... fatigue syndrome (CFS), colic, fever, varicose veins, and hemorrhoids. Blueberry is also used for improving circulation, and ... fatigue syndrome (CFS). Fever. Sore throat. Varicose veins. Hemorrhoids. Bad circulation. Diarrhea. Constipation. Labor pains. Other conditions. ...
... the mouth or the skin lining the throat. Health providers have used blueberry juice as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contrast agents make it possible for radiologists to see and interpret the images. Some people ...
Despite the recent domestication of blueberry within the twentieth century, great progress has been made using traditional breeding approaches. With the Genomics era upon us, new approaches and techniques for cultivar development and improvement are now available such as generation of Expressed Seq...
Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis C.; Carey, Amanda N.; Galli, Rachel L.; Spangler, Edward L.; Ingram, Donald K.; Joseph, James A.
Cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease may be partly due to long-term exposure and increased susceptibility to inflammatory insults. In the current study, we investigated whether polyphenols in blueberries can reduce the deleterious effects of inflammation induced by central administration of kainic acid by altering the expression of genes associated with inflammation. To this end, 4-month-old male Fischer-344 (F344) rats were fed a control, 0.015% piroxicam (an NSAID) or 2% blueberry diet for 8 weeks before either Ringer's buffer or kainic acid was bilaterally micro-infused into the hippocampus. Two weeks later, following behavioral evaluation, the rats were killed and total RNA from the hippocampus was extracted and used in real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression of inflammation-related genes. Kainic acid had deleterious effects on cognitive behavior as kainic acid-injected rats on the control diet exhibited increased latencies to find a hidden platform in the Morris water maze compared to Ringer's buffer-injected rats and utilized non-spatial strategies during probe trials. The blueberry diet, and to a lesser degree the piroxicam diet, was able to improve cognitive performance. Immunohistochemical analyses of OX-6 expression revealed that kainic acid produced an inflammatory response by increasing the OX-6 positive areas in the hippocampus of kainic acid-injected rats. Kainic acid up-regulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, the neurotrophic factor IGF-1, and the transcription factor NF-κB. Blueberry and piroxicam supplementations were found to attenuate the kainic acid-induced increase in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB, while only blueberry was able to augment the increased IGF-1 expression. These results indicate that blueberry polyphenols attenuate learning impairments following neurotoxic insult and exert anti-inflammatory actions
Transplantation of embryonic dopamine (DA) neurons into the striatum is a viable treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, transplanted cells survive poorly. This study provides evidence that dietary supplementation with blueberry extract (BBE) provides an efficacious, easily administered a...
Full Text Available Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated.Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS. Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI. A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed.Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and
Bingül, İlknur; Başaran-Küçükgergin, Canan; Aydın, A Fatih; Soluk-Tekkeşin, Merva; Olgaç, Vakur; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat
Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cancer normally develops in stages that progress from cirrhosis and carcinoma. Increased oxidative stress is suggested to play a role in DEN-induced carcinogenicity. Blueberries (BB) contain high antioxidant capacity. We investigated the effect of BB supplementation on development of DEN-induced cirrhosis and neoplastic lesions in the liver. Rats were injected with DEN (200 mg/kg; i.p.) three times with an interval of 15 days at 4, 6, and 8 weeks and sacrificed 8 weeks after the last DEN injection. They were also fed on 8% BB (w/w) containing chow for 16 weeks. Hepatic damage markers in serum were determined together with hepatic histopathological examinations. Hydroxyproline (HYP), malondialdehyde (MDA), diene conjugate (DC), protein carbonyl (PC), and glutathione (GSH) levels, and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and their mRNA expressions were measured. Protein and mRNA expressions of glutathione transferase-pi (GST-pi) were evaluated as a marker of preneoplastic lesions. BB supplementation decreased hepatic damage markers in serum and hepatic MDA, DC, and PC levels, but SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities and their mRNA expressions remained unchanged in DEN-treated rats. BB attenuated cirrhotic changes and decreased hepatic HYP levels and GST-pi expressions. Our results indicate that BB is effective in decreasing development of DEN-induced hepatic cirrhosis and preneoplastic lesions by acting as an antioxidant (radical scavenger) itself without affecting activities and mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26684621
Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.
In several studies we have now shown that there are some interesting parallels between aging and the effects of heavy particle irradiation (56Fe) in a rat model. Interestingly this research also has shown that, much as has been seen in aged animals, dietary supplementation with high antioxidant-strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) extracts (2% of the diet) reversed many of the age-related changes. Similarly, supplementing the diets of young rats with SBs or BBs (2% of diet as in the aged animals) for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 56Fe (1 GeV/n), using the AGS or NSRL at Brookhaven National Laboratory, prevented the deleterious effects of the radiation exposure on the motor, cognitive and neuronal parameters described above. In the present experiment we examined whether striatal tissue obtained from BB- or SB-supplemented or control-fed, irradiated or non-radiated, young rats would show differential sensitivity (as assessed via decrements in mAChR stimulation of dopamine release) to hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating agent. The results indicated that, just as we had seen previously with respect to radiation protection in the parameters described above, the tissue from the SB or BB-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals showed increased mAChR-stimulated DA release from the striatal tissue following hydrogen peroxide exposure compared to that seen in non-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals (e.g., DA rels. p moles/mg protein, rad + H202 non-supplemented = 90, SB = 260, BB = 360). These results show that aging and irradiation may produce similar decrements in dopamine release and that, much as we have seen previously with age, radiation enhances the vulnerability to oxidative stressors, but these are reduced with SB or BB supplementation. They are discussed in-terms of protection against the effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging via nutritional supplementation with foods that are high in antioxidant activity
Carrie M Elks
Full Text Available To assess renoprotective effects of a blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of hypertension. Oxidative stress (OS appears to be involved in the development of hypertension and related renal injury. Pharmacological antioxidants can attenuate hypertension and hypertension-induced renal injury; however, attention has shifted recently to the therapeutic potential of natural products as antioxidants. Blueberries (BB have among the highest antioxidant capacities of fruits and vegetables.Male spontaneously hypertensive rats received a BB-enriched diet (2% w/w or an isocaloric control diet for 6 or 12 weeks or 2 days. Compared to controls, rats fed BB-enriched diet for 6 or 12 weeks exhibited lower blood pressure, improved glomerular filtration rate, and decreased renovascular resistance. As measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, significant decreases in total reactive oxygen species (ROS, peroxynitrite, and superoxide production rates were observed in kidney tissues in rats on long-term dietary treatment, consistent with reduced pathology and improved function. Additionally, measures of antioxidant status improved; specifically, renal glutathione and catalase activities increased markedly. Contrasted to these observations indicating reduced OS in the BB group after long-term feeding, similar measurements made in rats fed the same diet for only 2 days yielded evidence of increased OS; specifically, significant increases in total ROS, peroxynitrite, and superoxide production rates in all tissues (kidney, brain, and liver assayed in BB-fed rats. These results were evidence of "hormesis" during brief exposure, which dissipated with time as indicated by enhanced levels of catalase in heart and liver of BB group.Long-term feeding of BB-enriched diet lowered blood pressure, preserved renal hemodynamics, and improved redox status in kidneys of hypertensive rats and concomitantly demonstrated the potential to delay or attenuate development
Cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease may be partly due to long-term exposure and increased susceptibility to inflammatory insults. In the current study we investigated whether polyphenols in blueberries (BBs) can reduce the deleterious effects o...
Coutinho de Oliveira, Caio Victor; Barbosa, Carlos Vinícius; Massa, Nayara Moreira; Pereira, Reabias de Andrade; Félix, Gustavo da Silva; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio
Carbohydrate ingestion at the end of a single exercise is recognized as delaying fatigue and accelerating recovery, but whether chronic ingestion can prevent overtraining during periods of intense training has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether carbohydrate supplementation minimizes overtraining in Wistar rats. The animals underwent 11 weeks of training (running) on a treadmill, and the last 3 weeks were designed to induce overtraining. One group was supplemented with carbohydrates (EX-CHO) (n = 13), 1 group had no supplementation (EX) (n = 10), and a third group remained inactive (C) (n = 9). Performance tests were given before training (Pr1) and at the 8th (Pr2) and 11th (Pr3) training week. Food intake, body weight, testosterone, cortisol, malondialdehyde, creatine kinase, and activities of the PI3-K, Akt-1, mTOR, and GSK-3 enzymes were measured. In the EX group, there was a significant 32.6% performance decrease at Pr3 when compared with Pr2. In addition, at protocol completion, the EX-CHO group had a greater gastrocnemius weight than did the C group (p = 0.02), which the EX group did not. Training caused anorexia, decreased testosterone (p = 0.001), and increased malondialdehyde (p = 0.009) in both exercise groups compared with the C group, with no influence of carbohydrate supplementation on these variables (p > 0.05). Compared with in the C group, the activity of Akt-1 was higher in the EX-CHO group but not in the EX group (p = 0.013). Carbohydrate supplementation promoted an attenuation in the performance decrement and maintained gastrocnemius muscle mass in animals that had undergone overtraining protocols, which was accompanied by increased activity of the Akt-1 molecular indicator. PMID:26701118
刘奕炜; 周方; 郝建新; 赵巧娇; 杨洋; 林雪娇; 张柏林
Involvement of blueberry juice and its extracts including blueberry anthocyanin and polysaccharide in milk promoted the growth of Ladobacillus acidophilus NCFM, a well-known commercial probiotic bacteria which are used widely in dairy products and food industry for health improvement. The growth and viability of strain NCFM cultured at 37 ℃ for 24 h in MRS were investigated in the presences of blueberry juice and its extracts which have different concentrations. It was seen that addition of blueberry juice produced positive roles in improving the growth of strain NCFM.When 70% blueberry juice was added to medium, strain NCFM grew very well. Blueberry juice higher than 70% facilitated strain NCFM to have a stable growth, while the bacterial growth might be weakened in the presence of 100% blueberry juice. Moreover, blueberry anthocyanin extracted did not show any effect on the growth of L. acidophilus NCFM. Supplement of blueberry polysaccharide extracted, ac.100 μg/mL, to medium improved the growth of strain NCFM very good, and the viable counts of the probiotic bacteria reached 8.323×108 mL-1. This study proved that supplement of blueberry to fermented dairy products might be useful for the proliferation of probiotic bacteria.%蓝莓汁、蓝莓花青素和蓝莓多糖对嗜酸乳杆菌NCFM(Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM)体外生长影响表明,24 h培养期间,添加蓝莓汁会促进嗜酸乳杆菌NCFM的生长,蓝莓汁添加量低于70％时,随蓝莓汁添加量的增加益生茵NCFM的细胞活茵数上升；当蓝莓汁添加体积分数高于70％时,促进菌株NCFM生长的作用趋于稳定;当添加量达到100％时,促进益生菌NCFM生长的作用开始减弱.添加单一蓝莓花青素对嗜酸乳杆茵NCFM的生长无明显作用；蓝莓多糖添加量为100 mg/L时能较好的促进菌株NCFM的生长,37 ℃培养24 h,细胞活菌数可达到8.323× 108 mL-1.目前的工作表明,在发酵乳中添加适当浓度的蓝莓能促进益生茵数量的增殖.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering, and effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD attenuated necroapoptosis and inflammation in periinfarct area in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that BD will attenuate the course of CHF, including mortality and cardiac remodeling during the first year after induction of MI in rats. METHOD AND RESULTS: Two weeks after coronary artery ligation, rats were divided into two groups of similar average MI size, measured by echocardiography, and then 12-mo dietary regimens were initiated as follows: ad libitum regular diet (control, CD, n = 27 and isocaloric food with 2% blueberry supplement (BD, n = 27 also available ad libitum. These dietary groups were compared to each other and to sham group (SH. Mortality over the 12 mo was reduced by 22% in BD compared with CD (p<0.01. In the course of developing CHF, BD had no effect on the body weight, heart rate or blood pressure. Bi-monthly Echo revealed significant attenuation of the LV chamber remodeling, LV posterior wall thinning, and MI expansion in BD compared with CD. In fact, BD arrested the MI expansion. CONCLUSION: This is the first experimental evidence that a blueberry-enriched diet has positive effects on the course of CHF and thus warrants consideration for clinical evaluation.
supplemented rats. Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.
Although MR image segmentation, combined with information from the PET emission data, has achieved a clinically usable PET attenuation correction (AC) on whole-body MR/PET systems, more accurate PET AC remains one of the main instrumental challenges for quantitative imaging. Incorporating a full conventional PET transmission system in these machines would be difficult, but even a small amount of transmission data might usefully complement the MR-based estimate of the PET attenuation image. In this paper we explore one possible configuration for such a system that uses a small number of fixed line sources placed around the periphery of the patient tunnel. These line sources are implemented using targeted positron beams. The sparse transmission (sTX) data are collected simultaneously with the emission (EM) acquisition. These data, plus a blank scan, are combined with a partially known attenuation image estimate in a modified version of the maximum likelihood for attenuation and activity (MLAA) algorithm, to estimate values of the linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) in unknown regions of the image. This algorithm was tested in two simple phantom experiments. We find that the use of supplemental transmission data can significantly improve the accuracy of the estimated LAC in a truncated region, as well as the estimate of the emitter concentration within the phantom. In the experiments, the bias in the EM+sTX estimate of emitter concentrations was 3–5%, compared to 15–20% with the use of EM-only data. Highlights: • MR-based PET attenuation correction (AC) on MR/PET scanners remains problematic. • We propose a supplemental sparse transmission (sTX) system to improve MR-AC. • The sTX sources were implemented very practically using targeted positron beams. • A novel MLAA-like algorithm was developed to reconstruct these data. • We show that sTX leads to more accurate emission images in two phantom studies
Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji
There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation. PMID:27163699
Edson A. Lima
Full Text Available Excess of saturated fatty acids in the diet has been associated with obesity, leading to systemic disruption of insulin signaling, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. Macadamia oil administration has been shown to improve lipid profile in humans. We evaluated the effect of macadamia oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profile, and adipocyte size in high-fat diet (HF induced obesity in mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks were divided into four groups: (a control diet (CD, (b HF, (c CD supplemented with macadamia oil by gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week, for 12 weeks (CD + MO, and (d HF diet supplemented with macadamia oil (HF + MO. CD and HF mice were supplemented with water. HF mice showed hypercholesterolemia and decreased insulin sensitivity as also previously shown. HF induced inflammation in adipose tissue and peritoneal macrophages, as well as adipocyte hypertrophy. Macadamia oil supplementation attenuated hypertrophy of adipocytes and inflammation in the adipose tissue and macrophages.
Barbosa, Amanda Marreiro; Francisco, Priscila de Cássia; Motta, Katia; Chagas, Thayz Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Cristiane; Rafacho, Alex; Nunes, Everson Araújo
Dexamethasone is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid that may alter glucose and lipid homeostasis when administered in high doses or for long periods of time. Omega-3 fatty acids, present in fish oil (FO), can be used as potential modulators of intermediary glucose and lipid metabolism. Herein, we evaluate the effects of FO supplementation (1 g·kg(-1) body weight (BW)) on glucose and lipid metabolism in rats treated with dexamethasone (0.5 mg·kg(-1) BW) for 15 days. Adult male Wistar rats were distributed among 4 groups: control (saline, 1 mL·kg(-1) BW and mineral oil, 1 g·kg(-1) BW), DEX (dexamethasone and mineral oil), FO (fish oil and saline), and DFO (fish oil and dexamethasone). Dexamethasone and saline were administered intraperitoneally, and fish oil and mineral oil were administered by gavage. We evaluated functional and molecular parameters of lipid and glycemic profiles at 8 days and at the end of treatment. FO supplementation increased hepatic docosahexaenoic acid (DEX: 5.6% ± 0.7%; DFO: 10.5% ± 0.8%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (DEX: 0.3% ± 0.0%; DFO: 1.3% ± 0.1%) contents and attenuated the increase of plasma triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in DFO rats compared with DEX rats. These effects seem not to depend on hepatic expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, protein kinase B, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. There was no effect of supplementation on body weight loss, fasting glycemia, and glucose tolerance in rats treated with dexamethasone. In conclusion, we show that FO supplementation for 15 days attenuates the dyslipidemia induced by dexamethasone treatment. PMID:26939043
The USDA-ARS Southern Horticulture has developed and released a new productive early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivar, Pearl. 'Pearl', tested as MS 812, came from the cross Bluecrisp X Magnolia. The pedigree of Bluecrisp is unknown but it was tested as Fla 84-40, and Magnolia came fr...
Wilson, Mark A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Ingram, Donald K; Joseph, James A; Wolkow, Catherine A
The beneficial effects of polyphenol compounds in fruits and vegetables are mainly extrapolated from in vitro studies or short-term dietary supplementation studies. Due to cost and duration, relatively little is known about whether dietary polyphenols are beneficial in whole animals, particularly with respect to aging. To address this question, we examined the effects of blueberry polyphenols on lifespan and aging of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a useful organism for such a study. We report that a complex mixture of blueberry polyphenols increased lifespan and slowed aging-related declines in C. elegans. We also found that these benefits did not just reflect antioxidant activity in these compounds. For instance, blueberry treatment increased survival during acute heat stress, but was not protective against acute oxidative stress. The blueberry extract consists of three major fractions that all contain antioxidant activity. However, only one fraction, enriched in proanthocyanidin compounds, increased C. elegans lifespan and thermotolerance. To further determine how polyphenols prolonged C. elegans lifespan, we analyzed the genetic requirements for these effects. Prolonged lifespan from this treatment required the presence of a CaMKII pathway that mediates osmotic stress resistance, though not other pathways that affect stress resistance and longevity. In conclusion, polyphenolic compounds in blueberries had robust and reproducible benefits during aging that were separable from antioxidant effects. PMID:16441844
Crowe, K M; Bushway, A A; Bushway, R J; Davis-Dentici, K
Phosmet-adapted bacteria isolated from lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium) were evaluated for their ability to degrade phosmet on blueberry fruit and in minimal salt solutions. Microbial metabolism of phosmet by isolates of Enterobacter agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens resulted in significant reductions (P agglomerans or P. fluorescens and supplemented with phosmet or phosmet and glucose. Microbial degradation concurrent with the proliferation of P. fluorescens was similar in both liquid systems, indicative of preferential utilization of phosmet as an energy substrate. E. agglomerans exhibited the ability to degrade phosmet as a carbon source, yet in the presence of added glucose, phosmet degradation occurred within the 1st 24 h only followed by total population mortality resulting in no appreciable degradation. Characteristic utilization of glucose by this isolate suggests a possible switch in carbon substrate utilization away from phosmet, which resulted in toxicity from the remaining phosmet. Overall, microbial metabolism of phosmet as an energy source resulted in significant degradation of residues on blueberries and in minimal salt solutions. Thus, the role of adapted strains of E. agglomerans and P. fluorescens in degrading phosmet on blueberries represents an extensive plant-microorganism relationship, which is essential to determination of phosmet persistence under pre- and postharvest conditions. PMID:17995608
Carr, Anitra C.; Juliet M. Pullar; Bozonet, Stephanie M; Margreet C. M. Vissers
Inadequate dietary intake of vitamin C results in hypovitaminosis C, defined as a plasma ascorbate concentration ≤23 μmol/L. Our objective was to carry out a retrospective analysis of two vitamin C supplementation studies to determine whether supplementation with 50 mg/day vitamin C is sufficient to restore adequate ascorbate status (≥50 μmol/L) in individuals with hypovitaminosis C. Plasma ascorbate data from 70 young adult males, supplemented with 50 or 200 mg/day vitamin C for up to six we...
