Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin
In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288
Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.
Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse;
A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examination...... for antibodies was performed using a blocking ELISA detecting antibodies to pestivirus. Data from 815 herds were analysed statistically by the maximum likelihood method in a multinomial model. The estimated herd prevalence was 0.083 and the estimated individual prevalence within the positive herds was...... 0.50. There was no difference between the prevalence in sheep and goat herds. Records for well over half of the herds could be combined with data from the Danish Central Husbandry Register. No association between occurrence of ED and herd size was found. Cattle were registered as contemporarily...
Fahnøe, Ulrik; Höper, Dirk; Beer, Martin; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun
The complete genome sequence of the genotype 3 border disease virus strain Gifhorn has been determined; this strain was originally isolated from pigs. This represents the consensus sequence for the virus used to produce the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cDNA clone pBeloGif3, which yields a...
Hop, G.E.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.
This paper analyses the potential gains and the main challenges for increased cross-border collaboration in the control of highly contagious livestock diseases in regions with cross-border reliance on production and consumption of livestock commodities. The aim of this intensification of cross-borde
Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo
Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027
Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo
Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027
Maria Dolores Esteve-Gasent
Full Text Available Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus, and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only millions of people live in this transboundary region but also a substantial movement of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border, along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.
Full Text Available Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4 caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange and BDV outbreaks. BDV-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations.
Serrano, Emmanuel; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Garel, Mathieu; Cabezón, Oscar; Velarde, Roser; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Rosell, Rosa; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi
Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging infectious diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4) caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange, and BD outbreaks. BD-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations. PMID:26733943
A serological survey for the prevalence of protective level of antibody to Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was carried out in 10 border districts in Peninsular Malaysia. A liquid phase blocking ELISA kit prepared and standardized by World Reference Laboratory (WRL) for FMD was used for the testing. A total of 800 serum samples collected by a random process were tested for protective level of antibody for virus types O, A and Asia I. An overall mean prevalence for antibody to FMD in the 'immune-belt' region was found to be 51.0%, 37.3%, 53.6% for virus types Q, A, and Asia I respectively and 28.9% for all the three sero-types. The percentage of cattle population having protective level of antibody was too low to prevent active spread of FMD infection. There was also substantial variation in the prevalence of antibody detected at the district level and varied from a low mean of 18.8% for the State of Kedah and a high of 67.5% for the district of Besut. More than 70% of the population need to have protective level of antibody to effectively prevent disease spread. The States of Kedah and Kelantan had variable levels of vaccination coverage from 1994 and had less than 45% coverage for the year 1996. A coverage of more than 90% would be essential to maintain high herd immunity and the current high variability in the vaccination coverage at the district level will only favour a higher infection on rate in the field. (author)
Aagaard L; Kristensen K
Lise Aagaard,1 Kent Kristensen21Institute of Public Health, Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2Department of Law, Faculty of Business and Social Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DenmarkAbstract: Directive 2011/24/EU may give patients in European Union (EU) member states the right to receive cross-border health care services in other member states reimbursed by their member state of affiliation. For patients with rare diseases, these patient rights could be of...
Full Text Available The main security problem that any state faces today is protecting itscitizens in countering organised crime and terrorism. Wars between states are lessfrequent than in previous eras. Border defence and border security are distinctmissions requiring different forces with different training and different equipment.Border defence is predominately against the armed forces of other states requiringtanks, aircraft and ships. Traditionally, border security includes the mission roles ofimmigration, crime, agriculture, finance, disease control and terrorism. Intelligencegathering and analysis using three methodologies - trends and patterns, frequency,and probability – provides a solution to the large and expensive armed forces forterritorial border defence and defines the ability to succeed in border security.
Lyme disease (LD) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infection in the United States, with 33,097 cases of LD reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2011. The disease is transmitted to a mammalian host by Ixodes ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Efforts to unde...
their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while......The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... favoring regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high...
Full Text Available Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47% and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79% and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population.
Suk, Jonathan E; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C
Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease. PMID:25308818
Jonathan E. Suk
Full Text Available Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.
Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo
Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande se...
Staten, Lisa K.; Cutshaw, Christina; Reinschmidt, Kerstin; Stewart, Rosie; Roe, Denise J.; Davidson, Christopher
Introduction Pasos Adelante is a lifestyle intervention program facilitated by community health workers (promotores) targeting chronic disease prevention and control in Mexican Americans. Initial studies of Pasos Adelante indicated significant improvements in self-reported nutrition and physical activity. This study examined whether Pasos Adelante participants living in a US border community showed improvements in selected physiological measures after participating in the program and whether ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating the use of cell-phones into a routine malaria prevention and control programme, to improve the management of malaria cases among an under-served population in a border area. The module for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria (DTMM consisted of case investigation and case follow-up for treatment compliance and patients' symptoms. Methods The module combining web-based and mobile technologies was developed as a proof of concept, in an attempt to replace the existing manual, paper-based activities that malaria staff used in treating and caring for malaria patients in the villages for which they were responsible. After a patient was detected and registered onto the system, case-investigation and treatment details were recorded into the malaria database. A follow-up schedule was generated, and the patient's status was updated when the malaria staff conducted their routine home visits, using mobile phones loaded with the follow-up application module. The module also generated text and graph messages for a summary of malaria cases and basic statistics, and automatically fed to predetermined malaria personnel for situation analysis. Following standard public-health practices, access to the patient database was strictly limited to authorized personnel in charge of patient case management. Results The DTMM module was developed and implemented at the trial site in late November 2008, and was fully functioning in 2009. The system captured 534 malaria patients in 2009. Compared to paper-based data in 2004-2008, the mobile-phone-based case follow-up rates by malaria staff improved significantly. The follow-up rates for both Thai and migrant patients were about 94-99% on Day 7 (Plasmodium falciparum and Day 14 (Plasmodium vivax and maintained at 84-93% on Day 90. Adherence to anti-malarial drug therapy, based on self-reporting, showed high completion
The Texas Medical Association, the Texas Alliance for Patient Access, and other organizations ask for reversal of a court ruling that allows a Texas negligence case to proceed in New Mexico. The case is sounding alarms all over Texas' medical community, conjuring fears that if the Supreme Court upholds the application of New Mexico law, it could have a significant impact on Texas doctors who operate near the state's vast borders and treat out-of-state patients. PMID:26536518
@@ Cardiovascular disease takes place in a border-free world. The challenge at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and anywhere else in the world is to hold patient care above the artificial barriers raised by geopolitical issues. Fundamentally, the goal of ACC members or of any cardiology societies in the world is to provide excellent patient care. Cardiovascular disease is essentially the same throughout the world. Where there are minor variations among individuals, as clinicians we find priceless opportunity to learn. Expanding- rather contracting -our experience base helps us as individuals to realize our best potential as practitioners.
Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and inc...
of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical...... level. It provides border scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....
Antonio Luiz Rodrigues-Júnior
AIDS cases that had been reported by municipalities in the Brazilian border area. METHODS: Brazilian border area municipalities were grouped into three cultural regions; the source data was AIDS cases registered with the Ministry of Health from 1990 to 2003, which were classified according to CDC-adapted, Rio de Janeiro/Caracas and death criteria; detected communicable opportunistic diseases were categorized into groups according to transmission: 1 inhalation agent; 2 contaminated water and/or food ingestion, and 3 interpersonal contact. The descriptive evaluation considered cultural region, years of schooling, sex and age group. RESULTS: Different AIDS incidence patterns were observed among groups of opportunistic diseases in each cultural region. The extreme southern region showed the greatest incidence of AIDS; the absolute incidence of female cases was greatest in the category of heterosexual transmission; the number of male cases was greatest among intravenous drug users; transmission was most frequent in the interpersonal contact group, particularly incidences of candidiasis; tuberculoses and pneumonias were most frequent in the inhalation agent transmission group; the contaminated water/food ingestion transmission group showed an unchanged pattern of absolute incidence. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian border area is a very important and heterogeneous geographic phenomenon; AIDS programs must recognize different cultural geographies.
Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Liu, Xia; Hao, Fei; Yang, Leilei; Deng, Jiawu; Zhang, Wenwen; Wei, Jianzhong; Jiang, Jieyuan
During 2012 and 2013, several border disease virus (BDV) strains were identified from Chinese goat and sheep herds. At the same time, pigs from the same areas were found to be seropositive to BDV by ELISA, without showing clinical signs (unpublished data). To examine the susceptibility of pigs to the Chinese BDV strains, BDV isolate JSLS12-01, isolated from naturally infected sheep, was used to infect pigs. Antibody responses, viremia, clinical signs and pathological changes of the infected animals were examined. It confirmed that the current BDV strain could infect the domestic pigs, the animals showed viremia during 4 to 14 days post infection (dpi) and sero-conversion from 14dpi; no clinical and pathological changes were observed. In addition, CSFV maternal antibody did not influence BDV infection. Subsequently, pigs were infected with the BDV isolate and vaccinated with Hog cholera lapinized virus (HCLV) 21 days later to determine the effect of BDV infection on antibody induction of CSFV vaccination. The specific CSFV antibody and neutralizing antibody titers of the BDV infected group remained negative after the primary vaccination. Even after the boost vaccination, they were still significantly lower than those of the uninfected groups (p<0.05). These results indicated that BDV infection could down-regulate the antibody responses of CSFV C-strain vaccination. It should be paid attention that BDV prevalence in pig herds and in live vaccines might hamper the vaccination of CSF. PMID:26117151
border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...
Kazanjian, Christopher John
Border pedagogy is a multicultural educational approach utilized in multicultural settings to help students understand their histories and experiences and how it affects their identities and cultures. The approach seeks to produce intellectuals that transcend physical and metaphysical boundaries. The goal of border pedagogy is to remove cultural…
developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. In the second part, we study the spatial structure of trade networks and the influence of national borders on the development of social ties. The paper shows that the spatial form of trade networks is constrained by the historical......Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that...... origin of the traders engaged in cross-border activities. In those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region, national borders are likely to exert a greater influence than in those regions where trade has pre-colonial roots....
Mazurek, Tomasz; Barwiński, Marek
1. Apart from Finnish-Russian border, Polish eastern border is one of the longest external European Union and Schengen Agreement land borders under the control of a single country. 2. For the last few years, Polish Government has significantly improved the infrastructure of Border Guard at the eastern border in order to prevent “flooding” of Europe by illegal immigrants and smuggled goods. 3. Despite this fact, Polish eastern border does not have sufficient infrastructure, especially wh...
Mourrain, Bernard; Trebuchet, Philippe
International audience We extend the theory and the algorithms of Border Bases to systems of Laurent polynomial equations, defining ''toric'' roots. Instead of introducing new variables and new relations to saturate by the variable inverses, we propose a more efficient approach which works directly with the variables and their inverse. We show that the commutation relations and the inversion relations characterize toric border bases. We explicitly describe the first syzygy module associate...
