McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R
Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...
Garedaghi, Y.; A. P.R. Saber; M. S. Khosroshahi
Problem statement: The occurrence of the larvae of Taenia saginata (T. saginata) in cattle musculature causes T. saginata cysticercosis or bovine cysticercosis while the adult worms in human small intestines cause taeniasis. Approach: In this study, the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Meshkinshahr Abattoir, Iran between September 2010 and August 2011 was reported. Results: The examination of various organs of 500 cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir sh...
Saravanajayam, M.; Kumanan, K.; Balasubramaniam, A.
Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results reveale...
Full Text Available Problem statement: The occurrence of the larvae of Taenia saginata (T. saginata in cattle musculature causes T. saginata cysticercosis or bovine cysticercosis while the adult worms in human small intestines cause taeniasis. Approach: In this study, the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Meshkinshahr Abattoir, Iran between September 2010 and August 2011 was reported. Results: The examination of various organs of 500 cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir showed that 15(3% were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 460 male cattle, examined, 14 (3% had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 1 (2.5% of the 40 female animals investigated were infected. Conclusion: The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local sarabi cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle.
Larson, Robert L
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. PMID:26210765
Katsuaki Sugiura; Takashi Onodera
To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and ...
Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.
Almeida Leonardo D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The
Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results revealed that the seroprevalence of IBR infection among non-vaccinated cattle population was of 65.88%. No significant difference was noticed in the prevalence of IBR infection between cattle showing respiratory (63.64% and reproductive form (70.89% (p≥0.05. A higher prevalence was noticed in animals above 3 years of age (59.60% and in crossbred animals (71.26% than young and non-descript animals. This study showed the higher prevalence of IBR infection in female (67.92% than in male (33.33%. Conclusion: Cattle population in this part can better be protected with vaccination than leaving them unvaccinated and seromonitoring shall have to be stressed with regular attempts to isolate and characterize the causative agent for IBR.
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...
Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary
Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939
Ben M Hause
Full Text Available Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2 and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4% were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.
Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa
Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. PMID:26754928
Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein
Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1, Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4 and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in Khartoum state (51.7 and 50.4%, respectively while in central Sudan BoHv-1 (32.7% antibodies were the most prevalent followed by, BVD (25.7% and BoHv-4 (19.3%. The highest prevalence of antibodies against the three viruses in both areas was found during the rainy season (July to October. The prevalence of antibodies to viruses studied was significantly associated with female sex except for BoHv-1. Prevalence of antibodies to BoHv-4 was significantly associated with breed while those of BoHv-1 and BVD were not. The present results indicated that older cattle were more likely to be seropositive in case of BoHv-4 but to BoHv-1 or BVD viruses. Furthermore, it was found that BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in aborted dams. While, infertility problems were highly associated with BoHv-1 antibodies. BVD antibodies showed the highest prevalence in case of death after birth. The results of this study provide better understanding of viral epidemics of reproductive disorders and represent the first report of BoHv-4 antibodies in cattle in Sudan.
Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Vieira, Edvaldo Alves; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; da Silva-Hughes, Alice Ferreira; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Rodrigues, Norberto Mario
The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic rumen mycobiota from three age groups of Nelore beef cattle reared extensively on lignified pasture. The experiment was randomized and sampled 50 steers, 50 cows, and 50 calves grazed on Brachiaria spp. pasture during the dry season. Rumen fluid in all animals was aromatic, slightly viscous, and greenish-brown in color. Microscopic examination revealed monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi in similar proportions (P > 0.05) in the rumen fluid of cows and steers. However, these microorganisms were not identified in any of the samples from calves. In culture exams, aerobic filamentous population was significantly higher for rumen fluid of cows compared to the other two groups. Microculture and rDNA sequence analyses showed Aspergillus spp. as the most frequent aerobic fungus among the isolates from the three bovine groups evaluated. Biochemical profiles were determined by the growth level of yeast isolates with 44 nutrient sources. Ten different yeast profiles were obtained, and yeast isolates from cow ruminal fluid showed ability to catabolize greater diversity of carbon and nitrogen sources. The differences in the fungal populations observed in this study could be explained by microbial and physiological interactions existing in the ruminal ecosystem of each age bovine group. The present study showed the fungal population of the rumen related with differences among age of cattle raised in lignified pastures. Metabolic capabilities of mycelial fungi or yeast identified in this study may be employed in new probiotics or microbial additives for different bovine categories. PMID:24962597
Avcı, Oğuzhan; Yavru, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet
A survey was conducted to determine of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1 and Bovine Leukosis Virus infections in a dairy cattle herd with abortion problem in Çankırı. A total of 172 serum and 172 leukocytes samples were collected from unvaccinated Holstein cows for mentioned infections in 2010. All sampled animals were over 3 years. While the serum samples were analysed by commercially available indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), leukocyte samples...
Roberts, Trenton W; Peck, Dannele E; Ritten, John P
Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem occasionally contract bovine brucellosis from free-ranging elk and bison. Cattle producers use a variety of brucellosis prevention activities to reduce their herds' risk of contracting brucellosis, such as: (1) having state agency personnel haze elk off private land, (2) fencing haystacks, (3) administering adult booster vaccination, (4) spaying heifers, (5) altering the winter-feeding schedule of cattle, (6) hiring riders to prevent cattle-elk commingling, and (7) delaying grazing on high-risk allotments. Their brucellosis prevention decisions are complicated, however, by several sources of uncertainty, including the following: a cattle herd's baseline risk of contracting brucellosis, the inherent randomness of brucellosis outbreaks, the cost of implementing prevention activities, and the activities' effectiveness. This study eliminates one source of uncertainty by estimating the cost of implementing brucellosis prevention activities on a representative cow/calf-long yearling operation in the southern GYE. It then reports the minimum level of effectiveness each prevention activity must achieve to justify investment by a risk-neutral producer. Individual producers face different levels of baseline risk, however, and the US government's brucellosis-response policy is constantly evolving. We therefore estimate breakeven levels of effectiveness for a range of baseline risks and government policies. Producers, animal health experts, and policymakers can use this study's results to determine which brucellosis prevention activities are unlikely to generate sufficient expected benefits to cover their cost of implementation. Results also demonstrate the influence of government policy on producers' incentives to prevent brucellosis. Policies that increase the magnitude of economic loss a producer incurs when their herd contracts brucellosis subsequently decrease prevention activities' breakeven levels of effectiveness, and
R.M. Abdul Adjid; M Saepulloh
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) caused by Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) infects cattle and widely spreads in Indonesia. The disease infected cattle in breeding centers, artificial insemination centers and also holderfarmers. This infectious disease may cause economical losses primarily due to reproductive failure of infected animals. Recommended strategy for disease control is step by step control with priorities, started from upper to downstream, from breeding and artificial inseminat...
Rapid detection and culling of persistently infected animals and efficacious vaccination are key factors to control bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency of detection of persistently infected cattle and examine the diversity of bo...
Rosseel, Toon; Behaeghel, Isabelle; Saulmont, Marc; Delooz, Laurent; Petitjean, Thierry; Mathijs, Elisabeth; Vandenbussche, Frank
The complete and fully annotated genome sequence of a bovine polyomavirus type 1 (BPyV/BEL/1/2014) from aborted cattle was assembled from a metagenomics data set. The 4,697-bp circular dsDNA genome contains 6 protein-coding genes. Bovine polyomavirus is unlikely to be causally related to the abortion cases. PMID:26941154
Van Borm, Steven; Rosseel, Toon; Behaeghel, Isabelle; Saulmont, Marc; Delooz, Laurent; Petitjean, Thierry; Mathijs, Elisabeth; Vandenbussche, Frank
The complete and fully annotated genome sequence of a bovine polyomavirus type 1 (BPyV/BEL/1/2014) from aborted cattle was assembled from a metagenomics data set. The 4,697-bp circular dsDNA genome contains 6 protein-coding genes. Bovine polyomavirus is unlikely to be causally related to the abortion cases. PMID:26941154
Pang, Feng; Shi, Qiaoyun; Du, Li; Zhao, Tianjing; Cheng, Ying; Jiao, Hanwei; Zhao, Jianguo; Wang, Manchuriga; Rong, Hui; Zhou, Hailong; Wang, Fengyang
Here, we present the complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus genotype 13 isolated from local yellow cattle in Hainan, China. The genome is 7,961 bp and contains six early genes and two late genes. This analysis provides important information for the research of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) in China.
Grossi, Anette B.; Agerholm, Jorgen S.; Christensen, Knud; Jensen, Henrik E; Leifsson, Pall S.; Bendixen, Christian; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Fredholm, Merete
Background: Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are frequently found in Danish cattle at slaughter. Bovine PNSTs share several gross and histopathological characteristics with the PNSTs in humans with heritable neurofibromatosis syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible hereditary disposition to PNSTs in dairy cattle by statistical analysis performed on data from 567 cattle with PNSTs. Furthermore, a preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed...
Yilmaz, Zeki; YEŞİLBAĞ, Kadir
The clinical and haematological findings in dairy cattle with naturally infected bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) infection were evaluated. Thirty-seven (12.3%) out of 300 cattle that had previously been found positive for BIV infection were monitored. Thirty-seven BIV-free cattle selected from BIV-positive herds were used as a control group. Routine clinical and haematological parameters were recorded 6 times, at 1-month intervals. Mastitis (n = 18), metritis (n = 9), respiratory system...
Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud
Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4
Effect of local IL-2 application on bovine cancer In tropical countries there is an increased prevalence of two important cancers in cattle: Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (BOSCC) and Bovine Vulval Papilloma Carcinoma Complex (BVPCC). Both cancers are associated with increased annual hours of
Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Odzaya, Battogtokh; Gansukh, Shura; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into two species, namely, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, and affects cattle worldwide, resulting in significant economic loss. The prevalence of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 infections and its genotypes in Mongolian animals has not been studied. In this study, we surveyed BVDV infection in dairy cattle and yaks from Bornuur and Bulgan counties by RT-PCR, and the average infection rate in the sampling sites was 15.8 % and 20.0 %, respectively. In addition, molecular features of the 5'-UTR region of the BVDV genome in Mongolian cattle and yaks were identified as belonging to the subtypes BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a, respectively. Determining the prevalence, geographical distribution, and molecular diversity of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in various host species in Mongolia is important for further studies and process control programs. PMID:27206573
Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.
A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties)
Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225
Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.;
Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is a zoonotic, parasitic infection in cattle. Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcass from all bovines above 6 weeks of age is examined for BC. This method is costly and makes more sense in countries with higher number of BC-infected animals...... increasing herd size probably because the larger herds generally tend to keep cattle indoors in Denmark. The results are useful to guide future data recording that can be supplied by the farmer as food chain information and then be used for differentiated meat inspection in low- and high-risk groups...
Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary
Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) ...
Buxton, B A; Schultz, R D
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 13 bovine leukosis virus infected cattle and inoculated subcutaneously into 29 recipient adult steers to determine (a) the number of mononuclear cells (equivalent amount of blood) necessary to cause infection and (b) factors influencing infectivity of mononuclear cells from bovine leukosis virus-infected animals. A total of 55 inoculations were made. Inoculation of 1 X 10(4), 2 X 10(4) and 5 X 10(4) mononuclear cells caused seroconversion ...
Sandev Nikolay; Zapryanova Dimitrinka; Stoycheva Ivanka; Rusenova Nikolina; Mircheva Teodora
The aim of the present study was to follow out the alterations in some haematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with enzootic bovine leukosis virus with regard to the invivodifferentiation of bovine leukosis stages. The experiment included 76 cows at various ages and body weight. Serological leukosis tests were done by agar-gel immunodiffusion test with a commercial kit of Synbiotiсs (France), containing standardised gp 51 antigen and positive serum app...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a costly disease of cattle that can be controlled by vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected cattle. Development and proficiency testing of assays to identify persistently infected cattle substantial quantities of known positive and negative samp...
Grossi, Anette B.; Agerholm, Jorgen S.; Christensen, Knud;
Background: Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are frequently found in Danish cattle at slaughter. Bovine PNSTs share several gross and histopathological characteristics with the PNSTs in humans with heritable neurofibromatosis syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate a poss...
Nagy, Abdou; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun;
Scandinavian countries have successfully pursued bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) eradication without the use of vaccines. In Denmark, control and eradication of BVDV were achieved during the last two decades, but occasionally new BVDV infections are detected in some Danish cattle herds. The aim...
Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs
The identification of the main sources of anthropic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with the mitigation and removal of these emissions has become an important instrument in the attenuation of the climatic changes predicted by the IPCC. The largest emission source in Brazil is forest conversion. This land use change has always had a strong relationship with the expansion of agriculture, an activity of great importance in the country, which has the largest commercial cattle herd in the planet. Following the considerable reduction in emissions from deforestation, agriculture has been since 2010 the most important source (MCTI (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação), 2013. Brasília: Ministério daCiência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Brasil). Seeking to discover the possibilities of altering the emissions profile in the agricultural sector, four scenarios were developed related to how this is dealt with in the beef cattle sector, calculating the potential removal of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes. The results suggest that picketing and rotation scenario has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 17.7 Gt CO2eq, while the shared raising with grain legumes scenario has the lowest calculated reduction potential of 7.1 Gt CO2eq was calculated. The animal confinement scenario had an intermediary reduction potential of 8.3 Gt CO2eq. The mosaic of methods scenario, in which it is attempted to simulate the parallel adoption of the measures proposed in all other scenarios, had a reduction potential of 13.1 Gt CO2eq. In the scenarios where animal confinement occurs, the treatment of waste with biodigestion allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, contributing to an increase in the potential carbon reduction. - Highlights: • We identify one main source of anthropic GHG in Brazil after forest conversion (deforestation), the beef cattle raising. • Four scenarios to mitigate emissions from cattle raising
Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar;
Denmark has been recognized as officially free (OTF) from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) since 1980. In this study, we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing Mycobacterium bovis into the Danish cattle population, through (a) imports of cattle and (b) foreign personnel working in Danish...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections have a significant impact on the cattle population and production. Persistently infected (PI) cattle represent the principal reservoir of infection. Identification and removal of PI animals are critical to the control of BVDV. There are numerous assays f...
Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) is a disease caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), an ubiquitous, easily transmitted virus with worldwide distribution. The majority of postnatal infections with BVDV are nonclinical, with biphasic temperature elevation and leucopenia followed by a spesific immune response measurable by serum neutralisation test. The infection can be diagnosed serologically or virologically and the disease is recognized by clinical signs and pathological lesions. Diseas...
Characterization of bovine enteroviruses found in a closed herd of cattle and the surrounding environment indicated that bovine enteroviruses (BEV) could serve as useful markers of contamination with cattle waste. BEV was found in feces from 76% of cattle, 38% of white-tail deer in the same area an...
Victor O. Akinseye
Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013 from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105 was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.22. However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04 and sex ( p £ 0.0001 of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries.Keywords: Bovine brucellosis, RBT, Epidemiology, Public Health, Nigeria
Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB imposes an important financial burden on the British cattle industry, yet despite intense efforts to control its spread, incidence is currently rising. Surveillance for bTB is based on a skin test that measures an immunological response to tuberculin. Cattle that fail the test are classified as "reactors" and slaughtered. Recent studies have identified genetic markers associated with the reaction of cattle to the tuberculin test. At marker INRA111 a relatively common '22' genotype occurs significantly more frequently in non-reactor cattle. Here we test the possibility that the putative protective '22' genotype does not confer resistance but instead causes cattle that carry it to react less strongly to the prescribed test, and hence avoid slaughter, potentially even though they are infected. We show that, after controlling for age and breed, '22' cattle react less strongly to the immunological challenge and may therefore be less likely to be classified as a reactor. These results highlight the potential discrepancy between infection and test status and imply that the effectiveness of the test-and-slaughter policy may be being compromised by selection for cattle that are genetically predisposed to react less strongly to tuberculin.
Thomsen, Peter; Gidekull, M; Herskin, Mette S; Huxley, J N; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Ranheim, B; Whay, H R
management procedures such as castration (Boesch and others 2008) and dehorning (Stewart and others 2009). As well as these changes in scientific focus, the emphasis on the treatment of pain in veterinary medicine has changed dramatically during the past 10 to 15 years (Flecknell 2008). In order to allow...... implementation of new knowledge regarding pain in dairy cattle, it is important to understand the attitudes of bovine practitioners and their perceived limiting factors. This short communication presents the results of a questionnaire survey focusing on the use of analgesics in cows and calves among bovine...
Stear, M J; Dimmock, C K; Newman, M J; Nicholas, F W
The association between bovine major histocompatibility system (BoLA) type and persistent lymphocytosis in cattle with antibodies to bovine leukaemia virus was examined by comparing antigen frequencies in cattle with persistent lymphocytosis to controls matched for age, sex, breed and presence of antibodies to BLV. The cattle came from nine dairy herds in south-east Queensland, Australia; six herds were Australian Illawarra Shorthorn (AIS), two herds were Jersey and one herd was Friesian. Antigen W6 and Eu28R were more common in cattle with persistent lymphocytosis than in controls. Antigen W8 was less common in AIS cattle with persistent lymphocytosis. A study of 24 offspring from one sire, heterozygous for W10 and Eu28R, showed that offspring inheriting Eu28R from the sire were significantly more likely to have antibodies to BLV than offspring inheriting the opposing W10 haplotype. PMID:2843067
Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the importance of a cattle race native in an area of the territory of Tuscany. The Maremmana breed is a valuable breed raised in the pastures that stretch between southern Tuscany and northern Lazio. A sample of 12 farms was analyzed through direct interview, carried out at the farm. The farms surveyed implement organic farming, according to precise rules. The aspect that mostly catches in the interviews is that the only livestock activity is not sufficient for economic development of this rural area; in fact most of the farms perform multi-functional, practicing agritourism activities. In terms of remuneration of the factors of production used in animal husbandry it seems that especially farms with few animals require the integration of agricultural income with other business activities.
Zanella, Ricardo; Casas, Eduardo; Snowder, Gary; Neibergs, Holly L.
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. BVDV infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI) and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2) and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26). The obje...
Conlan, Andrew J. K.; Ellen Brooks Pollock; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Andrew P Mitchell; Jones, Gareth J.; Martin Vordermeier; Wood, James L. N.
Vaccination for the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle is not currently used within any international control program, and is illegal within the EU. Candidate vaccines, based upon Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) all interfere with the action of the tuberculin skin test, which is used to determine if animals, herds and countries are officially bTB-free. New diagnostic tests that Differentiate Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) offer the potential to introduc...
Shahriar, Farshid M.; Clark, Edward G.; Janzen, Eugene; West, Keith; Wobeser, Gary
Chronic, antibiotic-resistant pneumonia, sometimes with concurrent polyarthritis, occurs in feedlot cattle in western Canada. The prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and Haemophilus somnus was determined by using immunohistochemical staining of lung and heart tissue from 2 groups of animals with this history. Mycoplasma bovis antigen was present in 44/48 cases submitted between 1995 and 1998 (retrospective group) and 15/16 of cases from 1999 (prospective group), and w...
Gilbert, S. A.; Burton, K. M.; Prins, S. E.; Deregt, D
A nested multiplex PCR was developed for genotyping of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs). The assay could detect as little as 3 50% tissue culture infective doses of BVDV per ml and typed 42 out of 42 cell culture isolates. BVDV was also successfully typed, with or without RNA extraction, from all 27 whole-blood samples examined from 22 carriers or probable carriers and 5 experimentally infected cattle.
Bedeković Tomislav; Lemo Nina; Lojkić Ivana; Beck Ana; Lojkić Mirko; Madić Josip
Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One...
Murtaugh, M P; Lin, G F; Haggard, D L; Weber, A F; Meiske, J C
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is widely distributed in U.S. cattle herds. It infects B lymphocytes and causes neoplastic disease in 5-10% of infected animals. Direct economic losses are incurred as a result of death, reduced milk production and condemnation at slaughter. Thus the identification of cattle infected with BLV is of significant concern to the U.S. cattle industry. For this reason, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was used to examine seropositive and seronegative cattle for the presence of BLV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Using an amplification protocol able to detect 1 viral genome in 100,000 cells, BLV was not detected in 7 seronegative cattle in an infected herd. BLV sequences were detected in 13 of 18 seropositive animals with various levels of infection as determined by in vitro lymphocyte culture and electron microscopy. An active infection was demonstrated in one animal, based on the presence of viral RNA. These findings indicate that PCR is a sensitive method for the detection of BLV in cattle and provides new information regarding the dynamics of the infection. PMID:1658030
Hamad, Mohammed A; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M; Odisho, Shoni M; Yaseen, Nahi Y
This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma. BPV-1 DNA was detected in 121 of the samples (86.42%) in Iraqi cattle as the main causative agent for the disease. A partial sequence for the E2, L2 genes, and complete sequence for the E5 gene were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and showed that the origin of infection may be imported European cattle. Obtaining a complete E5 gene sequence enabled us to perform structural predictions. This study presents the first report of BPV-1 infection in the Iraqi cattle and contributes to extending the knowledge of the origin of the spread of this disease. The results of this study will aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27413374
Almeida, L M; Basu, U; Williams, J L; Moore, S S; Guan, L L
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disorder in cattle characterized by progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. We investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration during prion infection through the identification of genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between experimentally infected and non-challenged cattle. Gene expression of caudal medulla from control and orally infected animals was compared by microarray analysis using 24,000 bovine oligonucleotides representing 16,846 different genes to identify DE genes associated with BSE disease. In total, 182 DE genes were identified between normal and BSE-infected tissues (>2.0-fold change, P apoptosis, and cytoskeleton organization; 13 of these genes were found to be involved in 26 different Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression of five DE genes associated with synapse function (tachykinin, synuclein, neuropeptide Y, cocaine, amphetamine-responsive transcript, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa) and three DE genes associated with calcium ion regulation (parvalbumin, visinin-like, and cadherin) was further validated in the medulla tissue of cattle at different infection times (6, 12, 42, and 45 months post-infection) by qRT-PCR. These data will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuropathology in bovine species. PMID:22033911
Akinseye, Victor O; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Ogugua, Akwoba J; Adedoyin, Folashade J; Otu, Patricia I; Kwaghe, Ayi V; Kolawole, Noah O; Okoro, Oyinye J; Agada, Charity A; Tade, Adeniyi O; Faleke, Olufemi O; Okeke, Anyanwu L; Akanbi, Ibikunle M; Ibitoye, Mofoluwake M; Dipeolu, Morenike O; Dale, Emma J; Lorraine, Perrett; Taylor, Andrew V; Awosanya, Emmanuel A; Cadmus, Eniola O; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I
Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013) from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105) was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.22). However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04) and sex ( p £ 0.0001) of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries. PMID:27247065
Intisar Kamil Saeed
Full Text Available To explore the expected role of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV in pneumonia in cattle, cattle lungs (n=242 showing signs of pneumonia were collected from slaughter houses of three different localities located at Northern, Central and Western Sudan during 2010–2013. The collected samples were tested for the presence of BVDV antigen using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA, and Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT. Twenty six (10.7% out of 242 samples were found to be positive for BVDV. Positive results were seen in all the three studied areas, with the highest prevalence (16.7%; n=4/24 at Gezira State in Central Sudan. BVDV genome could be detected in all ELISA positive samples. The results indicated the existence of BVDV infection in cattle in different areas in Sudan, and its possible association with respiratory infections in cattle. Analysis using BLAST indicated that the sequence was identical to the previously reported BVDV-1 (GenBank accession AF220247.1.; nucleotide A was found in our study at position 9 of our sequence, whereas T was present instead in the reference virus. This is the first report of detecting BVDV antigen, genome, and its sequence analysis collected from cattle lungs in Sudan.
Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country. PMID:22210288
R.M. Abdul Adjid
Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR caused by Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 infects cattle and widely spreads in Indonesia. The disease infected cattle in breeding centers, artificial insemination centers and also holderfarmers. This infectious disease may cause economical losses primarily due to reproductive failure of infected animals. Recommended strategy for disease control is step by step control with priorities, started from upper to downstream, from breeding and artificial insemination (AI centers as the first priority, then village breeding centers as the second priority, and the last priority is in cattle owned by smallholders. In the breeding and AI centers, eradication of the disease is carried out by surveilance, excluding reactors, and applying biosecurity. In the village breeding centers, the use of semen for AI should come from centers that free from IBR, the use of bull that free from IBR, surveilance and application of biosecurity. At the farmer levels, IBR control is bone by using semen from AI centers free from IBR and routine vaccination. The final step is performed after evaluating the successful rate and economic impact of the disease control.
Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is the second most important viral agent involved in neonatal diarrhea in calves worldwide. The reports on the frequency of BCoV infection in beef cattle herds under extensive management are uncommon in Brazil. The present study analyzed 93 diarrheic fecal samples of calves up to 60 days of age from 13 commercial beef cattle herds located in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, and Rondônia. The fecal samples were collected during 2009-2012 and were previously analyzed for the presence of bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA, with negative results. The presence of BCoV in the fecal samples was evaluated by the partial amplification of the N gene by using the semi-nested PCR technique. The expected products of 251 bp length were amplified 33.3% (31/93 of the analyzed diarrheic fecal samples. The results revealed that coronaviruses has important participation in the neonatal diarrhea complex of beef cattle herds reared extensively from the different geographical regions of Brazil.
Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights
Almeida Leonardo D; Mariante Arthur S; Albuquerque Maria do Socorro M; Paiva Samuel R.; Egito Andréa A; Castro Silvia R; Grattapaglia Dario
Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists...
Lee, EunJung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Ratthanophart, Jadsada; Vitoonpong, Ratchaneekorn; Kim, Bo-Hye; Cho, In-Soo; Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Shin, Yeun-Kyung
BLV is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. BLV has negative effects on animal health and causes economic losses worldwide. However, epidemiological studies on BLV are relatively unknown in many parts of Asian countries. Thus, this study sought to explore BLV infections in cattle in Thailand to determine the extent of the geographic distribution of BLV and to measure its prevalence rates. For this study, 744 cattle from 11 farms in 9 provinces of Thailand were screened in 2013 and 2014 by ELISA and nested PCR. Of those cattle, 41 BLVs were genetically characterized using 188 BLV gp51 env gene sequences available in GenBank. The BLV prevalence in Thailand was high, ranging from 5.3% to 87.8%, as determined by PCR and 11.0% to 100% as determined by ELISA, according to geographical region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Thailand BLVs belonged to genotypes 1 and 6 and a new genotype 10, which are sporadically observed across Thailand with a prevalence of 31.7%, 19.5%, and 48.8%, respectively. A significant number of amino acid substitutions were also found in the gp51 sequences, of which unique changes in genotype 10 have not been reported previously. Briefly, the majority of substitutions were confined to CD4+/CD8+ T-cell epitopes, neutralizing domains, and E-D-A epitopes. Those observations indicate that BLV infections in Thailand cattle are prevalent and that the geographic distribution of BLV is dynamic, with a high level of genetic diversity. This distribution implies a long-term BLV infection in cattle populations and the movement of infected cattle. In sum, this study suggests that intensive surveillance and effective prevention strategies are required to determine the prevalence of BLV in Thailand and control continuous infections with BLVs. PMID:27090024
The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...
Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László
A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary. PMID:27342097
Full Text Available An opportunity to study progression toward endemic stability to Babesia bigemina arose when cattle were reintroduced onto a game ranch in 1999 after an absence of three years. The study was conducted between August 2000 and June 2001. The unvaccinated breeding cows were sampled only once. Calves born during October 1999 were initially vaccinated against B. bigemina and Babesia bovis at the age of 4 months and were then bled at 10, 17 and 20 months of age. Calves born during 2000 were bled at 7 and 8 months of age. Sera were collected from all the cattle sampled and later tested for antibodies against B. bigemina and B. bovis using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test. Although endemic stability to B. bigemina had not been achieved at Nooitgedacht 2 years after resumption of cattle ranching, the high seroprevalence in the unvaccinated 8- month-old calves suggested that the situation was approaching stability and that calf vaccination against bovine babesiosis was not required. Tick control should therefore be restricted to prevent excessive tick worry. Only vaccinated cattle were positive to B. bovis and it was concluded that the parasite was absent from the ranch.
Bernard, Laurence; Richard, Christophe; Gelin, Valerie; Leroux, Christine; Heyman, Yvan
In order to understand the effect of nuclear transfer technology on the physiology of lactation and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cattle (Holstein breed), the present study compares the milk yield and composition from bovine somatic cell cloned (n=5) and control animals (n=5) at 180 days in milk (DIM) maintained together under the same conditions. All cows were offered the same total mixed ration ad libitum. At 180 DIM, the cloned had a higher body weight (BW; P<0.01) compared with ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3 belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae and is involved in respiratory and enteric infections of calves. The isolation of BAV-3 has not been reported prior to this study in China. In 2009, there were many cases in cattle showing similar clinical signs to BAV-3 infection and a virus strain, showing cytopathic effect in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells, was isolated from a bovine nasal swab collected from feedlot cattle in Heilongjiang Province, China. The isolate was confirmed as a bovine adenovirus type 3 by PCR and immunofluorescence assay, and named as HLJ0955. So far only the complete genome sequence of prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain has been reported. In order to further characterize the Chinese isolate HLJ0955, the complete genome sequence of HLJ0955 was determined. Results The size of the genome of the Chinese isolate HLJ0955 is 34,132 nucleotides in length with a G+C content of 53.6%. The coding sequences for gene regions of HLJ0955 isolate were similar to the prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain, with 80.0-98.6% nucleotide and 87.5-98.8% amino acid identities. The genome of HLJ0955 strain contains 16 regions and four deletions in inverted terminal repeats, E1B region and E4 region, respectively. The complete genome and DNA binding protein gene based phylogenetic analysis with other adenoviruses were performed and the results showed that HLJ0955 isolate belonged to BAV-3 and clustered within the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae. Conclusions This is the first study to report the isolation and molecular characterization of BAV-3 from cattle in China. The phylogenetic analysis performed in this study supported the use of the DNA binding protein gene of adenovirus as an appropriate subgenomic target for the classification of different genuses of the family Adenoviridae on the molecular basis. Meanwhile, a large-scale pathogen and serological epidemiological
Svitlana Pozmogova; Oleksandr Kutsan; Anton Gerilovych; Borys Stegniy; Andriy Zavgorodniy; Artem Skrypnyk; Richard Weller; Svitlana Sapko
The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radia...
Polat, Meripet; Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Kim, Jiyun; Kikuya, Mari; Matsumoto, Yuki; Mingala, Claro Niegos; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide, imposing a severe economic impact on the dairy cattle industry. However, there are no comprehensive studies on the distribution of BLV in the Philippines, and the genetic characteristics of Philippine BLV strains are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect BLV infections in the Philippines and determined their genetic variability. Blood samples were obtained from 1116 cattle from different farms on five Philippine islands, and BLV provirus was detected by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR targeting BLV long terminal repeats. Out of 1116 samples, 108 (9.7 %) and 54 (4.8 %) were positive for BLV provirus, as determined by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR, respectively. Of the five islands, Luzon Island showed the highest prevalence of BLV infection (23.1 %). Partial env gp51 genes from 43 samples, which were positive for BLV provirus by both methods, were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 423-bp fragment of the env gene revealed that Philippine BLV strains clustered into either genotype 1 or genotype 6. Substitutions were mainly found in antigenic determinants, such as the CD4(+) T-cell epitope, the CD8(+) T-cell epitope, the second neutralizing domain, B and E epitopes, and these substitutions varied according to genotype. This study provides comprehensive information regarding BLV infection levels in the Philippines and documents the presence of two BLV genotypes, genotypes 1 and 6, in this population. PMID:25399399
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT. Positive reactors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30% yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC, which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT. Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53 and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM, whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana.
CHENG, Yafen; HUANG, ChenShen; TSAI, Hsiang-Jung
Many studies suggest significant genetic variation in the resistance of cattle and humans to infection with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. TNF-α promotes inflammation and induces apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the TNF-α gene on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) susceptibility. We genotyped the TNF-α gene in 74 bTB-infected Holstein cows and 90 healthy control animals. The influence in the exon 3 region of TNF-α polymorphisms on bTB susceptibility was subsequently investigated by association analysis. Our finding demonstrated that the g.27534932A>C polymorphism of the TNF-α is associated with bTB in Holstein cattle. The susceptibility of cattle with the g.27534932A>C genotype compared with the CC genotype was 4.11-fold (95% CI, 1.27–13.36; P=0.02) higher. The g.27534932A>C polymorphism located in exon 3 of the TNF-α gene, and the functional consequence was missense. The deduced amino acid sequence for the protein product revealed an arginine to serine conversion at position 159, which may affect initiation of protein synthesis and disrupt normal TNF-α function that protects animals against mycobacterial infection. A significant association was observed with the A allele as a risk factor for bTB susceptibility (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.21–12.17; P=0.02). In conclusion, this is the first report showing that the g.27534932A>C polymorphism may contribute to TNF-α-mediated bTB susceptibility. PMID:26876219
Rimal, Arbindra; Perkins, Tommy; Paschal, Joe C.
Sluggish growth in per capita consumption and a downward pressure on beef price at the farm level has required producers to raise cattle that precisely target the meat attributes desired by consumers. Ultrasound technology can help farmers to produce a carcass with an optimal mix of marbling and muscling, and external fat. The results of this study show a high level of accuracy of ultrasound technology in predicting carcass attributes. An estimated hedonic regression model shows that the carc...
Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of...
Hay, K E; Ambrose, R C K; Morton, J M; Horwood, P F; Gravel, J L; Waldron, S; Commins, M A; Fowler, E V; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S; Mahony, T J
Viruses play a key role in the complex aetiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is widespread in Australia and has been shown to contribute to BRD occurrence. As part of a prospective longitudinal study on BRD, effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on risk of BRD in Australian feedlot cattle were investigated. A total of 35,160 animals were enrolled at induction (when animals were identified and characteristics recorded), held in feedlot pens with other cattle (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50days following induction. Biological samples collected from all animals were tested to determine which animals were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV-1. Data obtained from the Australian National Livestock Identification System database were used to determine which groups of animals that were together at the farm of origin and at 28days prior to induction (and were enrolled in the study) contained a PI animal and hence to identify animals that had probably been exposed to a PI animal prior to induction. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on the risk of occurrence of BRD. Although only a total of 85 study animals (0.24%) were identified as being PI with BVDV-1, BVDV-1 was detected on quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 59% of cohorts. The PI animals were at moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.9; 95% credible interval 1.0-3.2). Exposure to BVDV-1 in the cohort was also associated with a moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.7; 95% credible interval 1.1-2.5) regardless of whether or not a PI animal was identified within the cohort. Additional analyses indicated that a single quantitative real-time PCR test is useful for distinguishing PI animals from transiently infected animals. The results of the study suggest that removal of PI animals and/or vaccination, both before feedlot entry, would reduce the impact of BVDV-1 on BRD risk
Sheila R Wosiacki
Full Text Available The bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 involvement in the aetiology of chronic enzootic haematuria associated to bracken fern ingestion has been suggested for a long time. However, a few reports have shown the presence of the BPV-2 in urinary bladder tumors of cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the BPV-2 infection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria in Brazilian cattle herds. Sixty-two urinary bladders were collected from adult cattle in beef herds from the north region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. According to clinical and pathological finds the specimens were distributed in three groups: the group A was constituted by 22 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected at necropsy of cattle with clinical signs of chronic enzootic haematuria; the group B by 30 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected in a slaughterhouse of cows coming from bracken fern-endemic geographical region; and the group C (control by 10 urinary bladders without macroscopic lesions collected from asymptomatic cattle in a bracken fern-free geographical region. By a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, with an internal control, a fragment of the BPV-2 L1 gene with 386 bp length was amplified in 36 (58% urinary bladder. The rate of BPV-2 positive urinary bladders was 50% (11/22 for group A, 80% (24/30 for group B, and 10% (1/10 for group C (control. The rate of the positive results found in groups A and B that included urinary bladder samples with macroscopic lesions was 67% (35/52 and the detection of the BPV-2 in both groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05 than in the control group. RFLP with Rsa I and Hae III enzymes evaluated the specificity of the BPV-2 amplicons. The PCR internal control that amplified a 626 bp fragment of the ND5 gene of the bovine mitochondrial genome was amplified in all analyzed samples and excluded false-negatives or invalid results in the semi
Rini I Damayanti; Sudarisman
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were ...
Full Text Available The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea-pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.
Suardi, Silvia; Vimercati, Chiara; Casalone, Cristina; Gelmetti, Daniela; Corona, Cristiano; Iulini, Barbara; Mazza, Maria; Lombardi, Guerino; Moda, Fabio; Ruggerone, Margherita; Campagnani, Ilaria; Piccoli, Elena; Catania, Marcella; Groschup, Martin H; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Caramelli, Maria; Monaco, Salvatore; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Tagliavini, Fabrizio
The amyloidotic form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) termed BASE is caused by a prion strain whose biological properties differ from those of typical BSE, resulting in a clinically and pathologically distinct phenotype. Whether peripheral tissues of BASE-affected cattle contain infectivity is unknown. This is a critical issue since the BASE prion is readily transmissible to a variety of hosts including primates, suggesting that humans may be susceptible. We carried out bioassays in transgenic mice overexpressing bovine PrP (Tgbov XV) and found infectivity in a variety of skeletal muscles from cattle with natural and experimental BASE. Noteworthy, all BASE muscles used for inoculation transmitted disease, although the attack rate differed between experimental and natural cases (∼70% versus ∼10%, respectively). This difference was likely related to different prion titers, possibly due to different stages of disease in the two conditions, i.e. terminal stage in experimental BASE and pre-symptomatic stage in natural BASE. The neuropathological phenotype and PrP(res) type were consistent in all affected mice and matched those of Tgbov XV mice infected with brain homogenate from natural BASE. The immunohistochemical analysis of skeletal muscles from cattle with natural and experimental BASE showed the presence of abnormal prion protein deposits within muscle fibers. Conversely, Tgbov XV mice challenged with lymphoid tissue and kidney from natural and experimental BASE did not develop disease. The novel information on the neuromuscular tropism of the BASE strain, efficiently overcoming species barriers, underlines the relevance of maintaining an active surveillance. PMID:22363650
Selwyn Arligton Headley
Full Text Available This study investigated the causes of mortality in cattle from northern Paraná, southern Brazil, during which 9.5% (23/242 of Nellore cows died after clinical manifestations of uncoordinated gait, fever, transient bloody diarrhea, dyspnea, and lateral decumbency. All cattle were maintained on poor pastures, and ingested moldy silage and sprouts of Senecio brasiliensis. Serum samples (n=17 were collected for virus neutralizing (VN antibodies assays against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1. Three cows were necropsied; fragment of tissue samples collected during necropsy from two cows were used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse transcription- PCR assays to identify BoHV-1 and BVDV; blood samples (n=6 were obtained for hematological and biochemical analyses. Significant gross findings of all cows included increased liver consistency, intestinal bleeding, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Histopathology revealed hepatic fibrosis, hemorrhagic enteritis, renal tubular necrosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and widespread vasculitis. All serum samples contained VN antibodies against BoHV-1, but only four of these reacted positively to BVDV. The RTPCR assays amplified specific amplicons of the untranslated region of BVDV from tissues samples of both animals; direct sequencing and sequence analyses demonstrated that these sequences clustered within the BVDV subgenotype 1d; all PCRs were negative for BoHV-1. Toxicological analyses of the moldy silage demonstrated elevated concentrations of ochratoxin (75.94 ?g/kg. Laboratory evaluations revealed renal and hepatic dysfunctions. These findings confirmed the combined actions of BVDV-1d infection and toxicosis by mycotoxin and S. brasiliensis in cattle mortality at this farm.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart rate variability (HRV analysis is a method to assess the function of the autonomic nervous system. Brainstem nuclei that influence HRV are affected by vacuolar changes and accumulation of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE resulting in clinical signs suggestive of an increased parasympathetic tone. It was hypothesised that BSE in cattle causes changes in the autonomic nervous system; this was tested by comparing HRV indices derived from 1048 electrocardiograms, which were recorded from 51 naturally or experimentally infected cattle with BSE confirmed by postmortem tests, 321 clinical suspect cases or cattle inoculated with potentially infectious tissue without disease confirmation and 78 BSE-free control cattle. Findings Statistically significant differences were found for low or high frequency power, their normalised values and ratio when the last recording prior to cull or repeated recordings were compared but only between male and female cattle of the three groups and not between groups of the same gender, even though BSE cases of each gender appeared to be more nervous during the recording. The same findings were made for heart rate, deviation from the mean RR interval and vasovagal tonus index when repeated recordings were compared. BSE cases with severe vacuolar changes in the parasympathetic nucleus of the vagus nerve had a significantly lower low:high frequency power ratio but not a lower heart rate than BSE cases with mild vacuolation, whereas severity of vacuolar changes in the solitary tract nucleus or intensity of PrPd accumulation in both nuclei did not appear to have any affect on either index. Abnormalities in the electrocardiogram were detected in 3% of the recordings irrespective of the BSE status; sinus arrhythmia was present in 93% of the remaining recordings. Conclusions HRV analysis was not useful to distinguish BSE-positive from BSE-negative cattle
Roperto, Sante; Munday, John S; Corrado, Federica; Goria, Maria; Roperto, Franco
Bovine papillomavirus type 14 (BPV-14) is a novel Deltapapillomavirus (δPV) which is most closely related to BPV-1, -2, and -13, well-known members of the δPV genus. So far BPV-14 has been detected in cutaneous neoplastic lesions in cattle and in feline sarcoids. As BPV-14 may share biological and pathological properties with BPV-1, -2 and -13, it has been hypothesized that, like other δPVs, BPV-14 could be associated with bovine bladder neoplasia. In this study, 50 tumors of the urinary bladder of cattle were diagnosed. DNA was extracted from all tumor samples as well as from 25 normal bladder samples and submitted to BPV-14 L1 PCR and subsequent amplicon sequencing analysis. BPV-14 L1 DNA sequences of specific 195bp amplicons were obtained from 17 of 50 (34%) tumor DNA isolates; no BPV-14 DNA was detected from 25 normal samples. Amplicons revealed a 99% homology with the corresponding BPV-14 L1 DNA region (GenBank accession number KP276343.1). Co-infections by two or three δPV types were also seen. This study reveals the presence of BPV-14 DNA alone or in combination with other δPV DNA in bovine bladder tumors alone and suggests that BPV-14 could also be involved in bladder neoplasia as its E5 oncoprotein has the potential to induce cell proliferation. Furthermore, this is the first study to show the presence of BPV-14 in Europe, suggesting that BPV-14, like other δPVs, has a worldwide distribution. PMID:27283849
This study was conducted to determine radionuclide tissue levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities. Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, has been the site of extensive U mining for 30 y and contains several underground U mines, a processing mill, and two large U tailings piles. Ten cows were purchased from two grazing areas in Ambrosia Lake and ten control animals were purchased from Crownpoint, New Mexico. Muscle, liver, kidney, and bone tissue taken from these animals, and environmental samples, including water, grasses and soil collected from the animals' grazing areas, were analyzed for 238U, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po. Mean radionuclide levels in cattle tissue and environmental samples from Ambrosia Lake were higher in almost every comparison than those found in respective controls. Liver and kidney tissues were particularly elevated in 226Ra and 210Po. Radiation dose commitments from eating cattle tissue with these radionuclide concentrations were calculated. We concluded that the health risk to the public from eating exposed cattle is minimal, unless large amounts of this tissue, especially liver and kidney, are ingested
Foddai, Alessandro; Rosenbaum Nielsen, Liza; Willeberg, Preben;
We compared two published studies based on different output-based surveillance models, which were used for evaluating the performance oftwo meatinspection systems in cattle and to substantiate freedom from bovine tuberculosis (bTB)in Denmark. The systems were the current meatinspection methods (CMI...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle.
Fulton, Robert W.; Hessman, Bill E.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Johnson, Bill J.; Burge, Lurinda J.; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy
Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked im...