Full Text Available This article presents the advantages of cultivating blueberries, both economically and from an alimentary and therapeutic point of view. By calculating profit per hectare for the most productive varieties of blueberry, it was shown that this culture is particularly profitable for young farmers. In fact, blueberries have significant therapeutic value, being used in food and pharmaceutical industry.
Cheng-Chen Hsu; Min-Chen Ho; Li-Chin Lin; Borcherng Su; Mei-Chich Hsu
AIM: To investigate whether American ginseng (AG, Panax quinquefolium) supplementation was able to improve endurance exercise performance.METHODS: Thirteen physically active male college students were divided into two groups (AG or placebo)and received supplementation for 4 wk, before the exhaustive running exercise. Treadmill speed was increased to a pace equivalent to 80% VO2max of the subject. A 4-wk washout period followed before the subjects crossed over and received the alternate supplement for the next 4 wk.They then completed a second exhaustive running exercise. The physiological variables that were examined included time to exhaustion and oxygen pulse. Moreover,the plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate were measured prior to the exercise, at 15 and 30 min during exercise,immediately after exercise, and 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after exercise.RESULTS: The major finding of this investigation was that the production plasma CK during the exercise significantly decreased for group AG than for group P. Secondary physiological finding was that 80% VO2max running was not improved over a 4-wk AG supplementation regimen.CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AG for 4 wk prior to an exhaustive aerobic treadmill running reduced the leakage of CK during exercise, but did not enhance aerobic work capacity. The reduction of plasma CK may be due to the fact that AG is effective for the decrease of skeletal muscle cell membrane damage, induced by exercise during the high-intensity treadmill run.
Full Text Available Background: Age is a major risk factor in developing heart diseases and has been associated with profound transcriptional changes in mammalian tissues. Low tissue selenium has recently been linked to several age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the global effects of age and dietary supplementation of selenium on heart transcriptional profiles in POLG mutator mice. Methods: Heart transcription profiles from young (2-month-old and old (13-month-old animals fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 1.0 mg selenium from seleniumenriched yeast (SP/kg diet were obtained and validated using microarray and real-time RTPCR techniques. Results: Aging led to significant transcriptional changes, where the expression of 1942 genes in old animals was changed by a fold change larger than 2.0, when compared to young animals. Age-regulated genes are associated with cardiovascular system development, immune and inflammatory response, and cellular oxidative stress response. Multiple genes linked with cardiomyocyte apoptosis, hypertrophy, and cardiac fibrosis, such as Myh7, Lcn2, Spp1, and Serpine1, were significantly up-regulated in old animals. SP supplementation also caused significant transcriptional changes in the heart, especially in old mice where many age-dependent transcriptional changes were totally or partially reversed by SP. Upstream regulator analysis further indicated that genes for Foxo1 and Foxo3, two transcriptional regulators involved in the regulation of cardiac muscle remodeling, were significantly activated by SP, suggesting that Foxo-mediated transcriptional activities play important roles in the anti-aging properties of SP. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2014; 4(3:98- 119 Page 99 of 119 Conclusions: Results of this study indicate that SP supplementation attenuated age-related transcriptional changes in the heart of old POLG mice, which implies a potential clinical application of
Tong, Haiyan; Rappold, Ana G.; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Steck, Susan E.; Berntsen, Jon; Cascio, Wayne E; Devlin, Robert B; Samet, James M.
Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Findings of a recent epidemiological study suggested that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted cardiac responses to air pollution exposure. Objectives: We conducted a randomized, controlled exposure study to evaluate the efficacy of fish oil supplements in attenuating adverse cardiac effects of exposure to concentrated ambient fine and ultrafine particulate matter (CAP). Methods...
de Lima, Edson A; Loreana S. Silveira; Laureane N. Masi; Crisma, Amanda R.; Mariana R. Davanso; Souza, Gabriel I. G.; Santamarina, Aline B.; Renata G. Moreira; Amanda Roque Martins; Luis Gustavo O. de Sousa; Hirabara, Sandro M.; Jose C. Rosa Neto
Excess of saturated fatty acids in the diet has been associated with obesity, leading to systemic disruption of insulin signaling, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. Macadamia oil administration has been shown to improve lipid profile in humans. We evaluated the effect of macadamia oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profile, and adipocyte size in high-fat diet (HF) induced obesity in mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks) were divided into four groups: (a) control ...
Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) growers seeking an alternative and/or a complement to supplemental irrigation require accurate crop-specific information on the water conserving benefits of mulch. Twenty-eight weighing lysimeters equipped with soil moisture monitors were used at 5 sites ...
McCaskill, Michael L.; Hottor, Henry T.; Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A.
Background Slightly more than 5 % of the United States population heavily consumes ethanol, i.e., more than 14 drinks for men and 7 drinks for women a week. Chronic ethanol consumption can result in increased liver disease, reduced recovery from burn injury, and more frequent and severe respiratory infections. Chronic ethanol over-consumption also leads to vitamin D dysmetabolism and depletion. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble pro-hormone that regulates musculoskeletal health, cellular proliferation/differentiation, and innate and adaptive immune response. Methods In this study, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20 % ethanol in their water ad libitum for 7 weeks. Some mice were fed either a standard chow or a modified diet containing 0.15 μg/day of diallyl disulfide (DADS). Whole blood, lung tissue, and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected at sacrifice and analyzed for 25(OH) D3, 1,25 (OH)2D3, vitamin D receptor VDR, CYP2E1, and CYP27B1 levels. Results Ethanol reduced 25(OH) D3 and 1,25 (OH)2D3 in lung tissue and BALF on average 31 %. The largest ethanol-mediated reduction was in the 1,25 (OH)2D3 (42 %) measured in the BALF. Dietary supplementation of DADS restored BALF and lung tissue protein of 25(OH) D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 to control levels. Chronic ethanol consumption also resulted in tissue increases of vitamin D response (VDR) protein, Cyp2E1, and reductions in vitamin D-activating enzyme CYP27B1. All three of these effects were attenuated by dietary supplementation of DADS. Conclusions In conclusion, the pulmonary metabolic disturbances mediated by chronic ethanol consumption as measured by 1,25(OH)2D3 protein levels, epithelial lining fluid, and lung tissue can be ameliorated by dietary supplementation of DADS in C57BL/6 mice.
Gill, Samantha K; Allerton, Dean M; Ansley-Robson, Paula; Hemmings, Krystal; Cox, Martin; Costa, Ricardo J
The study aimed to determine if short-term high dose probiotic supplementation containing Lactobacillus casei (L.casei) attenuates the commonly reported exertional-heat stress (EHS) induced endotoxinaemia and cytokinaemia. Eight endurance trained male volunteers (mean± SD: age 26 ± 6 y, nude body mass 70.2 ± 8.8 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.05 m, VO2max 59 ± 5 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed a blinded randomized cross-over design, whereby oral ingestion of a commercially available probiotic beverage containing L.casei (volume equivalent for ×1011 colony forming units·day-1) (PRO) or placebo (PLA) was consumed for 7 consecutive days before exposure to EHS, which comprised of 2h running exercise at 60% VO2max in hot ambient conditions (34.0 °C and 32% RH). Blood samples were collected at baseline (7 days before EHS), pre-EHS, post-EHS (1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, and at 24 hr). Plasma samples were analyzed for gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, cytokine profile (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-8, and IL-10) and plasma osmolality. Plasma osmolality did not differ between trials. Seven days of L.casei supplementation did not show significant changes in resting circulatory endotoxin concentration or plasma cytokine profile compared with PLA. A main effect of time was observed for IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-8; whereby levels increased in response to EHS (p < .05). Relative to pre-EHS concentrations, higher plasma concentrations of endotoxin (p = .05), and a trend for higher plasma TNF-α concentration (p = .09) was observed on PRO compared with PLA throughout recovery. Short-term high dose supplementation of a probiotic beverage containing L.casei before EHS did not attenuate EHS induced endotoxaemia and cytokinaemia; nor is it more positively favorable over a placebo. PMID:26568577
Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya
Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered ...
Jun Wang; Yan Cui; Jing Ge; Meijing Ma
Folic acid participates in the metabolism of homocysteine and lowers plasma homocysteine levels directly or indirectly. To establish a hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rat model, 2 mL of DL-homocysteine was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 200 mg/kg from day 10 to day 19 of gestation. Folic acid was administered by intragastric administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg during the period of preeclampsia induction. Results showed that systolic blood pressure, proteinuria/creatinine ratio, and plasma homocysteine levels in the hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats increased significantly, and that body weight and brain weight of rat pups significantly decreased. Folic acid supplementation markedly reversed the above-mentioned abnormal changes of hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats and rat pups. These findings suggest that folic acid can alleviate the symptoms of hyperhomocysteinemia- induced preeclampsia in pregnant rats without influencing brain development of rat pups.
Kalmar, I D; Cools, A; Buyse, J; Roose, P; Janssens, G P J
N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is an intermediary metabolite in cellular choline and betaine metabolism. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary DMG on nutrient digestibility and development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers. A total of 64 14-day-old broiler hens (Ross-308) were raised until age 40 days under cold environmental temperature conditions (15 °C) and were fed a high energy feed in order to incite pulmonary hypertension. Birds were randomly assigned to two groups of which each group had eight replicate pens of four birds each. Test diets contained 0 or 167 mg Na-DMG (Taminizer(®) D; Taminco N.V., Ghent, Belgium)/kg feed. N,N-dimethylglycine supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in apparent faecal digestibility of crude protein and nitrogen-free extract. Further, fulminant ascites was numerically lowered by DMG and incidence of pulmonary hypertension decreased significantly from 44.8% in the control group to 14.6% in the DMG group. Finally, fasted plasma level of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) was twofold in the control group in relation to the DMG group. In conclusion, these data demonstrate beneficial effects of DMG on digestibility of non-fat fractions, on fat metabolism and on progression towards broiler ascites syndrome. PMID:20662970
Bing He; and Yuming Li; Fan Ye; Xin Zhou; He Li; Xiaoqing Xun; Xiaoqing Ma; Xudong Liu; Zhihong Wang; Pengxiao Xu
It is postulated that supplementation of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) might mediate improvement of the cardiac sympathetic nerve function in heart failure (HF).Local intramuscular injection of NGF near the cardiac sympathetic ganglia could influence the innervation pattern,norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene expression,and improve the cardiac remodeling in experimental HF animals.In this study,we injected NGF into the scalenus medius muscles of Sprague-Dawley rats with abdominal aortic constriction (AC).The nerve innervated pattern,left ventricular morphology,and function following injection in rats with AC were investigated respectively by immunohistochemistry and echocardiography.Levels of mRNA expression of NET,growth associated protein 43 (GAP 43),NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75NTR,and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured by realtime polymerase chain reaction.The results showed that myocardial NGF mRNA levels were comparable in rats with AC.Short-term supplementation of exogenous NGF raised the myocardial NGF immunoreactivity,but did not cause hyperinnervation and NET mRNA upregulation in the AC rats.Furthermore,myocardial TrkA mRNA was found to be remarkably decreased and p75NTR mRNA was increased.Myocardial TrkA downregulation may play a beneficial effect for avoiding the hyperinnervation,and it is reasonable to postulate that p75NTR can function as an NGF receptor in the absence of TrkA.Interestingly,local NGF administration into the neck muscles near the ganglia could attenuate cardiac remodeling and downregulate BNP mRNA.These results suggest that exogenous NGF can reach the target tissue along the axons anterogradely,and improve the cardiac remodeling.
Two methods of biostimulation were compared in a laboratory incubation study with monitored natural attenuation (MNA) for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation in diesel-contaminated Tarpley clay soil with low carbon content. One method utilized rapid-release inorganic fertilizers rich in N and P, and the other used sterilized, slow-release biosolids, which added C in addition to N and P. After 8 weeks of incubation, both biostimulation methods degraded approximately 96% of TPH compared to MNA, which degraded 93.8%. However, in the first week of incubation, biosolids-amended soils showed a linear two orders of magnitude increase in microbial population compared to MNA, whereas, in the fertilizer-amended soils, only a one order of magnitude increase was noted. In the following weeks, microbial population in the fertilizer-amended soils dropped appreciably, suggesting a toxic effect owing to fertilizer-induced acidity and/or NH3 overdosing. Results suggest that biosolids addition is a more effective soil amendment method for biostimulation than the commonly practiced inorganic fertilizer application, because of the abilities of biosolids to supplement carbon. No statistically significant difference was observed between the biostimulation methods and MNA, suggesting that MNA can be a viable remediation strategy in certain soils with high native microbial population. - Addition of biosolids is a potentially effective method of biostimulation for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils
Treatment of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum, cv. Sierra) with UV-C at 2.15 or 4.30 kJ m-2 enhanced blueberry fruit content of flavonoids including resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-ga...
Blueberries were first introduced to New Zealand in the 1950’s from North America and by 1970 around 30 cultivars had been imported. Selection for new material better suited to the New Zealand climate then began using F1 seedlings and open pollinated crosses. The PFR blueberry breeding programme (le...
Because of their recognized health benefits, there has been increased demand and consumption of blueberries in recent years. Great strides have been made in cultivar development since its domestication using traditional breeding approaches. However, genomic tools are lacking in blueberry, which coul...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to assess the cardioprotective properties of a blueberry enriched diet (BD. BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a major role in ischemia-related myocardial injury. The attempts to use synthetic antioxidants to block the detrimental effects of ROS have produced mixed or negative results precipitating the interest in natural products. Blueberries are readily available product with the highest antioxidant capacity among fruits and vegetables. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following 3-mo of BD or a regular control diet (CD, the threshold for mitochondrial permeability transition (t(MPT was measured in isolated cardiomyocytes obtained from young male Fischer-344 rats. Compared to CD, BD resulted in a 24% increase (p<0.001 of ROS indexed t(MPT. The remaining animals were subjected to a permanent ligation of the left descending coronary artery. 24 hrs later resulting myocardial infarction (MI in rats on BD was 22% less than in CD rats (p<0.01. Significantly less TUNEL(+ cardiomyocytes (2% vs 9% and 40% less inflammation cells were observed in the myocardial area at risk of BD compared to CD rats (p<0.01. In the subgroup of rats, after coronary ligation the original diet was either continued or switched to the opposite one, and cardiac remodeling and MI expansion were followed by serial echocardiography for 10 weeks. Measurements suggested that continuation of BD or its withdrawal after MI attenuated or accelerated rates of post MI cardiac remodeling and MI expansion. CONCLUSION: A blueberry-enriched diet protected the myocardium from induced ischemic damage and demonstrated the potential to attenuate the development of post MI chronic heart failure.
Yang, Wei; Herzberg, Gene R; Kang, Zhili; Wang, Lili; Robb, Desmond; Randell, Edward; Smeda, John; Xiong, Jieying; Kara, Mohamedtaki; Liu, Hu
Fish oil, rich in omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been reported to attenuate nephrotoxicity induced by ciclosporin (cyclosporine A). Harp seal oil is a rich source of n-3 PUFAs. This study investigated the ability of dietary seal oil to reduce nephrotoxicity caused by ciclosporin. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a standard diet (with sunflower oil as lipid, SFO) or a diet enriched with seal oil (with 85% seal oil and 15% sunflower oil as lipid, SO) for four weeks before and four weeks after intravenous administration of ciclosporin (15 mg kg(-1) daily). Kidney function was assessed by measuring blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, urinary N-acetyl-1-beta-D-glucosaminidase, 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha), thromboxane B(2) and malondialdehyde. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored. Ciclosporin concentrations in blood were measured using liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The fatty acid compositions of the diets and erythrocyte membranes were analysed by gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that nephrotoxicity was induced by ciclosporin in rats maintained on both SO and SFO diets. However, rats fed on SO diet endured less toxicity than those on SFO diet. The n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in the erythrocyte membrane of rats maintained on SO diet were found to be 10.79% and 11.93%, while those in rats maintained on SFO diet were found to be 1.67% and 22.71%, respectively. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of seal oil was found to reduce ciclosporin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PMID:16259782
Chaudhry, Kamaljit K; Shukla, Pradeep K; Mir, Hina; Manda, Bhargavi; Gangwar, Ruchika; Yadav, Nikki; McMullen, Megan; Nagy, Laura E; Rao, RadhaKrishna
Previous in vitro studies showed that glutamine (Gln) prevents acetaldehyde-induced disruption of tight junctions and adherens junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers and human colonic mucosa. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Gln supplementation on ethanol-induced gut barrier dysfunction and liver injury in mice in vivo. Ethanol feeding caused a significant increase in inulin permeability in distal colon. Elevated permeability was associated with a redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins and depletion of detergent-insoluble fractions of these proteins, suggesting that ethanol disrupts apical junctional complexes in colonic epithelium and increases paracellular permeability. Ethanol-induced increase in colonic mucosal permeability and disruption of junctional complexes were most severe in mice fed Gln-free diet. Gln supplementation attenuated ethanol-induced mucosal permeability and disruption of tight junctions and adherens junctions in a dose-dependent manner, indicating the potential role of Gln in nutritional intervention to alcoholic tissue injury. Gln supplementation dose-dependently elevated reduced-protein thiols in colon without affecting the level of oxidized-protein thiols. Ethanol feeding depleted reduced protein thiols and elevated oxidized protein thiols. Ethanol-induced protein thiol oxidation was most severe in mice fed with Gln-free diet and absent in mice fed with Gln-supplemented diet, suggesting that antioxidant effect is one of the likely mechanisms involved in Gln-mediated amelioration of ethanol-induced gut barrier dysfunction. Ethanol feeding elevated plasma transaminase and liver triglyceride, which was accompanied by histopathologic lesions in the liver; ethanol-induced liver damage was attenuated by Gln supplementation. These results indicate that Gln supplementation ameliorates alcohol-induced gut and liver injury. PMID:26365579
Wegener, Lisa Andreen
The epidemiology of Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV) in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) was studied over four consecutive years (2001 to 2004) in British Columbia. BlScV was first identified in British Columbia in 2000 and was identified in 40 commercial blueberry fields in 2001, and by 2004, it had spread to 122 fields. BlScV was also detected in cranberry (V. macrocarpon) and black huckleberry (V. membranaceum). The rate of BlScV spread in three commercial blueberry fields was deter...
