... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...
Jumar, Agnes; Schmieder, Roland E
The protective cardiovascular (CV) effect of cocoa flavanol has been a target of many recent clinical prospective and retrospective investigations. Epidemiological data in different patient cohorts revealed an association between higher intake of flavanol-rich foods and decreased incidence of CV events, especially stroke and myocardial infarction. Cocoa flavanol has been shown to reduce systolic (2.8 mm Hg) and diastolic (2.2 mm Hg) office blood pressure (BP). Greater BP reduction has been found in hypertensive patients and people younger than 50 years. Cocoa flavanol intake exerts beneficial effects on pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypertension-related organ damage, such as improved endothelial function, anti-inflammatory potency, inhibition of platelet activation, and increased vasodilatory capacity. Recent clinical trials have focused on establishing a potential link between epidemiology and pathophysiology of flavanol and identified possible mechanisms for prevention of end-organ damage in patients at CV risk. This review summarizes the available data on the antihypertensive effects of cocoa flavanol beyond BP-BP lowering lowering effects, accentuates subgroup-specific protective actions of cocoa according to patients' different CV risk profile, and outlines potential cocoa flavanol-associated clinical implications. PMID:26514936
Ping HAN; Zheng-xu CHU; Fu-ming SHEN; He-hui XIE; Ding-feng SU
Aim: To investigate the possible synergism of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine on reducing both blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure variability (BPV) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Seventy animals were randomly divided into seven groups. The doses were 5 and 10 nig/kg for nitrendipine, 10 and 20 mg/kg for hydrochlorothiazide and 10+5, 20+10 mg/kg, respectively, for the combination of these two drugs and 0.8% carboxym-ethylcellulose as control. The drugs were given via a catheter of gastric fistula. BP was then continuously recorded for 5 h from 1 h before drug administration to the end of 4th hour after drug administration, in conscious and freely moving rats. Results: The effects on both BP and BPV reduction of the combination of hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine were greater than the single drug in SHR. The two drugs possessed an obvious synergism on both systolic blood pressure (q=1.79 with small dose and q=1.23 with large dose) and systolic blood pressure variability reduction (q=1.79 with small dose and q=1.39 with large dose) in SHR.Conclusion: The present work clearly demonstrated that there was a synergistic effect between hydrochlorothiazide and nitrendipine in lowering and stabilizing BP in SHR.
Czernichow, Sebastien; Zanchetti, Alberto; Turnbull, Fiona; Barzi, Federica; Ninomiya, Toshiaru; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Perkovic, Vlado; Huxley, Rachel; Arima, Hisatomi; Patel, Anushka; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; MacMahon, Stephen; Neal, Bruce
Background The benefits of reducing blood pressure are well established, but there remains uncertainty about whether the magnitude of the effect varies with the initial blood pressure level. The objective was to compare the risk reductions achieved by different blood pressure-lowering regimens among
Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this review was to summarize the current state of evidence regarding the optimal blood pressure goals in patients with high vascular risk. In particular, this review critically addresses the issue of the “J-curve” paradox – a hypothesis indicating that low treatment-induced blood pressure values are characterized by an increase, rather than a decrease, in the incidence of cardiovascular events. Materials and methods We reviewed evidence from studies published in peer-reviewed journals indexed in Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL that compared different BP goals. Results Post-hoc analyses of randomized trials specifically conducted to test the hypothesis of the “J-shaped curve” yielded conflicting results. However, trials directly comparing different blood pressure goals and meta-analyses showed that in-treatment blood pressure values below the usual goal of less than 140/90 mmHg improve outcomes in patients at increased vascular risk. Discussion The fear that an excessive reduction in blood pressure may be dangerous is inconsistent with the available data and probably conditioned by the adverse impact of other risk factors that may be more frequent in patients with low values of achieved blood pressure. The association between blood pressure reduction and cardiovascular risk seems to be linear and not J-shaped.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure lowering drugs are usually evaluated in short term trials determining the absolute blood pressure reduction during trough and the duration of the antihypertensive effect after single or multiple dosing. A lack of persistence with treatment has however been shown to be linked to a worse cardiovascular prognosis. This review explores the blood pressure reduction and persistence with treatment of antihypertensive drugs and the cost consequences of poor persistence with pharmaceutical interventions in arterial hypertension. Methods We have searched the literature for data on blood pressure lowering effects of different antihypertensive drug classes and agents, on persistence with treatment, and on related costs. Persistence was measured as patients' medication possession rate. Results are presented in the form of a systematic review. Results Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs have a competitive blood pressure lowering efficacy compared with ACE-inhibitors (ACEi and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, beta-blockers (BBs and diuretics. 8 studies describing the persistence with treatment were identified. Patients were more persistent on ARBs than on ACEi and CCBs, BBs and diuretics. Thus the product of blood pressure lowering and persistence was higher on ARBs than on any other drug class. Although the price per tablet of more recently developed drugs (ACEi, ARBs is higher than that of older ones (diuretics and BBs, the newer drugs result in a more favourable cost to effect ratio when direct drug costs and indirect costs are also considered. Conclusion To evaluate drugs for the treatment of hypertension several key variables including the blood pressure lowering effect, side effects, compliance/persistence with treatment, as well as drug costs and direct and indirect costs of medical care have to be considered. ARBs, while nominally more expensive when drug costs are considered only, provide substantial cost savings
The authors studied the effect of graded aortic blood pressure reduction on left ventricular (LV) blood flow in anesthetized, autonomically blocked, open-chest dogs at constant heart rate and mean left atrial pressure. Aortic diastolic pressure (ADP) was lowered from rest to 90, 75, and 60 mmHg with an arteriovenous fistula. Global and regional LV blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres. Mean LV blood flow fell stepwise from 145 ml · min-1 · 100 g-1 at rest to 116 ml · min-1 · 100 g-1 at ADP of 60 mmHg, whereas the endocardial-to-epicardial flow ratio decreased from 1.20 to 084. The transmural redistribution of LV blood flow was not accompanied by increases in LV oxygen extraction, depression of LV contractility, LV dilatation or LV electrical dysfunction and also occurred in the presence of considerable coronary vasodilator flow reserve. Electrical evidence of subendocardial ischemia appeared at ADP of 32 mmHg and an endocardial-to-epicardial flow ratio of 0.41 in a subgroup of animals. They conclude that the redistribution of LV flow during moderate aortic pressure reduction was an appropriate physiological adjustment to uneven transmural alterations in regional LV wall stress and that it preceded a more pronounced redistribution evident with myocardial ischemia
Norsk, Peter; Asmar, Ali; Damgaard, Morten;
activity, and the nightly dip is maintained in space.It remains a challenge to explore what causes the systemic vasodilatation leading to a reduction in blood pressure in space, and whether the unexpectedly high stroke volume and cardiac output can explain some vision acuity problems encountered by......KEY POINTS: Weightlessness in space induces initially an increase in stroke volume and cardiac output, accompanied by unchanged or slightly reduced blood pressure.It is unclear whether these changes persist throughout months of flight.Here, we show that cardiac output and stroke volume increase by...... 35–41% between 3 and 6 months on the International Space Station, which is more than during shorter flights.Twenty-four hour ambulatory brachial blood pressure is reduced by 8–10 mmHg by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance of 39%, which is not a result of the suppression of sympathetic nervous...
... right away. continue How Do Doctors Measure Blood Pressure? Blood pressure readings are fast and painless. Blood pressure ... same age, height, and gender have lower blood pressure. Blood pressure between 90% and 95% of the normal ...
Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...
... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow inside ... Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you won't ...
... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This blood pressure chart reflects categories defined by the American ... unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare providers will want to get ...
... Connected Home » High Blood Pressure Heath and Aging High Blood Pressure What Is Blood Pressure? Do ... high blood pressure increases as you get older. Gender. Before age 55, men have a greater chance ...
Horiuchi, Masahiro; Dobashi, Shohei; Kiuchi, Masataka; Endo, Junko; Koyama, Katsuhiro; Subudhi, Andrew W
We investigated the relation between blood pressure and cerebral oxygenation (COX) immediately after exercise in ten healthy males. Subjects completed an exercise and recovery protocol while breathing either 21% (normoxia) or 14.1% (hypoxia) O2 in a randomized order. Each exercise session included four sets of cycling (30 min/set, 15 min rest) at 50% of altitude-adjusted peak oxygen uptake, followed by 60 min of recovery. After exercise, mean arterial pressure (MAP; 87±1 vs. 84±1 mmHg, average values across the recovery period) and COX (68±1% vs. 58±1%) were lower in hypoxia compared to normoxia (Pblood pressure following exercise in hypoxia are (1) more pronounced than in normoxia, and (2) associated with reductions in COX. Together, these results suggest an impairment in cerebral autoregulation as COX followed changes in MAP more passively in hypoxia than in normoxia. These findings could help explain the increased risk for postexercise syncope at high altitude. PMID:26782200
Beaulieu, M.; Nadeau, A.; Lacourcière, Y; Cléroux, J
1. Much attention has been given to the effects of various classes of antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure and haemodynamics. The effects of a single bout of exercise on post-exercise blood pressure have also been studied by several investigators. However, the combined effects of prior exercise and antihypertensive medication has drawn less attention. 2. We examined the separate and combined effects of a single bout of exercise and of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with a ...
... pressure and should be taken seriously. Over time, consistently high blood pressure weakens and damages ... of landmark NIH blood pressure study confirm that lower blood pressure target can reduce ...
... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications and Blood Pressure Updated:Jul 6,2016 When your blood pressure ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...
Full Text Available Pedro Cabrales1, Miguel A Salazar Vázquez2,3, Beatriz Y Salazar Vázquez3,4, Martha Rodríguez-Morán5, Marcos Intaglietta4, Fernando Guerrero-Romero51La Jolla Bioengineering Institute, La Jolla, California, USA; 2Hospital Regional No. 1, of the Mexican Social Security Institute, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. Mexico; 3Faculty of Medicine and Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. Mexico; 4Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA; 5Biomedical Research Unit, of the Mexican Social Security Institute, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. MexicoObjective: To test the hypothesis that glycosylation of hemoglobin constitutes a risk factor for hypertension.Methods: A total of 129 relative uniform diabetic subjects (86 women and 42 men were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Exclusion criteria included alcohol consumption, smoking, ischemic heart disease, stroke, neoplasia, renal, hepatic, and chronic inflammatory disease. Systolic and diastolic pressures were recorded in subsequent days and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was determined. Hemoglobin glycosylation was measured by determining the percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c by means of the automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay test.Results: MAP was found to be independent of the concentration of HbA1c; however, correcting MAP for the variability in hematocrit, to evidence the level of vasoconstriction (or vasodilatation showed that MAP is negatively correlated with the concentration of HbA1c (p for trend <0.05, when patients treated for hypertension are excluded from the analysis. Patients treated for hypertension showed the opposite trend with increasing MAP as HbA1c increased (p for the difference in trends <0.05.Conclusions: Glycosylation per se appears to lead to blood pressure reduction in type 2 diabetic patients untreated for hypertension. Treatment for hypertension may be
Peñas, E; Diana, M; Frias, J; Quílez, J; Martínez-Villaluenga, C
Rising prevalence of hypertension is pushing food industry towards the development of innovative food products with antihypertensive effects. The aim was to study the effect of reduced sodium content and 21% addition of wholemeal wheat sourdough (produced by Lactobacillus brevis CECT 8183 and protease) on proximate composition, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and peptide content of wheat bread. Angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Sodium replacement by potassium salt did not affect chemical composition and biological activities of bread. In contrast, GABA and peptides sourdough bread (SDB) were 7 and 3 times higher, respectively, than the observed in control. ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the peptide fraction < 3 kDa from SDB was 1.7 and 2.6-3.0 times higher than control. Therefore, the combination of reduced sodium content with enriched concentrations of bioactive compounds in bread making may provide interesting perspectives for development of innovative breads towards blood pressure reduction. PMID:25638256
... you are at risk for: Bleeding from the aorta, the large blood vessel that supplies blood to ... tests Blood pressure check Blood pressure References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015 ...
... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...
National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...
... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million HeartsÂ® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...
-month treatment. BP variability included beat-to-beat variability (clinical and day-to-day variability (home.Results: Fimasartan reduced BP after 3 months of treatment. The average reduction of clinical systolic BP (c-SBP was 15.08±18.36 mmHg (P<0.0001, and the average reduction of morning home SBP (m-SBP was 11.49±19.33 mmHg (P<0.0001. Beat-to-beat variability as standard deviation (SD of c-SBP was reduced from 4.56±3.22 to 4.24±3.11 mmHg (P=0.0026. Day-to-day variability as SD of m-SBP was reduced from 7.92±6.74 to 6.95±4.97 mmHg (P<0.0001. Multiple regression analysis revealed an independent association between the change in the SD of c-SBP and the change in c-SBP (P=0.0268 and, similarly, between the change in the SD of m-SBP and the change in m-SBP (P=0.0258, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and change in mean BP.Conclusion: This study indicated that 3 months of fimasartan treatment reduced day-to-day BP variability independent of BP reduction in patients with hypertension. Keywords: angiotensin receptor blockers, hypertension, blood pressure variability
Shin, Mi-Seung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Changsoo; Cho, Eun Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kang, Seok-Min; Kim, Dong-Soo; Joo, Seung Jae; Lee, Seung Hwan; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Park, Jeong Bae
Background The angiotensin receptor antagonist fimasartan lowered blood pressure (BP) in a previous large population study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether fimasartan treatment for 3 months affects clinical and home BP variability in addition to reducing BP. Methods The study enrolled 1,396 patients (mean age 56.2±10.0 years; males 53.6%) with mild-to-moderate hypertension who had a complete set of home BP measurements (morning and evening) and metabolic risk evaluation. During the 3 months of study, fimasartan alone was used to control BP at a daily dose of 30–120 mg. Clinical and home BP measurements were performed before and after the 3-month treatment. BP variability included beat-to-beat variability (clinical) and day-to-day variability (home). Results Fimasartan reduced BP after 3 months of treatment. The average reduction of clinical systolic BP (c-SBP) was 15.08±18.36 mmHg (P<0.0001), and the average reduction of morning home SBP (m-SBP) was 11.49±19.33 mmHg (P<0.0001). Beat-to-beat variability as standard deviation (SD) of c-SBP was reduced from 4.56±3.22 to 4.24±3.11 mmHg (P=0.0026). Day-to-day variability as SD of m-SBP was reduced from 7.92±6.74 to 6.95±4.97 mmHg (P<0.0001). Multiple regression analysis revealed an independent association between the change in the SD of c-SBP and the change in c-SBP (P=0.0268) and, similarly, between the change in the SD of m-SBP and the change in m-SBP (P=0.0258), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and change in mean BP. Conclusion This study indicated that 3 months of fimasartan treatment reduced day-to-day BP variability independent of BP reduction in patients with hypertension.
Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars
effects in all parameters were more pronounced for SAH than for saline injection. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that both the elevation of intracranial pressure and subarachnoid blood per se contribute approximately equally to the late CBF reductions and receptor upregulation following SAH....
Shin, Mi-Seung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Changsoo; Cho, Eun Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kang, Seok-Min; Kim, Dong-Soo; Joo, Seung Jae; Lee, Seung Hwan; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Park, Jeong Bae
Background The angiotensin receptor antagonist fimasartan lowered blood pressure (BP) in a previous large population study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether fimasartan treatment for 3 months affects clinical and home BP variability in addition to reducing BP. Methods The study enrolled 1,396 patients (mean age 56.2±10.0 years; males 53.6%) with mild-to-moderate hypertension who had a complete set of home BP measurements (morning and evening) and metabolic risk evaluation. Dur...
Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian
Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, Phttp://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. PMID:27091900
High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...
... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...
... that is healthy for you. Checking Your Blood Pressure Your blood pressure can be measured at many places, including: ... Alternative Names Controlling hypertension Images Taking your blood pressure at home Blood pressure check Low sodium diet References American Diabetes ...
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... much alcohol. Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure High blood pressure usually has no warning signs or symptoms , ... they are at high risk for high blood pressure . Blood Pressure Levels Normal systolic: less than 120 mmHg ...
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M. F. VALIM; Barros, S.
Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts) over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure ...
... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million HeartsÂ® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...
... whether imbalances in this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure ... can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems ...
McGrath, Barry P
Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.
... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...
ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...
... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...
... dangerous as elevations of both systolic and diastolic pressure. Blood pressure is elevated for two main reasons: too ... and Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), reduce blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels Beta blockers, which also cause the heart ...
Full Text Available ... of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...
Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...
Midanik, L T; Resnick, B; Hurley, L B; Smith, E J; Mccarthy, M.
A clinical trial of 204 untreated patients with mild hypertension was conducted to assess the effect of home blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure level, pharmacologic treatment, reduction of risk factors, and use of health services. After 1 year, no statistically significant differences were found between the treatment and control groups. The findings indicate that, while home blood pressure monitoring may be useful, it has no measurable short-term impact on these aspects of blood pres...
Palmieri, V.; Bella, J.N.; Gerdts, E.; Wachtell, K.; Papademetriou, V.; Nieminen, M.S.; Dahlof, B.; Devereux, R.B.
, -15% at year 2, and -16% at year 3 follow-up, and was sustained through year 4 and year 5 follow-ups; change in PP/SVi was related to increased SVi and decreased PP during the annual follow-ups, but not to LV mass change. Restricting analyses to the first two follow-ups to ensure highest statistical...... power, age >65 and diabetes were associated with higher PP/SVi at baseline and throughout follow-ups; black participants and women had baseline PP/SVi mean values comparable with those of their counterparts, showed blunted PP/SVi reduction after 1 year, but differences became smaller and not...... statistically significant at year 2 follow-up. Losartan- or atenolol-based treatments were associated with comparable reduction of PP/SVi. At year 2 follow-up, reduced PP/SVi was associated with greater reductions in mean blood pressure (BP) and heart rate and greater increase in SVi, but not with lower LV mass...
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Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...
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2010319 Effects of combined application of Xuezhikang capsule with hypotensive drugs on arterial compliance and smoothness of the dynamic blood pressure. ZHU Zongtao(朱宗涛),et al. Dept Cardiol, Centr People’s Hosp, Tengzhou 277500.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30
Staessen, J A; Bieniaszewski, L; Pardaens, K; V. Petrov; Thijs, L.; Fagard, R.
In Belgium, an affluent Western European country, participation in sports, alcohol intake, and living in a working class area were identified as the life style factors with the closest associations with the blood pressure level. Obesity was another important blood pressure correlate. Sodium intake, determined from the 24 h urinary output, and smoking were not associated with blood pressure. Controlled intervention studies have proven that weight reduction, endurance training and alcohol absti...
Subitha Lakshminarayanan; Bala, Soudarssanane M; Murugesan Ramanujam; Kannan, G
Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness c...
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Full Text Available ... pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care provider will diagnose prehypertension or high blood pressure ... same age, gender, and height . Once your health care provider ... he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood pressure is due ...
Full Text Available Domenico Galzerano1, Cristina Capogrosso1, Sara Di Michele2, Emanuele Bobbio3, Paola Paparello1, Carlo Gaudio21Department of Cardiology, San Gennaro Hospital, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Heart and Great Vessels, A. Reale, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Federico II University, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Antihypertensive therapy can lower the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Yet, partly because of inadequate dosing, wrong pharmacological choices, and poor patient adherence, hypertension control remains suboptimal in the majority of hypertensive patients. Achieving greater blood pressure control requires a multifaceted approach that raises awareness of hypertension, uses effective therapies, and improves adherence. Particular classes of antihypertensive therapy have beneficial actions beyond blood pressure and studies have evaluated differences in cardiovascular protection among classes. The LIFE and HOPE studies showed between-class differences that may be due to effects other than blood pressure-lowering. In the ONTARGET study, telmisartan and ramipril provided similar cardiovascular protection but adherence was higher with telmisartan, which was better tolerated. This difference in compliance is likely to be important for long-term therapy. The selection of an agent for cardiovascular protection should depend on an appreciation of its composite properties, including any beneficial effects on tolerability and increased patient adherence, as these are likely to be advantageous for the long-term management of hypertension. This review examines the evidence that the effects beyond blood pressure provided by some antihypertensive agents can also lower the risk of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal events in patients with hypertension.Keywords: angiotensin II receptor blocker, cardiovascular continuum, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, renin–angiotensin system, telmisartan
Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars
OBJECT: Cerebral ischemia remains the key cause of disability and death in the late phase after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the change in intracranial pressure or the extravasated blood causes the...
Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...
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Full Text Available ... track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to ... the office on different days and at different times to take your blood pressure. The health care ...
Full Text Available ... visit the health care provider, he or she should tell you what your blood pressure numbers are; if he or she does not, you should ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and ...
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M. F. VALIM
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Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.
... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...
Full Text Available Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks, interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done by using paired ′t′ test; the ′Intention-to-Treat′ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study. Results: Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6% complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2% walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2% dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population′s BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m 2 . Conclusions: This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population′s mean BP and blood sugar levels.
Full Text Available ... does not, you should ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and ...
People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...
Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 Combined with Increased Adiponectin Lowers Blood Pressure in Diabetic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats through a Reduction in Endothelial Cell Dysfunction, Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of increased levels of HO-1 on hypertension exacerbated by diabetes. Diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR and WKY (control animals were treated with streptozotocin (STZ to induce diabetes and stannous chloride (SnCl2 to upregulate HO-1. Treatment with SnCl2 not only attenuated the increase of blood pressure (p<0.01, but also increased HO-1 protein content, HO activity and plasma adiponectin levels, decreased the levels of superoxide and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT, respectively. Reduction in oxidative stress resulted in the increased expression of Bcl-2 and AKT with a concomitant reduction in circulating endothelial cells (CEC in the peripheral blood (p<0.005 and an improvement of femoral reactivity (response to acetylcholine. Thus induction of HO-1 accompanied with increased plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic hypertensive rats alters the phenotype through a reduction in oxidative stress, thereby permitting endothelial cells to maintain an anti-apoptotic environment and the restoration of endothelial responses thus preventing hypertension.
