at from 82-125%. Using the radioimmunoassay, samples of amniotic and allantoic fluids and fetal and maternal serum were measured for bPL. Concentrations of bPL ranged from undetectable to 50 ng/ml, with fetal blood having the highest concentrations and amniotic fluid the lowest

  10. The branching pattern of villous capillaries and structural changes of placental terminal villi in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Jirkovská, M.; Kučera, T.; Kaláb, J.; Jadrníček, M.; Niedobová, V.; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Moravcová, M.; Žižka, Z.; Krejčí, V.


    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2012), s. 343-351. ISSN 0143-4004 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/09/0733 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : angiogenesis * branching * capillaries * collagen * confocal microscopy * desmin * diabetes * placenta * structure * three-dimensional reconstruction * vascular topology * villi * vimentin Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.117, year: 2012

  11. High-resolution Elemental Mapping of Human Placental Chorionic Villi Using Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Punshon, Tracy; Chen, Si; Finney, Lydia; Howard, Louisa; Jackson, Brian P.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Ornvold, Kim


    The placenta is the organ that mediates transport of nutrients and waste materials between mother and fetus. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microanalysis is a tool for imaging the distribution and quantity of elements in biological tissue, which can be used to study metal transport across biological membranes. Our aims were to pilot placental biopsy specimen preparation techniques that could be integrated into an ongoing epidemiology birth cohort study without harming rates of sample acquisition. We studied the effects of fixative (formalin or glutaraldehyde) and storage duration (30 days or immediate processing) on metal distribution and abundance and investigated a thaw-fixation protocol for archived specimens stored at -80 A degrees C. We measured fixative elemental composition with and without a placental biopsy via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to quantify fixative-induced elemental changes. Formalin-fixed specimens showed hemolysis of erythrocytes. The glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde solution in HEPES buffer (GTA-HEPES) had superior anatomical preservation, avoided hemolysis, and minimized elemental loss, although some cross-linking of exogenous Zn was evident. Elemental loss from tissue stored in fixative for 1 month showed variable losses (a parts per thousand 40 % with GTA-HEPES), suggesting storage duration be controlled for. Thawing of tissue held at -80 A degrees C in a GTA-HEPES solution provided high-quality visual images and elemental images

  12. Arachidonic acid metabolism by bovine placental tissue during the last month of pregnancy

    Conversion of tritiated arachidonic acid (AA) into metabolites of the cyclo- and lipoxygenase pathways by bovine fetal placental tissue (200 mg) and fetal plus maternal placental tissue (400 mg) of Days 255, 265, 275 of gestation and at parturition (n = 5) during a 30 min incubation was measured using reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. Fetal placental tissue produced 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin E2 (PGEM) as the major metabolite, the synthesis of which increased from Day 265 to Day 275 and parturition by 150% and 475%, respectively. In tissues collected at parturition, PGE2 synthesis was also detected. On Day 275 and at parturition fetal placental tissue synthesized the metabolite 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT), and throughout the experimental period the lipoxygenase product 15-HETE was detected with synthesis rates increasing over time of gestation. In addition, an unidentified metabolite was regularly found in the radiochromatograms which eluted at 1 h and 1 min (U101), between HHT and 15-HETE. The synthesis of this metabolite decreased as pregnancy progressed. Furthermore, various other polar and nonpolar metabolites pooled under the heading UNID were eluted, the production of which increased over time of gestation. The presence of maternal placental tissue did not influence the synthesis of PGEM, 15-HETE and U101, but the production of HHT was decreased when maternal tissue was present. Also, as pregnancy progressed, maternal placental tissue seemed to contribute to the pool of unidentified metabolites. In conclusion, fetal placental tissue seems to be the major source of the AA metabolites when compared with maternal placental tissue, and AA metabolism by bovine placental tissue is markedly increased throughout the last month of pregnancy, suggesting a role for AA metabolites in mechanisms controlling parturition

  13. The characterization of DNA methylation-mediated regulation of bovine placental lactogen and bovine prolactin-related protein-1 genes

    Patel Osman V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine trophoblast binucleate cells (BNC express a plethora of molecules including bovine placental lactogen (bPL, gene name is bCSH1 and bovine prolactin-related protein-1 (bPRP1. BCSH1 and bPRP1 are members of the growth hormone (GH/prolactin (PRL gene family, which are expressed simultaneously in BNC and are central to placentation and the progression of pregnancy in cattle. However, there is a paucity of information on the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of both the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that the expression of a number of genes is controlled by the methylation status of their promoter region. In the present study, we examined the cell-type-specific epigenetic alterations of the 5'-flanking region of the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes to gain an insight into their regulatory mechanisms. Results Analysis of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment demonstrated that bCSH1 expression is moderately induced in fibroblast cultures but enhanced in BT-1 cells. Sodium bisulfite based sequencing revealed that bCSH1 is hypomethylated in the cotyledonary tissue but not in the fetal skin, and this pattern was not altered with the progression of pregnancy. On the other hand, the methylation status of bPRP1 was similar between the cotyledon and fetal skin. The bPRP1 gene was exclusively hypermethylated in a bovine trophoblast cell-derived BT-1 cell-line. While the activity of bCSH1 was similar in both BT-1 and bovine fibroblast cells, that of bPRP1 was specific to BT-1. Treatment with a demethylating agent and luciferase assays provided in vitro evidence of the positive regulation of bCSH1 but not bPRP1. Conclusion This is the first report to identify the differential regulatory mechanisms of the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes and indicates that bCSH1 might potentially be the only transcript that is subject to DNA methyltransferase regulation. The data indicates the possibility of novel kinetics of induction of

  14. 3-D study of vessels in peripheral placenta villi

    Jirkovská, M.; Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří; Kaláb, J.

    Saint-Etienne : International society for stereology, 2007, ---. [International congress for stereology /12./. Saint-Etienne (FR), 03.09.2007-07.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : 3-D reconstruction * angiogenesis * placental villi Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  15. Gene expression profiles of novel caprine placental prolactin-related proteins similar to bovine placental prolactin-related proteins

    Sato Eimei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study reports the identification of a full-length cDNA sequence for two novel caprine prolactin-related proteins (cPRP1 and cPRP6, and their localization and quantitative expression in the placenta. Caprine PRPs are compared with known bovine PRPs. We examined their evolution and role in the ruminant placenta. Results Full-length cPRP1 and cPRP6 cDNA were cloned with a 717- and 720- nucleotide open-reading frame corresponding to proteins of 238 and 239 amino acids. The cPRP1 predicted amino acid sequence shares a 72% homology with bovine PRP1 (bPRP1. The cPRP6 predicted amino acid sequence shares a 74% homology with bovine PRP6 (bPRP6. The two cPRPs as well as bPRPs were detected only in the placentome by RT-PCR. Analysis by in situ hybridization revealed the presence of both cPRPs mRNA in the trophoblast binucleate cells. These mRNA were quantified by real-time RT-PCR analysis of the placentome at 30, 50, 90 and 140 days of pregnancy. Both new cPRP genes were able to translate a mature protein in a mammalian cell-expression system. Western blotting established the molecular sizes of 33 kDa for cPRP1 with FLAG-tag and 45 kDa for cPRP6 with FLAG-tag. The sequence properties and localized expression of cPRP1 and cPRP6 were similar to those of bovine. However, their expression profiles differed from those in bovine placenta. Although this study demonstrated possible roles of PRPs in caprine placenta, PRPs may regulate binucleate-cell functions like those in bovine, but their crucial roles are still unclear. Conclusion We have identified the novel PRPs in caprine placenta. Localization and quantitative expression of caprine PRPs were compared with bovine PRPs. The data indicate that PRP genes in caprine placenta have coordination functions for gestation, as they do in bovine. This is the first study of PRPs function in caprine placenta.

  16. Gene expression profiles of novel caprine placental prolactin-related proteins similar to bovine placental prolactin-related proteins

    Sato Eimei; Sasada Hiroshi; Abe Yasuyuki; Kizaki Keiichiro; Hosoe Misa; Takahashi Toru; Ushizawa Koichi; Hashizume Kazuyoshi


    Abstract Background This study reports the identification of a full-length cDNA sequence for two novel caprine prolactin-related proteins (cPRP1 and cPRP6), and their localization and quantitative expression in the placenta. Caprine PRPs are compared with known bovine PRPs. We examined their evolution and role in the ruminant placenta. Results Full-length cPRP1 and cPRP6 cDNA were cloned with a 717- and 720- nucleotide open-reading frame corresponding to proteins of 238 and 239 amino acids. T...

  17. Gene expression profiles of novel caprine placental prolactin-related proteins similar to bovine placental prolactin-related proteins

    Ushizawa, Koichi; Takahashi, Toru; Hosoe, Misa; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Abe, Yasuyuki; SASADA, Hiroshi; SATO, Eimei; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi


    Background This study reports the identification of a full-length cDNA sequence for two novel caprine prolactin-related proteins (cPRP1 and cPRP6), and their localization and quantitative expression in the placenta. Caprine PRPs are compared with known bovine PRPs. We examined their evolution and role in the ruminant placenta. Results Full-length cPRP1 and cPRP6 cDNA were cloned with a 717- and 720- nucleotide open-reading frame corresponding to proteins of 238 and 239 amino acids. The cPRP1 ...

  18. Do calcium-mediated cellular signalling pathways, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), estrogen or progesterone receptor antagonists, or bacterial endotoxins affect bovine placental function in vitro?

    Weems, Y S; Randel, R D; Carstens, G E; Welsh, T H; Weems, C W


    The major objective of this experiment was to determine whether the bovine placenta could be stimulated to secrete progesterone, since the bovine placenta secretes little progesterone when the corpus luteum is functional. Secondly, we wanted to determine whether reported abortifacients or progesterone or estrogen receptor antagonists affected bovine placental prostaglandin secretion. The ovine placenta secretes half of the circulating progesterone at day 90 of pregnancy and PGE2 appears to regulate ovine placental progesterone secretion. Calcium has been reported to regulate placental progesterone secretion in cattle. Diced 186-245-day placental slice explants from six Brahman and six Angus cows were incubated in vitro at 39.5 degrees C under 95% air: 5% CO2 at pH 7.2 in 5 ml of M-199 for 1 h in the absence of treatments and for 4 and 8 h in the presence of treatments. Treatments were: vehicle; R24571; compound 48/80; IP3; PGE2; CaCl2; cyclosporin A; lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) from Salmonella abortus equi., enteriditis, and typhimurium; monensin; ionomycin; arachidonic acid; mimosine; palmitic acid; progesterone, androstenedione; estradiol-17beta; A23187; RU-486; or MER-25. Jugular and uterine venous plasma and culture media were analyzed for progesterone, PGE2 and PGF2alpha by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Plasma hormone data were analyzed by a One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Hormone data in culture media were analyzed for breed and treatment effects by a Factorial Design (2 breeds, 2-range of days, 21 treatments) for ANOVA (2 x 2 x 21). Since hormone data secreted by placental tissue in vitro did not differ (P > or = 0.05) by breed or range of days of pregnancy, data were pooled and analyzed by a One-Way ANOVA. Concentrations of PGE2 in uterine venous blood were two-fold greater (P Angus than Brahman cows. PGE2 and PGF2alpha in vehicle controls increased from 4 to 8h (P or = 0.05) Progesterone in culture media treated with RU-486 increased (P or = 0

  19. Decrease in Sphingomyelin (d18:1/16:0 in Stem Villi and Phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4 in Terminal Villi of Human Term Placentas with Pathohistological Maternal Malperfusion.

    Kaori Yamazaki

    Full Text Available Placental villi play pivotal roles in feto-maternal transportation and phospholipids constitute a major part of the villous membrane. We have been developing and optimizing an imaging system based on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-based mass spectrometer, which provides clear two-dimensional molecular distribution patterns using highly sensitive mass spectrometry from mixtures of ions generated on tissue surfaces. We recently applied this technology to normal human uncomplicated term placentas and detected the specific distribution of sphingomyelin (SM (d18:1/16:0 in stem villi and phosphatidylcholine (PC (16:0/20:4 in terminal villi. In the present study, we applied this technology to nine placentas with maternal or fetal complications, and determined whether a relationship existed between these specific distribution patterns of phospholipid molecules and the six representative pathological findings of placentas, i.e., villitis of unknown etiology (VUE, thrombus, atherosis, chorioamnionitis (CAM, immature terminal villi, and multiple branched terminal villi. In two placentas with the first and second largest total number of positive pathological findings, i.e., five and three positive findings, the specific distribution of SM (d18:1/16:0 in stem villi and PC (16:0/20:4 in terminal villi disappeared. The common pathological findings in these two placentas were atherosis, immature terminal villi, and multiple branched terminal villi, suggesting the possible involvement of the underperfusion of maternal blood into the intervillous space. On the other hand, the number of pathological findings were two or less in the seven other placentas, in which no specific relationships were observed between the differential expression patterns of these two phospholipids in stem and terminal villi and the pathological findings of the placentas; however, the specific distribution pattern of SM (d18:1/16:0 in stem villi disappeared in four

  20. Placental Transmogrification of the lung

    Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Il Hwan; Kwon, Woo Cheol; Eom, Min Seob; Kim, Young Ju; Hwan, Joong Hwan [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)


    Placental transmogrification is a very rare lung disease, where the alveoli resemble the chorionic villi of placenta, and this change is a characteristic finding. A 31-year-old female patient presented with cough and dyspnea that had begun 2 weeks prior to admission. Along with giant bulla found in the left upper lung field, subsegmental consolidation was also identified in the lingular segment on plain chest radiograph and CT scan. Wedge resection was performed to remove the bulla. Pathologic examination of the resected bulla revealed destruction of the normal structures and characteristic villous and papillary changes. These changes led to a diagnosis of placental transmogrification. We made an encounter of an unusual placental transmogrification which had different image findings from other reported transmogrification cases. Thus, we report an atypical placental transmogrification case where both consolidation and giant bulla coexist.

  1. Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants

    Ricardo E. Fretes


    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

  2. Expression of VEGF receptors VEFGR-1 and VEGFR-2, angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 in chorionic villi tree during early pregnancy.

    Ramazan Demir


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the expression of VEGF and its receptors in placentas from normal pregnancies between 22 days p.c. and 48 days p.c. of very early pregnancy. Placental tissues carried out from 19 pregnant women were examined. Immunohistochemical technique, electron microscopy were employed to evaluate the factors expression. In the new developing mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGF and its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity was detected in all the placental components, while in the stem villi and in the chorionic plate with large vessels only in some components. In the mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGFR-1 and -2, and angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 immunoreactivity was dominantly observed in the heamangiogenic cells and cells cords, whereas the matured villi showed immunoreactivity only in other components. The ultrastructural findings were higher in respect to the all of the early pregnancy days. The placental samples from all of pregnancies, showed the VEGF and its receptors in optimal expression levels, whereas the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 showed a higher expression levels in respect to other study factors. The receptors protein levels increased from the early days to the advanced days of gestation, but this alteration was not significant. The intensity of the immunolabeling for these proteins were not significant compared to to each other of gestatin days were examined. These findings demonstrated that a dysregulation of the placental expression of the VEGF and its receptors related to the different degrees of the gestational periods. Probably, this event may be related to complete vasculugenesis and angiogenesis in placental villi.

  3. Notes on placentation in the Suina.

    Macdonald, A A; Bosma, A A


    We examined the gross and microscopic anatomy of placental tissues and umbilical cords from six species representing the three living families of the Suina. These species included, of the Suidae, the wart hog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), the giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni), the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), and the banded pig of Malaysia (Sus scrofa vittatus); of the Tayassuidae, the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari); of the Hippopotamidae, the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) and the pigmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis). All these species have a diffuse epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion is folded, and has on its surface rows of shallow ripples or villi, interrupted by round, oval or irregularly shaped areolae. Placental capillaries indent the epithelial layer covering the tops and sides of the interareolar villi, but not the columnar cell layer lying in the troughs between these villi or covering the areolae. Cuboidal cells cover the crests of the villi in the Suidae and Hippopotamidae, whereas in the Tayassuidae the epithelium is syncytial in appearance. The similarities in placental structure between the six species are more apparent than the differences. Suidae and Tayassuidae have smooth umbilical cords containing two arteries and one vein; those of the Hippopotamidae are pustule-encrusted and contain two arteries and two veins. PMID:3991477

  4. Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring.

    Grant, Dawn M; Dagleish, Mark P; Bachofen, Claudia; Boag, Brian; Deane, David; Percival, Ann; Zadoks, Ruth N; Russell, George C


    Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where an eradication program started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common. Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analyzed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, ∼260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and ∼130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies. These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but only a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been infected. PMID:26441927

  5. Association between calcifying nanoparticles and placental calcification

    Zhang D


    Full Text Available Yanan Guo1, Dechun Zhang1, He Lu1, Shuang Luo2, Xuecheng Shen31Molecular Medicine and Tumor Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Yuzhong District, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 3Urological Research Institute of PLA, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of calcifying nanoparticles to the pathogenesis of placental calcification.Methods: Calcified placental tissues and distal tissue samples were collected from 36 confirmed placental calcification cases. In addition, 20 normal placental tissue samples were obtained as a control group. All the tissue samples were cultured using special nanobacterial culture methods. The cultured calcifying nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and their growth was monitored by optical density (OD at a wavelength of 650 nm. 16S rRNA gene expression of the cultured calcifying nanoparticles was also isolated and sequenced.Results: Novel calcifying nanoparticles wrapped with electron-dense shells between 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter were observed in the extracellular matrix of calcified placental tissues. They were detected in placental villi and hydroxyapatite crystals, and contained “nucleic acid-like materials”. After isolation and four weeks of culture, 28 of 36 calcified placental tissue samples showed white granular precipitates attached to the bottom of the culture tubes. OD650 measurements indicated that the precipitates from the calcified placental tissues were able to grow in culture, whereas no such precipitates from the control tissues were observed. The 16S rRNA genes were isolated from the cultured calcifying nanoparticles and calcified placental tissues, and their gene sequencing results implied that calcifying nanoparticles were novel nanobacteria (GenBank JF

  6. Fetal placental prostaglandin metabolism in the peripartum cow

    Previous results demonstrate that fetal placental tissue synthesizes prostaglandin E (PGE) prior to parturition. When placental membranes do not separate postpartum, PGE synthesis is maintained, while prostaglandin F (PGF) synthesis predominates when the membranes separate. Concurrent with separation is a decline in fetal placental binucleate cell (BNC) numbers. These data suggest a fetal placental conversion of PGE to PGF. For this experiment, placentomes were collected at ten days prepartum (PRE, n=12) and within 1 hr postpartum. Nine of the postpartum animals had fetal membrane separation within 12 hr postpartum (S) and eight did not exhibit membrane separation (NS). For each placentome, fetal (villi) components were manually isolated and examined for the ability to interconvert 3H labeled PGE2 and PGF2. All villi were unable to convert PGE2 to PGF2 (P > .05). The PRE and NS villi were able to convert PGF2 to PGE2 (P 2 to PGE2 (P 2 to PGE2 also declines (P < .05). These data suggest that peripartum fetal placental tissue might synthesize PGF which is then converted to PGE. It is possible that the BNC are directly converting PGF to PGE or that they are modulating this conversion. Therefore, with a decline in BNC numbers, PGF synthesis would predominate

  7. Candida Sepsis Following Transcervical Chorionic Villi Sampling

    Israel Potasman; Roni Gonen; Alona Paz


    Background: The use of invasive devices and broad spectrum antibiotics has increased the rate of candidal superinfections.Candida sepsis associated with pregnancy is rare. Candida sepsis following chorionic villi sampling (CVS) has never been reported. Case: A 31-year-old pregnant woman presented with signs of sepsis one day after undergoing transcervical CVS. Blood culture and curettage material yielded C. albicans. She was treated with 400 mg of fluconazole daily for 4 weeks and completely ...

  8. Markkinointisuunnitelma : VilliVerso & Pieni Siivenisku

    Purosto, Joanna; Männikkö, Pete


    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tehdä markkinointisuunnitelma toimeksiantajana toimivalle paikalliselle eko-kaupalle, VilliVersolle sekä samoissa toimitiloissa toimivalle muun muassa ravintoterapeutin palveluja tuottavalle Pieni Siiveniskulle. Tavoitteena oli auttaa toimeksiantajaa kehittämään yrityksensä markkinointia ja markkinointiviestintää, ideoida markkinointisuunnitelma ja erilaisia toimenpiteitä vuodelle 2014. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli myös että toimeksiantaja oppii uutta, ja sa...

  9. Glucagonoma syndrome demonstrating giant duodenal villi.

    Stevens, F M; Flanagan, R W; O'Gorman, D; Buchanan, K D


    A 39 year old man developed an itchy bullous rash in the perineum and on the extremities. Six years later, after giant intestinal villi had been noted at endoscopy, a diagnosis of the glucagonoma syndrome was made. Investigation revealed a large tumour of the pancreatic body and tail. The molecular species of glucagon secreted by the tumour were characterised using the combined purification procedures of immunoaffinity chromatography followed by gel filtration.

  10. Placental toxicology: tobacco smoke, abused drugs, multiple chemical interactions, and placental function.

    Sastry, B V


    There are increasing numbers of reports on the tobacco smoking and ingestion of abused drugs (e.g. morphine, cocaine) by pregnant women and the effects of the substances on the developing fetus and newborn infant. The passage of drugs and chemicals from the mother to the fetus is influenced by the placental transport and metabolism of the substances. Further, these drugs and chemicals affect the nutrient transport systems in the placenta. The three major drugs of abuse-nicotine, morphine and cocaine-depress both active amino-acid uptake by human placental villi and transplacental amino-acid transport by reason of the drugs' influence on placental cholinergic and opiate systems. Part of this depression (10-16%) is not reversible. Nicotine blocks the cholinergic receptor and thus blocks acetylcholine (ACh)-facilitated amino-acid transport. Morphine stimulates opiate kappa receptors and depresses ACh release. Cocaine blocks Ca2+ influx and thus blocks ACh release. ACh causes dilation of blood vessels and maintains placental blood flow by the activation of endothelial muscarinic receptors. By interfering with ACh release and placental blood flow, the three drugs of abuse may depress the diffusion of amino acids and other nutrients from the trophoblast into the placental circulation. Three regulatory systems are delineated for amino-acid uptake by the placenta: placental ACh, phospholipid N-methyltransferase, and the gammaglutamyl cycle. These systems operate in concert with one another and are dependent on cellular formation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Placental hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide and other tobacco gases depresses the energy-dependent processes and thus the ATP levels of placental cells. Maternal tobacco smoking and drug abuse cause placental insufficiencies for amino-acid transport, which may partially explain the fetal intrauterine growth retardation caused by these substances. Part of the amino-acid deficits may be compensated for by the

  11. Review: Exploration of placentation from human beings to ocean-living species.

    Soma, H; Murai, N; Tanaka, K; Oguro, T; Kokuba, H; Yoshihama, I; Fujita, K; Mineo, S; Toda, M; Uchida, S; Mogoe, T


    This review covers four topics. 1) Placental pathology in Himalayan mountain people. To determine morphological changes of the placenta at high altitude, pathological examination was made of 1000 Himalayan placentas obtained in Nepal and Tibet and the results compared with Japanese placentas delivered at sea level. Characteristic findings in the placental villi of the Himalayan group included high incidences of villous chorangiosis and chorangioma. These processes were clarified by ultrastructural observation. 2) Placentation in Sirenians. The giant Takikawa sea cow, which lived 5 million years ago, was discovered on Hokkaido, Japan. It was an ancestor of the dugong as well as the manatees. Sirenia, the sea cow group, shares a common ancestor with Proboscidea, the elephants, even though they now inhabit quite different environments. A comparison was made of their zonary endothelial type of placentation. 3) Placentation in sharks and rays. The remarkable placentation of hammerhead sharks and manta rays is described. 4) Placentation in the Antarctic minke whale. Placental tissue samples of this whale were obtained from the Japan Institute of Cetacean Research. In an ultrastructural study of the utero-placental junction, microfilamental processes of the allantochorionic zone and crypt formation were visualized. PMID:23332416

  12. Pregnancy Complications: Placental Abruption

    ... belly is harmed from a car accident or physical abuse . If you've had a placental abruption before, ... belly is harmed from a car accident or physical abuse . If you've had a placental abruption before, ...