Elks, Carrie M.; Terrebonne, Jennifer D.; Ingram, Donald K.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.
Objective Metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk increases significantly during menopause and remains elevated post-menopause. Several botanicals, including blueberries (BB), have been shown to delay MetS progression, but few studies have been conducted in postmenopausal animal models. Here, we examined the effects of BB supplementation on obese postmenopausal mice using a chemically-induced menopause model. Design and Methods After induction of menopause, mice were fed a high-fat diet or the same di...
Full Text Available Background. Migration of T cells into the colon plays a major role in the pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of glutamine (Gln supplementation on chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules expressed by T cells in mice with dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS- induced colitis. Methods. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a Gln diet replacing 25% of the total nitrogen. After being fed the diets for 5 days, half of the mice from both groups were given 1.5% DSS in drinking water to induce colitis. Mice were killed after 5 days of DSS exposure. Results. DSS colitis resulted in higher expression levels of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand- (PSGL- 1, leukocyte function-associated antigen- (LFA- 1, and C-C chemokine receptor type 9 (CCR9 by T helper (Th and cytotoxic T (Tc cells, and mRNA levels of endothelial adhesion molecules in colons were upregulated. Gln supplementation decreased expressions of PSGL-1, LFA-1, and CCR9 by Th cells. Colonic gene expressions of endothelial adhesion molecules were also lower in Gln-colitis mice. Histological finding showed that colon infiltrating Th cells were less in the DSS group with Gln administration. Conclusions. Gln supplementation may ameliorate the inflammation of colitis possibly via suppression of T cell migration.
Figueroa, Arturo; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Jaime, Salvador J; Kalfon, Roy
Combined isometric exercise or metaboreflex activation (post-exercise muscle ischaemia (PEMI)) and cold pressor test (CPT) increase cardiac afterload, which may lead to adverse cardiovascular events. l-Citrulline supplementation (l-CIT) reduces systemic arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV)) at rest and aortic haemodynamic responses to CPT. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of l-CIT on aortic haemodynamic and baPWV responses to PEMI+CPT. In all, sixteen healthy, overweight/obese males (age 24 (sem 6) years; BMI 29·3 (sem 4·0) kg/m2) were randomly assigned to placebo or l-CIT (6 g/d) for 14 d in a cross-over design. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), aortic augmented pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIx), baPWV, reflection timing (Tr) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated at rest and during isometric handgrip exercise (IHG), PEMI and PEMI+CPT at baseline and after 14 d. No significant effects were evident after l-CIT at rest. l-CIT attenuated the increases in aortic SBP and wave reflection (AP and AIx) during IHG, aortic DBP, MAP and AIx during PEMI, and aortic SBP, DBP, MAP, AP, AIx and baPWV during PEMI+CPT compared with placebo. HR and Tr were unaffected by l-CIT in all conditions. Our findings demonstrate that l-CIT attenuates aortic blood pressure and wave reflection responses to exercise-related metabolites. Moreover, l-CIT attenuates the exaggerated arterial stiffness response to combined metaboreflex activation and cold exposure, suggesting a protective effect against increased cardiac afterload during physical stress. PMID:27160957
Full Text Available Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w, high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w, or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w. The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.
Matthews Benjamin F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae family, which also includes closely related cranberry and more distantly related rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. Blueberry is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Extreme low temperatures, however, reduce crop yield and cause major losses to US farmers. A better understanding of the genes and biochemical pathways that are up- or down-regulated during cold acclimation is needed to produce blueberry cultivars with enhanced cold hardiness. To that end, the blueberry genomics database (BBDG was developed. Along with the analysis tools and web-based query interfaces, the database serves both the broader Ericaceae research community and the blueberry research community specifically by making available ESTs and gene expression data in searchable formats and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of cold acclimation and freeze tolerance in blueberry. Description BBGD is the world's first database for blueberry genomics. BBGD is both a sequence and gene expression database. It stores both EST and microarray data and allows scientists to correlate expression profiles with gene function. BBGD is a public online database. Presently, the main focus of the database is the identification of genes in blueberry that are significantly induced or suppressed after low temperature exposure. Conclusion By using the database, researchers have developed EST-based markers for mapping and have identified a number of "candidate" cold tolerance genes that are highly expressed in blueberry flower buds after exposure to low temperatures.
Benjamin, Faye E; Winfree, Rachael
Modern agriculture relies on domesticated pollinators such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), and to a lesser extent on native pollinators, for the production of animal-pollinated crops. There is growing concern that pollinator availability may not keep pace with increasing agricultural production. However, whether crop production is in fact pollen-limited at the field scale has rarely been studied. Here, we ask whether commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) production in New Jersey is limited by a lack of pollination even when growers provide honey bees at recommended densities. We studied two varieties of blueberry over 3 yr to determine whether blueberry crop production is pollen-limited and to measure the relative contributions of honey bees and native bees to blueberry pollination. We found two lines of evidence for pollen limitation. First, berries receiving supplemental hand-pollination were generally heavier than berries receiving ambient pollination. Second, mean berry mass increased significantly and nonasymptotically with honey bee flower visitation rate. While honey bees provided 86% of pollination and thus drove the findings reported above, native bees still contributed 14% of total pollination even in our conventionally managed, high-input agricultural system. Honey bees and native bees were also similarly efficient as pollinators on a per-visit basis. Overall, our study shows that pollination can be a limiting factor in commercial fruit production. Yields might increase with increased honey bee stocking rates and improved dispersal of hives within crop fields, and with habitat restoration to increase pollination provided by native bees. PMID:25313694
Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Dubé, Pascal; Varin, Thibault V; Calon, Frédéric; Desjardins, Yves
The low bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds, resulting from poor absorption and high rates of metabolism and excretion, is a concern as it can limit their potential beneficial effects on health. Targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces of mice supplemented for 15 days with a blueberry extract, a grape extract or their combination revealed significantly increased plasma concentrations (3-5 fold) of blueberry phenolic metabolites in the presence of a co-ingested grape extract, associated with an equivalent decrease in their appearance in feces. Additionally, the repeated daily administration of the blueberry-grape combination significantly increased plasma phenolic concentrations (2-3-fold) compared to animals receiving only a single acute dose, with no such increase being observed with individual extracts. These findings highlight a positive interaction between blueberry and grape constituents, in which the grape extract enhanced the absorption of blueberry phenolic compounds. This study provides for the first time in vivo evidence of such an interaction occurring between co-ingested phenolic compounds from fruit extracts leading to their improved bioavailability. PMID:27443888
Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid contained in more than 1620 plants including various fruits and foodstuffs, has numerous metabolic effects, such as hepatoprotection. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) may contribute to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities through release of excessive free fatty acids from adipose tissue. This study investigated the effect of oleanolic acid on Adipo-IR. The results showed that supplement with oleanolic acid (25 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 10 weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in rats. Simultaneously, oleanolic acid reversed the increase in the Adipo-IR index and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. In white adipose tissue, oleanolic acid enhanced mRNA expression of the genes encoding insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. At the protein level, oleanolic acid upregulated total IRS-1 expression, suppressed the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 at serine-307, and restored the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 to total IRS-1 ratio. In contrast, phosphorylated Akt to total Akt ratio was increased. Furthermore, oleanolic acid reversed fructose-induced decrease in phosphorylated-Akt/Akt protein to plasma insulin concentration ratio. However, oleanolic acid did not affect IRS-2 mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggest that oleanolic acid supplement ameliorates fructose-induced Adipo-IR in rats via the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of metabolic actions of oleanolic acid. - Highlights: • Adipose insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) contributes to metabolic abnormalities. • We investigated the effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on adipo-IR in
Li, Ying [Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Jianwei, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Gu, Tieguang [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto 602-8136 (Japan); Li, Yuhao, E-mail: email@example.com [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia)
Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid contained in more than 1620 plants including various fruits and foodstuffs, has numerous metabolic effects, such as hepatoprotection. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) may contribute to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities through release of excessive free fatty acids from adipose tissue. This study investigated the effect of oleanolic acid on Adipo-IR. The results showed that supplement with oleanolic acid (25 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 10 weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in rats. Simultaneously, oleanolic acid reversed the increase in the Adipo-IR index and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. In white adipose tissue, oleanolic acid enhanced mRNA expression of the genes encoding insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. At the protein level, oleanolic acid upregulated total IRS-1 expression, suppressed the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 at serine-307, and restored the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 to total IRS-1 ratio. In contrast, phosphorylated Akt to total Akt ratio was increased. Furthermore, oleanolic acid reversed fructose-induced decrease in phosphorylated-Akt/Akt protein to plasma insulin concentration ratio. However, oleanolic acid did not affect IRS-2 mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggest that oleanolic acid supplement ameliorates fructose-induced Adipo-IR in rats via the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of metabolic actions of oleanolic acid. - Highlights: • Adipose insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) contributes to metabolic abnormalities. • We investigated the effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on adipo-IR in
Aizawa, Koichi; Liu, Chun; Tang, Sanyuan; Veeramachaneni, Sudipta; Hu, Kang-Quan; Smith, Donald E; Wang, Xiang-Dong
Early epidemiologic studies have reported that tobacco smoking, which is causally associated with liver cancer, is an independent risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Lycopene from tomatoes has been shown to be a potential preventive agent against NAFLD and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we investigated whether the tobacco carcinogen 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induces lesions in both lungs and livers of ferrets with or without lycopene intervention. Male ferrets (6 groups, n = 8-10) were treated either with NNK (50 mg/kg BW, i.p., once a month for four consecutive months) or saline with or without dietary lycopene supplementation (2.2 and 6.6 mg/kg BW/day, respectively) for 26 weeks. Results demonstrate that NNK exposure results in higher incidences of lung tumors, HCC and steatohepatitis (which is characterized by severe inflammatory cell infiltration with concurrent fat accumulation in liver, hepatocellular ballooning degeneration and increased NF-κB expression), as well as elevations in bilirubin and AST levels in ferrets. Lycopene supplementation at two doses prevented NNK-induced expressions of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the lung and NF-κB and CYP2E1 in the liver and attenuated the NNK-induced mortality and pathological lesions in both the lungs and livers of ferrets. The present study provided strong experimental evidence that the tobacco carcinogen NNK can induce both HCC and steatohepatitis in the ferrets and can be a useful model for studying tobacco carcinogen-associated NAFLD and liver cancer. Furthermore, lycopene could provide potential benefits against smoke carcinogen-induced pulmonary and hepatic injury. PMID:27116542
Maya Zalbidea Paniagua
Blueberries (2009) by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization), invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A c...
A new, symptomless virus was identified in blueberry. The dsRNA genome of the virus, provisionally named Blueberry latent virus (BBLV), codes for two putative proteins and lacks a movement protein, a property only shared with cryptic viruses. More than 35 isolates of the virus from different cultiv...
Clark, Christine M; Monahan, Kevin D; Drew, Rachel C
Aging is associated with alterations of autonomic nerve activity, and dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish oil (FO), can modulate autonomic nerve activity. However, the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption on age-related cardiovascular responses at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise, a time of rapid autonomic adjustments, is unknown. Accordingly, 14 young (25 ± 1 years; mean ± SE) and 15 older (64 ± 2 years) healthy subjects ingested 4 g FO daily for 12 weeks. On pre- and postintervention visits, participants performed 15-sec bouts of isometric handgrip at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) while beat-to-beat systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure (SBP, DBP, MAP; Finometer) and heart rate (HR; electrocardiogram) were recorded. All baseline cardiovascular variables were similar between groups and visits, except DBP was higher in older subjects (P EPA and DHA content in both groups (P < 0.05). FO attenuated MAP and DBP increases in response to handgrip in both age groups (change from baseline during 70% MVC handgrip pre- and post-FO: young MAPΔ 14 ± 2 mmHg versus 10 ± 2 mmHg, older MAPΔ 14 ± 3 mmHg versus 11 ± 2 mmHg; young DBPΔ 12 ± 1 mmHg versus 7 ± 2 mmHg, older DBPΔ 12 ± 1 mmHg versus 7 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.05). FO augmented the PP (SBP-DBP) increase with 70% MVC handgrip in both groups (P < 0.05), but did not alter SBP or HR increases with handgrip. These findings suggest that FO supplementation attenuates MAP and DBP increases at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise in healthy young and older humans. PMID:27440746
Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum K68 (isolated from fu-tsai and fruit-vegetable ferment (FVF have been tested for antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties in a rat model of insulin resistance, induced by chronic high fat-fructose diet. Fifty rats were equally assigned into control (CON, high fat-fructose diet (HFFD, HFFD plus K68, HFFD plus FVF, and HFFD plus both K68 and FVF (MIX groups. Respective groups were orally administered with K68 (1×109 CFU/0.5 mL or FVF (180 mg/kg or MIX for 8 weeks. We found that HFFD-induced increased bodyweights were prevented, and progressively increased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were reversed (P<0.01 by K68 and FVF treatments. Elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and HOMA-IR values were controlled in supplemented groups. Furthermore, dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs with HFFD, was significantly (P<0.01 attenuated with MIX. Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, were controlled (P<0.01 by K68, FVF, and MIX treatments. Moreover, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities were substantially (P<0.01 restored by all treatments. Experimental evidences demonstrate that K68 and FVF may be effective alternative medicine to prevent HFFD-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia, possibly associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacies.
Wang, Shudong; Luo, Manyu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Gu, Junlian; Chen, Jing; Payne, Kristen McClung; Tan, Yi; Wang, Yuehui; Yin, Xia; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Gilbert C; Wintergerst, Kupper; Liu, Quan; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu
Childhood obesity often leads to cardiovascular diseases, such as obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy (ORCH), in adulthood, due to chronic cardiac inflammation. Zinc is structurally and functionally essential for many transcription factors; however, its role in ORCH and underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear and were explored here in mice with obesity induced with high-fat diet (HFD). Four week old mice were fed on either HFD (60%kcal fat) or normal diet (ND, 10% kcal fat) for 3 or 6 months, respectively. Either diet contained one of three different zinc quantities: deficiency (ZD, 10mg zinc per 4057kcal), normal (ZN, 30mg zinc per 4057kcal) or supplement (ZS, 90mg zinc per 4057kcal). HFD induced a time-dependent obesity and ORCH, which was accompanied by increased cardiac inflammation and p38 MAPK activation. These effects were worsened by ZD in HFD/ZD mice and attenuated by ZS in HFD/ZS group, respectively. Also, administration of a p38 MAPK specific inhibitor in HFD mice for 3 months did not affect HFD-induced obesity, but completely abolished HFD-induced, and zinc deficiency-worsened, ORCH and cardiac inflammation. In vitro exposure of adult cardiomyocytes to palmitate induced cell hypertrophy accompanied by increased p38 MAPK activation, which was heightened by zinc depletion with its chelator TPEN. Inhibition of p38 MAPK with its specific siRNA also prevented the effects of palmitate on cardiomyocytes. These findings demonstrate that ZS alleviates but ZD heightens cardiac hypertrophy in HFD-induced obese mice through suppressing p38 MAPK-dependent cardiac inflammatory and hypertrophic pathways. PMID:27346292
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the consequences of ω3 fatty acids (FA administration around calving on inflammatory response and on productive performances. In this period dairy cows undergo a metabolic challenge, coming with an inflammatory-like status triggering the release of pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. eicosanoids, cytokines. Eicosanoids synthesis may be modulated by altering the ratio of their precursors (ω3 and ω6 FA. Ten cows received 22 g/d of rumen-protected ω3 FA from -21 to +21 days from calving (OPT, while 10 (CTR received no supplement. Cows were frequently monitored for health status, body condition score (BCS, blood (metabolic, inflammatory and FA profiles, milk yield. OPT (vs CTR showed a similar milk production, a numerically smaller BCS drop, lower postpartum levels of non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.05, β-hydroxybutyric acid (P<0.1 and creatinine (P<0.05, suggesting a milder post-calving reserves mobilization. All cows underwent an inflammatory condition around calving, but OPT showed a milder response, as suggested by lower levels of bilirubin (P<0.05, and by the higher level of Liver Functionality Index (P<0.09. Plasma concentration of ω3 FA (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids increased in OPT during treatment (P<0.01 vs CTR. Since ω3 FA are the main replacers of arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids, their increased levels in plasma of OPT cows may have cut the formation of arachidonic-derivatives (pro-inflammatory mediators, countering the beginning of the inflammation. Hence, the administration of rumen-protected ω3 FA in transition period seems to attenuate the effects of subclinical inflammations and to improve the energy balance.