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Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyle and ineffective coping strategies are deemed significant variables among patients with hypertension. This study attempted to determine the status of these variables following intervention via the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program (MBSRP in patients with hypertension.Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, consisting of 30 patients referring to the Hypertension Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital in 2013, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of the MBSRP and conscious yoga or to the control group (recipient of yoga training. The intervention group had 8 training sessions over 8 weeks. Lifestyle and coping strategies as well as blood pressure were measured in the intervention group before intervention and then immediately thereafter and at 2 months' follow-up and were compared to those in the control group at the same time points.Result: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (40% women and control (53% women groups was 43.66 ± 5.14 and 43.13 ± 5.04 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of lifestyle (p value < 0.05, emotion-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001, problem-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001, and systolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001 were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention.Conclusion: Applying an intervention based on the MBSRP may further improve the lifestyle and coping strategies of patients with hypertension.
Full Text Available ... Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High ... also may ask you to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure ...
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Full Text Available ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for children of the same age, gender, and height . Once your health care provider ...
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... Talk to your doctor about any over-the-counter medications you are taking or are thinking about taking. Does Hypertension or Preeclampsia During Pregnancy Cause Long-Term Heart and Blood Vessel Problems? The effects of high blood pressure during pregnancy vary depending on the disorder and ...
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... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features ... are sent to the brain. Causes High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina. The higher the blood ...
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Mathew J. Gregoski
Full Text Available Stress-activated gene × environment interactions may contribute to individual variability in blood pressure reductions from behavioral interventions. We investigated effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1 LYS198ASN SNP and discriminatory stress exposure upon impact of 12-week behavioral interventions upon ambulatory BP (ABP among 162 prehypertensive African American adolescents. Following genotyping, completion of questionnaire battery, and 24-hour ABP monitoring, participants were randomized to health education control (HEC, life skills training (LST, or breathing awareness meditation (BAM. Postintervention ABP was obtained. Significant three-way interactions on ABP changes indicated that among ET-1 SNP carriers, the only group to show reductions was BAM from low chronic stress environments. Among ET-1 SNP noncarriers, under low chronic stress exposure, all approaches worked, especially BAM. Among high stress exposure noncarriers, only BAM resulted in reductions. If these preliminary findings are replicated via ancillary analyses of archival databases and then via efficacy trials, selection of behavioral prescriptions for prehypertensives will be edging closer to being guided by individual's underlying genetic and environmental factors incorporating the healthcare model of personalized preventive medicine.
Dennis; Bloomfield; Alex; Park
The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure,called the "dip",is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%,referred to as blunted or absent,have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load,whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon,whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.
... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... is your pressure when your heart relaxes ( diastolic pressure ). High Blood Pressure Medicines Use this guide to help you ...
Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels
The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P < 0.0005). 443 patients were measured on two separate occasions and the interarm difference for systolic blood pressure was reproducible for...
... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...
In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death. Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 10/17/2012.
Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ...
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Full Text Available ... Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...
Nolte, R. W.
The Blood Pressure Measuring System is described. It measures blood pressure by the noninvasive Korotkoff sound technique on a continual basis as physical stress is imposed during experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, and experiment M171, Metabolic Activity.
Andersson, Sven; Edvinsson, Marie-Louise; Edvinsson, Lars
the hyperhomocysteinaemia and if so, in turn, would improve the associated parameters. This was an open study without placebo control on heart failure patients with plasma homocysteine > 15 microM. Measurements of cutaneous vascular reactivity, blood pressure, inflammatory activity and endothelial function were performed...... before and after intervention with intra-individual comparisons. The treatment reduced homocysteine to near normal values and enhanced the hyperaemic response to acetylcholine related to the response to heat. The mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate was reduced. There was no effect on inflammatory...
... pressure from normal systolic blood pressure (120 mm Hg) in middle age to high (160 mm Hg). Normal blood pressure in middle age but a steep rise to very high (200 mm Hg). Moderately high blood pressure (140 mm Hg) in ...
Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Messig, Michael;
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The relative contributions of on-treatment low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C), triglycerides, and blood pressure (BP) control on the risk of recurrent stroke or major cardiovascular events in patients with stroke is not well defined. METHODS: We...
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... blood pressure reading) of more than 6,700 Dutch adults. Participants were ages 55 to 106 and ... stroke or death from other blood pressure-related diseases up to age 80, the study found. Moderately ...
Is blood pressure reduction a valid surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention? an analysis incorporating a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, a by-trial weighted errors-in-variables regression, the surrogate threshold effect (STE) and the biomarker-surrogacy (BioSurrogate) evaluation schema (BSES)
Lassere Marissa N; Johnson Kent R; Schiff Michal; Rees David
Abstract Background Blood pressure is considered to be a leading example of a valid surrogate endpoint. The aims of this study were to (i) formally evaluate systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction as a surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention and (ii) determine what blood pressure reduction would predict a stroke benefit. Methods We identified randomised trials of at least six months duration comparing any pharmacologic anti-hypertensive treatment to placebo or no treatment, and repor...
To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.
To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.
Hang ZHENG; Kuanyi ZHU
It is very important to maintain the level of mean arterial pressure (MAP).The MAP control is applied in many clinical situations,including limiting bleeding during cardiac surgery and promoting healing for patient's post-surgery.This paper presents a fuzzy controller-based multiple-model adaptive control system for postoperative blood pressure management.Multiple-model adaptive control (MMAC) algorithm is used to identify the patient model,and it is a feasible system identification method even in the presence of large noise.Fuzzy control (FC) method is used to design controller bank.Each fuzzy controller in the controller bank is in fact a nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) controller,whose proportional gain and integral gain are adjusted continuously according to error and rate of change of error of the plant output,resulting in better dynamic and stable control performance than the regular PI controller,especially when a nonlinear process is involved.For demonstration,a nonlinear,pulsatile-flow patient model is used for simulation,and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.
Andersson, Sven E; Edvinsson, Marie-Louise; Edvinsson, Lars
We have previously shown that hyperhomocysteinaemia is common in elderly heart failure patients, and is associated with endothelial dysfunction, impaired vasodilatory capacity and a low-grade inflammation. In the present study we examined if supplementation with B6, B12 and folate could normalize the hyperhomocysteinaemia and if so, in turn, would improve the associated parameters. This was an open study without placebo control on heart failure patients with plasma homocysteine > 15 microM. Measurements of cutaneous vascular reactivity, blood pressure, inflammatory activity and endothelial function were performed before and after intervention with intra-individual comparisons. The treatment reduced homocysteine to near normal values and enhanced the hyperaemic response to acetylcholine related to the response to heat. The mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate was reduced. There was no effect on inflammatory activity, plasma levels of von Willebrand factor, subjective health quality or the hyperaemic responses to sodium nitroprusside or local warming. Hyperhomocysteinaemia in heart failure patients is multifactorial in origin. Folate deficiency, inflammatory activity and reduced renal function could be contributing. It is suggested that supplementation with B-vitamins can improve the vasodilatory capacity and reduce the blood pressure but additional studies are required to confirm this. PMID:16236143
The purpose of the study was to determine the reliability of a blood pressure sensor developed by Murata as a blood pressure monitoring tool compared to an automatic blood pressure monitor, Omron M6. Blood pressure is one of the principal vital signs and is utilized for monitoring both short-term and long-term health of the cardiovascular system and thereby the health of the patient. Therefore there is a need for a non-invasive blood pressure monitor for accurate, continuous and comfortab...
İsmail Özanli; Sebahat Tülpar; Yunus Yılmaz; Fatih Yıldız
Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to investigate the blood pressure (BP) values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males) children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphygmomanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pr...
Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and endothelial adhesion molecules (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) as predictive markers for blood pressure reduction after renal sympathetic denervation.
Dörr, Oliver; Liebetrau, Christoph; Möllmann, Helge; Gaede, Luise; Troidl, Christian; Rixe, Johannes; Hamm, Christian; Nef, Holger
Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is a treatment option for patients with resistant arterial hypertension, but in some patients it is not successful. Predictive parameters on the success of RSD remain unknown. The angiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are known to be associated with endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, and hypertension. We evaluated whether sFLT-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 are predictive markers for blood pressure reduction after RSD. Consecutive patients (n=55) undergoing renal denervation were included. Venous serum samples for measurement of sFlt-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were collected before and 6 months after RSD. A therapeutic response was defined as an office systolic blood pressure reduction of >10 mm Hg 6 months after RSD. A significant mean office systolic blood pressure reduction of 31.2 mm Hg was observed in 46 patients 6 months after RSD. Nine patients were classified as nonresponders, with a mean systolic blood pressure reduction of 4.6 mm Hg. At baseline, sFLT-1 levels were significantly higher in responders than in nonresponders (P<0.001) as were ICAM-1 (P<0.001) and VCAM-1 levels (P<0.01). The areas under the curve for sFLT-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were 0.82 (interquartile range, 0.718-0.921; P<0.001), 0.754 (0.654-0.854; P<0.001), and 0.684 (0.564-804; P=0.01), respectively, demonstrating prediction of an RSD response. Responders showed significantly higher serum levels of sFLT-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 at baseline compared with nonresponders. Thus, this study identified for the first time potential biomarkers with a predictive value indicating a responder or nonresponder before renal denervation. PMID:24470464
Andersen, Henrik; Jaff, Mohammad G; Høgh, Ditte;
Aims: Adenosine plays an important role in the regulation of heart rate and vascular reactivity. However, the mechanisms underlying the acute effect of adenosine on arterial blood pressure in conscious mice are unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of the nucleoside on mean...... arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in conscious mice. Methods: Chronic indwelling catheters were placed in C57Bl/6J (WT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock-out (eNOS(-/-) ) mice for continuous measurements of MAP and HR. Using PCR and myograph analysis involment of adenosine...... receptors was investigated in human and mouse renal blood vessels Results: Bolus infusion of 0.5 mg/kg adenosine elicited significant transient decreases in MAP (99.3±2.3 to 70.4±4.5 mmHg) and HR (603.2±18.3 to 364.3±49.2 min(-1) ) which were inhibited by the A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM 241385. Activation...