  13. Computational placental pathology: using placental geometry to assess placental function

    Li, Jenny (Jiazhen)


    Placental pathologists diagnose disease based on examining the placenta. It is hypothesized that poor blood vessel coverage may be detrimental to fetal development and may lead to low birth weight. In this project, geometrical measures of the placental structure are computed based on the total area of vessels and the vessel coverage on an important part of the placenta known as the chorionic plate. Vessel coverage is measured by the average of the distance from every point on the chorionic pl...

  14. Zika Virus Targets Different Primary Human Placental Cells, Suggesting Two Routes for Vertical Transmission.

    Tabata, Takako; Petitt, Matthew; Puerta-Guardo, Henry; Michlmayr, Daniela; Wang, Chunling; Fang-Hoover, June; Harris, Eva; Pereira, Lenore


    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is linked to severe birth defects, but mother-to-fetus transmission routes are unknown. We infected different primary cell types from mid- and late-gestation placentas and explants from first-trimester chorionic villi with the prototype Ugandan and a recently isolated Nicaraguan ZIKV strain. ZIKV infects primary human placental cells and explants-cytotrophoblasts, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and Hofbauer cells in chorionic villi and amniotic epithelial cells and trophoblast progenitors in amniochorionic membranes-that express Axl, Tyro3, and/or TIM1 viral entry cofactors. ZIKV produced NS3 and E proteins and generated higher viral titers in amniotic epithelial cells from mid-gestation compared to late-gestation placentas. Duramycin, a peptide that binds phosphatidylethanolamine in enveloped virions and precludes TIM1 binding, reduced ZIKV infection in placental cells and explants. Our results suggest that ZIKV spreads from basal and parietal decidua to chorionic villi and amniochorionic membranes and that targeting TIM1 could suppress infection at the uterine-placental interface. PMID:27443522

  15. Stereological analysis of terminal villi of the placentas of pregnant woman with sideropenic anemia

    Melisa Lelic


    Full Text Available Iron deficiency, causing maternal sideropenic anemia, is one of the most frequent nutritive disorder that develops during the pregnancy. We collected 30 placentas from anemic mothers and 30 placentas from mothers belonging to the control group. Terminal villi (magnification 10x and terminal villi capillaries (magnification 40x were stereologically analyzed and numerically determined.In the placentas from anemic mothers we noted the values a terminal villi: volume density 0,43 mm0, surface density 24.13 mm-1, total volume 185.57 cm3 and total surface 10.27 m2; b capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.53 mm0 and total volume 224.18 cm3. In the placentas from mothers belonging to the control group we observed the following values a terminal villi: volume density 0.44 mm0, surface density 22.27 mm-1, total volume 200.17 cm3 and total surface 10.15 m2; b capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.42 mm0 and total volume 197.00 cm3. Compared with the control group anemic mothers' placentas have a significant higher values of surface density of terminal villi (p<0.05, volume density (p <0.01 and absolute volume (p<0.0001 of terminal villi capillaries, and significant lower values of absolute volume of terminal villi (p<0.05.In anemic mothers’ placentas, the total volume of terminal villi changes disproportionately to the total surface of terminal villi with statistically significant increase of terminal villi capillaries compared with control group. 

  16. Stereological analysis of terminal villi of the placentas of pregnant woman with sideropenic anemia.

    Lelić, Melisa; Ramić, Suada; Žigić, Zlata; Bogdanović, Gordana; Marković, Sergije


    Iron deficiency, causing maternal sideropenic anemia, is one of the most frequent nutritive disorder that develops during the pregnancy. We collected 30 placentas from anemic mothers and 30 placentas from mothers belonging to the control group. Terminal villi (magnification 10x) and terminal villi capillaries (magnification 40x) were stereologically analyzed and numerically determined.In the placentas from anemic mothers we noted the values a) terminal villi: volume density 0,43 mm0, surface density 24.13 mm-1, total volume 185.57 cm3 and total surface 10.27 m2; b) capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.53 mm0 and total volume 224.18 cm3. In the placentas from mothers belonging to the control group we observed the following values a) terminal villi: volume density 0.44 mm0, surface density 22.27 mm-1, total volume 200.17 cm3 and total surface 10.15 m2; b) capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.42 mm0 and total volume 197.00 cm3. Compared with the control group anemic mothers' placentas have a significant higher values of surface density of terminal villi (p<0.05), volume density (p <0.01) and absolute volume (p<0.0001) of terminal villi capillaries, and significant lower values of absolute volume of terminal villi (p<0.05).In anemic mothers' placentas, the total volume of terminal villi changes disproportionately to the total surface of terminal villi with statistically significant increase of terminal villi capillaries compared with control group.  PMID:25172972

  17. Acute Placental Villitis as Evidence of Fetal Sepsis: An Autopsy Case Report.

    Bae, Go Eun; Yoon, Nara; Choi, Misun; Hwang, Soohyun; Hwang, Hyewon; Kim, Jung-Sun


    Acute placental villitis is very rare and believed to reflect overwhelming fetal sepsis in utero, commonly caused by Escherichia coli or group B streptococci. We present a case of intrauterine fetal death associated with acute placental villitis and acute necrotizing chorioamnionitis by early-onset group B streptococcal infection. A 36-year-old woman presented with decreased fetal movement and fever at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound demonstrated intrauterine fetal death. After delivery, the placenta revealed multifocal neutrophilic infiltration in chorionic villi, most prominently beneath the trophoblast basement membrane, which was also accompanied by acute necrotizing chorioamnionitis. Gram-positive microorganisms were detected in villous vessels as well as in the major organs of the fetus, which was consistent with Streptococcus agalactiae (group B) cultured from maternal blood. Acute placental villitis should be recognized as evidence of fetal sepsis that often has lethal clinical outcome, as compared to intra-amniotic infection associated with acute chorioamnionitis alone. PMID:26457860


    Walter Krause Neto


    Full Text Available Physical exercise has been demonstrated a positive effect on many pregnancy outcomes. Placental components are important for exchanging oxygen and nutrients between mother and fetus. This study aimed to systematic review and meta-analysis whether physical exercise could induce a morphological adjustment on placenta components. We systematically searched PubMed database until October 30th, 2014. We included randomized and non-randomized studies with control group, which aimed to investigate the effect of the physical exercise (water, aerobic and resistance on placental components (placental weight and volume, villous volume and vascular volume, intervillous space and stem villi. Initially, we identified 222 articles, of which 9 articles were used for full text analysis. Finally, four articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Meta-analysis demonstrated that exercise appeared to affect placental weight (95% CI, 39.73g [4.66-74.80], placental volume (95% CI, 47.11 cm3 [37.99-56.23], intervillous space (95% CI, 16.76 cm3 [12.66-20.68], villous volume (95% CI, 46.01 cm3 [40.21-51.81], villous vascular volume (95% CI, 15.95 cm3 [7.83-24.07] and stem villi (95% CI, 6.00 cm3[4.25-7.75]. Apparently, physical exercise has a positive effect on placental components. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of studies. Clearly, it stands the necessity of larger samples and better methodology quality.

  19. Placental biomarkers of phthalate effects on mRNA transcription: application in epidemiologic research

    Nelson Heather


    Full Text Available Abstract Background CYP19 and PPARγ are two genes expressed in the placental trophoblast that are important to placental function and are disrupted by phthalate exposure in other cell types. Measurement of the mRNA of these two genes in human placental tissue by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR offers a source of potential biomarkers for use in epidemiologic research. We report on methodologic challenges to be considered in study design. Methods We anonymously collected 10 full-term placentas and, for each, sampled placental villi at 12 sites in the chorionic plate representing the inner (closer to the cord insertion site and outer regions. Each sample was analyzed for the expression of two candidate genes, aromatase (CYP19 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor protein gamma (PPARγ and three potential internal controls: cyclophilin (CYC, 18S rRNA (18S, and total RNA. Between and within placenta variability was estimated using variance component analysis. Associations of expression levels with sampling characteristics were estimated using mixed effects models. Results We identified large within-placenta variability in both transcripts (>90% of total variance that was minimized to Conclusion qPCR-derived biomarkers of placental CYP19 and PPARγ gene expression show high within-placental variability. Sampling scheme, selection of an appropriate internal control and the timing of sample collection relative to delivery can be optimized to minimize within-placenta and other sources of underlying, non-etiologic variability.

  20. Placental histopathological changes associated with Plasmodium vivax infection during pregnancy.

    Rodrigo M Souza

    Full Text Available Histological evidence of Plasmodium in the placenta is indicative of placental malaria, a condition associated with severe outcomes for mother and child. Histological lesions found in placentas from Plasmodium-exposed women include syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, thickening of the placental barrier, necrosis of villous tissue and intervillositis. These histological changes have been associated with P. falciparum infections, but little is known about the contribution of P. vivax to such changes. We conducted a cross-sectional study with pregnant women at delivery and assigned them to three groups according to their Plasmodium exposure during pregnancy: no Plasmodium exposure (n = 41, P. vivax exposure (n = 59 or P. falciparum exposure (n = 19. We evaluated their placentas for signs of Plasmodium and placental lesions using ten histological parameters: syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, placental barrier thickness, villi necrosis, intervillous space area, intervillous leucocytes, intervillous mononucleates, intervillous polymorphonucleates, parasitized erythrocytes and hemozoin. Placentas from P. vivax-exposed women showed little evidence of Plasmodium or hemozoin but still exhibited more lesions than placentas from women not exposed to Plasmodium, especially when infections occurred twice or more during pregnancy. In the Brazilian state of Acre, where diagnosis and primary treatment are readily available and placental lesions occur in the absence of detected placental parasites, relying on the presence of Plasmodium in the placenta to evaluate Plasmodium-induced placental pathology is not feasible. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that syncytial knotting (odds ratio [OR], 4.21, P = 0.045, placental barrier thickness (OR, 25.59, P = 0.021 and mononuclear cells (OR, 4.02, P = 0.046 were increased in placentas from P. vivax-exposed women when compared to women not exposed to Plasmodium during pregnancy. A

  1. Effects of 60Co administration on early placental cells

    The effects of 60Co administration on early placental cells were studied. Placental tissue and embryo obtained by induced abortion (6 - 13 weeks gestational age) were placed in the minimal essential medium (MEM) and irradiated with various doses of 60Co. After irradiation, the villi were cultured in a CO2 incubater at 370C. Cell growth process was observed every day with the phase-contrast microscope. Between 1 and 5 days epitheloid cells were dominant, but from about 7th day on fibroblastic cells dominated the culture. In placental tissue irradiated with 100, 200, 500 rad, fibroblastic cells began to grow earlier than in non-treated. Over 3000 rad 60Co inhibited the growth of cells and a culture was impossible. For each dose, the tissue was incubated for various periods of time, exposed to tritiated thymidine for the last hour and autoradiogram was prepared by the dipping method. The labeling index of irradiated trophoblasts showed a significant decrease compared with controls. A chromosome study was made in irradiated in vitro cell lines of fetus and placenta. There was no significant difference between the two cell lines concerning the frequency of chromosome aberration, which tended to increase as the chromosome becomes longer. It is concluded that the trophoblast is highly radiosensitive and that irradiation early in pregnancy may damage DNA synthesis in the trophoblast, and induce abortion. (author)

  2. Study on placental blood flow in late pregnancy by intravenous sup(99m)Tc method

    A method for the continuous recording of uteroplacental blood flow (PBF) in late pregnancies by using sup(99m)Tc-albumin has been described. 1) The PBF curve of toxemia of pregnancy has been plotted to indicate small artery spasm in proving ischemic necrosis of placenta. 2) In the PBF of placental insufficiency evidenced by the values for urinary E3, an unfavorable build-up and a delayed build-up time were observed. The pathologic diagnosis showed condensation, fusion and necrosis of villi. 3) In the PBF in which a intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was caused by placental factors, a sudden change in the PBF was observed showing the presence of an ischemia. 4) In the PBF of pregnancy with diabetes, a large wave pattern change was observed indicating a decrease in the PBF. The pathologic diagnosis showed the fusion, hyalinization and necrosis of villi. 5) The PBF wave patterns were classified into four kinds: (1) normal pattern, (2) angio-spasm pattern, (3) delayed build-up pattern, (4) circulation pattern. It has become clear that these abnormal wave patterns are frequently observed in toxemia of pregnancy, placental insufficiency and pregnancy with diabetes. (author)

  3. Placentation in mammals

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C


    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes...

  4. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation: A case for positive pleiotropy between endometrial and malignancy phenotypes.

    D'Souza, Alaric W; Wagner, Günter P


    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971; 47: :1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  5. Pathogens and the Placental Fortress

    Robbins, Jennifer R.; Anna I Bakardjiev


    Placental infections are major causes of maternal and fetal disease. This review introduces a new paradigm for placental infections based on current knowledge of placental defenses and how this barrier can be breached. Transmission of pathogens from mother to fetus can occur at two sites of direct contact between maternal cells and specialized fetal cells (trophoblasts) in the human placenta: (i) maternal immune and endothelial cells juxtaposed to extravillous trophoblasts in the uterine impl...

  6. DREAM mediated regulation of GCM1 in the human placental trophoblast.

    Dora Baczyk

    Full Text Available The trophoblast transcription factor glial cell missing-1 (GCM1 regulates differentiation of placental cytotrophoblasts into the syncytiotrophoblast layer in contact with maternal blood. Reduced placental expression of GCM1 and abnormal syncytiotrophoblast structure are features of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy--preeclampsia. In-silico techniques identified the calcium-regulated transcriptional repressor--DREAM (Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator--as a candidate for GCM1 gene expression. Our objective was to determine if DREAM represses GCM1 regulated syncytiotrophoblast formation. EMSA and ChIP assays revealed a direct interaction between DREAM and the GCM1 promoter. siRNA-mediated DREAM silencing in cell culture and placental explant models significantly up-regulated GCM1 expression and reduced cytotrophoblast proliferation. DREAM calcium dependency was verified using ionomycin. Furthermore, the increased DREAM protein expression in preeclamptic placental villi was predominantly nuclear, coinciding with an overall increase in sumolylated DREAM and correlating inversely with GCM1 levels. In conclusion, our data reveal a calcium-regulated pathway whereby GCM1-directed villous trophoblast differentiation is repressed by DREAM. This pathway may be relevant to disease prevention via calcium-supplementation.

  7. Placental Tumour: What could it be?

    Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Hadabi, Rahma; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Al-Riyami, Marwa


    Placental tumours include placental chorioangiomas, teratomas, haemangiomas, and haematomas. Placental chorioangiomas are benign vascular tumours and are the most common placental tumours, with a prevalence of 1%. Large placental chorioangiomas are rare and may lead to pregnancy complications and poor perinatal outcomes. These complications include fetal anaemia, hydrops fetalis, fetal growth restriction, polyhydramnios, and preterm delivery. We report a case of a large placental chorioangiom...

  8. Contribution of placental leptin to the serum levels in preeclampsia and the effect of hypoxia on synthesis of placental leptin

    HUANG Liang; LI Dong-hong; ZHOU Run-suo; ZHAO Hong-xi; LI Yi; YAO Yuan-qing


    Objective: To investigate the contribution of placental leptin to the serum levels in preeclampsia and the effect of hypoxia on synthesis of placental leptin. Methods: Fifteen preeclamptic women and 20 normotensive pregnant women were recruited in present study. Leptin concentrations in peripheral venous blood samples and uterine venous blood samples were measured by radioimmunoassay. Eight cases of normal human term placental villi were cultured either in normaxia (21%O2) or in hypoxia (2%O2) followed by determining leptin in the culture medium by radioimmunoassay. Results: Leptin concentrations were significantly higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive pregnant women, both in the peripheral vein ([23.29±12.87] μg/L vs [13.87±5.57] μg/L, P<0.01) and uterine vein ([16.44±8.62] μg/L vs [11.21±4.20] μg/L, P<0.05). Leptin concentrations were significantly higher in the peripheral vein than in uterine vein, both in the preeclamptic (P<0.01) and in normotensive pregnant women (P<0.01). Concentrations of leptin in the culture medium were significantly increased in hypoxia than in normoxia (P<0.05). Conclusion: The pathogenesis of preeclampsia may be associated with an increase of maternal serum leptin and placenta leptin, and hypoxia in placenta may be an important factor that results in preeclamptic placenta to produce more leptin. Placenta is not the principal source of the serum leptin in the preeclamptic women or normotensive pregnant women.

  9. Instabilities of monolayered epithelia: shape and structure of villi and crypts

    Hannezo, Edouard; Joanny, Jean-Francois; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.078104


    We study theoretically the shapes of a dividing epithelial monolayer of cells lying on top of an elastic stroma. The negative tension created by cell division provokes a buckling instability at a finite wave vector leading to the formation of periodic arrays of villi and crypts. The instability is similar to the buckling of a metallic plate under compression. We use the results to rationalize the various structures of the intestinal lining observed \\emph{in vivo}. Taking into account the coupling between cell division and local curvature, we obtain different patterns of villi and crypts, which could explain the different morphologies of the small intestine and the colon.

  10. In vivo demonstration of small intestinal villi in dogs and monkeys using radiographi magnification

    Direct radiographic magnification (3.6X) and a microfocal spot radiographic tube (0.13 mm) were used in double contrast studies of intestinal villi in adult dogs and monkeys. The villi appeared as lucent lines surrounded by barium in profile, and as lucent dots en face; this was verified by specimen radiographic and histological analysis. The use of fast screen-film combination, motility depressant, microfocal spot tube, and airgap technique produced a radiograph of greater detail than that obtained with conventional focal spot, source-image distance, and film-screan combination. The advantages and limitations of microfocal direct magnification radiography of the small intestine are discussed

  11. Angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7 decrease sFlt1 release in normal but not preeclamptic chorionic villi: an in vitro study

    Moorefield Cheryl


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During preeclampsia, placental angiogenesis is impaired. Factors released from the placenta including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, placental growth factor (PLGF, soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt1, and soluble endoglin (sEng are regulatory molecules of placental development and function. While the renin angiotensin system has been shown to regulate angiogenic factors in other research fields, these mechanisms have not been extensively studied during pregnancy. Methods We evaluated the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II and angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] on the release of VEGF, PLGF, sFlt1, and sEng from placental chorionic villi (CV. CV were collected from nulliparous third-trimester normotensive and preeclamptic subjects. CV were incubated for 0, 2, 4, and 16 hours with or without Ang II (1 nM and 1 microM or Ang-(1-7 (1 nM and 1 microM. The release of VEGF, PLGF, sFlt1, sEng, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and human placenta lactogen (HPL was measured by ELISA. Results The release of sFlt1, PLGF, sEng from normal and preeclamptic CV increased over time. Release of sFlt1 and sEng was significantly higher from preeclamptic CV. VEGF was below the detectable level of the assay in normal and preeclamptic CV. After 2 hours, sFlt1 release from normal CV was significantly inhibited with Ang II (1 nM and 1 microM and Ang-(1-7 (1 nM and 1 microM. There was a time-dependent increase in HPL indicating that the CV were functioning normally. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a critical inhibitory role of angiotensin peptides on sFlt1 in normal pregnancy. Loss of this regulation in preeclampsia may allow sFlt1 to increase resulting in anti-angiogenesis and end organ damage in the mother.

  12. Changes of microvascular architecture, ultrastructure and permeability of rat jejunal villi at different ages

    Yan-Min Chen; Jin-Sheng Zhang; Xiang-Lin Duan


    AIM: To investigate the changes of microvascular architecture, ultrastructure and permeability of rat jejunal villi at different ages.METHODS: Microvascular corrosion casting, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Evans blue infiltration technique were used in this study.RESULTS: The intestinal villous plexus of adult rats consisted of arterioles, capillary network and venules. The marginal capillary extended to the base part of the villi and connected to the capillary networks of adjacent villi. In newborn rats,the villous plexus was rather simple, and capillary network was not formed. The villous plexus became cone-shaped and was closely arrayed in ablactation rats. In adult rats,the villous plexus became tongue-shaped and was enlarged both in height and width. In aged rats, the villous plexus shrank in volume and became shorter and narrower. The diametral ratio of villous arteriole to villous venule increased as animals became older. The number of endothelial holes,the thickness of basal membrane and the permeability of microvasculature were increased over the entire course of development from newborn period to aged period.CONCLUSION: The digestive and absorptive functions of the rat jejunum at different ages are highly dependent upon the state of villous microvascular architecture and permeability, and blood circulation is enhanced by collateral branches such as marginal capillary, through which blood is drained to the capillary networks of adjacent villi.

  13. Placental abruption: a persisting killer

    Shakuntala Amirchand Chhabra


    Full Text Available Background: Placental abruption, common disorder in obstetric practice, enigma too, is uniquely fraught with dangers to mother baby. Objectives of study were to study trends of placental abruption, risk factors, management strategies to learn more for reduction in morbidity-mortality of mother-baby, even with low resources, also get insight for future research. Methods: Records of cases of placental abruption managed over 27 years (between 1985 to 2011 were divided into three yearly blocks, A to I and analysed. Details including operative procedures like dilatation-curettage, Caesarean Section (CS or Ante-Partum Haemorrhage (APH in past, disorders like chronic hypertension, threatened abortion, pregnancy specific hypertension, diabetes, anaemia in index pregnancy, management done maternal-neonatal outcome were analysed using stata 6 software. Results: There were 66,459 births during analysis period with 667 cases of placental abruption, 1% births, increasing trends from, 0.73% between 1985-1987 to, 1.11% in 2009-2011. In these 667 cases of placental abruption, 211 (32.5% perinatal deaths occurred. Ratio of perinatal deaths due to placental abruption to overall perinatal deaths increased from 2.12% (8 cases between 1985-1987 (Block A to 5.12% (37 cases between 2009-2011 (Block I. Case fatality in cases of placental abruption has been fluctuating between 3 to 5% till 2004, contributing to around 12-15%, maternal mortality, with no fatality in last 7 years. Conclusions: Cases of placental abruption have been increasing with no obvious reason. In recent past maternal deaths could be prevented but perinatal deaths, have been persisting actually more in last decade. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 604-609

  14. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P


    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  15. Imaging and assessment of placental function.

    Moran, Mary


    The placenta is the vital support organ for the developing fetus. This article reviews current ultrasound (US) methods of assessing placental function. The ability of ultrasound to detect placental pathology is discussed. Doppler technology to investigate the fetal, placental, and maternal circulations in both high-risk and uncomplicated pregnancies is discussed and the current literature on the value of three-dimensional power Doppler studies to assess placental volume and vascularization is also evaluated. The article highlights the need for further research into three-dimensional ultrasound and alternative methods of placental evaluation if progress is to be made in optimizing placental function assessment.

  16. Ultrastrucmturaiml munogold labelling of vimentin filaments on postembedding ultrathin sections of arachnoid villi and meningiomas

    Yamashima, Tetsumori; Tachibana, Osamu; Nitta, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Narihito; Yamashita, Junkoh


    An immunoelectron microscopic technique for the labelling of vimentin intermediate filaments on postembedding ultrathin sections is reported. Arachnoid villi obtained at autopsy and meningiomas at surgery were fixed in 1% paraformaldehyde for 30 minutes, embedded without postfixation in Epon-Araldite mixture and polymerized at 37OC for 3 weeks. Ultrathin sections were etched in 2% KOH for 3 minutes and incubated with anti-vimentin monoclonal antibodies whic...

  17. Method of sampling chorionic villi in first trimester of pregnancy under guidance of real time ultrasound.

    Ward, R H; Modell, B; Petrou, M; Karagözlu, F; Douratsos, E


    Samples of chorionic villi were obtained in the first trimester by aspiration using a cannula passed transcervically under the guidance of real time ultrasound. In initial studies in 47 anaesthetised patients immediately before therapeutic abortion a method was developed giving a success rate of 89%. In 10 patients successful sampling was performed as an outpatient procedure without anaesthesia. In all, seven diagnostic procedures were undertaken and four of the five unaffected pregnancies co...

  18. Sonographic spectrum of placental abruption.

    Nyberg, D A; Cyr, D R; Mack, L A; Wilson, D A; Shuman, W P


    Fifty-seven cases of placental abruption detected by sonography were retrospectively reviewed. The location of hemorrhage was subchorionic in 46 cases (81%), retroplacental in nine cases (16%), and preplacental in two cases (4%). Subchorionic hematomas were more frequently shown in the 33 patients presenting before 20 menstrual weeks (91%) than in the 24 patients presenting after 20 weeks (67%). The echogenicity of hemorrhage depended on the time the sonogram was performed relative to the onset of symptoms: Acute hemorrhage was hyperechoic to isoechoic compared with the placenta, while resolving hematomas became hypoechoic within 1 week and sonolucent within 2 weeks. Acute hemorrhage was occasionally difficult to distinguish from the adjacent placenta. This occurred in five retroplacental hematomas that showed only an abnormally thick and heterogeneous placenta. Nine cases of placental abruption were initially confused with other mass lesions. Placental abruption causes a wide spectrum of sonographic findings that may be overlooked or misdiagnosed. PMID:3538831

  19. Intrapritoneal Hemorrhage after Placental Abruption

    Nahid Sakhavar


    Full Text Available A placental abruption or abruptio placentae (where in the placental lining has separated from the uterus of the mother is one of the complications caused by trauma during pregnancy. It lets the blood flow to infiltrate in the uterine lining and to develop Couvelaire uterus (also known as uteroplacental apoplexy and uterine atony (a condition in which a woman's uterine muscles lose the ability to contract after childbirth; however, it rarely develops considerable hemoperitoneum which needs hysterectomy. In this report, a unique case of placental abruption caused by trauma in a 28-year-old Afghan woman is introduced in which severity and duration of trauma because of delay in reaching health equipped center led to developing massive hemoperitoneum (infiltration of great amount of blood into the abdominal cavity and its complications.

  20. Internalization of nanopolymeric tracers does not alter characteristics of placental cells.

    Bigini, Paolo; Zanier, Elisa R; Saragozza, Silvia; Maciotta, Simona; Romele, Pietro; Bonassi Signoroni, Patrizia; Silini, Antonietta; Pischiutta, Francesca; Sammali, Eliana; Balducci, Claudia; Violatto, Martina B; Talamini, Laura; Garry, David; Moscatelli, Davide; Ferrari, Raffaele; Salmona, Mario; De Simoni, Maria Grazia; Maggi, Federico; Simoni, Giuseppe; Grati, Francesca Romana; Parolini, Ornella


    In the cell therapy scenario, efficient tracing of transplanted cells is essential for investigating cell migration and interactions with host tissues. This is fundamental to provide mechanistic insights which altogether allow for the understanding of the translational potential of placental cell therapy in the clinical setting. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) from human placenta are increasingly being investigated for their potential in treating patients with a variety of diseases. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using poly (methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles (PMMA-NPs) to trace placental MSC, namely those from the amniotic membrane (hAMSC) and early chorionic villi (hCV-MSC). We report that PMMP-NPs are efficiently internalized and retained in both populations, and do not alter cell morphofunctional parameters. We observed that PMMP-NP incorporation does not alter in vitro immune modulatory capability of placental MSC, a characteristic central to their reparative/therapeutic effects in vitro. We also show that in vitro, PMMP-NP uptake is not affected by hypoxia. Interestingly, after in vivo brain ischaemia and reperfusion injury achieved by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) in mice, iv hAMSC treatment resulted in significant improvement in cognitive function compared to PBS-treated tMCAo mice. Our study provides evidence that tracing placental MSC with PMMP-NPs does not alter their in vitro and in vivo functions. These observations are grounds for the use of PMMP-NPs as tools to investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of hAMSC and hCV-MSC in preclinical models of inflammatory-driven diseases. PMID:26987908

  1. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Song Zhang


    Full Text Available The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions.

  2. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E


    Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances...... part of work package 2 of the integrated project ReProTect....

  3. Placental diversity in malagasy tenrecs

    Enders, A C; Blankenship, T N; Goodman, S M; Soarimalala, V; Carter, Anthony Michael


    haemophagous region. In addition, a more villous portion of the placental disk forms before the formation of a more compact labyrinth. Although the definitive placenta is cellular haemomonochorial, it lacks the spongy zone found in the Tenrecinae. Neither does it resemble the endotheliochorial condition found...

  4. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA coding for mouse placental alkaline phosphatase

    Mouse alkaline phosphatase was partially purified from placenta. Data obtained by immunoblotting analysis suggested that the primary structure of this enzyme has a much greater homology to that of human and bovine liver ALPs than to the human placental isozyme. Therefore, a full-length cDNA encoding human liver-type ALP was used as a probe to isolate the mouse placental ALP cDNA. The cloned mouse cDNA is 2459 base pairs long and is composed of an open reading frame encoding a 524-amino acid polypeptide that contains a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acids. Homology at the amino acid level of the mouse placental ALP is 90% to the human liver isozyme but only 55% to the human placental counterpart. RNA blot hybridization results indicate that the mouse placental ALP is encoded by a gene identical to the gene expressed in mouse liver, kidney, and teratocarcinoma stem cells. This gene is therefore evolutionarily highly conserved in mouse and human

  5. Growth and maturation of villi in placentae from well-controlled diabetic women

    Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G;


    Placentae from controls and two groups of diabetic women (one White classes A, B, C and the other classes D, F/R) were collected at 37-42 weeks of gestation. Tissue sections were analysed using stereological methods in order to quantify the growth and maturational status of villi. Birth and...... with group, mode of delivery and sex of newborn as the principal effects. Mean weights were similar in controls and diabetic groups. Diabetic placentae had a more voluminous fetal capillary bed of greater length, diameter and surface area. In addition, the diffusion distances across fetal plasma...

  6. Placental Origins of Chronic Disease.

    Burton, Graham J; Fowden, Abigail L; Thornburg, Kent L


    Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors. Fetal development is underpinned by the placenta, the organ that forms the interface between the fetus and its mother. All nutrients and oxygen reaching the fetus must pass through this organ. The placenta also has major endocrine functions, orchestrating maternal adaptations to pregnancy and mobilizing resources for fetal use. In addition, it acts as a selective barrier, creating a protective milieu by minimizing exposure of the fetus to maternal hormones, such as glucocorticoids, xenobiotics, pathogens, and parasites. The placenta shows a remarkable capacity to adapt to adverse environmental cues and lessen their impact on the fetus. However, if placental function is impaired, or its capacity to adapt is exceeded, then fetal development may be compromised. Here, we explore the complex relationships between the placental phenotype and developmental programming of chronic disease in the offspring. Ensuring optimal placentation offers a new approach to the prevention of disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, which are reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:27604528

  7. Placental oxygen transport estimated by the hyperoxic placental BOLD MRI response

    Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard; Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A;


    cases of severe early onset FGR, placental BOLD MRI was performed in a 1.5 Tesla MRI system (TR:8000 msec, TE:50 msec, Flip angle:90). Placental histological examination was performed in the FGR cases. In normal pregnancies, the average hyperoxic placental BOLD response was 12.6 ± 5.4% (mean ± SD). In...

  8. Influence of bisphenol A on morphology .and β-HCG secretion of human villi during early pregnancy%双酚A对人类早孕绒毛组织β-HCG分泌功能的影响

    张毅; 朱洪; 吴丹梅; 谈顺; 黄元华


    Objective:To explore the correlations between bisphenol A (BPA) and the secretion function of the morphology and β-HCG of early human placental villi. Methods: Human villi collected from 40 cases of early pregnancy (6-8 weeks)were in vitro cultured as group A, B and C, and treated with BPA at 1000×10-6,500×10-6、 1× 10~6 g/L separately. Group D was assigned as control group. Culture media were detected for β-HCG level on the 2nd and 4th day of culture. The cultured villi were used for pathological examination on 4th day. Results: As culture time prolonged, β-HCG levels of group A, B and C showed a gradual increase, and the increasing level was positively correlated with β-HCG level (P=0. 002). Β-HCG level of group D showed reducing tendency, and was significant different from that of other groups (P<0. 01) . Conclusions: BPA can enhance β-HCG secretion of early villus.%目的:研究双酚A(BAP)水平与早孕人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)分泌功能的关系,探讨BPA对绒毛和妊娠可能带来的影响.方法:以40例早期妊娠(6~8周)的新鲜绒毛组织进行体外培养,A、B、C组培养基中分别加入1 000×10-6、500×10-6、1×10-6 g/L的BPA,D组为对照组,取第2、4天的培养液测定β-HCG.结果:随着培养时间的增加,含BPA的A、B、C组β-HCG水平呈递增变化,而D组呈递减变化(P<0.01).以D组为基础,其他组与其差值为变化量,第2和第4天培养液中β-HCG增加与BPA呈正相关(P<0.05).结论:BPA可以导致HCG分泌增加.

  9. Clinical associations with a placental diagnosis of delayed villous maturation: a retrospective study.

    Higgins, Mary


    Delayed villous maturation (DVM) is a spectrum of placental disease characterized by decreased tertiary villus formation, reduced vasculosyncytial membrane formation, and, in its more severe forms, increased large bullous villi. In some series it has been associated with an increased risk of stillbirth in the late third trimester, but overall there are few data on its significance. The aim of this study was to assess perinatal factors associated with, and the clinical significance of, the finding of DVM on placental histology. This was a retrospective study investigating all pregnancies with DVM diagnosed on placental histology in a tertiary level unit between December 2001 and August 2006. Over a 6-year period, 2915 placentas were triaged for histopathological assessment, representing 6.1% of all 48 054 deliveries in this time period. One hundred ninety (6.3%) of these selected cases showed DVM. Fifteen placentas from infants with less than 34 completed weeks of gestation were excluded, leaving 175 for further analysis. When compared with controls matched for gestation and delivering within the same time period (n  =  175), DVM was significantly associated with pregestational diabetes (8% vs 2.8%, P < .05; relative risk 2.8 [95% confidence interval 1.03-7.6]), gestational diabetes (8.6% vs 3.4%, P < 0.05; relative risk 2.5 [95% confidence interval 0.99-6.3]), and prenatal or intrapartum intrauterine death (8.6% vs 0%, P < 0.05). Delayed villous maturation is associated with both gestational and pregestational diabetes mellitus and with perinatal death.

  10. Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis in 481 Amniocentesis, Chorion Villi Sample and Cordocentesis Specimens

    Turgay Budak


    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated a total of 481 amniocentesis , cordocentesis and corion villi sample specimens from patients who were referred to the Prenatal Diagnostic Laboratory of Department of Medical Biology and Genetics Department of Medical Faculty of University of Dicle, between 1999 and 2001. A total of 24 specimens were found cytogenetically abnormal, of which 11 were trisomy 21 ( Down Syndrome, two were Down Syndrome with Robertsonian type of translocation between chromosome 14 and 21, one was mosaic Down Syndrome , one was balanced translocated chromosome carrier, two were Turner Syndrome, one was triple X syndrome, two were triploidy, one was partial trisomy 3, one was derivative chromosome, one was nonrepetitive numerical and structural abnormality, and one was marker chromosome. Unfortunately, we could not have results in 15 of culture samples. There were no false positive and false negative results.

  11. Immunohistochemical Localization of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptorin Decidua and Villi of Human Early Pregnancy

    王介东; 伏耀; 施文良; 朱逢第; 乔根梅; 王幼劬


    Imtnunohistochemical assessment of estrogen recceptor(ER) and progesterone receptors(PR) were performed using monoetonat antibodies to the receptors. A totalof 81 samples. from pregnant women at 5-13 weeks of gestation were immunostained by peroxidase anti-peroxidase method (PAP). hnmunostaining pattern of PR in early pregnant decidua was similar to that of the late luteal phase of normal endometrium characterized by little reaction in supecfieiat glandular epithelia and retatively intense in stroma. Positive stainig was atsa revealed in structure of blood vessels including pericyte and smooth muscle cells. An interesting finding is that endothelial cells Of the vessels expressed PR which has not been reported in normal cyclic endometrium. The endothelial nature of their PR partitive cell was further confirmed by immunostaining of specific endothelial marker, Factor VⅢ. The trophoblast population in villi anddecidua also showed positive reaction inctnding villous trophoblast, column andinterstitial trophobtast. In eontrast to PR, little ER were revealed in deteected tissue.

  12. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals.

    Isabella Capellini

    Full Text Available Placental invasiveness-the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood-is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness.

  13. Placentation in different mammalian species.

    Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tarrade, Anne


    The placenta is a complex, transient organ associated with viviparity, which is located at the interface of the dam and fetus during pregnancy. It is formed after attachment, or implantation, of the blastocyst on the uterine lining and derives from complex cellular and molecular interactions between uterine and embryonic tissues. In mammals, there are many forms of placentation but this organ has the same function in all species: it is responsible for orchestrating materno-fetal exchanges, together with endocrine and immunological functions. PMID:27155775

  14. Placental hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum stress and maternal endothelial sensitisation by sFLT1 in pre-eclampsia.

    Charnock-Jones, D Stephen


    The human placenta is a multifunctional organ that grows and adapts to increasing fetal demand and fluctuations in the intrauterine environment. It is subjected to physiological and pathological changes in local oxygenation, both of which induce adaptive changes. In early pregnancy a low PO2 is the normal physiological state and this is not hypoxic-there is no perturbation of ATP/ADP ratios and, if the placenta is sampled very rapidly, little HIF1α is detected in human first-trimester placental villi. Nonetheless, HIF1α can be increased and activated by culture. However, the placenta does show evidence of stress under pathological conditions. For example, in cases of pre-eclampsia where delivery by caesarean section is necessitated for maternal well-being before 34 weeks' gestation, placental endoplasmic reticulum stress is evident. Cases delivered ≥34 weeks are indistinguishable from normal term controls. One consequence of placental stress, whether oxidative, related to the endoplasmic reticulum or immunological, is that factors are released into the maternal circulation, which affects the endothelium, leading to the maternal syndrome. Soluble FLT1 may contribute directly to this and the most likely mechanism is direct action on the maternal endothelium. sFLT1 is able to form a heterodimer with cell surface VEGF receptors and is therefore able to have a dominant negative effect (in addition to acting as a competitive inhibitor by simply binding vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGFA] and placental growth factor [PlGF]). This leads in vitro to the sensitisation of endothelial cells to low levels of TNFα. PMID:26228018

  15. Immune tolerance induction using fetal directed placental injection in rodent models: a murine model.

    Kei Takahashi

    Full Text Available Induction of the immune response is a major problem in replacement therapies for inherited protein deficiencies. Tolerance created in utero can facilitate postnatal treatment. In this study, we aimed to induce immune tolerance towards a foreign protein with early gestational cell transplantation into the chorionic villi under ultrasound guidance in the murine model.Pregnant C57BL/6 (B6 mice on day 10 of gestation were anesthetized and imaged by high resolution ultrasound. Murine embryos and their placenta were positioned to get a clear view in B-mode with power mode of the labyrinth, which is the equivalent of chorionic villi in the human. Bone marrow cells (BMCs from B6-Green Fluorescence Protein (B6GFP transgenic mice were injected into the fetal side of the placenta which includes the labyrinth with glass microcapillary pipettes. Each fetal mouse received 2 x 105 viable GFP-BMCs. After birth, we evaluated the humoral and cell-mediated immune response against GFP.Bone marrow transfer into fetal side of placenta efficiently distributed donor cells to the fetal mice. The survival rate of this procedure was 13.5%(5 out of 37. Successful engraftment of the B6-GFP donor skin grafts was observed in all recipient (5 out of 5 mice 6 weeks after birth. Induction of anti-GFP antibodies was completely inhibited. Cytotoxic immune reactivity of thymic cells against cells harboring GFP was suppressed by ELISPOT assay.In this study, we utilized early gestational placental injection targeting the murine fetus, to transfer donor cells carrying a foreign protein into the fetal circulation. This approach is sufficient to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune tolerance against the foreign protein.

  16. Nomenclature and placental mammal phylogeny

    Helgen Kristofer M


    Full Text Available Abstract An issue arising from recent progress in establishing the placental mammal Tree of Life concerns the nomenclature of high-level clades. Fortunately, there are now several well-supported clades among extant mammals that require unambiguous, stable names. Although the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature does not apply above the Linnean rank of family, and while consensus on the adoption of competing systems of nomenclature does not yet exist, there is a clear, historical basis upon which to arbitrate among competing names for high-level mammalian clades. Here, we recommend application of the principles of priority and stability, as laid down by G.G. Simpson in 1945, to discriminate among proposed names for high-level taxa. We apply these principles to specific cases among placental mammals with broad relevance for taxonomy, and close with particular emphasis on the Afrotherian family Tenrecidae. We conclude that no matter how reconstructions of the Tree of Life change in years to come, systematists should apply new names reluctantly, deferring to those already published and maximizing consistency with existing nomenclature.

  17. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    Cotter, Simon L


    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  18. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris;


    cholesterol, in utero treatment with TO901317 resulted in increased cholesterol content in Dhcr7(-/-) embryos. Our data support the hypothesis that Abca1, and possibly Sr-b1, contributes to transport maternal cholesterol to the developing fetus. Furthermore, we show, as a proof of principle, that modulating......Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer by...

  19. Ingested bovine amniotic fluid enhances morphine antinociception in rats

    Corpening, James W.; Doerr, Jean C.; Kristal, Dr. Mark B.


    Ingestion by rats of rat placenta or amniotic fluid enhances opioid-mediated, or partly opioid-mediated, antinociception produced by morphine injection, vaginal or cervical stimulation, late pregnancy, and foot shock. This phenomenon is believed to be produced by a placental opioid-enhancing factor (POEF). Ingestion by rats of human or dolphin placenta has also been shown to enhance opioid antinociception, suggesting that POEF may be common to many mammalian species. We tested bovine amnio...

  20. Animal Models of Human Placentation - A Review

    Carter, Anthony Michael


    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however...... is no trophoblast invasion of uterine vessels, and the immunology of pregnancy may be quite different. We conclude that continued research on non-human primates is needed to clarify embryonic-endometrial interactions. The interstitial implantation of human is unusual, but the initial interaction...... and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial, there...

  1. Nuclear Translocation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B in First Trimester Deciduas and Chorionic Villi in Early Spontaneous Miscarriage Women

    Chun-fang Yan


    Full Text Available The nuclear factor kappa B is widely expressed in the distinct subpopulations of chorionic villi and deciduas of first-trimester pregnancies. We examined the cellular distribution and expression of nuclear factor kappa B in the human first-trimester chorionic villi and deciduas of women with early spontaneous miscarriage and viable pregnancy by confocal laser scanning microscope and immunohistochemistry. There is a greater nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B is restricted to villous stromal cells, decidual stromal cells, glandular epithelial cells and vessel endothelial cells in early spontaneous miscarriage than in viable pregnancies. Collectively these observations suggest that over-activation of nuclear factor kappa B has a relationship with early spontaneous miscarriages.

  2. Variation in macrophage migration inhibitory factor [MIF] immunoreactivity during bovine gestation

    Paulesu, L.; Pfarrer, C.; Romagnoli, R.;


    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in several aspects of the immune response. MIF appears to play important roles in materno-fetal immuno-tolerance during placental establishment, modulation and growth as studied in epitheliochorial porcine and...... hemochorial human and mouse placentae. Here we studied the bovine placenta being multiplex, villous and synepitheliochorial with a low degree of invasion, to see if MIF could be involved. Placental tissues sampled from 12 cows at 9 stages of gestation (days 18-250), and endometrial tissues from two non...... reestablishment of vascularisation, the vasculature in the caruncular area showed MIF reactivity. While supporting involvement of MIF in different placental types, the spatio-temporal variation in the bovine placenta suggests a regulatory role for MIF mainly in the interhemal barrier and during vascular...

  3. Protein Profiling of Preeclampsia Placental Tissues

    Shu, Chang; Liu, Zitao; Cui, Lifeng; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Shuwen; Tang, Jian Jenny; Cui, Miao; Lian, Guodong; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiufen; Xu, Hongmei; JIANG, JING; Lee, Peng; Zhang, David Y.; He, Jin


    Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expres...

  4. Fetal Placental Thrombosis and Neonatal Implications

    Wintermark, Pia; Boyd, Theonia; Parast, Mana M; Van Marter, Linda J; Warfield, Simon K.; Robertson, Richard L.; Ringer, Steven A.


    We present the neonatal complications of two premature newborn infants whose placentas demonstrated placental thrombosis in the fetal circulation. Both mothers presented with a 3-day history of decreased fetal movements before delivery. The first infant presented with thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The second infant had extended bilateral extended hemorrhagic venous infarctions. Severe fetal placental vascular lesions seem to be a predisposing factor for some adv...

  5. Histological alterations of intestinal villi and epithelial cells after feeding dietary sugar cane extract in piglets

    Toshikazu Kawai


    Full Text Available Effects of sugar cane extract (SCE on the piglet intestinal histology were observed. Twelve castrated male piglets weaned at the age of 26 days were allotted to three groups fed diets containing 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SCE. At the end of feeding experiment, each intestinal segment was taken for light or scanning electron microscopy. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency did not show a difference among groups. Most of the values for villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis numbers were not different among groups, except for that the villus area of the 0.10% SCE group and the cell area of both SCE groups increased significantly at the jejunum compared to the control (P<0.05. For cell mitosis numbers, the 0.10% SCE group was higher than the 0.05% SCE group at the jejunum. Compared with the majority of flat cells of each intestinal segment in the control, the SCE groups had protuberated cells. In the 0.05% SCE group, deeper cells at the sites of recently exfoliated cells in the duodenum, cell clusters aggregated by protuberated cells in the jejunum and much more protuberant cells in the ileum were observed. These histological intestinal alterations suggest that SCE could raise the functions of intestinal villi and epithelial cells, especially at the 0.05%.