MacCollom, G B; Lauzon, C R; Sjogren, R E; Meyer, W L; Olday, F
The attraction of washed, medium-free cells of Pantoea (Enterobacter) agglomerans to wild, adult Rhagoletis mendax Curran, the blueberry maggot fly, was evaluated in managed blueberry fields in Maine. Attraction was evaluated using Pherocon AM and Ladd traps, each tested with or without washed bacterial cells. Field studies showed significant increases in fly captures on the Pherocon AM traps. Apple volatiles odors on Ladd traps seemed to cancel the effects of bacterial odors. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were isolated and identified from alimentary organs within wild R. mendax. Isolates indentified included P. agglomerans. Blueberries collected in the field were surveyed for the presence of P. agglomerans and blueberries containing blueberry maggot larvae and noninfested blueberries were analyzed for amino acid content. Maggot-infested blueberry contained twice the amino acid nitrogen than that of noninfested blueberry. P. agglomerans, like with other pest tephritids, seems to be a cosmopolite with blueberry maggot. PMID:19791604
The analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars were evaluated to determine what fruit quality characteristics consumers consider important and to evaluate if sensory quality characteristics were correlated to any analytical quality characteristics. Cultivars evaluat...
Hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-trazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) was applied as a soil drench to 1-year-old rooted hardwood cuttings of highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) blueberry plants. No differences in susceptibility to hexazinone were detected among 10 highbush and 3 rabbiteye cultivars grown in a fine sandy soil. The tolerance of two highbush and two rabbiteye cultivars to hexazinone were studied in low, medium, and high organic matter soils. Hexazinone at 1 or 2 kg/ha had no inhibitory effect on blueberry growth in the high organic matter soil, inhibited growth slightly on the medium organic matter soil, and caused severe injury in the low organic matter soil. Hexazinone toxicity, absorption, translocation, metabolism, and effect on photosynthesis were investigated with highbush and rabbiteye blueberry and goldenrod (Solidago fistulosa Miller), which were growing in hydroponic culture. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberry plants were three times more tolerant to root applications of hexazinone than was goldenrod. Blueberry plants absorbed an average of 7.9% of the root applied 14C-hexazinone and the goldenrod absorbed an average of 10.1%. An average of 6.8% of the root absorbed hexazinone (14C-label) was translocated from the root system of the blueberry plants to stem and leaves. Radioactivity in the goldenrod plants was equally distributed between the roots and shoots. The majority of the radioactivity in blueberry and goldenrod plants was recovered in the form of hexazinone. Root absorbed hexazinone caused a rapid inhibition of photosynthesis in intact goldenrod leaves at rates of 10 μM. Root absorbed hexazinone inhibited photosynthesis in intact blueberry leaves at hexazinone concentrations of 100 μM
Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. is worldwide famous as the healthy and desirable fruit. The most valuable nutritional components of fruits are polyphenols, which include anthocyanins. The aim of the study was to assess the content of anthocyanin dyes in selected varieties of blueberry fruit. We evaluated the changes in the content of colorants that occur after treatment for fruit jam and its subsequent storage at 21°C under the light. Varieties Ramcocas, Record, Iranka, Nelson, Pemberton, Jersey and Coville were observed. Content of anthocyanins was determined spectrophotometrically. In fresh fruits anthocyanin content ranged from 9.878 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 18.555 g kg-1 of dry matter (Nelson variety. After treatment there was found a decrease in the anthocyanins content, in the product's content were determined in the amount 1.645 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 3.476 g kg-1 of dry matter (variety Ramcocas. The decrease was due to decomposition of anthocyans at high temperatures in processed products and also by the replacement of dry matter by sucrose in the product. Mean color decrease in blueberry jam was 84.5%. After storage of the product, there were found further degradations of colorants, evaluated at 34.9%. The content of anthocyanin in jam was found to be 1.089 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 2.199 g kg-1 of dry matter (Ramcocas variety.
In recent years, world blueberry production has been split evenly between processing and fresh fruit markets. Machine harvest of highbush blueberry [northern highbush (NHB, Vaccinium corymbosum L.), southern highbush (SHB, Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids), and rabbiteye (RE, Vaccinium vi...
... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This... practice and procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Blueberry...
Southern highbush blueberries (SHB) (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive (over 500 hours/acre) and costly. With the uncertainty of labor availability in the near future, efforts are under way to develop blueberry ...
Yuan, Zuoqing; Zhang, Jianyong; Tu, Changchao; Wang, Zhijing; Xin, Wenpeng
The influence of blueberry anthocyanins on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-induced stress response in planarian mitochondria was investigated. PFOA at 15mg/L and anthocyanins at 10 or 20mg/L were individually and simultaneously administered to planarians for up to 10d. The results showed PFOA treatment induced an increase in mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and a decrease antioxidant capacity and enzyme activities. In anthocyanin treated animals, the activity of succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase and monoamine oxidase increased, but mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening decreased and total antioxidant capacity increased. An improvement in above-mentioned physiological and biochemical parameters was found in the combined PFOA and anthocyanin treated animals, in a dose-dependent manner. Anthocyanins attenuated the PFOA induced toxicity; antioxidant capacity and enzyme activities are involved in the protective mechanism of anthocyanins. PMID:26836138
Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...
Kalt, Wilhelmina; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; McDonald, Jane E; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda R; Fillmore, Sherry A E; Graf, Brigitte A; O'Leary, Jennifer M; Milbury, Paul E
Dietary intervention with anthocyanins may confer benefits in brain function, including vision. Research to date indicates that animals have only a limited capacity to absorb anthocyanins, compared to other types of flavonoids. Pigs, which are a suitable model for human digestive absorption, were used to examine the deposition of anthocyanins in tissues including the liver, eye, and brain tissue. Pigs were fed diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2, or 4% w/w blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Jersey') for 4 weeks. Prior to euthanasia, pigs were fasted for 18-21 h. Although no anthocyanins were detected in the plasma or urine of the fasted animals, intact anthocyanins were detected in all tissues where they were sought. LC-MS/MS results are presented for the relative concentration of 11 intact anthocyanins in the liver, eye, cortex, and cerebellum. The results suggest that anthocyanins can accumulate in tissues, including tissues beyond the blood-brain barrier. PMID:18211026
Gatterer, H; Greilberger, J; Philippe, M; Faulhaber, M; Djukic, R; Burtscher, M
Reactive oxygen species are thought to partly be responsible for the hypoxia induced performance decrease. The present study evaluated the effects of a broad based antioxidant supplementation or the combined intake of alpha-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) on the performance decrease at altitude. 18 healthy, well-trained males (age: 25±3 years; height: 179±6 cm; weight: 76.4±6.8 kg) were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to a placebo group (PL), a α-KG and 5-HMF supplementation group (AO1) or a broad based antioxidant supplementation group (AO2). Participants performed 2 incremental exercise tests to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer; the first test under normoxia and the second under hypoxia conditions (simulated altitude, FiO2=13% ~ 4 300 m). Supplementation started 48 h before the hypoxia test. Maximal oxygen uptake, maximal power output, power output at the ventilatory and lactate threshold and the tissue oxygenation index (NIRS) were measured under both conditions. Oxidative stress markers were measured before the supplementation and after the hypoxia test. Under hypoxia conditions all performance parameters decreased in the range of 19-39% with no differences between groups. A significant change from normoxia to hypoxia (pextraction, as indicated by the tissue oxygenation index, might indicate that mitochondrial functioning was actually influenced by the supplementation. PMID:22893323
Santos, Roberta O; Trindade, Simone C; Maurer, Luana H; Bersch, Andriely M; Sautter, Claudia K; Penna, Neidi G
Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate) and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose) on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar). The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content. PMID:27508988
ROBERTA O. SANTOS
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar. The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.
Full Text Available Lengthening the post-harvest life of fruits from temperate climates is one of the greatest challenges of modern agriculture, which aims at diminishing the losses and increasing the offer period of the product in national and international market. The use of eatable pellicles has been explored to cover fruits, since its usage represents an economical advantage, due to its low price and reduction of post-harvest losses. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of blueberry, cultivar Florida M, produced in an organic production system and covered with eatable covering based on kefir grains associated with different storage temperatures. Thus, it was observed that the most efficient treatment to reduce blueberry post-harvest loss was the combination of kefir grains in association with storage cooled at 5 ºC, not changing the chemical composition and nutritional of blueberry.
Jane E Stewart
Full Text Available Emerging diseases caused by fungi are increasing at an alarming rate. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA, severely reducing fruit quality in some plantings. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity of E. maculosum in the southeastern USA to elucidate the basis of disease emergence and to investigate if populations of E. maculosum are structured by geography, host species, or tissue type. We sequenced three conserved loci from 82 isolates collected from leaves and fruit of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum, highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum, and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids from commercial fields in Georgia and North Carolina, USA, and 6 isolates from lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium from Maine, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Populations of E. maculosum from the southeastern USA and from lowbush blueberry in Maine and Nova Scotia are distinct, but do not represent unique species. No difference in genetic structure was detected between different host tissues or among different host species within the southeastern USA; however, differentiation was detected between populations in Georgia and North Carolina. Overall, E. maculosum showed extreme genetic diversity within the conserved loci with 286 segregating sites among the 1,775 sequenced nucleotides and each isolate representing a unique multilocus haplotype. However, 94% of the nucleotide substitutions were silent, so despite the high number of mutations, selective constraints have limited changes to the amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. Overall, these results suggest that the emergence of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot is not due to a recent introduction or host shift, or the recent evolution of aggressive genotypes of E. maculosum, but more likely as a result of an increasing
Maya Zalbidea Paniagua
Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.
Schepens, M.A.; Schonewille, A.J.; Vink, C.; Schothorst, E.M. van; Kramer, E.; Hendriks, T.; Brummer, R.J.; Keijer, J.; Meer, R. van der; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.
We have shown in several controlled rat and human infection studies that dietary calcium improves intestinal resistance and strengthens the mucosal barrier. Reinforcement of gut barrier function may alleviate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of supplemental cal
Gustavo A. Lobos
Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.
The plant rhizosphere is made up of not only soil, but a myriad of living organisms; these living organisms can both contribute to, and be indicators of, soil health. We explored the possibility of assaying the soil microbiome in areas where blueberry fields are declining, as compared to healthy fie...
Jorge B. Retamales
Full Text Available Chile has become a major actor in the blueberry industry as the most important supplier of off-season fresh fruit for the northern hemisphere. Blueberry exports passed from US$ 30 million (around 4,000 tons in 2000 to US$ 380 million (94,000 tons in 2011. The characteristics of the major blueberry growing regions (North, Central, South-central and South are presented in terms of acreage, varieties, management practices, extension of the harvest season, and soil and climatic conditions. Most fruit is from highbush varieties, picked by hand and exported fresh by boat to United States. Largest proportion of fruit is exported from mid December to late January, which coincides with lowest prices. The south-central region (latitudes 34º50' to 38º15' S was in 2007 the most important one with 5,075 ha (51.1% of area planted. Among the challenges for the Chilean blueberry industry in the near future are: 1. Lower profitability due to lower rates of currency exchange and higher costs, 2 - Greater scarcity and higher cost of labor, 3.- Need for higher productivity and sustainable production practices, 4- Fruit of high and consistent quality, and 5.- Greater investment in research. As a case study the article presents three approaches that can help identify areas with low availability of labor and improve its efficiency. The article shows the use of geomatic tools to establish labor availability, application of growth regulators to reduce crop load, increase fruit size and improve harvest efficiency, and the use of shakers to harvest fresh fruit for long distance markets. More research is needed to improve yields, reduce costs and give greater economical and ecological sustainability to the Chilean blueberry industry.
Kinjo, Hirotoshi; Kunimi, Yasuhisa; Ban, Takuya; Nakai, Madoka
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an important pest of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, and cherry. Blueberry was introduced into Japan in the 1950s, and severe economic losses attributable to D. suzukii were first reported in 2002. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether oviposition behavior varies among blueberry cultivars having different firmness of fruit. Fruit firmness in 12 cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) was determined using a rheometer. More eggs tended to be laid in berries of cultivars possessing softer fruits than in those having firmer fruits. Choice tests, where one female was allowed to oviposit on blueberry fruits with different firmness, showed that softer fruits were more vulnerable to D. suzukii females than firmer fruits. PMID:24020291
.... Executive Order 12988 This rule has been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. The... Spain, Germany, and Poland. Asian highbush blueberry production has increased during this...
Cook, Melissa Ashley
The gall-inducing midge, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, and highbush blueberry, V. corymbosum, in British Columbia. Dasineura oxycoccana was initially found on highbush blueberry and more recently on cranberry. Given the close proximity of many cranberry and blueberry farms in British Columbia, it was hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. I investigated whether D. oxycoccana popu...
James J. Polashock
Full Text Available Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world.
Petrzik, Karel; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Mavrič-Pleško, I.; Špak, Josef
Roč. 156, č. 10 (2011), s. 1901-1903. ISSN 0304-8608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Complete genome * blueberry virus * highbush blueberry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2011
Blueberry juice processing by-products are a rich source of procyanidins, which comprise a group of compounds shown to possess numerous health benefits including, protection against coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, and obesity. Most of the procyanidins present in blueberry pomace, however,...
Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruits. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed fruits of blueberry in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. The aims of this study wer...
Full Text Available Liquid nitrogen spraying fluidized bed was used for Individual Quick Freezing (IQF of blue berries; processing technology and quality change of frozen samples during storage stage were analyzed in this study. Regular and mixed experimental design were used to confirm the quick freeze process of blueberries by means of setting different freezing temperature, wind velocity and the height of bed-layer. Multiple linear regression analysis indicates that the suitable process conditions for quick-freezing blueberries in LN2-spraying fluidized bed were -40°C freezing temperature, 4.5 m/sec wind speed and 3.6 cm bed height. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM results show that the inner microstructure of the fluidized quick-frozen blueberries has better compactness, uniformity and destructiveness than that of the slow-frozen blueberries in -18°C refrigerator. Texture Analysis (TPA and the technology of image processing were used to analyze the different of blueberries in firmness and internal color between the fluidized quick-frozen and slow-frozen in -18°C refrigerator. The results show that the quality of the fluidized quick-frozen blueberries has better than that of the slow-frozen blueberries in -18°C refrigerator. The storage life of blueberry by LN2 spraying fluidized quick-frozen was confirmed that is around 150 days which in much better than that of the slow-frozen sample with the storage life of 100 days.
... the most common cause of fruit rot in the fruit orchards in Europe and Asia, causing characteristic... Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD81 Importation of Fresh Blueberry Fruit From Morocco Into the... allow the importation of fresh blueberry fruit from Morocco into the continental United States. As...
Both high fat diet and obesity have been linked to impaired cell-mediated immune response. Blueberry, rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, has been shown to impact biologic functions in several tissues. However, no information is available on immune cells. We investigated whether blueberry consumptio...
... distinguished from the impact of other factors that influence demand. These include the price of blueberries... per pound, or 7.2 percent lower than it was from 2001 through 2009. \\7\\ Price elasticity of supply is... information in its promotion messaging to help build demand for blueberries. Increasing demand would help...
... than it was from 2001 through 2009. \\7\\ Price elasticity of supply is a measure used in economics to... USHBC uses its health information in its promotion messaging to help build demand for blueberries. Increasing demand will help move the growing supply of blueberries, which will benefit producers...
Northern highbush blueberry is a shallow-rooted crop with very fine, fibrous roots. Recently, we installed minirhizotrons (root observation tubes) in a conventional and an organic blueberry planting in western Oregon. We wanted to know exactly when and where new roots were being produced and determi...
... and serve a term of 3 years. AMS published in the Federal Register on March 24, 2006 (71 FR 14827... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1218 and 1219 Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and... (AMS) plans to review the Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information...
We have studied the biosynthesis of flavonoids in various tissues of naturally growing European blueberry (bilberry) and the blueberry cultivar 'Northblue'. Focus has also been on the biosynthesis of flavonoids in developing bilberry fruits as well as on the control genes regulating fruit development.
Brewer, Marin Talbot; Turner, Ashley N; Brannen, Phillip M; Cline, William O; Richardson, Elizabeth A
Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA. To determine whether this disease is caused by a new species of Exobasidium, we studied the morphology and phylogenetic relationship of the causal fungus compared with other members of the genus, including the type species E. vaccinii and other species that parasitize blueberry and cranberry (V. macrocarpon). Both scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy were used for morphological characterization. For phylogenetic analyses, we sequenced the large subunit of the rDNA (LSU) from 10 isolates collected from leaf or fruit spots of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium interspecific hybrid) from Georgia and North Carolina and six isolates from leaf spots of lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) from Maine and Nova Scotia, Canada. LSU was sequenced from isolates causing red leaf disease of lowbush blueberry and red leaf spot (E. rostrupii) and red shoot (E. perenne) of cranberry. In addition, LSU sequences from GenBank, including sequences with high similarity to the emerging parasite and from Exobasidium spp. parasitizing other Vaccinium spp. and related hosts, were obtained. All sequences were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results indicated that the emerging parasite in the southeastern USA differs morphologically and phylogenetically from other described species and is described herein as Exobasidium maculosum. Within the southeastern USA, clustering based on host species, host tissue type (leaf or fruit) or geographic region was not detected; however, leaf spot isolates from lowbush blueberry were genetically different and likely represent a unique species. PMID:24871592
Schmidt, Barbara M; Erdman, John W; Lila, Mary Ann
Blueberries are rich in health-promoting polyphenolic compounds including proanthocyanidins. The purpose of this study was to determine if proanthocyanidin-rich fractions from both wild and cultivated blueberry fruit have the same inhibitory effects on the proliferation of LNCaP, an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line, and DU145, a more aggressive androgen insensitive prostate cancer cell line. When 20 microg/ml of a wild blueberry proanthocyanidin fraction (fraction 5) was added to LNCaP media, growth was inhibited to 11% of control with an IC50 of 13.3 microg/ml. Two similar proanthocyanidin-rich fractions from cultivated blueberries (fractions 4 and 5) at the same concentration inhibited LNCaP growth to 57 and 26% of control with an IC50 of 22.7 and 5.8 microg/ml, respectively. In DU145 cells, the only fraction that significantly reduced growth compared to control was fraction 4 from cultivated blueberries with an IC50 value of 74.4 microg/ml, indicating only minor inhibitory activity. Differences in cell growth inhibition of LNCaP and DU145 cell lines by blueberry fractions rich in proanthocyanidins indicate that blueberry proanthocyanidins have an effect primarily on androgen-dependant growth of prostate cancer cells. Possible molecular mechanisms for growth inhibition are reviewed. PMID:16399225
AIM:To investigate the effects of blueberry on hepatic fibrosis and NF-E2-related factor 2(Nrf2) transcription factor in rats.METHODS:Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group(A);CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis group(B);blueberry prevention group(C);Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule(DSHX) prevention group(D);and blueberry + DSHX prevention group(E).Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 wk(except the control group...
Full Text Available A growing demand for blueberry fruit has necessitated the development of an efficient propagation method of this species that would provide large quantities of planting material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 50 mg dm−3, the commercial rooting powder Rhizopon containing 1% IBA, and salicylic acid (50 mg dm−3 on the in vivo rooting of microcuttings of Vaccinium corymbosum ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’. The contents of chlorophyll a + b, soluble proteins, free amino acids, as well as total soluble and reducing sugars were determined in rooted cuttings. All of the treatments increased the degree and percentage of rooting in the cuttings of both cultivars. While improving rhizogenesis in blueberry, salicylic acid did not perform as a cofactor of the auxin IBA. Foliar applications of IBA or salicylic acid (SA increased the contents of soluble proteins, free amino acids and sugars, but no effects on chlorophyll levels were observed.
The levels of flavonoids in blueberries were found to increase after illumination with UV-C. Phytochemicals affected included resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol derivative, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cyaniding 3-galactoside, delphinidin 3-...
Here, we present a brief overview of our bee trap-nesting study as well as information about propagating and managing mason bees for blueberry pollination, especially the bee species Osmia ribifloris....
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to empirically examine the research model attempting to explain factors influencing individuals’ adoption intention and actual use of blueberry. The proposed research model suggests three external characteristics-economic, social and technological characteristics that affect the likelihood of blueberry adoption, which then leads to actual use of the technology. Each characteristic includes variables, such as policies, income, peer influence, safety concerns, various services, ubiquity and cost savings. Two hundred and eighty nine responses were collected in order to test the proposed model. The results of the study revealed that all variables had a significant impact on the likelihood of blueberry adoption, as well as actual use of the technology. The implications of the findings suggest a new theoretical framework for further research on wireless technology adoption and offer suggestions that the marketers and wireless service providers should consider with respect to blueberry.
Drosophila suzukii, also referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, has recently and dramatically expanded its global range with significant consequences for its primary host crops: blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, cherries, and strawberries. D. suzukii populations can increase quickly, and ...
Greener synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles is described using antioxidants from blackberry, blueberry, pomegranate, and turmeric extracts. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HR...
... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes... Palmer, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS,...
Riihinen, Kaisu; Jaakola, Laura; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Hohtola, Anja
Blueberries and bilberries are recognized as some of the best sources of flavonoids, especially anthocyanins. The contents of flavonoids (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols) and hydroxycinnamic acids in the flower, fruit skin and pulp, leaf and rhizome of bilberry and the blueberry cultivar 'Northblue' were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode-array detection. The most striking difference in the fruits was the predominance of hydroxycinnamic acids in blueberry, whereas in bilberry the anthocyanin content was much higher, particularly in the pulp. Differences in flavonoid contents of fruits were already apparent at the flower stage. Bilberry and blueberry leaves both contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Blueberry rhizomes accumulated high amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids. All plant parts of bilberry and blueberry are potential sources of phenolic compounds for use either as dietary botanicals or by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26050178
Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L
Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit. PMID:26267542
Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-Cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-Yang
Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2...
Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang
Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422
Flores, Floirendo P; Singh, Rakesh K; Kerr, William L; Phillips, Dennis R; Kong, Fanbin
We aimed to determine the effect of encapsulation on the release properties of blueberry extracts during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. An ethanolic pomace extract was microencapsulated with whey protein isolate via spray drying. The in vitro release of monomeric anthocyanins, phenolics and ferric reducing antioxidant activity of the microcapsules (W) were evaluated for the microcapsules and two non-encapsulated systems: ethanolic pomace extract (P) and freeze-dried juice (F). Concentrations of anthocyanin and phenolics were normalised prior to digestion. Results showed that antioxidant activity was in the order of: F>W>P. Regardless of encapsulation, more phenolics were released from W and P than F. Anthocyanin concentration decreased after intestinal digestion for W, but remained constant for P and F. MALDI-MS showed similar spectra for P and F but not for W. The spray-dried product has comparable release characteristics to freeze-dried juice, and may be investigated for food applications. PMID:25172704
Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J; Chen, Jin-Ran
Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16/p21 in bone. Feeding a diet supplemented with blueberries (BB) to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only prior to puberty [postnatal day 21 (PND21) to PND34] prevents OVX-induced effects on expression of these molecules at PND68. In order to provide more evidence and gain a better understanding on the association between bone collagen matrix and resident bone cell fate, in vitro studies on the cellular senescence pathway using primary calvarial cells and three cell lines (ST2 cells, OB6, and MLO-Y4) were conducted. We found that senescence was inhibited by collagen in a dose-response manner. Treatment of cells with serum from OVX rats accelerated osteoblastic cell senescence pathways, but serum from BB-fed OVX rats had no effect. In the presence of low collagen or treatment with OVX rat serum, ST2 cells exhibited higher potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that bone cell senescence is associated with decreased Sirt1 expression and activated p53, p16, and p21. These results suggest that (1) a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone cell senescence from adult rats can occur after only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty, and (2) the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect involves, at least in part, prevention of collagen degradation. PMID:22555620
Munitz, Martin S; Resnik, Silvia L; Pacin, Ana; Salas, Paula M; Gonzalez, Hector H L; Montti, Maria I T; Drunday, Vanesa; Guillin, Eduardo A
Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, F. semitectum, F. verticillioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus section Nigri strains obtained from blueberries during the 2009 and 2010 harvest season from Entre Ríos, Argentina were analyzed to determine their mycotoxigenic potential. Taxonomy status at the specific level was determined both on morphological and molecular grounds. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), aflatoxins (AFs), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FBs), and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analyzed by HPLC and the trichotecenes deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), T-2 toxin (T-2), fusarenone X (FUS-X), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-AcDON) by GC. Twenty-five out of forty two strains were able to produce some of the mycotoxins analyzed. Fifteen strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were capable of producing Fumonisin B1 (FB1); two of them also produced Fumonisin B2 (FB2) and one Fumonisin B3 (FB3). One of the F. graminearum isolated produced ZEA, HT-2, and T-2 and the other one was capable of producing ZEA and DON. Two A. alternata isolates produced AOH and AME. Four A. tenuissima were capable of producing AOH and three of them produced AME as well. One Aspergillu flavus strain produced aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1). To our knowledge, this is the first report showing mycotoxigenic capacity of fungal species isolated from blueberries that include other fungi than Alternaria spp. PMID:25098914
We evaluated relationships between floral morphology of 23 genotypes of southern blueberries and indicators of pollination efficiency (fruit set, fruit abortion, seed number, and berry size) for Osmia ribifloris Cockerell, a manageable solitary bee. Cultivated blueberry taxa had the largest flowers ...
Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated blueberry cultivar resistance to both phases of the disease and, utilizing ‘stan...
Polyphenols present in lowbush blueberries cannot be absorbed by the intestinal epithelial tissue in their native form. These compounds are catabolized by the gut microbiota before being utilized. The objective of this research is to study the effect of a diet enriched with lowbush blueberries on th...
Fresh blueberries have become a popular new functional food because of their incredibly high levels of antioxidant phytonutrients and health benefits. However, the potential prevalence of human pathogens on blueberries has become an increased concern because they are consumed with minimal processing...
At the flowers of rabbiteye blueberry, honeybees probe for nectar from robbery slits previously made by male carpenter bees. This relationship between primary nectar robbers (carpenter bees) and facultative nectar thieves (honeybees) is seemingly unfavorable for blueberry pollination. We designed tw...
Weed control represents one of the most important cultural management aspects for organic blueberry production. Two of the most common ways to control weeds in blueberries is by the use of surface sawdust mulch or by landscape fabric, often referred to as weed mat. Soil temperature and soil moisture...
Postharvest diseases are a limiting factor of storage and shelf life of blueberries. Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest diseases in blueberries grown in California. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2)-generating pads (designated ...
Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil supplementation attenuates strength loss and limited joint range of motion after eccentric contractions: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial
Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Nakazato, Koichi; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Ochi, Eisuke
Purpose This study investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil (EPA + DHA) supplementation on eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage. Methods Twenty-four healthy men were randomly assigned to consume the EPA + DHA supplement (EPA, n = 12) or placebo (PL, n = 12) by the double-blind method. Participants consumed EPA + DHA or placebo supplement for 8 weeks prior to exercise and continued it until 5 days after exercise. The EPA group consumed EPA + DH...
... sports supplements often use persuasive before and after pictures that make it look easy to get a muscular, toned body. But the goal of supplement advertisers is to make money by selling more supplements, and many claims may be misleading. Teens and kids may seem like an easy sell ...
Low temperature is an important environmental stress factor limited blueberry cultivation region and affected fruit yield. In recent years, using genomics and transcriptomics approach identified many genes or proteins related to blueberry cold hardiness, provided the basis for developing new blueberry cold hardiness cultivars. The characteristics of blueberry cold hardiness, internal ice nucleation distribution, molecular mechanisms of cold hardiness and molecular marker assisted breeding were summarized in the paper, and prospecting the research direction of blueberry cold hardiness.%低温是限制越橘栽培区域和影响果实产量的重要环境胁迫因子.近年来,利用基因组学和转录组学方法鉴定许多与越橘抗寒性有关的基因或蛋白,为开发抗寒越橘新品种提供依据.文章从越橘抗寒性特点、内在冰核分布特征、抗寒分子机制及分子标记辅助育种等方面归纳和总结,并预测今后越橘抗寒性研究方向.
Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun
Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'. PMID:24009199
Jin Gook KIM; Hong Lim KIM; Su Jin KIM; Kyo-Sun PARK
Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon,Korea were analyzed for fruit size,soluble solids content,titratable acidity,total anthocyanin content,total phenolic content,and antioxidant activity.Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars.Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g,soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3°Brix,and titratable acidity from 0.8％ to 3.6％.Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars.Among the 45 blueberry cultivars,high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols,and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’,‘Rubel’,‘Rancocas’,and ‘Friendship’.
Wu-yang HUANG; Hong-cheng ZHANG; Wen-xu LIU; Chun-yang LI
Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants.In the present study,the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated.Blueberry,with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW),exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods.Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC,9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW),total flavonoid content (TFC,36.08 mg rutin/g DW),and total anthocyanidin content (TAC,24.38 mg catechin/g DW).A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid,protocatechuic acid,p-hydroxybenzoic acid,vanillic acid,caffeic acid,p-coumaric acid,ferulic acid,ellagic acid,and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone:luteolin; flavonols:rutin,myricetin,quercetrin,and quercetin; flavanols:gallocatechin,epigallocatechin,catechin,and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins:malvidin-3-galactoside,malvidin-3-glucoside,and cyanidin).In particular,the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins,which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical.
Fruit of 'Climax' rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) were irradiated by a linear accelerator at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 kGy and evaluated for various quality attributes after storage for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days at 1C plus 2 days at 15C, respectively. Weight loss increased during storage and averaged 4.2% after the final inspection and was not affected by irradiation dosage. About 5% of total berries were decayed after 14 days at 1C, about 6% after the final inspection at 15C, but decay was not affected by the level of irradiation. Electrolyte leakage, skin color, total soluble solids, acidity, and pH were also not affected by irradiation dosage. There was a significant decline in berry firmness, flavor, and texture as dosage increased. Berries treated at 1.0 kGy or above were softer and had lower flavor and texture preference scores than berries treated at lower dosages or nontreated berries
Walworth, Aaron E.; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-qing
In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora (‘VcFT-Aurora’), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in ‘VcFT-Aurora’. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all
Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formul...
Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...
Dickinson, R. M.; Hardy, J. C.
Radio frequency attenuator, having negligible insertion loss at minimum attenuation, can be used for making precise antenna gain measurements. It is small in size compared to a rotary-vane attenuator.
The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on the safety and quality of blueberries was studied. In vitro studies revealed that both ClO2 gas fumigation and ClO2 water direct contact killed food pathogen bacterium, Escherichia coli and fruit decay pathogen fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum. In vivo studies...
Liquid fish emulsion is a common fertilizer used for organic production of highbush blueberry. The product is often applied by hand or with a sprayer but can also be injected through a drip irrigation system, otherwise referred to as fertigation. Fertigation is more efficient and less labor-intensiv...
Temperature and humidity affect insect physiology, survival, fecundity, reproductive status and behavior. Drosophila suzukii is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit and can cause severe economic losses in a wide range of susceptible crops. This study was conducted on blueberries to determine the e...
Chitosan coating plus different essential oils was developed and applied to fresh blueberries, in order to find environmentally friendly and healthy treatments to preserve fresh fruit quality and safety during postharvest storage. Studies were first performed in vitro where wild-type Escherichia col...
In-vitro grown shoot tips of two cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) cultivars, Wilcox (VAC 1299.001) and Franklin (VAC 743.001) and three blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, Berkeley (VAC 849.001), O’Neal (VAC 312.001) and Brigitta (VAC 1312.001) from the tissue culture collections o...
In-vitro grown shoot tips of two cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) cultivars, Wilcox (PI 614079) and Franklin (PI 554998) and three blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivars, Berkeley (PI 554883), O’Neal (PI 554944) and Brigitta (PI 618166) from the tissue culture collections of the USDA-ARS Nation...
Vicente, Ariel R; Ortugno, Claudia; Rosli, Hernan; Powell, Ann L T; Greve, L Carl; Labavitch, John M
Softening and pathogen susceptibility are the major factors limiting the marketing of blueberries as fresh fruits, and these traits are associated with fruit cell wall structure. However, few studies that characterize wall modifications occurring during development and ripening have been reported for this fruit. In this study the ripening-associated modifications of blueberry fruit cell walls (composition, pectin and hemicellulose solubilization, and depolymerization) at five stages of ripeness have been analyzed. Xylose was found to be the most abundant noncellulosic neutral sugar associated with fruit walls, and the observed high Xyl/Glc ratio suggested that xylans, which are usually a minor hemicellulosic fruit wall component, are abundant in blueberry. The pectic matrix showed increased solubilization at early and intermediate stages of ripening, but no changes were detected in late ripening. Furthermore, little reduction in pectin polymer size occurred during blueberry ripening. In contrast, hemicellulose levels decreased as ripening progressed, and a clear depolymerization of these components was observed. A model for cell wall degradation in this fruit is discussed. PMID:17428068
Adachi, T.; Kletetschka, Günther; Mikula, V.; Chan, M.; Adamovič, Jiří; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Fuller, M.
Roč. 39, č. 5 (2007), s. 11-11. ISSN 0016-7592. [Rocky Mountain Section - Annual Meeting /59./. 07.05.2007-09.05.2007, St. George] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Mars * blueberries * magnetic * magnetism Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2007RM/finalprogram/abstract_121678.htm
Borges, Gina; Degeneve, Alexandra; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan
The antioxidant capacity (AOC) of black currant, blueberry, raspberry, red currant, and cranberry extracts was determined using the FRAP assay. In addition, the vitamin C content of the berries was determined and phenolic and polyphenolic compounds in the extracts were analyze by reversed-phase HPLC-PDA-MS(3) and by reversed-phase HPLC-PDA with an online antioxidant detection system. A complex spectrum of anthocyanins was the major contributor to the AOC of black currants and blueberries, whereas the lower AOC of red currants and cranberries was due mainly to a reduced anthocyanin content. Raspberries also had a lower anthocyanin content than black currants and blueberries, but there was only a slight decline in the AOC because of the presence of the ellagitannins sanguin H-6 and lambertianin C, which were responsible for 58% of the HPLC-AOC of the berries. Vitamin C was responsible for 18-23% of the HPLC-AOC of black currants, red currants, and cranberries and for 11% of that of raspberries but did not contribute to the AOC of the blueberry extract that was examined. Seven percent of the HPLC-AOC of the cranberry extract was attributable to procyanidin dimers. However, the contribution of polymeric proanthocyanidins to the AOC of the five berries was not determined as when analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC these high molecular weight flavan-3-ols are either retained by the column or eluted as a broad unresolved band. PMID:20000747
A survey was conducted of 171 blueberry growers in four Australian states to collect detailed information on cultural practices which have been shown to affect the infection of commercial plantings with ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Explanatory factors including climatic and edaphic variables and...
Expressed Sequence Tag-Polymerase Chain Reaction (EST-PCR) molecular markers were used to infer spatial genetic structure (SGS) of four lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) fields in Maine. Genetic structure was quantified at three spatial scales: 1) within apparent clones (or intrapat...
Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Understanding fungicide- resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of preharvest fungicide programs for contro...
Blueberries must be subjected to a quarantine treatment of methyl bromide fumigation when shipped to certain domestic or export markets. The principle insects that inhibit distribution of blueberries are the apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)], blueberry maggot (R. mendax Curran), and plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)]. Methyl bromide fumigation is the only approved quarantine treatment for blueberries and it is scheduled to be phased out by the year 2001. Highbush blueberries’ tolerance to low-dose irradiation is cultivar-dependent (Eaton et al., 1970). Two main cultivars grown in Florida, ‘Climax’ and ‘Sharpblue’, will tolerate irradiation up to 0.75 kGy without loss of fruit market quality (Miller et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995). A 1.0-kGy dose is the maximum allowed (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1986) for treatment of fresh fruit or vegetables, and reportedly (personal communications, J. Sharp and G. Hallman) »0.3 kGy is sufficient for control of blueberry insects requiring quarantine certification. Two or three times the minimum dose may, however, be required to assure that the minimum dose is absorbed by all berries during commercial application. Therefore, it is most important to determine the tolerance of berries to irradiation stress. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of low-dose irradiation on the quality and condition of ‘Brightwell’ and ‘Tifblue’, two major rabbiteye cultivars grown in Georgia. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (P £ 0.05) on a split-block experimental design, with harvest dates for ‘Brightwell’, and randomized sample sets as replications for ‘Tifblue’ berries. The data were tested for the main effect of irradiation dosage on quality attributes
BACKGROUND: High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensori...