Rabbia, F; Del Colle, S; Testa, E; Naso, D; Veglio, F
Blood pressure measurement is the cornerstone for the diagnosis, the treatment and the research on arterial hypertension, and all of the decisions about one of these single aspects may be dramatically influenced by the accuracy of the measurement. Over the past 20 years or so, the accuracy of the conventional Riva-Rocci/Korotkoff technique of blood pressure measurement has been questioned and efforts have been made to improve the technique with automated devices. In the same period, recognition of the phenomenon of white coat hypertension, whereby some individuals with an apparent increase in blood pressure have normal, or reduced, blood pressures when measurement is repeated away from the medical environment, has focused attention on methods of measurement that provide profiles of blood pressure behavior rather than relying on isolated measurements under circumstances that may in themselves influence the level of blood pressure recorded. These methodologies have included repeated measurements of blood pressure using the traditional technique, self-measurement of blood pressure in the home or work place, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using innovative automated devices. The purpose of this review to serve as a source of practical information about the commonly used methods for blood pressure measurement: the traditional Riva-Rocci method and the automated methods. PMID:17016412
Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik
Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P < .0001 to P < .05). The nighttime blood pressures...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P < .0001) and at night (80 vs. 64/min, P < .0001). Consequently, the reduction in blood pressure and HR from daytime to...
... Tools & Resources Stroke More Let's Talk About High Blood Pressure and Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 What is ... Blood Pressure? How Can I Reduce High Blood Pressure? High Blood Pressure and Stroke What Is Diabetes and How ...
Rischell, Robert E.
Additional uses found for equipment described in "Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device" (GSC-13042). Implanted with device electronic circuitry that measures, interprets, and transmits data via inductive link through patient's skin to external receiver. Receiver includes audible alarm generator activated when patient's blood pressure exceeds predetermined threshold. Also included in receiver a blood-pressure display, recorder, or both, for use by patient or physician.
Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe; Nilsson, Peter M
Diabetic nephropathy represents a condition frequently detected in current clinical practice characterized by a very high cardiovascular risk profile. Blood pressure reduction via antihypertension drug treatment represents a therapeutic approach capable of exerting favorable effects on renal and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature and results of key clinical trials pertaining to blood pressure goals of antihypertension treatment in these patients. The pros and cons of a less or a more intensive blood pressure goal in diabetic nephropathy will be discussed, with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular and renal effects of each therapeutic strategy. PMID:27440837
Bachmann, K; Wortmann, A; Engels, G
Indirect arterial blood pressure measurement has not changed substantially since its introduction by Riva-Rocci in 1986, Korotkoff in 1905 and Recklinghausen in 1906. Random measurements in the clinic or practice reflect only incompletely the dynamic nature of the blood pressure. Blood pressure recordings by patients themselves have provided more information through better temporal resolution, however, exact characterization of the pressure response throughout the entire day and, in particular, during physical exertion are not enabled; the latter are especially important with regard to diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. In 1966, therefore, radiotelemetric transmission of direct, continuously-measured arterial blood pressure was developed which enabled beat-to-beat registration of blood pressure, outside the laboratory, during normal daily life and sport activities. The initial results showed a marked variability of the blood pressure during the course of the day (Figure 1). Excessive blood pressure increases were observed during exposure to cold, static and dynamic exercise and to a lesser degree during automobile driving and exposure to heat (Figure 3). Recording of the pressure curves via transmission by radiotelemetry shows a high degree of accuracy and temporal resolution, spatial and situational freedom but is invasive and costly in terms of personnel. The same holds true for direct continuous blood pressure registration and storage on a portable tape recorder. Portable, automatic blood pressure measuring units for ambulatory monitoring employ indirect auscultatory or oscillometric recording with a cuff. As compared with the radiotelemetric direct continuous blood pressure measuring method, the indirect method has subordinate temporal resolution, that is, the measurements are only intermittent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2676813
Elena Matteucci; Ottavio Giampietro
Systolic and diastolic blood pressures display a circadian rhythmicity that can be assessed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and analysed using the cosinor procedure. Altered characteristics to the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, which may result in adverse health outcomes, have been observed in both prediabetes and diabetes. We have investigated the circadian variability of blood pressure in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Chronobiologically interpreted ambulator...
Blood pressure measuring represents a routine investigation in general medicine. Nokolai Korotkoff was only 31 years old when he made a short presentation to the Scientific Meeting of the Military Hospital of the Academy on 5 November 1905 concerning an easy non-invasive method of blood pressure (BP) measurement, entitled ‘Concerning the problems of the methods of blood pressure measurement’. If the pressure in the cuff is relieved, blood starts coming through the compressed arterial segment...
Conclusion: The palpatory method would be very useful where frequent blood pressure measurement are being done manually like in wards, in busy OPD, patient on treadmill and also whenever stethoscope is not available. The blood pressure can be measured in noisy environment too.
HAVELKOVÁ, A.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; MÍFKOVÁ, L.; CHLUDILOVÁ, V.; POCHMONOVÁ, J.; VANK, P.; POHANKA, M.; DUŠEK, J.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.
The objective of this study was to find if there was a relationship between the time when cardiovascular rehabilitation was running in the patients after myocardial infarction and an average daily value of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 7-day ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.
Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl
Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...
Safar, Michel E.
Michel E SafarParis-Descartes University, Faculty of Medicine, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, AP-HP, Diagnosis Center, Paris, FranceAbstract: In hypertensive subjects, cardiovascular risk reduction is critically related to the decrease of systolic blood pressure (SBP). De-stiffening therapy means that, in a controlled therapeutic trial of long duration, a selective reduction of SBP has been obtained in the studied group by comparison with the control group, and that this SBP reduction is due ...
Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... which may contribute to exercise hypotension in these patients. During hypoglycemia, blood pressure regulation seems intact in patients with autonomic neuropathy. This is probably due to release of substantial amounts of catecholamines during these experiments. During epinephrine infusions a substantial...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....
Mierlo, van L.A.J.
Background Elevated blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Modest reductions in blood pressure at the population level, as can be achieved by dietary and lifestyle changes, have a large impact on the burden of CVD. Blood pressure is regulated by several physio
Full Text Available Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05. We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing
Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty A; Johnson, Heather M; Vanness, David J; Young, Henry N; Kreling, David H
Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (pbehavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing blood pressure feedback may have promise as part of a multi-method approach
Blood pressure measurement in the diagnosis and management of hypertension, including the technique required for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, will be reviewed in this article. Home and ambulatory measurements are widely used, both to confirm the diagnosis and to improve adherence to therapy. The major advantage of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring is that it provides a large number of blood pressure measurements away from the medical environment, which represents a more reliable assessment of actual blood pressure than office blood pressure. The advantage of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is its unique ability to measure nocturnal blood pressure. Although not fully validated in large-scale clinical trials, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring appears to correlate best with prognosis. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring provide somewhat different information on the subject's blood pressure status, and the two methods should thus be regarded as complementary, rather than competitive or alternative. PMID:25019016
Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik
Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found on...... the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....
Full Text Available Blood pressure measuring represents a routine investigation in general medicine. Nokolai Korotkoff was only 31 years old when he made a short presentation to the Scientific Meeting of the Military Hospital of the Academy on 5 November 1905 concerning an easy non-invasive method of blood pressure (BP measurement, entitled ‘Concerning the problems of the methods of blood pressure measurement’. If the pressure in the cuff is relieved, blood starts coming through the compressed arterial segment during systole and causes auscultatory sound and, the first sound, which, in Korotkoff’s opinion, is a measurement of systolic blood pressure. In the same BP measurement, when normal blood flow is fully restored, the auscultatory sounds disappear and, the last sound, which, in Korotkoff's opinion is a measurement of diastolic blood pressure. Listening to Korotkoff sounds (K-sounds to determine systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP has been the standard for noninvasive BP measurement in medical practices for nearly 100 years and it is the essential tool used for evaluation and assessment of patients with hypertension and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD by physicians and nurses despite limited understanding of the nature of K-sounds. This article focuses particularly on the cardiovascular biomechanics of the first and last auscultatory sound and suggests two new terminologies; Highest systolic blood pressure and Baseline systolic blood pressure to represent the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure, respectively. Experimenting blood pressures on the basis of these two new suggested terminologies may reveal various additional undiscovered aspects of normal BP and abnormal BP. KEY WORDS: Highest systolic blood pressure, Baseline systolic blood pressure, Korotkoff sounds
The Leg Volume Measuring System is used to measure leg calf girth changes that occur during exposure to lower body negative pressure as a result of pooling of blood and other fluids in the lower extremities.
... in New York City. Until published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, the results should be considered preliminary. One-third of U.S. adults have high blood pressure, also called hypertension. It contributes to more than ...
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158958.html Elderly Benefit From Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment No greater ... The study included more than 2,600 patients, aged 75 and older. They were randomly assigned to ...
... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157363.html Obesity Can Send Kids' Blood Pressure Soaring: Study Losing ... and effective clinical and public health strategies for obesity prevention," said lead researcher Emily Parker. She is ...
Stokholm, K H; Breum, L; Astrup, A
pressure (BP) declined. The fall in BP was caused by the reduction in cardiac output as the total peripheral resistance was unchanged. Finally, the decline in total blood volume was not significant. These findings together with a reduction in heart rate indicated that a reduced sympathetic tone via......Eight obese patients were studied before and after 2 weeks of treatment by a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Cardiac output and central blood volume (pulmonary blood volume and left atrial volume) were determined by indicator dilution (125I-albumin) and radionuclide angiocardiography (first pass and...... equilibrium technique by [99Tcm]red blood cells). Cardiac output decreased concomitantly with the reduction in oxygen uptake as the calculated systemic arteriovenous difference of oxygen was unaltered. There were no significant decreases in left ventricular contractility indices, i.e. the ejection fraction...
Campbell, N. R.; Chockalingam, A; Fodor, J. G.; McKay, D. W.
The diagnosis of mild hypertension and the treatment of hypertension require accurate measurement of blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are altered by various factors that influence the patient, the techniques used and the accuracy of the sphygmomanometer. The variability of readings can be reduced if informed patients prepare in advance by emptying their bladder and bowel, by avoiding over-the-counter vasoactive drugs the day of measurement and by avoiding exposure to cold, caffeine con...
Frese, Ethel M; Fick, Ann; Sadowsky, H. Steven
Vital sign measurement and assessment are important components of the review of systems in a physical therapy examination for individuals with and without documented cardiopulmonary disease. The measurement of blood pressure gives the therapist information regarding the patient's baseline cardiovascular status, response to exercise/activity, and guides exercise prescription. Accurate measurement of blood pressure is critical for making appropriate clinical decisions especially if physical the...
Solves, Pilar; Mirabet, Vicente; Roig, Roberto
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an alternative source of hematopoietic progenitors for transplantation in the treatment of haematological malignancies, marrow failure, immunodeficiencies, hemoglobinopathies and inherited metabolic diseases. It has greatly contributed to increase the feasibility to transplantation for many patients in need. To date, more than 20,000 UCB transplants have been performed on children and adults, and more than 400,000 UCB units are available in more than 50 public CB banks. One of the most important objectives of banks is to cryopreserve and store high quality UCB units. Volume reduction is a usual process in cord blood banking that has some advantages as reducing the storage space and the DMSO quantity in final product. Volume reduction methodology must guarantee high cell recovery and red blood cell (RBC) depletion by reducing the UCB units to a standard volume. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) sedimentation was the first method developed for this purpose by the New York Cord Blood Bank and implemented in many banks worldwide. The semi-automated top and bottom system, usually used for blood fractionation was further developed to simplify and short the process. Later, automatic devices as SEPAX and AXP have been developed in last years specifically for UCB volume reduction purpose. This review critically analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the different procedures. All of them have been used in Valencia Cord Blood Bank along 10 years. In general, automatic devices are preferred because of compliance with cGTP, closed systems, higher reproducibility and less influence of technician. PMID:20528760
Drawz, Paul E; ABDALLA, MOHAMED; Rahman, Mahboob
Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk...