The objective of this paper is to show how a formal approach to networks can make a significant contribution to the study of cross-border trade in West Africa. Building on the formal tools and theories developed by Social Network Analysis, we examine the network organization of 136 large traders in...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the...... region, national borders are likely to exert a greater influence than in those regions where trade has pre-colonial roots. Combining formal network analysis and ethnographic studies, we argue, can make a significant contribution to the current revival of interest in cross-border trade in the policy field....
Verwaal, Ernst; Cnossen, Sijbren
textabstractInstead of abolishing internal border controls in 1992, the European Union (EU) replaced them with VAT and statistical requirements that appear to be just as onerous and costly. This paper shows that the compliance costs of the new requirements are on average 5 percent of the value of intra-EU trade of Dutch businesses. Clearly, the costs constitute a (differentiated) border tax that impedes intra-EU trade and violates the Treaty of Rome. The paper analyses the magnitude and deter...
upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped. This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...... of entities that are ever open to identity shifts. The concept of the margin possesses a much wider reach than borders, and focuses continual attention on the meetings and interactions between a range of indeterminate entities whose interactions may determine both themselves and the types of entity...
Great progress that has been made in nuclear security measures for counter-proliferation capacity building for effective border controls. However, there is evidence that illicit transfers of military and dual-use items as well as the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials persist. Consequently, there remains an urgent need for continuing and enhancing effective border controls responsive to this threat. Developing and sustaining effective border controls for global defence to combat nuclear security threats is a complex challenge. Following a defence-in-depth approach, border control measures at official ports of entry and green and blue borders form one layer of a national nuclear detection architecture. It is important that the border control measures are both fully integrated into a comprehensive national strategy with achievable nuclear security program objectives and fully sustainable within the national infrastructure. The operations, maintenance and management of effective border control measures rely on a cyclic process of establishing objectives, design, implementation, training and evaluation. All relevant authorities and competencies engage in the process. The design is based on a full assessment of the nuclear security capabilities and associated infrastructure within the context of specific objectives within the national nuclear security strategy. A poor design or badly executed implementation can prevent the effective operation of the system in the short and long run. International cooperation and assistance play an important role in all aspects of developing effective border controls. Donor-recipient relations provide not only the requisite funds, but also the experience and technical expertise that promote effective and sustainable border controls. As the global detection architecture matures, many international organizations, such as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), DOE, European Commission- Joint Research Centre
Jensen, Thomas; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Vatrapu, Ravi
This paper address indirect global interactions that involve collaboration across continents involving different cultures, languages, technologies and nations. Specifically, we are concerned with analyzing international trade of avocados from trees in Africa to grocery store shelves in the European....... Further, the description format developed for this case can be useful for visualizing and analyzing other supply chains involving collaborations across borders....
Hermansen, Janni Berthou
This article aims to discuss a fundamentally different approach to discourse analysis by using a pragmatic point of departure for understanding use of language. Using an empirical example from a construction project it is discussed how material as well as societal dimensions of collaboration func...... functions as borders for transformations of discourse – and these dimensions are most often intertwined...
Students from China’s Central Academy of Drama stage a performance in New Delhi on February 2 during the17th Bharat Rang Mahotsav.The annual international theater festival,hosted by the National School of Drama in India,is being held from February 1 to 18 with the theme of Breaking Borders.
Drawing on interviews with Canadian borderlanders, this article examines childhood experiences with the Canada--US border in the mid-1980s to early 1990s. The retrospective accounts of childhood border experiences demonstrate how childhood was produced and experienced in border crossings and how the production of childhood intersected with a…
Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...
Hayakawa, Kazunobu; 早川, 和伸
Previous studies in the border-effect literature surprisingly found that domestic border effects are larger than international border effects (e.g., in the United States or Brazil). One interpretation of this result is that these estimates include the effects of producer agglomeration. Therefore, in this study, we estimate those border effects exclusively for transactions for final consumption, in which such agglomeration forces will be weak, in China and Japan. As a result, we found larger i...
At present man can cross the borders with nuclear materials in a luggage without problems. A supervision system could be installed at the border as a measuring help to control the possible illicit traffic. Therefore, a pilot study was performed to compile its technical requirements and to assessing its feasibilities. The main finding was that a control system at the border is feasible. (nevyjel)
Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata
which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... borders in the context of modernity such as will also be discussed. In the backdrop of polarisation of populations into us and them, still there are increasing trends towards intermarriage, which challenge the idea of who belongs together and earlier taboos against such mixing. The symposia will explore...
In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....
China's efforts to build a harmonious world begin with establishing peaceful borders with its neighbors China's recent contribution to the world of international relations is the promotion of "building a harmonious world together," put forward by President Hu Jintao at the 60th anniversary of the UN in September 2005. As the core of the country's peaceful foreign policy in the new era, this approach has been well received and widely discussed in the international community. Meanwhile, Chinese foreign pol...
Duggan, Ruth Ann
There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.
Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan
The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established in 1945 with twin aims: to rebuild various institutions of the world destroyed by war, and to promote international understanding and peaceful cooperation among nations. Based on empirical and historical...... research and with a particular focus on history teaching, international understanding and peace, UNESCO Without Borders offers a new research trajectory for understanding the roles played by UNESCO and other international organizations, as well as the effects of globalization on education. With fifteen...
Taylor, R M; Farrow, B R
Five Border Collie dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis developed progressive neurological disease between 18 and 22 months of age. These dogs had behavioural abnormalities, gait and visual deficits and became progressively demented. All dogs examined had common ancestors. Light microscopic examination of tissues demonstrated extensive accumulation of granular, sudan black-staining autofluorescent material in the cytoplasm of neurones, retinal ganglion cells and some visceral cells. At ultrastructural examination inclusions of variable morphology were observed. PMID:3376765
Yago Mellado López
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to consider the volition of boundary as an opening in otherness, establishing a dialogue with Giorgio Agamben’s work La Comunidad que viene [The community to come]. Beyond the conception of borders as demarcation, this article approaches the boundary as a construction through contact, and which produces the articulation of us/them and of the Other, and not the other way round. In this way, the volition of boundaries appears, without any desire to escape towards a common abstract space or toward an elimination of categorisation, but simply as the registering of an opening in the never-ending fabric of our identities.
Sebastian J Schultheiss
Full Text Available Exchanging ideas with like-minded, enthusiastic people interested in the same topic is crucial for the advancement of a scientist's career. Several Regional Student Groups (RSGs of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB Student Council have cooperated in the last six years to organize scientific workshops and conferences. With motivated students, it is possible to create a memorable event for fellow scientists; in doing so, the organizers gain valuable experiences. While collaborating across borders and time zones can be difficult, feedback from event organizers was always positive. When limited resources are juxtaposed with great ideas and a network of contacts, the outcome is always an amazing experience, despite organizers being separated geographically across different countries.
Schultheiss, Sebastian J; Yang, Joshua SungWoo; Iwasaki, Wataru; Lin, Shu-Hsi; Jean, Angela; Michaut, Magali
Exchanging ideas with like-minded, enthusiastic people interested in the same topic is crucial for the advancement of a scientist's career. Several Regional Student Groups (RSGs) of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) Student Council have cooperated in the last six years to organize scientific workshops and conferences. With motivated students, it is possible to create a memorable event for fellow scientists; in doing so, the organizers gain valuable experiences. While collaborating across borders and time zones can be difficult, feedback from event organizers was always positive. When limited resources are juxtaposed with great ideas and a network of contacts, the outcome is always an amazing experience, despite organizers being separated geographically across different countries. PMID:24675824
Jorge E. Brenna B.
Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.
Salinas, Jennifer J.; Abdelbary, Bassent; Rentfro, Anne; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; McCormick, Joseph B.
Introduction Although the relationship between health behaviors and outcomes such as smoking and obesity with longer residence in the United States among Mexican American immigrants is established, the relationship between length of residency in the United States and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between immigrant status, length of residence in the United States, age, and CVD markers in a sample of ...
Jacinto Choza Armenta
Full Text Available During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.
Q. L. Bie; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C S
Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border ...
Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...
Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane, retina, topographical variation, human......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane, retina, topographical variation, human...
influence coopera- tion, coordination and collaboration in administrative cross-border networks. In this connection the project asks after the perception of regional integration seen from the different national backgrounds. The research concentrates on the group of decision makers within the field of public......The project studies cross-border regional integration in Europe drawing on the example of the emerging Danish-German Femern Belt Region. It focuses on cross-border networking within public administration as part of regional integra- tion. My central question is how national-cultural differences...
THE large-scale dance drama The Border Town performed by the Hunan Provincial Troupe attracted a large audience with its natural human touch, strong local flavour and elegant literature, provoking reverie from the people. The Border Town dance drama was adapted from the novel of the same name by Shen Congwen, an influential writer on Chinese modern literature. The Border Town, written in 1934, was his masterpiece, which gives a delicate account of the young love between the orphan girl Cuicui (who was a...
This paper examines data on trade flows between West German Bundesländer (federal states) and East Germany to explore the effect of national borders on trade. Although the data cover only a small fraction of intra-German trade flows, I find a home bias of about factor 2.2; West German shipments to East Germany are about 120% larger than deliveries to an otherwise similar foreign country. Based on this result, possible implications for border regions are discussed
Thiemann, C; Grady, D; Brune, R; Brockmann, D
Geographic borders are not only essential for the effective functioning of government, the distribution of administrative responsibilities and the allocation of public resources, they also influence the interregional flow of information, cross-border trade operations, the diffusion of innovation and technology, and the spatial spread of infectious diseases. However, as growing interactions and mobility across long distances, cultural, and political borders continue to amplify the small world effect and effectively decrease the relative importance of local interactions, it is difficult to assess the location and structure of effective borders that may play the most significant role in mobility-driven processes. The paradigm of spatially coherent communities may no longer be a plausible one, and it is unclear what structures emerge from the interplay of interactions and activities across spatial scales. Here we analyse a multi-scale proxy network for human mobility that incorporates travel across a few to a few...
Thomas M Fullerton Jr
Greater cross-border economic integration in many regions has caused the field of border economics to expand rapidly. It has also occurred as a growing recognition of the necessity to examine economic phenomena within the unique contexts imposed by geo-political market segmentation. Some of the areas in which substantial research efforts are being directed include population, business cycle transmission, exchange rates, industrial development, labor markets, environment, and natural resources.
Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.
McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.
Mirela Janice Eidt; Marcos Eielson Pinheiro de Sá; Concepta Margareth McManus; Cristiano Barros de Melo
Infectious agents and veterinary diseases can be disseminated across borders and contribute to change the country sanitary status. The aim of this study was to identify the main animal products intercepted and seized by the agricultural surveillance units. This paper studied three Agricultural Surveillance Units located at land borders in the North region of Brazil: Assis Brasil and Epitaciolândia (Acre State) and Pacaraima (Roraima State), respectively borders with Peru, Bolivia and Venezuel...