Recently, superfruits, such as blueberries, have received much attention as scientists, marketers, and consumers push forward knowledge and demand for high antioxidant, healthier diets. Production and consumption are steadily increasing. Yet, there are very few studies detailing the aroma, astring...
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This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)
Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A.; Olmstead, James W.
BACKGROUND Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. RESULTS Sensory and i...
陈燕; 孙晓红; 曹奕; 赵勇; Vivian C.H.Wu; 潘迎捷
越橘属的蓝莓含有酚类物质、有机酸类、花青素类和糖类等生物活性成分.较早研究表明,蓝莓具有抗感染、抗氧化、抗肿瘤等功能,而近年的研究表明蓝莓具有抑菌作用.本文介绍了蓝莓的抑菌活性,分析了蓝莓中的抑菌活性成分,同时概括了蓝莓提取物对各种菌体的抑菌机理.%Blueberry was belong to Vaccinium spp.,which contained the biological active component of phenolic substances,organic acids,anthocyan and sugars.Early it was researched that blueberries had the ftmction of anti-infection,oxidation,anti-tumor.But recently,it was suggested that blueberry had bacteriostasis.The activity of bacteriostasis in blueberry was covered in this paper.And the antibacterial activity ingredients in blueberries were analyzed.In addition,the antibacterial mechanism of blueberry extract to all kinds of bacteria was summarized.
Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L
Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium. PMID:25738552
Hargrove, Douglas L.
A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.
Dietary supplementation with long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids attenuates obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and increases expression of PPAR gamma in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice
Full Text Available Abstract The objective of present study was to examine the effect of long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LC-MUFAs with chain lengths longer than 18 (i.e., C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined on obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and its molecular mechanisms. Type-2 diabetic KK-Ay mice (n = 20 were randomly assigned to the 7% soybean oil-diet group (control group and 4% LC-MUFA concentrate-supplemented-diet group (LC-MUFA group. At 8 weeks on the diet, the results showed that plasma, liver and adipose tissue levels of C20:1 and C22:1 isomers increased significantly with LC-MUFA treatment. Supplementation with LC-MUFAs markedly reduced white fat pad weight as well as adipocyte size in the mice. The levels of plasma free fatty acids, insulin, and leptin concentration in the obese diabetic mice of the LC-MUFA group were also decreased as compared with the mice in the soybean oil-diet control group. Dietary LC-MUFAs significantly increased the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, lipoprotein lipase (Lpl, fatty acid transport protein (Fatp, fatty acid translocase/CD36 (Cd36, as well as mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid oxidation such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (Cpt1a and citrate synthase (Cs, and decreased the mRNA expression of inflammatory marker serum amyloid A 3 (Saa3 in the adipose tissues of diabetic mice. The results suggest that LC-MUFAs may ameliorate obesity-related metabolic dysfunction partly through increased expression of Pparg as well as its target genes, and decreased inflammatory marker expression in white adipose tissue.
Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM;
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml of...... blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also...... obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60...
Full Text Available Congenital self-healing Langerhans cell histiocytosis (CSHLCH, also called as Hashimoto-Pritzker disease, is a rare, benign variant of histiocytosis. Despite the initial dramatic clinical presentation, affected infants are otherwise healthy and skin lesions disappear spontaneously within several weeks to months. We present a case of CSHLCH presenting as blueberry muffin baby. The lesions appeared in the first week of life and lasted 6 months. The follow-up period was 24 months, without any signs of relapse. At the pediatric dermatology unit of our clinic, during the last 20 years, we had 10 children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis and among them only one with CSHLCH. In the literature, we found only 5 newborns with Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as blueberry muffin baby, among them only 4 with self-healing CSHLCH. The early recognition of CSHLCH may spare children from redundant and potentially toxic systemic treatment.
Sun, Xiuxiu; Bai, Jinhe; Ference, Christopher; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yifan; Narciso, Jan; Zhou, Kequan
The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas on the safety and quality of blueberries was studied. In vitro studies revealed that both ClO2 gas fumigation and ClO2 direct contact in water killed food pathogen bacterium Escherichia coli and fruit decay pathogen fungus Colletotrichum acutatum. In vivo studies were conducted using noninoculated berries and berries inoculated with postharvest decay and foodborne pathogens. Berries were inoculated with either E. coli (5.2 log CFU/g) or C. acutatum (3.9 log CFU/g). Inoculated fruit were dried for 2 h at room temperature in a climate-controlled laboratory and packed in perforated commercial clamshells, with or without ClO2 pads, and stored at 10°C for up to 9 days. The effects of ClO2 on microbial populations and fruit firmness were monitored during storage. In the inoculation experiment, treatment with ClO2 reduced populations of E. coli and C. acutatum by 2.2 to 3.3 and 1.3 to 2.0 log CFU/g, respectively. For the noninoculated blueberries, the initial total aerobic bacteria count and the yeast and mold count were 4.2 and 4.1 log CFU/g, respectively. ClO2 treatment reduced total aerobic bacteria count and yeast and mold count by 1.5 to 1.8 and 1.3 to 1.7 log CFU/g, respectively. The firmness of both inoculated and noninoculated blueberries was maintained by ClO2 treatment. Thus, controlled-release ClO2 gas fumigation technology shows promise as an effective and practical antimicrobial agent in commercial clamshell packaging of blueberry and other fruits. PMID:24988018
Full Text Available A rapid analytical method for simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids is of the essence for quality control of blueberry juice and its fermented wine. In this present study, a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for separation and determination of organic acids (oxalic acid, gluconic acid, tartaric acid, formic acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, isocitric acid, shikimic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid in blueberry juice and wine has been developed. The chromatographic separation was performed at 35°C by using an ammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.8 as mobile phase and 0.6 mL/min as the column flow rate. A C18 analytical column and Ultraviolet Detection (UV at &lembda = 210 nm were used for all acids above. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy and precision. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing organic acids in real samples of six species of blueberry juices and wines. The results show that species significantly affect distribution of organic acids in samples but not the kinds of organic acids between six species. Oxalic acid, gluconic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid and citric acid are detected in blueberry juice. Citric acid, which accounts for a percentage >75% of the whole content of organic acids, is the major acid in four kinds of tested species (Sharpblue, Misty, Anna and Bluecrop. In the other two species (Britewell and Premier, malic acid, gluconic acid and citric acid own a mean percentage of 40, 32 and 25%, respectively. After yeast fermentation and aging, several new organic acids (pyruvic acid, isocitric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid and propionic acid appear in wine.
Paola Pedraza-Penalosa; Nelson Salinas; Anne S. Virnig; Ward Wheeler
Abstract The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae ( Ericaceae ) is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to a...
Warman, P.R.; Shanmugam, S.G.
Five treatments were compared using two half-highbush blueberry cultivars (cv Chippewa and Polaris) transplanted and grown for their first three growing seasons at a site in Boutiliers Point, N.S., a Gibraltar brown sandy loam (Ferro-Humic Podzol). The five treatments were as follows: Alfalfa meal + rock P + wood ash; NPK fertilizer; Municipal Solid Waste (MSWC) compost; Ruminant compost; food waste, manure and yardwaste compost (FMYC). All amendments were weighed and applied in a...
Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee
A total of 82 isolates of Colletotrichum species were obtained from anthracnose symptoms of highbush blueberry trees grown in the Gochang area of Korea during a disease survey in 2008. Out of the isolates, 75 were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the others as C. acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Twenty six of C. gloeosporioides isolates produced their teleomorph Glomerella cingulata in PDA culture. Three isolates of each C. gloeosporioides an...
Vieira, Jorge Miguel Magalhães
Common problems related with food such as foodborne outbreaks, precocious decaying and economic losses related with fresh food retention have led to the development of novel technologies and systems for the protection of food, such as edible coatings based on natural compounds. The increasing rate of blueberries consumption allied to the excellent harvesting conditions that Portugal can offer, have created a remarkable opportunity to increase the production competitiveness o...
Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formulation of enteral nutrition contains some glutamine: 2-4 g/L. However, this dose is insufficient to normalize glutamine plasma concentration.Plasma concentration of glutamine is low in many patients with critical illness and a low level is an independent risk factor for mortality. A low plasma glutamine concentration is the best indicator of glutamine depletion. Data are emerging about how the endogenous production of glutamine is regulated. We know that skeletal muscle is the major producer of glutamine and that a part of the profound depletion of skeletal muscle seen in critical illness is a reflection of the need to produce glutamine.Glutamine is utilized in rapidly dividing cells in the splanchnic area. Quantitatively most glutamine is oxidized, but the availability of glutamine in surplus is important for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides and necessary for cell division and protein synthesis. More knowledge about the regulation of the endogenous production of glutamine is needed to outline better guidelines for glutamine supplementation in the future. PMID:21906372
Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus
A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry. PMID:24665711
Full Text Available Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to analyze the effect of pectinase processing on Juice Yield (JY, Total Anthocyanin content (TA, Total Phenol content (TP and Total Flavonoid content (TF of blueberry juice. The processing conditions included enzyme dosage, hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time. For resolving multi-response optimization, desirability function method was used to integrate JY, TA, TP and TF into a new target D (Desirability value. Predicted values of JY, TA, TP, TF and D were found to be in good agreement with experimental values as indicated by the high R2 values of 0.9963, 0.9217, 0.9586, 0.9901 and 0.9933, respectively. The optimum conditions were: enzyme dosage of 0.6 mg/g, hydrolysis temperature of 51.6°C and hydrolysis time of 2.36 h. At this optimum point, JY, TA, TP, TF and D were 71.406%, 420.367 mg/L, 2.784 g/L, 3.121 g/L and 0.9206, respectively. The study showed that RSM was an effective technique to model the effect of pectinase processing on blueberry juice parameters and desirability function method could be used for multi-response optimization of blueberry juice extraction.
Song, Fangyuan; Su, Hongyan; Yang, Nan; Zhu, Luying; Cheng, Jieshan; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Xianhao
Myo-inositol metabolism in plant edible organs has become the focus of many recent studies because of its benefits to human health and unique functions in plant development. In this study, myo-inositol contents were analyzed during the development of two blueberry cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop'. Furthermore, two VcMIPS 1/2 (Vaccinium corymbosum MIPS) genes, one VcIMP (Vaccinium corymbosum IMP) gene and one VcMIOX (Vaccinium corymbosum MIOX) gene were isolated for the first time from blueberry. The expression patterns of VcMIPS2, VcIMP and VcMIOX genes showed a relationship with the change profiles of myo-inositol content during fruit ripening. The results were further confirmed by the analyses of the enzyme activity. Results indicated that both myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation played important roles in determining of myo-inositol levels during the development of blueberry. To our knowledge, this report is the first to discuss myo-inositol levels in fruits in terms of biosynthesis and catabolism. PMID:27211661
Correa-Betanzo, J; Allen-Vercoe, E; McDonald, J; Schroeter, K; Corredig, M; Paliyath, G
Wild blueberries are rich in polyphenols and have several potential health benefits. Understanding the factors that affect the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of polyphenols is important for evaluating their biological significance and efficacy as functional food ingredients. Since the bioavailability of polyphenols such as anthocyanins is generally low, it has been proposed that metabolites resulting during colonic fermentation may be the components that exert health benefits. In this study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model comprising sequential chemostat fermentation steps that simulate digestive conditions in the stomach, small intestine and colon was used to investigate the breakdown of blueberry polyphenols. The catabolic products were isolated and biological effects tested using a normal human colonic epithelial cell line (CRL 1790) and a human colorectal cancer cell line (HT 29). The results showed a high stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins during simulated gastric digestion step with approximately 93% and 99% of recovery, respectively. Intestinal digestion decreased polyphenol- and anthocyanin- contents by 49% and 15%, respectively, by comparison to the non-digested samples. During chemostat fermentation that simulates colonic digestion, the complex polyphenol mixture was degraded to a limited number of phenolic compounds such as syringic, cinnamic, caffeic, and protocatechuic acids. Only acetylated anthocyanins were detected in low amounts after chemostat fermentation. The catabolites showed lowered antioxidant activity and cell growth inhibition potential. Results suggest that colonic fermentation may alter the biological activity of blueberry polyphenols. PMID:25038707
Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.
A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.
A nested PCR assay was employed to detect the presence of phytoplasmas associated with 127 symptomatic blueberry plants collected during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons from 11 commercial farms predominantly located in two major blueberry-growing counties in New Jersey, USA. Ninety plants exhibit...
The University of Florida blueberry breeding program has been developing Southern highbush blueberry cultivars for over 50 years. During this period, fruit firmness has been a primary selection trait. A novel texture, most often described as “crisp” was identified, but the anatomical and physiologic...
Joo Beom Eom; Hokyung Kim; Jinchae Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee
We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator
Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Wild Blueberries (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. with Cultivated Blueberry Varieties (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in Artvin Region of Turkey
Full Text Available Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. which are found naturally in most part of Blacksea Region, and Artvin are generally called bear grape, Trabzon tea, and likapa. In addition, different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. have been cultivated in Artvin region for 5 or 6 years. Blueberries contain appreciable levels of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and ﬂavonols that have high biological activity. V. arctostaphylos and V. myrtillus show that natural distrubition with received V. corymbosum of different cultured species in Artvin region will be determined antioxidant activity in this study. In this study showed that wild species had a higher antioxidant effect than cultivated species. V. myrtillus had high total polyphenols (11.539-20.742 mg GAE/g dry sample, flavonoids (1.182-2.676 mg QE/g dry sample and anthocyanins (3.305-11.473 mg Cyn/g dry sample than V. corymbosum species. In addition, wild species had high CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH values. The antioxidant activities found with CUPRAC, expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.143 to 0.297 mmol TEAC/g dry sample. Those determined with DPPH expressed as IC50 ranged from 0.229 to 1.178 mg/ml. Those determined with FRAP expressed as FeSO4.7H2O equivalent were in 130.719–346.115 µmol Fe/g dry sample range.
Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, increased risk of fall-related injury, and, often, frailty. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, the mechanisms responsible for these deleterious changes present numerous therapeutic targets for drug discovery. Resistance training combined with amino acid-containing supplements is often utilized to prevent age-related muscle wasting and weakness. In this review, we summarize more recent therapeutic strategies (myostatin or proteasome inhibition, supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or ursolic acid, etc. for counteracting sarcopenia. Myostatin inhibitor is the most advanced research with a Phase I/II trial in muscular dystrophy but does not try the possibility for attenuating sarcopenia. EPA and ursolic acid seem to be effective as therapeutic agents, because they attenuate the degenerative symptoms of muscular dystrophy and cachexic muscle. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α in skeletal muscle by exercise and/or unknown supplementation would be an intriguing approach to attenuating sarcopenia. In contrast, muscle loss with age may not be influenced positively by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor or antioxidant.
Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Muriel, José Luis; Moreno, Diego A; Moreno-Rojas, José M
Demand for and availability of blueberries has increased substantially over recent years, driven in part by their health-promoting properties. Three blueberry varieties ('Rocío', V2, and V3) were grown under two cultivation systems (open-field and plastic tunnels) and subjected to two irrigations regimes (100% and 80% of crop evapotranspiration) in two consecutive years (2011-2012). They were evaluated for their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Genotype influenced the antioxidant capacity and the content of the three groups of phenolics in the blueberries. The antioxidant activity and total flavonols content increased when the blueberries were grown under open-field conditions. Deficit irrigation conditions led to additional positive effects on their phenolics (delphinidn-3-acetilhexoside content was increased under plastic tunnel with deficit irrigation). In conclusion, the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of blueberries were not negatively affected by water restriction; Moreover, several changes were recorded due to growing system and genotype. PMID:26920295
Choate, Beth; Drummond, Francis A
Assessing the influence of new, reduced-risk insecticides on natural enemies within agroecosystems is essential to developing integrated pest management strategies. Three species of mound-building Formica ants are abundant throughout Maine lowbush blueberry fields (Formica exsectoides Forel, F. glacialis Wheeler, and F. ulkei Emery). All three species have been described in the literature as predaceous, with research demonstrating that F. exsectoides preys on major pest insects of lowbush blueberry. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of common-use and newly introduced insecticides on Formica sp. ant communities in lowbush blueberry fields. Laboratory assays indicated that the commonly applied insecticide phosmet is toxic to F. exsectoides, even after 8 d of field weathering (P insecticides, such as acetamiprid, had little effect on survival of all three species. Abundance of each species in the field varied with lowbush blueberry pesticide-use strategy and amount of nonblueberry vegetation. Both F. exsectoides and F. glacialis were most abundant in organic fields; however, overall F. glacialis was the most abundant in fields of all management types. Field surveys support laboratory results suggesting that phosmet is highly toxic to these species and influences their spatial pattern. Manipulation of the crop to conserve natural enemies in lowbush blueberry is difficult because the crop is not planted; therefore, we must look closely at the incorporation of low toxicity insecticides with natural enemies to efficiently control pest insects. PMID:23786059
王艳; 王莹; 刘兵; 屈德宁
Blueberry fruit has a high nutritional value,rich in vitamin E,vitamin A,protein and cyanine glycosides,etc. Planting blueberry has high economic effect of the project. Blueberry cultivation is influenced by various factors. This article from three aspects of blueberry water physiology,mineral nutrition and photosynthetic physiological characteristics were summarized. The future problem of blueberry research was summarized.%蓝莓果实具有很高的营养价值，其富含维生素E、维生素A、蛋白质和花青苷等，被赞誉为“浆果之王”。它含有丰富的营养成分，既有良好的营养和保健作用，还具有防止脑神经老化、强心、抗癌、软化血管、增强人体免疫功能及缓解视觉疲劳的作用。蓝莓的栽培受到多方面因素的影响。本文对蓝莓的水分生理、矿质营养和土壤pH值及光合生理特性等几个方面进行了综述，并提出了今后蓝莓研究要重视的问题。
本文对蓝莓和蓝莓果酒进行了介绍，探讨了蓝莓果酒的发酵流程、发酵过程中的控制要点。并对发酵过程中的影响因素进行了分析，蓝莓的处理方法、糖类添加剂、不同的酵母、主发酵工艺、果胶分解均会对蓝莓果酒的质量产生影响。针对发酵过程中的影响因素进行了具体讨论，旨在优化发酵工艺，提高产品质量。%This paper introduced blueberries and blueberry wine, and discussed blueberry wine fermentation process and control points in the process. Fermentation process and influencing factors were analyzed. Treatment of blueberries, sugar additives, different yeast, the main fermentation process, pectin decomposition would have impacts on the quality of blueberry wine. Factors influencing the fermentation process were discussed in details to optimize the fermentation process and improve product quality.
Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt
Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss....... Objective: We wanted to investigate taste preferences and sensoric characteristics among three usually used ONS in patients with malignant haematological disease during cytotoxic treatment. Design: Tested drinks were: Protin® (protein-enriched-milk, ARLA), Nutridrink® (NUTRICIA) and hospital-produced drink...
This paper sates the cultivation technique of blueberry and characteristics and prevention measures of sev- eral diseases and insects. It also introduces the trophic value, recovery and storage methods of blueberry.%阐述蓝莓的栽培技术管理以及几种病虫害的发生特点危害及防治措施；同时也简单介绍蓝莓的营养价值及采收、贮存方法。
Foltyn, Stephen R.
The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.
Long TAN; Hai-qiang LI; Hong-peng YANG; Wei PANG; Wei LIU; Shou-dan SUN; Yu-gang JIANG
ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of blueberry extract on antioxidant capacity in mice with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were adopted as the AD model and groups AD, AD+BB and control (CT) were set with ten mice in each group. The mice were given blueberry extract(BB) or saline for 16 weeks. The body weight gain and the food consumption were recorded weekly. The morphological changes in cortex were detected, and the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and the levels of GSH and MDA in the brain, liver, kidney and serum were determined.Results The food consumption did not show any significant difference among the three groups, and the AD mice treated with BB obtained a remarkable body weight gain during the experimental period. The morphological examination showed that an obvious neuronal loss appeared in the cortex of AD mice and improvement was noted in mice treated with BB. The biochemical detection showed that the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, and levels of GSH in the brain, liver and serum were significantly declined while the levels of MDA in these tissues and serum were increased in AD mice. After BB administration, the activity of SOD in brain was elevated significantly and the activities of GSH-Px and the levels of GSH in liver and serum were also recovered to some extent. Meanwhile, the levels of MDA in the brain, liver and serum were decreased obviously. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the level of MDA did not show significant change in kidney. Conclusion Brain is susceptive to oxidative stress in AD mice. Blueberry extract is effective in alleviating the oxidative damage in AD mice.
Adams, Lynn S.; Phung, Sheryl; Yee, Natalie; Seeram, Navindra P.; Li, Liya; Chen, Shiuan
Dietary phytochemicals are known to exhibit a variety of anti-carcinogenic properties. This study investigated the chemopreventive activity of blueberry extract in triple negative breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Blueberry decreased cell proliferation in HCC38, HCC1937 and MDA-MB-231 cells with no effect on the non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cell line. Decreased metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 cells by blueberry was shown through inhibition of cell motility using wound healing assay...
... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...
Osmia ribifloris Cresson is a solitary stem-nesting bee whose adult emergence perfectly coincided with the flowering periods of cultivated southern blueberries. An isolated case of extended prepupal dormancy occurred, but never reappeared in a captive population raised in Mississippi. Adults foraged...
Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents (BCAs), Prestop® Gliocladium catenula...
Saito, S; Margosan, D; Michailides, T J; Xiao, C L
The Botrytis cinerea species complex comprises two cryptic species, originally referred to Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping. Group I was described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea During a survey of Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Valley of California, six isolates, three from blueberries and three from table grapes, were placed in Group I but had a distinct morphological character with conidiophores significantly longer than those of B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea We compared these with B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea by examining morphological and physiological characters, sensitivity to fenhexamid and phylogenetic analysis inferred from sequences of three nuclear genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the three partial gene sequences encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) supported the proposal of a new Botrytis species, B. californica, which is closely related genetically to B. cinerea, B. pseudocinerea and B. sinoviticola, all known as causal agents of gray mold of grapes. Botrytis californica caused decay on blueberry and table grape fruit inoculated with the fungus. This study suggests that B. californica is a cryptic species sympatric with B. cinerea on blueberries and table grapes in California. PMID:26740541
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Full Text Available Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8 of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON; 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB; 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO; or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites, and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid. Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046, with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035. Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220, again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185. Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001, with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159 or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670. Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric
Full Text Available The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative potential of anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs obtained from two commercially available juices (blueberry and blackcurrant juices on three tumor cell lines; B16F10 (murine melanoma, A2780 (ovarian cancer and HeLa (cervical cancer. Individual anthocyanin determination, identification and quantification were done using HPLC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the juices was determined through different mechanism methods such as DPPH and ORAC. For biological testing, the juices were purified through C18 cartridges in order to obtain fractions rich in anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins identified were glycosylated cyanidin derivatives. The antiproliferative activity of the fractions was tested using the MTT assay. The antiproliferative potential of ARF was found to be associated with those bioactive molecules, anthocyanins due to their antioxidant potential. The results obtained indicated that both blueberry and blackcurrants are rich sources of antioxidants including anthocyanins and therefore these fruits are highly recommended for daily consumption to prevent numerous degenerative diseases.
Full Text Available The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae (Ericaceae is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to advance our understanding of the relationships within neotropical Vaccinieae and advice the taxonomy of the new blueberry relatives, here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the Andean clade. Anthopterus, Demosthenesia, and Pellegrinia are among the putative Andean genera recovered as monophyletic, while other eight Andean genera were not. The analyses also showed that genera that have been traditionally widely defined are non-monophyletic and could be further split into more discrete groups. Four newly discovered Colombian Vaccinieae are placed in the monophyletic Satyria s.s. and the Psammisia I clade. Although these new species are endemic to the Colombian Western Cordillera and Chocó biogeographic region and three are not known outside of Las Orquídeas National Park, they do not form sister pairs.
Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis
Partially purified blueberry polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in Mcllvaine buffer (pH=3.6, typical pH of blueberry juice) was subjected to processing at isothermal-isobaric conditions at temperatures from 30 to 80 °C and pressure from 0.1 to 700 MPa. High pressure processing at 30-50 °C at all pressures studied caused irreversible PPO activity increase with a maximum of 6.1 fold increase at 500 MPa and 30 °C. Treatments at mild pressure-mild temperature conditions (0.1-400 MPa, 60 °C) also caused up to 3 fold PPO activity increase. Initial activity increase followed by a decrease occurred at relatively high pressure-mild temperature (400-600 MPa, 60 °C) and mild pressure-high temperature (0.1-400 MPa, 70-80 °C) combinations. At temperatures higher than 76 °C, monotonic decrease in PPO activity occurred at 0.1 MPa and pressures higher than 500 MPa. The activation/inactivation kinetics of the enzyme was successfully modelled assuming consecutive reactions in series with activation followed by inactivation. PMID:26041182
Crowe, Kristi M; Bushway, Alfred A; Bushway, Rodney J; Davis-Dentici, Katherine; Hazen, Russell A
Advanced oxidation processes and single chemical oxidants were evaluated for their antimicrobial efficacy against common spoilage bacteria isolated from lowbush blueberries. Predominant bacterial flora were identified using biochemical testing with the assessment of relative abundance using non-selective and differential media. Single chemical oxidants evaluated for postharvest processing of lowbush blueberries included 1% hydrogen peroxide, 100 ppm chlorine, and 1 ppm aqueous ozone while advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) included combinations of 1% hydrogen peroxide/UV, 100 ppm chlorine/UV, and 1 ppm ozone/1% hydrogen peroxide/UV. Enterobacter agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were found to comprise 90-95% of the bacterial flora on lowbush blueberries. Results of inoculation studies reveal significant log reductions (pagglomerans and P. fluorescens on all samples receiving treatment with 1% hydrogen peroxide, 1% hydrogen peroxide/UV, 1 ppm ozone, or a combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide/UV treatment as compared to chlorine treatments and unwashed control berries. Although population reductions approached 2.5 log CFU/g, microbial reductions among these treatments were not found to be significantly different (p< or 5) from each other despite the synergistic potential that should result from AOPs; furthermore, as a single oxidant, UV inactivation of inoculated bacteria was minimal and did not prove effective as a non-aqueous bactericidal process for fresh pack blueberries. Overall, results indicate that hydrogen peroxide and ozone, as single chemical oxidants, are as effective as AOPs and could be considered as chlorine-alternatives in improving the microbiological quality of lowbush blueberries. PMID:17350128
以纯牛奶和蓝莓为主要原料,通过发酵、调配、均质、杀菌等加工工艺制成蓝莓酸乳饮料,通过单因素和正交实验法筛选出最佳工艺配方,采用CMC和黄原胶对其稳定性进行研究,优化并确定了最佳工艺配方为:酸奶30%,蓝莓汁12%,蔗糖12%,柠檬酸0.02%,乙基麦芽酚0.01%,苯甲酸钠0.10%,水45%(均为质量分数)时蓝莓酸乳饮料风味最佳；CMC质量分数为0.5%和黄原胶0.1%复配时蓝莓酸乳饮料稳定性最好.%The paper used fresh milk and blueberry as main ingrediengts, through fermentation, dispensation,homogenization,sterilization and etc, made the blueberry yogurt beverage .the optimum technological conditions were determined with single- factor test and orthogonal test. The stability was studied with two additives:CMC and Xanthan,the optimum formulation was optimized and determined:when the additive amount meet yoghurt 30%,blueberry juice 12%, sucrose 12%, lemon acid 0.02% Ethyl maltol 0.010%, Sodiun Bebzoate 0.1% and water 45% the blueberry yogurt beverage had a good flavor and taste; when the additive amount meet CMC 0.5% ,the mixture of Xanthan Gum 0.1% the blueberry yogurt beverage was considered to be the better stabilizer.
[目的]研究蓝莓花青素的抗氧化活性.[方法]采用酸化乙醇提取蓝莓鲜果中的蓝莓花青素,并通过羟自由基、DPPH自由基、H2O2、超氧阴离子自由基及Fe3+清除率试验评价蓝莓花青素的抗氧化能力.[结果]蓝莓花青素对羟自由基、DPPH自由基、H2O2、超氧阴离子自由基及Fe3+清除率随着浓度的增大而增强,其抗氧化活性高于相同浓度的抗坏血酸.[结论]蓝莓花青素具有很高的抗氧化活性,可以作为天然抗氧化剂进行开发.%[Objective] To determine the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin from blueberry.[Method] The anthocyanin were extracted with acidified ethanol from the fresh blueberry and the antioxidant activities of blueberry anthocyanin were determined by · OH,DPPH ·,H2O2,superoxide anion and Fe3+ removal experiments.[Result] The · OH,DPPH ·,H2O2,superoxide anion and Fe3+ removal rates of blueberry anthocyanin increased with its concentrations and were superior to that of Vc at the same concentration.[Conclusion] Blueberry anthocyanin possessed high antioxidant activity,which can be developed as natural antioxidants.
Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)
A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.
A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)
王海滨; 郭艳玲; 鲍玉冬; 耿雷
为改变中国蓝莓人工采摘状况，实现高丛蓝莓的机械化采摘，该文研究了高丛蓝莓的采摘机理，并对所建立的数学模型进行仿真分析。首先分析蓝莓振动采摘机理，建立蓝莓植株采摘物理模型，推导得出动力学方程，采用数学物理微分方程求解得到蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动输出解及采摘惯性力。运用MATLAB软件仿真分析蓝莓树枝稳态受迫振动时域仿真曲线及采摘力幅频特性仿真曲线，并进行了蓝莓采摘试验，试验数据与仿真结果一致：仿真结果满足蓝莓采摘条件的采摘频率为14～16rad/s，较优的采摘频率为15rad/s，该频率下的采摘效率为913颗/min，采摘生果率为2.99%，采摘果实损坏率为2.86%，未采净率为3.17%，机采人采效率比为10.14。研究结果可为高丛蓝莓采摘机的研制提供参考。% Recently, the blueberry was served as the king of fruits, and people have been paying more attention to the health care effect, economic and medicinal value of the blueberry. Planting the blueberry is a new economic growth point in agriculture and forestry. The demand for blueberry exceeds the supply in the international market with high-speed growth demand. However, the blueberries are harvested depending entirely on hand picking in China with serious losses, and the picking cost accounts for 50%−70%of the total blueberry production cost. The old harvesting method restricts the widespread popularization and planting of blueberries. Research on blueberry picking machines and blueberry picking mechanisms is in its infancy in China. The price of blueberry picking machines is high. An experiment was conducted to change the artificial harvesting status of the blueberry, realize the mechanization of a high-bush blueberry-picking tool, and establish the theoretical guidance and design basis for the blueberry-picking machine for Chinese national conditions. We studied the
Ribnicky, David M.; Roopchand, Diana E.; Oren, Andrew; Grace, Mary; Poulev, Alexander; Lila, Mary Ann; Havenaar, Robert; Raskin, Ilya
The TNO intestinal model (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract was used to compare intestinal absorption/bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins under different digestive conditions. Blueberry polyphenol-rich extract was delivered to TIM-1 in the absence or presence of a high-fat meal. HPLC analysis of seventeen anthocyanins showed that delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-arabinoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible in fed st...
Wafa Siouda; Cherif Abdennour
Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD) against Hg-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet), the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage), and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 m...
Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Carson, Richard F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Kemme, Shanalyn Adair; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.
An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.
Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M; Teter, Bruce
Phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice. We tested extracts of blueberry, pomegranate, green and black tea, cinnamon, sesame, and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol and taxifolin), as well as curcumin, morin, and quercetin for their effects on the life span of mice. While many of these phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of model organisms, we found no significant effect on the life span of male F1 hybrid mice, even though the dosages used reportedly produce defined therapeutic end points in mice. The compounds were fed beginning at 12 months of age. The control and treatment groups were iso-caloric with respect to one another. A 40% calorically restricted and other groups not reported here did experience life span extension. Body weights were un-changed relative to controls for all but two supplemented groups, indicating most supplements did not change energy absorption or utilization. Tea extracts with morin decreased weight, whereas quercetin, taxifolin, and Pycnogenol together increased weight. These changes may be due to altered locomotion or fatty acid biosynthesis. Published reports of murine life span extension using curcumin or tea components may have resulted from induced caloric restriction. Together, our results do not support the idea that isolated phytonutrient anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories are potential longevity therapeutics, even though consumption of whole fruits and vegetables is associated with enhanced health span and life span. PMID:23432089
Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Patriarca, Andrea
metabolites have been carried out on Argentinean cereals, fruit and vegetables. Knowing the full chemical potential and the distribution of Alternaria spp. on crops, it is necessary to establish a toxicological risk assessment for food products for human consumption. In the present study, 87 Alternaria......Alternaria species have the ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolite, which plays important roles in food safety. Argentina is the second largest exporter of fresh and processed food products to Europe, however, fewstudies on Alternaria mycotoxins and other bioactive secondary...... strains from different substrates (tomato, wheat, blueberries and walnuts) were characterized according to morphology and metabolite production. Aggressive dereplication (accurate mass, isotopic patterns and lists of all described compounds from Alternaria) was used for high-throughput evaluation of the...
Chiabrando, Valentina; Giacalone, Giovanna
The influence of different edible coatings on total phenolic content, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Berkeley and O'Neal) was investigated, mainly for industrial applications. Also titratable acidity, soluble solids content, firmness and weight loss of berries were determined at harvest and at 15-day intervals during 45 storage days at 0 °C, in order to optimize coating composition. Application of chitosan coating delayed the decrease in anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Coating samples showed no significant reduction in the weight loss during storage period. In cv Berkeley, the use of alginate coating showed a positive effect on firmness, titratable acidity and maintained surface lightness of treated berries. In cv O'Neal, no significant differences in total soluble solids content were found, and the chitosan-coated berries showed the minimum firmness losses. In both cultivars, the addition of chitosan to coatings decreases the microbial growth rate. PMID:25666416
Flores, Floirendo P; Singh, Rakesh K; Kerr, William L; Pegg, Ronald B; Kong, Fanbin
The goal of this research was to investigate the change in phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of microencapsulated anthocyanins (ACNs) digested in vitro. Blueberry ACN microcapsules were prepared from two wall materials (whey protein isolate and gum arabic) and ACN powder, previously extracted with three solvent systems (acetonic, ethanolic, methanolic); this was then spray-dried. The physicochemical properties and release characteristics of the microcapsules were evaluated. Rehydrated gum arabic microcapsules retained more total ACNs but less ferric reducing power than did whey protein microcapsules. Ethanolic extracts retained most of the total ACNs while methanolic extracts possessed the highest antioxidant capacity. During in vitro digestion, gum arabic microcapsules had high release rates of phenolics with high antioxidant activity during the gastric phase. Whey protein microcapsules had comparably lower release rates but high antioxidant activity throughout digestion. PMID:24491730
Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E; Grunwald, Sabine
Flower thrips (Frankliniella spp.) are one of the key pests of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. x V. darrowii Camp), a high-value crop in Florida. Thrips' feeding and oviposition injury to flowers can result in fruit scarring that renders the fruit unmarketable. Flower thrips often form areas of high population, termed "hot spots", in blueberry plantings. The objective of this study was to model thrips spatial distribution patterns with geostatistical techniques. Semivariogram models were used to determine optimum trap spacing and two commonly used interpolation methods, inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK), were compared for their ability to model thrips spatial patterns. The experimental design consisted of a grid of 100 white sticky traps spaced at 15.24-m and 7.61-m intervals in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Thirty additional traps were placed randomly throughout the sampling area to collect information on distances shorter than the grid spacing. The semivariogram analysis indicated that, in most cases, spacing traps at least 28.8 m apart would result in spatially independent samples. Also, the 7.61-m grid spacing captured more of the thrips spatial variability than the 15.24-m grid spacing. IDW and OK produced maps with similar accuracy in both years, which indicates that thrips spatial distribution patterns, including "hot spots," can be modeled using either interpolation method. Future studies can use this information to determine if the formation of "hot spots" can be predicted using flower density, temperature, and other environmental factors. If so, this development would allow growers to spot treat the "hot spots" rather than their entire field. PMID:22251691
Tochen, Samantha; Dalton, Daniel T; Wiman, Nik; Hamm, Christopher; Shearer, Peter W; Walton, Vaughn M
Temperature-related studies were conducted on Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Drosophilini). From 10-28°C, temperature had a significant impact on blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L. 1755 (Rosales: Rosaceae), important commercial hosts of D. suzukii. Temperature had a significant influence on D. suzukii developmental period, survival, and fecundity, with decreasing developmental periods as temperatures increased to 28°C. At 30°C, the highest temperature tested, development periods increased, indicating that above this temperature the developmental extremes for the species were approached. D. suzukii reared on blueberries had lower fecundity than reared on cherries at all temperatures where reproduction occurred. The highest net reproductive rate (R(o)) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) were recorded on cherries at 22°C and was 195.1 and 0.22, respectively. Estimations using linear and nonlinear fit for the minimum, optimal, and maximum temperatures where development can take place were respectively, 7.2, 28.1, and 42.1°C. The r(m) values were minimal, optimal, and maximal at 13.4, 21.0, and 29.3°C, respectively. Our laboratory cultures of D. suzukii displayed high rates of infection for Wolbachia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and this infection may have impacted fecundity found in this study. A temperature-dependent matrix population estimation model using fecundity and survival data were run to determine whether these data could predict D. suzukii pressure based on environmental conditions. The model was applied to compare the 2011 and 2012 crop seasons in an important cherry production region. Population estimates using the model explained different risk levels during the key cherry harvest period between these seasons. PMID:24612968
Mahaney, W. C.; Milner, M. W.; Netoff, D.; Dohm, J.; Kalm, V.; Krinsley, D.; Sodhi, R. N.; Anderson, R. C.; Boccia, S.; Malloch, D.; Kapran, B.; Havics, A.