... Circulation Talk With Your Health Care Provider About High Blood Pressure Why is high blood pressure dangerous? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... pur-TEN-shun”). If it is not controlled, high blood pressure can cause: yy Stroke yy Kidney yy Heart ...
David, M; Geido, D; Pracca, F; Sanchez, G; Simini, F; Zoppolo, C [Nucleo de Ingenierfa Biomedica, Universidad de la Republica O. del Uruguay, Hospital de ClInicas, Av. Italia S/N, 11600, Montevideo (Uruguay)
A device that generates negative extra-abdominal pressure (ABDOPRE) for treatment of patients with high intra-abdominal pressure was developed. It includes pressure sensors for transducing intra-abdominal pressure through an intra-vesical catheter and negative pressure in the vacuum bell which is placed over the abdomen. By means of a control system, a pattern for reducing IAP is set, according to a clinical protocol. The external negative pressure is generated using a vacuum pump connected to the bell. The system registers the values of interest for the medical history. The system is being tested over ICU patients, registering a satisfactory IAP reduction.
Yu, Ying; Lucitt, Margaret B; Stubbe, Jane;
Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus....... Deletion of the FP reduces blood pressure, coincident with a reduction in plasma renin concentration, angiotensin, and aldosterone, despite a compensatory up-regulation of AT1 receptors and an augmented hypertensive response to infused angiotensin II. Plasma and urinary osmolality are decreased in FP KOs...
Lee, Yong Jin
This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.
Is blood pressure reduction a valid surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention? an analysis incorporating a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, a by-trial weighted errors-in-variables regression, the surrogate threshold effect (STE and the biomarker-surrogacy (BioSurrogate evaluation schema (BSES
Lassere Marissa N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure is considered to be a leading example of a valid surrogate endpoint. The aims of this study were to (i formally evaluate systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction as a surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention and (ii determine what blood pressure reduction would predict a stroke benefit. Methods We identified randomised trials of at least six months duration comparing any pharmacologic anti-hypertensive treatment to placebo or no treatment, and reporting baseline blood pressure, on-trial blood pressure, and fatal and non-fatal stroke. Trials with fewer than five strokes in at least one arm were excluded. Errors-in-variables weighted least squares regression modelled the reduction in stroke as a function of systolic blood pressure reduction and diastolic blood pressure reduction respectively. The lower 95% prediction band was used to determine the minimum systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure difference, the surrogate threshold effect (STE, below which there would be no predicted stroke benefit. The STE was used to generate the surrogate threshold effect proportion (STEP, a surrogacy metric, which with the R-squared trial-level association was used to evaluate blood pressure as a surrogate endpoint for stroke using the Biomarker-Surrogacy Evaluation Schema (BSES3. Results In 18 qualifying trials representing all pharmacologic drug classes of antihypertensives, assuming a reliability coefficient of 0.9, the surrogate threshold effect for a stroke benefit was 7.1 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 2.4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. The trial-level association was 0.41 and 0.64 and the STEP was 66% and 78% for systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively. The STE and STEP were more robust to measurement error in the independent variable than R-squared trial-level associations. Using the BSES3, assuming a reliability coefficient of 0.9, systolic blood pressure was a B + grade and
Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to investigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphygmomanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was higher in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in females. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold values for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to combine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.
Lammertyn, Leandi; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth; Schutte, Rudolph
To investigate the relationship between nocturnal blood pressure and chronically elevated blood glucose to determine if these elevated blood glucose concentrations contribute to a non-dipping blood pressure, especially in high-risk groups such as Africans.
Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José;
Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies to...... conclusive evidence proving that nondipping is a reversible risk factor, the option whether or not to restore the diurnal blood pressure profile to a normal pattern should be left to the clinical judgment of doctors and should be individualized for each patient. Current guidelines on the interpretation of...
Pulse pressure in the aorta was evaluated by the measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and blood flow velocity (BFV). PWV reflects the elasticity of the vessel and was determined by a time-of-flight method. BFV was measured by analyzing the change of magnetization decay due to flow in multiecho experiments. If one neglects pulse wave reflections at vascular branch points and flow resistance due to blood viscosity, pulse pressure is proportional to PWV and BFV. Noninvasive MR imaging measurements were obtained in 12 patients, all of whom underwent correlative arterial catheterization. Values varied between 35 and 100 mm Hg. The results demonstrated a high correlation between the two methods
Mitchell, Patrick; Gregson, Barbara A; Piper, Ian; Citerio, Giuseppe; Mendelow, A David; Chambers, Iain R
Objective To determine the statistical characteristics of blood pressure (BP) readings from a large number of head‐injured patients. Methods The BrainIT group has collected high time‐resolution physiological and clinical data from head‐injured patients who require intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The statistical features of this dataset of BP measurements with time resolution of 1 min from 200 patients is examined. The distributions of BP measurements and their relationship with simultaneous ICP measurements are described. Results The distributions of mean, systolic and diastolic readings are close to normal with modest skewing towards higher values. There is a trend towards an increase in blood pressure with advancing age, but this is not significant. Simultaneous blood pressure and ICP values suggest a triphasic relationship with a BP rising at 0.28 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP, for ICP up to 32 mm Hg, and 0.9 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP for ICP from 33 to 55 mm Hg, and falling sharply with rising ICP for ICP >55 mm Hg. Conclusions Patients with head injury appear to have a near normal distribution of blood pressure readings that are skewed towards higher values. The relationship between BP and ICP may be triphasic. PMID:17138594
Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor
of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...... reduction in frequency. An increase in days with use of medication was found. Increased awareness of low CSF pressure headache is emphasized and a controlled larger randomized study is needed to confirm the results. However the present results, allows us to conclude that EBP in treatment-refractory low CSF...
... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet Updated:Apr 8, ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...
Objective was to assess blood pressure BP control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 DM type treated in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary health care at King Fahd Military Complex Hospital in Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August 2003 and February 2004, to assess blood control in type 2 diabetics. A sample of 403 medical records of type 2 diabetic patients was selected using systematic random sampling after ordering the medical record numbers. The data were collected through the pre-coded checklist. Hypertension was found in 57.8% of diabetic patients with no statistically significant difference between males and females. The mean age of diabetic patients was significantly highly in hypertensive than non-hypertensive p=0.001. The mean duration of hypertension was significantly higher in females p=0.02. There were only 14.2% of hypertensive diabetic patients in whom blood pressure was controlled. Poor control was significantly associated with obesity and a high rate of complications. Blood pressure control correlated positively and significantly with the age of patients and negatively with duration of diabetes and hypertension. The most commonly prescribed antihypertensive were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in 29.3%, followed by angiotensin receptors blockers in 24.1%, and the least prescribed drug was thiazide diuretic. Blood pressure in diabetic patients needs to be given particular attention from all health care professionals, especially primary care family physicians, who should follow the new guideline for better control of blood pressure, and fewer complications. Patient's awareness should be increased, through continuous health education with different modalities. (author)
... and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.
... Use a medicine calendar. • Set a reminder on your smartphone. What types of drugs are there? • D IURETICS rid the ... by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood ... types may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if you have side effects, but don’ ...
C.O. Agyemang (Charles)
textabstractThe objective of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher or lower in South Asian adults living in the UK as compared to white populations. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE 196
This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure. Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 9/4/2012.
Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold
There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog
Blood pressure measurement in the diagnosis and management of hypertension, including the technique required for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, will be reviewed in this article. Home and ambulatory measurements are widely used, both to confirm the diagnosis and to improve adherence to therapy. The major advantage of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring is that it provides a large number of blood pressure measurements away from the medical environme...
Judith A Whitworth
Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment
Barbé, K.; Van Moer, W.; Lauwers, L.
In this paper, the oscillometric waveform measured by automatic non-invasive blood pressure meters (NIBP) is analyzed by transforming the data from the time domain to the frequency domain. The signal's spectrum of the oscillometric waveform is in current literature badly understood or explored. The only known link between the oscillometric waveform and the blood pressure is the maximum of the oscillometry's envelope equalling the mean arterial pressure (MAP). This link is established under the assumption that the oscillometry is an AM-signal. Unfortunately, computing the MAP is difficult in practice due to the non-sinusoidal nature of the actual measured signals. In this paper, we construct the best AM-signal approximation of the oscillometry and explore its use to compute the MAP.
Marcos Antônio Cezar
Full Text Available Abstract The development of non-pharmacological approaches to hypertension (HA is critical for both prevention and treatment. This study examined the hemodynamic and biochemical responses of medicated hypertensive women to resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (vascular occlusion. Twenty-three women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: High intensity strength training (n = 8; low-intensity resistance exercise with occlusion (n = 8; and control (n = 7. The first two groups underwent eight weeks of training performed twice a week, including three series of wrist flexion exercises with or without vascular occlusion. The exercised with occlusion group showed pre- to post-test reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and double product, whereas the other groups showed no significant hemodynamic changes. In conclusion, resistance exercise during 8 weeks was effective in lowering blood pressure in medicated hypertensive subjects.
Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.
Tobe, Sheldon; Vincent, Lloyd; Wentworth, Joan; Hildebrandt, Denise; Kiss, Alexander; Perkins, Nancy; Hartman, Susan; Ironstand, Laurie; Hoppe, Jacquie; Hunter, Katie; Pylypchuk, George
Objectives. To follow blood pressure change over time in participants who had participated in a 1- year chronic disease management program focused on blood pressure reduction. The expectation was that blood pressure would return back to the baseline once the study was completed. Study design. Prospective, single-arm observational study. Methods. Study participants were Status Indians living on-reserve with type 2 diabetes and persistent hypertension who had participated in the DREAM3 study. B...
Mehlsen, J; Haedersdal, C; Stokholm, K H
vasoconstriction. The reduction in cardiac output resulted from reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volumes with unchanged left ventricular ejection fractions and only moderate increments in heart rate. The study was demonstrated that blood pressure is strongly dependent upon cardiac filling in severe......Autonomic denervation of the vascular bed results theoretically in a stronger dependency of blood pressure upon intravascular volume, and the study described aimed at an investigation of the relation between cardiac filling and arterial blood pressure in patients with severe postural hypotension....... Seven patients were studied during head-up tilt at three different tilt angles using intra-arterial blood pressure recordings and estimates of left ventricular volumes by radioisotope ventriculography. Blood pressure fell dramatically during head-up tilt due to reductions in cardiac output unopposed by...