Palisson, Aurore; Courcoul, Aurélie; Durand, Benoit
Live animal movements are a major transmission route for the spread of infectious agents such as Mycobacterium bovis, the main agent of bovine Tuberculosis (bTB). France became officially bTB-free in 2001, but M. bovis is still circulating in the cattle population, with about a hundred of outbreaks per year, most located in a few geographic areas. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of cattle movements in bTB spread in France between 2005 and 2014, using social network analysis and logistic regression models. At a global scale, the trade network was studied to assess the association between several centrality measures and bTB infection though a case-control analysis. The bTB infection status was associated with a higher in-degree (odds-ratio [OR] = 2.4 [1.1–5.4]) and with a higher ingoing contact chain (OR = 2.2 [1.0–4.7]). At a more local scale, a second case-control analysis was conducted to estimate the relative importance of cattle movements and spatial neighbourhood. Only direct purchase from infected herds was shown to be associated with bTB infection (OR = 2.9 [1.7–5.2]), spatial proximity to infected herds being the predominant risk factor, with decreasing ORs when distance increases. Indeed, the population attributable fraction was 12% [5%–18%] for cattle movements and 73% [68%–78%] for spatial neighbourhood. Based on these results, networks of potential effective contacts between herds were built and analysed for the three major spoligotypes reported in France. In these networks, the links representing cattle movements were associated with higher edge betweenness than those representing the spatial proximity between infected herds. They were often links connecting distinct communities and sometimes distinct geographical areas. Therefore, although their role was quantitatively lower than the one of spatial neighbourhood, cattle movements appear to have been essential in the French bTB dynamics between 2005 and 2014. PMID:27019291
Palisson, Aurore; Courcoul, Aurélie; Durand, Benoit
Live animal movements are a major transmission route for the spread of infectious agents such as Mycobacterium bovis, the main agent of bovine Tuberculosis (bTB). France became officially bTB-free in 2001, but M. bovis is still circulating in the cattle population, with about a hundred of outbreaks per year, most located in a few geographic areas. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of cattle movements in bTB spread in France between 2005 and 2014, using social network analysis and logistic regression models. At a global scale, the trade network was studied to assess the association between several centrality measures and bTB infection though a case-control analysis. The bTB infection status was associated with a higher in-degree (odds-ratio [OR] = 2.4 [1.1-5.4]) and with a higher ingoing contact chain (OR = 2.2 [1.0-4.7]). At a more local scale, a second case-control analysis was conducted to estimate the relative importance of cattle movements and spatial neighbourhood. Only direct purchase from infected herds was shown to be associated with bTB infection (OR = 2.9 [1.7-5.2]), spatial proximity to infected herds being the predominant risk factor, with decreasing ORs when distance increases. Indeed, the population attributable fraction was 12% [5%-18%] for cattle movements and 73% [68%-78%] for spatial neighbourhood. Based on these results, networks of potential effective contacts between herds were built and analysed for the three major spoligotypes reported in France. In these networks, the links representing cattle movements were associated with higher edge betweenness than those representing the spatial proximity between infected herds. They were often links connecting distinct communities and sometimes distinct geographical areas. Therefore, although their role was quantitatively lower than the one of spatial neighbourhood, cattle movements appear to have been essential in the French bTB dynamics between 2005 and 2014. PMID:27019291
Diana Vargas B
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Bovine herpesvirus – 1 (BoHV- 1 and Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 neutralizing antibodies in herds on the Colombian high plains and their correlation with the level of cross-protection against both herpesviruses. Materials and methods. This study was carried out on cattle farms located around the towns of Puerto López and Puerto Gaitán in Colombia’s Meta department. Sampling was made by convenience. Twenty-three farms were involved in the study; 488 sera samples were taken by random sampling. Virus neutralization test were performed according to the protocols of the OIE. Each serum was evaluated independently for each virus, BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Results. The serological test confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 infections in the Colombian bovine population in 100% and 73.9% respectively. However, crossreaction for both viruses was not evident in all farms evaluated. Conclusions. Alpha-herpesviruses are amongst the most significant infectious agents affecting cattle. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 is found throughout the whole world and is endemic in Colombian bovine population, whereas bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 has limited geographical distribution, mainly being reported in South-America (Brazil and Argentina, and we also confirmed the presence of BoHV-5 in Colombia.
tBabesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are causative agents of bovine babesiosis, a tick-borne disease of cattlein tropical and subtropical regions. Babesia spp. infection adversely affects cattle health and can be fatalresulting in considerable economic loss worldwide. Under endemic stability conditio...
Muharam Saepulloh; Indrawati Sendow
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important viral disease, which a ubiquitous pathogen ofcattle with worldwide economic importance and due to its misdiagnose with other viruses. The goal of thecurrent study was to identify and characterize of BVDV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR) and followed by sequence genome analyses. Blood, feces, and semen samples werecollected from 588 selected cattle from animals suffering from diarrhea and respiratory manifestation. RT...
Mollema, L; de Jong, M C M; van Boven, M
Herpesviruses can remain dormant in once-infected hosts and, upon reactivation, cause such hosts to become infectious. This phenomenon of latency and reactivation may enable herpesviruses to persist for a long time in small host populations. To quantify the effect of reactivation on persistence, the time to extinction of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) in small cattle populations was calculated. For realistic parameter values the mean time to extinction is already more than 100 years in a population of 10 animals. In a population of 20 animals the time to extinction is approximately 2000 years. The effects of vaccination on persistence were also studied, revealing that continued vaccination of the whole population could result in much faster eradication. For instance, in an isolated herd of 20 animals BHV-1 could be eradicated in 44 years. PMID:15724721
Vordermeier, H Martin; Jones, Gareth J; Buddle, Bryce M; Hewinson, R Glyn; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo
Bovine tuberculosis remains a major economic and animal welfare concern worldwide. Cattle vaccination is being considered as part of control strategies. This approach, used alongside conventional control policies, also requires the development of vaccine-compatible diagnostic assays to distinguish vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA). We discuss progress made on optimizing the only potentially available vaccine, bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and on strategies to improve BCG efficacy. We also describe recent advances in DIVA development based on the detection of host cellular immune responses by blood-testing or skin-testing approaches. Finally, to accelerate vaccine development, definition of host biomarkers that provide meaningful stage-gating criteria to select vaccine candidates for further testing is highly desirable. Some progress has also been made in this area of research, and we summarize studies that defined either markers predicting vaccine success or markers that correlate with disease stage or severity. PMID:26884103
Ogino, Atsushi; Kohama, Namiko; Ishikawa, Shou; Tomita, Keisuke; Nonaka, Sumie; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Okawa, Hirokazu; Morita, Mitsuo
Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) is a genetic disease characterized by the absence or hypoplasia of hair, teeth and eccrine sweat glands that has been reported in humans, the tabby mouse mutants, cattle and dogs. The EDA gene on the X chromosome encodes a protein, ectodysplasin-A (EDA), which is responsible for EDA. Here we describe a novel mutation of the EDA gene in which a 19 bp deletion in exon 1 in male Holstein calves demonstrated the phenotypic features of EDA. The dam and the grand-dam of the affected calves were heterozygous for this deletion. It is assumed that this deletion close to the start codon confuses all transcripts, and leads to the complete loss of pleiotropic functions of the bovine EDA gene. These results suggest that this mutation might be useful as animal models for the investigation of the pathogenic mechanisms of the anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. PMID:21410470
Monteith, H.D.; Shannon, E.E.; Derbyshire, J.B.
A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55/sup 0/C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35/sup 0/C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70/sup 0/C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.
Temwa, J.; Mouiche, M. M.; Iyawa, D.; Zoli, P. A.
Intradermal tuberculin test (TST) is the choice method for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) in live animals. This work was done to assess the performance of single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test in randomly selected cattle in Maroua, Cameroon, against detection of Tb lesions and detection of Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli in lesions. While 22.28% of slaughtered cattle presented Tb lesions at meat inspection, detection rates of anti-bovine-Tb antibody, Tb lesions, and Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli were 68.57%, 32.95%, and 22.35%, respectively. SICCT-bovine-Tb positive cattle were 35.29%, 29.41%, 25.88%, 24.7%, and 21.18% at ≥2 mm, ≥2.5 mm, ≥3 mm, ≥3.5 mm, and ≥4 mm cut-offs, respectively. Higher sensitivity and predictive values were obtained at severe interpretations. The best performance was at ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Against detection of Tb lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 94.7% and 96.5%, respectively. For detection of Tb lesions accompanied with acid fast bacilli in lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 92.4% and 93.9%, respectively. These findings revealed that interpretations of SICCT-bovine-Tb should be at ≥3 mm and/or ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Severe interpretation of TST is essential for optimal diagnosis of bovine Tb in cattle in Maroua, Cameroon.
Awah-Ndukum, J; Temwa, J; Ngwa, V Ngu; Mouiche, M M; Iyawa, D; Zoli, P A
Intradermal tuberculin test (TST) is the choice method for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) in live animals. This work was done to assess the performance of single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test in randomly selected cattle in Maroua, Cameroon, against detection of Tb lesions and detection of Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli in lesions. While 22.28% of slaughtered cattle presented Tb lesions at meat inspection, detection rates of anti-bovine-Tb antibody, Tb lesions, and Tb lesions plus acid fast bacilli were 68.57%, 32.95%, and 22.35%, respectively. SICCT-bovine-Tb positive cattle were 35.29%, 29.41%, 25.88%, 24.7%, and 21.18% at ≥2 mm, ≥2.5 mm, ≥3 mm, ≥3.5 mm, and ≥4 mm cut-offs, respectively. Higher sensitivity and predictive values were obtained at severe interpretations. The best performance was at ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Against detection of Tb lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 94.7% and 96.5%, respectively. For detection of Tb lesions accompanied with acid fast bacilli in lesions, ≥3 mm and ≥3.5 mm showed sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 92.4% and 93.9%, respectively. These findings revealed that interpretations of SICCT-bovine-Tb should be at ≥3 mm and/or ≥3.5 mm cut-offs. Severe interpretation of TST is essential for optimal diagnosis of bovine Tb in cattle in Maroua, Cameroon. PMID:27563481
Full Text Available Congenital transmissions of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR in cattle and buffalo in Indonesia have been found along time ago, primarily in animals treated with artificial insemination which semen came from the BHV-1 virus infected bull. The artificial insemination industry concerns with BHV-1 virus contamination of semen from healthy seropositive bulls with latent infections. Collection of semen from bulls maintained with a rigorous herd health program is an unlikely source of distribution of BHV-1 virus. Virus from the lesions in infected bulls can contaminate semen and causes a hazard to artificial insemination practices. Preventing the congenital transmission should be done at the artificial insemination centre through a standard procedure for semen production and the semen must come from a seronegative BHV-1 virus bull. Serological test for BHV-1 virus should be done every six months and PCR test should be conducted to the semen batch showed seropositive results and also to the bulls showed clinical signs of IBR. Virus isolation can be done from samples of suspected bulls. Bulls are potential sources of infection, thus keeping the seropositive or IBR infected bulls should be avoided. Such bulls can transmit the disease during breeding. Some female cattle can develop a latent infection that can be reactivated, and the disease can be transmitted to the male during breeding or in neonatal calves during late gestation or shortly after birth. Embryo transfer technique which is encouraged at this time is also a concern since its possibility infected with BHV-1 virus.
Full Text Available "nBackground: The objective of the study was to evaluate the presence of Neospora caninum organisms in the brain of aborted fetuses and placentas of full-term calves born of seropositive cows. "nMethods: During 2006-2007, 12 brains of aborted calves from Neospora seropositive cattle and 7 placentas from seropositive dams giving birth to full-term calves, from four dairy cattle farms located around Tehran province, Iran were examined by Nested-PCR and histopathology techniques. "nResult: The Nested-PCR demonstrated that all of 12 aborted fetal brain samples and 5 of 7 placentas were infected by N. caninum. Mild to severe placentitis was observed in 5 placentas. Severe hyperemia and perivascular and perineuronal edema revealed in all fetal brain. In 3 out of 12 brains, scattered foci of hemorrhages, neuropilar necrosis and gliosis were present. In addition, nonpurulent encephalitis with severe lymphohistiocytic perivascular cuffing in one case and a small tissue cyst like Neospora caninum cyst in other calf were observed. "n Conclusion: Our results confirmed the molecular and histopathologic findings of other studies about Neospora caninum infection and it seems to support the hypothesis that Neospora infection is associated with bovine abortion in Iran.
Bok, M; Miño, S; Rodriguez, D; Badaracco, A; Nuñes, I; Souza, S P; Bilbao, G; Louge Uriarte, E; Galarza, R; Vega, C; Odeon, A; Saif, L J; Parreño, V
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is an important viral pathogen associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of BCoV in diarrhea outbreaks in beef and dairy herds from Argentina during 1994-2010. A total of 5.365 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were screened for BCoV diagnosis by ELISA. The virus was detected in 1.71% (92/5365) of the samples corresponding to 5.95% (63/1058) of the diarrhea cases in 239 beef and 324 dairy farms. The detection rate of BCoV was significantly higher in dairy than in beef herds: 12.13% (29/239) vs. 4.32% (14/324) respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the hypervariable S1 region of seven representative samples (from different husbandry systems, farm locations and years of sampling) indicated that BCoV strains circulating in Argentinean beef and dairy herds formed a cluster distinct from other geographical regions. Interestingly, Argentinean strains are distantly related (at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels) with the Mebus historic reference BCoV strain included in the vaccines currently available in Argentina. However, Mebus-induced antibodies were capable of neutralizing the BCoV Arg95, a field strain adapted to grow in vitro, and vice versa, indicating that both strains belong to the same CoV serotype reported in cattle. This work represents the first large survey describing BCoV circulation in Argentinean cattle. PMID:26520931
S. I.B. Cadmus
Full Text Available A seroprevalence study was carried out among trade cattle slaughtered at Bodija Municipal Abattoir, Ibadan (southwestern Nigeria over a period of 3 consecutive years from 2004 to 2006 with a view to determining the breed, sex and age distribution in the seropositivity of bovine brucellosis. In total, 1642 animals were examined for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Seroprevalences of 6.00 %, 6.17 % and 5.31 % were obtained in the years 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively but a decrease in 2006 shows no significant difference (P>0.05. The role of the breed (P>0.05, sex (P>0.05 and age (P>0.05 in the occurrence of the infection was not statistically significant at 5 %, although higher rates were obtained for females and older animals. The trend in the disease over the 3-year period showed that it is endemic in trade cattle slaughtered in Ibadan and the public health implications of this are discussed.
Oloya, J; Muma, J B; Opuda-Asibo, J; Djønne, B; Kazwala, R; Skjerve, E
We investigated the prevalence and risk factors to positive herd-level tuberculin reactivity between October 2003 to May 2004 to bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the four transhumant districts of Uganda: three districts (Karamoja region) of nomadic transhumance cattle rearing (30 superherds and 1522 cattle), and one district (Nakasongola) of fixed-transhumance (7 herds and 342 cattle). We used the comparative intradermal skin-test, sampled 50 animals per superherd/herd, and considered herd positive if there was at least one reactor. Of the 30 superherds under nomadic transhumance, 60% (95% CI 41.4, 79) were tuberculin-test positive; of the 7 fixed herds, 14.3% (95% CI -20.7, 49.2) were tuberculin test positive. The true herd prevalence was estimated at 46.6%. Many risk factors were collinear. The final multivariable logistic-regression model included: recent introductions from market (OR=3.4; 95% CI 1.1, 10.3), drinking water form mud holes during dry season (OR=49; 95% CI 9.1, 262), and the presence of monkeys (OR=0.08; 95% CI 0.0, 0.6) or warthogs (OR=0.1; 95% CI 0.0, 0.3). No association was found between herd size or number of herd contacts with reactors; it was probably masked by the effect of high between-herd interactions. Provision of water from mud holes in dry river beds and introductions of new animals are risk factors that might be targeted to control BTB in transhumance areas. PMID:17482694
Full Text Available Most of the Western European cattle breeds consist of standardised breeds with a definite coat colour (Renieri et al., 1984. Thus coat colour could be useful to detect genetic markers for cattle breed identification. In cattle the pigmentation is determined by the distribution of two pigments: eu- and pheomelanin, producing brown or black and red to yellow pigmentation respectively. Tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the synthesis of both melanins, is regulated by the melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH. This hormone and several other melanotropic peptides stimulate melanin formation in melanocytes by binding to the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R, a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by the Extension gene (Robbins et al., 1993. In addition, the amounts of eu- and pheomelanin in the melanocyte are controlled by the agouti gene encoding the Agouti Signal Protein (ASP, that acts as an antagonist of MSH signalling through the MC1R, even if its mechanism of action is controversial (Furumura et al., 1998..........
Wyckoff, John H; Howland, Jeri L; Scott, Catherine M O'Connell; Smith, Robert A; Confer, Anthony W
Augmentation of immunization of cattle Brucella abortus S19 or a B. abortus soluble protein extract (SPEBA) vaccine through administration of recombinant bovine IL 2 (rBoIL 2) was evaluated. Seventy-five heifers were divided among 6 groups that were treated with the following: Group 1, no treatment; Group 2, rBoIL 2 (1microg/kg) on day 0; Group 3, SPEBA (2 mg) on day 0 and week 9; Group 4, SPEBA + rBoIL 2 on day 0, SPEBA on week 9; Group 5, S19 (10(7) CFU) on day 0 and week 9; Group 6, S19 + rBoIL 2 on day 0, S19 only on week 9. Approximately, 6 months after vaccination, cattle were bred by natural service, and at mid-gestation pregnant cattle were challenged intraconjunctivally with 9.1 x 10(5) CFU of virulent B. abortus S2308. Pre- and post-challenge antibody responses were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a particle concentration fluorescence assay, and the card test. Lymphoproliferation (LP) responses to gamma-irradiated B. abortus and SPEBA antigens were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After vaccination, antibody responses to B. abortus elevated rapidly in SPEBA- and S19-vaccinates with and without rBoIL 2, however, these responses were significantly (P S19 resulted in significant (P abortus antigens following challenge. Characterization of the cytokine response of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages by real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that in vitro stimulation of these cells with rBoIL 2 resulted in a profound up-regulation of genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL 12p40, and interferon-gamma reflecting activation of the cells. Overall, rBoIL 2-treatment was associated with fewer infections, sero-conversions and a significant (P = 0.02) level of protection against abortion as compared to vaccination alone or no treatment. PMID:16242273
Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. PMID:25929158
Phepa, Patrick B; Chirove, Faraimunashe; Govinder, Keshlan S
A mathematical model that describes the transmission dynamics of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in both buffalo and cattle populations is proposed. The model incorporates cross-infection and contaminated environment transmission routes. A full analysis of the model is undertaken. The reproduction number of the entire model is comprised of cross-infection and contaminated parameters. This underscores the importance of including both cross-infection and contaminated environment transmission routes. Crucially our simulations suggest that the disease has a more devastating effect on cattle populations than on buffalo populations when all transmission routes are involved. This has important implications for agriculture and tourism. PMID:27105864
Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...
Jensen, J.; Aiken, J; Schultz, R D
A bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) cDNA library was constructed. One cloned complementary DNA sequence was used as a probe to detect BVDV RNA by hybridization in infected cell cultures and in mononuclear leukocytes from persistently infected cattle by dot blot and in situ hybridization. The cDNA probe hybridized with all cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV isolates tested. The hybridization results were consistent with results obtained using conventional subculturing and immunofluorescent sta...
MacLachlan, Matthew; Springborn, Michael
In the context of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control in New Zealand cattle, we address the problem of management under uncertain disease prevalence by integrating a model of disease transmission and Bayesian learning from testing. We show the implications of accounting for the full dynamic value of information for setting levels of investment in, and targeting of, disease control measures. In the process, we provide a methodology to addressing problems in which learning occurs regarding an unc...
Sawyer, Mary; Rensen, Gabriel; Smith, Wayne; Yee, Melanie; Wong, Alice; Osburn, Bennie; Cullor, James
The practice of incorporating mammalian protein in ruminant feeds was banned in the United States in 1997 as a measure to avoid transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). A sensitive means of identifying the banned additives in feeds would be by detection of species-specific DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, problems may arise in the PCR due to the presence of inhibitory substances. Using human DNA as an internal PCR control, inhibitory substances were evident in the DNA extraction products of cattle feeds. The results of heating experiments excluded enzymes as a cause of inhibition, and spectrophotometric calculations suggested the possibility of RNA contamination. Co-electrophoresis of untreated and RNAse digested extracts confirmed the presence of RNA in the undigested product. Seven cattle feeds were spiked with predetermined amounts of bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM). The DNA extracted products were treated with RNAse and the bovine specific mitochondrial DNA (B-mtDNA) was amplified by PCR. The minimum level of detection of B-mtDNA was influenced by RNAse treatment and feed composition. RNAse treatment decreased false-negative results overall by 75%. False-negative results were decreased 100% in the higher BMBM concentrations and 50% in the lower BMBM concentrations. Also, each cattle feed was spiked to attain a 2% wt/wt concentration with each swine, fish, sheep, or poultry product, or cattle dried blood. Amplification of B-mtDNA occurred only with the cattle dried blood and only in three feeds in which B-mtDNA was detected at the only level tested (2%). A commercial immunochromotographic assay (Neogen) detected the spiked BMBM in only one of the seven feeds and only at the upper concentration (1%). PMID:15992269
Romero-Salas, Dora; Mira, Anabela; Mosqueda, Juan; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Hidalgo-Ruiz, Mario; Vela, Noot Aditya Ortiz; de León, Adalberto Angel Perez; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Schnittger, Leonhard
Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are causative agents of bovine babesiosis, a tick-borne disease of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions. Babesia spp. infection adversely affects cattle health and can be fatal resulting in considerable economic loss worldwide. Under endemic stability conditions, herds contain high numbers of chronically infected, asymptomatic carrier animals, in which no parasitemia is detected by microscopic blood smear examination. In addition to bovines, also water buffaloes are infected by both Babesia spp. commonly leading to a subclinical infection. The infection rate (by nPCR) and herd exposure (by IFAT) of bovines and water buffaloes reared under similar field conditions in an area of endemic stability were determined and compared. In order to optimize direct parasite detection, highly sensitive nPCR assays were developed and applied, allowing the detection of as little as 0.1 fg DNA of each Babesia pathogen. Significantly lower percentages (pwater buffaloes compared to bovines were observed for B. bovis (71.4% vs. 98%) and B. bigemina (85% vs. 100%). Interestingly, in comparison, differences noticed between water buffaloes and bovines were considerably larger with direct parasite detection by nPCR (16.2% vs. 82.3% and 24% vs. 94.1% for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively). As expected, bovines subjected to monthly acaricide applications exhibited a significant lower infection rate as determined by nPCR than bovines not subjected to these measures (B. bovis 33.3% vs. 90.7%, pwater buffaloes as determined by nPCR were infected when reared jointly with bovines not subjected to tick control than when reared jointly with bovines subjected to tick control (B. bovis 31.6% vs. 9.5%, pwater buffaloes reared with untreated vs. treated bovines) and/or when reared without bovines (B. bovis 31.6% vs. 11.6%, pwater buffaloes are much more capable to limit or eliminate Babesia infection, possibly due to a more capable immune defense
Individuals in most animal groups exhibit consistent behavioural differences across situations or over time known as behavioural syndromes. We conducted a study with a herd of young rangeland-raised cows to determine whether animals exhibited consistent differences in foraging behaviours across cont...
Amanda K Lindholm-Perry
Full Text Available A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI in steers (P<0.008. Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P<0.05 and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG and residual feed intake (RFI, respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW, adjusted fat thickness (AFT, and marbling (P<0.05. Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit across
It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: → A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. → Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. → In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. → In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.
Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan
Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required. PMID:27154218
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to follow out the alterations in some haematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with enzootic bovine leukosis virus with regard to the invivodifferentiation of bovine leukosis stages. The experiment included 76 cows at various ages and body weight. Serological leukosis tests were done by agar-gel immunodiffusion test with a commercial kit of Synbiotiсs (France, containing standardised gp 51 antigen and positive serum approved by the EU. On the basis of haematological results, the cows were divided into three groups: first group – EBL-seropositive with normal haemogramme; second group – EBL seropositive with altered haemogramme and third group – controls. In cows from the first and the second group, a statistically significantly increased blood cell counts was established compared to healthy controls. The total WBC were increased in the second group (leukocytosis up to 33.21×109/l vs reference range of 5-10×109/l as well as lymphocyte percentages (lymphocytosis – 81.89% (reference 40–63%. A reduction in the proportion of neutrophils to 12.78% (relative neutropenia vs the reference range of 22-49% and monocytes (monocytopenia to 1.78% (reference range 2–6% was observed. A statistically significant reduction in Ca concentrations (4.41 mg/dl and higher inorganic phosphate levels (5.28 mg/dl were established in cows from the second group. Also, ASAT activity was considerably lower – 47.03 U/l, while alkaline phosphatase increased slightly within the reference range up to 167.68 U/l and 165.81 U/l in groups one and two, respectively. The present haematological and whole blood/serum biochemical results in cows spontaneously infected with EBL virus could be used as prognostic markers of the course of the disease, to distinguish the stages of infection with regard to alive diagnostics.
Andrew J K Conlan
Full Text Available Vaccination for the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in cattle is not currently used within any international control program, and is illegal within the EU. Candidate vaccines, based upon Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG all interfere with the action of the tuberculin skin test, which is used to determine if animals, herds and countries are officially bTB-free. New diagnostic tests that Differentiate Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA offer the potential to introduce vaccination within existing eradication programs. We use within-herd transmission models estimated from historical data from Great Britain (GB to explore the feasibility of such supplemental use of vaccination. The economic impact of bovine Tuberculosis for farmers is dominated by the costs associated with testing, and associated restrictions on animal movements. Farmers' willingness to adopt vaccination will require vaccination to not only reduce the burden of infection, but also the risk of restrictions being imposed. We find that, under the intensive sequence of testing in GB, it is the specificity of the DIVA test, rather than the sensitivity, that is the greatest barrier to see a herd level benefit of vaccination. The potential negative effects of vaccination could be mitigated through relaxation of testing. However, this could potentially increase the hidden burden of infection within Officially TB Free herds. Using our models, we explore the range of the DIVA test characteristics necessary to see a protective herd level benefit of vaccination. We estimate that a DIVA specificity of at least 99.85% and sensitivity of >40% is required to see a protective benefit of vaccination with no increase in the risk of missed infection. Data from experimentally infected animals suggest that this target specificity could be achieved in vaccinates using a cocktail of three DIVA antigens while maintaining a sensitivity of 73.3% (95%CI: 61.9, 82.9% relative to post
W David Walter
Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles, brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type. Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd
Green, L E; Carrique-Mas, J J; Mason, S A; Medley, G F
Approximately 1500/6000 cattle farms that were depopulated during the foot and mouth epidemic in GB in 2001 had been repopulated and subjected to two unrestricted (herd considered free from bovine tuberculosis (bTB)) herd tests. Factors associated with herd breakdown(s) (HBD) and individual cattle reactor status at the second test were investigated. There were 96 HBD in total, with a 3-fold increased risk of HBD in herds that had had a HBD at the first test after restocking. Two mixed effect models were used to investigate factors associated with 324/246,060 reactor cattle at the second bTB test; 228 reactors were at confirmed HBD and 96 at unconfirmed HBD; 253 (79%) reactors at the second test were present and test negative at the first test. In confirmed HBD, the odds of cattle reacting were higher if the restocked farm had a history of bTB before 2001 and if the source and restocked farms were high frequency tested (HFT) farms (routine bTB tests at ≥1 per 2 years). Reacting cattle were more likely to have been born on the restocked farm before the first test after FMD and less likely to have been purchased from a low frequency tested (LFT) farm (routine bTB tests at 3-4 year intervals) after the first test compared with a baseline of cattle purchased from a LFT farm before the first test. Unconfirmed HBD at the second test was more likely when the first test was a confirmed HBD and when there was a history of bTB in the restocked farm. In contrast to confirmed HBD, cattle purchased from a LFT farm after the first test were at increased risk of reacting at an unconfirmed HBD at the second test. We conclude that a farm history of bTB suggests persistence of bTB on the farm. Confirmed tests indicate exposure to bTB for some time indicated by the increased risk from HFT source and restocked farms and a farm history of bTB. The risks for reactors are related to the farm and herd and duration of exposure to these risks. Therefore, the spread of bTB to naïve herds
Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an important viral disease, which a ubiquitous pathogen ofcattle with worldwide economic importance and due to its misdiagnose with other viruses. The goal of thecurrent study was to identify and characterize of BVDV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR and followed by sequence genome analyses. Blood, feces, and semen samples werecollected from 588 selected cattle from animals suffering from diarrhea and respiratory manifestation. RTPCRresults showed that the 69 (11.74% samples were positive to BVDV. Further molecularcharacterization was conducted only with 17 PCR positive samples. The results indicated the 17 IndonesianBVD virus isolates were belonging to the genotype-1 of BVDV (BVDV-1 based on sequence analysis anda phylogenetic relationship between Indonesian BVDV isolates and BVDV in the world. This finding is thefirst report of BVD-1 circulated in Indonesian cattle.
Onset of puberty and postpartum ovarian activity were studied in Nelore cattle. A group of 10 heifers and 11 cows reared under extensive management, and 8 heifers reared under improved nutritional management in a private farm in the humid tropical Amazon region were used. Sequential rectal examinations were performed once or twice a week to assess morphological changes of the uterus and the development of ovarian structures. Visual observation of oestrous signs with the aid of a teaser bull was undertaken twice daily. Weekly blood samples were collected to monitor plasma progesterone profiles. The age and body weight at puberty were 646 ± days and 364 ± 34 kg, and 760 ± 35 days and 316 ± 19 kg, for heifers under improved nutrition and extensive management, respectively (P<0.01). The age at first calving was 920 ± 68 and 1044 ± 34 days for heifers in the same groups mentioned above, respectively (P<0.01). The intervals from calving to a complete clinical uterine involution were 40 ± 45 days, to the first oestrus was 106 ± 45 days and to conception was 191 ± 83 days; and the calving interval was 478 ± 72 days. The results indicate that the reproductive performance of Nelore animals can be improved through management and nutrition. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs
Bovine schistosomiasis caused by S. bovis constitutes a serious veterinary problem in the Sudan, yet very little is known about the epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunology of the disease. Over the past 5 years, work on these aspects has been conducted at Khartoum and several outlying areas of the White Nile Province in Sudan. In studies involving over 1,000 cattle, it was found that almost 100% of animals are infected by 2 years of age but that the prevalence falls to less than 60% over the following 7 years. There was also a marked reduction in the intensity of infection with increasing age, indicating the development of a high degree of acquired resistance. This was confirmed experimentally by challenging animals from an endemic area with massive numbers of cercariae. These animals completely resisted the challenge whereas animals never previously exposed either died or became moribund due to the severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea resulting from the passage of schistosome eggs through the gut wall. Attempts were made to vaccinate calves using irradiated organisms. These gave 70-80% protection against a challenge infection and this was sufficient to allow these animals to gain weight and remain clinically healthy. Animals not given the vaccine deteriorated. The efficacy of the vaccine was then tested under field conditions and found to give a high level of protection against S. bovis. These animals were also less susceptible to intercurrent infections
The objectives were to investigate selected aspects of the distribution of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the bovine genital tract and to conduct preliminary pharmacologic studies with florfenicol (FLO), a fluorinated analogue of thiamphenicol, in cattle. After 8 hours' continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of CAP to 7 postpartum cows, steady state plasma-to-genital tissue ratios of CAP were approximately 3. After intrauterine infusion of 20 mg CAP/kg to 3 postpartum cows, approximately 40% of the dose was absorbed into the bloodstream. Tissue concentrations were high at 8 hour postdosing in tissues lining the uterine lumen but were below desired therapeutic concentrations in the myometrium of 2 of the cows. Eighty cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) were assigned to receive on the following treatments: (1) removal of membranes only; (2) removal plus CAP; (3) nonremoval; (4) nonremoval plus CAP. CAP treatment consisted of 5 g administered IU twice daily for 3 days. The majority of cows in all groups acquired endometritis, although CAP reduced the prevalence and severity of the disease. A quantitative assay for FLO in plasma was developed and validated on a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system. The pharmacokinetics of FLO determined after IV administration of 50 mg FLO/kg to 5 cows were best described by a three-compartment model. FLO was approximately 18% bound to plasma proteins as determined by equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. In an in vitro system, 5, 125, or 1000 ug/ml of CAP had no effect on neutrophils from 6 cows
Ramirez-Villaescusa Ana M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1 is an important pathogen of cattle that presents with a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR. A seroepidemiological study of BHV-1 antibodies was conducted in England from 2002 – 2004: 29,782 blood samples were taken from 15,736 cattle from 114 herds which were visited on up to three occasions. Antibody concentration was measured using a commercial ELISA. Farm management information was collected using an interview questionnaire, and herd size and cattle movements were obtained from the cattle tuberculosis testing database and the British Cattle Movement Service. Hierarchical statistical models were used to investigate associations between cattle and herd variables and the continuous outcome percentage positive (PP values from the ELISA test in unvaccinated herds. Results There were 7 vaccinated herds, all with at least one seropositive bovine. In unvaccinated herds 83.2% had at least one BHV-1 seropositive bovine, and the mean cattle and herd BHV-1 seroprevalence were 42.5% and 43.1% respectively. There were positive associations between PP value, age, herd size, presence of dairy cattle. Adult cattle in herds with grower cattle had lower PP values than those in herds without grower cattle. Purchased cattle had significantly lower PP values than homebred cattle, whereas cattle in herds that were totally restocked after the foot-and-mouth epidemic in 2001 had significantly higher PP values than those in continuously stocked herds. Samples taken in spring and summer had significantly lower PP values than those taken in winter, whereas those taken in autumn had significantly higher PP values than those taken in winter. The risks estimated from a logistic regression model with a binary outcome (seropositive yes/no were similar. Conclusion The prevalence of BHV-1 seropositivity in cattle and herds has increased since
Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2 and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26. The objective of this study was to refine the loci associated with BVD-PIand linked with BRD. Association testing for BVD-PI was performed on a population of 65 BVD-PI calves, 51 of their dams, and 60 unaffected calves (controls with 175 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on BTA2 and 209 SNPs on BTA26. Comparisons were made between BVD-PI calves and controls calves and the dams of BVD-PI calves and controls calves. For the linkage analysis of BRD, the same markers were used to genotype 2 half sib-families consisting of the sires and 72 BRD positive and 148 BRD negative offspring. Using an allelic chi-square test, 11 loci on BTA2 and 8 loci on BTA26 were associated with the dams of the BVD-PI calves (P < 0.05 and 5 loci on BTA2 and 10 loci on BTA26 were associated with BVD-PI calves. One locus on BTA2 and two loci on BTA26 were found to be linked (P < 0.05 with BRD. These results further refined the loci associated and linked with BVD-PI and BRD, respectively.
Marlise Pompeo Claus
Full Text Available Cutaneous papillomatosis is a pathological condition commonly found in cattle and is characterized by the presence of benign proliferative tumors caused by bovine papillomavirus (BPV infection. While multiple infections with human papillomavirus (HPV are common in healthy and immunodeficient humans, studies with the aim of identifying mixed infections are still sporadic in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of multiple BPV infections in cattle affected by cutaneous papillomatosis. Fifteen skin warts were collected from at least two diverse anatomical regions of six bovines with papillomatosis belonging to three cattle herds from the Paraná state in Brazil. The BPV types present in the skin wart samples were determined by a PCR assay performed with the FAP primer pair for partial L1 gene amplification followed by direct sequencing or by cloning and sequencing of the inserts. Sequence analysis of the obtained amplicons allowed the identification of four characterized BPV types (BPV-1, -2, -6, and -8 and three previously described putative new BPV types (BPV/BR-UEL3, BPV/BR-UEL4, and BPV/BR-UEL5. Double infections were identified in four (A, B, D, and E of the six animals included in this study. In this work, the strategy adopted to evaluate skin warts from diverse anatomical sites of the same animal allowed the identification of multiple infections with two or three different BPV types. The analysis of four animals belonging to a single cattle herd also showed the presence of six different viral types. These results clearly suggest that both multiple papillomaviral infection and a high viral diversity can be as frequent in cattle as in human beings.A papilomatose cutânea é comumente observada nos rebanhos bovinos e caracterizada pela presença de tumores proliferativos benignos causados pela infecção pelo papilomavírus bovino (BPV. Enquanto a infecção múltipla pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV é um
McFadden, A M J; Vink, D; Pulford, D J; Lawrence, K; Gias, E; Heath, A C G; McFadden, C B; Bingham, P
Monitoring an epidemic of an emerging vector-borne disease can be problematic; particularly in a country where vector-borne disease has previously had minimal impact on livestock. This paper describes methods of past and current surveillance of the Theileria-associated bovine anaemia (Ikeda; TABA) epidemic in New Zealand, and the resulting inferences made. Over the three year period of the TABA epidemic a portfolio of surveillance methods has been used: case reporting (with subsidised PCR testing), syndromic surveillance, sentinel surveillance, testing convenience samples for herd infection, as well as specific active surveillance initiatives to understand the tick vector distribution. Surveillance data have shown that the number of affected cattle herds has continued to increase over time with seasonal peaks in spring and autumn coinciding with peak activity of nymph and adult ticks respectively. In spring 2014, the epidemic extended south into areas that were previously considered to be unsuitable for the tick vector. As a result a survey was initiated that showed that ticks were present in areas outside of the known distribution. Testing pooled blood samples from cattle herds across New Zealand showed there still remained a significant percentage of herds where only non-Ikeda type infections were present, indicating that these herds were at risk of future TABA (Ikeda) outbreaks. For some regions there had been a noticeable increase in the percentage of herds infected, yet with only a small increase in the number of outbreaks compared with the previous year. Thus, outbreaks had either gone unobserved or had not been confirmed by testing. In these regions extensive low-input beef farming could explain the non-detection observed. There was a close relationship between the number of syndromic reports of anaemia and the number of confirmed cases of TABA (Ikeda), (P<0.01, adjusted R-squared=0.74). Active monitoring of the epidemic for a three year period has provided
Full Text Available In the course of the last decades of the twentieth century, more than 30 new diseases were determined for the first time in history. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or "mad cow disease" is one of them. The disease implies the subacute neurodegenerative transmission of spongiform encephalopathy and it was diagnosed and described for the first time in Great Britain in 1986. A theory has been established that BSE is spread through feedstuffs, more precisely, meat-bone flour which contains infective proteins of ruminants, and legislature has been passed throughout the world with the objective of preventing the entry of meat-bone flour into the food chain. The complete ban of the use of meat-bone flour for all farm animals (with the exception of fish flour for non-ruminants and an adequate thermal treatment in the production of meat-bone flour (133ºC, 3 bar, 20 min are the elements on which the European Union (EU legislature is based. The regulations in our country include a ban on the use of meat-bone flour in cattle feedstuffs and a ban on imports of beef proteins. The implementation of this legislature throughout the world requires the corresponding analytical means. At the present time, there are several available possibilities: optic microscopy, PCR, immunoprobes, spectroscopic methods, and several others which are still being examined for use for this purpose. All the analytical methods are being applied with the objective of controlling the implementation of the current regulations, but also in order to discover possible cross contamination that could take place in factories of animal feedstuffs, during transportation, storage, or on farms, in particular when there are no separate lines for feedstuffs that contains meat-bone flour and others in which even its traces are banned. In order to secure the successful control and prevention of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in our country, as well as to secure the unhindered continuation of
Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano
Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID
The objectives were to investigate selected aspects of the distribution of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the bovine genital tract and to conduct preliminary pharmacologic studies with florfenicol (FLO), a fluorinated analogue of thiamphenicol, in cattle. After 8 hours' continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of CAP to 7 postpartum cows, steady state plasma-to-genital tissue ratios of CAP were approximately 3. After intrauterine infusion of 20 mg CAP/kg to 3 postpartum cows, approximately 40% of the dose was absorbed into the bloodstream. Tissue concentrations were high at 8 hour postdosing in tissues lining the uterine lumen but were below desired therapeutic concentrations in the myometrium of 2 of the cows. Eighty cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) were assigned to receive on the following treatments: (1) removal of membranes only; (2) removal plus CAP; (3) nonremoval; (4) nonremoval plus CAP. CAP treatment consisted of 5 g administered IU twice daily for 3 days. The majority of cows in all groups acquired endometritis, although CAP reduced the prevalence and severity of the disease. A quantitative assay for FLO in plasma was developed and validated on a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system. The pharmacokinetics of FLO determined after IV administration of 50 mg FLO/kg to 5 cows were best described by a three-compartment model. FLO was approximately 18% bound to plasma proteins as determined by equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. In an in vitro system, 5, 125, or 1000 ug/ml of CAP had no effect on neutrophils from 6 cows.
Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide
A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria. PMID:26563271
Fitzgerald, Scott D; Hollinger, Charlotte; Mullaney, Thomas P; Bruning-Fann, Colleen S; Tilden, John; Smith, Rick; Averill, James; Kaneene, John B
An outbreak of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in a Michigan dairy herd resulted in quarantine, depopulation, pathology, and epidemiologic investigations. This herd, compared to other TB-infected herds in Michigan, was unusual in the long-term feeding of waste milk to its replacement calves. The herd had 80 cattle with positive results on caudal fold test or gamma interferon testing, which were reclassified as suspects because the herd had never been known to be tuberculous previously. Autopsy revealed striking variation in the anatomic distribution of gross anatomic lesions, microscopic lesions, and culture-positive lymph nodes between the adult cattle, the calves, and the domestic cats present on the farm. Adult cattle had lesions and culture-positive lymph nodes predominantly within the thoracic lymph nodes, whereas cats had 50% of their lesions and culture-positive lymph nodes in their abdomens, and 50% of positive calves had culture-positive lymph nodes in their abdomens. This difference in anatomic distribution correlated with the likely routes of infection, which are believed to be by direct airborne transmission in adult cattle and indirect ingestion of contaminated milk in both calves and cats. Although TB literature over the past 100-plus years states that the route of infection may manifest itself in differences in lesion anatomic distribution, our team has been working with TB for over 20 years, and we have never encountered such striking variation between different groups of animals on the same farm. PMID:26965232
Full Text Available Studies covering all aspects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV have been conducted in several countries in Europe, Asia and America. In southern Africa, more information is required about the nature of BVDV infection, the prevalence of different strains and the economic importance of the disease. The presence of BVDV in southern Africa has been known since the early 1970s through serological surveys but few reports confirming its presence by virus isolation and correlation with clinical disease are available. Specimens (n = 312 collected in 1998/99, from live and dead cattle from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens (n=37 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park were also included. All specimens were processed for virus isolation in cell culture with confirmation by means of immunofluorescent antibody tests and some also by means of an antigen capture ELISA. BVDV was isolated from 15 (4.7 % cattle and were all noncytopathic biotypes. BVDV was not detected in 37 lymph nodes obtained from buffaloes in the Kruger National Park. Of the clinical signs in cattle from which virus were isolated, respiratory signs was the most frequent (10/15, followed by diarrhoea (5/15. Abortion, congenital malformations, haemorrhagic diarrhoea and poor growth were also included as criteria for selection of animals for specimen collection, but no BVD viruses were isolated from cattle manifesting these clinical signs.
Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.;
cattle population, (2) estimate the animal level prevalence (3) provide descriptive statistics of potential risk factors for BC, and (4) determine attributable risks and fractions of selected risk factors potentially useful for a future risk-based meat inspection system. In total, 348 cases of BC were......Current EU regulation requires that every bovine carcass is examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC) at meat inspection. This is costly and might be superfluous at low BC prevalence. However, from a consumer view-point it may be important to identify and manage infected carcasses to avoid human...... infection. If relevant data could be effectively used to classify animals with respect to their risk of being infected, then the current meat inspection could be replaced by a more cost-effective system targeting high-risk animals. This study aimed to (1) describe the distribution of BC cases in the Danish...
Panei, Carlos Javier; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Omori, Takashi; NUNOYA, Tetsuo; Davis, William C.; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Aida, Yoko
Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infection may remain clinically silent at the aleukemic (AL) stage, cause persistent lymphocytosis (PL), or, more rarely, B cell lymphoma. BLV has been identified in B cells, CD2+ T cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, γ/δ T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes in infected cattle that do not have tumors, although the most consistently i...
Oem, Jae-Ku; Joo, Soo-Kyung; An, Dong-Jun
Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) (strains 11F011 and 12F004) isolated from brain tissues from nonambulatory (downer) cattle. The complete genomes of strains 11F011 and 12F004 contain 12,287 nucleotides (nt) with a single large open reading frame and 12,301 nt with a single large open reading frame, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these strains belong to the BVDV-2a and -1b genotypes, respectively.
Zaghawa, Ahmed; Housawi, Fadhel Mohamed Taher; Al-Naeem, Abdulmohsen; Al-Nakhly, Hassan; Kamr, Ahmed; Toribio, Ramiro
Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that causes disabling clinical signs and major economic losses in cattle and water buffalo. The disease is well documented in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East; however, the seroprevalence of BEFV in different regions and bovine breeds in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors which affect the prevalence of antibodies against BEFV in small herds of cattle in four geographical regions of KSA. A total of 1480 serum samples from non-BEFV vaccinated small herds of cattle were collected from the Eastern, Jizan, Qasim, and Riyadh regions (370 samples per region) during the summer of 2010. Serum neutralization test was used to detect antibodies against BEFV. There was a significant effect of region, breed, sex, and age on the seroprevalence of BEFV. Seropositive ratios were 18, 18, 26, and 12 % for the Eastern, Jizan, Qasim, and Riyadh regions, respectively (P = 0.00002); 23.2 % for dairy and 13.7 % for non-dairy breeds (P = 0.00004); 24.4 % for males and 14.6 % for females (P = 0.00004); and 15.4, 29.1, and 11.4 % for animals 3 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Risk analysis showed a significant effect of different regions of KSA on the seroprevalence of BEFV. Host risk factors (age, sex, and breed) showed also a significant effect on the seroprevalence of BEFV. This indicates active circulation of this virus in small herds of cattle. Insect control strategies and BEFV vaccination programs during the spring are recommended to reduce the spread of BEFV and minimize subsequent economic losses as this is adopted in many enzootic countries. PMID:26676243
Full Text Available Abstract Background To provide information on dose–response and aid in modelling the exposure dynamics of the BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom groups of cattle were exposed orally to a range of different doses of brainstem homogenate of known infectious titre from clinical cases of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. Interim data from this study was published in 2007. This communication documents additional BSE cases, which occurred subsequently, examines possible influence of the bovine prion protein gene on disease incidence and revises estimates of effective oral exposure. Findings Following interim published results, two further cattle, one dosed with 100 mg and culled at 127 months post exposure and the other dosed with 10 mg and culled at 110 months post exposure, developed BSE. Both had a similar pathological phenotype to previous cases. Based on attack rate and incubation period distribution according to dose, the dose estimate at which 50% of confirmed cases would be clinically affected was revised to 0.15 g of the brain homogenate used in the experiment, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.03–0.79 g. Neither the full open reading frame nor the promoter region of the prion protein gene of dosed cattle appeared to influence susceptibility to BSE, but this may be due to the sample size. Conclusions Oral exposure of cattle to a large range of doses of a BSE brainstem homogenate produced disease in all dose groups. The pathological presentation resembled natural disease. The attack rate and incubation period were dependent on the dose.
Emmanuel; Swai; Isidory; Mwezimpya; Edward; Ulicky; Adam; Mbise; Winford; Moshy
Objective:To establish and estimate incidence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(CBPP),using abattoir survey as a diagnostic tool in slaughtered cattle in Northern Tanzania.Methods:A total of 4460 cattle were slaughtered in five abattoirs in 3 northern zone regions(Arusha,Kilimanjaro and Tanga)during the period of January to May 2004.They were examined ante-mortem for‘pneumonia signs’,and‘characteristic contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(CBPP)lung lesions’.Results:Forty-one(0.91%)of the slaughtered cattle,the majority of which were Tanzania short horn zebu,had gross lung lesions suggestive of CBPP.The prevalence of lesions was significantly(P<0.05)higher in Karatu abattoir compared to others.No animal was detected to have lesion in Bomang’ombe abattoir.The most observed pneumonic signs included labored breathing(90%),dry cough(57%)and mucopurulent nasal discharge(47%).The gross characteristic CBPP pathological lesion,frequently encountered was left lung lesion(47%),pinkish lung(71%)and pleural adhesion(98%).Epidemiological reports show that the CBPP reported outbreaks increased from 19 in 2002,65 in 2003 and 18 in 2004(January-March).The corresponding number of reported deaths increased from 137 in 2002,269 in 2003 and 77 in 2004(January-March).Conclusions:It’s concluded from this study that CBPP is a problem in spite of the extensive awareness and vaccination campaigns.Nevertheless,a continued surveillance programme including routine checks of all cattle carcasses at the abattoir and subsequent epidemiological investigation of suspected cases are recommended.
Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Aida, Yoko
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma. BLV has spread worldwide and causes serious problems. After infection, the BLV genome is integrated into the host DNA and can be amplified during periods of latency. We previously designed degenerate primers using the Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo) algorithm to establish a new quantitative real-time PCR method (BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2) of measuring the proviral load of both known and novel BLV variants. Here, we aimed to examine the correlation between proviral load and risk factors for BLV infection, such as breeding systems, parousity, and colostrum feeding. Blood and serum samples were collected from 83 BLV-positive farms in 22 prefectures of Japan, and the BLV proviral load and anti-BLV antibody levels were measured. BLV was detected in 73.3% (1039/1,417) of cattle by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and the provirus was detected in 93 of 1039 antibody-negative samples. The results showed that the proviral load increased with progression of lymphocytosis. Next, the risk factors associated with increasing BLV infection rate were examined along with any association with proviral load. The proviral load was higher in cattle with lymphocytosis than in healthy cattle, and higher in multiparous cows than in nulliparous cows. Finally, proviral loads were higher in contact breeding systems than in non-contact breeding systems. Taken together, these findings may help to formulate a plan for eliminating BLV from contaminated farms. This is the first nationwide study to estimate BLV proviral load in Japanese cattle. PMID:26321160
Robert F Kelly
Full Text Available Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases.A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon.Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk.Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation in Cameroon but requires
Cadmus, Simeon I B; Alabi, Peter I; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Dale, Emma J; Stack, Judy A
Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127) were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Overall, 24 (8.6%) and 16 (5.7%) of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% - 12.6%) and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% - 10.5%) than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% - 4.7%). Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043) and breed (Djali; p = 0.038) were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234), production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208) or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359) was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd. PMID:23905207
Simeon I.B. Cadmus
Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.
Emma J. Dale
Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.
Weller, Richard E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skrypnyk, Artem [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zavgorodniy, Andriy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stegniy, Borys [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gerilovych, Anton [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kutsan, Oleksandr [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pozmogova, Svitlana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sapko, Svitlana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of the Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.
Sawyer, Mary M.; Smith, Wayne L.; Rensen, Gabriel J.; Osburn, Bennie I.; Cullor, James S.
Preventing the spread of mad cow disease through contaminated cattle feed is a major concern of beef and dairy producers, regulators and consumers around the world. Routine testing of cattle feeds for the presence of banned substances is a critical control point in assuring animal health and food safety. We compared the results of two test procedures (a real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay and a commercially available ruminant antibody detection kit) on five cattle rations spiked w...
Chun Lei Zhang; Hong Chen; Yan Hong Wang; Xian Yong Lan; Chu Zhao Lei; Xing Tang Fang
We investigated the polymorphisms of bovine cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CART). The coding and regulating regions of CART were screened in 7 cattle breeds by the single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The four loci (C1, C2, C3 and C4) studied were all polymorphic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products representing different SSCP variants were sequenced and a total of 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found. The associations between polymorphic loci and the growth traits of Nanyang cattle were analysed. The results indicated that genotype A1A1 of the C1 locus was associated with a higher body weight ( < 0.05) than heterozygous A1B1. Genotype A2A2 of the C2 locus was associated with lower body weight and average daily weight gain ( ≤ 0.001) than heterozygous A2B2. C3 and C4 loci had no significant effect on Nanyang cattle growth traits (P > 0.05).
Workman, Aspen M.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Heaton, Michael P; Grotelueschen, Dale M.; Sjeklocha, David; Smith, Timothy P. L.
We report here the full-length coding sequences of 12 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from persistently infected cattle in a feedyard in southwest KS. These 12 genomes represent the three major subtypes of BVDV (BVDV-1a, 1b, and 2a) currently circulating in the United States.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating...
Qvist, P.; Houe, H.; Aasted, B.; Meyling, A
Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in 143 blood samples by virus isolation in cell culture and flow cytometry was performed. The material included 37 samples later shown to originate from persistently infected cattle. Thirty-three samples were positive by virus isolation, and all 37 samples were positive by the flow cytometric assay.
Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy intake and source affect immune competence and response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by body weight within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatmen...
Rini I Damayanti
Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were used as control animals. Isolate I and III were originated from semen from IBR positive bulls number G 867 and G 148 respectively whereas isolate II was collected from vaginal mucosa and isolate IV was from nasal mucosa of IBR positive cattle treated with dexamethasone. Clinical response, gross-pathological and histopathological changes were observed. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the antigen in tissue section. The results show that the BHV-1 local isolates could produce IBR syndrome namely fever and changes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts even though the clinical responses seemed to be disappeared by 21 days PI. Grossly there were hyperaemic nasal and vaginal mucosa and pneumonia whereas histologically there were non suppurative rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonia and vulvovaginitis. Immunohistochemically the antigen was detected in the nasal concha and trachea. Dexamethasone treatment at 60-64 days PI could produce less severe clinical features and the second necroppsy at 69 days PI also results in less severe pathological responses. The findings also suggest that the pathogenicity of BHV-1 local isolates were as follows: isolates I, II, IV and III.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. The aim of this study was to assess BTB prevalence at an intensive contact interface in Meskan Woreda (district in cattle, small ruminants and suspected TB-lymphadenitis (TBLN human patients. Methods The comparative intradermal test (CIDT was carried out for all animals involved in the cross-sectional study and results interpreted using a > 4 mm and a > 2 mm cut-off. One PPD positive goat was slaughtered and lymph nodes subjected to culture and molecular typing. In the same villages, people with lymphadenitis were subjected to clinical examination. Fine needle aspirates (FNA were taken from suspected TBLN and analyzed by smear microscopy and molecular typing. Results A total of 1214 cattle and 406 small ruminants were tested for BTB. In cattle, overall individual prevalence (> 2 mm cut-off was 6.8% (CI: 5.4-8.5% with 100% herd prevalence. Only three small ruminants (2 sheep and 1 goat were reactors. The overall individual prevalence in small ruminants (> 2 mm cut-off was 0.4% (CI: 0.03-5.1% with 25% herd prevalence. Cattle from owners with PPD positive small ruminants were all PPD negative. 83% of the owners kept their sheep and goats inside their house at night and 5% drank regularly goat milk. FNAs were taken from 33 TBLN suspected cases out of a total of 127 screened individuals with lymph node swellings. Based on cytology results, 12 were confirmed TBLN cases. Nine out of 33 cultures were AFB positive. Culture positive samples were subjected to molecular typing and they all yielded M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis was also isolated from the goat that was slaughtered. Conclusions This study highlighted a low BTB prevalence in sheep and goats despite intensive contact with cattle reactors. TBLN in humans was caused entirely by M. tuberculosis, the human pathogen. M. tuberculosis seems to circulate also in livestock but their role at the interface is unknown.
Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış
Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection. PMID:25708566
Varga, Noemi; Varallyay, Erika Bertalanne; Salamon, Lajos
The political and economical changes in 1989 and 90 influenced Hungaryâ€™s agriculture greatly. The transition hit the branches of animal husbandry more than plant growing. Cattle husbandry is one of the most important branches of agriculture in Hungary. Its production is equally important both for the domestic and for export markets. Under the present market conditions Hungary will only be able to maintain its cattle stock if the profitability and competitiveness of the branch can be enhance...
Hayes M; Ashe S; Collins DM; Power S; Kenny K; Sheahan M; O'Hagan G; More SJ
Abstract Since 1998, there has been a steady decline in herd restrictions and de-populations in Ireland due to bovine brucellosis. There is concern that the interpretation of laboratory results may become increasingly problematic, as brucellosis prevalence falls in Ireland. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the infection status of Irish herds and animals with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis. During 12 months from September 1, 2004, laboratory ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The definite diagnosis of prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in humans or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle currently relies on the post mortem detection of the pathological form of the prion protein (PrPSc in brain tissue. Infectivity studies indicate that PrPSc may also be present in body fluids, even at presymptomatic stages of the disease, albeit at concentrations well below the detection limits of currently available analytical methods. Results We developed a highly sensitive method for detecting prion protein aggregates that takes advantage of kinetic differences between seeded and unseeded polymerization of prion protein monomers. Detection of the aggregates was carried out by flow cytometry. In the presence of prion seeds, the association of labelled recombinant PrP monomers in plasma and serum proceeds much more efficiently than in the absence of seeds. In a diagnostic model system, synthetic PrP aggregates were detected down to a concentration of approximately 10-8 nM [0.24 fg/ml]. A specific signal was detected in six out of six available serum samples from BSE-positive cattle. Conclusion We have developed a method based on seed-dependent PrP fibril formation that shows promising results in differentiating a small number of BSE-positive serum samples from healthy controls. This method may provide the basis for an ante mortem diagnostic test for prion diseases.
Amira Mohamed Elhassan
Full Text Available The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. A total of 140 samples comprising of vaginal swab (n=97, placenta (n=15, whole blood (n=19, uterine fluid (n=1, and serum (n=8 were collected from 16 dairy herds showing particularly high rate of abortion and infertility in Khartoum State. The samples were used for virus isolation, and were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. No virus could be isolated from the samples inoculated for isolation in cell culture. Out of 80 specimens tested by ELISA, 7 (8.75% were found to be positive, and one sample was doubtful. Using PCR, 11 (10.7% out of 103 samples were found to be positive. When comparing between two methods for DNA extraction, the DNA extracted by commercial kit was found to be better in quality as compared to the DNA extracted using phenol/chloroform/isoamyl-alcohol method. The study confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 in cattle farms with reproductive problems in Sudan.
Full Text Available This report describes the histopathology of two hundred and fifty-three mesenchymal tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle grazing on lands rich in bracken fern. Approximately 80% were hemangiomas and angiosarcomas. Hemangioma (capillary, cavernous, and large vessels was the most frequent mesenchymal tumor and was more common than angiosarcoma. Although the appearance of endothelial cells can vary remarkably, epithelioid angiosarcomas, often containing multinucleated cells, were the most frequent malignant vascular tumors. Hemangiopericytoma and tumors of muscle and soft connective tissue origin, alone and/or in association with tumor-like lesions, were less frequently seen. Furthermore, forty-five cases of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH, a lesion not previously reported in the urinary bladder of cattle, were also described. Bovine papillomavirus type-2 DNA was amplified in tumor samples. Forty vascular tumors were investigated by dual-labeling immunofluorescence, and, for the first time, a coexpression of E5 and platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR was shown to occur. The results show that the BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein binds to the activated form of the PDGFβ receptor thus playing an important role in mesenchymal as well as epithelial carcinogenesis of the urinary bladder. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that BPV-2 infects both epithelial and mesenchymal cells.
Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Landis, C; Miles, D G; Smith, R A; Saliki, J T; Ridpath, J F; Confer, A W; Neill, J D; Eberle, R; Clement, T J; Chase, C C L; Burge, L J; Payton, M E
This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected from 114 cattle on initial BRD treatment. Processing included modified live virus (MLV) vaccination. Seven BRD necropsy cases were included for 121 total cases. Mean number of days on feed before first sample was 14.9 days. Swabs and tissue homogenates were tested by gel based PCR (G-PCR), quantitative-PCR (qPCR) and quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and viral culture. There were 87/114 (76.3%) swabs positive for at least one virus by at least one test. All necropsy cases were positive for at least one virus. Of 121 cases, positives included 18/121 (14.9%) BoHV-1; 19/121 (15.7%) BVDV; 76/121 (62.8%) BoCV; 11/121 (9.1%) BRSV; and 10/121 (8.3%) PI3V. For nasal swabs, G-PCR (5 viruses) detected 44/114 (38.6%); q-PCR and qRT-PCR (4 viruses) detected 81/114 (71.6%); and virus isolation detected 40/114 (35.1%). Most were positive for only one or two tests, but not all three tests. Necropsy cases had positives: 5/7 G-PCR, 5/7 q-PCR and qRT-PCR, and all were positive by cell culture. In some cases, G-PCR and both real time PCR were negative for BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V in samples positive by culture. PCR did not differentiate field from vaccines strains of BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V. However based on sequencing and analysis, field and vaccine strains of culture positive BoHV-1, BoCV, BVDV, and PI3V, 11/18 (61.1%) of BoHV-1 isolates, 6/17 (35.3%) BVDV isolates, and 1/10 (10.0%) PI3V identified as vaccine. BRSV was only identified by PCR testing. Interpretation of laboratory tests is appropriate as molecular based tests and virus isolation cannot separate field from vaccine strains. Additional testing using sequencing appears appropriate for identifying vaccine
Stack Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Various clinical protocols have been developed to aid in the clinical diagnosis of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, which is confirmed by postmortem examinations based on vacuolation and accumulation of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd in the brain. The present study investigated the occurrence and progression of sixty selected clinical signs and behaviour combinations in 513 experimentally exposed cattle subsequently categorised postmortem as confirmed or unconfirmed BSE cases. Appropriate undosed or saline inoculated controls were examined similarly and the data analysed to explore the possible occurrence of BSE-specific clinical expression in animals unconfirmed by postmortem examinations. Results Based on the display of selected behavioural, sensory and locomotor changes, 20 (67% orally dosed and 17 (77% intracerebrally inoculated pathologically confirmed BSE cases and 21 (13% orally dosed and 18 (6% intracerebrally inoculated but unconfirmed cases were considered clinical BSE suspects. None of 103 controls showed significant signs and were all negative on diagnostic postmortem examinations. Signs indicative of BSE suspects, particularly over-reactivity and ataxia, were more frequently displayed in confirmed cases with vacuolar changes in the brain. The display of several BSE-associated signs over time, including repeated startle responses and nervousness, was significantly more frequent in confirmed BSE cases compared to controls, but these two signs were also significantly more frequent in orally dosed cattle unconfirmed by postmortem examinations. Conclusions The findings confirm that in experimentally infected cattle clinical abnormalities indicative of BSE are accompanied by vacuolar changes and PrPd accumulation in the brainstem. The presence of more frequently expressed signs in cases with vacuolar changes is consistent with this pathology representing a more advanced stage of disease. That
Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Alban, L.
simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three...... slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current...... the current meat inspection and under the investigated risk-based meat inspection systems. Therefore, improving the sensitivity of the methods used for inspection of high-risk cattle would be beneficial....
Ermilton Junio Pereira de Freitas
Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1, is responsible for clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, conjunctivitis, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis. This virus has been responsible for major losses in different productive and reproductive herds in the country. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in beef heifers not vaccinated in Microregion of Imperatriz, Maranhao, and identify the age group most affected by the virus, as well as a study of factors associated with virus infection and to evaluate the indirect ELISA using the serum neutralization (SN as a reference standard. The study was conducted in 48 herds, cutting, distributed in 12 counties of Microregion of Imperatriz. The samples were collected from female cattle stratified into three age groups, ? 12 months, between 12 and 36 months and ? 36 months of age. The samples were subjected to two serological tests, ELISA and SN. In each herd, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied in order to obtain information on management and reproductive sanitary, for the study of risk factors. The frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in Microregion of Imperatriz was 63.23%, and the municipalities of Açailândia Buritirana showed the highest frequencies, both with 80.44%, the most affected age group, the Microregion, was animals aged ? 36 months (69.65%. Based on the results we can conclude that the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 is high, between the age groups most affected were the animals aged ? 36 months were considered risk factors for virus transmission, return to estrus (OR=1.874, recovery of animals from other states / region (OR=1.365 and the creation of goat / sheep associated with bovine (OR=1.348, the indirect ELISA technique showed moderate concordance when compared to SN technique, which is the gold standard technique for diagnosis of BoHV-1.
Neill John D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were
Matera, J A; Wilson, B K; Hernandez Gifford, J A; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Gifford, C A
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Significant inflammation and lesions are often observed in lungs of infected cattle. During acute inflammatory responses, histones contribute to mortality in rodents and humans and serum proteins can protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that cattle experiencing chronic or fatal cases of BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxic effects of histones. Serum samples were collected from 66 bull calves at the time of normal feedlot processing procedures. Animals were retrospectively assigned to groups consisting of calves never treated for BRDC (control [CONT]; n = 10), calves treated with antimicrobials once for BRDC (1T; n = 16), calves treated twice for BRDC (2T; n = 13), calves treated 3 times for BRDC (3T; n = 14), or calves treated 4 times for BRDC (4T; n = 13). Samples were also collected each time animals received antimicrobial treatment; animals within a group were further sorted by calves that recovered and calves that died to test histone cytotoxicity. Bovine kidney cells were cultured in duplicate in 96-well plates and exposed to 0 or 50 μg/mL of total histones for 18 h with 1% serum from each animal. Cell viability was assessed by the addition of resazurin for 6 h followed by fluorescent quantification. Fluorescent values from serum alone were subtracted from values obtained for histone treatment for each animal. Serum from CONT, 1T, and 2T at initial processing all exhibited a similar (P > 0.10) response to histone treatment with fluorescent values of -312 ± 557, -1,059 ± 441, and -975 ± 489, respectively. However, 3T and 4T demonstrated an impaired capacity (P < 0.05) to protect against histones (-2,778 ± 471 and -3,026 ± 489) at initial processing when compared to the other groups. When sorted by mortality within group, calves that were treated twice and recovered (-847 ± 331) demonstrated a greater (P
Alban, L.; Stryhn, H.; Kjeldsen, A.M.; Ersbøll, A. K.; Skjøth, F.; Christensen, J.; Bitsch, V.; Chriél, Mariann; Strøger, U.
To study how routinely recorded data (also called "register data") might be used in disease monitoring on a regional or national level, a database for bovine virus-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was made from existing databases, covering the period January 1995-November 1999. This paper includes a general...
Ali Abdirahman A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects. Genetic correlations between IBK incidence
DeAtley, K L; Rincon, G; Farber, C R; Medrano, J F; Luna-Nevarez, P; Enns, R M; VanLeeuwen, D M; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G
ETH10 is a dinucleotide microsatellite within the promoter of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) gene on bovine chromosome 5. ETH10 is included in the panel of genetic markers used in parentage testing procedures of cattle breed associations. Allelic sizes of ETH10 PCR amplicons range from 199 to 225 bp. Objectives of this study were to use microsatellite data from beef cattle breed associations to investigate genetic distance and population stratification among Angus- and Brahman-influenced cattle and to use ETH10 genotypes and growth and ultrasound carcass data to investigate their statistical relationships. Three series of genotype to phenotype association analyses were conducted with 1) Angus data (n=5,094), 2) Brangus data (3/8 Brahman × 5/8 Angus; n=2,296), and 3) multibreed data (n=4,426) of Angus and Brangus cattle. Thirteen alleles and 38 genotypes were observed, but frequencies varied among breed groups. Tests of genetic identity and distance among 6 breed composition groups increasing in Brahman influence from 0 to 75% revealed that as Brahman-influence increased to ≥50%, genetic distance from Angus ranged from 18.3 to 43.5%. This was accomplished with 10 microsatellite loci. A mixed effects model involving genotype as a fixed effect and sire as a random source of variation suggested that Angus cattle with the 217/219 genotype tended to have 2.1% heavier (P=0.07) 205-d BW than other genotypes. In Brangus cattle, allele combinations were classified as small (≤215 bp) or large (≥217 bp). Brangus cattle with the small/large genotype had 2.0% heavier (PBrangus cattle. Results from this study provide support for STAT6 as one of the candidate genes underlying cattle growth QTL on chromosome 5. PMID:21357449
Loy John Dustin; Gander Jill; Mogler Mark; Vander Veen Ryan; Ridpath Julia; Harris Delbert Hank; Kamrud Kurt
Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating, DIVA compatible, and can induce both humoral and cell mediated immune responses. This is the first experiment to demonstrate that Alphavirus-based replicon particles can be ut...
Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; Gallagher, Martin; McBride, Stewart; Skuce, Robin; Menzies, Fraser; McNair, Jim; McDowell, Stanley W. J.; Byrne, Andrew W.
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a serious infectious disease that remains an ongoing concern for cattle farming worldwide. Tuberculin skin-tests are often used to identify infected animals (reactors) during test-and-cull programs, however, due to relatively poor sensitivity, additional tests can be implemented in parallel. For example, in Northern Ireland interferon-gamma (IFN-g) testing is used in high-risk herds. However, skin-test negative animals which are pos...
Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have
Jovanović S.; Savić M.; Aleksić S.; Živković D.
Basic principles that inform organic livestock production are reviewed in this paper, with special emphasis on milk and meat production in cattle and sheep. Research findings to date are presented on the impact of various management practices, both organic and conventional, as they effect product yield and quality. The importance of incorporating autochnochous breeds into organic milk and meat production systems is particularly emphasized. Additionally, a g...
Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. The primary propagators of the virus are immunotolerant persistently infected (PI cattle, which shed large quantities of virus throughout life. Despite the absence of an acquired immunity against BVDV in these PI cattle there are strong indications of viral variability that are of clinical and epidemiological importance. In this study the variability of E2 and NS5B sequences in multiple body compartments of PI cattle were characterized using clonal sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BVDV exists as a quasispecies within PI cattle. Viral variants were clustered by tissue compartment significantly more often than expected by chance alone with the central nervous system appearing to be a particularly important viral reservoir. We also found strong indications for a genetic bottleneck during vertical transmission from PI animals to their offspring. These quasispecies analyses within PI cattle exemplify the role of the PI host in viral propagation and highlight the complex dynamics of BVDV pathogenesis, transmission and evolution.
Catalano, Deborah; Biasibetti, Elena; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa
"Ormilo" disease is a neurological disorder of cattle described by Maasai herders in Tanzania. It is attributed to infection by Theileria species, although no detailed data are available in the literature. The authors describe the macroscopical and histological changes observed in 30 brains of indigenous short-horn zebu cattle from Northern Tanzania, aged 2-9 years, with the characteristic neurological signs of "Ormilo". Moreover, the ultrastructural details observed in 14 selected brain samples were reported. Areas of congestion and hemorrhages, associated with the obstruction of the cerebral vessels with large numbers of parasitized lymphoid cells, were observed. Electron microscopy showed the presence of intralymphocytic parasites morphologically comparable to flagellated protozoa, not previously described in the lymphoid cells of cattle, but only reported during the sexual stages within the vector. Theileria taurotragi was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) in nine samples. The authors hypothesize that the parasite detected by electron microscopy could be a strain of a Theileria endemic to this region till now not investigated, having an intralymphocytic phase and being associated with other Theileria spp. infestation. Further studies are needed to better understand the etiology of "Ormilo" disease and to characterize the morphology of the observed parasite, clarifying its role in the disease in Tanzania. PMID:25851929
Khatoon, S.; S.W. Kolte; Kurkure, N. V.; Chopde, N. A.; Jahan, A.
Tropical bovine theileriosis, a tick borne disease, caused by, Theileria annulata with marked clinical signs of pyrexia (102–105 °F), enlargement of lymphnodes etc., causes heavy economic losses in terms of high mortality and morbidity rates. Diagnosis of theileriosis is mainly based on clinical symptoms and microscopic examination of stained blood smears and lymph node biopsy smears but limitations of these methods against Theileria sp. limits the specificity. Hence, to overcome the limitati...
Gates, M Carolyn; Volkova, Victoriya V.; Woolhouse, Mark EJ
BackgroundBovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains difficult to eradicate from low incidence regions partly due to the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of routine intradermal tuberculin testing. Herds with unconfirmed reactors that are incorrectly classified as bTB-negative may be at risk of spreading disease, while those that are incorrectly classified as bTB-positive may be subject to costly disease eradication measures. This analysis used data from Scotland in the period leading to Officiall...
Gates, M Carolyn; Volkova, Victoriya V.; Woolhouse, Mark EJ
Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains difficult to eradicate from low incidence regions partly due to the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of routine intradermal tuberculin testing. Herds with unconfirmed reactors that are incorrectly classified as bTB-negative may be at risk of spreading disease, while those that are incorrectly classified as bTB-positive may be subject to costly disease eradication measures. This analysis used data from Scotland in the period leading to Official...
H. Leon Thacker; Maria Negron; Duane A. Murphy; Raizman, Eran A.; Schnur, Megan E.; Roman M. Pogranichniy
Species and biotype distribution was determined in 44 bovine viral diarrhea virus- (BVDV-) positive samples submitted to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (ADDL) in Indiana during 2006–2008. BVDV RNA was detected in the 5′-untranslated region and Npro region using reverse transcriptase PCR followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product. Additionally, cases were classified into one of six categories according to history and/or lesions: acute symptomatic, hemorrhagic, respiratory dis...
Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in cattle herds in Great Britain, with a substantial economic impact. A reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis within the Eurasian badger (Meles meles population is thought to have hindered disease control. Cattle herd incidents, termed breakdowns, that are either 'prolonged' (lasting ≥ 240 days or 'recurrent' (with another breakdown within a specified time period may be important foci for onward spread of infection. They drain veterinary resources and can be demoralising for farmers. Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT data were re-analysed to examine the effects of two culling strategies on breakdown prolongation and recurrence, during and after culling, using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Separate effect estimates were obtained for the 'core' trial areas (where culling occurred and the 'buffer' zones (up to 2 km outside of the core areas. For breakdowns that started during the culling period, 'reactive' (localised culling was associated with marginally increased odds of prolongation, with an odds ratio (OR of 1.7 (95% credible interval [CI] 1.1-2.4 within the core areas. This effect was not present after the culling ceased. There was no notable effect of 'proactive' culling on prolongation. In contrast, reactive culling had no effect on breakdown recurrence, though there was evidence of a reduced risk of recurrence in proactive core areas during the culling period (ORs and 95% CIs: 0.82 (0.64-1.0 and 0.69 (0.54-0.86 for 24- and 36-month recurrence respectively. Again these effects were not present after the culling ceased. There seemed to be no effect of culling on breakdown prolongation or recurrence in the buffer zones. These results suggest that the RBCT badger culling strategies are unlikely to reduce either the prolongation or recurrence of breakdowns in the long term, and that reactive strategies (such as employed during the RBCT are, if anything, likely to impact detrimentally on breakdown persistence.
Pâmela A. Alexandre
Full Text Available The Nuclear receptor 1 family I member 3 (NR1I3, also known as the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, was initially characterized as a key regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. However, recent biochemical and structural data suggest that NR1I3 is activated in response to metabolic and nutritional stress in a ligand-independent manner. Thus, we prospected the Bovine NR1I3 gene for polymorphisms and studied their association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle. First, 155 purebred Nellore bulls were individually measured for Residual Feed Intake (RFI and the 25 best (High Feed Efficiency group, HFE and the 25 worst animals (Low Feed Efficiency group, LFE were selected for DNA extraction. The entire Bovine NR1I3 gene was amplified and polymorphisms were identified by sequencing. Then, one SNP different between HFE and LFE groups was genotyped in all the 155 animals and in another 288 animals totalizing 443 Nellore bulls genotyped for association of NR1I3 SNPs with feed efficiency traits. We found 24 SNPs in the NR1I3 gene and choose a statistically different SNP between HFE and LFE groups for further analysis. Genotyping of the 155 animals showed a significant association within SNP and RFI (p = 0.04, Residual Intake and BW Gain (p = 0.04 and Dry Matter Intake (p = 0.01. This SNP is located in the 5′flanking promoter region of NR1I3 gene and different alleles alter the binding site for predicted transcriptional factors as HNF4alpha, CREM and c-MYB, leading us to conclude that NR1I3 expression and regulation might be important to feed efficiency.
Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil
Laerte Francisco Filippsen
Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.
Kwon, Anam; SRIKANTH, KRISHNAMOORTHY; Lee, Eunjin; Kim, Seonkwan; Chung, Hoyoung
Background Our previous study had identified the SNP (g.81966377T > C) and indel (g.81966364D > I) located in the promoter of APM1 to have a significant effect on marbling in Hanwoo. APM1 encodes an adipocytokine called adiponectin, which plays a significant role in lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to verify and validate the effect of the SNP and indel on marbling and other carcass traits in a large, representative, countrywide population of Hanwoo cattle. The carcass traits measured we...
Byrne Keren A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The muscle fiber number and fiber composition of muscle is largely determined during prenatal development. In order to discover genes that are involved in determining adult muscle phenotypes, we studied the gene expression profile of developing fetal bovine longissimus muscle from animals with two different genetic backgrounds using a bovine cDNA microarray. Fetal longissimus muscle was sampled at 4 stages of myogenesis and muscle maturation: primary myogenesis (d 60, secondary myogenesis (d 135, as well as beginning (d 195 and final stages (birth of functional differentiation of muscle fibers. All fetuses and newborns (total n = 24 were from Hereford dams and crossed with either Wagyu (high intramuscular fat or Piedmontese (GDF8 mutant sires, genotypes that vary markedly in muscle and compositional characteristics later in postnatal life. Results We obtained expression profiles of three individuals for each time point and genotype to allow comparisons across time and between sire breeds. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of RNA from developing longissimus muscle was able to validate the differential expression patterns observed for a selection of differentially expressed genes, with one exception. We detected large-scale changes in temporal gene expression between the four developmental stages in genes coding for extracellular matrix and for muscle fiber structural and metabolic proteins. FSTL1 and IGFBP5 were two genes implicated in growth and differentiation that showed developmentally regulated expression levels in fetal muscle. An abundantly expressed gene with no functional annotation was found to be developmentally regulated in the same manner as muscle structural proteins. We also observed differences in gene expression profiles between the two different sire breeds. Wagyu-sired calves showed higher expression of fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5 RNA at birth. The developing longissimus muscle of
Tian, W Q; Wang, H C; Song, F B; Zan, L S; Wang, H; Wang, H B; Xin, Y P; Ujan, J A
Qinchuan is a red or yellow draft and beef breed in China. In order to identify a predictor of carcass traits on the basis of associations between carcass traits and gene polymorphism, variation in the bovine chemerin gene was investigated using PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism and DNA sequencing. An SNP of A868G located in exon 2 of the Bos taurus chemerin gene was detected in 716 samples of six breeds (Jiaxian red, Luxi, Nan yang, Qinchuan, Simmental and Luxi crossbred steers, and Xia'nan), all in China, and three genotypes (AA, AG and GG) were found. Based on the χ(2) test, the AA/AG/GG genotype frequencies of all six breeds were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A possible association of A868G with some carcass traits was investigated in 106 Qinchuan cattle. Animals with the AG genotype were found to have significantly lower mean loin eye area and meat tenderness compared to those with the AA and GG genotypes. However, there was no significant association between any individual haplotype and backfat thickness, water holding capacity or marbling score. We suggest that A868G could be used as a molecular marker in marker-assisted selection for carcass traits. PMID:22095607
Wang, Jinghui; Yang, Yinfeng; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections are prevailing in cattle populations on a worldwide scale. The BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), as a promising target for new anti-BVDV drug development, has attracted increasing attention. To explore the interaction mechanism of 65 benzimidazole scaffold-based derivatives as BVDV inhibitors, presently, a computational study was performed based on a combination of 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The resultant optimum CoMFA and CoMSIA models present proper reliabilities and strong predictive abilities (with Q(2) = 0. 64, R(2)ncv = 0.93, R(2)pred = 0.80 and Q(2) = 0. 65, R(2)ncv = 0.98, R(2)pred = 0.86, respectively). In addition, there was good concordance between these models, molecular docking, and MD results. Moreover, the MM-PBSA energy analysis reveals that the major driving force for ligand binding is the polar solvation contribution term. Hopefully, these models and the obtained findings could offer better understanding of the interaction mechanism of BVDV inhibitors as well as benefit the new discovery of more potent BVDV inhibitors. PMID:27355875
D'Angelino, Rubens Henrique Ramos; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Harakava, Ricardo; Gregori, Fábio
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was investigated in the central nervous system (CNS) of cattle with neurological syndrome. A total of 269 CNS samples were submitted to nested-PCR (BLV env gene gp51), and the viral genotypes were identified. The nested-PCR was positive in 4.8% (13/269) CNS samples, with 2.7% (2/74) presenting at histological examination lesions of nonpurulent meningoencephalitis (NPME), whereas 5.6% (11/195) not presenting NPME (P > 0.05). No samples presented lymphosarcoma. The PCR products (437 bp) were sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis by neighbor-joining and maximum composite likelihood methods, and genotypes 1, 5, and 6 were detected, corroborating other South American studies. The genotype 6 barely described in Brazil and Argentina was more frequently detected in this study. The identity matrices showed maximum similarity (100%) among some samples of this study and one from Argentina (FJ808582), recovered from GenBank. There was no association among the genotypes and NPME lesions. PMID:23710448
Wilmar Sachetin Marçal
Full Text Available The author presents a revision about bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum, L. Kuhn, in cattle, raised in the state of the Paraná. This toxic plant represents huge damages to the creators in the state and is being disseminated quickly, becoming the toxic plant of negative consequences to the health of the cattle. The author also describe climatic and environmental conditions about proliferation of Bracken fern in the Parana state, Brazil.O autor apresenta uma revisão sobre a intoxicação por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum, L. Kuhn, em bovinos, criados no estado do Paraná. Esta planta representa enormes prejuízos aos criadores no estado e está se disseminando rapidamente, tornando-se a planta tóxica de maiores conseqüências negativas à saúde dos bovinos, havendo condições ambientais e climáticas favorecedoras de sua proliferação nas pastagens paranaenses.
Mathews, John A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Competitive Dynamics and Global Strategy, LUISS Guido Carli University, Viale Romania 32, 00197 Roma (Italy); Tan Hao, E-mail: H.Tan@uws.edu.au [School of Management and CInIS Research Group, University of Western Sydney, Parramatta, Sydney, NSW 2150 (Australia); Moore, Michael J.B., E-mail: MichaelMoore@ShelstonIP.com [Level 21, 60 Margaret Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia); Bell, Geoff, E-mail: Geoff.Bell@microbiogen.com [Microbiogen Pty Ltd. Unit E2, Lane Cove Business Park, 16 Mars Road, Lane Cove, NSW 2066 (Australia)
It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: > A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. > Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. > In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. > In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.
Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A
Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic. PMID:8341665
Roman M. Pogranichniy
Full Text Available Species and biotype distribution was determined in 44 bovine viral diarrhea virus- (BVDV- positive samples submitted to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (ADDL in Indiana during 2006–2008. BVDV RNA was detected in the 5′-untranslated region and Npro region using reverse transcriptase PCR followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product. Additionally, cases were classified into one of six categories according to history and/or lesions: acute symptomatic, hemorrhagic, respiratory distress, reproductive, persistent infection (PI, and mucosal disease (MD. Of 44 BVDV-positive samples, 33 were noncytopathic (ncp, 10 were cytopathic (cp, and one presented both ncp and cp biotypes. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that all samples belonged to BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, or BVDV-2. The most common isolate was ncp BVDV-1b, (44% followed by ncp BVDV-2a (24%. Among the six categories, respiratory clinical signs were the most common (36% followed by PI (25% and MD (16%.
Full Text Available Adaptability of Brown breed on the plain area it is possible in conditions that provide housing and nutrition technologies concordant with morpho-physiological necessity. Advance of productive level, over 7000 kg per lactation, in accomplish condition of six lactations average per productive period, is one definitive element regarding adaptation capacity. Accomplishment of some morphological and productive parameters in economic conditions comparable with Frisian breed is still one element authentic zoo-approbatory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of adaptability and productive longevity of one nucleus of Brown breed from the Research and Development Station for Bovine Raising – Arad along of ten years on the plain area.
Full Text Available An important outcome of intensive worldwide Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE obtained with the surveillance by The National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/figures. htm, has been the detection of atypical BSE in cattle. The discovery of a prion protein gene (PRNP E211K variant in an atypical BSE case is particularly remarkable because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K, which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Knowledge of the distribution and frequency of PRNP E211K variants in cattle populations is critical for understanding and managing atypical BSE. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the E211K variant in the South-East Asia bovine populations and in the Japanese cattle breeds. It was discovered that E211K variant was monomorphic for a G allele and the GG genotype in the 745 animals analyzed in this study. Therefore, neither the Bos indicus nor the Bos taurus animals analyzed are presently known to harbor the 211K variant predicting that the number of carriers for this variant will also be vanishingly low.
豆晓峰; 马建荣; 马桂平; 王耀平; 张晓琴; 马宝华; 黎文斌; 樊天喜; 马智录
采取现场调查和排污系数推算相结合的方法。研究区域内规模养牛粪便和污物的区域分布、污染类型、产生量、排放量及其综合利用情况。表明：区域内牛粪尿年排放总量100.85×104 t,其中：规模养牛粪尿年排放总量29.47×104 t,养牛小区、场和大户各占21.41%、24.49%和54.10%。COD 年排放668.07×104 kg,BOD 年排放432.72×104 kg, NH 3-N 年排放总量为67.79×104 kg,N 年排放量在为65.01×104 kg,P 年排放量为27.50×104 kg。粪便负荷量7.83 t/hm2,占总负荷量21.53 t/hm2的36.37%。年流失量2.38×104 t,占8.08%。进行臭源监测和臭气评价,牛舍内 H 2 S 0.15 mg/m3,NH 32.77 mg/m3。综合利用率91.92%。%To study a certain area raising cattle in a large scale from some aspects,such as faeces,re-gional distribution of dirt,the pollution type,output,emissions and comprehensive utilization.the adopt the method of field investigations combining with calculation of pollution discharging coefficient was car-ried out.The results showed that the total annual emissions of excreta was 100.85×10 4 t in intra-area, and the total annual emissions of excreta was 29.47 ×10 4 t in the area which raise cattle in a large scale. The cattle raised village,field and large field each accounted for 21.41%,24.49% and 24.49%,respec-tively.Moreover,the annual emissions of COD was 668.07×104kg,and the annual emissions of BOD was 432.72×10 4 kg.The annual emissions of NH3 was 67.79×10 4 kg,and the annual emissions of N was 65. 01×10 4 kg.The annual emissions of P was 27.50×10 4 kg.The payload of faeces was 7.83 t/hm2 ,and it took 36.37% of the total load which was 21.53 t/hm2 .The loss amount of every year was 2.38×10 4 ,tak-ing 8.08% of the total amount.There was H 2 S (0.15 mg/m3 )and NH 3 (2.77 mg/m3 )in cattle stall;the rate of multipurpose utilization was 91.92%.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling (intramuscular fat is a valuable trait that impacts on meat quality and an important factor determining price of beef in the Korean beef market. Animals that are destined for this high marbling market are fed a high concentrate ration for approximately 30 months in the Korean finishing farms. However, this feeding strategy leads to inefficiencies and excessive fat production. This study aimed to identify candidate genes and pathways associated with intramuscular fat deposition on highly divergent marbling phenotypes in adult Hanwoo cattle. Results Bovine genome array analysis was conducted to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs in m. longissimus with divergent marbling phenotype (marbling score 2 to 7. Three data-processing methods (MAS5.0, GCRMA and RMA were used to test for differential expression (DE. Statistical analysis identified 21 significant transcripts from at least two data-processing methods (P . All 21 differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR. Results showed a high concordance in the gene expression fold change between the microarrays and the real time PCR data. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway analysis demonstrated that some genes (ADAMTS4, CYP51A and SQLE over expressed in high marbled animals are involved in a protein catabolic process and a cholesterol biosynthesis process. In addition, pathway analysis also revealed that ADAMTS4 is activated by three regulators (IL-17A, TNFα and TGFβ1. QRT-PCR was used to investigate gene expression of these regulators in muscle with divergent intramuscular fat contents. The results demonstrate that ADAMTS4 and TGFβ1 are associated with increasing marbling fat. An ADAMTS4/TGFβ1 pathway seems to be associated with the phenotypic differences between high and low marbled groups. Conclusions Marbling differences are possibly a function of complex signaling pathway interactions between muscle and fat. These results suggest that ADAMTS4
Hayes, M; Ashe, S; Collins, Dm; Power, S; Kenny, K; Sheahan, M; O'Hagan, G; More, Sj
Since 1998, there has been a steady decline in herd restrictions and de-populations in Ireland due to bovine brucellosis. There is concern that the interpretation of laboratory results may become increasingly problematic, as brucellosis prevalence falls in Ireland. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the infection status of Irish herds and animals with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis. During 12 months from September 1, 2004, laboratory and observational epidemiological data were collected from all Irish herds where animal testing identified at least one animal with a complement fixation test (CFT) reading greater than zero and/or a positive result to the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Due to the observational nature of the study, we have robust estimates of the relative, but not the absolute, performance of the CFT, iELISA and brucellin skin test (BST). Herds were divided into three categories (Group A, B or C) on the basis of test results at initial assessment. A total of 639 herds were enrolled into the study, and observed for at least two years following enrolment. A rising CFT titre, with a CFT reading of 111 International CFT Units (IU) or greater at the subsequent blood test, was generally associated with herds where other evidence of infection was also available. Knowledge of the CFT reading at the initial and a subsequent blood test proved useful in distinguishing false-positive and true-positive brucellosis results. There was poor correlation between the CFT and iELISA results, and between the CFT and BST results. As a result of this study, national policy has been modified to include re-sampling of all animals with CFT readings of 20 IU or greater. This project has also led to a reduction in the number of herds restricted, as well as restriction duration. It has also contributed to a reduction in the number of herds listed for contiguous tests, and therefore the potential for contiguity
Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine. PMID:26552001
Full Text Available Abstract Since 1998, there has been a steady decline in herd restrictions and de-populations in Ireland due to bovine brucellosis. There is concern that the interpretation of laboratory results may become increasingly problematic, as brucellosis prevalence falls in Ireland. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the infection status of Irish herds and animals with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis. During 12 months from September 1, 2004, laboratory and observational epidemiological data were collected from all Irish herds where animal testing identified at least one animal with a complement fixation test (CFT reading greater than zero and/or a positive result to the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA. Due to the observational nature of the study, we have robust estimates of the relative, but not the absolute, performance of the CFT, iELISA and brucellin skin test (BST. Herds were divided into three categories (Group A, B or C on the basis of test results at initial assessment. A total of 639 herds were enrolled into the study, and observed for at least two years following enrolment. A rising CFT titre, with a CFT reading of 111 International CFT Units (IU or greater at the subsequent blood test, was generally associated with herds where other evidence of infection was also available. Knowledge of the CFT reading at the initial and a subsequent blood test proved useful in distinguishing false-positive and true-positive brucellosis results. There was poor correlation between the CFT and iELISA results, and between the CFT and BST results. As a result of this study, national policy has been modified to include re-sampling of all animals with CFT readings of 20 IU or greater. This project has also led to a reduction in the number of herds restricted, as well as restriction duration. It has also contributed to a reduction in the number of herds listed for contiguous tests, and therefore the
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect that a series of changes in the handling techniques used throughout the pre and post slaughter periods and during the handling of cooled carcass have on the presence of DFD (Dark, firm and dry meat. Materials and methods. Odds ratios (OR and confidence intervals were estimated applying logistic regression models. Data from 18 visits to the slaughterhouse regarding: animal handling on arrival, slaughter period, and carcass storage was obtained through the use of a questionnaire. A total of 572 carcasses were analyzed to determine DFD meat using pH and color (L*, a*, b* and C* measurements done on the Longissimus dorsi muscle. Results. Even after of the changes were made, the lairage period to slaughter continued to be a factor (p<0.05 associated to the presence of DFD meat (OR=1.13. Of the complementary variables, the amount of time that cattle spent on the resting pens was associated (p<0.05 to the presence of DFD meat (OR=1.003. Conclusions. Regardless of the changes made in the ante mortem handling, a high frequency of DFD was found (39%, suggesting a permanent audit program to detect other critical points in the supply chain.
McClurkin, A W; Coria, M F; Cutlip, R C
A Holstein-Friesian bull and three Holstein-Friesian cows were seronegative for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus but were persistently infected with the virus. Virus was isolated from buffy coat cells and nasal and lacrimal secretions during their lifetime, and they remained free of clinical signs of BVD. The three cows were pregnant when purchased, and they gave birth to full-term calves. One calf lived only a few hours, one calf became ill and died within a few days, and one calf became ill and was euthanatized within a few weeks. One cow was then bred and became pregnant but aborted a 7-month fetus. A second cow was bred approximately 5 months after parturition but did not conceive. The third cow was necropsied 6 weeks after calving, because of loss of weight. Although the bull's semen contained BVD virus when seropositive cows were bred, normal calves were born. When seronegative heifers were bred, they became seropositive to BVD virus within two weeks, with higher titers in six weeks. On heifer conceived after one service but aborted a 6-month fetus. Three others continued to have estrous cycles until their titers rose to 1:128, then they conceived and gave birth to normal calves. Another heifer conceived on the first service, had a titer of 1:128 two weeks after breeding, and gave birth to a normal calf. PMID:220208
Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.
Lunardi, Michele; de Camargo Tozato, Claudia; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo
Teat papillomatosis affects dairy cows worldwide. Milking can become difficult due to teat warts, and maintaining affected cows in the herds may diminish economic profit in the dairy industry. Currently, 13 bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types have been fully characterized, and numerous putative BPV types have been identified through partial L1 gene PCR. In order to identify the viral types present in warts on the udders of dairy cows, 40 teat lesions from 24 cows from 13 cattle farms in three States of Brazil were evaluated by PV L1 gene PCR. The warts that were evaluated contained sequences from BPVs 6-10, the putative BPV types BAPV9 and BAPV4, and two unreported putative papillomavirus (PV) types, named BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7. In addition, mixed infections and coinfections were identified, since more than one lesion was observed on the udders of 13 cows. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BPV/BR-UEL6 is closely related to BPVs belonging to the genus Xipapillomavirus, while BPV/BR-UEL7 clustered with the previously reported strains Cervus timorensis and Pudu puda PVs, which represent a putative new PV type, and it was only distantly related to xi-, epsilon-, delta- and dyoxi-PVs. These results provide information that will assist in the understanding of the association of BPVs 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, as well as putative BPV types BAPV4 and BAPV9, with mammary papillomatosis. This is the first characterization of putative novel PV types BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7 in teat warts of dairy cows, highlighting the high genetic diversity of BPVs associated with teat papillomatosis. PMID:26997614
Bayne, Jenna E; Walz, Paul H; Passler, Thomas; White, Brad J; Theurer, Miles E; van Santen, Edzard
OBJECTIVE To assess the use of 3-D accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with a low-virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). ANIMALS 20 beef steers (mean weight, 238 kg). PROCEDURES Calves were allocated to a BVDV (n = 10) or control (10) group. On day 0, calves in the BVDV group were inoculated with a low-virulent strain of BVDV (4 × 10(6) TCID50, intranasally), and calves in the control group were sham inoculated with BVDV-free medium (4 mL; intranasally). An accelerometer was affixed to the right hind limb of each calf on day -7 to record activity (lying, walking, and standing) continuously until 35 days after inoculation. Baseline was defined as days -7 to -1. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for CBC, serum biochemical analysis, virus isolation, and determination of anti-BVDV antibody titers. RESULTS All calves in the BVDV group developed viremia and anti-BVDV antibodies but developed only subclinical or mild disease. Calves in the control group did not develop viremia or anti-BVDV antibodies. Mean time allocated to each activity did not differ significantly between the BVDV and control groups on any day except day 8, when calves in the BVDV group spent less time standing than the calves in the control group. Following inoculation, calves in both groups tended to spend more time lying and less time walking and standing than they did during baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that behavioral data obtained by accelerometers could not distinguish calves subclinically infected with BVDV from healthy control calves. However, subtle changes in the behavior of the BVDV-infected calves were detected and warrant further investigation. PMID:27227496
Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; McNair, James; Skuce, Robin; McBride, Stewart; Allen, Michelle; Strain, Sam A J; Menzies, Fraser D; McDowell, Stanley J W; Byrne, Andrew W
Correctly identifying animals that are truly infected with a pathogen using ante-mortem tests is the cornerstone of any disease eradication programme. Failure to identify all infected animals will impede the progress towards controlling and eradicating disease and may also have unforeseen consequences when specific prevention measures are in place to avoid animal-to-animal transmission. In the case of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), the screening ante-mortem test, the Single Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test (SCITT), can exhibit moderate sensitivity which can result in a "hidden burden" of infection residing within the population. Using an animal-level dataset relating to the disclosure of infected cattle with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bTB within infected herds in Northern Ireland, we investigated what factors influenced the probability of an animal being a false-negative when truly infected (using post-mortem (PM) microbiological culture confirmation results to assess infection status). We found that different risk factors affected the probability of a test-negative outcome on infected animals depending on the ante-mortem test or their combination (SICTT and/or interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ) testing). Using multivariable models, SCITT disclosure performance varied significantly by age, location (region), and production type. The IFN-ɣ tests were significantly affected by region or season, but these effects depended on the cut-off used during interpretation of the test which affected the tests characteristics. Parallel use of SCITT and IFN-ɣ tests resulted in the least number of false-negatives, and their disclosure was affected by season and age-class. Understanding the factors that lead to the non-disclosure of infected animals is essential to optimise large-scale bTB disease eradication programmes. PMID:27474001
Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Masujin, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Takashi
H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE in aged cattle. H-BSE is characterized by the presence of two proteinase K-resistant forms of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)), identified as PrP(Sc) #1 and PrP(Sc) #2, in the brain. To investigate the coexistence of different PrP(Sc) forms in the extracerebral tissues of cattle experimentally infected with H-BSE, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses were performed by using N-terminal-, core-region- and C-terminal-specific anti-prion protein antibodies. Our results demonstrated that two distinct forms of PrP(Sc) coexisted in the various extracerebral tissues. PMID:27010466
Sun, Wu-Wen; Lv, Wen-Fa; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are important pathogens, commonly responsible for economical loss to cattle farms all over the world, yet their epidemiology in commercial dairy and beef cattle in China is still unknown. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with MAP and BLV infection. The source sample was 3674 cattle from 113 herds in northern and northeastern China. Antibodies against MAP and BLV were detected using ELISA tests. At animal-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 11.79% (433/3674) and 18.29% (672/3674), respectively. At herd-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 20.35% and 21.24% (24/113), respectively. Herd size was identified to be associated with MAP infection while herd size and presence of cattle introduced from other farms were significantly associated with BLV infection. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and improve the knowledge of the epidemiology of these two pathogens in these regions and elsewhere in China. PMID:26504798
A series of experiments is described in which the effects of irradiation on the infectivity of intra-erythrocytic piroplasms of Babesia divergens and B. major for cattle were investigated. Initially blood was taken from infected animals and stabilates of strains of the parasites were made and cryopreserved in an ultra-low deep-freeze. For each experiment, an aliquot of stabilate was inoculated into a splenectomized pre-donor calf and when this animal has a patent parasitaemia, a donor calf was infected by subinoculation. Blood was taken from the donor calf when 5 to 10% of its erythrocytes contained parasites. In the first two experiments, the parasites were titrated in groups of three splenectomized calves and it was seen that the strains maintained their pathogenic identities. Increasing dilution of the infective blood simply resulted in linear extension of the prepatent period. In the next pair of experiments, infected blood from the donor calves was irradiated at doses of 24 to 40 kilorads before inoculation into splenectomized calves. In these experiments irradiation has a marked effect on the pathogenic identity of the parasites. Not only were the prepatent periods extended, but animals receiving piroplasms irradiated at 24 and 28 kilorads had mild reactions whereas those receiving piroplasms irradiated at 36 and 40 kilorads had no overt reactions. Some animals receiving blood irradiated at 32 kilorads had mild reactions, others had none. On challenge the animals which had mild reactions were solidly immune and those having no reactions had limited protection. In the final pair of experiments intact calves received parasites irradiated at these same dose levels and the results were virtually identical. It was difficult to provoke severe reactions in intact animals to inoculation of infected blood, but the protection engendered by inoculation of irradiated piroplasms was clearly demonstrable. (author)
Donofrio, Gaetano; Flammini, Cesidio Filippo; Scatozza, Franco; Cavirani, Sandro
We have demonstrated, by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the PCR product, the presence of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) DNA in the cell fraction of milk from dairy cattle with a history of BoHV-4 infection. We next evaluated the infectious nature of BoHV-4 DNA in those cells. Cocultivation of a BoHV-4-sensitive cell line with BoHV-4 DNA-positive milk cell samples produced cytopathic effects. The same result was obtained from frozen and thawed milk cell fraction coming from the cell mil...
Abe, Yuri; Tamura, Tomokazu; Torii, Shiho; Wakamori, Shiho; Nagai, Makoto; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Mine, Junki; Fujimoto, Yuri; Nagashima, Naofumi; Yoshino, Fumi; Sugita, Yukihiko; Nomura, Takushi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro
In our previous study, we genetically analyzed bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) isolated from 2000 to 2006 in Japan and reported that subgenotype 1b viruses were predominant. In the present study, 766 BVDVs isolated from 2006 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan, were genetically analyzed to understand recent epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the 5'-untranslated region of viral genome revealed that 766 isolates were classified as genotype 1 (BVDV-1; 544 isolates) and genotype 2 (BVDV-2; 222). BVDV-1 isolates were further divided into BVDV-1a (93), 1b (371) and 1c (80) subgenotypes, and all BVDV-2 isolates were grouped into BVDV-2a subgenotype (222). Further comparative analysis was performed with BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a viruses isolated from 2001 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the viral glycoprotein E2 gene, a major target of neutralizing antibodies, revealed that BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were further classified into several clusters. Cross-neutralization tests showed that BVDV-1b isolates were antigenically different from BVDV-1a isolates, and almost BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were antigenically similar among each subgenotype and each E2 cluster. Taken together, BVDV-1b viruses are still predominant, and BVDV-2a viruses have increased recently in Hokkaido, Japan. Field isolates of BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a show genetic diversity on the E2 gene with antigenic conservation among each subgenotype during the last 14 years. PMID:26400674
Vanleeuwen, John A.; Forsythe, LeeAnn; Tiwari, Ashwani; Chartier, Renee
Blood was drawn from 1530 dairy cows in 51 herds. For antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum, 37.4%, 2.7%, and 5.6% of cows were test positive, respectively, while 29.2% of herds had unvaccinated animals with ≥ 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P48 associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised.
Russell Christopher D
Full Text Available Abstract Bovine mastitis remains the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle worldwide. A complementary control measure to herd hygiene and vaccine development would be to selectively breed cattle with greater resistance to mammary infection. Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1 has an integral role for the initiation and regulation of the immune response to microbial pathogens, and has been linked to numerous inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the bovine TLR1 gene (boTLR1 are associated with clinical mastitis (CM. Selected boTLR1 SNPs were analysed within a Holstein Friesian herd. Significant associations were found for the tagging SNP -79 T > G and the 3'UTR SNP +2463 C > T. We observed favourable linkage of reduced CM with increased milk fat and protein, indicating selection for these markers would not be detrimental to milk quality. Furthermore, we present evidence that some of these boTLR1 SNPs underpin functional variation in bovine TLR1. Animals with the GG genotype (from the tag SNP -79 T > G had significantly lower boTLR1 expression in milk somatic cells when compared with TT or TG animals. In addition, stimulation of leucocytes from GG animals with the TLR1-ligand Pam3csk4 resulted in significantly lower levels of CXCL8 mRNA and protein. SNPs in boTLR1 were significantly associated with CM. In addition we have identified a bovine population with impaired boTLR1 expression and function. This may have additional implications for animal health and warrants further investigation to determine the suitability of identified SNPs as markers for disease susceptibility.
Machila, Noreen; Wanyangu, Samuel W; McDermott, John; Welburn, Susan C; Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark C
A study using a structured questionnaire was conducted in Busia District, Western Kenya and Kwale District, Coastal Kenya to obtain qualitative and quantitative information from 256 cattle owners about their production systems, their perceptions of the diseases encountered in their cattle, the drugs used, and other measures adopted to control trypanosomiasis in cattle. The predominant production system was mixed crop-livestock with farmers owning 2-11 local cattle on holdings between 2 and 5 ha. Approximately 15% of disease episodes in cattle were perceived to be trypanosomiasis, although the farmers' ability to make diagnoses was limited in that over half of the diagnoses were inconsistent with the clinical signs described. Drugs were generally obtained from agro-veterinary shops, and the farmers themselves administered slightly more than half of these. One third of drug treatments given to sick cattle were trypanocides, but over half of these trypanocidal treatments were given to cattle believed to have diseases other than trypanosomiasis. PMID:12711100
Full text: Bovine brucellosis is a highly contagious disease caused by Brucella abortus. The principal manifestations of brucellosis are reproductive failure including mid- to late-term abortions or birth of unthrifty calves, infertility in cows and orchitis and epididymitis with frequent sterility in the male. The disease has a high prevalence in southern Africa, especially in intensively farmed areas, and is the most important bacterial cause of abortion on the subcontinent. Although cattle diseases can be partially controlled by the use of antimicrobials, pesticides, vaccines, isolation-and-quarantine, and test-and-slaughter policies, sustained losses due to infectious diseases continue to impede the livestock industry. For the past decade, the use of antimicrobials has been increasingly criticized because of the development of antimicrobial resistant pathogens and the dangers of residues in animal products used as food for human consumption. A balanced strategy in which drug use is minimized and the emphasis is placed on breeding disease resistant livestock must be considered. An area of recurrent interest in this regard is to increase the overall level of resistance in a herd by using selective breeding programs based on gene bases technologies. 'Natural disease resistance' refers to the inherent capacity of an animal to resist disease when exposed to pathogens, without prior exposure or immunization, of which the major component is heritable and, therefore, stably passed from parent to offspring. Because antibiotics cannot effectively cure bovine brucellosis, only three approaches are currently available to control the disease viz. a combination of vaccination, hygiene, and/or 'test and slaughter'. It was therefore decided to concentrate on the exploitation of natural resistance as a fourth important tool to control and eradicate the disease in South Africa. It has been shown that natural resistance to brucellosis can be dramatically increased by selection
Full Text Available The autochthonous “Piemontese” bovine breed is primarily raised for meat due to the high quality of production. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological, nutritional and chemical aspects of samples meat from cattle breeding “Piemontese”.
Ana Alexandra Vilela Marta Rio Costa
Full Text Available A actividade de exploração de gado bovino de raça autóctone tem sido encarada por muitos como o futuro sustentável da pecuária. Este trabalho pretende avaliar alguns aspectos que influenciam a sustentabilidade dos sistemas de produção adoptados pelas explorações agro-pecuárias, tomando como referência as que adoptam gado bovino de raça autóctone Maronesa, no triplo ponto de vista económico, social e ambiental. A recolha de informação foi realizada através de entrevistas aos proprietários/gestores das explorações agrárias, complementada com a observação directa das explorações e recolha de elementos fornecidos pelos proprietários. Através dos indicadores e índices seleccionados verificou-se que, no aspecto económico, são alcançados, para o Grupo das explorações de Raça Maronesa, alguns rendimentos importantes, mas abaixo das explorações das Outras Raças. Nos aspectos ambientais, o grupo da raça Maronesa assume particular destaque, demonstrando um papel importante na protecção do ambiente e preservação dos recursos naturais. Relativamente à sustentabilidade social não se salientam diferenças significativas entre os grupos de explorações em análise.The production activity of bovine cattle of local breed is being faced for many as the sustainable future of cattle breeding. This work intends to evaluate some aspects that can influence the sustainability of the production systems adopted by the farms, taking the local breed of cattle “Maronês” as reference, under three points of view economic, social and environmental. The collection of information was carried through interviews with the farms proprietors/ managers, complemented with direct observation of the farms and collection of other elements supplied by the farmers. Through the selectioned group of indicators and indices it was verified that, in the economic aspect, for the Group of “Maronês” breed farms, are reached some important
Full Text Available Babesia sp. is a protozoan hemoparasite that affects livestock worldwide. The Colombian Middle Magdalena is an enzootic region for babesiosis, but there is no previous research providing detail on its transmission cycle. This study aims to assess some Babesia sp. infection indicators in cattle and ticks from the area, by using direct microscopic and molecular techniques to detect the infection. In the cattle, 59.9% and 3.4 % positivity values for B. bigemina and mixed infection (B. bovis + B. bigemina were found respectively. In ticks, the positivity of B. bigemina reached 79.2% and 9.4% for the mixed infection. The degree of infestation in the region was 3.2 ticks per bovine. There was positive correlation between tick control acaricide frequencies and infestation in bovines. This leads us to infer that control periodicity greater than 90 days, in stable zones, is an abiotic factor that benefits the acquisition of protective immunity in calves, the natural control of the infection and eventual disease absence. It is necessary to monitor the disease by applying new entomological and parasitological indicators showing the complexity of this phenomenon.
Parthasarathy, Sugumar; Veerasami, Maroudam; Appana, Gangadharrao; Chandran, Dev; Das, Dipankar; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic bacterial disease, and a major animal health problem with zoonotic implications. Screening of mycobacterial infections in bovines is traditionally done using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Though the test is widely used, it has its own disadvantages and they include its inability to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacterial infections owing to its low specificity. Furthermore, the associated operative difficulties of this test have driven the quest for discovery of new antigens and diagnostic assays leading to the development of the interferon (IFN)- test. Presently, combinatorial testing using the skin test and the interferon gamma assays are being used in the diagnosis of BTB in various control and surveillance programs. In this study, we report the cloning, expression and purification of ESAT-6-CFP-10 fusion protein and its further use in the development of the IFN- gamma ELISPOT assay for accurate diagnosis of BTB in cattle. The BTB diagnosis employing the ELISPOT assay was evaluated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from culture positive and culture negative cattle. The ELISPOT assay showed higher specificity and sensitivity in detecting BTB when a recombinant ESAT-6-CFP-10 fusion protein was used. The present study indicated that the usefulness of the fusion protein can replace the ESAT-6, CFP-10 or combination of both proteins for detecting BTB in IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay. PMID:22691409
Full Text Available Abstract Background The silver homologue(SILV gene plays a major role in melanosome development. SILV is a target for studies concerning melanoma diagnostics and therapy in humans as well as on skin and coat color pigmentation in many species ranging from zebra fish to mammals. However, the precise functional cellular mechanisms, in which SILV is involved, are still not completely understood. While there are many studies addressing SILV function upon a eumelaneic pigment background, there is a substantial lack of information regarding the further relevance of SILV, e.g. for phaeomelanosome development. Results In contrast to previous results in other species reporting SILV expression exclusively in pigmented tissues, our experiments provide evidence that the bovine SILV gene is expressed in a variety of tissues independent of pigmentation. Our data show that the bovine SILV gene generates an unexpectedly large number of different transcripts occurring in skin as well as in non-pigmented tissues, e.g. liver or mammary gland. The alternative splice sites are generated by internal splicing and primarily remove complete exons. Alternative splicing predominantly affects the repeat domain of the protein, which has a functional key role in fibril formation during eumelanosome development. Conclusion The expression of the bovine SILV gene independent of pigmentation suggests SILV functions exceeding melanosome development in cattle. This hypothesis is further supported by transcript variants lacking functional key elements of the SILV protein relevant for eumelanosome development. Thus, the bovine SILV gene can serve as a model for the investigation of the putative additional functions of SILV. Furthermore, the splice variants of the bovine SILV gene represent a comprehensive natural model to refine the knowledge about functional domains in the SILV protein. Our study exemplifies that the extent of alternative splicing is presumably much higher than
Vanleeuwen, John A.; Tiwari, Ashwani; Plaizier, Jan C; Whiting, Terry L.
Of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for Bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for Neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres ≥ 1:64 for Bovine viral diarrhea virus.
Giuffrida-Mendoza, Maria; Arenas de Moreno, Lilia; Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Uzcátegui-Bracho, Sojan; Valero-Leal, Kutchynskaya; Romero, Sonia; Rodas-González, Argenis
Male (n=66) water buffalo (Buffalo) and Brahman-influenced cattle (Brahman) were born, raised, weaned, fattened on grazing savannah and harvested at two different ages (19 and 24months) to compare lipid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle. Half of the animals were castrated at seven months of age (MOA) to examine the castration effects. At 24 MOA Brahman steers showed the highest content of total lipids (P<0.05). No significant variation was detected in cholesterol content for either the main or interaction effects in the age groups. Some individual fatty acids varied with the species (P<0.05), however, interspecific similarities were found in fatty acid ratios. For health-related indices, only atherogenic index (AI) showed lower values in favor of Buffalo meat (P<0.05) at both harvesting ages. Although, meat derived from both bovid groups was leaner and showed lower cholesterol level, AI indicates that Buffalo meat might be beneficial from a human health standpoint. PMID:25879797
Wolfger, Barbara; Manns, Braden J; Barkema, Herman W; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Dorin, Craig; Orsel, Karin
New technologies to identify diseased feedlot cattle in early stages of illness have been developed to reduce costs and welfare impacts associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). However, the economic value of early BRD detection has never been assessed. The objective was to simulate cost differences between two BRD detection methods during the first 61 d on feed (DOF) applied in moderate- to large-sized feedlots using an automated recording system (ARS) for feeding behavior and the current industry standard, pen-checking (visual appraisal confirmed by rectal temperature). Economic impact was assessed with a cost analysis in a simple decision model. Scenarios for Canadian and US feedlots with high- and low-risk cattle were modeled, and uncertainty was estimated using extensive sensitivity analyses. Input costs and probabilities were mainly extracted from publicly accessible market observations and a large-scale US feedlot study. In the baseline scenario, we modeled high-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 20% within the first 61 DOF in a feedlot of >8000 cattle in Canada. Early BRD detection was estimated to result in a relative risk of 0.60 in retreatment and 0.66 in mortality compared to pen-checking (based on previously published estimates). The additional cost of monitoring health with ARS in Canadian dollar (CAD) was 13.68 per steer. Scenario analysis for similar sized US feedlots and low-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 8% were included to account for variability in costs and probabilities in various cattle populations. Considering the cost of monitoring, all relevant treatment costs and sale price, ARS was more costly than visual appraisal during the first 61 DOF by CAD 9.61 and CAD 9.69 per steer in Canada and the US, respectively. This cost difference increased in low-risk cattle in Canada to CAD 12.45. Early BRD detection with ARS became less expensive if the costs for the system decreased to less than CAD 4.06/steer, or if the underlying true
Rafaella Paola Meneguete dos Guimarães-Peixoto
Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that affects humans in their adult form (taeniasis and its larval is found inserted in the musculature of infected cattle (cysticerci. It is still not entirely clear how animal immune response against infection occurs, being the comprehension of this process necessary for the enhancement of diagnostic capacity and disease prevention. This work aimed to evaluate the evolution of the immune response in experimentally infected cattle, compared with findings in cell response by optical microscopy. Nine animals were infected at a rate of 120,000 eggs of Taenia saginata. Five of the animals were similar in the kinetics of antibody production against cysticerci, with maximal levels of IgG and IgM. The other four animals showed an immune response different from the majority, with two of them showing delayed response to infection by cysticerci while the others apparently did not have initial contact with antigens secreted by cysticerci. Regarding the cellular response, it was found that, in lesions of viable cysticerci, inflammatory cells predominated, whereas in nonviable cysticerci there were tissue repair cells in the most part, being possible to notice that the amount of migratory calcareous corpuscles are related to the death stage of the parasite. These findings are important for the understanding immune response of cattle infected with cysticercosis.
HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses with genetic and antigenic similarities to bovine viral diarrhea viruses 1 and 2 (BVDV1 and BVDV2). These viruses have been detected associated with respiratory and/or reproductive disease in cattle in Italy and Brazil. Vaccines for HoBi-like...
Loy John Dustin
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating, DIVA compatible, and can induce both humoral and cell mediated immune responses. This is the first experiment to demonstrate that Alphavirus-based replicon particles can be utilized in a standard prime/boost vaccination strategy in calves against a commercially significant bovine pathogen. Findings Replicon particles that express bovine viral diarrhea virus sub-genotype 1b E2 glycoprotein were generated and expression was confirmed in vitro using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to E2. Vaccine made from particles was generated in Vero cells and administered to BVDV free calves in a prime/boost regimen at two dosage levels. Vaccination resulted in neutralizing antibody titers that cross-neutralized both type 1 and type 2 BVD genotypes following booster vaccination. Additionally, high dose vaccine administration demonstrated some protection from clinical disease and significantly reduced the degree of leukopenia caused by viral infection. Conclusions Replicon particle vaccines administered in a prime/boost regimen expressing BVDV E2 glycoprotein can induce cross-neutralizing titers, reduce leukopenia post challenge, and mitigate clinical disease in calves. This strategy holds promise for a safe and effective vaccine to BVDV.
Background: Bovine tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease resulting in chronic granulomatous lymphadenitis, particularly in the lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes. Although bovine TB has been nearly eradicated in many developed countries, the disease persists pri...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE cases so far identified worldwide have been detected by active surveillance. Consequently the volume and quality of material available for detailed characterisation is very limiting. Here we report on a small transmission study of both atypical forms, H- and L-type BSE, in cattle to provide tissue for test evaluation and research, and to generate clinical, molecular and pathological data in a standardised way to enable more robust comparison of the two variants with particular reference to those aspects most relevant to case ascertainment and confirmatory diagnosis within existing regulated surveillance programmes. Results Two groups of four cattle, intracerebrally inoculated with L-type or H-type BSE, all presented with a nervous disease form with some similarities to classical BSE, which progressed to a more dull form in one animal from each group. Difficulty rising was a consistent feature of both disease forms and not seen in two BSE-free, non-inoculated cattle that served as controls. The pathology and molecular characteristics were distinct from classical BSE, and broadly consistent with published data, but with some variation in the pathological characteristics. Both atypical BSE types were readily detectable as BSE by current confirmatory methods using the medulla brain region at the obex, but making a clear diagnostic distinction between the forms was not consistently straightforward in this brain region. Cerebellum proved a more reliable sample for discrimination when using immunohistochemistry. Conclusions The prominent feature of difficulty rising in atypical BSE cases may explain the detection of naturally occurring cases in emergency slaughter cattle and fallen stock. Current confirmatory diagnostic methods are effective for the detection of such atypical cases, but consistently and correctly identifying the variant forms may require modifications to
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to serologically detect Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR in the cattle population of Odisha, India using micro-Serum neutralization test (micro SNT and Avidin-Biotin Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (AB ELISA and finding out their comparative efficacy to serve as a suitable diagnostic tool in field condition. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using serum samples (n=180 collected randomly from cattle populations of nine districts of Odisha. Similarly vaginal swabs (n=26 from cattle having history of repeat breeding, abortion, vulvo-vaginitis and nasal swabs (n=8 from calves with respiratory symptoms and nasal discharge were collected aseptically, to ascertain the circulation of virus among the cattle population. Results: Virus isolation by cell culture and subsequent confirmation by polymerase chain reaction confirmed four isolates. Screening of serum samples revealed 9.44% and 12.22% samples positive for IBR antibodies in micro SNT and AB ELISA respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of AB ELISA test was found to be 88.23% and 95.70% respectively taking micro SNT as gold standard and the kappa value between the two tests was 0.75. Conclusion: Screening of serum samples revealed 9.44% and 12.22% samples positive for IBR antibodies in micro SNT and AB ELISA respectively, thus highlighting the circulation of virus among the livestock population of Odisha and that AB ELISA could be more efficiently applied for the sero-diagnosis of IBR virus infections at field conditions, with demand for more study on faster, efficient and large scale screening of the infected animals.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is an infectious disease of cattle that also affects other domestic animals, free-ranging and farmed wildlife, and also humans. In Mozambique, scattered surveys have reported a wide variation of bTB prevalence rates in cattle from different regions. Due to direct economic repercussions on livestock and indirect consequences for human health and wildlife, knowing the prevalence rates of the disease is essential to define an effective control strategy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Govuro district to determine bTB prevalence in cattle and identify associated risk factors. A representative sample of the cattle population was defined, stratified by livestock areas (n = 14. A total of 1136 cattle from 289 farmers were tested using the single comparative intradermal tuberculin test. The overall apparent prevalence was estimated at 39.6% (95% CI 36.8-42.5 using a diagnostic threshold cut-off according to the World Organization for Animal Health. bTB reactors were found in 13 livestock areas, with prevalence rates ranging from 8.1 to 65.8%. Age was the main risk factor; animals older than 4 years were more likely to be positive reactors (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 2.2-4.7. Landim local breed showed a lower prevalence than crossbred animals (Landim × Brahman (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings reveal an urgent need for intervention with effective, area-based, control measures in order to reduce bTB prevalence and prevent its spread to the human population. In addition to the high prevalence, population habits in Govuro, particularly the consumption of raw milk, clearly may potentiate the transmission to humans. Thus, further studies on human tuberculosis and the molecular characterization of the predominant strain lineages that cause bTB in cattle and humans are urgently required to evaluate the impact on human health in
In dairy cattle, inbreeding coefficients have been estimated from pedigree information; however, recent advances in genotyping technology allow the calculation of inbreeding based on molecular pedigree information. Because strong selection and recurrent inbreeding have decreased genetic variation, ...
Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo
Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country. PMID:26712361
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is diverse group of viruses causing disease in ruminants. It is controlled with vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected animals. The objective was to determine whether genomic regions harbored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated ...
Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.;
Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results: Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic...... correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for...
Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J
A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Ppractices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. PMID:26464048
Intestinal carriage of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli among cattle from South-western Norway and comparative genotyping of bovine and human isolates by amplified-fragment length polymorphism
Full Text Available Abstract In a survey conducted in 1999–2001, the carriage of thermotolerant Campylobacters in cattle was investigated, and the genetic diversity of C. jejuni within one herd was examined and compared with human isolates. C. jejuni, C. coli and other thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from intestinal contents from 26%, 3% and 2% of 804 cattle, respectively. The carriage rate was higher in calves (46% than in adults (29%. Twenty-nine C. jejuni isolates from one herd and 31 human isolates from the study area were genotyped with amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. Eighty-three % of the bovine isolates fell into three distinct clusters with 95–100% similarity, persistent in the herd for 5–10 months. Among human isolates, 58% showed >90% similarity with bovine isolates. The results show that cattle are a significant and stable reservoir for C. jejuni in the study area. Transmission between individuals within the herd may be sufficient to maintain a steady C. jejuni population independent of environmental influx. The results of this study have provided new information on C. jejuni and C. coli transmission, and also on the carriage in cattle, genotypes stability and similarity between bovine and human isolates.
S. Chimeno Zoth
Full Text Available Two recombinant baculoviruses were produced in order to obtain a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV immunogen: AcNPV/E2 expressing E2 glycoprotein, and AcNPV/E0E1E2 expressing the polyprotein region coding for the three structural proteins of BVDV (E0, E1, and E2. Mice were immunized with Sf9 cells infected with the recombinant baculoviruses in a water in oil formulation and the production of neutralizing antibodies was evaluated. Since E2 elicited higher neutralizing antibody titers than E0-E1-E2 polyprotein, it was selected to immunize cattle. Calves received two doses of recombinant E2 vaccine and were challenged with homologous BVDV 37 days later. The recombinant immunogen induced neutralizing titers which showed a mean value of 1.5 ± 0.27 on the day of challenge and reached a top value of 3.36 ± 0.36, 47 days later (84 days post-vaccination. On the other hand, sera from animals which received mock-infected Sf9 cells did not show neutralizing activity until 25 days post-challenge (62 days post-vaccination, suggesting that these antibodies were produced as a consequence of BVDV challenge. Even when no total protection was observed in cattle, in vitro viral neutralization assays revealed that the recombinant immunogen was able to induce neutralizing antibody synthesis against the homologous strain as well as against heterologous strains in a very efficient way.
Full Text Available The study was performed on nasal swabs, tracheal samples, and sera obtained from young beef heifers aged between 6 and 12 months, from farms in eastern and south-eastern Poland. The samples were evaluated using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 ELISA kits (ELISA BHV1 antibody and ELISA BHV1 antigen and PCR. Among all the animals examined, 37 (32.2% were positive in the ELISA BHV1 antigen test. The presence of BHV-1 was confirmed by PCR in 42 (36.5% animals. In the ELISA BHV1 antibody test, 39 (33.9% seropositive animals were identified. The presence of BHV-1 positive samples was observed in all the examined breeds of young cattle. There were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 in BHV-1 positive samples. The results indicate that the incidence of BHV-1 infections in feedlot cattle herds studied was 32.2%-36.5%, which suggests that preventive measures should be implemented in order to limit transmission of the virus.
Full Text Available Para conocer la presencia del virus diarrea viral bovina (VDVB en animales sospechosos de estar cursando un cuadro clínico provocado por este virus, se trabajó con un total de 33 animales, correspondiendo a 23 fetos abortados, 2 mortinatos, un nonato, 3 vacas: una madre de mortinato, una madre de aborto y una muerta, 2 novillos muertos y 2 terneros muertos. Muestras de órganos se inocularon en cultivos primarios de pulmón fetal bovino (PFB y en la línea MDBK. Después del primer pasaje en células de PFB, se detectó la presencia de antígenos del VDVB por la prueba de inmunoperoxidasa indirecta (IPI. Todas las muestras con reacción positiva a IPI se inocularon por segunda y tercera vez en células de PFB, aplicándose la prueba de IPI en el tercer pasaje. Sobre un cuarto pasaje se aplicó la prueba de inmunofluorescencia direccta (IFD. Todas las muestras, positivas y negativas a IPI, se inocularon en 3 pasajes seriados en las células MDBK. En 23 de los 33 animales se aisló VDVB cepas no citopatogénicas (NCP, correspondiendo a 14 fetos abortados, un nonato, un mortinato, 3 vacas, 2 novillos y 2 terneros. En 6 fetos abortados, independiente de los infectados con el VDVB, se aisló el virus de la rinotraqueítis infecciosa bovina (RIB. Se concluye que la presencia del VDVB es de alta frecuencia en muestras clínicas de ganado bovino con patologías asociables al VDVB, desconociéndose el rol patógeno del virus en estos aislados.Cattle infected with the bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD virus can present a variety of clinical signs. This research studied the presence of BVD virus in cattle by virus isolation in primary cell cultures of bovine embryo lungs. Virus identification was done using the immunoperoxidase staining assay and the direct fluorescent antibody staining. As a result, 23 out of 33 animals were identified as positive to BVD virus: 14 foetal abortions, 2 stillbirths, 3 dams, 2 steers and 2 calves. No cytopathogenic isolates were
Puentes, Rodrigo; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Furtado, Agustin; Torres, Fabrício Dias; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Maisonnave, Jacqueline; Roehe, Paulo Michel
Bovine herpesviruses (BoHVs) types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) are alphaherpesviruses of major importance to the bovine production chain. Such viruses are capable of establishing latent infections in neuronal tissues. Infected animals tend to develop a serological response to infection; however, such response-usually investigated by antibody assays in serum-may eventually not be detected in laboratory assays. Nevertheless, serological tests such as virus neutralization (VN) and various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are widely employed to check individual or herd status of BoHV infections. The correlation between detection of antibodies and the presence of viral nucleic acids as indicatives of infection in infected cattle has not been deeply examined. In order to investigate such correlation, 248 bovine serum samples were tested by VN to BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, as well as in a widely employed (though not type-differential) gB ELISA (IDEXX IBR gB X2 Ab Test) in search for antibodies to BoHVs. Immediately after blood withdrawal, cattle were slaughtered and trigeminal ganglia (TG) excised for DNA extraction and viral nucleic acid detection (NAD) by nested PCR. Neutralizing antibodies to BoHV-1 and/or BoHV-5 were detected in 44.8% (111/248) of sera, whereas the gB ELISA detected antibodies in 51.2% (127/248) of the samples. However, genomes of either BoHV-1, BoHV-5, or both, were detected in TGs of 85.9% (213/248) of the animals. These findings reveal that the assays designed to detect antibodies to BoHV-1 and/or BoHV-5 employed here may fail to detect a significant number of latently infected animals (in this study, 35.7%). From such data, it is clear that antibody assays are poorly correlated with detection of viral genomes in BoHV-1 and BoHV-5-infected animals. PMID:27224314
Full Text Available Bovine herpesviruses (BoHVs types 1 (BoHV-1 and 5 (BoHV-5 are alphaherpesviruses of major importance to the bovine production chain. Such viruses are capable of establishing latent infections in neuronal tissues. Infected animals tend to develop a serological response to infection; however, such response-usually investigated by antibody assays in serum-may eventually not be detected in laboratory assays. Nevertheless, serological tests such as virus neutralization (VN and various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs are widely employed to check individual or herd status of BoHV infections. The correlation between detection of antibodies and the presence of viral nucleic acids as indicatives of infection in infected cattle has not been deeply examined. In order to investigate such correlation, 248 bovine serum samples were tested by VN to BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, as well as in a widely employed (though not type-differential gB ELISA (IDEXX IBR gB X2 Ab Test in search for antibodies to BoHVs. Immediately after blood withdrawal, cattle were slaughtered and trigeminal ganglia (TG excised for DNA extraction and viral nucleic acid detection (NAD by nested PCR. Neutralizing antibodies to BoHV-1 and/or BoHV-5 were detected in 44.8% (111/248 of sera, whereas the gB ELISA detected antibodies in 51.2% (127/248 of the samples. However, genomes of either BoHV-1, BoHV-5, or both, were detected in TGs of 85.9% (213/248 of the animals. These findings reveal that the assays designed to detect antibodies to BoHV-1 and/or BoHV-5 employed here may fail to detect a significant number of latently infected animals (in this study, 35.7%. From such data, it is clear that antibody assays are poorly correlated with detection of viral genomes in BoHV-1 and BoHV-5-infected animals.
Furtado, Agustin; Torres, Fabrício Dias; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Maisonnave, Jacqueline; Roehe, Paulo Michel
Bovine herpesviruses (BoHVs) types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) are alphaherpesviruses of major importance to the bovine production chain. Such viruses are capable of establishing latent infections in neuronal tissues. Infected animals tend to develop a serological response to infection; however, such response—usually investigated by antibody assays in serum—may eventually not be detected in laboratory assays. Nevertheless, serological tests such as virus neutralization (VN) and various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are widely employed to check individual or herd status of BoHV infections. The correlation between detection of antibodies and the presence of viral nucleic acids as indicatives of infection in infected cattle has not been deeply examined. In order to investigate such correlation, 248 bovine serum samples were tested by VN to BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, as well as in a widely employed (though not type-differential) gB ELISA (IDEXX IBR gB X2 Ab Test) in search for antibodies to BoHVs. Immediately after blood withdrawal, cattle were slaughtered and trigeminal ganglia (TG) excised for DNA extraction and viral nucleic acid detection (NAD) by nested PCR. Neutralizing antibodies to BoHV-1 and/or BoHV-5 were detected in 44.8% (111/248) of sera, whereas the gB ELISA detected antibodies in 51.2% (127/248) of the samples. However, genomes of either BoHV-1, BoHV-5, or both, were detected in TGs of 85.9% (213/248) of the animals. These findings reveal that the assays designed to detect antibodies to BoHV-1 and/or BoHV-5 employed here may fail to detect a significant number of latently infected animals (in this study, 35.7%). From such data, it is clear that antibody assays are poorly correlated with detection of viral genomes in BoHV-1 and BoHV-5-infected animals. PMID:27224314
Ndhlovu, Daud N; Masika, Patrick J
A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess cattle owners' awareness, perceptions, attitudes and drug-usage practices with regard to bovine dermatophilosis. Knowledge of these farmers' attributes is important for animal health policy makers in their endeavours to provide optimum disease control strategies that are acceptable to the communities. Data on cattle owner awareness of bovine dermatophilosis, causes, treatment practices, perceptions about its importance and potential dangers to humans were collected using an intervieweradministered questionnaire. A total of 185 stockowners and cattle herds were involved in the study, with bovine dermatophilosis determined clinically by veterinarians. The results showed that 45.4% of the herds were clinically positive for dermatophilosis, and most farmers (79.5%) were generally aware that dermatophilosis was a cattle disease. In the event of a dermatophilosis outbreak in a herd, 74.1% of the farmers treated their cattle using antibiotics; the proportion of farmers treating cattle did not differ (p > 0.05) across the diptanks. Fifty-two farmers (52/63) indicated that drugs had to be administered four to seven times before an animal recovered from infection. Tetracyclines were the antibiotics used by most farmers (79.3%) to treat dermatophilosis, with 19.1% using penicillins. Concerns were raised by farmers about the effectiveness of these drugs against bovine dermatophilosis. Across the study sites, 48.6% and 27.6% of the farmers perceived bovine dermatophilosis to be an important disease at the herd and area level, respectively. A small proportion (12.4%) of the farmers regarded bovine dermatophilosis as a potentially zoonotic disease. The high level of stockowners' general awareness, with regards to bovine dermatophilosis, sets ideal conditions for the mobilisation of farmers by animal health authorities in the control of the disease. However, further research needs to be undertaken to investigate effective antibiotic
Interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Although type I and II IFNs have proven effective to inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in swine, a similar approach has had only limited efficacy in cattle. Recently, a new family of IFNs, type III IFN o...
Full Text Available Problem statement: In beef cattle production, of meat quality and carcass traits are important. Traditionally beef cattle breeding programs unfortunately are time consuming and also recording of carcass and growth traits need heavy cost, Approach: Marker Assisted Selection (MAS should be utilized in beef herds, along with economically important phenotypic traits, for genetic progress to made with respect to improving the uniformity and consistency of beef. Blood samples were collected from 41 nelor cattle in Malaysia. Forward and reversed primers amplified a 1552 bp fragment from calpastatin gene. XmnI enzyme was used for restriction analysis of PCR products. Result: Overall, the frequency of alleles A and B in the studied breeds were estimated as 0.42 and 0.58, respectively. In this study we calculated genotype frequency AA, AB and BB 12.2, 58.53 and 29.27% respectively and also observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and average value of heterozygosity were 0.58, 0.49 and 0.48 respectively. Highest frequency of allele was B (0.58 and lowest was A (0.42 This Nelor cattle population was in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Conclusion: Perhaps, this molecular genetic information helps breeders for designing the proper genetic selection program in the development direction of this breed.
Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern China.
Sun, Wu-Wen; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cong, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong
Although the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in China, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the animal-level and herd-level seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with these pathogen infections in 4487 cattle from 134 herds in five provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. At animal level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was 10.48, 17.14, 11.92 and 50.10%, respectively. At herd level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV was 27.16, 29.10, 37.31 and 40.30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of these characteristics showed that source of water and presence of felids were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the studied cattle herds. Source of water was significantly associated with N. caninum infection in the studied cattle herds. While herd size and management system were significantly associated with BVDV infection in the studied cattle herds, this is the first report of herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV infection in cattle in China. PMID:26231838
Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...
The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...
Full Text Available Wen Wang,1 Yunmei Song,1 Kiro Petrovski,2 Patricia Eats,2 Darren J Trott,2 Hui San Wong,2 Stephen W Page,3 Jeanette Perry,2 Sanjay Garg11School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Luoda Pharma Pty Ltd, Caringbah, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis.Results: Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 µg/mL. The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than
Vaccination of Cattle with a CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide-Formulated Mycobacterial Protein Vaccine and Mycobacterium bovis BCG Induces Levels of Protection against Bovine Tuberculosis Superior to Those Induced by Vaccination with BCG Alone
Wedlock, D. Neil; Denis, Michel; Skinner, Margot A.; Koach, Jessica; de Lisle, Geoffrey W.; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Hewinson, R Glyn; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Hecker, Rolf; Buddle, Bryce M.
The development of a subunit protein vaccine for bovine tuberculosis which could be used either in combination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG (to improve the efficacy of that vaccine) or alone would offer significant advantages over currently available strategies. A study was conducted with cattle to determine the protective efficacy of a strategy based on concurrent immunization with an M. bovis culture filtrate (CFP) vaccine and BCG compared to vaccination with either vaccine alone. One group...