Concretionary Fe-Mn-rich nodular authigenic constituents of Jurassic Navajo sandstone (moki marbles) bear a certain relationship to similar concretionary forms ('blueberries') observed on Mars. Their origin on Earth is considered to invoke variable redox conditions with underground fluids penetrating porous quartz-rich sandstone leading to precipitation of hematite and goethite-rich material from solution, generally forming around a central nucleus of fine particles of quartz and orthoclase, recently verified by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. At the outer rim/inner nucleus boundary, bulbous lobes of fine-grained quartz often invade and fracture the outer rim armored matrix. The bulbous forms are interpreted to result from fluid explusion from the inner concretionary mass, a response to pressure changes accompanying overburden loading. Moki marbles, harder than enclosing rock, often weather out of in situ sandstone outcrops that form a surface lag deposit of varnished marbles that locally resemble desert pavement. The marbles appear morphologically similar to 'blueberries' identified on the martian surface in Terra Meridiani through the MER-1 Opportunity rover. On Earth, redox fluids responsible for the genesis of marbles may have emanated from deep in the crust (often influenced by magmatic processes). These fluids, cooling to ambient temperatures, may have played a role in the genesis of the cemented outer rim of the concretions. The low frequency of fungi filaments in the marbles, contrasts with a high occurrence in Fe-encrusted sands of the Navajo formation , indicating that microbial content is of secondary importance in marble genesis relative to the fluctuating influx of ambient groundwater. Nevertheless, the presence of filaments in terrestrial concretions hints at the possibility of discovering fossil/extant life on Mars, and thus should be considered as prime targets for future reconnaissance missions to Mars. 1] Mahaney, W.C., et al. (2004), Icarus, 171, 39-53.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a commercially available blueberry juice (BJ) both as a positive and negative oral contrast agent and to present the exact contents of paramagnetic ions. The concentration of Mn and Fe were determined in tinned myrtilles in syrup (atomic absorption). Nine healthy volunteers and 12 patients (age range 20-65 years) were examined using a 1-T MR scanner before and after per os administration of 430 ml of BJ. A qualitative analysis of signal alterations in the stomach, duodenum, and proximal small intestine was performed. In addition, a quantitative analysis was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio calculation. The mean concentration (x ± SD) of the ions found in the content of the three cans were 3.3 ± 0.4 μg/g for iron and 20.6 ± 2.6 μg/g for manganese. Based on the qualitative evaluation, signal alteration on T1-weighted images after administration of BJ was statistically significant in the stomach and duodenum, but not in the proximal small bowel. Signal alteration on T2-weighted images was not statistically significant in any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The quantitative analysis of the T1- and T2 shortening showed that BJ is efficient with only T1-weighted sequences, and this applied to the stomach, duodenum, and proximal small bowel. Blueberry juice can be used as an oral contrast agent in upper abdominal MR for T1-weighted imaging. (orig.)
Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.
Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.
Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality. PMID:27374583
Rocca, Margarita; Greco, Nancy M; Mareggiani, Graciela S
Icerya purchasi Maskell is a polyphagous scale pest of ornamentals and several other crops. It has two natural specialist enemies that maintain its populations at low levels: Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) and Cryptochaetum iceryae (Williston). I. purchasi was recently observed in blueberry crops (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) in Argentina. Seven blueberry fields located in different agricultural landscapes were sampled from July 2006 to September 2008. I. purchasi was present only in the citrus areas of Gobernador Castro, San Pedro, and Concordia. In the last locality, it was present in January 2007, and the abundance was very low. In Buenos Aires, I. purchasi was more abundant in Gobernador Castro where it was present throughout all study period. In San Pedro, it was only registered in August 2007 and March, April, and June 2008. In Gobernador Castro, where the abundance was highest, the dominant crop near blueberries is citrus. The low abundance in San Pedro and Concordia fields may be attributable to the replacement of citrus crops by nonhosts. In Concordia and San Pedro fields, no parasitized I. purchasi were found. In Gobernador Castro, the proportion of adults parasitized was 0.805 +/- 0.286. When the risk of parasitism was analyzed for three density categories, there were no significant differences. R. cardinalis was present only in Gobernador Castro, and very few individuals were observed. The presence and abundance of I. purchasi in blueberry crops in Argentina seems to be linked to the structure of the landscape at the regional level, and the variable incidence of C. iceryae suggests major constraints to the scale's population growth. PMID:19389286
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...
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Ra-226 concentrations were measured in blueberries growing around the Stanrock uranium tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. Elevated levels of total Ra-226 ranging between 20 to 290 mBq g-1 were observed in samples collected within 500 m from the tailings. Highest levels, approx. 285 mBq g-1, were observed in a sample collected on a tailings spill. For sites located more than 500 m away in the upwind direction, and those situated at distances greater than 1 km downwind from the waste pile, the total Ra-226 concentrations approached background levels which were measured as 2 to 6 mBq g-1. Approximately 17% of the total Ra-226 measured was removable by washing the samples with distilled water. Wind dispersal of the tailings material and its deposition in the form of dust on blueberries was believed to be responsible for the external contamination. Based on the ICRP recommended dose limits for oral intake of Ra-226, it was calculated that approximately 160 kg a-1, 3350 kg a-1 and 47 kg a-1 of washed blueberries from inside and outside the influenced zone, and from the tailings spill site, respectively, would need to be consumed before the individual annual limit for the general public was exceeded. (author)
Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.
Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including gl...
A pressure surge attenuation arrangement comprises crushable metal foam disposed adjacent regions adapted to be expanded by a pressure surge. In a pipe system such region consists of a thin walled inner pipe surrounded by a housing with crushable metal foam disposed in the space between the housing and the inner pipe. (author)
The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing
Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina;
A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth gover...... observations may be important for application of natural attenuation as a remedy in field scale systems....
Nixon, D. L.; Otosh, T. Y.; Stelzried, C. T.
Rotary vane attenuator, when used as a front end attenuator, introduces an insertion loss that is proportional to the angle of rotation. New technique allows the construction of a shortened compact unit suitable for most installations.
The photon attenuation by intensifying screens of different chemical composition has been determined. The attenuation of photons between 20 keV and 120 keV was measured by use of a multi-channel analyzer and a broad bremsstrahlung distribution. The attenuation by the intensifying screens was hereby determined simultaneously at many different monoenergetic photon energies. Experimentally determined attenuations were found to agree well with attenuation calculated from mass attenuation coefficients. The attenuation by the screens was also determined at various bremsstrahlung distributions, simulating those occurring behind the patient in various diagnostic X-ray examinations. The high attenuation in some of the intensifying screens form the basis for an analysis of the construction of asymmetric screen pairs. Single screen systems are suggested as a favourable alternative to thick screen pair systems. (Author)
Full Text Available More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996. Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. Ginko biloba, horse- chestnut, and only 10% of the herbs used in nutritional supplements are commonly present in the food (e.g. garlic, soy, blueberry, green the, ginger, curcuma (Eisenberg et al., 1993. There is much interest in "alternative natural approaches" in sport. It is appealing for athletes to use 'natural' substances with similar activity to 'pharmacological' ones in term of improving performance, are not considered doping, and are considered side-effects free (Table 1. Indeed, many herbal dietary supplements marketed on internet are presented as legal alternative to illicit drugs (Denneey et al., 2005. EcdysteroidsEcdysteroids are the steroid hormones of arthropods (Figure 1. They also occur in some plants, where they are known as phytoecdysteroids, and are believed to contribute to deter invertebrate predators. In insects, they regulate moulting and metamorphosis, may regulate reproduction and diapause. Most actions of ecdysteroids are mediated by intracellular receptor complexes, which regulate gene expression in a tissue- and development-specific manner (Lehmann et al 1989.Several phytoecdysteroids have anabolic growth-promoting effects on mice, rats, pigs and Japanese quails. Ecdysteroids stimulate muscle growth, and this anabolic effect promotes increased physical performance without training. Ecdysteroids are also able to increase muscle ATP content in vitamin D-deprived rats (Báthori, 2002. Ecdysteroids stimulate protein synthesis in the
Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F
The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:18065095
This patent describes a process for preventing damage to tool strings and other downhole equipment in a well caused by pressures produced during detonation of one or more downhole explosive devices. It comprises adding to a tool string at least one pressure attenuating apparatus for attenuating the peak pressure wave and quasi-static pressure pulse produced by the explosive devices, the pressure attenuating apparatus including an initially closed relief vent including tubing means supporting a plurality of charge port assemblies each including an explosive filled shaped charge and a prestressed disc, the shaped charges interconnected by a detonating cord, the amount of explosive in each shaped charge being sufficient to rupture its associated disc without damaging surrounding tubular bodies in the well, and a vent chamber defined by the tubing means and providing a liquid free volume, and opening the relief vent substantially contemporaneously with downhole explosive device detonation by detonating the shaped charges to rupture the discs of the charge port assemblies
Hsieh, Scott S., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current
Byun, Kisik; Ju Park, Yong; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Min, Byung-Wook
We demonstrate flexible 3 dB and 6 dB microwave attenuators using multilayer graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition method. On the basis of the characterized results of multilayer graphene and graphene-Au ohmic contacts, the graphene attenuators are designed and measured. The flexible graphene-based attenuators have 3 dB and 6 dB attenuation with a return loss of less than -15 dB at higher than 5 GHz. The devices have shown durability in a bending cycling test of 100 times. The circuit model of the attenuator based on the characterized results matches the experimental results well. PMID:25590144
We demonstrate flexible 3 dB and 6 dB microwave attenuators using multilayer graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition method. On the basis of the characterized results of multilayer graphene and graphene–Au ohmic contacts, the graphene attenuators are designed and measured. The flexible graphene-based attenuators have 3 dB and 6 dB attenuation with a return loss of less than −15 dB at higher than 5 GHz. The devices have shown durability in a bending cycling test of 100 times. The circuit model of the attenuator based on the characterized results matches the experimental results well. (paper)
Hydrophilic carboxylic acids and iridoid glycosides in the juice of American and European cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. oxycoccos), lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea), and blueberries (V. myrtillus)
Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Krogfelt, Karen A; Cornett, Claus;
Analysis of the hydrophilic fraction of cranberry juice by reversed-phase HPLC using an Aqua LUNA column with diode array or MS detection revealed the presence of quinic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid, and citric acid. For the first time, two iridoid glucosides were found in the juice. The two...... iridoid glucosides were shown to be monotropein and 6,7-dihydromonotropein by MS and NMR spectroscopy. A fast reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of the hydrophilic carboxylic acids was developed and used for analyses of cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry juices. The level of hydrophilic...... carboxylic acids in cranberries was 2.67-3.57% (w/v), in lingonberries 2.27-3.05%, and in blueberries 0.35-0.75%. In lingonberries both iridoid glucosides were present, whereas only monotropein was present in blueberries....
庞晨; 左丽丽; 刘芸; 张迪; 安婷; 孙珍珍
Objective To study the antioxidant activity of different brands of commercially available blueberry juice and self-made blueberry juice.Methods The anthocyanins,polysaccharides and Vc content in the different brands of blueberry juice were determined,and total reducing capacity,hydroxyl radical scavenging activity,superoxide radical scavenging capacity,DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability of different brands of blueberry juice were analysised based on the antioxidant method in vitro.Results There are some differences between the nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity of different brands of blueberry juice,and showed a significant dose-effect relationship.Con-clusion The self-made fruit juice and blueberry eare a good health food for its possessing the bestantioxidant ability and helping to clear free radicals in the body.%目的：研究市售不同品牌蓝莓果汁及自制蓝莓果汁的抗氧化活性。方法对不同品牌蓝莓果汁中花色苷多糖及Vc含量进行测定，并采用体外抗氧化方法研究不同品牌蓝莓果汁的总还原能力羟基自由基清除能力超氧自由基清除能力 DPPH和ABTS自由基清除能力。结果不同品牌蓝莓果汁的营养成分和抗氧化能力存在一定的差异，且呈明显量效关系。结论自制果汁和蓝莓e族抗氧化能力最佳，有助于清除机体多余自由基，是良好的保健食品。
Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization of spent osmotic solution (SOS, a waste generated from osmotic dehydration of fruits, has the potential of transformation into hydrochars, a value-added product, while reducing cost and overall greenhouse gas emissions associated with waste disposal. Osmotic solution (OS and spent osmotic solution (SOS generated from the osmotic dehydration of blueberries were compared for their thermo-chemical decomposition behavior and hydrothermal carbonization. OS and SOS samples were characterized for total solids, elemental composition, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. In addition, hydrothermal carbonization was performed at 250 °C and for 30 min to produce hydrochars. The hydrochars were characterized for elemental composition, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, particle shape and surface morphology. TGA results show that the SOS sample loses more weight in the lower temperature range than the OS sample. Both samples produced, approximately, 40%–42% (wet-feed basis hydrochar during hydrothermal carbonization but with different properties. The OS sample produced hydrochar, which had spherical particles of 1.79 ± 1.30 μm diameter with a very smooth surface. In contrast, the SOS sample produced hydrochar with no definite particle shape but with a raspberry-like surface.
Burrack, Hannah J; Asplen, Mark; Bahder, Luz; Collins, Judith; Drummond, Francis A; Guédot, Christelle; Isaacs, Rufus; Johnson, Donn; Blanton, Anna; Lee, Jana C; Loeb, Gregory; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; van Timmeren, Steven; Walsh, Douglas; McPhie, Douglas R
Drosophila suzukii Matsumara, also referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, has recently expanded its global range with significant consequences for its primary host crops: blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, cherries, and strawberries. D. suzukii populations can increase quickly, and their infestation is difficult to predict and prevent. The development of effective tools to detect D. suzukii presence in new areas, to time the beginning of activity within a crop, to track seasonal activity patterns, and to gauge the effectiveness of management efforts has been a key research goal. We compared the efficiency, selectivity, and relationship to fruit infestation of a range of commonly used homemade baits and a synthetic formulated lure across a wide range of environments in 10 locations throughout the United States. Several homemade baits were more efficient than apple cider vinegar, a commonly used standard, and a commercially formulated lure was, in some configurations and environments, comparable with the most effective homemade attractant as well as potentially more selective. All alternative attractants also captured flies between 1 and 2 wk earlier than apple cider vinegar, and detected the presence of D. suzukii prior to the development of fruit infestation. Over half the Drosophila spp. flies captured in traps baited with any of the attractants were not D. suzukii, which may complicate their adoption by nonexpert users. The alternative D. suzukii attractants tested are improvement on apple cider vinegar and may be useful in the development of future synthetic lures. PMID:26313977
Patricia Lopes de Campos-Ferraz
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8: Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex, Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex, Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed. The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation
Full Text Available Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB (from the Neurophenols Consortium with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal CaMKII mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of NGF mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline.
In this work the relationship between Zircaloy-4 grain size and ultrasonic attenuation behavior was studied for longitudinal waves in the frequency range of 10-90 MHz. The attenuation was analyzed as a function of frequency for samples with different mechanical and heat treatments having recrystallized and Widmanstatten structures with different grain size. The attenuation behavior was analyzed by different scattering models, depending on grain size, wavelength and frequency
Leviton, Douglas B.
Star-shaped rotating chopping wheel provides adjustable time-averaged attenuation of narrow beam of light without changing length of optical path or spectral distribution of light. Duty cycle or attenuation factor of chopped beam controlled by adjusting radius at which beam intersects wheel. Attenuation factor independent of wavelength. Useful in systems in which chopping frequency above frequency-response limits of photodetectors receiving chopped light. Used in systems using synchronous detection with lock-in amplifiers.
Lundeberg, Mary A.
This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.
Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.
The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.
... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...
ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua
A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N＜＜M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.
Buzzetti, Mike F. (Inventor)
A fiber optic attenuator of the invention is a mandrel structure through which a bundle of optical fibers is wrapped around in a complete circle. The mandrel structure includes a flexible cylindrical sheath through which the bundle passes. A set screw on the mandrel structure impacts one side of the sheath against two posts on the opposite side of the sheath. By rotating the screw, the sheath is deformed to extend partially between the two posts, bending the fiber optic bundle to a small radius controlled by rotating the set screw. Bending the fiber optic bundle to a small radius causes light in each optical fiber to be lost in the cladding, the amount depending upon the radius about which the bundle is bent.