Full Text Available Systemic arterial blood pressures were measured in 30 dogs with acute babesiosis, 10 each with mild uncomplicated, severe uncomplicated and complicated disease. Ten healthy dogs were used as controls. Hypotension was defined as more than 3 standard deviations below the control mean. Normal mean pressures (Â±SD were: systolic arterial pressure 151 (Â±11 mm Hg, diastolic arterial pressure 89 (Â±8 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure 107 (Â±10 mmHg. Hypotension was the most frequent abnormality, and increased strikingly in incidence as disease severity increased, with 5/10 dogs in the complicated group being hypotensive for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, compared with 2/10 in the severe uncomplicated group and 0/10 in the mild uncomplicated group. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures in the complicated group and severe uncomplicated group, and systolic pressure in the mild uncomplicated group, were significantly lower than in the controls. There were no significant relationships between arterial pressures and age, pulse rate, respiratory rate, temperature, mucous membrane colour or haematocrit. There was a significant negative correlation between arterial pressures and white cell and immature neutrophil counts. Arterial pressures differed significantly between dogs that were clinically collapsed and those that were not, but not between survivors and non-survivors. Pulse pressure (systolic - diastolic was low in 7/10 complicated, 1/10 mild uncomplicated, and 1/10 severe uncomplicated cases, and differed significantly between the complicated and control groups. The high incidence of hypotension in clinically severe babesiosis has important implications for therapy.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...
Saing, Saloma Klementina; Rina, Oke; Ramayati, Rafita; Rusdidjas
Background High blood pre ssure remains a public health problem. High blood pressure in children and adolescent is a major risk for cardiovascular disease in adulthood which can cause high morbidity and mortality. Listening to the classical music can be used as an alternative in reducing high blood pressure. Objective To investigate the effect of classical music in reducing blood pressure in children with high normal blood pressure and or hypertension. Methods Eighty eight students of S...
Full Text Available Background: More attention is being paid lately to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS not only in the aspect of fertility but also according to long-term metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. Observations of women with PCOS show that the occurrence of blood hypertension is more frequent after the menopause. There are few articles concerning the predictable symptoms of blood hypertension. It seems that twenty-four hour blood pressure monitoring and assessment of changes of diurnal rhythm could be useful in this group of patients.Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess diurnal changes of blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Material and methods: 26 women with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam consensus criteria and Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria were included in our study. The mean age of the examined women was 29.5 years and the mean BMI (body mass index was 24.7 kg/m2. The control group consisted of 12 age-matched women, without PCOS. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure was performed during normal daily activity in all patients. Halberg’s cosinor method was used to analyse daily biorhythm.Results: Results show the diurnal changes of systolic blood pressure in the preclinical phase in 30% and diastolic in 15% of PCOS women. In this group no physiological decrease of blood pressure at night time was observed.
Royal-Thomas, Tamika; McGee, Daniel; Sinha, Debajyoti; Osmond, Clive; Forrester, Terrence
This article looks at the association of maternal blood pressure with the blood pressure of the offspring from birth to childhood. The Barker hypothesis states that maternal and "in utero" attributes during pregnancy affect a child's cardiovascular health throughout life. We present an analysis of a unique dataset that consists of three distinct developmental processes: maternal cardiovascular health during pregnancy; fetal development; and child's cardiovascular health from birth to 14 years. This study explored whether a mother's blood pressure reading in pregnancy predicts fetal development and determines if this in turn is related to the future cardiovascular health of the child. This article uses data that have been collected prospectively from a Jamaican cohort which involves the following three developmental processes: (1) maternal cardiovascular health during pregnancy which is the blood pressure and anthropometric measurements at seven time-points on the mother during pregnancy; (2) fetal development which consists of ultrasound measurements of the fetus taken at six time-points during pregnancy; and (3) child's cardiovascular health which consists of the child's blood pressure measurements at 24 time-points from birth to 14 years. The inter-relationship of these three processes was examined using linear mixed effects models. Our analyses indicated that attributes later in childhood development, such as child's weight, child's baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), age and sex, predict the future cardiovascular health of children. The results also indicated that maternal attributes in pregnancy, such as mother's baseline SBP and SBP change, predicted significantly child's SBP over time. PMID:25178900
Hayashi, Satoru; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi; Maruyama, Masaru
In this paper, a simulation model based on the partially pressurized collapsible tube model for reproducing noninvasive blood pressure measurement is presented. The model consists of a collapsible tube, which models the pressurized part of the artery, rigid pipes connected to the collapsible tube, which model proximal and distal region far from the pressurized part, and the Windkessel model, which represents the capacitance and the resistance of the distal part of the circulation. The blood flow is simplified to a one-dimensional system. Collapse and expansion of the tube is represented by the change in the cross-sectional area of the tube considering the force balance acting on the tube membrane in the direction normal to the tube axis. They are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. This simple model can easily reproduce the oscillation of inner fluid and corresponding tube collapse typical for the Korotkoff sounds generated by the cuff pressure. The numerical result is compared with the experiment and shows good agreement. PMID:16995754
Case of diabetes mellitus associated with essential hypertension are mostly type 2 diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) in elderly patients. In the JNC VI and JSH 2004, it is recommended that the therapeutic target blood pressure level should be lower then 130/80 mmHg in hypertension complicated with diabetes mellitus, and this target has recently obtained wide acceptance. On the other hand, the target blood pressure in elderly is recommended below 140/90 mmHg. Accordingly, diabetes mellitus in elderly hypertensives should be treated similarly as in the young and middle-aged. Because ACE inhibitors/ARBs or Ca blockers increase insulin sensitivity, these drugs should be used as the first choice in cases of elderly hypertensive patients complicated with diabetes mellitus. PMID:16408451
贵刊去年第6期曾刊登一短文,题目是:盐,迫升血压之元凶。读了该文,我开始严格控制每日的食盐摄入量,再附以药物治疗,血压果然趋于平稳。近日上网,遇一奇文,意思是人的血压与空气污染状况有涉!根据对2600个成年人的调查,得出了这样的结论:Pollution may cause changes in the part of the nervous system that controls blood pressure.文章又同时说明:Exactly how pollution might cause blood pressure to climb remains unclear.人体之奥妙由此可见一斑。
Zoppi, M; Hoigné, R; Keller, M F; Streit, F; Hess, T
A fall in systolic blood pressure without other symptoms of anaphylactic shock has been described following the administration of drugs containing dipyrone. This adverse reaction was first observed in 4 patients by the same team in 1972-1973. Ten further cases with a fall in systolic blood pressure by at least 20 mm Hg occurring within minutes to 6 hours after intravenous administration of dipyrone are presented in this paper. In each of them this adverse reaction was considered to be probable or even definite. During the years 1976-1981 drug exposure was registered for all 15 678 patients of the two medical divisions of Comprehensive Hospital Drug Monitoring Berne. This adverse reaction was found in 7, representing 0.34% of the 2053 patients who received intravenous treatment with a dipyrone preparation. PMID:6658424
Weiss, S T; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F E
We examined the relationship of blood lead level to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of 89 Boston, MA, policemen. At the second examination blood lead level and blood pressure were measured in triplicate. Blood pressure measurements were taken in a similar fashion in years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis using a first-order autoregressive model revealed that after adjusting for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and cigarette smoking, an el...
... What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, ... damaged from chronic high blood pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...
Leer, van E.
Trends in blood pressure, prevalence and treatment of hypertension were studied in 30,000 men and women aged 37-43 years during the period 1974-1980, in 80,000 men aged 33-37 years during the period 1981-1986 and 36,000 in men and women aged 20-59 years during the period 1987-1991. Between 1974 and
Bhalla A; Singh R; D'cruz S; Lehl S; Sachdev A
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All ...
SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; Melda DİLEK; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; Akpolat, Tekin
Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...
Snowdon, S L; Whitehouse, G. H.
Patients requiring aortography frequently suffer from generalized arteriosclerosis. Uncontrolled hypotension is therefore clearly undesirable, especially if associated with myocardial depression. Significant hypotension was observed following the use of conventional ionic contrast media, Urografin 370 and Cardioconray, and occurred following every injection in this study. Metrizamide, a non-ionic contrast medium, was found to be associated with a smaller fall in blood pressure of a shorter du...
Sandeep Chopra; Chris Baby; Jubbin Jagan Jacob
As our understanding of the underlying aetiology of hypertension is far from adequate, over 90% of patients with hypertension receive a diagnosis of essential hypertension. This non-specific diagnosis leads to suboptimal therapeutics and a major problem with non-compliance. Understanding the normal control of blood pressure (BP) is, hence, important for a better understanding of the disease.This review attempts to unravel the present understanding of BP control. The local mechanisms of BP con...
Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold
There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contr...
Savica, Vincenzo; Bellinghieri, Guido; Kopple, Joel D
The incidence and severity of hypertension are affected by nutritional status and intake of many nutrients. Excessive energy intake and obesity are major causes of hypertension. Obesity is associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, possibly other mineralcorticoid activity, insulin resistance, salt-sensitive hypertension and excess salt intake, and reduced kidney function. High sodium chloride intake strongly predisposes to hypertension. Increased alcohol consumption may acutely elevate blood pressure. High intakes of potassium, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and protein, along with exercise and possibly vitamin D, may reduce blood pressure. Less-conclusive studies suggest that amino acids, tea, green coffee bean extract, dark chocolate, and foods high in nitrates may reduce blood pressure. Short-term studies indicate that specialized diets may prevent or ameliorate mild hypertension; most notable are the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which is high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and the DASH low-sodium diet. Long-term compliance to these diets remains a major concern. PMID:20645853
Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine
Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.
Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25107387
O. D. Ostroumova
Full Text Available The authors give the results of their investigation dealing with citicoline therapy in patients with hypertension and cognitive impairments.Objective: to determine the efficiency of citicoline therapy on the level and variability of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP (SBP and DBP.Patients and methods. The investigation covered 60 patients with Stage II hypertension and a goal BP of < 140/90 mm Hg within ≥3 months before their inclusion. The patients were randomized into 2 groups: 30 patients in the study group were assigned to receive a cycle of 10 injections of citicoline in a daily dose of 1000 mg dropwise intravenously, then 1000 mg/day orally for as long as 3 months. 30 patients comprised the control group.Results and discussion. 24-hour BP monitoring indicated that during 4-week citicoline therapy there were significant (p<0.05 reductions in average nocturnal SBP (by 4.1±2.24 mm Hg, average daytime (-1.5±0.39 mm Hg and average nighttime (-1.5±0.37 mm Hg BP variabilities; such changes were not found in the control group. In the study group, normal daytime SBP variability at baseline (≤15 mm Hg was seen in 15 (50% patients; that after citicoline treatment was in 21 (70%; in the control group, this was in 15 (50% and 14 (46.7% patients before and after 4-week therapy, respectively. In the study group, normal nocturnal SBP variability at baseline (≤ 15 mm Hg was seen in 15 (50% patients; that after citicoline treatment was in 23 (76.7%; in the control group, this was in 15 (50% and 16 (53.3% patients, respectively.Twenty-one (70% patients in each group had baseline normal daytime DBP variability (<14 mm Hg; following 4 weeks of treatment, the number of patients with normal daytime DBP variability remained unchanged in the control group and that increased by one patient (n = 22 (73.3% in the citicoline group. Normal nocturnal DBP variability at baseline (<12 mm Hg was observed in 19 (63.3% patients in each group
What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...