  6. Effect of Ascaridia galli infection on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters


    Nematode Ascaridia galli is an important parasitic disease in poultry and is responsible for considerable economic losses in retarded growth and lowered egg production. The effects of A. galli infection based on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters was investigated. One hundred and thirty five day old chicks (DOC) were divided into three groups for three levels of infection dose rate (0,800 and 8000 infective eggs) with 3 repli...

  7. Use of mucolytic agents and guaran HEPART (HP-7000) for the detection of mucosal villi in double contrast barium studies of the small intestine

    It was the aim of this study to enhance the visualisation of mucosal villi by double contrast barium studies of the small bowel. Prior to the radiological examination a 2-day pretreatment with the mucolytic agents acetylcysteine or carbocisteine was effected. Double contrast studies were performed with a high-molecular fraction of guaran HEPART (HP-7000), a hydrocolloidal isolated from the seed endosperm of C. tetragonolobus added into contrast-medium and distention medium. Compared to double contrast studies without mucolytic therapy, this procedure results in a better transparency and demonstration of the mucosal villi shown by a granular pattern in the radiographs. High quality visualisation of intestinal villi was achieved in all patients studied. A 2-day pretreatment with carbocisteine or acetylcysteine and the use of guaran in the double contrast barium study of the small bowel results in a greatly enhanced visualisation of mucosal villi. (orig.)

  8. The distinct proteome of placental malaria parasites.

    Fried, Michal; Hixson, Kim K.; Anderson, Lori; Ogata, Yuko; Mutabingwa, Theonest K.; Duffy, Patrick E.


    Malaria proteins expressed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) mediate adhesion and are targeted by protective immune responses. During pregnancy, IE sequester in the placenta. Placental IE bind to the molecule chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and preferentially transcribe the gene that encodes VAR2CSA, a member of the PfEMP1 variant surface antigen family. Over successive pregnancies women develop specific immunity to CSA-binding IE and antibodies to VAR2CSA. We used tandem mass spectrometry together with accurate mass and time tag technology to study IE membrane fractions of placental parasites. VAR2CSA peptides were detected in placental IE and in IE from children, but the MC variant of VAR2CSA was specifically associated with placental IE. We identified six conserved hypothetical proteins with putative TM or signal peptides that were exclusively expressed by the placental IE, and 11 such proteins that were significantly more abundant in placental IE. One of these hypothetical proteins, PFI1785w, is a 42kDa molecule detected by Western blot in parasites infecting pregnant women but not those infecting children.

  9. Changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in early pregnant women undergone artificial abortion

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in pregnant women undergone artificial abortion with drug (mifepristone) or surgery (curettage). Methods: Serum epidermal growth factor (EGF), E2, progesterone levels changes as well as chorion-villi EGF contents were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with drug abortion (before and after mifepristone 25mg bid x 3 days), 30 pregnant women undergone curettage (determined twice, 3 days apart) and 32 controls (serum only). Results: Serum EGF, E2, and progesterone contents in all pregnant women were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The chorion-villi contents of EGF in patients undergone drug abortion were significantly lower than those in patients undergone curettage (P<0.05). Both serum EGF and progesterone contents dropped after 3 days treatment with mifepristone (vs those in curettage group, P<0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone might exert the effect of abortion through decrease of EGF levels, which was detrimental to fetus growth. (authors)

  10. Effect of Ascaridia galli infection on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters

    L Zalizar


    Full Text Available Nematode Ascaridia galli is an important parasitic disease in poultry and is responsible for considerable economic losses in retarded growth and lowered egg production. The effects of A. galli infection based on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters was investigated. One hundred and thirty five day old chicks (DOC were divided into three groups for three levels of infection dose rate (0,800 and 8000 infective eggs with 3 replications of 45 DOC each. Infections were carried out every week respectively from week 2th until week 5th. Results showed that the infection of A. galli caused degeneration and necroses in villi ephitelial cells and crypts of small intestine and infiltration of leucocytes. In the heavy infection group some epithelial cells were replaced by fibrocytes. A. galli infection decreased daily body weight gain of starter lower (5.5% in light and 13.4% in heavy dosage infection compared to that of the non infected group. After six weeks of heavy infection the size of small intestine villi surface was decreasing to 20.0%, while the daily body weight gain was decreasing to 12.3% compared to that of the non infection group.

  11. Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review

    Cummins C


    Full Text Available Abstract Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal. Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane. Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support. Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased.

  12. Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review.

    Cummins, C; Carrington, S; Fitzpatrick, E; Duggan, V


    Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal.Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane.Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support.Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased. PMID:21851713


    Rupa L


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The fetal growth is the outcome of the maternal nutrient stores and efficient transport across the placenta. Hence, any variation in the placenta leads to disproportionate fetal growth leading to long term risk of chronic diseases in the newborn. This stud y was designed to explore influence of placental morphometry on newborn anthropometry . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study was conducted on 391 placentae of singleton newborn from a teaching hospital of North Karnataka, India. Data was collected from August 2 012 to January 2013 by using standard operating procedures in a pre - designed and pre - tested proforma. The distributions of placental morphology and newborn anthropometry are mentioned with their percentiles and Box plots. Analysis of variance is used to st udy the differences in means of placental morphometry in different groups of newborn anthropometry. RESULTS : The Means and standard deviations of placental morphometry; weight, volume, surface area and thickness were 440±100gm, 386±101 ml, 230±50 cm sq , an d 2.1±0.4cm respectively. Mean and standard deviations of birth weight and newborn length were 2700±500 gm. 46.6±2.5cm. Placental morphometry and newborn anthropometry increased significantly with gestation. CONCLUSIONS : This study infers that suboptimal g rowth of placenta leads to adverse pregnancy outcome.

  14. Mouse placental macrophages have a decreased ability to present antigen.

    Chang, M D; Pollard, J W; Khalili, H; Goyert, S M; Diamond, B.


    Large numbers of macrophages can be found in an animal's uteroplacental unit. This high concentration of macrophages suggests they must play an important role during placental development. To gain a better understanding of the functional capacity of placental macrophages, we have obtained a highly enriched placental macrophage culture and have derived several cell lines from this population. Both placental macrophages and cell lines show colony-stimulating factor 1-dependent growth, express F...

  15. Characterization of the Placental Macrophage Secretome: Implications for Antiviral Activity

    García, K.; García, V.; Laspiur, J.Pérez; F. Duan; Meléndez, L.M.


    It is well documented that placental macrophages show lower levels of HIV-1 infection than monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). We used proteomic methods to test the hypothesis that placental macrophages secrete different proteins as compared to MDM that may contribute to decreased HIV-1 replication. Placental macrophages and MDM were cultured for 12 days and supernatant was collected. To characterize supernatants, the protein profiles of placental macrophages and MDM were compared using the p...

  16. Evolution of placental function in mammals

    Carter, Anthony Michael


    gas exchange. They evolved following duplications within the beta-globin gene family with convergent evolution occurring in ruminants and primates. In primates there was also an interesting rearrangement of a cassette of genes in relation to an upstream locus control region. Substrate transfer from...... placental lactogens from the growth hormone and prolactin genes. There has been a remarkable degree of convergent evolution with placental lactogens emerging separately in the ruminant, rodent, and primate lineages and chorionic gonadotropins evolving separately in equids and higher primates. Finally......, coevolution in the primate lineage of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens can be linked to the deep invasion of the uterus by trophoblast that is a characteristic feature of human placentation....

  17. Zika Virus Infects Human Placental Macrophages.

    Quicke, Kendra M; Bowen, James R; Johnson, Erica L; McDonald, Circe E; Ma, Huailiang; O'Neal, Justin T; Rajakumar, Augustine; Wrammert, Jens; Rimawi, Bassam H; Pulendran, Bali; Schinazi, Raymond F; Chakraborty, Rana; Suthar, Mehul S


    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil has been directly linked to increased cases of microcephaly in newborns. Current evidence indicates that ZIKV is transmitted vertically from mother to fetus. However, the mechanism of intrauterine transmission and the cell types involved remain unknown. We demonstrate that the contemporary ZIKV strain PRVABC59 (PR 2015) infects and replicates in primary human placental macrophages, called Hofbauer cells, and to a lesser extent in cytotrophoblasts, isolated from villous tissue of full-term placentae. Viral replication coincides with induction of type I interferon (IFN), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antiviral gene expression, but with minimal cell death. Our results suggest a mechanism for intrauterine transmission in which ZIKV gains access to the fetal compartment by directly infecting placental cells and disrupting the placental barrier. PMID:27247001

  18. [Antenatal diagnosis of placental acretism-percretism].

    Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Leis-Márquez, Teresa; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Juárez-García, Luz del Carmen; García-Moreno, Carla


    Placental acretism is an adherencial pathology associated with a high maternal morbidity and mortality rates. Antepartum diagnosis is essential to plan a proper management and reduce serious complications. Risk factors in these patients include prior cesarean sections, uterine scars and placenta previa. Second level ultrasonography may detect placental acretism with high sensitivity and specificity; magnetic resonance imaging may play a complimentary role in the diagnosis of placental acretism when ultrasonographic findings are non-conclusive, specially when determining miometrium invasion in placental acretism (incretism, percretism). This paper reports the case of a patient treated at the ABC Medical Center of Santa Fe, in her second gestation with the diagnosis of an arcuate uterus, previous cesarean section and placenta previa who presented a vaginal bleeding during pregnancy; ultrasound evaluation, in the second trimester, identified a probable placental acretism, in the third trimester, the same technology suggested placenta percreta, complimentary magnetic resonance imaging supported this diagnosis, with probable invasion to bladder, bowel and abdominal wall muscles. Imaging studies were performed at the Hospital Angeles Lomas (Maternal Fetal Clinic). A diagnosis of placenta acreta-percreta, called for a multidisciplinary surgical team, availability of blood products and other resources to face probable complications associated to the obstetrical resolution. Maternal results were optimal since histopathological evaluation reported miometrial incretism, with placental invasion millimeters away from the uterine serosa. Most ultrasonographic studies evaluating the invasion degree of the placenta have small sample sizes, generating a greater degree of false positive or false negative observations. Therefore, we agree with other authors that in all acretism cases (independent of their invasion degree), a multidisciplinary surgical team should be assembled in

  19. Immunoinformatics of Placental Malaria Vaccine Development

    Jessen, Leon Eyrich

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium, which is transferred by female Anopheles mosquitos. WHO estimates that in 2012 there were 207 million cases of malaria, of which 627,000 were fatal. People living in malaria-endemic areas, gradually acquire...... immunity with multiple infections. Placental malaria (PM) is caused by P. falciparum sequestering in the placenta of pregnant women due to the presence of novel receptors in the placenta. An estimated 200,000 infants die a year as a result of PM. In 2004 the specific protein responsible for the...... and development in the field of placental malaria vaccine development....

  20. Quality assessment of a placental perfusion protocol

    Mathiesen, Line; Mose, Tina; Mørck, Thit Juul;


    placental perfusion model in Copenhagen including control substances. The positive control substance antipyrine shows no difference in transport regardless of perfusion media used or of terms of delivery (n=59, p<0.05). Negative control studies with FITC marked dextran correspond with leakage criteria (<3...... ml h(-1) from the fetal reservoir) when adding 2 (n=7) and 20mg (n=9) FITC-dextran/100 ml fetal perfusion media. Success rate of the Copenhagen placental perfusions is provided in this study, including considerations and quality control parameters. Three checkpoints suggested to determine success...

  1. Placental Evolution within the Supraordinal Clades of Eutheria with the Perspective of Alternative Animal Models for Human Placentation

    Andrea Mess


    Here a survey of placental evolution is conducted. Placentation is a key factor for the evolution of placental mammals that had evolved an astonishing diversity. As a temporary organ that does not allow easy access, it is still not well understood. The lack of data also is a restriction for better understanding of placental development, structure, and function in the human. Animal models are essential, because experimental access to the human placenta is naturally restricted. However, there i...

  2. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M


    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...


    WANGShui-Long; DUGuo-Guang; ZHENGShu-Rong; LIUXin-Jun; YANRen-Ying


    A radioimmunoasay of high sendtivity end smbility was developed For placental proteinPP5 (PP5), a syncytiotrophoblast product oF the human placenta. We measured 94 samples from 17 normal nonpregnant women, 47 normal pregnant women, and 30 samples

  4. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    Carter, A M


    states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic...

  5. Placental Development in Ongoing Pregnancy and Miscarriage

    A.D. Reus (Averil)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this thesis three-dimensional ultrasound, three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound, virtual reality and histologic examination of the chorionic villous vascularization were used to investigate early placental development in normal ongoing pregnancy as well as misca

  6. Placental transfer of plutonium and other actinides

    The report is based on an extensive literature search. All data available from studies on placental transfer of plutonium and other actinides in man and animals have been collected and analysed, and the report presents the significant results as well as unresolved questions and knowledge gaps which may serve as a waypost to future research work. (orig./MG)

  7. Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia: A Case Report

    Rachna Agarwal


    Full Text Available Introduction. A rare case of histologically proven placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD with fetal omphalocele in a 22-year-old patient is reported. Material and Methods. Antenatal ultrasound of this patient showed hydropic placenta with a live fetus of 17 weeks period of gestation associated with omphalocele. Cordocentesis detected the diploid karyotype of the fetus. Patient, when prognosticated, choose to terminate the pregnancy in view of high incidence of fetal and placental anomalies. Subsequent histopathological examination of placenta established the diagnosis to be placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Conclusion. On clinical and ultrasonic grounds, suspicion of P.M.D. arises when hydropic placenta with a live fetus presents in second trimester of pregnancy. Cordocentesis can detect the diploid karyotype of the fetus in such cases. As this condition is prognostically better than triploid partial mole, continuation of pregnancy can sometimes be considered after through antenatal screening and patient counseling. However, a definite diagnosis of P.M.D. is made only on placental histology by absence of trophoblast hyperplasia and trophoblastic inclusions.

  8. Study of correlation between perinatal outcome, placental coefficient and feto-placental ratio

    Manik Sirpurkar


    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy and birth are nature's finest marvel wherein perfect symbiosis between the two individuals protects the little and weak one and also allows the propagation of genetic prototype of the other individual generation after generation. Placenta acts as a mirror which reflects intrauterine status of fetus. Placenta has an undisputed role in foetal development but still is grossly neglected organ which is equal to liver, lung and kidney in function. Methods: Placentae collected from labor rooms and operation theatres were studied for various parameters like weight, surface area, volume, area of calcification and infarction, number of cotyledons etc. Birth weight of babies was also noted, feto-placental weight ratio and placental coefficient was calculated. Results: Average placental weight being 490.5 gm (range 295-660 gm. Placenta of male baby was found to be slightly heavier as compared to female babies. Birth weight of male babies was also more than female babies. Average placental surface area was found to be 225.5 sq. cm. Mean placental volume was recorded as 450.5 cu. cm. Foeto-placental weight ratio was found to be 5.41:1 irrespective of sex of the baby, 5.61:1 in case of male baby and 5.40:1 for female babies. Conclusion: The placenta is a mirror which reflects intrauterine status of the fetus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 925-928

  9. Macrophage Exosomes Induce Placental Inflammatory Cytokines: A Novel Mode of Maternal-Placental Messaging.

    Holder, Beth; Jones, Tessa; Sancho Shimizu, Vanessa; Rice, Thomas F; Donaldson, Beverly; Bouqueau, Marielle; Forbes, Karen; Kampmann, Beate


    During pregnancy, the placenta forms the interface between mother and fetus. Highly controlled regulation of trans-placental trafficking is therefore essential for the healthy development of the growing fetus. Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of protein and nucleic acids from the human placenta into the maternal circulation is well documented; the possibility that this trafficking is bi-directional has not yet been explored but could affect placental function and impact on the fetus.We hypothesized that the ability of the placenta to respond to maternal inflammatory signals is mediated by the interaction of maternal immune cell exosomes with placental trophoblast. Utilizing the BeWo cell line and whole placental explants, we demonstrated that the human placenta internalizes macrophage-derived exosomes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This uptake was via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, macrophage exosomes induced release of proinflammatory cytokines by the placenta. Taken together, our data demonstrates that exosomes are actively transported into the human placenta and that exosomes from activated immune cells modulate placental cytokine production. This represents a novel mechanism by which immune cells can signal to the placental unit, potentially facilitating responses to maternal inflammation and infection, and thereby preventing harm to the fetus. PMID:26602702

  10. Markers of placental insufficiency: etiology and the risk of cerebral palsy:Population based studies of preeclampsia, low birth weight, and abnormal placental weight

    Strand, Kristin Melheim


    Placental insufficiency may be defined as a placenta not able to perform its central tasks; namely, delivery of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. In this thesis, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction (FGR), and abnormal placental weight were applied as markers of placental insufficiency. Abnormal interaction between fetal and maternal tissues during placentation, leading to shallow placentation, may be the commencing step of placental insufficiency. C...

  11. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores

    Carter, Anthony; Enders, Allen


    Interest in insectivoran grade mammals has been reawakened by taxonomic changes that place tenrecs and golden moles in a new order and separate hedgehogs from moles, shrews and solenodons. This survey of their placentation shows there is great variation even within families. As an example three...... nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures in a...... they have been selected for genome sequencing. One of these, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), has not been studied with current methodology and renewed investigation of this or the closely related genus Atelerix should be a priority....

  12. Placentation in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis)

    Carter, A M; Miglino, M A; Ambrosio, C E;


    fetal placental circulation was described by scanning electron microscopy of vessel casts. The manatee placenta was zonary and endotheliochorial, like that of the elephant. The interhaemal barrier comprised maternal endothelium, cytotrophoblasts and fetal endothelium. We found columnar trophoblast...... beneath the chorionic plate and lining lacunae in this region, but there was no trace in the term placenta of haemophagous activity. The gross anatomy of the cord and fetal membranes was consistent with previous descriptions and included a four-chambered allantoic sac, as also found in the elephant and...... detail, but maternal capillaries ran rather straight and roughly parallel to the fetal ones. Overall, there is a close resemblance in placentation between the manatee and the elephant....

  13. Adenoviral-mediated placental gene transfer of IGF-1 corrects placental insufficiency via enhanced placental glucose transport mechanisms.

    Helen N Jones

    Full Text Available Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that over-expression of human insulin-like growth factor -1 (hIGF-1 in the placenta corrects fetal weight deficits in mouse, rat, and rabbit models of intrauterine growth restriction without changes in placental weight. The underlying mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. To investigate the effect of intra-placental IGF-1 over-expression on placental function we examined glucose transporter expression and localization in both a mouse model of IUGR and a model of human trophoblast, the BeWo Choriocarcinoma cell line.At gestational day 18, animals were divided into four groups; sham-operated controls, uterine artery branch ligation (UABL, UABL+Ad-hIGF-1 (10(8 PFU, UABL+Ad-LacZ (10(8 PFU. At gestational day 20, pups and placentas were harvested by C-section. For human studies, BeWo choriocarcinoma cells were grown in F12 complete medium +10%FBS. Cells were incubated in serum-free control media ± Ad-IGF-1 or Ad-LacZ for 48 hours. MOIs of 10∶1 and 100∶1 were utilized. The RNA, protein expression and localization of glucose transporters GLUT1, 3, 8, and 9 were analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry.In both the mouse placenta and BeWo, GLUT1 regulation was linked to altered protein localization. GLUT3, localized to the mouse fetal endothelial cells, was reduced in placental insufficiency but maintained with Ad-I GF-1 treatment. Interestingly, GLUT8 expression was reduced in the UABL placenta but up-regulated following Ad-IGF-1 in both mouse and human systems. GLUT9 expression in the mouse was increased by Ad-IGF-1 but this was not reflected in the BeWo, where Ad-IGF-1 caused moderate membrane relocalization.Enhanced GLUT isoform transporter expression and relocalization to the membrane may be an important mechanism in Ad-hIGF-1mediated correction of placental insufficiency.

  14. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 16, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket...

  15. PPAR Signaling in Placental Development and Function

    Yaacov Barak


    Full Text Available With the major attention to the pivotal roles of PPARs in diverse aspects of energy metabolism, the essential functions of PPARγ and PPARβ/δ in placental development came as a surprise and were often considered a nuisance en route to their genetic analysis. However, these findings provided an opportune entrée into placental biology. Genetic and pharmacological studies, primarily of knockout animal models and cell culture, uncovered networks of PPARγ and PPARδ, their heterodimeric RXR partners, associated transcriptional coactivators, and target genes, that regulate various aspects of placental development and function. These studies furnish both specific information about trophoblasts and the placenta and potential hints about the functions of PPARs in other tissues and cell types. They reveal that the remarkable versatility of PPARs extends beyond the orchestration of metabolism to the regulation of cellular differentiation, tissue development, and trophoblast-specific functions. This information and its implications are the subject of this review.

  16. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores.

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C


    Interest in insectivoran grade mammals has been reawakened by taxonomic changes that place tenrecs and golden moles in a new order and separate hedgehogs from moles, shrews and solenodons. This survey of their placentation shows there is great variation even within families. As an example three subfamilies of tenrec have been examined. The interhemal region is cellular hemomonochorial in Echinops and Microgale but endotheliochorial in Micropotamogale. Golden moles, which are placed in the same order, have hemodichorial placentation. Many insectivores have complex arrangements for histotrophic nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures in a separate order (Erinaceomorpha) is bolstered by the presence of interstitial implantation, amniogenesis by cavitation, a hemochorial barrier and a prominent spongy zone; these features do not occur in shrews, moles or solenodons (Soricomorpha). Three insectivoran grade mammals deserve close attention as they have been selected for genome sequencing. One of these, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), has not been studied with current methodology and renewed investigation of this or the closely related genus Atelerix should be a priority. PMID:19876821

  17. Population-Based Placental Weight Ratio Distributions

    Erin M. Macdonald


    Full Text Available The placental weight ratio (PWR is a health indicator that reflects the balance between fetal and placental growth. The PWR is defined as the placental weight divided by the birth weight, and it changes across gestation. Its ranges are not well established. We aimed to establish PWR distributions by gestational age and to investigate whether the PWR distributions vary by fetal growth adequacy, small, average, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA. The data came from a hospital based retrospective cohort, using all births at two London, Ontario hospitals in the past 10 years. All women who delivered a live singleton infant between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation were included (n=41441. Nonparametric quantile regression was used to fit the curves. The results demonstrate decreasing PWR and dispersion, with increasing gestational age. A higher proportion of SGA infants have extreme PWRs than AGA and LGA, especially at lower gestational ages. On average, SGA infants had higher PWRs than AGA and LGA infants. The overall curves offer population standards for use in research studies. The curves stratified by fetal growth adequacy are the first of their kind, and they demonstrate that PWR differs for SGA and LGA infants.