Schwan, Michael J.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Presently, U.S. border security endeavors are compartmentalized, fragmented, and poorly coordinated. Moreover, international collaborations are extremely limited; success hinges on effective international cooperation. This thesis addresses U.S. border security management using complexity theory and a systems approach, incorporating both borders and all associated border security institutions simultaneously. Border security research ha...
Melville, Scott A; Wilson, Carmen L; Chiang, Chiu S; Studdert, Virginia P; Lingaas, Frode; Wilton, Alan N
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is a neurodegenerative disease found in Border collie dogs, humans, and other animals. Disease gene studies in humans and animals provided candidates for the NCL gene in Border collies. A combination of linkage analysis and comparative genomics localized the gene to CFA22 in an area syntenic to HSA13q that contains the CLN5 gene responsible for the Finnish variant of human late infantile NCL. Sequencing of CLN5 revealed a nonsense mutation (Q206X) within exon 4 that correlated with NCL in Border collies. This truncation mutation should result in a protein product of a size similar to that of some mutations identified in human CLN5 and therefore the Border collie may make a good model for human NCL. A simple test was developed to enable screening of the Border collie population for carriers so the disease can be eliminated as a problem in the breed. PMID:16033706
Bialasiewicz, L.; Minca, C.
In this paper we look to the Italian border city of Trieste-at various points in its past, a cosmopolitan port, Austria's urbs europeissima, but also a battleground for competing understandings of territoriality, identity, and belonging and a paragon of the violent application of an ethnoterritorial
The article deals with the evolution of the concept of borders between human groups and with its slow evolution from the initial no men's land zones to the ideal single-dimension linear borders. In ancient times the first borders were natural, such as mountain ranges or large rivers until, with the development of Geodesy, astronomical borders based on meridians and parallels became a favourite natural base. Actually, Modern States adopted these to fix limits in unknown conquered territories. The postmodern thought led give more importance to cultural borders until, in the most recent times, is becoming rather impossible to fix borders in the virtual cyberspace.
Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn; Turgeon, B Gillian; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Minh Tran, Tuan; Huskey, David A; Xiong, Zhongguo
Root border cells separate from plant root tips and disperse into the soil environment. In most species, each root tip can produce thousands of metabolically active cells daily, with specialized patterns of gene expression. Their function has been an enduring mystery. Recent studies suggest that border cells operate in a manner similar to mammalian neutrophils: Both cell types export a complex of extracellular DNA (exDNA) and antimicrobial proteins that neutralize threats by trapping pathogens and thereby preventing invasion of host tissues. Extracellular DNases (exDNases) of pathogens promote virulence and systemic spread of the microbes. In plants, adding DNase I to root tips eliminates border cell extracellular traps and abolishes root tip resistance to infection. Mutation of genes encoding exDNase activity in plant-pathogenic bacteria (Ralstonia solanacearum) and fungi (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) results in reduced virulence. The study of exDNase activities in plant pathogens may yield new targets for disease control. PMID:27215971
Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...
Orrenius, Pia M.; Madeline Zavodny
Limited access to migrant networks and strong geographic preferences may underlie border migrants' willingness to settle for lower wages on the border rather than seek higher wages by venturing into the U.S. interior.
Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...
National borders are a big hurdle to the expansion of the open economy. Integration today remains imperfect because national borders translate into trading costs, including differences in monetary regimes. Political borders shelter many goods and services from external competition and, consequently, represent a critical exogenous force in the integration process. Borders are thicker for the small countries than the large countries. Regional trade arrangements have softened or, in some cases, ...
National borders are a big hurdle to the expansion of the open economy. Integration today remains imperfect because national borders translate into trading costs, including differences in monetary regimes. Political borders shelter many goods and services from external competition and, consequently, represent a critical exogenous force in the integration process. Borders are thicker for the small countries than the large countries. Regional trade arrangements have softened or, in some cases, ...
Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.
National borders substantially matter in passenger air traffic. Empirical estimates based upon a new data set on domestic and international departures from German airports indicate that the German border reduces air traffic activity by a factor of four to five. This result adds a further piece of evidence to the significance of border effects in various kinds of economic activity.
Fitzmaurice, Mike; Hartmann, Olivier
Border-crossing times in East Africa have been identified as a major constraint for smooth trade flows, both for regional trade and for international transit. Delays at borders disrupt efficient trade logistics, impacting on the transport costs and prices, and ultimately on trade competitiveness. In order to improve the efficiency of border crossings in East Africa, the East Africa Communi...
We consider the welfare effect of cross-border merger in presence of international R&D competition. Cross-border merger increases domestic welfare if the bargaining power of the foreign firm and the slope of the marginal cost of R&D are sufficiently low. Otherwise, domestic welfare is lower under cross-border merger.
Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.
Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.
Velde, B.M.R. van der
Regions and borders are inseparably joined. Although quite some time is devoted to the discussion about the nature of borders, in essence borders are marking the ultimate extent of regions. The character of borders of course may differ, from for instance dividing elements between regions to more or
Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl
the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...... of choosing a foreign partner while the decision between foreign partners from different locations is not. The results do however not provide support for the theory of knowledge bases influencing the location of innovation partners....
... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease Ulcerative skin lesion, ... border, on a Guatemalan patient who has cutaneous leishmaniasis. (Credit: B. Arana, MERTU, Guatemala) Marked splenomegaly (enlargement/ ...
The world has experienced monumental changes in recent years. Globalization has brought many benefits. Business and commerce have increased and, as a result, brought us cheaper, more accessible goods from all regions of the world. We have access to relatively cheap and certainly much easier travel. We now live in a world of instant communications with mobile phones, laptops and 'BlackBerries'. However, there is a downside to globalization - transnationally organized crime and the reality of terrorism have grown. As more people cross borders, it is harder to detect criminals and terrorists. In the European Union, the internal borders of the now 27 member States have been dismantled. Effective international measures to counter organized crime and terrorist groups are of crucial importance. It is important to think globally and to act locally. The paper looks at some of the crime challenges and provides insight into the role and work of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in drugs and crime control. It focuses on border control initiatives conducted by the UNODC. (author)
In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through a...
This paper describes the factors which have an influence on travelling and presents the forecast model to Finnish-Russian land border. The number of border traffic between Finland and the Russian Federation’s border stations has been an upward trend through the 2000s. A significant part of growth is due to increased travelling of the Russian Federation’s citizens to the European Union. Forecasting of cross-border traffic and tourism in Finnish-Russian land border h...
Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig
Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against the...... background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...
B. Martin R. van der Velde
At the moment borders, border-related problems, and the process of tearing down borders are very much in the centre of interest. Especially in Europe a lot of scientific work is done with regard to borders of countries, to determine their role in the ongoing integration process. In this respect border-regions are considered to be able to play a catalytic role. The borderland economies on both sides of a national border in this view have to be changed into one transborder economy. Initiatives ...
Full Text Available Military border of the Austrian Monarchy was formed gradually in border areas for the purpose of defending the border from Turkish invasions. In time, as the international political circumstances have changed, the Border itself also modified its primary function. From the beginning of the 18th century soldiers of the Military Border together with the regular troops of Austrian army participate in all wars in which Austria took part. Thanks to those soldiers the military force of the Austrian Empire was significantly strengthened. Except for military tasks, the Military Border served to a great extent as a defensive corridor that stopped spreading infections diseases, invasions of robberies, smuggling goods from Turkey, as well as deserting and emigration to Turkish territory. Because of great importance that Military Border has had for the Austrian Monarchy, the author in this paper gives a summary review of its development in the military, territorial and administrative-political sense. Special attention was given to the administrative system that was introduced in Border in the second half of the 19th century.
McCleery, Ellen J; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Phares, Christina; O'Neal, Seth
We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand-Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787
Federica Cerina; Alessandro Chessa; Fabio Pammolli; Massimo Riccaboni
We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by t...
This study aims to achieve a short analysis of cross-border cooperation agreements between territorial-administrative units in the border areas of Romania and similar structures in neighboring states. The article investigates the form they takes these agreements – contract or treaty –, the role of multinational enterprises and the law applicable to transnational contracts, the cross-border cooperation agreement governed by Law no. 215/2001 on local public administration and its legal nature. ...
Bazhenov Yu.; Nikulkhenkov K.
The article is dedicated to the problem of competitiveness of border regions as subjects of the Russian Federation having specific characteristics. The authors focus on the stages, during which border regions build their competitiveness, as well as analyse certain indices characterizing it. They examine the role of these regions in the development of international trade and economic relations, cross-border cooperation and international integration, taking the North-west federal district and t...
Duggan, Ruth Ann
To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.
Full Text Available A historic and cultural region exists at the heart of the Balkans, known in geographic and ethnographic research as Shopluk. This is a region in which, over the last 150 years, state boundaries were moved several times as a result of 5 different wars. Today, the historic Shopluk is where the borders of three nations converge – Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia – and, during the last decade, the region was declared one of the “Euroregions” on the Balkans. Despite the historical similarities in traditional culture and language of this population, in the 19th century it became a subject of nationalist ambitions and a propaganda “wars” between the new national states of Serbia and Bulgaria. The joining of Bulgarian-inhabited parts of Shopluk (the regions of today’s Dimitrovgrad and Bosilegrad in Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats in 1919 created a long-lasting tension between the two countries, some residues of which can be felt in everyday relations even today. On the other hand, it has been a century-long tradition for men in this region to take part in seasonal labour migrations all over the Balkan Peninsula, despite political borders. In this way, preserving their cultural and lingual specifics, the groups of seasonal workers – migrants from Shopluk, became a bridge for cultural interaction and exchange with other regions in the neighbour countries. Even though today the population of Shopluk exhibits different national identities, historical similarities in culture and language can turn the Euroregion between Nish, Sofia and Skopje from one of the poorest on the Balkans to one of the most integrated and prosperous.
Cletus C. Coughlin; Novy, Dennis
Many studies have found that international borders represent large barriers to trade. But how do international borders compare to domestic border barriers? We investigate international and domestic border barriers in a unified framework. We consider a data set of exports from individual U.S. states to foreign countries and combine it with trade flows between and within U.S. states. After controlling for distance and country size, we estimate that relative to state-to-state trade, crossing an ...
Houtum, Henk van
Central question of this paper is what effects a state border has on the development of cross-border economic relationships in border regions. First the geographical spread of these relationships is analysed. Next a theoretical model is proposed to explain the pattern and the decision-process of bilateral international economic relationships. The model is mainly based on four theories: 1. the transaction costs approach on cross border economic relations under the condition of uncertainty. 2. ...
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
Interoperability among government agencies at national borders, also known as coordinated border management (CBM), is a fundamental component of a nation's modernized customs and border control strategy. It comprises the streamlining of parallel processes and technologies enabling different government agencies to effectively work together on border issues. By 4 implementing CBM strategies at both the domestic and international levels, countries can reduce internal costs and inefficiencies, im...
Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu); Nicolae-Eugen Munteanu
To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external b...
This paper aims to further articulate multicultural science education scholarship. In particular, it explores the notions of borders and border epistemologies as intellectual resources to think again about the challenges of science education in the global world that demand more sophisticated concepts to unravel some of its complexities. It…
... identification cards; combined border crossing identification cards and B-1/B-2 visitor visas. 41.32 Section 41... crossing identification cards; combined border crossing identification cards and B-1/B-2 visitor visas. (a) Combined B-1/B-2 visitor visa and border crossing identification card (B-1/B-2 Visa/BCC)—(1)...
Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara
This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which to build…
Houtum, H.J. van; Eker, M.
The internal borders in the European Union were opened more than twenty years ago. However, a comprehensive and coordinated spatial vision for the border landscape is yet to be composed. Bureaucratic cooperation procedures in combination with new nationalistic sentiments in the EU only seem to block
Full Text Available Far more attention needs to be paid to the circulation of Iraqirefugees across the borders between Iraq and Syria or Jordan. Lackof analysis of this cross-border mobility will be to the detriment ofpolicy planning and the search for durable solutions.
Far more attention needs to be paid to the circulation of Iraqirefugees across the borders between Iraq and Syria or Jordan. Lackof analysis of this cross-border mobility will be to the detriment ofpolicy planning and the search for durable solutions.
Reimer, Jennifer Andrea
AbstractBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico BorderbyJennifer Andrea ReimerDoctor of Philosophy in Ethnic StudiesUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor José David Saldívar, Co-ChairProfessor Laura E. Pérez, Co-ChairBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border is a transnational, interdisciplinary cultural study of the contemporary U.S.-Mexico border that argues for the critical role of the international border in the racial past, p...
Metropolitan regions are generally seen as drivers for territorial development in the national context, as well as drivers for economic, social and cultural development on a European and global scale. Many border regions dispose of specific potentials but also specific barriers for a cross-border...... polycentric metropolitan region. However, cross-border areas appear to be systematically underestimated in their development opportunities so that awareness about specific advantages needs to be improved. This is why this project addresses cross-border metropolitan regions in Europe in relation to the policy...... aim of polycentric development. It aims at identifying criteria, potentials and governance practices based on available ESPON evidence for polycentric cross-border metropolitan regions in Europe and proposing options for development strategies towards a multilevel approach for two case study regions...
Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.
Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu
Full Text Available To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external border of the EU and the expected impact of the allocated funds. The cross-border cooperation programmes are creating the conditions to exist the relationships between different social and economic stakeholders in order to contribute to economic and social development by supporting SME development, innovation, human resources development, civil society and local communities, increasing educational, social, cultural and sporting exchanges, improving local governance in different cross-border areas.
Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia
In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737
Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other.
Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David
The space of the Internet is often described as easy to traverse with no regard for national borders. Yet few have considered what such easy border crossings on the Internet might mean to the ordinary people actually doing the traversing. Our qualitative study of regular Internet users in...... activity on the Internet as happening within or outside the space of the state to which they felt allegiance and belonging. National borders are demarcated on the Internet through naming via ccTLDs and can result in individual expressions of various types of nationalism online. We find that ccTLDs are not...
Cătălina-Maria BÂTEA (BOTA
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the linkage between establishing crossborder relations and tourism development by focusing on ten tourism projects implemented under Hungary-Romania Cross-Border Co-operation Programme (2007-2013. The study area comprises the two neighbouring counties of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, the border connecting two areas characterised by social and economic similarities. Building on a solid foundation, as the first Hungarian-Romanian cross-border initiatives were launched nearly two decades ago, the two counties work together towards the shared aim of developing business infrastructure, cross-border trade, culture and tourism. The present study examines the relevance of cross-border projects viewed from the perspective of sustainable tourism development in two peripheral counties featuring similar resources. Moreover, the investigation is based on consultation of project documents, reports and promotional materials, against the theoretical framework of cross-border cooperation and regional development.
This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates in...... seeking children in Denmark is assessed as a form of liberal nationalism. Several problematic features with this system are discussed, such as the lacking Danish implementation of the Convention of the Rights of the Child, and the use of cultural generalizations in case evaluations. Chapter four conducts...... in-depth research of the privatization of border control through the cases of G4S, Finmeccanica and the EU’s EUROSUR system. The chapter links externalization of border control with European state-driven export markets and shows how states’ export credit agencies, the arms industry and the...
Cerina, Federica; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo
We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy making and highlights the interplay of the internationalization pressure toward a global innovation system against the administrative borders imposed by the national and continental institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geog...
"Beyond Walls and Borders." Jenna M. Lold, Matt Mitchelson and Andrew Burridge (eds.). University of Georgia Press. December 2012. --- The crisis of borders and prisons can be seen starkly in statistics. In 2011 some 1,500 migrants died trying to enter Europe, and the United States deported nearly 400,000 and imprisoned some 2.3 million people—more than at any other time in history. International borders are increasingly militarized places embedded within domestic policing and imprisonment an...
The Radiation Safety Without Borders (RSWB) initiative provides peer support to radiation safety professionals in developing countries, which bolsters the country's infrastructure and may lead the way for IRPA Associate membership. The Health Physics Society (HPS) recognizes that many nations do not possess the infrastructure to adequately control and beneficially use ionizing radiation. In a substantial number of countries, organized radiation protection programs are minimal. The RSWB initiative relies on HPS volunteers to assist their counterparts in developing countries with emerging health physics and radiation safety programs, but whose resources are limited, to provide tools that promote and support infrastructure and help these professionals help themselves. RSWB experience to date has shown that by providing refurbished instruments, promoting visits to a HPS venue, or visiting a country just to look provide valuable technical and social infrastructure experiences often missing in the developing nation's cadre of radiation safety professionals. HPS/RSWB with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) pairs chapters with a country, with the expectation that the country's professional radiation safety personnel will form a foreign HPS chapter, and the country eventually will become an IRPA Associate. Although still in its formative stage, RSWB nonetheless has gotten valuable information in spite of the small number of missions. The RSWB initiative continues to have significant beneficial impacts, including: Improving the radiation safety infrastructure of the countries that participate; Assisting those countries without professional radiation safety societies to form one; Strengthening the humanitarian efforts of the United States; Enhancing Homeland Security efforts through improved control of radioactive material internationally. Developing countries, including those in Latin America, underwritten by IAEA, may take advantage of resources
van Houtum, H.J.
This dissertation investigates the influence of a state border on the development of cross-border economic relations in the European Union. The focus is on the frequency, number, and success of cross-border relations between firms in the border regions of the Netherlands and Belgium. The study fills
Charles Edwards Matthews III
Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful
Borders are increasingly complex human responses and social constructions in a world where globalizing forces confront basic human concerns for security and certainty. In an effort to provide a background to assess research directions for imaging borders, this paper explores what we know about borders, and what we do not know well about borders. Borders in globalization are the meeting points of globalizing forces of security, trade and migration flows with emerging technologies, sel...
This paper explores humanitarianism in the practice of Frontex-assisted Greek border police in Evros and of Frontex at their headquarters in Warsaw. Building on the increase in humanitarian justifications for border policing practices as well as the charges of a lack of humanity, the paper analyzes
Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo
We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by the national and regional institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geographic scale. We confirm our findings by means of a set of simulations aimed at exploring the relationship between different patterns of cross-border community structures and the outreach index. PMID:24686380
Full Text Available Norma Iglesias-Prieto’s article is based on the films Wacha el border, created by twelve children from Tijuana, and Beyond the Border, created by ten children from San Diego. It aims at understanding the extent to which the U.S.-Mexico border is significant in children’s social representations of themselves and others. Focusing on the Tijuana/San Diego transboundary urbanized region, Iglesias-Prieto questions traditional representations and perceptions of the border.
Salinas, Jennifer J; Su, Dejun; Al Snih, Soham
Mexican Americans have demonstrated lower than what would be expected mortality rates and disease prevalence, given their overrepresentation among those living in poverty. However, Mexican Americans living along the US-Mexico border have been documented as carrying a higher burden of disease and disability that seems to contradict or at least challenge evidence in support of a "Hispanic Paradox". The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the concept of border health as it relates to the conceptualization and measurement of health outcomes in older Mexican Americans living in the Southwest United States. Data for this study comes from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (Hispanic EPESE) wave 1 and mortality files up to wave 5. Border residence was determined using La Paz Agreement county and distance from a port of entry classifications. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess border versus non-border differences in cause of death, disability, disease prevalence and premature mortality. Adjusted regression models were used to predict cause of death, disability and disease-free life expectancy and premature mortality (i.e. occurring before life expectancy). Interaction models between border/non-border and median income were also performed. Finally, distance from the US-Mexico border was used to determine the effect of distance to the US-Mexico border in border-residing participants. The findings from this study indicate that participants in the HEPESE were more likely to be alive at Wave 5 if they resided in a border county, however more likely to transition into ADL disability status. These findings were not explained by behaviors, duration in the US or sociocultural characteristics of where they lived. Additionally, Hispanic EPESE subjects that lived in the border region were more likely to have died from old age and were less likely to be lost to follow up. Interaction models revealed significant effects for
Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.11.002
Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods: In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion: Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in ...
The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.
Davis, Jane; Zuber, Kim
Whether it is the heartland of America or a remote village in a developing country, one overriding theme to providing care for kidney patients is person power--or the lack of it. In the developed countries, notably the U.S., Australia, New Zealand and Europe, medical schools prepare advanced practitioners who can then fill the gap left by the lack of nephrologists. However in areas where physicians are in short supply, nurses often have only basic training and trained APs are not available. In the meantime, kidney disease is taking its toll on the best and the brightest. PMID:26677594
Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.
Danielsen, E M
appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied......The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC 22.214.171.124), sucrase-isomaltase (EC 126.96.36.199-10), aminopeptidase A (EC 3...
Rijpma, Jorrit Jelle
Summary: This article looks at how the Lisbon Treaty will affect the management of the EU’s external borders. It examines the current treaty framework and the way in which the Community has made use of its powers in this policy ﬁeld. It discusses the changes the Lisbon Treaty is likely to bring about and gives a short overview of how the future management of the external borders is taking shape in the absence of ratiﬁcation of the Lisbon Treaty. The underlying theme of this contribution i...
"Meteors Without Borders" is a global project, organized by Astronomers Without Borders and launched during the Global Astronomy Month in 2010 for the Lyrid meteor shower. The project focused on encouraging amateur astronomy groups to hold public outreach events for major meteor showers, conduct meteor-related classroom activities, photography, poetry and art work. It also uses social-media platforms to connect groups around the world to share their observations and photography, live during the events. At the International Meteor Conference 2011, the progress of the project was presented along with an extended invitation for collaborations for further improvements of the project.
subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature-space into...
Following the decision of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany to construct a fuel reprocessing plant (in the wider context of organising radioactive waste disposal) at Wackersdorf, 130 km from the Austrian border, actions were brought against the German constructor before Austrian and German courts. The author describes the mechanisms governing administrative procedures in both countries and their connection with public international law. He analyses the legal argumentations developed before the different courts as well as the debate on the concept of territoriality and border installations (NEA)
Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D
There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health." PMID:26075195
Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; Schramm, Marc
Recent studies of border effects have focused on the intra-country and inter-country comparison of trade flows. It is found that borders have a negative impact on the size of cross-border trade. In order to estimate border effects on a regional level one needs not only data on inter-country but also on intra-country trade. For many countries (regional) data on intra-country trade are simply lacking, which makes an analysis of border effects and border regions cumbersome. In this paper we take...
He, Jun; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser
Wireless sensor networks have been proposed as promising candidates to provide automated monitoring, target tracking, and intrusion detection for border surveillance. In this paper, we demonstrate an ad-hoc wireless sensor network system for border surveillance. The network consists of heterogeneously autonomous sensor nodes that distributively cooperate with each other to enable a smart border in remote areas. This paper also presents energy-aware and sleeping algorithms designed to maximize the operating lifetime of the deployed sensor network. Lessons learned in building the network and important findings from field experiments are shared in the paper.
The importance of cross-border cooperation between countries is a topical issue at a time when the increase of cross-border contacts plays an important part in international affairs and economic relations; Russia and its neighbouring countries in East and Southeast Asia are no exception. Yet the development of such cooperation is possible only if the border is seen not as a barrier but as a point of contact between countries. Such an active role, however, is made possible by a degree of borde...
Süli-Zakar, István; Kecskés, Tibor
In the current paper we wanted to investigate the historical process which resulted in Debrecen’s contemporary (cultural) traditions and formed the city’s self-image. In the course of the research which was after the city’s historic past we investigated the role of the changing borders and the possibilities of the cross-border Euroregional cooperation as well. The nearby border has effect on the city’s economic and tourist life. In the last years (during the urban regeneration), many projects...
Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Sánchez-Murillo, José Marín; Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Sánchez-Moro, José; Latrofa, Maria Stefanía; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico
Ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda is an emerging disease that affects primarily dogs, but also cats, foxes and other wild carnivores, as well as humans. Three clinical cases of unilateral conjunctivitis caused by Thelazia nematodes were detected in Border Collie, a dog breed intolerant to the macrocyclic lactones. Animals came from southwestern Spain, on the border with Portugal. Eight worms were collected and identified molecularly as T. callipaeda by amplification and sequencing of partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Oral treatment with mebendazole 20mg/kg (Telmin(®)) was effective in curing the infection. PMID:24412357
A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…
Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.
This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.
Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.
This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998ï¿½2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermo
Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Aikenhead, Glen S.
Reviews collateral learning theory as a cognitive explanation for how pupils cope with disparate worldviews mediated by transcending cultural borders between their everyday culture and the culture of science. Proposes a new pedagogy in which teachers assume the role of culture broker in the classroom to achieve culturally sensitive curriculum and…
This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating the...
Students will consider both sides of the globalization debate—the benefits and the costs—by reading and discussing the article "Crossing Borders: The Globalization Debate" from the Spring 2008 issue of Inside the Vault. Working in groups, students will analyze statements regarding the benefits and costs of globalization, categorize the statements and discuss them.
Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo;
The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate the...
Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E
A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected. PMID:15971901
M Rama Bai
Full Text Available The objective of border detection is to mark the points in a digital image at which the luminous intensity changes sharply. Acute changes in image features usually reflect important events and changes inproperties of the world. These include (a discontinuities in depth (b discontinuities in surface orientation (c changes in material properties and (d variations in scene illumination. A novel algorithm based on multi-scale morphological method for the purpose of border detection is introduced. Standard morphological border detection methods use single and symmetrical structure elements which are used exhaustively in image processing. They could detect the alterations of gray level, but are difficult to detect complex border feature because they are only sensitive to image border which has the same direction of structure elements. A new border detection method based on multi-structure element morphology of eight different directions is proposed. The ability of the proposed detection method is that we get eight different border detection results by using morphological gradient algorithm respectively and final border result is obtained by using synthetic weighted method. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm obtains clear and exact borders of the image by retaining the image details and it out performs the conventional morphological border detection algorithms and differential border detection operators. This technique shows the worth of border detection and the ability of detecting sharp complex borders.
Rosales, Cecilia B.; Nuno, Tomas; Dieke, Ada; Galvez, Francisco Navarro; Dutton, Ronald J.; Guerrero, Robert; Dulin, Paul; Jiménez, Elisa Aguilar; Granillo, Brenda; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey
Abstract: Background: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. Methods: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. Results: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30%) of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations). Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. Conclusions: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals whose
Jill Guernsey de Zapien
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. METHODS: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. RESULTS: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30% of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations. Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Terrorism has become the one of the major threats facing many states. Understanding the potential sources of and preventing the financial support of terrorist organizations takes an important place in countering terrorism. This thesis focuses on the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) financing activities through the land border of Turkey. In doing so, this study mainly examines how the Turkish border security system can stop the trans-bord...
The implementation of common policies established by the constitutive agreements of the Euroregions, and operational development of cross-border cooperation have led to the increase of contacts between Romanian and Ukrainian institutions. The European territorial cooperation at the European Union’s outer borders has two major components: Cohesion Policy and European Neighborhood Policy. Europe’s diversity is considered a valuable characteristic which should be exploited and promoted. This d...
Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several forms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA segregate in more than 100 breeds of dog with each PRA segregating in one or a few breeds. This breed specificity may be accounted for by founder effects and genetic drift, which have reduced the genetic heterogeneity of each breed, thereby facilitating the identification of causal mutations. We report here a new form of PRA segregating in the Border Collie breed. The clinical signs, including the loss of night vision and a progressive loss of day vision, resulting in complete blindness, occur at the age of three to four years and may be detected earlier through systematic ocular fundus examination and electroretinography (ERG. Results Ophthalmic examinations performed on 487 dogs showed that affected dogs present a classical form of PRA. Of those, 274 have been sampled for DNA extraction and 87 could be connected through a large pedigree. Segregation analysis suggested an X-linked mode of transmission; therefore both XLPRA1 and XLPRA2 mutations were excluded through the genetic tests. Conclusion Having excluded these mutations, we suggest that this PRA segregating in Border Collie is a new XLPRA (XLPRA3 and propose it as a potential model for the homologous human disease, X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa.
The Tijuana River Watershed is one of eight watersheds that encompass the urbanized area of San Diego and Tijuana. The San Diego - Tijuana cross border corridor lies along the 1,951 mile long international border dividing the United States and Mexico, known as the U.S. Mexican Border Region (San Diego Association of Governments). It is currently the fastest growing region in North America (US / Mexico Border Counties Coalition) and accounts for roughly a third of total population growth in th...
The diversity is the foundation of tourism.Border regions witness the change of the history, and retain valuable heritages and unique vil ages. Because of the common border protection regulations, natural beauties and cultural landscapes can be also wel preserved, leaving abundant and precious tourism resources for younger generations.Combining with the sha tau kok border region and the surrounding site,analysis of the feasibility of border tourism and chal enges.
Marek Graniczny; Jonas Satkunas; Jurga Lazauskiene; Jiri Sebesta
@@ The International Workshop on "Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America" was organized in Managua, Nicaragua, 5-8 December, 2005 by the Working Group International Borders-Geoenvironmental Concerns (IBC), under the IUGS Commission on Geosciences for Environmental Management (GEM) and in the framework of the IUGS funded project "Application of geosciences for sustainable development of cross-border areas(GEOCrossBorder)".
Fernando Borraz; Alberto Cavallo; Roberto Rigobon; Leandro Zipitría
The "border effect" literature finds that political borders have a very large impact on relative prices, implicitly adding several thousands of miles to trade. In this paper we show that the standard empirical specification suffers from selection bias, and propose a new methodology based on quantile regressions. Using a novel data set from Uruguay, we apply our procedure to measure the segmentation introduced by city borders. City borders should matter little for trade. We find that when the ...
McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein
Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.
Public health officials, physicians, and politicians have long been aware of the squalid environmental conditions existing along the US-Mexico border. Some attempts have been made to improve the environmental pollution and causes of human disease, beginning as early as the 1930s with the IBWC, established in 1889. More recent agreements and legislation have called for US and Mexico cooperation by way of each nation's corresponding environmental agency (ie, the EPA and Mexico's SEDUE) and their agencies of foreign affairs (ie, the IBWC). Nevertheless, environmental monitoring and disease incidence data continue to point out that public and environmental health along the border--the result of uncontrolled air and water pollution and lack of disease vector control--is rapidly deteriorating and seriously affecting the health and future economic vitality on both sides of the border. Many prominent public health professionals and environmental organizations are concerned that the present working relationship between the United States and Mexico is not functioning well and cannot adequately cope with existing environmental conditions; for one thing, the efforts of the EPA and SEDUE are reviewed no more frequently than once a year by a staff quartered in Washington and Mexico City. Some projects to improve these conditions have been undertaken by the EPA and SEDUE and the IBWC; at present, the prospects for success do not appear promising. Consequently, these individuals and organizations have urged creation of a US-Mexico border environmental health commission. Congress did see fit last year to give responsibility for the environment to the IBWC in the form of Public Law 100-465. This law, however, does not address the full severity of environmental and public health degradation along the border; it does not address the pollution of the New River, Agua Prieta, the San Pedro River, or the Pacific Ocean, neither does it offer remedial control of hazardous waste sites
Borders are increasingly complex human responses and social constructions in a world where globalizing forces confront basic human concerns for security and certainty. In an effort to provide a background to assess research directions for imaging borders, this paper explores what we know about borders, and what we do not know well about borders. Borders in globalization are the meeting points of globalizing forces of security, trade and migration flows with emerging technologies, self determination and regionalization around the world. We need to know more about how: self determination fuels secessions and new borders; borders result from complex rather than simple policy and governance issues; borders depend on the political clout of borderland communities; market and migration flows impact borders; and borders are always in motion. The paper shows how these organizing principles underlie the basic themes of border governance, flows, culture, history, security and sustainability. Finally, the paper offers two brief illustrations of border imaging to link this presentation to the following discussion of the workshop.
OECD; World Bank
This report emphasizes that cross-border tertiary education refers to the movement of people, programs, providers, curricula, projects, research and services in tertiary (or higher) education across national jurisdictional borders. Cross-border education is a subset of educational internationalization and can be part of development cooperation projects, academic exchange programs and comme...
Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca
We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering. Fo...
...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Parts 831, 841, and 842 RIN 3206-AL69 Customs and Border Protection... available to customs and border protection officers under the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the... Act provides early retirement and enhanced annuity benefits for customs and border protection...
... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office...
Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...
Ordonez, Karina J.
CHDS State/Local Illegal cross-border activity is a severe homeland defense and security problem along the international Southwest border. The issue of illegal human smuggling is not new to the United States-Mexico border or to law enforcement agencies; however, the phenomenon is rising and human smugglers are adjusting to law enforcement tactics. This thesis has three objectives. First, it describes and identifies the fundamental dimensions of U.S. Border Patrol operations in the busiest,...
Full Text Available The special clustering algorithm is attractive for the task of grouping arbitrary shaped database into several proper classes. Up to now, a wide variety of clustering algorithms designed for this task have been proposed, the majority of these algorithms is density-based. But the effectivity and efficiency still is the great challenges for these algorithms as far as the clustering quality of such task is concerned. In this paper, we propose an arbitrary shaped clustering method with border grids (PNMBG, PNMBG is a crisp partition method. It groups objects to point neighborhoods firstly, and then iteratively merges these point neighborhoods into clusters via grids, only bordering grids are considered during the merging stage. Experiments show that PNMBG has a good efficiency especially on the database with high dimension. In general, PNMBG outperforms DBSCAN in the term of efficiency and has an almost same effectivity with the later.
Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.
The remote sensing technology has many practical applications in different fields of science and industry. There is also a need to examine its usefulness for the purpose of land border surveillance. This research started with analysis of potential direct use of Earth Observation technology for monitoring migrations of people and preventing smuggling. The research, however, proved that there are still many fields within which the EO technology needs to be improved. From that point the analysis focused on improving Border Permeability Index which utilizes EO techniques as a source of information. The result of BPI analysis with use of high resolution data provides new kind of information which can support and make more effective work of authorities from security domain.
Eminaga, S; Cherubini, G B; Shelton, G D
A two-year old, male entire Border collie was presented with a one-year history of exercise-induced collapsing on the pelvic limbs. Physical examination revealed generalised muscle atrophy. Neurological examination supported a generalised neuromuscular disorder. Electromyography revealed spontaneous electrical activity in almost all muscles. Unfixed and formaldehyde-fixed biopsy samples were collected from the triceps brachii, longissimus and vastus lateralis muscles. Histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural examinations of biopsy specimens were consistent with either centronuclear or myotubular myopathy. The dog clinically improved with supportive treatment with L-carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and vitamin B compound. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of centronuclear/myotubular myopathy in a Border collie. PMID:23013377
Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reﬂect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortiﬁed and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reﬂect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conﬂict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation
Kleimeier, S.; Sander, H.; Heuchemer, S.
In this paper, we demonstrate that cultural borders in international finance resurge during financial crises. To investigate the role of cultural borders during both tranquil and crisis periods, we employ a unique data set that focuses on Eurozone cross-border depositing in a gravity-model framework
This color infrared view of the Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border (17.0N, 92.0W) illustrates the usefulness of this type of film in determining vegetated vs non vegetated areas. As can be seen, most of this part of Guatemala remains in closed canopy woodland (dark red), while most of the Mexican land to the north has been cleared for pasture and farmland (pink). The pale green areas north of the river are bare soil or fallow fields.
Simão, Lívia Mathias
The aim of this paper is to propose the notion of culture as a symbolic moving border. Departing from both, Boesch's (1991) concept of culture as a symbolic field of action, and Herbst's (1995) co-genetic logic, I will discuss the dynamics of self-other relationships in terms of their potentiality as sources of movement in culture. A brief analysis of an empirical material is given in illustrative character of the ideas here exposed. PMID:26245862
Guenther, S.; Lukes, S; Stanton, R; Vollmer, BA; Wilding, J.
This article considers how chauvinistic welfare policies operate as a bordering practice. Taking the UK as an example, it examines a process in which welfare provisions have increasingly been withdrawn from a group of people designated as undeserving. It points out a close link between chauvinism based on ethnicity and based on class. This relation is explored in detail for the case of social housing culminating in today’s “social housing for local people” approach. A second case, access t...
An overview of the Canada-U.S. cross-border merger and acquisition environment and exchangeable share structure within the petroleum industry is provided. Recent U.S. acquisitions in Canada, Canadian investment conditions, indexed price analysis from January 1, 1997 to October 16, 1998, and a variety of other share price/cash flow statistics relevant to mergers and acquisitions are examined. tabs., figs
Andersson, Anders-Petter; Cappelen , Birgitta
Our voice and body are important parts of our self-expression and self-experience for all of us. They are also essential for our way to communicate and build relations cross borders like abilities, ages, locations and backgrounds. Voice, body and tangibility gradually become more important for ICT, due to increased development of tangible interaction and mobile communication. The voice and tangible interaction therefore also become more important for the Universal Design field. In this paper ...
Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.
This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermore, such taxation is almost fully passed on into higher interest margins charged abroad. These results imply that international double taxation distorts the activities of international ban...
textabstractThis book investigates antecedents and outcomes of international entrepreneurship. International entrepreneurship as a field of research involves both research into entrepreneurship in multiple countries (cross-country comparisons of the nature and extent of entrepreneurial activity) and research into cross-border entrepreneurship (international activity of small and medium-sized enterprises and new ventures). Entrepreneurship is considered to be an important mechanism for nationa...
Mahalinga K; Chikkanna
It is generally said – we can change history, not geography. Nevertheless, there are many instances when geography has been changed – some times by political decisions, sometimes by wars, at other times by some great engineering feat. Since the last 100 years human activities responsible to border disputes, and the ecological collapse it invited have changed geography. In this situation in which the teeming millions languish under the crushing burden of poverty, only about twenty per cent of ...
Full Text Available This article examines the life story of a woman born in a village in southern Estonia in 1918. It is based on two life stories told in Estonian and one told in Russian, as well as a story about her home. The stories were written at the initiative of the researcher between 1996 and 2004 and are stored in public archives. These texts have been chosen in that they are characteristic of the multifaceted phenomenon of inter-cultural contact: the narrator is of Estonian descent; she was imprisoned during the German occupation and taken to Germany, where she lived among local Germans and Red Army soldiers after the war; she married a man of Russian descent who served in the Red Army; from 1948, she and her family lived in a culturally diverse environment in Kohtla-Järve. The focus of this research is on the manifestation of cultural borders at the levels of life history, self-description and cultural context. The narrator presents herself as a person who is not constrained by cultural borders. The relative importance of various cultures in her life and her self-perception is dependent on the general historical and political context and the context of everyday life at the stage of her life that is being described. This aspect emphasises the flexible and volatile nature of cultural borders; however, the analysis of the text reveals the permanence of cultural borders – the narrator cannot step out of her cultural background when describing a culture that she sees as ‘other’.
The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees), the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers i...
Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.
Zhou, Xia; Xia, Shang; Yin, Shou-Qin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
E. Vannier and P. J. Krause presented an excellent article on "Babesiosis in China, an emerging threat" in the Lancet Infectious Diseases in December 2014, which updated research on human babesiosis in China. However, a neglected and emerging issue has not been mentioned in EV & PJK's article, that is the co-infections with B. microti and P. falciparum parasites that exist in syndemic areas, spatially in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan province, China. Therefore, two important issues are addressed in here, including (i) the new emerging infections with Babesia spp. which are normally ignored in malaria endemic areas due to similarities in pathogenic morphology and clinical symptoms, (ii) additional consideration on babesiosis rather than drug-resistant malaria when anti-malaria treatment for the febrile cases in clinics fails. PMID:26204984
Harkin, Kenneth R; Cash, Walter C; Shelton, G Diane
A 5-month-old female Border Collie was evaluated because of progressive hind limb ataxia. The predominant clinical findings suggested a sensory neuropathy. Sensory nerve conduction velocity was absent in the tibial, common peroneal, and radial nerves and was decreased in the ulnar nerve; motor nerve conduction velocity was decreased in the tibial, common peroneal, and ulnar nerves. Histologic examination of nerve biopsy specimens revealed considerable nerve fiber depletion; some tissue sections had myelin ovoids, foamy macrophages, and axonal degeneration in remaining fibers. Marked depletion of most myelinated fibers within the peroneal nerve (a mixed sensory and motor nerve) supported the electrodiagnostic findings indicative of sensorimotor neuropathy. Progressive deterioration in motor function occurred over the following 19 months until the dog was euthanatized. A hereditary link was not established, but a littermate was similarly affected. The hereditary characteristic of this disease requires further investigation. PMID:16266014
Thiemann, Christian; Theis, Fabian; Grady, Daniel; Brune, Rafael; Brockmann, Dirk
Territorial subdivisions and geographic borders are essential for understanding phenomena in sociology, political science, history, and economics. They influence the interregional flow of information and cross-border trade and affect the diffusion of innovation and technology. However, it is unclear if existing administrative subdivisions that typically evolved decades ago still reflect the most plausible organizational structure of today. The complexity of modern human communication, the ease of long-distance movement, and increased interaction across political borders complicate the operational definition and assessment of geographic borders that optimally reflect the multi-scale nature of today's human connectivity patterns. What border structures emerge directly from the interplay of scales in human interactions is an open question. Based on a massive proxy dataset, we analyze a multi-scale human mobility network and compute effective geographic borders inherent to human mobility patterns in the United States. We propose two computational techniques for extracting these borders and for quantifying their strength. We find that effective borders only partially overlap with existing administrative borders, and show that some of the strongest mobility borders exist in unexpected regions. We show that the observed structures cannot be generated by gravity models for human traffic. Finally, we introduce the concept of link significance that clarifies the observed structure of effective borders. Our approach represents a novel type of quantitative, comparative analysis framework for spatially embedded multi-scale interaction networks in general and may yield important insight into a multitude of spatiotemporal phenomena generated by human activity. PMID:21124970
Full Text Available Territorial subdivisions and geographic borders are essential for understanding phenomena in sociology, political science, history, and economics. They influence the interregional flow of information and cross-border trade and affect the diffusion of innovation and technology. However, it is unclear if existing administrative subdivisions that typically evolved decades ago still reflect the most plausible organizational structure of today. The complexity of modern human communication, the ease of long-distance movement, and increased interaction across political borders complicate the operational definition and assessment of geographic borders that optimally reflect the multi-scale nature of today's human connectivity patterns. What border structures emerge directly from the interplay of scales in human interactions is an open question. Based on a massive proxy dataset, we analyze a multi-scale human mobility network and compute effective geographic borders inherent to human mobility patterns in the United States. We propose two computational techniques for extracting these borders and for quantifying their strength. We find that effective borders only partially overlap with existing administrative borders, and show that some of the strongest mobility borders exist in unexpected regions. We show that the observed structures cannot be generated by gravity models for human traffic. Finally, we introduce the concept of link significance that clarifies the observed structure of effective borders. Our approach represents a novel type of quantitative, comparative analysis framework for spatially embedded multi-scale interaction networks in general and may yield important insight into a multitude of spatiotemporal phenomena generated by human activity.
Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W
The cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and the two German states of North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) and Lower Saxony (LS) is a large and highly integrated livestock production area. This region increasingly develops towards a single epidemiological area in which disease introduction is a shared veterinary and, consequently, economic risk. The objectives of this study were to examine classical swine fever (CSF) control strategies' veterinary and direct economic impacts for NL, NRW and LS given the current production structure and to analyse CSF's cross-border causes and impacts within the NL-NRW-LS region. The course of the epidemic was simulated by the use of InterSpread Plus, whereas economic analysis was restricted to calculating disease control costs and costs directly resulting from the control measures applied. Three veterinary control strategies were considered: a strategy based on the minimum EU requirements, a vaccination and a depopulation strategy based on NL and GER's contingency plans. Regardless of the veterinary control strategy, simulated outbreak sizes and durations for 2010 were much smaller than those simulated previously, using data from over 10 years ago. For example, worst-case outbreaks (50th percentile) in NL resulted in 30-40 infected farms and lasted for two to four and a half months; associated direct costs and direct consequential costs ranged from €24.7 to 28.6 million and €11.7 to 26.7 million, respectively. Both vaccination and depopulation strategies were efficient in controlling outbreaks, especially large outbreaks, whereas the EU minimum strategy was especially deficient in controlling worst-case outbreaks. Both vaccination and depopulation strategies resulted in low direct costs and direct consequential costs. The probability of cross-border disease spread was relatively low, and cross-border spread resulted in small, short outbreaks in neighbouring countries. Few opportunities for further cross-border harmonization and
Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.
Initial results obtained with a simple, fully automated algorithm for detection of left ventricular boundaries are presented. The strength of this approach is the use of dynamic programming search techniques, which allow determination of local border points to be influenced by the entire global border location. The relative contributions of mask mode subtraction and the dynamic search technique are evaluated with respect to accurate border definition. These computer-determined ventricular borders are compared with hand-traced borders on subtracted and unsubtracted images. The modular dynamic search algorithm is shown to perform better than previously described algorithms, which generally require operator interaction. It is also shown that for both manual and automated techniques, ventricular borders derived from subtracted images may be significantly different from borders derived from nonsubtracted images
Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.
Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.
Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse; Kjeldsen, A.M.; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh
for antibodies was performed using a blocking ELISA detecting antibodies to pestivirus. Data from 815 herds were analysed statistically by the maximum likelihood method in a multinomial model. The estimated herd prevalence was 0.083 and the estimated individual prevalence within the positive herds was...
Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)
Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.
Roff, G.; Kvennefors, E. C. E.; Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth;
Acroporid white syndrome, a disease-like syndrome from the Great Barrier Reef, results from degenerative host tissue at lesion borders. Tissue preceding lesion borders appears visually healthy, but it is currently unclear whether the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) are physiologically...
Silvia Fedeli; Francesco Forte
This article focuses on the carousel of VAT fraud consisting in multiple undue VAT rebates for goods exported and re-exported between EU countries. This fraud has been developed as a form of border VAT adjustment since the abolition of the borders within the EU countries. The carousel is modelled as a Nash equilibrium chain-game beginning at the retail stage where fraudsters try to capture an unsatisfied demand for the traded goods by means of a reduction of its final price. This can occur be...
In the aftermath of the Cold War, Finland has been involved in a geopolitical transition from the Soviet sphere of influence towards the core of the European integration process. The Finnish-Russian border has consequently transformed: primarily a segment of the Iron Curtain, it has thereafter turned into an external border, a frontier, of the European Union. As a result, a whole set of EU policies have been implemented, with the aim of converting this line of exclusion into an area of cross ...
Borderlands are often peripheral geographically, administratively, and economically. A particularly illustrative case is the Szczecin area at the border between Poland and Germany, where a large city on one side neighbours to a sparsely populated hinterland on the other. There is a number of similar cases throughout Europe, but studies on them point to a mixed level of linkages following the opening and removal of the physical border. At the project’s start there were few if any studies on th...
The aim of this paper is to examine the dynamics of women in cross border trade along ECOWAS sub region. West African region is noted significantly for high volume of trade that goes on within its borders on daily basis, and it involves formal and informal trade. However, informal trade is an integral, but unrecognized component of ECOWAS economic activities. Over, sixty percent of women are into informal trading across ECOWAS sub region, yet, there is gap in literature on the dynamics of the...
Bakshi, Dripto; Dasgupta, Indraneel
We model simultaneous inter and within identity-group conflict in two territories connected by cross-territorial spill-overs. Within each territory, two groups contest the division of a group-specific public good, and all members contest the division of group income. Each group has a cross-border affiliate. Greater success (share) of its affiliate 'spills over' into higher efficiency of a group in inter-group conflict. We find that inter-group and total conflict move together within a territo...
''For Malaysia, trade has to be a transparent'', explained Raja Adnan, the Director General of the Malaysian Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). ''Goods are imported and exported, not just between two countries, but are in transit between several countries. Nuclear security measures help to guarantee open trade and makes sure that everyone is trading responsibly,'' emphasized Adnan. Officials from AELB prepare for a joint Indonesian-Malaysian exercise in effective border control by reviewing their national standard operating procedures (SOPs) on nuclear security, which were developed in close coordination with the IAEA
The French authorities have informed CERN that, in view of the upcoming COP21 Paris Climate Conference, France will exceptionally reintroduce controls at its borders with Schengen states for one month from 13 November to 13 December 2015. All border posts and crossing points between France and Switzerland will be affected by this measure. Members of the personnel are therefore reminded that, when crossing borders within the Schengen Area*, they must carry: either, in the case of citizens of European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland, an official identity document (identity card or passport); or, in the case of non-EEA and non-Swiss citizens, an identity document together with a Schengen visa if they are subject to this obligation, or an identity document together with a residence permit issued by a Schengen state** if they have one. The French authorities will make every effort to limit the impact of this measure on cross-border traffic, and wish to thank the members of th...
The questionnaires used for the Arizona Border Study were prepared in English and Spanish formats. The Spanish format of the questionnaires was translated, back-translated, and tested on a group of local Spanish speakers with a goal of providing a translation in colloquial Spanis...
Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena
Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.
González-Gómez, Teresa; Gualda, Estrella
Fostering border relations among the people in border regions seems a precondition for the future envisagement and success of cross-border regions and European Integration. Related studies to border relations observe the weakness of these informal border contacts and relations. However, weak ties represent an opportunity for interaction, and little has been said about how they might play in the construction and performance of institutional cross-border cooperation (CBC). In thi...
International audience The border as a significant line of distinction was an important instrument of the construction of the French territory. Despite this, several cross-border agglomerations have emerged on this border. These urban spaces crossed by a border are not true urban systems: although there is a morphological continuity through the border, functional links, identities and spatial practices are more organized by the border than by the processes of the agglomeration. In the fram...
It is revealed that border nervouse-mental disorders for victims connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident are the most widely spread diseases. Their specific features are the following: prevalence of the disorders from asthenic and psycho-organic circles; relatively small positive dynamics in the cause of treatment; uniformity in symptoms, which do not depend on psychological characteristics of a person. Particular efforts should be concentrated on developing psychosocial programs for rendering the victims help. 3 refs
Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.
Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.
The importance of the economic borders of the nations is diminishing continuously, and this phenomenon is strongly linked to regionalization and globalization. We consider that the starting point of the idea that economic borders (represented by nations’ commercial policies) are irrelevant for the global economic activity is in fact Adam Smith’ theory about the liberty of choice and exchange in the international trade. In order to adapt to the new globalization context, the borders have acqui...
Haufler, Andreas; Mardan, Mohammed
Following recent court rulings, cross-border loss compensation for multinational firms will likely be introduced, at least in Europe. This paper analyzes the effects of introducing a coordinated cross-border tax relief in a setting where multinational firms choose the size of a risky investment and host countries endogenously choose tax rates. We show that coordinated cross-border loss compensation is likely to intensify tax competition when, following current international practice, the pare...
Masazumi Hattori; Yuko Suda
In this paper we explore the developments in the cross-border bank exposures using the BIS International Banking Statistics. To this end, we treat the web of the cross-border bank exposures as a "network" and investigate the characteristics of the network topology, and compute various statistical measures for the network topology. We find that the network of cross-border bank exposure has become more tightly connected over time. The network now has higher connectivity, a shorter average path ...
Utpal Kumar De; Deepika Sankhyan
India and Nepal shares an open border. The unrestricted movement of people across the border over the centuries has led to the development of well-entrenched socio-cultural linkages. These linkages have, in turn, facilitated greater economic interdependence and political ties. There is no denying the fact that an open border has been a great facilitator of strong and unique bilateral relations. At the same time, it has given rise to many irritants and problems that raise serious concerns, ...
Njoku O. Ama; Kagiso T. Mangadi; Helen A. Ama
This study was cross-sectional and used the quantitative (survey methods) and qualitative methods (Focus Group Discussion and Key Informant Interviews) to characterize the informal cross-border traders drawn from four major activity border posts in the northern and southern parts of Botswana. The systematic random sampling and snow ball techniques were used in identifying the 520 informal cross-border traders who participated in the study. The study analysed the demographic characteristics of...
Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi;
Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition of...... human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should not...... stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases. The...
Border security has been high on public-policy agendas in Europe and North America since the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre in New York City and on the headquarters of the American military in Washington DC. Governments are now confronted with managing secure borders, a policy objective that in this era of increased free trade and globalization must compete with intense cross-border flows of people and goods. Border-security policies must enable security personnel to ide...
Mark David Witte
This paper introduces a method that leads to more accurate estimates of the proportion of the border effect attributable to the nominal price/nominal exchange rate relationship. Employing this method on data from “How Wide is the Border?” (1996), this paper finds that the proportion of the border effect directly attributable to a volatile exchange rate and incomplete pass-through varies from good to good. Some goods have a small proportion of their border effect caused by the nominal price/no...
This paper analyzes the border effect, which indicates how biased interregional trade is, compared with international trade, by means of the Gravity Model. The border effect reveals how open to the foreign countries the nation is. This research suggests that the border effect in Japan is much lower than that of the US and Canada, and has declined year by year. Furthermore, in 1990, the border effect faded out. These trends may be reflected by international incidents such as the surge of the f...
Maltis, Malle, 1977-
19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest
Abd Hair Awang
Full Text Available Cross-border entrepreneurship activity plays an important role in the community economic development programs. The emergence of business groups and trade activities will generate employment, create wealth, contribute to tax revenue and stimulate the construction of infrastructures such as transportation. Indirectly, this will improve the standard of living in the border communities. The cross-border trade activities between Sarawak (Malaysia-Kalimantan (Indonesia continued to grow significantly. Although there is no formal cross-border route and Checkpoint of Immigration and Quarantine (CIQ exists, Serikin as a small border town has developed as a Weekend Market focuses on informal trade. Indonesian traders and Malaysian consumers gathered on weekends to carry out transactions and this triggers local development. This article discusses the cross-border informal trade activities by focusing on the business participation factors and reasons for location selection, especially among Indonesian traders and spillover effects on the local communities.
Abd Hair Awang; Junaenah Sulehan; Noor Rahamah Abu Bakar; Mohd Yusof Abdullah; Ong Puay Liu
Cross-border entrepreneurship activity plays an important role in the community economic development programs. The emergence of business groups and trade activities will generate employment, create wealth, contribute to tax revenue and stimulate the construction of infrastructures such as transportation. Indirectly, this will improve the standard of living in the border communities. The cross-border trade activities between Sarawak (Malaysia)-Kalimantan (Indonesia) continued to grow significa...
Comin, Cesar Henrique; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura
The access to an ever increasing amount of information in the modern world gave rise to the development of many quantitative indicators about urban regions in the globe. Therefore, there is a growing need for a precise definition of how to delimit urban regions, so as to allow proper respective characterization and modeling. Here we present a straightforward methodology to automatically detect urban region borders. The method is based on the density of street crossings around a single seed point associated to the urban area of interest. We exemplify the potential of the methodology by characterizing the geometry and topology of 21 urban regions obtained from 8 distinct countries. The geometry is studied by employing the lacunarity measurement, which is associated to the regularity of holes contained in a pattern. The topology is analyzed by associating the betweenness centrality of the streets with their respective class, such as motorway or residential, obtained from a database.
The paper constitutes the slightly revised version of a legal opinion given to those local authorities in Germany which are affected by the construction of the Cattenom powerplant centre in France near to her borders with Germany and Luxembourg. In this opinion, especially claims were examined which might be raised by local authorities according to public and private law, or by the inhabitants of frontier areas, constituting, among other things, claims to the information required, to necessary measures to be taken for the safety of the population and for environmental protection, and ways and means of enforcing them. In addition, the power plant owner's civil liability for the damaging effects of power plant operation are examined as well as the international liability of the state which builds power plants. (HSCH)
The siting of nuclear power plants in border areas is decided according to 'national criteria' which are governed by the cost/benefit principle, i.e. a comparison between investment and profit; human values are taken into consideration by transforming them into financial values according to the 'quantification' procedure. However ecology cannot be quantified as it is linked to the great complexity of the natural system. To harmonize technical criteria and ecological requirements, the jurist suggests a legal system of indemnity which takes into account both damage which has already occurred and the degree of probability of its occurrence. Thus a new criterion would be introduced in the decision-making process on plant siting: compensation costs for the national population and for the neighbouring countries would then be a factor in cost/benefit calculations. (NEA)
María Eugenia Comerci
Full Text Available The expansión of the agricultural frontier in the Argentine pampas implied a re-valuation of "bordering" spaces, which were considered "marginal" by capital. This paper aims at interpreting the socio-territorial impact -from both a material and a symbolic level- being caused by the expansión of the productive, business-profile [agricultural and oil] frontier in the center-west of the province of La Pampa. With the interpretative approach provided by qualitative methodologies, we intend to analyze -in a case study- how these frontier expansión processes altered and re-defined the social arena between the years 2000 and 2010, the social construction of the space and the power relations in Chos Malal
Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.
-savings, improved quality of care, avoidance of unnecessary tests, improved work efficiency, reduced waiting times and improvement in the overall efficiency of the healthcare system. Although benefits exists, healthcare organizations have experienced difficulties attaining them and overall adoption of e...... with implementing a new system, and uncertainty that the technology may actually reduce overall costs. The coordination of care across boundaries presents a plethora of issues that need to be tackled from a policy, legal, practical research perspective. This thesis attempts to address pressing issues...... with a particular focus on the implications health information exchange for the purposes of coordinating care will have on both the patient and healthcare professionals on three levels: international, national and institutional level. The findings of this thesis imply that in order for cross-border health...
The paper starts with a brief overview of the scale of disability and associated challenges and puts them in the context of the public policy on disability. It then analyses the usability challenges in public services and border control, including the issues of accessibility, safety and communication. These need to be addressed in future policy proposals, to provide the best assistance by new technologies to elderly people and people with disabilities, avoiding creating new barriers due to incorrect or incomplete initial conception. With increasing flux of novel security technology in mass transportation systems, and particularly the use of biometric identification in airports, the challenge of usability is recognized. This paper analyses these issues in the context of users with disability in an idealized process of Simplifying Passenger Travel (SPT).
Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of postmodernism on education and investigates the main effects ofpostmodern philosophy on social sciences. It is clearly stated in the article that the effects of postmodernism cannotonly be limited to art and logically it should have an effect on education as well. This effect, described as thepostmodern educational approach, emphasizes that the rudiments of popular culture should also be incorporated toeducation and therefore to curricula. Postmodern educational approach also accentuates the significance of allowing‘others’ who have never possessed the opportunity to articulate their standpoints and desires to have a say in their owneducation. The concrete reflections of postmodern educational approach can be perceived in Critical and BorderPedagogies theorized by Henry A. Giroux. Critical pedagogy aspires to educate individuals who do not acceptoccurrences as they are and are critical of the knowledge they construct all through their education. Only by this waythese individuals will be able to discover their own voices, improve their civilian consciousness by taking risks, andacquire the ability of staying alive and functioning within social relations, traditions and experiences. Border pedagogyis as well a product of postmodern philosophy. It defends counter-text as opposed to the official ones offered, presentedand imposed to learners. Counter-consciousness represents the critical analysis of how the present reads the past andhow the past informs the present. This practice of course results in the re-evaluation of memories and traditions.Memories are the stories which were forgotten or ignored with the support of preserved traditions. It is thereforeconcluded in the article that postmodern educational approach is the critical examination towards dismissing the mainnarratives and discourses which manipulate and configure the curriculum of schools. It is the struggle exercisedtowards the recognition
Full Text Available t is with great honour that I introduce the second issue of the Anti-Trafficking Review (ATR. The first issue received an overwhelming response and has placed the journal at the forefront of rigorous analysis and debate relating to human trafficking and human rights. It raised the topic of accountability in anti-trafficking. This issue hopes to further strengthen the ATR’s position as a global, reputable journal on human trafficking. Strengthening the quality of research, analysis, and reflexivity in the trafficking sector is much needed, and I echo Anne Gallagher’s observation as guest editor of the first issue that standards in anti-trafficking research tend to be less rigorous than in other fields of study. My aim as a guest editor is to contribute to addressing this shortfall by bringing together a set of diverse and insightful articles focussing on the nexus of borders and human rights. It is also my hope that this issue will work towards narrowing the divide between practitioners and academics in anti-trafficking. This is reflected in the varied range of contributors. The last few years have witnessed a significant increase in publishing relating to human trafficking worldwide. However, there is limited measured debate and appraisal of this literature within the anti-trafficking sector. For this reason we have decided to include a book review as a way of highlighting recent major publications. The question of borders, migration control, trafficking and human rights raise contested and controversial questions. The editorial team has attempted to include different perspectives, reflected in the debate section in particular. Needless to say, all papers have been subject to double blind peer review.
Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm
Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.
Kolejka, Jaromír; Zyszkowska, K.; Batelková, Kateřina; Ciok, S.; Dolzblasz, K.; Kirchner, Karel; Krejčí, Tomáš; Raczyk, A.; Spaller, W.; Zapletalová, Jana
Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 51-65. ISSN 1842-5135 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : natural barrier * cross border co-operation * population pressure * border segments * Poland and Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://technicalgeography.org/pdf/1_2015/06_kolejka.pdf
Thomas M Fullerton Jr
Border region electric utility service loads are impacted by national, regional, and international business cycles. To examine whether the cross-border components of these interactions can be reliably assessed, transfer ARIMA models are estimated for three business rate categories in El Paso, Texas. Chi-square goodness-of-fit results indicate tht exclusion of the international variables would worsen model performance.
The five main lessons for Southern Africa from our review of the experiencewith cross-border power trading in other regions of the work are that: Security of supply concerns need to be explicitly addressed and understood by the parties to proposed cross-border transactions. Regional entities need to be empowered to make decisions based on legally enforceable national government commitments...
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... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR 192... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign...
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Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis; Claudia Mercedes Mora Cárdenas; Ligia del Pilar Perez Reyes; Paulo Cesar Peiter
The border area between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru has a population of over 100,000 people; at least a quarter are indigenous (mostly Tikuna), and the rest is composed of people from the Andean region and some itinerant groups (migrants, traders, etc.). The “twin cities”, Tabatinga (Brazil) and Leticia (Colombia), receive a significant flux of people from the adjacent regions of each country, each one having a referral hospital for attending cases of moderate complexity. This region has a hig...
Tufaile, A., E-mail: email@example.com; Tufaile, A.P.B.
We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.
The Border Air Quality Study (BAQS) is an ongoing study which supports the development of an international strategy for the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound airshed. The study investigates the association of health risks with the exposure to a range of air pollutants. It identified links between air pollutants and several health impacts ranging from asthma to birthweight. The tools developed for studying air quality provide greater spatial resolution, thus enabling the identification of pollution hot spots that require monitoring and intervention. The tools also provide spatially accurate exposure data for future research and enable land-use decisions that reduce risk to the most vulnerable populations, including children and the elderly. The study found that traffic-related air pollution is an additional risk factor for disease, such as bronchiolitis, asthma and middle ear infections in children. Although air pollution is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of chronic exposures. Therefore, the BAQS is currently assessing the relationship between air quality and cardiovascular diseases in the Metro Vancouver area, with particular attention to the combined effects of traffic-related air pollution and noise pollution. Wood smoke was also found to be an important source of air pollution, even in urban centres. The study showed that building design and ventilation can help reduce infiltration of air pollutants into buildings. It was concluded that despite some concerns, the air quality in the Georgia-Basin-Puget Sound region is good compared to other major metropolitan areas. Air quality managers can use the study to evaluate different policy scenarios and the associated economic costs of air pollution. 5 figs.
Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C
Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. PMID:23046031
Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael
This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…
There is a perception among the population of the border communities that they have increased exposure due to their proximity to pollution sources in Mexico. This study provides exposure data for the border population that will be compared with data from a probabilistic exposure...
Patricia Aranda; Maia Ingram; Antonio Zapien; Alma Delia Contreras Paniagua; Maria Isabel Ortega; Jill Guernsey De Zapien; Cecilia Rosales
Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US-Mexico border region face health hazards and occupational risks and are becoming commonly known in the public health literature. According to several studies, farmworkers have high levels of chronic diseases such as diabetes and respiratory problems, are at risk for infectious diseases, and experience among the highest incidences of work-related injuries of any profession. The findings from two studies are considered an...