Podell, Richard N.
Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)
... Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Your ... a condition that also increases the chance of heart disease and stroke. High blood pressure is especially common ...
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... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159580.html Blood Pressure Problems During Pregnancy, Heart Trouble Later? Spotting risk ... 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who have blood pressure in the high-normal range may have an ...
... html Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure Researchers cite aging populations, diet, inactivity and lack ... HealthDay News) -- For the first time ever, high blood pressure rates are higher in low- and middle-income ...
... News Releases News Release Wednesday, June 8, 2016 Standard blood pressure target is sufficient for treating some ... of Minnesota An international stroke study found that standard and intensive blood pressure treatments were equally effective ...
... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157555.html Smartphone Blood-Pressure App Often Wrong, Study Finds Measurements ... HealthDay News) -- A popular app that uses your smartphone to check your blood pressure is inaccurate, missing ...
Full Text Available Background/Aims: To determine the effect of arterial blood pressure (BP reduction on endocan and soluble cell adhesion molecules' (sCAM plasma concentration and expression of their ligands on circulatory leukocyte subpopulations. Methods: 24 hypertensive subjects of both sexes (age: 53±8 yrs were treated with Ca-channel blocker, amlodipin (5-10 mg/day for 8 weeks; to reach BP≤139/89mmHg. The serum sCAMs and endocan concentrations were determined by ELISA kits. Level of ICAM/VCAM ligands on leukocytes was assessed by flow cytometry. Paired t-test, or t-test were used as appropriate, with Pearson's correlation calculated; pResults: sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were decreased (p≤0.001 and p=0.002, respectively, while E-selectin concentration was increased after amlodipin treatment (P=0.014. CD11a/LFA-1 (ICAM-1 and endocan ligand was significantly increased in all three cell types with BP decrease. CD15 and CD49d/VLA-4 (VCAM-1 ligand did not change after the treatment. There was significant positive correlation of systolic and diastolic BP with ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and significant negative correlation of systolic BP with CD11a/LFA-1. Endocan significantly positively correlated with ICAM-1. Conclusions: The increased expression of ICAM/VACM ligands, together with decrease of sCAMs and endocan suggests the de-activation of endothelium with reduction in BP, decreasing the adherence of circulatory leukocytes to endothelium; subsequently decreasing the risk for development of atherosclerosis.
Elgarayhi, A.; E. K. El-Shewy; MAHMOUD, ABEER A.; Elhakem, Ali A.
The propagation of weakly nonlinear pressure waves in a fluid-filled elastic tube has been investigated. The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation for small but finite amplitude. The effect of the final inner radius of the tube on the basic properties of the soliton wave was discussed. Moreover, the conditions of stability and the soliton existence via the potential and the corresponding phase portrait were computed. The applicability of the ...
Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred;
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relative contributions of baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and lipoproteins on the risk of recurrent stroke or first major cardiovascular event (MCVE) and their potential impact on the benefit of statin treatment. METHODS AND...... cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride levels. After 4.9 years of follow-up, there were 575 primary end points (fatal and nonfatal stroke), including 491 ischemic strokes, and 740 MCVEs (stroke plus myocardial infarction and vascular death). Cox regression...
Full Text Available Blood pressure is crucial for the tissue perfusion, oxygenation andelimination of metabolites in normal tissue. In septic patients itmay be altered by several mechanisms. Endothelial lesions andimpaired vasoregulation resulting from bacteriemia may producevasodilatation, hypotension, tissue hypoxia and decrease in theblood velocity. These events may favour disseminated intravascularcoagulation in septic patients, and thus pronounce perfusionmisdistribution. Since hypotension is commonly treated byvasoactive drugs to increase vascular tone toward normal values,more pronounced peripheral tissue ischemia may result. Duringthe process of blood pressure regulation in septic patients a diversityof physiological parameters should be encountered, i.e. age,body weight, core temperature, overall patients’ cardiovascularperformance, anemia, and protein status. In a healthy, adult person,in the absence of other causes of hypotension systolic bloodpressure of > 90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure ≥ 70 mmHgshould maintain adequate tissue perfusion. Together with specificantibiotics, therapeutic procedures like haemodilution, use of vasoconstrictors,vasopressin and its analogue terlipressin, corticosteroidsare currently used to improve outcome of hypotensive septicpatients. Numerous studies were undertaken to point the valuesof the biochemical tests suggesting a need for prompt intervention.The arterial lactate, cortisol response, TNF, interleukin (IL6, IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 production, together with submucosal(gastric intramucosal or sublingual CO2 values were proven as indicative.These may suggest whether microcirculatory impairmentis reversible or not, and which therapeutic maneuver should beappropriate.
High 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) variability is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. We analysed a large ABP monitoring database containing data from hypertensive patients treated with telmisartan\\/amlodipine combination or various monotherapies with the aim of quantifying the 24-h distribution of blood pressure (BP) reduction by treatment through the smoothness index and of developing and testing a new treatment-on-variability index (TOVI) to quantify the effects of treatment on both mean BP and BP variability.
Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.
The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and b
... Stroke More Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure Updated:Oct 22,2015 There are several harmful ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...
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Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan;
BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (<120/<80 mm Hg), prehypertension (120-139/80-89 mm Hg), and hypertension (≥140/≥90 mm Hg). METHODS: To assess the potential differential contribution of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in predict......BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (...) in predicting risk across CBP strata, we analyzed outcomes in 7,826 untreated people recruited from 11 populations. RESULTS: During an 11.3-year period, 809 participants died (276 cardiovascular deaths) and 639, 383, and 225 experienced a cardiovascular, cardiac, or cerebrovascular event. Compared...... with normotension (n = 2,639), prehypertension (n = 3,076) carried higher risk (P ≤ 0.015) of cardiovascular (+41%) and cerebrovascular (+92%) endpoints; compared with hypertension (n = 2,111) prehypertension entailed lower risk (P ≤ 0.005) of total mortality (-14%) and cardiovascular mortality (-29...
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of proximity to city parks on blood pressure categories during the first trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 3,416 female residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The women were classified into four blood pressure categories: optimal, normal, high-normal blood pressure, and hypertension. Multinomial regression models were used to investigate the association between three women’s groups with respect to the residence distances from city parks (300, >300–1,000, and >1,000 m and four blood pressure categories. When using the optimal blood pressure as the reference group, the crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR for normal blood pressure and for high-normal blood pressure proved to be statistically significantly higher after the inclusion of the selected covariates into the regression analysis. The probability of normal blood pressure increased by 9%, and that of high-normal blood pressure—by 14% for every 300 m increase in the distance to green spaces. The findings of this study suggest a beneficial impact of nearby city parks on blood pressure amongst 20- to 45-year-old women. This relationship has important implications for the prevention of hypertension and the reduction of hypertension-related morbidity.
Ahern, David K; Stinson, Lynda J; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Wroblewski, Joseph P; McMurray, Jerome H; Eaton, Charles B
Both technological and human factors design requirements for integration of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) into a patient centered medical home (PCMH) model primary care practice are described. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension were given home blood pressure (BP) monitors, and after a three-month run-in period introduced to either a high-tech only (HBPM connectivity to personal health record and tailored Web portal access) or a high-tech/"high-touch" (high-tech solution plus patient navigator [PN]) solution. Features of the Web portal included: BP graphing function, traffic-light feedback system of BP goal attainment, economic incentives for self-monitoring, and dual patient-facing and care-team-facing dashboard functions. The e-health BP control system with PN support was well received by patients, providers, and the healthcare team. Current e-health technology and limited technological literacy of many patients suggest that a PN or some other personnel resource may be required for the adoption of patient-facing technology in primary care. PMID:23167022
Carly M. Goldstein
Full Text Available Meditation techniques are increasingly popular practices that may be useful in preventing or reducing elevated blood pressure. We reviewed landmark studies and recent literature concerning the use of meditation for reducing blood pressure in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals. We sought to highlight underlying assumptions, identify strengths and weaknesses of the research, and suggest avenues for further research, reporting of results, and dissemination of findings. Meditation techniques appear to produce small yet meaningful reductions in blood pressure either as monotherapy or in conjunction with traditional pharmacotherapy. Transcendental meditation and mindfulness-based stress reduction may produce clinically significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. More randomized clinical trials are necessary before strong recommendations regarding the use of meditation for high BP can be made.
Elias, Merrill F; Dore, Gregory A; Davey, Adam; Robbins, Michael A; Elias, Penelope K
We examined the hypothesis that lowered cognitive performance plays a role in the relation between elevated blood pressure and physical disability in performing basic physical tasks. A community-based sample (N=1025) free from stroke and dementia (mean age: 61.1 years; SD: 13.0 years; 59.8% women) was used. Using path analysis, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (predictor variable) measured over multiple longitudinal examinations were averaged and related to multiple measures of cognition (intermediate variable) and physical ability (PA; outcome variable) measured at wave 6 of the Maine-Syracuse Study. PA was indexed by time required to execute standing, walking, and turning tests. A best-fit path model including blood pressure and multiple demographic and cardiovascular disease covariates was used. Paths from systolic blood pressure to global performance, verbal memory, and abstract reasoning (Similarities test) were significant (Pspatial organization/memory, verbal memory, working memory, and abstract reasoning. Regardless of the blood pressure predictor, lower cognitive performance (intermediate variable) was related to lower PA (outcome) in the path from blood pressure to PA. The direct path from blood pressure to PA was significant only for systolic blood pressure. Cognitive performance mediates between blood pressure and PA. As compared with systolic blood pressure, more domains of cognitive functioning intervene between diastolic blood pressure and PA. PMID:20404216
Bassem Abou Merhi
Full Text Available Background: Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. Aims: The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls, and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Results: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively (P < .001. There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90th and 95th percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately, was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. Conclusions: We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure.
Bassem Abou Merhi
Full Text Available Background: Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. Aims : The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls, and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Results: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively (P < .001. There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90 th and 95 th percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately, was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. Conclusions: We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure.
HUISMAN, RM; DEBRUIN, C; KLONT, D; SMIT, AJ
Background. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements in haemodialysis patients are relevant in view of the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients. Methods. Twelve normotensive patients were studied from the beginning of one dialysis until the end of the next (mea
Laugesen, Esben; Knudsen, Søren T; Hansen, Klavs W;
Aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) represents the hemodynamic cardiac and cerebral burden more directly than office systolic BP. Whether invasively measured aortic systolic BP confers additional prognostic value beyond office BP remains debated. In this study, office systolic BP and invasively...
Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José;
Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...