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy are common and form one of the deadly triad along with hemorrhage and infection, that results in a large number of maternal deaths and there of fetal deaths. Since all anabolites needed for foetal metabolism come from the mothers blood and foetal catabolites are passed back into the mothers circulation through the placenta, the examination of placenta gives a clear idea of what had happened with it, when it was in the mother, s womb and what is going to happen with the foetus in future. With this objective the present study was carried out. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done for a period of 21 months from April1st 2008 to December 31st 2009..Fifty mothers with uncomplicated pregnancy (control group and 100 mothers (test group diagnosed as having pregnancy induced hypertension were selected from patients of our institution of the age range from 20-40 years, and parity –primi, para2 and 3.Placental morphometric parameters, gross and histopathological features were examined in both test and control groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Fishers exact test RESULTS: Placental morphometric parameters were significantly reduced in the control group. Acute atherosis, endothelial proliferation and fibrinoid necrosis were the significant histological findings noted in our study. CONCLUSION: Placental findings can be confirmatory of PIH, but its absence does not exclude the diseases. These findings will become more evident only when there is significant reduction in the uteroplacental bloodflow

  19. False negative NIPT results: Risk figures for chromosomes 13,18 and 21 based on chorionic villi results in 5967 cases and literature review

    A.R.M. van Opstal (Diane); M. Srebniak (Malgorzata); J. Polak (Joke); F.A.T. de Vries (Femke); L.C. Govaerts (Lutgarde); M. Joosten (Marieke); A. Go (Attie); M.F.C.M. Knapen (Maarten); C.D.F. van den Berg (Cardi); K.E.M. Diderich (Karin); R-J.H. Galjaard (Robert-Jan)


    textabstractNon-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) demonstrated a small chance for a false negative result. Since the "fetal" DNA in maternal blood originates from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV), some false negative results will have a biological origin. Based on our experience with cytog

  20. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

    C. Demetriou; Abu-Amero, S.; A. C. Thomas; Ishida, M; AGGARWAL, R.; Al-Olabi, L.; Leon, L. J.; Stafford, J. L.; Syngelaki, A; Peebles, D.; Nicolaides, K. H.; Regan, L; Stanier, P; Moore, G.E.


    Context Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight. Objective The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of e...

  1. Patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis by topographic region in normal Bos taurus vs. Bos indicus crossbreeds bovine placentae during pregnancy

    Ambrósio Carlos E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental and fetal growth requires high rates of cellular turnover and differentiation, which contributes to conceptus development. The trophoblast has unique properties and a wide range of metabolic, endocrine and angiogenic functions, but the proliferative profile of the bovine placenta characterized by flow cytometry analysis and its role in fetal development are currently uncharacterized. Complete understanding of placental apoptotic and proliferative rates may be relevant to development, especially if related to the pathogenesis of pregnancy losses and placental abnormalities. Methods In this study, the proliferation activity and apoptosis in different regions of normal bovine placenta (central and boundary regions of placentomes, placentomal fusion, microplacentomes, and interplacentomal regions, from distinct gestation periods (Days 70 to 290 of pregnancy, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Our results indicated that microplacentomes presented a lower number of apoptotic cells throughout pregnancy, with a higher proliferative activity by the end of gestation, suggesting that such structures do not contribute significantly to normal of placental functions and conceptus development during pregnancy. The placentome edges revealed a higher number of apoptotic cells from Day 170 on, which suggests that placentome detachment may well initiate in this region. Conclusion Variations involving proliferation and apoptotic rates may influence placental maturation and detachment, compromising placental functions and leading to fetal stress, abnormalities in development and abortion, as frequently seen in bovine pregnancies from in vitro fertilization and cloning procedures. Our findings describing the pattern of cell proliferation and apoptosis in normal bovine pregnancies may be useful for unraveling some of the developmental deviations seen in nature and after in vitro embryo manipulations.

  2. Placental transport and in vitro effects of Bisphenol A

    Mørck, Thit J; Sorda, Giuseppina; Bechi, Nicoletta;


    Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like chemical, leaches from consumer products potentially causing human exposure. To examine the effects of BPA exposure during pregnancy, we performed studies using the BeWo trophoblast cell line, placental explant cultures, placental perfusions and skin diffusion...

  3. Maternal environment and placental vascularization in small ruminants.

    Bairagi, S; Quinn, K E; Crane, A R; Ashley, R L; Borowicz, P P; Caton, J S; Redden, R R; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Reynolds, L P


    Uteroplacental development is a crucial step facilitating conceptus growth. Normal placental development comprises extensive placental angiogenesis to support fetoplacental transport, meeting the metabolic demands of the fetus. Compromised pregnancies due to maternal stressors such as over or undernutrition, maternal age or parity, altered body mass index, or genetic background result in altered vascular development of the placenta. This negatively affects placental growth and placental function and ultimately results in poor pregnancy outcomes. Nonetheless, the placenta acts as a sensor to the maternal stressors and undergoes modifications, which some have termed placental programming, to ensure healthy development of the conceptus. Sex steroid hormones such as estradiol-17β and progesterone, chemokines such as chemokine ligand 12, and angiogenic/vasoactive factors such as vascular endothelial growth factors, placental growth factor, angiopoietins, and nitric oxide regulate uteroplacental development and hence are often used as therapeutic targets to rescue compromised pregnancies. Interestingly, the presence of sex steroid receptors has been identified in the fetal membranes (developing fetal placenta). Environmental steroid mimetics known as endocrine disrupting compounds disrupt conceptus development and lead to transgenerational impairments by epigenetic modification of placental gene expression, which is another area deserving intense research efforts. This review attempts to summarize current knowledge concerning intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting selected reproductive functions with the emphasis on placental development. PMID:27173956

  4. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  5. Placental programming of blood pressure in Indian children

    Winder, Nicola R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Chitra LS; Fall, Caroline HD; Veena, Sargoor R; Barker, David JP


    Aim To determine whether the size and shape of the placental surface predict blood pressure in childhood. Methods We studied blood pressure in 471 nine-year-old Indian children whose placental length, breadth and weight were measured in a prospective birth cohort study. Results In the daughters of short mothers (

  6. Evaluation of Relationship between Opioid Addiction and Placental Abruption

    Z. Salari


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increased risk of placental abruption as alcohol and cocaine use and cigarette smoking but there are fewer studies about the importance of opioid abuse in placental abruption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between opioid addiction and placental abruption occurrence. Materials & Methods: In this case-control study 51 women with placental abruption and 147 women with normal pregnancy were studied. Data were collected using questionnaire and were analyzed using SPSS12. Odds ratio was used for standing the relation of demographic factors and risk factors with incidence of placental abruption, logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the confounding factors. Results: Results showed that 37.3% of the women in the case group and 14.3% of women in the control-group were opioid addiction (P=0.001. The mean of gestational age was 36-41 weeks. 31.3% of the women with placental abruption and 1.3% of the women in the control group had delivery before 36 weeks gestation (P=0. Conclusion: Our results showed that opioid addiction increases of placental abruption probability 2.6 times.

  7. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    Background: The placenta is the base for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen and waste products for the fetus. The placental vessels hold a crucial role in regulation the blood flow, and a compromised placental function leads to serious complications such as fetal death or growth retardation. An in...

  8. Human placental alkaline phosphatase in liver and intestine

    Three distinct forms of human alkaline phosphatase, presumably isozymes, are known, each apparently associated with a specific tissue. These are placental, intestinal, and liver (kidney and bone). The authors have used a specific immunoassay and HPLC to show that placental alkaline phosphatase is also present in extracts of liver and intestine in appreciable amounts

  9. Ethical aspects of banking placental blood for transplantation.

    Sugarman, J; Reisner, E G; Kurtzberg, J


    Transplantation of blood cells harvested from the umbilical cord immediately after birth has been effective in repopulating the bone marrow. These placental blood transplantations may be safer than conventional bone marrow transplantations and may suspend the need to harvest bone marrow, a process fraught with difficulties. Further understanding and advancement of this emerging technology require developing large banks of placental blood. In this article, we examine some of the ethical issues associated with placental blood banking, including (1) questions about ownership of the tissue, (2) the necessity and nature of obtaining informed consent from parents for harvesting placental blood and the information-gathering process associated with it, (3) obligations to notify parents and children of the results of medical testing for infectious diseases and genetic information, (4) matters of privacy and confidentiality related to such information, and (5) the need for fair and equitable harvesting of and access to placental blood. PMID:7500510

  10. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven Olaf;


    Placental GH is thought to be responsible for the rise in maternal IGF-I during pregnancy and is considered to be important for fetal growth. In this prospective longitudinal study of healthy pregnant women, we investigated determinants of placental GH in maternal serum. Serum was obtained from 455...... women with normal singleton pregnancies at approximately 19 and 28 wk gestation. Serum placental GH concentrations were measured by a highly specific immunoradiometric assay, and fetal size was measured by ultrasound. Data on birth weight, gender, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and smoking...... habits were obtained from medical records. Serum placental GH concentrations were detectable in serum from all women as early as 14 wk gestation and increased during pregnancy in all individuals (P <0.001). Placental GH levels at second examination were found to be higher in women carrying female fetuses...

  11. Sildenafil attenuates placental ischemia-induced hypertension.

    George, Eric M; Palei, Ana C; Dent, Edward A; Granger, Joey P


    Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy that is marked by hypertension, proteinuria, and maternal endothelial dysfunction. A central factor in the etiology of the disease is the development of placental hypoxia/ischemia, which releases pathogenic soluble factors. There is currently no effective treatment for preeclampsia, but the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor sildenafil has been suggested, as PDE-5 is enriched in the uterus, and its antagonism could improve uteroplacental function. Here, we report in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model that administration of oral sildenafil is effective in attenuating placental ischemia-induced hypertension during gestation. RUPP animals have significantly elevated arterial pressure compared with control animals (132 ± 3 vs. 100 ± 2 mmHg; P PDE-5/β-actin ratio (1 ± 0.14 vs. 1.63 ± 0.18; P < 0.05) expression with a resulting reduction in renal medullary cGMP (1.5 ± 0.15 vs. 0.99 ± 0.1 pmol/μg protein, P < 0.05) compared with controls. Although sildenafil had no effect on renal medullary cGMP in control animals, it significantly increased cGMP in RUPP animals (1.3 ± 0.1 pmol/μg protein; P < 0.05). These data suggest that sildenafil might provide an effective therapeutic option for the management of hypertension during preeclampsia. PMID:23785075


    O. I. Stepanova; G. R. Kozonov; D. Z. Tsitskarava; T. U. Kuzminykh; D. A. Korenkov; S. A. Selkov; D. I. Sokolov


    Decidual and placental macrophage pools are renewed due to its transendothelial monocyte migration from peripheral blood. Tissue macrophages control placental development and provide fetomaternal immunological tolerance. Preeclamptic pregnancy is accompanied by increased monocyte migration to decidual tissue and local inflammatory events. Regulatory mechanisms of monocyte recruitment to placental and decidual tissues is still unclear. Therefore we investigated the influence soluble placental ...

  13. Measurements of intestinal villi non-specific and ulcer-associated duodenitis-correlation between area of microdissected villus and villus epithelial cell count.

    M. Hasan; Ferguson, A.


    Measurements of villus height, villus area, together with counts of epithelial cells in individual villi, were performed on endoscopic duodenal biopsies from five groups of patients: controls, ulcer-associated duodenitis, mild and severe non-specific (non-ulcerative) duodenitis, cimetidine healed ulcer-associated duodenitis and cimetidine healed non-specific duodenitis. The objectives of the study were two-fold: to establish if epithelial cell count correlated with simpler measurements of vil...

  14. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  15. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  16. False Negative NIPT Results: Risk Figures for Chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 Based on Chorionic Villi Results in 5967 Cases and Literature Review.

    Diane Van Opstal

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT demonstrated a small chance for a false negative result. Since the "fetal" DNA in maternal blood originates from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV, some false negative results will have a biological origin. Based on our experience with cytogenetic studies of CV, we tried to estimate this risk. 5967 CV samples of pregnancies at high risk for common aneuplodies were cytogenetically investigated in our centre between January 2000 and December 2011. All cases of fetal trisomy 13, 18 and 21 were retrospectively studied for the presence of a normal karyotype or mosaicism < 30% in short-term cultured (STC- villi. 404 cases of trisomies 13, 18 and 21 were found amongst 5967 samples (6,8%. Of these 404 cases, 14 (3,7% had a normal or low mosaic karyotype in STC-villi and therefore would potentially be missed with NIPT. It involved 2% (5/242 of all trisomy 21 cases and 7.3% (9/123 of all trisomy 18 cases. In 1:426 (14/5967 NIPT samples of patients at high risk for common aneuploidies, a trisomy 18 or 21 will potentially be missed due to the biological phenomenon of absence of the chromosome aberration in the cytotrophoblast.

  17. Risk of placental abruption in relation to migraines and headaches

    Ananth Cande V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine, a common chronic-intermittent disorder of idiopathic origin characterized by severe debilitating headaches and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and placental abruption, the premature separation of the placenta, share many common pathophysiological characteristics. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, hypercoagulation, and inflammation are common to both disorders. We assessed risk of placental abruption in relation to maternal history of migraine before and during pregnancy in Peruvian women. Methods Cases were 375 women with pregnancies complicated by placental abruption, and controls were 368 women without an abruption. During in-person interviews conducted following delivery, women were asked if they had physician-diagnosed migraine, and they were asked questions that allowed headaches and migraine to be classified according to criteria established by the International Headache Society. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI adjusted for confounders. Results Overall, a lifetime history of any headaches or migraine was associated with an increased odds of placental abruption (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.16-2.20. A lifetime history of migraine was associated with a 2.14-fold increased odds of placental abruption (aOR = 2.14; 95% CI 1.22-3.75. The odds of placental abruption was 2.11 (95% CI 1.00-4.45 for migraineurs without aura; and 1.59 (95% 0.70-3.62 for migraineurs with aura. A lifetime history of tension-type headache was also increased with placental abruption (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.01-2.57. Conclusions This study adds placental abruption to a growing list of pregnancy complications associated with maternal headache/migraine disorders. Nevertheless, prospective cohort studies are needed to more rigorously evaluate the extent to which migraines and/or its treatments are associated with the occurrence of placental abruption.

  18. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines.

    Warrington, Junie P


    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30 min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R(2) = 0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  19. Macrophage Exosomes Induce Placental Inflammatory Cytokines: A Novel Mode of Maternal–Placental Messaging

    Holder, Beth; Jones, Tessa; Sancho Shimizu, Vanessa; Rice, Thomas F.; Donaldson, Beverly; Bouqueau, Marielle; Forbes, Karen; Kampmann, Beate


    Exosome trafficking from the placenta into the maternal circulation is well documented; the possibility that this trafficking is bi‐directional was unknown. We demonstrated clathrin‐mediated endocytosis of macrophage exosomes by the human placenta. We also demonstrated that macrophage exosomes induced placental production of cytokines interleukin (IL)‐6, IL‐8 and IL‐10. Exosomes therefore comprise an additional mechanism of immune cell signalling to the placenta, potentially facilitating prot...

  20. Unlocking the bovine genome

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  1. Camel and bovine chymosin

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;


    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  2. Plasmodium vivax adherence to placental glycosaminoglycans.

    Kesinee Chotivanich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax infections seldom kill directly but do cause indirect mortality by reducing birth weight and causing abortion. Cytoadherence and sequestration in the microvasculature are central to the pathogenesis of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the contribution of cytoadherence to pathology in other human malarias is less clear. METHODOLOGY: The adherence properties of P. vivax infected red blood cells (PvIRBC were evaluated under static and flow conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: P. vivax isolates from 33 patients were studied. None adhered to immobilized CD36, ICAM-1, or thrombospondin, putative ligands for P. falciparum vascular cytoadherence, or umbilical vein endothelial cells, but all adhered to immobilized chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and hyaluronic acid (HA, the receptors for adhesion of P. falciparum in the placenta. PvIRBC also adhered to fresh placental cells (N = 5. Pre-incubation with chondroitinase prevented PvIRBC adherence to CSA, and reduced binding to HA, whereas preincubation with hyaluronidase prevented adherence to HA, but did not reduce binding to CSA significantly. Pre-incubation of PvIRBC with soluble CSA and HA reduced binding to the immobilized receptors and prevented placental binding. PvIRBC adhesion was prevented by pre-incubation with trypsin, inhibited by heparin, and reduced by EGTA. Under laminar flow conditions the mean (SD shear stress reducing maximum attachment by 50% was 0.06 (0.02 Pa but, having adhered, the PvIRBC could then resist detachment by stresses up to 5 Pa. At 37 °C adherence began approximately 16 hours after red cell invasion with maximal adherence at 30 hours. At 39 °C adherence began earlier and peaked at 24 hours. SIGNIFICANCE: Adherence of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes to glycosaminoglycans may contribute to the pathogenesis of vivax malaria and lead to intrauterine growth retardation.

  3. Increased Placental Phospholipid Levels in Pre-Eclamptic Pregnancies

    Peter Bütikofer


    Full Text Available Physiological pregnancy is associated with an increase in lipids from the first to the third trimester. This is a highly regulated response to satisfy energy and membrane demands of the developing fetus. Pregnancy disorders, such as pre-eclampsia, are associated with a dysregulation of lipid metabolism manifesting in increased maternal plasma lipid levels. In fetal placental tissue, only scarce information on the lipid profile is available, and data for gestational diseases are lacking. In the present study, we investigated the placental lipid content in control versus pre-eclamptic samples, with the focus on tissue phospholipid levels and composition. We found an increase in total phospholipid content as well as changes in individual phospholipid classes in pre-eclamptic placental tissues compared to controls. These alterations could be a source of placental pathological changes in pre-eclampsia, such as lipid peroxide insult or dysregulation of lipid transport across the syncytiotrophoblast.

  4. Indications of anti-HY immunity in recurrent placental abruption

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mogensen, Marie; Steffensen, Rudi;


    PROBLEM: Placental abruption is a potential life-threatening condition for both the fetus and the mother, being significantly more common in pregnancies with male fetuses. The pathogenesis of placental abruption remains unknown. However, some recent reports point toward a maternal immune response...... fetus died. Seven patients (88%) had first-born boys, and 15 abruptions (68%) involved male fetuses. All patients with a first-born boy, except one, had HLA-class II alleles known to restrict CD4+ T-cell responses against male-specific minor histocompatibility (HY)-antigens (HLA-DRB1*15, HLA-DRB3...... placental abruption is exclusively almost preceded by the birth of a boy and the majority of patients have HLA-class II known to restrict CD4 T-cell reactions against HY-antigens. This indicates that maternal immunological responses against HY-antigens play a role in recurrent placental abruption...

  5. An international contrast of rates of placental abruption

    Ananth, Cande V; Keyes, Katherine M; Hamilton, Ava;


    BACKGROUND: Although rare, placental abruption is implicated in disproportionately high rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Understanding geographic and temporal variations may provide insights into possible amenable factors of abruption. We examined abruption frequencies by maternal age,...

  6. Ischemic placental syndrome - prediction and new disease monitoring.

    Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Rzepka, Rafał; Torbe, Andrzej; Dolegowska, Barbara


    The last decade has seen an improved understanding of the cause of the development of pathologies such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, intrauterine fetal death or placental abruption. Nowadays, we know that most conditions within this group share the same pathogenesis, the cause of which is placental ischemia. The following review is an attempt to propose a new method for prediction, diagnosis and - above all - appropriate monitoring of pregnant women and fetuses developing the ischemic placental syndrome with the use of tests that are new but yet widely available in clinical diagnosis. They are closely related to the condition's pathogenesis, therefore their elevated levels may predate clinical symptoms, and - most importantly - they correlate with syndrome aggravation and the occurrence of complications. Perhaps, the new look will allow us to improve perinatal results by reducing mortality and severe complications in pregnant women and fetal deaths resulting from sudden intrauterine fetal death or placental abruption. PMID:26444581

  7. Isolation, purification, and characterization of mouse placental lactogen.

    Colosi, P; Marr, G; Lopez, J; Haro, L; Ogren, L; Talamantes, F


    Mouse placental lactogen was purified 1840-fold from BALB/c placentae from days 14-18 of gestation with an overall yield of 29%. The purification procedure included alkaline homogenization and extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose, ion-exchange chromatography on CM- and DEAE-cellulose, and gel exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-100. On 10% alkaline polyacrylamide gels, mouse placental lactogen had an Rf of 0.19. Electrophore...

  8. Role of placental nutrient sensing in developmental programming

    Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L.


    Altered maternal nutrition and metabolism, restricted utero-placental blood flow and other perturbations in the maternal compartment may disturb critical periods of fetal development resulting in increased susceptibility to develop disease in childhood and adult life. In response to these perturbations, placental structure and function changes, which influence the supply of nutrients, oxygen and methyl donors and alter the secretion of hormones and other signaling molecules into the fetal cir...

  9. Feto-placental adaptations to maternal obesity in the baboon

    Farley, Darren; Tejero, Maria E; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Higgins, Paul B.; Cox, Laura; Werner, Sherry L.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Li, Cun; Choi, Jaehyek; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Frost, Patrice; Dudley, Donald D.; Ballesteros, Brandon; Wu, Guoyao


    Maternal obesity is present in 20–34% of pregnant women and has been associated with both intrauterine growth restriction and large-for-gestational age fetuses. While fetal and placental functions have been extensively studied in the baboon, no data are available on the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function in this species. We hypothesize that maternal obesity in the baboon is associated with a maternal inflammatory state and induces structural and functional changes ...

  10. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus


    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol


    Seadati N


    Full Text Available The aimed of this study was to find association between location of placental at second trimester and pregnancy outcomes. It was a descriptive -analytic epidemiological study which has performed on 250 pregnant women by simple random sampling in Razi hospital and Imam Khomeini hospital during July 2011 – October 2012 in Ahvaz city, Iran. Placental location was determined by sonography at 18 - 22 weeks of gestation, and it was classified to high / low category and anterior / posterior category. In this study has been assessed placental location with incidence of preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. The incidence of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction was 5.6%, 1.6% respectively, these parameters were not associated with placental location (p=0.84, p=0.69. The incidence of preterm birth was 7.2% and it was associated with low placental location (p=0.01.There was no significant difference between anterior and posterior placenta in all of outcomes. Low placental location was associated with increased risk of preterm labor and preterm delivery.

  12. Placental programming of chronic diseases, cancer and lifespan: a review.

    Barker, D J P; Thornburg, K L


    Particular paths of fetal growth are now known to predict a range of disorders in adult life. This is thought to reflect fetal programming, the phenomenon whereby nutrition and other influences during development set the body's organs and systems for life. The thesis of this review is that normal variations in the processes of placental development lead to variations in the supply of nutrients to the fetus and programme a small number of key systems that are linked to later disease. A baby's growth and nutrition depend both on the function of the placenta, reflected in its gross morphology at birth, and on the mother's lifetime nutrition, reflected in her height and weight. In many studies, the effects of placental size and shape on later disease have been examined within different categories of mother's body size. The review shows that variations in gross placental morphology at birth predict a wide range of disorders in later life. Any particular placental phenotype seems to predict a limited number of diseases. Further research into the links between the processes of placentation and the morphology of the placenta at birth is now required. We need to know more about the relative importance of nutrient flow, nutrient balance and the timing of nutritional events in determining disorders in later life. We also need to understand why, compared to other placental mammals, the human placenta is so variable in its morphology and functional capacity. PMID:23916422

  13. Maternal testosterone and placental function: Effect of electroacupuncture on placental expression of angiogenic markers and fetal growth.

    Fornes, Romina; Hu, Min; Maliqueo, Manuel; Kokosar, Milana; Benrick, Anna; Carr, David; Billig, Håkan; Jansson, Thomas; Manni, Luigi; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet


    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have elevated circulating androgens during pregnancy and are at an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we tested the hypotheses that maternal androgen excess decrease placental and fetal growth, and placental expression of markers of steroidogenesis, angiogenesis and sympathetic activity, and that acupuncture with low-frequency electrical stimulation prevents these changes. Pregnant rats were exposed to vehicle or testosterone on gestational day (GD)15-19. Low-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) or handling, as a control for the EA procedure, was given to control or testosterone exposed dams on GD16-20. On GD21, blood pressure was measured and maternal blood, fetuses and placentas collected. Placental steroid receptor expression and proteins involved in angiogenic, neurotrophic and adrenergic signaling were analyzed. EA did not affect any variables in control rats except maternal serum corticosterone, which was reduced. EA in testosterone exposed dams compared with controls increased systolic pressure by 30%, decreased circulating norepinephrine and corticosterone, fetal and placental weight and placental VEGFR1 and proNGF protein expression, and increased the VEGFA/VEGFR1 ratio, mature NGF (mNGF) and the mNGF/proNGF ratio. In conclusion, low-frequency EA in control animals did not have any negative influence on any of the studied variables. In contrast, EA in pregnant dams exposed to testosterone increased blood pressure and impaired placental growth and function, leading to decreased fetal growth. PMID:27208621

  14. Placental transfer of iodine and iodine compounds

    The following topics are valid for man and mammalians with haemochorial placenta, which are examined up to now: Within several hours after injection of radioactive inorganic iodide-compounds activity can be realized in the fetus. The transfer occurs bidirectionally through the placenta. The concentration of radioactive iodide in the fetal serum exceeds that of the maternal one already a short time after application. Radioactive iodide accumulates in the fetus before its thyroid starts its function and is mainly concentrated in liver and intestine; after starting its function, the fetal thyroid, stores the radioactive iodide at a very high percent rate. During gestation the concentration of radioactive iodide in the fetal thyroid increases and at the end of gestation it can exceed by 3-10 fold that in the maternal thyroid. Single uptake of radioactive iodide leads to a higher activity than chronic uptake. No analogy can be found in the concentration of fetal and maternal radioactive thyroid hormon compounds. A placental permeability for T4 and T3 only exists to a very small extent. Resulting from radioactive iodide transfer examinations, good accordance can be found between the individual animal species and man, while data on the passage of radioactive thyroid hormones vary to a small extent between the animal species. (orig./MG)

  15. Giant Placental Chorangioma: A Rare Case Report.

    Kataria, Nidhi; Singh, Amarjit; Bedi, Preet Kamal


    Chorangioma is a nontrophoblastic benign vascular tumour of the placenta, arising from the primitive chorionic mesenchyme. The clinical significance is related to the size of the tumours. Small chorangiomas, with a frequency of about 1%, are often asymptomatic. On the contrary, giant chorangiomas, greater than 5 cm in diameter, are rare tumours, with prevalence ranging from 1:9,000 to 1:50,000, and often associated with a variety of pregnancy complications and a poor perinatal outcome. We report a case of 26-year-old female who presented to us at 36 weeks of gestation with pain in the lower abdomen. Ultrasonograpy revealed polyhydramnios and a vascular tumour on the surface of placenta. Proper conservative antenatal management was done and a full term healthy baby was delievered. Histopathological examination of the extracted mass confirmed the diagnosis of chorangioma. The novelty of this report lies in the presence of large nontrophoblastic vascular placental tumour and the absence of any fetal complications. We emphasise the need of regular and timely antenatal management to diagnose and treat the complications of chorangioma at an early stage. PMID:27190814

  16. Nodal regulates trophoblast differentiation and placental development.

    Ma, G T; Soloveva, V; Tzeng, S J; Lowe, L A; Pfendler, K C; Iannaccone, P M; Kuehn, M R; Linzer, D I


    Nodal has been thought to be an embryo-specific factor that regulates development, but nodal is also expressed in the mouse placenta beginning at midgestation, specifically in the spongiotrophoblasts. In an insertional null nodal mutant, not only is embryonic development disrupted, but mouse placental development is also grossly altered with the loss of the diploid spongiotrophoblasts and labyrinth and an expansion of the polyploid giant cell layer. A hypomorphic mutation in nodal results in an expansion of the giant cell and spongiotrophoblast layers, and a decrease in labyrinthine development. Expression of nodal in trophoblast cell cultures is sufficient to inhibit trophoblast giant cell differentiation, demonstrating that nodal can act directly on trophoblasts. The mechanism of nodal action includes the inhibition of junB gene transcription. These results suggest that nodal may be involved in redirecting trophoblast fate towards the midgestational expansion of the labyrinth region while maintaining the thin layer of trophoblast giant cells and the underlying layer of spongiotrophoblasts that form the boundary between the maternal and extraembryonic compartments. PMID:11456449

  17. Placental Cadmium Levels Are Associated with Increased Preeclampsia Risk.

    Jessica E Laine

    Full Text Available Environmental exposure to heavy metals is a potentially modifiable risk factor for preeclampsia (PE. Toxicologically, there are known interactions between the toxic metal cadmium (Cd and essential metals such as selenium (Se and zinc (Zn, as these metals can protect against the toxicity of Cd. As they relate to preeclampsia, the interaction between Cd and these essential metals is unknown. The aims of the present study were to measure placental levels of Cd, Se, and Zn in a cohort of 172 pregnant women from across the southeast US and to examine associations of metals levels with the odds of PE in a nested case-control design. Logistic regressions were performed to assess odds ratios (OR for PE with exposure to Cd controlling for confounders, as well as interactive models with Se or Zn. The mean placental Cd level was 3.6 ng/g, ranging from 0.52 to 14.5 ng/g. There was an increased odds ratio for PE in relationship to placental levels of Cd (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.2. The Cd-associated OR for PE increased when analyzed in relationship to lower placental Se levels (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5 and decreased with higher placental Se levels (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.5-1.9. Similarly, under conditions of lower placental Zn, the Cd-associated OR for PE was elevated (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8-3.9, whereas with higher placental Zn it was reduced (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8-2.0. Data from this pilot study suggest that essential metals may play an important role in reducing the odds of Cd-associated preeclampsia and that replication in a larger cohort is warranted.

  18. Co-culture of placental explants with isolated CD4 and CD8 T cells: a functional model to define the consequences of placental inflammation

    Hayley Derricott


    Full Text Available Appropriate placental function is essential for successful pregnancy and placental dysfunction is associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR and stillbirth. Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE and chronic intervillositis of unknown etiology (CIUE are immune-mediated conditions characterised by placental infiltrates of macrophages, CD4 and CD8 T cells. VUE and CIUE occur more frequently in the placentas of pregnancies complicated by FGR. The mechanisms by which this inflammation induces placental dysfunction are yet to be defined. We aimed to develop an in vitro model of placental inflammation to investigate functional consequences of immune cells in the placental environment. Fragments of placental tissue were co-cultured with CD4 and CD8 T cells isolated from whole blood. CellTrackerTM fluorescence was used to identify T cells in cultured explants. Tissue histology, endocrine and nutrient transport function was assessed using established methods. This novel preparation will enable future investigations into immune cell interactions with placenta.

  19. Maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth: The national collaborative perinatal project

    Nicholson Wanda K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth have focused on placental weight and placental ratio as measures of placental growth. We sought to identify maternal risk factors for placental weight and two neglected dimensions of placental growth: placental thickness and chorionic plate area. Methods We conducted an analysis of 24,135 mother-placenta pairs enrolled in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective cohort study of pregnancy and child health. We defined growth restriction as th percentile and hypertrophy as > 90th percentile for three placental growth dimensions: placental weight, placental thickness and chorionic plate area. We constructed parallel multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify (a predictors of restricted growth (vs. normal and (b predictors of hypertrophic growth (vs. normal. Results Black race was associated with an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight, thickness and chorionic plate area, but was associated with a reduced likelihood of hypertrophy for these three placental growth dimensions. We observed an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area among mothers with hypertensive disease at 24 weeks or beyond. Anemia was associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction and an increased likelihood of hypertrophy for all three dimensions of placental growth. Conclusion Maternal risk factors are either associated with placental growth restriction or placental hypertrophy not both. Our findings suggest that the placenta may have compensatory responses to certain maternal risk factors suggesting different underlying biological mechanisms.

  20. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus


    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiology. Due to the high number of unknown causes of clinical mastitis, studies were undertaken to gain more insight into the role of viruses in this important disease. For the first time, we found tha...

  1. MicroRNAs in Human Placental Development and Pregnancy Complications

    Chun Peng


    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which function as critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. Placenta expresses many ubiquitous as well as specific miRNAs. These miRNAs regulate trophoblast cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting that miRNAs play important roles during placental development. Aberrant miRNAs expression has been linked to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Recent research of placental miRNAs focuses on identifying placental miRNA species, examining differential expression of miRNAs between placentas from normal and compromised pregnancies, and uncovering the function of miRNAs in the placenta. More studies are required to further understand the functional significance of miRNAs in placental development and to explore the possibility of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for pregnancy-related disorders. In this paper, we reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and function of miRNAs in placental development, and propose future directions for miRNA studies.

  2. A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals

    Bininda-Emonds Olaf RP


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The higher-level phylogeny of placental mammals has long been a phylogenetic Gordian knot, with disagreement about both the precise contents of, and relationships between, the extant orders. A recent MRP supertree that favoured 'outdated' hypotheses (notably, monophyly of both Artiodactyla and Lipotyphla has been heavily criticised for including low-quality and redundant data. We apply a stringent data selection protocol designed to minimise these problems to a much-expanded data set of morphological, molecular and combined source trees, to produce a supertree that includes every family of extant placental mammals. Results The supertree is well-resolved and supports both polyphyly of Lipotyphla and paraphyly of Artiodactyla with respect to Cetacea. The existence of four 'superorders' – Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires – is also supported. The topology is highly congruent with recent (molecular phylogenetic analyses of placental mammals, but is considerably more comprehensive, being the first phylogeny to include all 113 extant families without making a priori assumptions of suprafamilial monophyly. Subsidiary analyses reveal that the data selection protocol played a key role in the major changes relative to a previously published higher-level supertree of placentals. Conclusion The supertree should provide a useful framework for hypothesis testing in phylogenetic comparative biology, and supports the idea that biogeography has played a crucial role in the evolution of placental mammals. Our results demonstrate the importance of minimising poor and redundant data when constructing supertrees.

  3. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven O; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Petersen, Jørgen H; Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders


    habits were obtained from medical records. Serum placental GH concentrations were detectable in serum from all women as early as 14 wk gestation and increased during pregnancy in all individuals (P <0.001). Placental GH levels at second examination were found to be higher in women carrying female fetuses...... [median, 9.0 ng/ml; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.7-23.0] compared with women carrying male fetuses (median, 8.2 ng/ml; 95% CI, 3.96-19.4; P = 0.004). Similarly, the increase in placental GH between 19 and 28 wk gestation was significantly larger in female fetus bearers than in male fetus bearers (P = 0...... role of maternal placental GH in the regulation of fetal growth. In conclusion, we found that 1) placental GH levels correlated significantly with fetal size at 28 wk gestation; 2) GH levels were measurable in serum from all women as early as 14 wk gestation; 3) maternal prepregnancy BMI and smoking...

  4. Placental transfer of ritodrine hydrochloride in sheep

    This study examines the placental passage of ritodrine hydrochloride in relation to the drug's effects on the fetal circulation. Studies were carried out on nine mulliparous pregnant (120-140 days) ewes with chronically implanted cannulae of measurements of maternal and fetal arterial pressures and for blood sampling. One group of animals received sequential infusions of doses ranging from 0.1 to 30 μg/kg per min for 30 min (group 1). A second group was given a constant infusion of the drug at a dose of 3.0 μg/kg per min for 4 h (group 2). The peak concentrations of ritodrine in maternal and fetal blood were determined by radioimmunoassay. In group 1 they were 313.4 +- 24.1 ng/ml (mean +-S.E.) and 12.6 +- 3.7 ng/ml at the finish of 30.0 ug/kg per min infusion for maternal and fetal blood, respectively. In group 2, maternal drug levels were 81.3 +- 20.4 ng/ml after 30 min and 95.9 +- 17.1 ng/ml after 4 h of the infusion. Fetal plasma concentrations increased slowly from trace levels at 30 min to 3.3 +- 0.7 ng/ml at 4 h. Fetal blood pressure and heart rate did not show any significant changes during and after the infusion of ritodrine in both treatment groups. The findings demonstrate the maternal administration of ritodrine produces no significant effects on the circulatory system of the fetal lamb because of the low transplacental passage of this drug. (author)

  5. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... 8 ). Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) What is cartilage? Cartilage is a type of ...

  6. Of mice and women: rodent models of placental malaria

    Hviid, Lars; Marinho, Claudio R F; Staalsoe, Trine;


    Pregnant women are at increased malaria risk. The infections are characterized by placental accumulation of infected erythrocytes (IEs) with adverse consequences for mother and baby. Placental IE sequestration in the intervillous space is mediated by variant surface antigens (VSAs) selectively...... expressed in placental malaria (PM) and specific for chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). In Plasmodium falciparum, these VSA(PM) appear largely synonymous with the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family variant VAR2CSA. As rodent malaria parasites do not possess PfEMP1 homologs, the...... usefulness of experimental mouse PM models remains controversial. However, many features of murine and human PM are similar, including involvement of VSAs analogous to PfEMP1. It thus appears that rodent model studies can further the understanding of VSA-dependent malaria pathogenesis and immunity....

  7. Interleukin-11 alters placentation and causes preeclampsia features in mice.

    Winship, Amy L; Koga, Kaori; Menkhorst, Ellen; Van Sinderen, Michelle; Rainczuk, Katarzyna; Nagai, Miwako; Cuman, Carly; Yap, Joanne; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Simmons, David; Young, Morag J; Dimitriadis, Evdokia


    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk gestation. Abnormal extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and remodeling of uterine spiral arterioles is thought to contribute to PE development. Interleukin-11 (IL11) impedes human EVT invasion in vitro and is elevated in PE decidua in women. We demonstrate that IL11 administered to mice causes development of PE features. Immunohistochemistry shows IL11 compromises trophoblast invasion, spiral artery remodeling, and placentation, leading to increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction, although nonpregnant mice were unaffected. Real-time PCR array analysis identified pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2), associated with PE in women, as an IL11 regulated target. IL11 increased PAPPA2 serum and placental tissue levels in mice. In vitro, IL11 compromised primary human EVT invasion, whereas siRNA knockdown of PAPPA2 alleviated the effect. Genes regulating uterine natural killer (uNK) recruitment and differentiation were down-regulated and uNK cells were reduced after IL11 treatment in mice. IL11 withdrawal in mice at onset of PE features reduced SBP and proteinuria to control levels and alleviated placental labyrinth defects. In women, placental IL11 immunostaining levels increased in PE pregnancies and in serum collected from women before development of early-onset PE, shown by ELISA. These results indicate that elevated IL11 levels result in physiological changes at the maternal-fetal interface, contribute to abnormal placentation, and lead to the development of PE. Targeting placental IL11 may provide a new treatment option for PE. PMID:26655736

  8. Sex-Specific Placental Responses in Fetal Development.

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S


    The placenta is an ephemeral but critical organ for the survival of all eutherian mammals and marsupials. It is the primary messenger system between the mother and fetus, where communicational signals, nutrients, waste, gases, and extrinsic factors are exchanged. Although the placenta may buffer the fetus from various environmental insults, placental dysfunction might also contribute to detrimental developmental origins of adult health and disease effects. The placenta of one sex over the other might possess greater ability to respond and buffer against environmental insults. Given the potential role of the placenta in effecting the lifetime health of the offspring, it is not surprising that there has been a resurging interest in this organ, including the Human Placental Project launched by the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development. In this review, we will compare embryological development of the laboratory mouse and human chorioallantoic placentae. Next, evidence that various species, including humans, exhibit normal sex-dependent structural and functional placental differences will be examined followed by how in utero environmental changes (nutritional state, stress, and exposure to environmental chemicals) might interact with fetal sex to affect this organ. Recent data also suggest that paternal state impacts placental function in a sex-dependent manner. The research to date linking placental maladaptive responses and later developmental origins of adult health and disease effects will be explored. Finally, we will focus on how sex chromosomes and epimutations may contribute to sex-dependent differences in placental function, the unanswered questions, and future directions that warrant further consideration. PMID:26241064

  9. Pathophysiology of placentation abnormalities in pregnancy-induced hypertension

    Mitsuko Furuya


    Full Text Available Mitsuko Furuya1, Junji Ishida2,3, Ichiro Aoki1, Akiyoshi Fukamizu2,31Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan; 2Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences; 3Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance (TARA, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577, JapanAbstract: During embryogenesis and development, the fetus obtains oxygen and nutrients from the mother through placental microcirculation. The placenta is a distinctive organ that develops and differentiates per se, and that organizes fetal growth and maternal condition in the entire course of gestation. Several life-threatening diseases during pregnancy, such as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH and eclampsia, are closely associated with placental dysfunction. Genetic susceptibilities and poor placentation have been investigated intensively to understand the pathophysiology of PIH. It is currently thought that “poor placentation hypothesis”, in which extravillous trophoblasts fail to invade sufficiently the placental bed, explains in part maternal predisposition to this disease. Cumulative studies have suggested that hypoxic micromilieu of fetoplacental site, shear stress of uteroplacental blood flow, and aberrantly secreted proinflammatory substances into maternal circulation synergistically contribute to the progression of PIH. For example, soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1 and soluble form of CD105 are elevated in circulation of PIH mothers. However, it remains to be poorly understood the pathological events in the placenta during the last half of gestation as maternal systemic disorders get worse. For better understanding and effective therapeutic approaches to PIH, it is important to clarify pathological course of PIH-associated changes in the placenta. In this review, current understanding of placental development and the pathophysiology of PIH placenta are summarized. In

  10. Metabolism of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes

    Wang, Xiaoming; Abdelrahman, Doaa R.; Fokina, Valentina M.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; AHMED, Mahmoud S.; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.


    The aim of this investigation was to determine the biotransformation of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes, identify the enzyme(s) catalyzing the reaction(s) and determine its kinetics. Bupropion was metabolized by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes to hydroxybupropion (OH-BUP), threo- (TB) and erythrohydrobupropion (EB). OH-bupropion was the major metabolite formed by hepatic microsomes (Km 36 ± 6 µM, Vmax 258 ± 32 pmol mg protein−1 min−1), however the formation of OH-...

  11. Comparative Study Of Native And Fructose Glycated Human Placental DNA

    Mustafa, Imran; Garg, Nita; Raghushaker, C. R.


    Objective: The aim of our study was to glycate human placental DNA with Fructose and conduct a comparative study of properties of native and glycated DNA on the basis of UV spectrometry, fluorescence, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Methodology: Human placental DNA (10µg/ml) was incubated with 25mM fructose for 5, 10 and 15 days in phosphate buffer .Absorption profile and fluorescence emission spectra of native and glycated DNA samples were recorded. Native and glycated DNA was run on 0.8% a...

  12. Influence of placental position on obstetric morbidity in placenta previa

    Shripad S. Hebbar


    Conclusions: It is difficult to assign a maternal or perinatal morbidity risk to a particular type of placental location. The need for specialized surgical intervention such as uterine / internal iliac artery ligation, peripartum hysterectomy can arise irrespective of placental location, whether underneath the surgical incision (anterior, proximity to main uterine trunks (lateral or encountered after the delivery of the baby (posterior. Pregnancies complicated by placenta previa must be delivered in the hospitals having expertise of senior and skilled surgeons and well equipped blood bank and good neonatal intensive care unit. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 585-591

  13. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    Mohanty, April F., E-mail: [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Farin, Fred M., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Bammler, Theo K., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); MacDonald, James W., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Afsharinejad, Zahra, E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Burbacher, Thomas M., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Box: 357234, 1705 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Siscovick, David S., E-mail: [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others


    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  14. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  15. Placental transport of large molecules –a study using human ex vivo placental perfusion

    Mathiesen, Line


    To maintain a healthy pregnancy, the exchange of substances between mother and fetus is vital. All transport of these substances takes place through the placenta, which is a temporary organ that serves its purpose from the implantation of the blastula to the birth of the term fetus, supplying...... molecules, either by passive or facilitated diffusion or active transport systems. This makes placental transport studies interesting when investigating fetal exposure to foreign or innate substances. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the transport of selected substances across the human placenta...... using the human dually perfused recirculating placenta perfusion model. Perfusion models are very useful in studying effects and actions of various live tissues, in order to extrapolate the findings to a real life exposure situation. Simplified models make validated inter-laboratory comparison and...

  16. Studying placental transfer of highly purified non-dioxin-like PCBs in two models of the placental barrier

    Correia Carreira, S; Cartwright, L; Mathiesen, L;


    Currently, toxicology and toxicokinetics of purified non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are poorly characterised. Transplacental kinetics of NDL-PCBs can be studied in a variety of models, but careful validation of each model is crucial. We aimed to develop a standard operating...... procedure for establishing an in vitro model of the human placental barrier. Using this model, we sought to investigate placental transport kinetics of two NDL-PCB congeners. Firstly, we compared the BeWo cell line of the American Type Culture Collection with the BeWo b30 clone and determined parameters for...... monolayer formation. Secondly, we performed placental perfusions to validate the in vitro model. To that end, the transport of radiolabelled PCB52 and 180 was investigated in both models. We were not able to grow the ATCC cell line to confluency, but determined monolayer formation using BeWo b30. A...

  17. Modeling placental transport: correlation of in vitro BeWo cell permeability and ex vivo human placental perfusion

    Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Rytting, Erik; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E


    The placental passage of three compounds with different physicochemical properties was recently investigated in ex vivo human placental perfusion experiments (caffeine, benzoic acid, and glyphosate) [Mose, T., Kjaerstad, M.B., Mathiesen, L., Nielsen, J.B., Edelfors, S., Knudsen, L.E., 2008....... Placental passage of benzoic acid, caffeine, and glyphosate in an ex vivo human perfusion system. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 71, 984-991]. In this work, the transport of these same three compounds, plus the reference compound antipyrine, was investigated using BeWo (b30) cell monolayers. Transport...... across the BeWo cells was observed in the rank order of caffeine>antipyrine>benzoic acid>glyphosate in terms of both the apparent permeability coefficient and the initial slope, defined as the linear rate of substance transferred to the fetal compartment as percent per time, a parameter used to compare...

  18. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

    Charalambos Demetriou

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of expression of IGF1, IGF2, their receptors IGF1R and IGF2R, and PHLDA2 on term birth weight. DESIGN: Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and PHLDA2 in chorionic villus samples (CVS (n = 260 collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Expression was correlated with term birth weight using statistical package R including correction for several confounding factors. RESULTS: Transcript levels of IGF2 and IGF2R revealed a significant positive correlation with birth weight (0.009 and 0.04, respectively. No effect was observed for IGF1, IGF1R or PHLDA2 and birth weight. Critically, small for gestational age (SGA neonates had significantly lower IGF2 levels than appropriate for gestational age neonates (p = 3.6 × 10(-7. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies. SGA babies are known to be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. This research reveals an imprinted, parentally driven rheostat for in utero growth.

  19. Maternal Protein Restriction in the Rat Inhibits Placental Insulin, mTOR, and STAT3 Signaling and Down-Regulates Placental Amino Acid Transporters

    Rosario, Fredrick J.; Jansson, Nina; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Prasad, Puttur D; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas


    The mechanisms underlying reduced fetal growth in response to maternal protein restriction are not well established. Maternal levels of insulin, IGF-I, and leptin are decreased in rats fed a low protein (LP) diet. Because these hormones stimulate placental amino acid transporters in vitro, we hypothesized that maternal protein restriction inhibits placental leptin, insulin/IGF-I, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and down-regulates the expression and activity of placental amino acid...

  20. Co-culture of placental explants with isolated CD4 and CD8 T cells: a functional model to define the consequences of placental inflammation

    Hayley Derricott; Jones, Rebecca L.; Heazell, Alexander E. P.; Greenwood, Susan L.


    Appropriate placental function is essential for successful pregnancy and placental dysfunction is associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR) and stillbirth. Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) and chronic intervillositis of unknown etiology (CIUE) are immune-mediated conditions characterised by placental infiltrates of macrophages, CD4 and CD8 T cells. VUE and CIUE occur more frequently in the placentas of pregnancies complicated by FGR. The mechanisms by which this inflammation induces pl...

  1. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  2. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...


    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  4. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  5. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E;


    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched to...

  6. Incidental placental choriocarcinoma in a term pregnancy: a case report

    Chung Christopher


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gestational choriocarcinoma occurs in 1 in 40,000 pregnancies. Of all forms of gestational choriocarcinoma, placental choriocarcinoma is the most rare. Maternal choriocarcinoma is usually diagnosed in symptomatic patients with metastases. The incidental finding of a choriocarcinoma confined to the placenta with no evidence of dissemination to the mother, or infant is the least common scenario. Case presentation The patient is an 18 year-old Gravida 1 Para 1 African American female who delivered a viable 3641 g female infant at 39 weeks gestation. Her pregnancy course was complicated by gestational hypertension during the third trimester. Her placenta revealed intraplacental choriocarcinoma. She was then followed closely by the Gynecologic Oncology service with a weekly serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin value. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin values dropped from 3070 mIU/ml to less than 2 mIU/ml two months post partum. No chemotherapy was initiated. Metastasis was ruled out by chest x-ray and whole body computed tomography scan. To date, both mother and baby are well. Conclusion Due to the potential fatal outcome of placental choriocarcinoma, careful evaluation of both mother and infant after the diagnosis is made is important. The incidence of placental choriocarcinoma may actually be higher than expected since it is not routine practice to send placentas for pathological evaluation after a normal spontaneous delivery. The obstetrician, pathologist, and pediatrician should have an increased awareness of placental choriocarcinoma and its manifestations.

  7. Anemia in a neonate with placental mesenchymal dysplasia.

    Ishikawa, Satoshi; Morikawa, Mamoru; Umazume, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Kanno, Hiromi; Takakuwa, Emi; Minakami, Hisanori


    Causes of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) are uncertain in most placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) cases. Our case showed high α-fetoprotein levels in the maternal circulation, markedly dilated subchorionic vessels, and neonatal hemoglobin concentration of 8.4 g/dL, suggesting that fetal anemia may explain some adverse outcomes in PMD pregnancies. PMID:27190607

  8. Anemia in a neonate with placental mesenchymal dysplasia

    Ishikawa, Satoshi; Morikawa, Mamoru; Umazume, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Kanno, Hiromi; Takakuwa, Emi; Minakami, Hisanori


    Key Clinical Message Causes of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) are uncertain in most placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) cases. Our case showed high α‐fetoprotein levels in the maternal circulation, markedly dilated subchorionic vessels, and neonatal hemoglobin concentration of 8.4 g/dL, suggesting that fetal anemia may explain some adverse outcomes in PMD pregnancies.

  9. Placental Mechanics in the Zika-Microcephaly Relationship.

    Adibi, Jennifer J; Zhao, Yaqi; Cartus, Abigail R; Gupta, Phalguni; Davidson, Lance A


    How the Zika virus (ZIKV) accesses the embryo remains unknown. In this issue, Quicke et al. (2016) use an in vitro model of the human placenta to show that placental macrophages are more permissive to ZIKV infection than trophoblasts, which may be refractory to infection (Bayer et al., 2016). PMID:27414496

  10. Le complexe respiratoire bovin

    Lekeux, Pierre


    Les maladies respiratoires des bovins sont, partout dans le monde, la cause principale de mortalité chez les jeunes bovins. Plusieurs facteurs favorisent l'apparition de ce syndrome : des facteurs propres à l'animal, comme l'âge, l'état général et le statut immunitaire; d'autres relatifs à l'environnement, comme les stress engendrés par les changements de régime alimentaire, de température et d'humidité; d'autres encore, liés à la présence d'agents infectieux, comme des bactéries, des virus e...

  11. Genetics of bovine vaccination

    Leach, Richard Jonathan


    Infectious disease is an important issue for animal breeders, farmers and governments. Solutions to control infectious disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. The primary aim of this thesis is to discover regions of the bovine genome which influence the immune response post immunisation. To accomplish this two types of immunising agents, a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMD...

  12. Vitrification of Bovine Oocytes

    Anchamparuthy, Vahida Muhammed Ismail


    Cryopreservation of oocytes is a challenge. Studies were conducted to vitrify mouse zygotes and cumulus-intact bovine oocytes from follicles of different diameters, small (â ¤ 4 mm) and medium (4 to 10 mm), using nylon mesh. The specific goals were to assess changes in apoptotic gene expression (Fas-FasL, Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin) in conjunction with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase assays. Mouse zygotes were exposed to increasing concentrations...

  13. Ultrasound assessment of placental function: the effectiveness of placental biometry in a low-risk population as a predictor of a small for gestational age neonate.

    McGinty, Patricia


    The aims of the study were to establish reference ranges for placental length and thickness in a low-risk obstetric population and to assess the likelihood of a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate on the basis of placental length at 18-24 weeks\\' gestation.

  14. The endocannabinoid system: A novel player in human placentation.

    Costa, M A


    Cannabis sativa is the most consumed illegal drug around the world. Its consumption during pregnancy is associated with gestational complications, particularly with fetal growth restriction. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are lipid molecules that act by activating the G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors, which are also target of the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The endocannabinoid system (ECS) participates in distinct biological processes, including pain, inflammation, neuroprotection, and several reproductive events. In addition, an abnormal expression of ECS is associated with infertility and miscarriages. This manuscript will review and discuss the expression of ECS in normal and pathological human placentas, and the role of eCBs and THC in trophoblast proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and function. The current evidence points towards a role of ECS in human placentation, shedding light on the contribution of the eCBs in the coordination of human placentation, and in the cellular mechanisms underlying the deleterious effects of cannabis consumption during pregnancy. PMID:26965993

  15. Placental transfer of radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry in pregnancy

    Russell, J.R. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stabin, M.G.; Sparks, R.B. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)


    The calculation of radiation dose estimates to the fetus is often important in nuclear medicine. To obtain the best estimates of radiation dose to the fetus, the best biological and physical models should be employed. In this paper, after identification of radiopharmaceuticals often administered to women of childbearing age, the most recent data available on the placental crossover of these radiopharmaceuticals was used (with standard kinetic models describing the maternal distribution and retention and with the best available physical models) to obtain fetal dose estimates for these radiopharmaceuticals were identified as those most commonly administered to women of childbearing years. The literature yielded information on placental crossover of 15 radiopharmaceuticals, from animal or human data. Radiation dose estimates are presented in early pregnancy and at 3-, 6-, and 9-months gestation for these radiopharmaceuticals, as well as for many others used in nuclear medicine (the latter considering only maternal organ contributions to fetal dose). 46 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. The radioimmunoassay of human placental protein 14 (PP14)

    The development and validation of a radioimmunoassay for the measurement of human placental protein 14 in maternal serum is described. The mean concentration of this protein in serum from 22 normal pregnant women showed a decline during the third trimester from 120 μg/l at 27 weeks gestation to 65 μg/l at term. Serum samples from 16 patients with intra-uterine growth retardation tended to contain lower concentrations of placental protein 14, these results reaching significance at weeks 36-38 of gestation. Of seven patients with pre-eclampsia from whom two or more blood samples were taken, four showed increases in concentration of this protein as pregnancy proceeded, compared with the normal pattern of decreasing values. (Auth.)

  17. Metallothionein expression in placental tissue in Menkes' disease

    Hærslev, T.; Krag Jacobsen, G.; Horn, N.;


    from six women with a family history of Menkes' disease, from 4 women without a family history, and from 2 hydatiform moles was studied. Positive MT immunostaining was found to be independent of the length of fixation, whether the tissue samples were fixed in 4% buffered formaldehyde or Bouin......'s fixative. The avidin-biotin-complex (ABC)-technique was used. The copper content was measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). In all placental tissue sections positive MT immunostaining appeared only in the trophoblast and only in proliferating cells. In placental tissue sections obtained from......Menkes' disease is a recessive X-linked disturbance of copper metabolism, resulting in accumulation of copper in several extra-hepatic tissues including the placenta. Metallothionein (MT) is a low-molecular weight protein with a high affinity for group II metal ions, such as copper. Its synthesis...

  18. Clinical importance of radioisotope measurement of placental circulation

    Placental circulation was measured by scintigraphic technique after administration of 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) 113In. Scintigrams of the placenta and of the myometrium were taken with a time interval of 3 s for 3 minutes, and with an interval of 1 min for further 8 min. The placental perfusion index (PPI) was calculated on the basis of the time-activity histograms. The examination was carried out in 14 patients, with the following indications: toxicosis gravidarum, stenosis of the aortic valve, diabetes mellitus, placenta praevia, and suspicion of intrauterine retardation. In 13 cases the PPI was in accordance with the birth weight, whereas in one case significant difference was found. Intrauterine death occurred in cases where the PPI was near 1.0, whereas healthy mature babies were born with PPIs above 1.5. (L.E.)

  19. Heterogeneous Models Place the Root of the Placental Mammal Phylogeny

    Morgan, Claire C; Foster, Peter G.; Webb, Andrew E.; Pisani, Davide; McInerney, James O; O’Connell, Mary J


    Heterogeneity among life traits in mammals has resulted in considerable phylogenetic conflict, particularly concerning the position of the placental root. Layered upon this are gene- and lineage-specific variation in amino acid substitution rates and compositional biases. Life trait variations that may impact upon mutational rates are longevity, metabolic rate, body size, and germ line generation time. Over the past 12 years, three main conflicting hypotheses have emerged for the placement of...

  20. Placental Microbiome and Its Role in Preterm Birth

    CAO, BIN; Stout, Molly J.; Lee, Iris; Mysorekar, Indira U.


    Despite the well-known fact that the placenta has long-term effects on maternal and fetal health, the placenta remains a poorly understood and understudied organ. Not only is the placenta a site of exchange of nutrients and blood and gases between the fetal and maternal systems, but it also performs critical metabolic functions for supporting fetal development and maintaining maternal-fetal tolerance. It is also abundantly clear that impairment of placental function leads to severe pregnancy ...

  1. Placental site trophoblastic tumor presented with vaginal metastasis

    Zhang, Hai-Yan; Yue, Xiao-Ni; Tao, Xiang; Xi, Mei-Li; Yan, An-Qi; Lu, Xin


    Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). It is rising from the abnormal proliferation of intermediate trophoblastic cells with occasional multinuclear giant cells, with the potential for local invasion and metastasis. For its untypical and changeable clinical characteristics, the diagnosis and management are still poorly understood. Here we documented a case of PSTT with vaginal lesion as her unique presentation. After surgery and ...

  2. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    Burns, R


    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  3. Labile disulfide bonds in human placental insulin receptor.

    Finn, F. M.; Ridge, K D; HOFMANN, K


    The disulfide crosslinking pattern of human placental insulin receptor was investigated using selective reduction with tributylphosphine followed by alkylation with N-[3H]ethylmaleimide. Insulin receptor contains a single sulfhydryl group in each beta subunit whose alkylation with N-[3H]ethylmaleimide inhibits receptor autophosphorylation. Alkylation is partially inhibited by ATP or the nonhydrolyzable substrate analog adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate when the nucleotides are added...

  4. Giant placental chorioangioma: a rare cause of fetal hydrops

    Barros, Andreia; Freitas, Ana Cristina; António Jorge CABRAL; Camacho, Maria Carmo; Costa, Edite; Leitão, Henrique; Nunes, José Luis


    Giant choriangiomas are rare placental tumours, associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy complications and a poor perinatal outcome. Neonatal consequences include severe microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and hydrops. The associated high perinatal death rate (30–40%) has led to a number of prenatal therapeutic interventions with limited success in most cases. The authors present a case of non-immune fetal hydrops caused by a giant chorioangioma, diagnosed at 27 weeks...

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of placental site trophoblastic tumor

    Huang, Fengying; Zheng, Wenli; Liang, Qingchun; Yin, Tuanfang


    Here we report a case of a placental site trophoblastic tumor in a 36 year old Chinese woman, 31 months following a prior normal pregnancy. Her clinical presentation and ultrasound findings were uncharacteristic; and the final definitive diagnosis was established based on histological examination in conjunction with immunohistochemistry studies and a normal beta human chorionic gonadotropin level. The tumor exhibited high grade histological features with tumor necrosis, nuclear atypia and hig...

  6. Radioimmunoassay for human placental alkaline phosphatase and clinical significance

    A radioimmunoassay specific for placental alkaline phosphatase (PALP) has been performed. Sera from blood donnors contain less than 15 μg of PALP per liter. The amounts of PALP found in sera of pregnant women are higher, as soon as the first trimester of the pregnancy, increasing untill delivery (50-600 μg of PALP/l). Only 3,5% of the patients with various cancer diseases have amounts higher than 25 μg PALP/l

  7. Placental growth factor promotes atherosclerotic intimal thickening and macrophage accumulation

    Khurana, R.; Moons, L; Shafi, S.; A. Luttun; Collen, D; Martin, J. F.; Carmeliet, P.; Zachary, I. C.


    Background: Placental growth factor (PlGF) has been implicated in the pathophysiological angiogenesis and monocyte recruitment that underlie chronic inflammatory disease, but its role in atherosclerosis has not been examined. We investigated the effects of exogenous PlGF, delivered by adenoviral gene transfer, on atherogenic intimal thickening and macrophage accumulation induced by collar placement around the rabbit carotid artery and examined the effects of PlGF deficiency on atherosclerosis...

  8. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions.

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing


    Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy. PMID:26852204

  9. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-[U-14C]- and D-[2-3H]glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production

  10. Development and regulation of placental androstenedione during rat pregnancy

    The present study determined the ability of the rat placenta to convert [3H] pregnenolone (P5) substrate to [3H]Δ4A and [3H]T and to the intermediate steroid [3H]P4 in vitro on days 12 to 18 of gestation. Placental androgen formation increased and the amount of P4 formed and not further metabolized to Δ4A decreased during gestation, with the formation of Δ4A 2- to 4-fold greater (p3H]Δ4A to [3H]E2 was 2- to 4-fold greater (p3H]T. To determine if the ovary, specifically estrogen, regulates placental Δ4A production, rats were ovariectomized (OVX) on day 9 of gestation and given a Silastic capsule containing either E2 or vehicle. On day 14 OVX animals had an increased (p 4A and decreased (p 4. The formation of placental Δ4A invitro was correlated with elevated peripheral serum Δ4A concentrations in OVX animals, an effect which was reversed by E2

  11. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood 1

    Lopes, Lauren Auer; Bernardino, Elizabeth; Crozeta, Karla; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt


    Abstract Objective: to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. Method: this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1) verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2) definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r) and R(r). Results: while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. Conclusion: the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality. PMID:27556876

  12. Animal Models to Study Placental Development and Function throughout Normal and Dysfunctional Human Pregnancy

    Grigsby, Peta L.


    Abnormalities of placental development and function are known to underlie many pathologies of pregnancy, including spontaneous preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. A growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental dysfunction in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring. However, our knowledge regarding placental structure and function throughout pregnancy remains limited. Understanding the temporal growth and functionality of the human placen...

  13. Maternal peripheral blood level of IL-10 as a marker for inflammatory placental malaria

    Mutabingwa Theonest K; Kurtis Jonathan D; Fried Michal; Muehlenbachs Atis; Kabyemela Edward R; Duffy Patrick E


    Abstract Background Placental malaria (PM) is an important cause of maternal and foetal mortality in tropical areas, and severe sequelae and mortality are related to inflammation in the placenta. Diagnosis is difficult because PM is often asymptomatic, peripheral blood smear examination detects parasitemia as few as half of PM cases, and no peripheral markers have been validated for placental inflammation. Methods In a cohort of Tanzanian parturients, PM was determined by placental blood smea...

  14. Placental Malaria in Colombia: Histopathologic Findings in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum Infections

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Arango, Eliana; Maestre, Amanda


    Studies on gestational malaria and placental malaria have been scarce in malaria-endemic areas of the Western Hemisphere. To describe the histopathology of placental malaria in Colombia, a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted. In this study, 179 placentas were studied by histologic analysis (112 with gestational malaria and 67 negative for malaria). Placental malaria was confirmed in 22.35%, 50.0% had previous infections, and 47.5% had acute infections. Typical malaria-associated chan...

  15. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko


    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ tha...

  16. Placental tumor (chorioangioma) as a cause of polyhydramnios: a case report

    Abdalla N; Bachanek M; Trojanowski S; Cendrowski K; Sawicki W


    Nabil Abdalla, Michal Bachanek, Seweryn Trojanowski, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Wlodzimierz Sawicki Chair and Clinic of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Oncology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: Placental chorioangioma is the most common type of placental tumor. It is usually symptomless and may be associated with serious maternal and fetal complication when it reaches a large size. We presented a case of an angiomatous type of placental hemangioma dia...

  17. Does Method of Placental Removal or Site of Uterine Incision Repair Alter Endometritis After Cesarean Delivery?

    Everett F. Magann; Dodson, Mark K.; Harris, Robert L.; Floyd, Randall C.; Martin, James N; John C. Morrison


    Objective: his investigation was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between postcesarean endometritis and (1) method of placental removal and (2) site for uterine repair. Methods: This prospective, randomized study included 120 patients who underwent primary or repeat abdominal delivery for arrest of progress in labor, fetal distress, or breech presentation. Parturients were divided into four groups: I—spontaneous placental detachment, in situ uterine repair; II—spontaneous placental det...

  18. Elevated levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and human placental lactogen between 11-13 week's gestation and subsequent pregnancy complications in Oman i women

    during pregnancy or in labor. 40 patients dropped out from the study due to insufficient information on the course of their pregnancies or they developed more than one complication and were excluded from statistical analysis. This includes 2 cases of stillbirth and 3 patients who delivered before term. The maternal serum b-HCG and HPL levels of the patients from both groups were compared. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to establish significant difference between the 2 groups. To compare the means individually with the control, the student-Newman-Keuls test was used. Details of association between different levels of b-HCG and adverse pregnancy outcomes are presented in Table 1. b-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels were significantly higher among women who developed PIH in later stages of pregnancy. The infants of mothers with elevated levels of b-HCG developed IUGR more frequently and were delivered with lower Apgar score in comparison to the babies from the control group. The differences are statistically significant. Women who developed antepartum hemorrhage, polyhydramnios, gestational diabetes and whose labor ended up with emergency cesarean section had lower levels of b-HCG in early pregnancy, although these differences are not proven statistically. There was no significant difference in the levels of HPL between women with evaluated complications of pregnancies and the control group in our study. We have found that elevated b-HCG levels in our study were associated with pre-eclampsia. This finding is consistent with the reports of Yaron et al2 and appears to support the theory that vascular changes within the placenta, which may ultimately lead to pre-eclampsia, begin in early pregnancy.3 These early placental changes result in hypoperfusion of placental villi and an increase in b-HCG production. Lieppman et al4 found that an unexplained increased level of b-HCG is associated with risk of preterm delivery and delivery of a low birth weight baby


    Mr. Christopher Chukwuemeka Ohagwu


    Full Text Available The study is aimed to investigate placental thickness as a parameter for estimating gestational age in normal singleton pregnancies in Nigerian women. 730 Nigerian women with normal singleton pregnancies who were attending antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria were studied by transabdominal ultrasound between February, 2007 and January, 2008. Sonography was carried out using Sonoscape SSI 600 ultrasound machine with 3.5MHz transducer. Gestational age was estimated by crown-rump length (CRL, biparietal diameter (BPD, femur length (FL and abdominal circumference (AC and the composite average recorded while placental thickness was measured at the point of insertion of the umbilical cord. Mean placental thickness with standard deviation was calculated for each gestational age. Correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between placental thickness and gestational age while regression analysis yielded mathematical relationships between placental thickness and gestation age. The maximum mean placental thickness of 45.1 ± 6.4mm was recorded at 39 weeks gestation. There was a fairly linear increase in mean placental thickness with gestation age. There was significant and strong positive correlation between placental thickness and gestational age. Placental thickness appears promising as an accurate indicator of gestational age in singleton pregnancies in Nigerian women.

  20. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    Hoar, Bruce R.


    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  1. Is Placental Mitochondrial Function a Regulator that Matches Fetal and Placental Growth to Maternal Nutrient Intake in the Mouse?

    Chiaratti, Marcos R.; Malik, Sajida; Diot, Alan; Rapa, Elizabeth; Macleod, Lorna; Morten, Karl; Vatish, Manu; Boyd, Richard; Poulton, Joanna


    Background Effective fetal growth requires adequate maternal nutrition coupled to active transport of nutrients across the placenta, which, in turn requires ATP. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown that impaired maternal nutrition in utero results in an adverse postnatal phenotype for the offspring. Placental mitochondrial function might link maternal food intake to fetal growth since impaired placental ATP production, in response to poor maternal nutrition, could be a pathway linking maternal food intake to reduced fetal growth. Method We assessed the effects of maternal diet on placental water content, ATP levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in mice at embryonic (E) day 18 (E18). Females maintained on either low- (LPD) or normal- (NPD) protein diets were mated with NPD males. Results To investigate the possibility of an underlying mitochondrial stress response, we studied cultured human trophoblast cells (BeWos). High throughput imaging showed that amino acid starvation induces changes in mitochondrial morphology that suggest stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. This is a defensive response, believed to increase mitochondrial efficiency, that could underlie the increase in ATP observed in placenta. Conclusions These findings reinforce the pathophysiological links between maternal diet and conceptus mitochondria, potentially contributing to metabolic programming. The quiet embryo hypothesis proposes that pre-implantation embryo survival is best served by a relatively low level of metabolism. This may extend to post-implantation trophoblast responses to nutrition. PMID:26132581

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo


    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  3. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0010) a...

  4. A longitudinal study of intrauterine growth and the placental growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis in maternal circulation: association between placental GH and fetal growth

    Chellakooty, Marla; Vangsgaard, K; Larsen, T;


    The aim of the study was 1) to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of placental GH and IGF-I with fetal growth, and 2) to establish reference data for placental GH, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in normal pregnancies based on longitudinal measurements. A prospective...... in placental GH during 24.5-37.5 wk gestation was positively associated with fetal growth rate (P = 0.027) and birth weight (P = 0.027). Gestational age at peak placental GH values (P = 0.007) was associated with pregnancy length. A positive association between the change in placental GH and the...... weight at birth. We found a significant association between placental GH and fetal growth. In addition, we found a highly significant association between the increase in placental GH and the increase in IGF-I. The gestational age at peak placental GH levels was associated with pregnancy length....

  5. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.


    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  6. Detection of suspected placental invasion by MRI: Do the results depend on observer’ experience?

    Alamo, Leonor, E-mail: [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Anaye, Anass; Rey, Jannick; Denys, Alban [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bongartz, Georg [Universitätsspital Basel (Switzerland); Terraz, Sylvain [Hôpitaux Universitaires Genève (Switzerland); Artemisia, Simona; Meuli, Reto; Schmidt, Sabine [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of previously described MR features used for detecting suspected placental invasion according to observers’ experience. Materials and methods: Our population included 25 pregnant women (mean age 35.16) investigated by prenatal MRI (1.5 T, T1- and T2-weighted MR-sequences without i.v. contrast), among them 12 with histopathologically proven placental invasion and 13 women (52%) without placental invasion used as control group. Two senior and two junior radiologists blindly and independently reviewed MR-examinations in view of 6 previously defined MR-features indicating presence and degree of placental invasion (placenta increta, accreta or percreta). For each reader the sensibility, specificity, and receiver operating curve (ROC) were calculated. Interobserver agreements between senior and junior readers were determined. Stepwise logistic regression was performed including the 6 MR-features predictive of placental invasion. Results: Demographics between both groups were statistically equivalent. Overall sensitivity and specificity for placental invasion was 90.9% and 75.0% for seniors and 81.8% and 61.8% for juniors, respectively. The best single MR-feature indicating placental invasion was T2-hypointense placental bands (r{sup 2} = 0.28), followed by focally interrupted myometrial border, infiltration of pelvic organs and tenting of the bladder (r{sup 2} = 0.36). Interobserver agreement for detecting placental invasion was 0.64 for seniors and 0.41 for juniors, thus substantial and moderate, respectively. Seniors detected placental invasion and depth of infiltration with significantly higher diagnostic certitude than juniors (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0282, respectively). Conclusion: MRI can be a reliable and reproducible tool for the detection of suspected placental invasion, but the diagnostic value significantly depends on observers’ experience.

  7. Endocrine activity of extraembryonic membranes extends beyond placental amniotes.

    Lori C Albergotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During development, all amniotes (mammals, reptiles, and birds form extraembryonic membranes, which regulate gas and water exchange, remove metabolic wastes, provide shock absorption, and transfer maternally derived nutrients. In viviparous (live-bearing amniotes, both extraembryonic membranes and maternal uterine tissues contribute to the placenta, an endocrine organ that synthesizes, transports, and metabolizes hormones essential for development. Historically, endocrine properties of the placenta have been viewed as an innovation of placental amniotes. However, an endocrine role of extraembryonic membranes has not been investigated in oviparous (egg-laying amniotes despite similarities in their basic structure, function, and shared evolutionary ancestry. In this study, we ask whether the oviparous chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of chicken (Gallus gallus has the capability to synthesize and receive signaling of progesterone, a major placental steroid hormone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified mRNA expression of key steroidogenic enzymes involved in progesterone synthesis and found that 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which converts pregnenolone to progesterone exhibited a 464 fold increase in the CAM from day 8 to day 18 of embryonic development (F(5, 68 = 89.282, p<0.0001. To further investigate progesterone synthesis, we performed explant culture and found that the CAM synthesizes progesterone in vitro in the presence of a steroid precursor. Finally, we quantified mRNA expression and performed protein immunolocalization of the progesterone receptor in the CAM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, our data indicate that the chick CAM is steroidogenic and has the capability to both synthesize progesterone and receive progesterone signaling. These findings represent a paradigm shift in evolutionary reproductive biology by suggesting that endocrine activity of extraembryonic membranes is not a novel characteristic of

  8. The effects of diabetes on placental aromatase activity.

    McRobie, D J; Korzekwa, K R; Glover, D D; Tracy, T S


    Diabetes complicates 2-3% of all pregnancies and is associated with an increase in both perinatal morbidity and mortality, though reasons for these adverse outcomes are unknown. Estrogen biosynthesis is a critical factor during pregnancy and is carried out in the placenta via aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1), which catalyzes the conversion of C-19 androgens to C-18 estrogens. Previous studies have shown that hormones such as insulin-like growth factors and insulin regulate aromatase activity when studied in vitro. Interestingly, levels of these hormones are altered in patients with diabetes. Thus, we hypothesized that the presence of maternal diabetes may alter placental aromatase activity and thus estrogen biosynthesis, possibly serving as one factor in the adverse outcomes of babies born to mothers with diabetes. To this end, we measured the production of 19-hydroxyandrostenedione, 19-oxoadrostenedione and estrone in 30 placental tissues from diabetic patients, using [7-3H]androst-4-ene-3,17-dione as a model substrate for aromatase (P450 19A1). A statistical difference was detected in the percentage of 19-oxoandrostenedione formed between the overt and control groups (P < 0.05). Additionally, NADPH P450-reductase levels were measured in these same tissues to determine whether alterations in this enzyme necessary for aromatase activity could be affected by diabetes. No differences in reductase levels were detected among the patient groups. However, a statistical correlation was found between NADPH P450-reductase activity and the formation velocities of all three estrogen products (P < 0.05). Thus, it appears that the presence of diabetes does not affect placental aromatase activity. PMID:9449216

  9. Effect of Fetal Size on Fetal Placental Hyaluronan and Hyaluronoglucosaminidases Throughout Gestation in the Pig

    Previous results indicated that the trophoblast-endometrial epithelial cell bilayer of porcine placenta undergoes microscopic folding during gestation, and the folded bilayer is embedded in placental stroma. We hypothesized that hyaluronan was a component of placental stroma, and that hyaluronidases...

  10. Experimentally Induced Placentitis with Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus in Late Gestation Mares: Prevention of Preterm Birth

    Placental infection due to opportunistic pathogens is the most common cause of abortion and premature delivery in horses. However, current therapies used to treat mares with placentitis are based on clinical experience, anecdotal information or on case reports. Thus, the objective of this study was ...

  11. Effect of Bricanyl on the placental circulation in late pregnancy toxaemia

    The placental circulation was detected by gamma camera at 1 min intervals after iv. administration of 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) 113In-chloride. 15 patients suffering from pregnancy toxaemia were examined. The beta-mimetic drog Bricanyl significantly increased the placental circulation, whereas the circulation of the myometrium was altered insignificantly. (L.E.)




    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to evaluate the placental thickness by sonography in normal singleton pregnancies at different stages of gestation in order to develop this as a useful tool for gestational age estimation. MATERIALS AND METHODS We evaluated 310 normal singleton pregnancies and calculated the fetal gestational age using sonographic biometric criteria for different periods of gestation. Placental thickness was measured by sonography at the site of umbilical cord insertion using the standardized technique. Mean placental thickness along with its standard deviation and 95 % confidence interval was calculated for each week of gestation. We used correlation regression analysis to study the relationship between placental thickness and gestational age. RESULTS Mean placental thickness (in mm closely matched the gestational age (in weeks between 10 to 30 weeks of gestation. We established a nomogram for placental thickness measurements with increasing gestational age. CONCLUSIONS Placental thickness has a linear relationship with gestational age especially during the second trimester of pregnancy. Placental thickness measurements when used along with fetal biometry can increase the accuracy of predicting gestational age during pregnancy. The regression equation and nomogram developed by us can be used to calculate the gestational age with minimal error.

  13. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (chiroptera: myzopodidae) endemic to madagascar

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C


    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...

  14. Extensive intron gain in the ancestor of placental mammals

    Kordiš Dušan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide studies of intron dynamics in mammalian orthologous genes have found convincing evidence for loss of introns but very little for intron turnover. Similarly, large-scale analysis of intron dynamics in a few vertebrate genomes has identified only intron losses and no gains, indicating that intron gain is an extremely rare event in vertebrate evolution. These studies suggest that the intron-rich genomes of vertebrates do not allow intron gain. The aim of this study was to search for evidence of de novo intron gain in domesticated genes from an analysis of their exon/intron structures. Results A phylogenomic approach has been used to analyse all domesticated genes in mammals and chordates that originated from the coding parts of transposable elements. Gain of introns in domesticated genes has been reconstructed on well established mammalian, vertebrate and chordate phylogenies, and examined as to where and when the gain events occurred. The locations, sizes and amounts of de novo introns gained in the domesticated genes during the evolution of mammals and chordates has been analyzed. A significant amount of intron gain was found only in domesticated genes of placental mammals, where more than 70 cases were identified. De novo gained introns show clear positional bias, since they are distributed mainly in 5' UTR and coding regions, while 3' UTR introns are very rare. In the coding regions of some domesticated genes up to 8 de novo gained introns have been found. Intron densities in Eutheria-specific domesticated genes and in older domesticated genes that originated early in vertebrates are lower than those for normal mammalian and vertebrate genes. Surprisingly, the majority of intron gains have occurred in the ancestor of placentals. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence for numerous intron gains in the ancestor of placental mammals and demonstrates that adequate taxon sampling is crucial for

  15. A double antibody radioimmunoassay specific for placental alkaline phosphatase

    Placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) is normally found in enzymically measurable amounts in second and third trimester pregnancy serum. Its occurrence in sera and tumours from patients with malignant disease has led to the development of methods to specifically identify and quantitate the enzyme. Recently immunological techniques have been used, employing antibodies raised to purified PLAP; these include solid phase radioimmunoassays and enzyme-immunoassay. The development of a sensitive, specific, automated double-antibody radioimmunoassay for the measurement of PLAP in serum is reported. (Auth.)

  16. Decidual-Secreted Factors Alter Invasive Trophoblast Membrane and Secreted Proteins Implying a Role for Decidual Cell Regulation of Placentation

    Ellen Melaleuca Menkhorst; Natalie Lane; Amy Louise Winship; Priscilla Li; Joanne Yap; Katie Meehan; Adam Rainczuk; Andrew Stephens; Evdokia Dimitriadis


    Inadequate or inappropriate implantation and placentation during the establishment of human pregnancy is thought to lead to first trimester miscarriage, placental insufficiency and other obstetric complications. To create the placental blood supply, specialized cells, the 'extravillous trophoblast' (EVT) invade through the differentiated uterine endometrium (the decidua) to engraft and remodel uterine spiral arteries. We hypothesized that decidual factors would regulate EVT function by alteri...

  17. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary


    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) ...

  18. The Role of Placental Homeobox Genes in Human Fetal Growth Restriction

    Padma Murthi


    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is an adverse pregnancy outcome associated with significant perinatal and paediatric morbidity and mortality, and an increased risk of chronic disease later in adult life. One of the key causes of adverse pregnancy outcome is fetal growth restriction (FGR. While a number of maternal, fetal, and environmental factors are known causes of FGR, the majority of FGR cases remain idiopathic. These idiopathic FGR pregnancies are frequently associated with placental insufficiency, possibly as a result of placental maldevelopment. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of abnormal placental development in idiopathic FGR is, therefore, of increasing importance. Here, we review our understanding of transcriptional control of normal placental development and abnormal placental development associated with human idiopathic FGR. We also assess the potential for understanding transcriptional control as a means for revealing new molecular targets for the detection, diagnosis, and clinical management of idiopathic FGR.

  19. The effect of Ramadan fasting and maternal hypoalbuminaemia on neonatal anthropometric parameters and placental weight.

    Sakar, M N; Balsak, D; Verit, F F; Zebitay, A G; Buyuk, A; Akay, E; Turfan, M; Demir, S; Yayla, M


    In Islamic religion, daytime fasting during the month called Ramadan is an annual practice. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting and maternal hypoalbuminaemia on neonatal growth parameters. A prospective case-control study was conducted in Diyarbakir and Istanbul, Turkey. The sample size of fasting group was 168 and that of non-fasting group was 170. Demographic characteristics, obstetrics ultrasonographic findings and laboratory parameters of the participants were recorded. Neonatal anthropometric parameters and placental weight were noted. The mean placental weight was significantly higher in the fasting group (p = 0.037). Also, in the fasting group, pregnant women with hypoalbuminaemia had significantly higher placental weight (p = 0.009). In conclusion, the mean placental weight in the fasting group was significantly higher. Also a significant correlation between placental weight and maternal serum albumin level was observed in the fasting group. PMID:26467047

  20. Placental blood flow measurements with radioisotopes in the pregnant guinea pig

    In 15 pregnant guinea pigs near term the blood flow (BF) of the myometrium and the placenta as well as the cardiac output were measured with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled microspheres. In front of one placenta the clearance of 133Xe was estimated in the same animal. For the 133Xe measurement a theoretical concept is presented. The mean placental BF is 105ml/(minx100g)(SD:84) for 99Tcsup(m) and 244(SD:80)ml/(minx100g) for 133Xe. The difference in both flow values is assumed to be related to foetal placental BF. The placental blood flow is also related to the location of the placenta in the uterine horn. The ratio of myometrial blood flow to placental blood flow decreased with an increase in the mean arterial blood pressure. The measurements are a preliminary report of an attempt to compare two different methods in measuring placental blood flow. (author)

  1. Estrogen inhibits corticotropin-releasing hormone production in primary human placental cells

    唐晓露; 倪鑫; 由振东; 何平; 惠宁; 顾清; 孙刚


    Objective: To study the inhibition effects of estrogen on the production of corticotropin-releasing hormone in human placental cells. Methods: Primary cultured placental cells were treated by ICI182, 780, a complete ER antagonist, and Tamoxifen, an ERα-mixed agonist/antagonist and ERβ antagonist for 24 h. The supernatant was havested for the radioimmunoassay of CRH. Results: 17β-estradiol inhibited the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone in human placental (P<0.05). ICI182, 780 stimulated the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone in human placental (P<0.05). Conclusion: Estrogen represses the synthesis and secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone in human placental, which is possibly mediated by ERα.

  2. Studies to evaluate radioimmunoassay of the placental hormones HPL and estriol, and cardiotocography induding the oxytocin tolerance test for early diagnosis of placental insufficiency

    The diagnostic methods studied here for early recognition of placental deficiency have justifiably been adopted in obstetrics. A determination of estriol and Human-Placenta-Lactogen gives an indication of an approaching threat to the fetus even at an early stage of pregnancy. The results from E3 and HPL have the same medical significance. The oxytocin tolerance test is the only single method for forecasting placental insufficiency. However a combination of all methods is preferable. (orig./MG)

  3. Nephrocalcinosis and Placental Findings in Neonatal Bartter Syndrome

    Hidehiko Maruyama


    Full Text Available Neonatal Bartter syndrome (NBS is an inherited renal tubular disorder associated with hypokalemic alkalosis. Here we report a case of genetically diagnosed NBS. Polyhydramnios was noted at 26 weeks. A boy was born at 31 weeks and 1 day, weighed 1344 g, and had an Apgar score of 8/8. We initiated indomethacin (IND at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/d on day 31, and increased it to approximately 3 mg/kg/d. However, his urinary calcium (Ca levels remained unchanged. At 4 months of age, nephrocalcinosis was detected by ultrasound. The placenta weighed 700 g (+2.7 standard deviations. Although the proportion of terminal villi was consistent with the gestational age, many of them exhibited poorly dilated capillaries. Hemosiderin pigment was seen throughout the amniochorionic connective tissue and along about 50% of the trophoblast basement membrane (TBM. Von Kossa stain revealed the corresponding area of mineralization along the TBM. In our opinion, urinary Ca levels were high and did not change after IND initiation, indicating that nephrocalcinosis may be inevitable. Enhanced inflow of maternal plasma through the basement membrane would cause Ca deposition, given that the same finding was obtained in the case with polyhydramnios. The same mechanism would also explain the hemosiderin pigment distribution.

  4. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts in placental membranes: a histologic lesion of in utero hypoxia.

    Stanek, Jerzy; Weng, Eric


    Grossly apparent and microscopically intermediate trophoblast-lined subchorionic, septal, and cell island cysts are relatively common placental findings. To analyze the clinicopathologic correlations of histologically similar but grossly inapparent microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes (mccpm), selected placental and clinical parameters of all 172 consecutive placentas with mccpm (study group, sg) and all consecutive 3743 placentas without mccpm (comparative group, cg) from years 1994 through 2005 were statistically compared; mccpm were observed in 4.3% of all placentas and in 14.9% of placentas from preeclamptic mothers from 24- to 42-week pregnancies, their gestational weeks' distribution almost mirroring that of the distribution of preeclampsia, with a peak in the middle of the 3rd trimester. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes were statistically significantly more common in patients with preeclampsia and maternal diabetes mellitus. In placentas with mccpm, decidual arteriolopathy, homogeneous placental maturation, global hypoxic pattern of placental injury, chorangiosis, placental infarction, laminar necrosis of membranes, stem obliterative endarteritis, erythroblasts of fetal blood, and decidual hemosiderosis were statistically significantly more common, while acute chorioamnionitis, villous fibrosis, and villous edema were less common (P hematoma, perivillous fibrin deposition, intervillous thrombi, chronic villitis, chorangiomas, placenta accreta, amnion nodosum, and marginate/vallate placenta. Highly statistically significant associations of mccpm with preeclampsia and a cluster of placental lesions known to be linked to placental hypoxia indicate that the mccpm form in response to hypoxia, particularly in patients with preeclampsia; mccpm should therefore be regarded and reported as a hypoxia-associated placental lesion. PMID:17535086

  5. Placentation in mammals: Definitive placenta, yolk sac, and paraplacenta.

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C


    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes persist to term in insectivores, colugos, rodents, and lagomorphs. In the latter two orders, they are of known importance for maternal-fetal transfer of antibodies, vitamins, lipids, and proteins. The detached yolk sac of bats is also active throughout gestation. A vascular paraplacenta, or smooth chorioallantois, has known functions in ruminants and carnivores and is found in several other orders of mammal where its function has yet to be explored. In human gestation, the chorion (avascular chorioallantois) is important for hormone synthesis. The true chorion of squirrels and hedgehogs is avascular but may nevertheless allow transfer from mother to fetus through the exocelom. Hemophagous areas with columnar trophoblast are paraplacental structures in carnivores and elephants but occur also within the placenta as in hyenas and moles. In shrews, it is the yolk sac that ingests and processes red cells. Areolas and chorionic vesicles are other structures important for absorption of uterine secretions and ingestion of cellular debris. In conclusion, we find that paraplacental structures, while showing less variation than the placenta proper, contribute not just to the integrity of overall placentation, but in various ways to maternal-fetal interrelationships. PMID:27155730

  6. IgG Placental Transfer in Healthy and Pathological Pregnancies

    Patricia Palmeira


    Full Text Available Placental transfer of maternal IgG antibodies to the fetus is an important mechanism that provides protection to the infant while his/her humoral response is inefficient. IgG is the only antibody class that significantly crosses the human placenta. This crossing is mediated by FcRn expressed on syncytiotrophoblast cells. There is evidence that IgG transfer depends on the following: (i maternal levels of total IgG and specific antibodies, (ii gestational age, (iii placental integrity, (iv IgG subclass, and (v nature of antigen, being more intense for thymus-dependent ones. These features represent the basis for maternal immunization strategies aimed at protecting newborns against neonatal and infantile infectious diseases. In some situations, such as mothers with primary immunodeficiencies, exogenous IgG acquired by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy crosses the placenta in similar patterns to endogenous immunoglobulins and may also protect the offspring from infections in early life. Inversely, harmful autoantibodies may cross the placenta and cause transitory autoimmune disease in the neonate.

  7. Probability distributions for measures of placental shape and morphology

    Birthweight at delivery is a standard cumulative measure of placental growth, but is a crude summary of other placental characteristics, such as, e.g., the chorionic plate size, and the shape and position of the umbilical cord insertion. Distributions of such measures across a cohort reveal information about the developmental history of the chorionic plate which is unavailable from an analysis based solely on the mean and standard deviation. Various measures were determined from digitized images of chorionic plates obtained from the pregnancy, infection, and nutrition study, a prospective cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina between 2002 and 2004. Centroids (geometric centers) and umbilical cord insertions were taken directly from the images. Chorionic plate outlines were obtained from an interpolation based on a Fourier series, while eccentricity (of the best-fit ellipse), skewness, and kurtosis were determined from the method of moments. Histograms of each variable were compared against the normal, lognormal, and Lévy distributions. Only a single measure (eccentricity) followed a normal distribution. All others followed lognormal or ‘heavy-tailed’ distributions for moderate to extreme deviations from the mean, where the relative likelihood far exceeded those of a normal distribution. (paper)

  8. Immediate post-placental IUD insertion: the expulsion problem.

    Thiery, M; Van Kets, H; Van der Pas, H


    This paper reports an evaluation of immediate post-placental insertion of a non-copper (Lippes Loop D) and several copper-bearing IUD models (TCu200, TCu220C, MLCu375, MLCu250, Nova T-PP, DimélysR). Based on the analysis of a total of 2,646 insertions and 55,794 woman-months of experience, we conclude that placement of an IUD within ten minutes of delivery of the placenta is a valuable alternative to interval insertion, because this method is safe and effective. Effectiveness was significantly lower for the Lippes Loop D than for the T- and ML-IUD models tested, the latter showing roughly comparable pertinent event rates. Pertinent event rates for copper IUDs were influenced by the skill of the operator; age of the recipient only had a significant effect on effectiveness, whereas parity had no significant effect on pertinent event rates. The single and still unsolved problem associated with immediate postpartum insertion is the greater likelihood of expulsion compared with interval insertion, and this hazard is significantly much greater for the Loop than for the copper-bearing devices assessed. The evolution of the expulsion rates shows a constant time-relationship. This pattern makes it obvious why follow-up of recipients, at least during the first trimester following insertion, is mandatory if immediate post-placental IUD insertion is to be optimally effective. PMID:4006467

  9. Placental pathology: a systematic approach with clinical correlations.

    Redline, R W


    Despite advances over the past 25 years in the monitoring of in utero fetal status, the gravid uterus remains a "black box" integrating underlying genetic risk factors, preexisting maternal disease, and injurious extrinsic events in a poorly understood way to produce an evolving state linked to pregnancy outcome. It is currently believed that many short- and long-term adverse pregnancy outcomes and even some long-term chronic diseases extending into adult life are at least in part determined by processes occurring during intrauterine life. The placenta has been described as a "diary of intrauterine life" and has the potential to illuminate many aspects of these processes. Unfortunately a systematic and objective catalog of placental abnormalities has never been agreed upon. This report outlines a simple conceptual framework separating placental patterns of injury and maladaptation into three categories of lesions affecting the maternal and fetal vasculature (maldevelopment, obstruction, and disruption) and two categories of inflammatory lesions (infectious and idiopathic). Data are presented supporting the importance of these processes for an understanding of preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, hypoxic-ischemic injury, and recurrent pregnancy loss. PMID:17950457

  10. Role of Waddlia chondrophila Placental Infection in Miscarriage

    Baud, D; Goy, G.; Osterheld, M. C.; Croxatto, A; Borel, N.; Vial, Y; Pospischil, A.; Greub, G


    Waddlia chondrophila is an intracellular bacterium suspected to cause human and bovine abortion. We confirmed an association between Waddlia antibodies and human miscarriage, and demonstrated by PCR and immunohistochemistry its presence in placenta and/or genital tract of patients with miscarriages. These results suggest a possible role of Waddlia in miscarriage.