Rey, M.; Segerer, Hugo; Kiessling, C.; Obladen, Michael
Fifteen preterm infants suffering from respiratory distress syndrome were randomly allocated to receive either high-dose (200 mg/kg) or low-dose (100 mg/kg) surfactant treatment. Retreatments were done with the low dose. Blood pressure, blood gases and cerebral blood flow velocities were determined before and after 24 bolus instillations. With the high dose mean blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocity dropped significantly. With the low dose only mean cerebral blood flow velocity...
Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van
OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of systo
Madsen, Line Bille; Christiansen, Terkel; Kirkegaard, Peder;
Aims. The purpose of the present study was to compare the costs of home blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring (HBPM) with the costs of conventional office BP monitoring. In a randomized controlled trial, 105 hypertensive patients performed HBPM and 118 patients received usual care with conventional......-time ambulatory BP (ABP) were reduced in both groups. The uncertainty around the incremental cost effectiveness ratio point estimates was considerable for both systolic and diastolic ABP. For systolic ABP, the difference in cost effectiveness ratio between the two groups was 256 Danish kroner (DKK)/mmHg [95......% uncertainty interval, UI -860 to 4544]. For diastolic ABP, the difference in cost effectiveness ratio between the two groups was 655 DKK/mmHg [95% UI -674 to 69315]. Medication and consultation costs were lowest in the intervention group, but were offset by the cost of the telemonitoring equipment...
Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold
There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP. PMID:25432901
Full Text Available As our understanding of the underlying aetiology of hypertension is far from adequate, over 90% of patients with hypertension receive a diagnosis of essential hypertension. This non-specific diagnosis leads to suboptimal therapeutics and a major problem with non-compliance. Understanding the normal control of blood pressure (BP is, hence, important for a better understanding of the disease.This review attempts to unravel the present understanding of BP control. The local mechanisms of BP control, the neural mechanisms, renal-endocrine mechanisms, and a variety of other hormones that have a bearing in normal BP control are discussed and the possible role in the pathophysiology is alluded to.
@@ Over the past few years, the research team of Professor Ding-feng SU has reported an impressive quantity of experimental data about the relationships between blood pressure variability (BPV) and end-organ damage, a topic of obvious clinical interest. This research work has been summarized in a paper that appeared in the August issue of the renowned journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. The studies by Su et al provide convincing evidence that BPV is an independent cardiovascular risk factor that should be considered as such and, therefore, might become an important target for therapeutic interventions. Besides these exciting perspectives in the prevention and treatment of cardiovasculardiseases, the work by Su et al raises a series of physiological questions.
Rushton, Melanie; Smith, Joyce
Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to measure blood pressure (BP) manually using an aneroid sphygmomanometer. ▶ BP measurement is an essential clinical skill, and nurses must be competent in performing this procedure and taking accurate readings. ▶ Nurses should be aware of manual BP measurement techniques and understand the patient and environmental factors that may result in inaccurate readings that could compromise patient care. ▶ Nurses should regularly undertake manual BP measurement to ensure they remain competent to perform the procedure. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. Further learning needs to extend your professional development. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26786460
Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis
The Fixed-Dose Combination of Olmesartan/Amlodipine Was Superior in Central Aortic Blood Pressure Reduction Compared with Perindopril/Amlodipine: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial in Patients with Hypertension
Ruilope, Luis; Schaefer, Angie
Introduction Central blood pressure (BP), an important measure of cardiovascular risk, has been shown to be effectively reduced by calcium channel blockade with amlodipine (AML) plus renin–angiotensin system blockade by the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, perindopril (PER). The aim of the SEVITENSION study was to compare the central effects of PER/AML against renin–angiotensin system blockade with the angiotensin II receptor blocker olmesartan (OLM) plus AML. Methods In this multicen...
Ransdell; pierson; 张仙根
盐的摄入与高血压到底存在怎样的关系?多年来,人们对这个问题争论不休。现在,终于有了可靠的结论:A salty diet really does drive up bloodpressure;both in people with and without elevated pressure.本文出现了一个新的首字母缩略词DASH。《英汉大词典补编》尚未收入此词。所幸的是,本文作者对此DASH作了说明,DASH=Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension,我们是否可将它译成“食疗降血压法”?高血压是诱发各种心血管疾病的元凶,我们不能掉以轻心。本文的一个观点可供我们参考:An intake of sodium below thecurrent recommended daily level of 2,400 milligrams(毫克)could help Americansprevent blood pressure rises that occur especially with advancing age.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All of them were observed by a single observer during the act of BP recording. The observer was well versed with the guidelines issued by British Hypertension Society (BHS and the deviations from the standard set of guidelines issued by BHS were noted. The errors were defined as deviations from these guidelines. STATISTICAL METHODS: The results were recorded as percentage of doctors committing these errors. RESULTS: In our study, 90% used mercury type sphygmomanometer. Zero error of the apparatus, hand dominance was not noted by any one. Every one used the standard BP cuff for recording BP. 70% of them did not let the patient rest before recording BP. 80% did not remove the clothing from the arm. None of them recorded BP in both arms. In out patient setting, 80% recorded blood pressure in sitting position and 14% in supine position. In all the patients where BP was recorded in sitting position BP apparatus was below the level of heart and 20% did not have their arm supported. 60% did not use palpatory method for noticing systolic BP and 70% did not raise pressure 30-40 mm Hg above the systolic level before checking the BP by auscultation. 80% lowered the BP at a rate of more than 2 mm/s and 60% rounded off the BP to nearest 5-10 mm Hg. 70% recorded BP only once and 90% of the rest re inflated the cuff without completely deflating and allowing rest before a second reading was obtained. CONCLUSION: The practice of recording BP in our hospital varies from the standard
Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang
Abstract Background. Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement. Objective. To compare blood pressure by auscultatory and oscillometric measurements in...... patients 80 years. Method. 100 patients had blood pressure measured by auscultation with a sphygmomanometer and by an electronic device using the oscillometric method. For each patient the mean of two blood pressures with each method measured within 15 min were compared. Results. The mean age of...... participants was 85.8 years; 55.8% were women. The correlation coeffi cient for systolic blood pressure was 0.88 and for diastolic 0.79. Differences between auscultatory and oscillometric values were less than 10 mmHg in 70.6% of systolic blood pressures and in 83.2% for diastolic. Arrhythmia and hypertension...
Whincup, P H; Cook, D G; Papacosta, O
It has been proposed that maternal health and nutrition may be important in the development of adult cardiovascular risk, and that blood pressure may be an important intermediate step in this process. To examine the relevance of this hypothesis in contemporary British children, the relationships of several maternal factors to blood pressure were studied in 3360 children of European origin aged 5-7 years. Maternal age, height, and body mass index were all positively related to blood pressure i...
Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric; Young, T Kue;
Studies of blood pressure among various Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic have given inconsistent results. Most studies reported lower blood pressure among the Inuit as compared with the predominantly white national populations. This has been attributed to traditional subsistence practices...... and lifestyle. This study compared the blood pressure among the major Inuit population groups with other populations and examined the associations with factors like age, gender, obesity and smoking....
<正>The principle for blood pressure measurement using pulse transit time is introduced in this paper.And the math model of synergetics theory is studied in detail.The synergetics theory is applied in the analysis of blood pressure measurement data.The simulation results show that the application of synergetics theory is helpful to judge the normal blood pressure,and the accuracy is up to 80%.
Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular
Sørensen, M B; Rasmussen, Verner; Jensen, Gorm Boje;
OBJECTIVE: Post-menopausal hormone replacement (HRT) might protect against cardiovascular disease, possibly by arterial vasodilation and reduced blood pressure. Progestogens are needed to avoid endometrial disease but vascular effects are controversial. The objective was to assess temporal change...... but the reduction varies with the HRT regimen, which might explain the diversity in previous BP findings during HRT. Norethisterone acetate might possess additive blood pressure-lowering effects in postmenopausal women....
Gu, Liangling; Yang, Yongming; Yu, Chengbo; Guo, Qiaohui; Zhu, Gang
Blood pressure reflects a person's health.It is proposed here that the method of detecting blood pressure may be the key to improving the precision of blood pressure measurements. The oscillometric blood pressure measurement technique is widely used in automatic blood pressure measurement instruments correctly. A method of blood pressure measurement by oscillometric method is first presented. In the oscillometric method, the basic principle of the "feature point" method and the "amplitude characteristic ratios" method is also explained and discussed here. A new method of blood pressure measurement, namely the coefficient difference comparative method, is proposed here,which is based on the feature point method and amplitude characteristic ratios method. The method is proved both effective and reliable through the analysis of many cases and clinical tests. Utilizing Visual C++, software for this new and novel method was developed and passed criterion simulation apparatus test. When applied in hospital situation, its error was +/-5%. It is concluded that the oscillometric blood pressure measurement method can provide better means of blood pressure measurements reference for doctors.
Londe, Sol; Klitzner, Thomas S.
Excessive pressure on the stethoscope head in auscultatory blood pressure measurement does not affect systolic blood pressure value but it does erroneously lower diastolic readings and frequently causes the sounds to persist to zero. Consequently, the lightest possible pressure should be placed on the stethoscope head.
Robertson, J. S.
Blood pressure measurements were made on children in their fourth year at secondary schools in parts of Scunthorpe Health District supplied with drinking water of varying sodium content. Of the 3131 children, 2740 were examined (1394 boys and 1346 girls). Boys had slightly higher systolic pressures and slightly lower diastolic pressures than the girls. There was no difference between the blood pressure distributions of children in areas supplied with water containing 105 mg/l sodium, 50 mg/l ...
Hudson Fernandes Golino
Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.
Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt
The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained...
Kim, Yu-Sok; Davis, Shyrin C A T; Truijen, Jasper;
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular complications, hypertension, and impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Intensive blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients reduces their risk of stroke but may affect cerebral perfusion. Systemic hemodynamic...... variables and transcranial Doppler-determined cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), cerebral CO2 responsiveness, and cognitive function were determined after 3 and 6 months of intensive BP control in 17 type 2 diabetic patients with microvascular complications (T2DM+), in 18 diabetic patients without (T2DM...... groups. However, in contrast to nondiabetic hypertensive patients, intensive BP control reduced CBFV in T2DM- (58±9 to 54±12 cm · s-1) and T2DM+ (57±13 to 52±11 cm · s-1) at 3 months, but CBFV returned to baseline at 6 months only in T2DM-, whereas the reduction in CBFV progressed in T2DM+ (to 48±8 cm...
Parker, Emily D; Sinaiko, Alan R; Daley, Matt F.; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Trower, Nicole K.; Tavel, Heather M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Magid, David J.; Margolis, Karen L.; O’Connor, Patrick J.
Introduction Elevated blood pressure in childhood may predict increased cardiovascular risk in young adulthood. The Task Force on the Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood pressure in Children and Adolescents recommends that blood pressure be measured in children aged 3 years or older at all health care visits. Guidelines from both Bright Futures and the Expert Panel of Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents recommend annual ...
Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski [Faculdade Evangélica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha, E-mail: email@example.com; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUC-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)
High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence.