Sample records for blood gas analysis

  1. Blood gas analysis for bedside diagnosis

    Singh, Virendra; Khatana, Shruti; Gupta, Pranav


    Arterial blood gas is an important routine investigation to monitor the acid-base balance of patients, effectiveness of gas exchange, and the state of their voluntary respiratory control. Majority of the oral and maxillofacial surgeons find it difficult to interpret and clinically correlate the arterial blood gas report in their everyday practice. This has led to underutilization of this simple tool. The present article aims to simplify arterial blood gas analysis for a rapid and easy bedside...

  2. Analysis of blood gas values in mice following pulmonary irradiation

    The arterial pH and partial pressures of oxygen (P/sub a/O2) and carbon dioxide (P/sub a/CO2) of mice were investigated at times from 1 to 16 weeks after a single radiation dose of 1100 rad to the thorax. The mice breathed air during the irradiation and either air, 7% O2:93% N2, or 100% O2 during the blood gas determinations. P/sub a/O2 values of mice breathing 7% O2:93% N2 or 100% O2 were reduced 4 to 6 weeks after the irradiation. Also, all P/sub a/O2 values were reduced and all hemoglobin (Hb) levels were elevated 16 weeks after irradiation. The majority of the animals died between 16 and 26 weeks after irradiation, but decreased P/sub a/O2 and increased Hb levels also were observed 27 weeks after the treatment in a few of the surviving mice. These findings indicate that the arterial blood gases may change following pulmonary irradiation and may provide an endpoint for the study of radiation-induced pulmonary damage

  3. Arterial blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination in neonates with asphyxia

    Zi-Mei Sun


    Objective:To explore the value of arterial blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination in the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia.Methods: A total of 100 neonates with asphyxia who were admitted in our department from March, 2013 to March, 2014 were included in the study and divided into the mild asphyxia group and the severe asphyxia group according to Apgar scoring. Moreover, 50 normal neonates were served as the control group and used for comparative analysis. AVL blood-gas analyzer was used to detect the levels of pH, PaO2, HCO3-, BE, PaCO2, K+, Na+, Cl-, and Ca2+.Results:The concentrations of pH, PaO2, HCO3-, and BE in the severe asphyxia group were significantly lower than those in the mild asphyxia group and the control group, while PaCO2 level was significantly higher than that in the mild asphyxia group and the control group. The comparison of the various indicators between the control group and the mild asphyxia group was not statistically significant. The comparison of serum K+, Na+,and Cl- levels among the control group, the mild asphyxia group, and the severe asphyxia group was not statistically significant. The serum Ca2+ level in the severe asphyxia group was significantly lower than that in the mild asphyxia group and the control group, while the comparison between the mild asphyxia group and the control group was also statistically significant.Conclusions:Blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination to the arterial blood in neonates can compensate for the insufficiency of Apgar scoring and provide an objective evidence for the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and the estimation of severity degree. Clinical combination with Apgar scoring is of great significance in enhancing the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and the accuracy of severity evaluation.

  4. Arterial blood gas analysis or oxygen saturation in the assessment of acute asthma?

    Carruthers, D M; Harrison, B. D.


    BACKGROUND--A study was undertaken to determine if arterial blood gas estimation is always necessary in the assessment of patients presenting to hospital with acute severe asthma, or whether oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry is a reliable screening test for predicting those in respiratory failure. METHODS--A prospective study was conducted in a specialist respiratory medical unit. Arterial blood gas tensions and pulse oximetry were measured in 89 consecutive patients admitted wi...

  5. Optical Transcutaneous pCO2 Sensor using Soft Lithography Method for Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

    Kang, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Do-Eok; Leem, Myoung-Kun; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Lee, Kwang-Man; Kang, Shin-Won


    In this study, we carried out development of non-invasive optical transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pCO2, monitoring system. The purpose of this system is to detect CO2 from outer skin, not from the arterial blood-gathering method. There are advantages about a reduction of analysis time and real-time monitoring that this system might be available. The measurement system is composed of the IR lamp, the pyroelectric sensor including a 4.26 μm optical filter, the optical gas reaction chamber and the signal processing circuit. The optical reaction length of chamber was reduced by 1 mm using the soft-lithography method which CO2 is exhausted in human body as we considered. The fabricated pCO2 monitoring system showed linear result of 6.50×10-6 absorbance/ppm sensitivity for CO2 concentration from 0 ˜5,000 ppm by MFC and about 2 seconds of fast response time. The proposed system can be used in the optical biosensor field for the medical diagnosis such as pCO2 monitoring system and environment monitoring systems.

  6. Clinical significance of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH changes in neonatal asphyxia

    Bao-Hua Xu; Xin Lin; Mi-Jia Huang


    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH changes in neonatal asphyxia.Methods:A total of 100 newborns with asphyxia who visited in our hospital were collected, and divided into severe group (n=20) and mild group (n=80) according to the asphyxia degree, and 50 healthy newborns regarded as control group. The 3 groups received blood gas analysis (pH, BE and PaCO2), electrolyte (K+, Na+ and Ca2+) and 3 kinds of enzymes (CK, CK-MB and HBDH) were tested and compared.Results: Compared with control group, pH and BE of blood gas indexes decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly in severe group (P0.05). Compared with mild group, pH and BE of blood gas indexes decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly in severe group (P0.05). Compared with mild group, the level of Ca2+ decreased significantly in severe group (P<0.05); Compared with control group, the levels of CK, CK-MB and HBDH increased significantly in severe and mild group (P<0.05). Compared with mild group, the levels of CK, CK-MB and HBDH increased significantly in severe group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The detection of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH can provide an objective evidence for the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and estimation of severity degree which was helpful in clinical treatment.

  7. The role of pre-hospital blood gas analysis in trauma resuscitation

    Katila Ari


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess, whether arterial blood gas measurements during trauma patient's pre-hospital shock resuscitation yield useful information on haemodynamic response to fluid resuscitation by comparing haemodynamic and blood gas variables in patients undergoing two different fluid resuscitation regimens. Methods In a prospective randomised study of 37 trauma patients at risk for severe hypovolaemia, arterial blood gas values were analyzed at the accident site and on admission to hospital. Patients were randomised to receive either conventional fluid therapy or 300 ml of hypertonic saline. The groups were compared for demographic, injury severity, physiological and outcome variables. Results 37 patients were included. Mean (SD Revised Trauma Score (RTS was 7.3427 (0.98 and Injury Severity Score (ISS 15.1 (11.7. Seventeen (46% patients received hypertonic fluid resuscitation and 20 (54% received conventional fluid therapy, with no significant differences between the groups concerning demographic data or outcome. Base excess (BE values decreased significantly more within the hypertonic saline (HS group compared to the conventional fluid therapy group (mean BE difference -2.1 mmol/l vs. -0.5 mmol/l, p = 0.003. The pH values on admission were significantly lower within the HS group (mean 7.31 vs. 7.40, p = 0.000. Haemoglobin levels were in both groups lower on admission compared with accident site. Lactate levels on admission did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusion Pre-hospital use of small-volume resuscitation led to significantly greater decrease of BE and pH values. A portable blood gas analyzer was found to be a useful tool in pre-hospital monitoring for trauma resuscitation.

  8. Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Novović Miloš; Topić Vesna


    Introduction. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG) values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), partial o...

  9. Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Novović Miloš


    Full Text Available Introduction. Arterial blood gas (ABG analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2, partial oxygen pressure (PO2, bicarbonate (HCO3, and venous and arterial blood oxygen saturation (SO2 can reliably predict ABG levels in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Methods. Forty-seven patients with a prior diagnosis of COPD were included in this prospective study. The patients with acute exacerbation of this disease were examined at the General Hospital EMS Department in Prijepolje. ABG samples were taken immediately after venous sampling, and both were analyzed. Results. The Pearson correlation coefficients between arterial and venous parameters were 0.828, 0.877, 0.599, 0.896 and 0.312 for pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3 and SO2, respectively. The statistically significant correlation between arterial and venous pH, PCO2 and HCO3, values was found in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (p<0.001. Conclusion. When we cannot provide arterial blood for analysis, venous values of the pH, Pv,CO2 and HCO3 parameters can be an alternative to their arterial equivalents in the interpretation of the metabolic status in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, while the values of venous Pv,O2 and Sv,O2 cannot be used as predictors in the assessment of oxygen status of such patients.

  10. Fast gas chromatography and negative-ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry for forensic analysis of cannabinoids in whole blood.

    Thomas, Aurélien; Widmer, Christèle; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Staub, Christian


    The present work describes a fast gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric assay (Fast GC/NICI-MS/MS) for analysis of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in whole blood. The cannabinoids were extracted from 500 microL of whole blood by a simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and then derivatized by using trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as fluorinated agents. Mass spectrometric detection of the analytes was performed in the selected reaction-monitoring mode on a triple quadrupole instrument after negative-ion chemical ionization. The assay was found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.5-20 ng/mL for THC and THC-OH, and of 2.5-100 ng/mL for THC-COOH. Repeatability and intermediate precision were found less than 12% for all concentrations tested. Under standard chromatographic conditions, the run cycle time would have been 15 min. By using fast conditions of separation, the assay analysis time has been reduced to 5 min, without compromising the chromatographic resolution. Finally, a simple approach for estimating the uncertainty measurement is presented. PMID:17913432

  11. Computed tomography and blood gas analysis of anesthetized bloodhounds with induced pneumothorax

    Increasingly severe degrees of pneumothorax were produced in 6 adult anesthetized bloodhounds. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was performed on each dog to evaluate the effects of pneumo thorax on thoracic and on pulmonary cross-sectional area (TA and PA). Arterial PO2 (PaO2) and PCO2 (PaCO2), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were determined and related to the severity of pneumothorax. Volumes of air equal to 1, 1.5 and 2 times functional residual capacity of the lung produced approximately 33%, 40%, and 50% reductions in pulmonary area respectively. These amounts of atelectasis correspond to a radiographically “moderate” degree of pneumothorax. As severity of pneumothorax increased, thoracic area consistently increased, PaO2 consistently decreased, and PaCO2 consistently increased, with all being statistically significant relationships (p0.2)

  12. The enhancement effects of xenon gas inhalation for the image analysis of the blood brain barrier damage

    The enhancement study of the Iodide contained contrast material has been performed since Gado had presented its clinical application at the workshop on Reconstruction Tomography in 1975. In 1977, Winkler et al. reported the clinical utilization of Xenon gas enhancement study. However many literatures treated the partition coefficient and washout study of Xenon gas just like the radioactive Xenon-133. There are very few informations concerning the image analysis of Xenon enhanced CT. The image analysis of the reconstructed sagittal and coronal pictures with Xenon gas inhalation has been performed in this study. The ischemic small lesion of cerebral infarction is not usually identified in ordinary CT view. Three cases who had the T.I.A. of negative CT were clearly demonstrated in the reconstructed pictures with Xenon gas inhalation. And one case of left parietal glioma showed the partial negative image with Xenon gas CT among the slightly enhanced edema lesion. This part might be the infiltrating lesion of tumor. There are very few cases presented here, but the clinical application to detect the small lesion of cerebral parenchymal damage with Xenon gas inhalation might have some value and the image analysis study with the reconstruced sagittal and coronal view may have the role of detailed detection of small lesions. (author)

  13. Blood stain pattern analysis.

    Peschel, O; Kunz, S N; Rothschild, M A; Mützel, E


    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) refers to the collection, categorization and interpretation of the shape and distribution of bloodstains connected with a crime. These kinds of stains occur in a considerable proportion of homicide cases. They offer extensive information and are an important part of a functional, medically and scientifically based reconstruction of a crime. The following groups of patterns can essentially be distinguished: dripped and splashed blood, projected blood, impact patterns, cast-off stains, expirated and transferred bloodstains. A highly qualified analysis can help to estimate facts concerning the location, quality and intensity of an external force. A sequence of events may be recognized, and detailed questions connected with the reconstruction of the crime might be answered. In some cases, BPA helps to distinguish between accident, homicide and suicide or to identify bloodstains originating from a perpetrator. BPA is based on systematic training, a visit to the crime scene or alternatively good photographic documentation, and an understanding and knowledge of autopsy findings or statements made by the perpetrator and/or victim. A BPA working group has been established within the German Society of Legal Medicine aiming to put the knowledge and practical applications of this subdiscipline of forensic science on a wider basis. PMID:21069481

  14. Continuous blood gas monitoring in femoral arteries

    Schlain, Les A.; Spar, Steven M.; Dellinger, Bart


    Continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring is a potentially valuable tool in the surgical and intensive care arenas. Patient oxygenation and acid base status can change rapidly and without warning. The ability to monitor pHa, PaCO2 and PaO2 in arterial blood will be a major medical advance for the anesthesiologist and intensivist. Intra-arterial blood gas sensors are typically placed in radial arteries. In certain patient populations accurate monitoring is not possible in radial arteries due to arterial environmental factors such as hypotension, vasoconstriction and atherosclerotic disease. These same factors can make radial cannulation difficult resulting in traumatic catheter insertion, thereby further compromising flow conditions. In situations where radial artery flow is expected to be compromised, selecting a large vessel for sensor placement is desirable. We report an initial feasibility study of our blood gas monitoring system using the femoral artery as the sensing site. Clinical results are presented as well as potential advantages and disadvantages associated with monitoring in the femoral artery.

  15. GC-NPD and GC-MS analysis of preserved tissue of Bhopal gas disaster: evidence of methyl carbamylation in post-mortem blood.

    Sriramachari, S; Rao, G J; Sharma, V K; Jadhav, R K; Saraf, A K; Chandra, H


    Twenty-five preserved autopsy blood samples of Bhopal toxic gas exposed victims were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with either Nitrogen-Phosphorous detector (NPD) or mass spectrometer (MS) for the presence of methyl carbamyl valine in terms of valine methyl hydantoin (VMH). 84% of these samples showed a positive test for VMH on GC-NPD and the identity of the peaks were further confirmed on GC-MS. The concentration of VMH in the gas-affected positive blood samples ranged from 2.56 to 51.28 nanomoles. These results indicate entry of methyl isocyanate (MIC), one of the constituents of the toxic cloud caused by the disaster, into the blood stream of victims who had inhaled gas. PMID:1795610

  16. Blood gas analysis, anion gap, and strong ion difference in horses treated with polyethylene glycol balanced solution (PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions

    Cláudio Luís Nina Gomes


    Full Text Available Large volumes of different electrolytes solutions are commonly used for ingesta hydration in horses with large colon impaction, but little is known about their consequences to blood acid-base balance. To evaluate the effects of PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions on the blood gas analysis, anion gap and strong ion difference, five adult female horses were used in a 5x5 latin square design. The animals were divided in five groups and distributed to each of the following treatments: NaCl (0.9% sodium chloride solution; EES (enteral electrolyte solution, EES+LR (EES plus lactated Ringer's solution; PEG (balanced solution with PEG 3350 and PEG+LR (PEG plus lactated Ringer's solution. Treatments PEG or PEG + LR did not change or promoted minimal changes, while the EES caused a slight decrease in pH, but its association with lactated Ringer's solution induced increase in AG and SID values, as well as caused hypernatremia. In turn, the treatment NaCl generated metabolic acidosis. PEG 3350 did not alter the acid-base balance. Despite it's slight acidifying effect, the enteral electrolyte solution (EES did not cause clinically relevant changes.

  17. Blood gas analysis features of H7N9 influenza patients%H7N9流感患者15例血气分析

    汤阳; 卢洪洲


    Objective To review the blood gas analysis of H7N9 flu patients for better understanding the characteristics and prognosis of the emerging disease.Methods A retrospective review was conducted for the 15 H7N9 influenza patients,whose blood gas profile was tested with a Radiometer 80 Blood Gas Analyzerin our hospital.The profile of blood gas analysis was compared between the 12 surviving patients and the 3 deaths in terms of their outcomes.Results The 3 patients who died of H7N9 influenza averaged 83 years old.The partial pressure of oxygen was <8 kPa in 9 of the 12 surviving patients,which meet the diagnostic criteria of type I respiratory failure.Their partial pressure of oxygen all recovered to normal (11 .033 ± 2.335 kPa,reference range 10-14 kPa)on discharge.The pH value of peripheral arterial bloold averaged 7.335 (range 7.39-7.54)on adission for the 3 patients who died of H7N9 influenza.The worst average pH value was 7.233 (range 7.32-7.35), which was significantly different from the values of the surviving patients.Conclusions Elderly patients are susceptible to H7N9 influenza infection and subsequent respiratory failure.Old age was associated with higher mortality.The partial pressure of ox-ygen is not significantly associated with patient outcomes.Appropriate active treatment may recover the blood gas profile to normal regardless of the initial values.If decreasing peripheral arterial bloold pH value is highly suggestive of poor prognosis, comprehensive measures should be taken to keep acid-base balance,including assisted ventilation to correct hypoxemia.%目的:探讨 H7N9流感患者的血气分析特点,了解新发疾病的特点及转归,以便采取有效治疗。方法采用雷度(Radiometer)ADL80血气分析仪对15例 H7N9流感患者进行血气分析,并比较好转患者与死亡患者的血气分析结果及预后。结果15例患者中,12例治愈出院,3例死亡,死亡患者的平均年龄为83岁,12例好转患者中9

  18. Prediction of arterial blood gas values from arterialized earlobe blood gas values in patients treated with mechanical ventilation

    Honarmand Azim


    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Arterial blood gas (ABG analysis is useful in evaluation of the clinical condition of critically ill patients; however, arterial puncture or insertion of an arterial catheter may sometimes be difficult and cause many complications. Arterialized ear lobe blood samples have been described as adequate to gauge gas exchange in acute and chronically ill pediatric patients. Purpose: This study evaluates whether pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PO 2 , partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 , base excess (BE, and bicarbonate (HCO 3 values of arterialized earlobe blood samples could accurately predict their arterial blood gas analogs for adult patients treated by mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU. Setting: A prospective descriptive study Methods: Sixty-seven patients who were admitted to ICU and treated with mechanical ventilation were included in this study. Blood samples were drawn simultaneously from the radial artery and arterialized earlobe of each patient. Results: Regression equations and mean percentage-difference equations were derived to predict arterial pH, PCO 2 , PO 2 , BE, and HCO 3 -values from their earlobe analogs. pH, PCO 2 , BE, and HCO 3 all significantly correlated in ABG and earlobe values. In spite of a highly significant correlation, the limits of agreement between the two methods were wide for PO 2 . Regression equations for prediction of pH, PCO 2 , BE, and HCO3- values were: arterial pH (pHa = 1.81+ 0.76 x earlobe pH (pHe [r = 0.791, P < 0.001]; PaCO 2 = 1.224+ 1.058 x earlobePCO 2 (PeCO 2 [r = 0.956, P < 0.001]; arterial BE (BEa = 1.14+ 0.95 x earlobe BE (BEe [r= 0.894, P < 0.001], and arterial HCO 3 - (HCO 3 -a = 1.41+ earlobe HCO 3 (HCO 3 -e [r = 0.874, P < 0.001]. The predicted ABG values from the mean percentage-difference equations were derived as follows: pHa = pHe x 1.001; PaCO 2 = PeCO 2 x 0.33; BEa = BEe x 0.57; and HCO 3 -a = HCO 3 -e x 1.06. Conclusions: Arterialized

  19. Analysis of bias in measurements of potassium, sodium and hemoglobin by an emergency department-based blood gas analyzer relative to hospital laboratory autoanalyzer results.

    Jian Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The emergency departments (EDs of Chinese hospitals are gradually being equipped with blood gas machines. These machines, along with the measurement of biochemical markers by the hospital laboratory, facilitate the care of patients with severe conditions who present to the ED. However, discrepancies have been noted between the Arterial Blood Gas (ABG analyzers in the ED and the hospital laboratory autoanalyzer in relation to electrolyte and hemoglobin measurements. The present study was performed to determine whether the ABG and laboratory measurements of potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin levels are equivalent, and whether ABG analyzer results can be used to guide clinical care before the laboratory results become available.Study power analyses revealed that 200 consecutive patients who presented to our ED would allow this prospective single-center cohort study to detect significant differences between ABG- and laboratory-measured potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin levels. Paired arterial and venous blood samples were collected within 30 minutes. Arterial blood samples were measured in the ED by an ABL 90 FLEX blood gas analyzer. The biochemistry and blood cell counts of the venous samples were measured in the hospital laboratory. The potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin concentrations obtained by both methods were compared by using paired Student's t-test, Spearman's correlation, Bland-Altman plots, and Deming regression.The mean ABG and laboratory potassium values were 3.77±0.44 and 4.2±0.55, respectively (P<0.0001. The mean ABG and laboratory sodium values were 137.89±5.44 and 140.93±5.50, respectively (P<0.0001. The mean ABG and laboratory Hemoglobin values were 12.28±2.62 and 12.35±2.60, respectively (P = 0.24.Although there are the statistical difference and acceptable biases between ABG- and laboratory-measured potassium and sodium, the biases do not exceed USCLIA-determined limits. In parallel, there are no statistical differences and

  20. 20 CFR 718.105 - Arterial blood-gas studies.


    ... DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.105 Arterial blood... test shall be offered to the miner unless medically contraindicated. If an exercise blood-gas test is... Appendix C is administered during a hospitalization which ends in the miner's death, then any such...

  1. Analisis Gas Darah pada Kucing yang Mengalami Laparohisterotomi dengan Anestesi Xylazin-Ketamin dan Xylazin-Propofol (BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS OF XYLAZIN- KETAMIN AND XYLAZIN-PROPOFOL FOR ANESTHESIA TO LAPARO-HISTEROTOMY SURGERY IN CAT

    Ira Sari Yudaniayanti


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the safety application of xylazine-ketamine and xylazinepropofolrecurrent dosage combination as anesthesia for laparo-histerotomy surgery in cat. Thisresearch used 10 female cats, 12-18 months of age, followed randomly divided into two groups, P1:atropine 0,04 mg/kgBW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + ketamine 20 mg/kg BW/IM; P2 : atropine0,04mg/kg BW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + Propofol 20 mg/kg BW/IV. The blood of the allgroups was taken from vena femuralis at 0 minute (before treatment, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutesduring anesthesia for measurement of blood gas value pH, pCO2 and HCO3. After all animals wereanesthetized, the animals were treated laparo-histerotomy surgery. The data were analyzed byusing Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. The result showed both of groups were notsignificantly difference (p>0,05 to blood gas values for pH, pCO2 dan HCO3. Besides, both groupsanaesthetic agent perfectly caused metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis compensationperfectly, therefore it is relatively safe to use as anaesthetic agent for surgery that needs long timeprocedure, as laparo-histerotomy.

  2. Hanford gas dispersion analysis

    An analysis was performed to verify the design of a waste gas exhauster for use in support of rotary core sampling activities at the Westinghouse Hanford Waste Tank Farm. The exhauster was designed to remove waste gases from waste storage tanks during the rotary core drilling process of the solid materials in the tank. Some of the waste gases potentially are very hazardous and must be monitored during the exhauster's operation. If the toxic gas concentrations in specific areas near the exhauster exceed minimum Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), personnel must be excluded from the area. The exhauster stack height is of interest because an increase in stack height will alter the gas concentrations at the critical locations. The exhaust stack is currently ∼4.6 m (15 ft) high. An equipment operator will be located within a 6.1 m (20 ft) radius of the exhaust stack, and his/her head will be at an elevation 3.7 m (12 ft) above ground level (AGL). Therefore, the maximum exhaust gas concentrations at this location must be below the TLV for the toxic gases. Also, the gas concentrations must be within the TLV at a 61 m (200 ft) radius from the stack. If the calculated gas concentrations are above the TLV, where the operator is working below the stack at the 61 m (200 ft) radius location, the stack height may need to be increased

  3. Validation protocol for multiple blood gas analyzers in accordance with laboratory accreditation programs

    Pérsio A. R. Ebner; Paschoalina Romano; Alexandre Sant’Anna; Maria Elizabete Mendes; Magna Oliveira; Nairo M. Sumita


    ABSTRACTIntroduction:The results of blood gas analysis using different instrumentation can vary widely due to the methodological differences, the calibration procedures and the use of different configurations for each type of instrument.Objective:The objective of this study was to evaluate multiple analytical systems for measurement of blood gases, electrolytes and metabolites in accordance with the accreditation program (PALC) of Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica/Medicina Laboratoria...

  4. [A gas chromatographic method for determining acetaldehyde in cadaver blood].

    Savich, V I; Valladares, Kh A; Gusakov, Iu A; Skachko, Z M


    Gas-chromatographic method of acetaldehyde detection in blood of subjects who died of alcoholic intoxication is suggested. Method is simple, does not require additional expenses, can be readily used in medicolegal practice and in difficult cases it may help the expert to make an objective conclusion on the cause of death. PMID:2087747

  5. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  6. Analysis of Arterial and Venous Blood Gases in Healthy Gyr Falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) Under Anesthesia.

    Raghav, Raj; Middleton, Rachael; BSc, Rinshiya Ahamed; Arjunan, Raji; Caliendo, Valentina


    Arterial and venous blood gas analysis is useful in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and ventilation and in diagnosis of metabolic and respiratory derangements. It can be performed with a relatively small volume of blood in avian patients under emergency situations. Arterial and venous blood gas analysis was performed in 30 healthy gyr falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) under anaesthesia to establish temperature-corrected reference intervals for arterial blood gas values and to compare them to temperature-corrected venous blood gas values with a portable point-of-care blood gas analyzer (i-STAT 1, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Statistically significant differences were observed between the temperature-corrected values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) and the corresponding nontemperature-corrected values of these parameters in both arterial and venous blood. Values of temperature-corrected pH, temperature-corrected Pco2, bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess of extra cellular fluid did not differ significantly between arterial and venous blood, suggesting that, in anesthetized gyr falcons, venous blood gas analysis can be used in place of arterial blood gas analysis in clinical situations. Values for hematocrit, measured by the point-of-care analyzer, were significantly lower compared with those obtained by the microhematocrit method. PMID:26771318

  7. Direct Determination of the Blood Concentration of Halogenated Anesthetic Agents by Gas Chromatography



    Full Text Available The direct determination by gas chromatography of blood levels of anesthetic agents has been difficult because of the water content of blood. In the present study, the method of Yokota et al. (1967 was modified by improving the packing materials of the column, the blood sample vaporizer and the flow-path during analysis. As a result, accurate and reproducible determination of halothane, enflurane and isoflurane dissolved in blood was achieved. With this system, blood in which halothane, enflurane and isoflurane had been dissolved could be analyzed without changing the column between samples. Moreover, each sample was prepared in less than 10 min, and more than 100 consecutive determinations could be made with excellent reproducibility. The coefficient of variation was less than 3.8%.

  8. Significance of serum procalcitonin and blood gas analysis in the risk anticipation of patients with acute exacerbation of COPD%血清降钙素原联合血气分析检测对AECOPD患者临床风险预测的意义



    Objective To estimate the prognostic value of serum procalcitonin and blood gas analysis in the risk anticipation of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( AECOPD ). Methods The study selected 65 patients with AECOPD as the test group and 50 healthy people as the control group. Their PCT level and arterial blood gas analysis indexes were tested and dynamically monitored 5 days after the treatment. Results Serum procalcitonin and blood gas analysis had a high sensitivity, and the differences showed a statistical significance before and after the treatment (P 0.05).结论 联合检测血清降钙素原及血气分析对AECOPD患者的风险预测具有较重要的临床意义.

  9. 脐动脉血血气分析对新生儿窒息的预后评估价值%Gas analysis of umbilical cord artery blood on predicating the prognosis of asphyxia neonate

    曹棨; 潘革; 莫锦丽; 何潇; 农常亮; 黄芬


    目的:探讨脐动脉血与桡动脉血血气分析在缺氧新生儿预后评估中的临床应用价值。方法选取2014年9月至2015年9月我院分娩的足月新生儿328例,根据Apgar评分分为重度窒息组11例、轻度窒息组27例、健康对照组290例,出生后取脐动脉血、桡动脉血行血气分析,计算氧合指数,定期随访窒息组新生儿行为神经评估( NBNA)结果,分析其与脐动脉血血气分析pH值之间的关系。结果重度窒息组脐动脉血的pH值、PO2、PCO2、氧合指数分别为7�11±0�25、(73�93±23�35) mmHg、(51�36±16�37) mmHg、206�23±98�12,与轻度窒息组[7�24±0�05、(86�35±12�56) mmHg、(45�89±9�21) mmHg、411�22±57�94]和健康对照组[7�28±0�08、(87�80±12�07) mmHg、(43�68±6�45) mmHg、426�23±73�30]比较,差异均有统计学意义( P均<0�05);桡动脉血 pH 值、PO2、PCO2、氧合指数分别为7�25±0�18、(74�66±24�09) mmHg、(51�42±17�83) mmHg、332�03±65�19,与轻度窒息组[7�31±0�09、(87�24±11�75) mmHg、(45�73±10�21) mmHg、405�67±82�65]和健康对照组[7�32±0�06、(87�99±11�81) mmHg、(42�84±9�32) mmHg、439�89±60�76]比较差异均有统计学意义(P均<0�05);重度窒息组NBNA为(34�09±5�02)分,低于轻度窒息组[(36�62±2�04)分],差异有统计学意义(F=21�65,P<0�05);重度窒息组脐动脉血pH值与NBNA呈正相关( r=0�877,P<0�01)。结论重度窒息组脐动脉血与桡动脉血血气分析的pH值、PO2、氧合指数下降,PCO2升高。重度窒息组NBNA与脐动脉血气分析pH值相关,脐动脉血气分析pH值有助于评估新生儿近期预后。%Objective To study the gas analysis of umbilical cord artery blood and radial artery blood on predicating the prognosis of asphyxia neonate

  10. Oxygen tension measurement using an automatic blood gas analyser.

    Becket, J; Orchard, C; Chakrabarti, M K; Hall, G M; Gillies, I D; Bourdillon, P J


    Two different methods of assessing the reliability of the oxygen electrode of one model of an automatic blood gas analyser (BGA) have been studied. In the first, a single automatic BGA was assessed by using outdated bank blood which was pumped around a small extracorporeal circuit into which known gas mixtures were passed. Oxygen tension was varied between 2 and 16 kPa. In the second, fresh heparinized blood was tonometered with calibrated gases and submitted to the automatic BGA used in the first part of the study and also to three other identical machines. Each of the machines was between 3 and 4 years old.Eighteen different units of blood were used in the first part of the study. The correlation coefficient between the automatic BGA and the Po(2) in the extracorporeal circuit varied between 0.29 and 0.99. 31% of the total of 209 measurements made by the automatic BGA were more than 1.2 kPa from the reference value, 25% of them being between 1.2 and 4.0 kPa from the reference value. In the second part of the study, the correlation coefficient between this automatic BGA and the tonometered blood was 0.96. The correlation coefficients for the 3 other identical BGAs were 0.84, 0.97 and 0.88, indicating that the BGA used in the first part of the study was no worse than any of the others.It is suggested that although clinicians are likely to ignore readings of an automatic BGA that are more than 4.0 kPa from the true value and are likely to repeat the investigation, readings between 1.2 and 4.0 kPa from the true value may adversely affect patient management. PMID:7288796

  11. Hemograma e hemogasometria de eqüinos submetidos à obstrução experimental de jejuno Hemogram and blood gas analysis of equines submitted to jejuni experimental obstruction

    N.S. Costa


    Full Text Available Foram utilizados oito eqüinos distribuídos em dois grupos, submetidos ou não à obstrução experimental do jejuno mediante a colocação de um balão intraluminal. Os animais do grupo 1 foram submetidos à enterotomia com colocação do balão sem distensão suficiente para provocar isquemia e os do grupo 2 à isquemia por obstrução do jejuno durante quatro horas. Para determinação do hemograma e da hemogasometria foram obtidas amostras de sangue venoso em quatro momentos: uma hora antes do procedimento cirúrgico (M1, ao final da obstrução/isquemia (M2 e uma hora (M3 e 18 horas (M4 após o início da reperfusão/desobstrução. Não houve diferença entre grupos nas contagens de hemácias, leucócitos totais, neutrófilos bastonetes, neutrófilos segmentados, linfócitos e monócitos, bem como no teor de hemoglobina. Houve diferença no volume globular em M2 e na contagem de eosinófilos em M3. Na hemogasometria, em ambos os grupos, registrou-se diminuição dos teores de sódio, potássio, cálcio ionizado e cloro, da pressão parcial de oxigênio e da saturação de oxiemoglobina. Os resultados indicam que o hemograma, isoladamente, não fornece informações conclusivas, enquanto a hemogasometria possibilita determinar, precocemente, o volume de reposição hidroeletrolítica a ser administrado em eqüino com abdômen agudo decorrente de obstrução de jejuno, auxiliando no tratamento e no melhor prognóstico da afecção intestinal.Eight equines were distributed into two different groups. Those groups were submitted or not to an experimental jejunal obstruction. Animals from group 1 were submitted to an enterotomy with placement of an intraluminal balloon, without enough distention to cause ischemia; animals from group 2 were submitted to ischemia by jejunal obstruction during four hours. In order to determine the hemogram and blood gas analysis, blood samples from peripheral vein were obtained at four moments: one hour before the

  12. Effects of xuebijing parenteral solution on blood coagulation function and blood gas analysis in severe sepsis patients%血必净注射液对严重脓毒症患者凝血功能及血气分析的影响

    张连东; 裴新军


    目的 探讨血必净注射液对严重脓毒症患者凝血功能及血气分析的影响.方法 用前瞻性研究方法,选择2010-01~2012-07我院急诊重症监护病房(ICU)收治的严重脓毒症患者120例,随机分为对照组和治疗组.对照组予以抗感染、激素、维持水、电解质及酸碱平衡等常规治疗;治疗组在常规治疗的基础上加用血必净注射液100 mL溶于5%的葡萄糖注射液250 mL中静脉滴注,2次/d,共7 d.分别于治疗前及治疗7 d后测定凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)、凝血酶时间(TT)、血小板计数(PLT)及血气分析.比较对照组和治疗组治疗前后PT、APTT、FIB、TT、PLT及血气分析变化.结果 与治疗前比较,治疗后两组PT、APTT、TT延长,FIB升高,PLT和氧合均改善(均P0.05).结论 血必净注射液能改善严重脓毒症患者高凝状态和氧合,为临床治疗严重脓毒症提供了新参考.%Objective To invesligale the effects of xuebijing parenleral solution on blood coagulalion funclion and blood gas analysis in severe sepsis palienls. Methods 120 palienls of severe sepsis were randomly divided into Lwo groups; conlrol group ( 60 cases) and trealmenl group ( 60 cases) . The basic trealmenls of Lwo groups included primary disease trealmenl. , anti - infection,adrenal cortical hormone trealmenl and keeping the balance of water - eleclrolyle. The trealmenl group was supernumerarily injecled with xuebijing parenleral solulion 100 mL and 5% glucose solulion injection 250 mL for 7 d, bid. Prolhrombin lime(PT) , aclivaled partial thromboplaslin lime ( APTT) , fibrin (Fib) , ihromboplaslin lime(TT) , parameter of blood plalelels and blood gas analysis were measured before the trealmenl and 7days after the trealmenl. PT, APTT, Fib, TT, parameter of blood plalelels and blood gas analysis of lwo groups were compared before and afler the trealmenl. Results Compared with conlrol group, PT, APTT and TT

  13. Prediction of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds for the interpretation of data in breath gas analysis.

    Kramer, Christian; Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl; Agapiou, Agapios; Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Liedl, Klaus R


    In this article, a database of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients (λ b:a and λ f:a) is reported for estimating 1678 volatile organic compounds recently reported to appear in the volatilome of the healthy human. For this purpose, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was applied and a novel method for Henry's law constants prediction developed. A random forest model based on Molecular Operating Environment 2D (MOE2D) descriptors based on 2619 literature-reported Henry's constant values was built. The calculated Henry's law constants correlate very well (R(2) test  =  0.967) with the available experimental data. Blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients were calculated according to the method proposed by Poulin and Krishnan using the estimated Henry's constant values. The obtained values correlate reasonably well with the experimentally determined ones for a test set of 90 VOCs (R(2)  =  0.95). The provided data aim to fill in the literature data gap and further assist the interpretation of results in studies of the human volatilome. PMID:26815030

  14. Multi-element analysis of blood plasma

    Two examples of multi-element analysis (MA) - semiconductor gamma spectrometry of natural and artificial radionuclides, and neutron activation analysis - of eight samples of lyophilized pooled plasma (a total of 124 subjects) from four localities of the regions Central Bohemia and Prague, show the scope for its use, e.g., in transfusion services. This consists in the use of ecological screening made up of five stages: preliminary rating of the intensity of ecological interactions in an individual or a group of blood donors; sample taking with the date and hour of sampling; determination of ecological interaction intensity tracers for an individual or for groups of blood donors using the appropriate MA method; comparisons of pre-rated and MA-established intensity of ecological interactions of an individual or a group of blood donors; standardization of MA results according to the date and hour of sampling. (author)

  15. Implementation of the ABL-90 blood gas analyzer in a ground-based mobile emergency care unit

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Wolsing-Hansen, Jonathan; Nybo, Mads;


    Point-of Care analysis is increasingly being applied in the prehospital scene. Arterial blood gas analysis is one of many new initiatives adding to the diagnostic tools of the prehospital physician. In this paper we present a study on the feasibility of the Radiometer ABL-90 in a ground...

  16. Validation protocol for multiple blood gas analyzers in accordance with laboratory accreditation programs

    Pérsio A. R. Ebner


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:The results of blood gas analysis using different instrumentation can vary widely due to the methodological differences, the calibration procedures and the use of different configurations for each type of instrument.Objective:The objective of this study was to evaluate multiple analytical systems for measurement of blood gases, electrolytes and metabolites in accordance with the accreditation program (PALC of Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica/Medicina Laboratorial (SBPC/ML.Materials and methods:20 samples were evaluated in three ABL800 Flex (Radiometer Medical ApS, Denmark blood gas analyzers, and the results were compared with those of the device in use, which was considered the reference. The analysis of variance (Anova was applied for statistical purposes, as well as the calculation of mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation.Results:The p values obtained in the statistical analysis were: pH = 0.983, pO2 = 0.991, pCO2 = 0.353, lactate = 0.584, glucose = 0.995, ionized calcium = 0.983, sodium = 0.991, potassium = 0.926, chlorine = 0.029.Conclusion:The evaluation of multiple analytical systems is an essential procedure in the clinical laboratory for quality assurance and accuracy of the results.

  17. Analisis Gas Darah pada Kucing yang Mengalami Laparohisterotomi dengan Anestesi Xylazin-Ketamin dan Xylazin-Propofol (BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS OF XYLAZIN- KETAMIN AND XYLAZIN-PROPOFOL FOR ANESTHESIA TO LAPARO-HISTEROTOMY SURGERY IN CAT)

    Ira Sari Yudaniayanti; Nusdianto Triakoso; Djoko Galijono


    The aim of this research was to study the safety application of xylazine-ketamine and xylazinepropofolrecurrent dosage combination as anesthesia for laparo-histerotomy surgery in cat. Thisresearch used 10 female cats, 12-18 months of age, followed randomly divided into two groups, P1:atropine 0,04 mg/kgBW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + ketamine 20 mg/kg BW/IM; P2 : atropine0,04mg/kg BW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + Propofol 20 mg/kg BW/IV. The blood of the allgroups was taken from vena femural...

  18. Continuous arterial blood gas monitoring in rabbits: an efficient method for evaluation of ratio-based optrodes

    Martin, Roy C.; Olstein, Alan D.; Malin, Stephen F.; Perkovich, Anne


    Laboratory bench testing of optical blood gas sensors is insufficient to completely predict capabilities. Sensor testing in animals offers advantages of known physiologic and regulatory mechanisms of hemodynamics to better predict sensor performance. The domestic rabbit, Oryctalogis Cuniculus, a lagomorph of the family Leporidae was used for sensor evaluation. The rabbits are ventilated and blood gases modulated by variations in FIO2 and rate adjustments. Twenty gauge catheters are placed in the dorsal aorta, cartoid, and femoral arteries. Pressures are monitored via transducers on the arterial lines. The optical blood gas sensors are fitted within the catheters and blood samples are collected over them for bench analysis. Sensors are on 125 micrometers glass optic fibers. Proprietary prepolymers are applied on the fiber tips through in fiber photopolymerization. These sensors are then calibrated in tonometered water and blood. Sensor monitoring is accomplished through OSR microfluorimetry systems. We have used this model in 26 studies over the past six months evaluating over fifty blood gas sensors. These studies have lasted from six to twenty-four hours. Our correlation of sensor readings to assayed blood samples is r2 equals .97 for pH values of 6.80 - 7.70, r2 equals .94 for PCO2 values of 10 - 175 mmHg and r2 equals .94 for PO2 values of 10 - 350 mmHg.

  19. The usefulness of the arterial blood gas in pure carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Lebby, T I; Zalenski, R; Hryhorczuk, D O; Leikin, J B


    In a retrospective study of 49 cases of carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication presented to the University of Illinois Hospital (UIH) Emergency Department between November 1986 and April 1988, we looked for a correlation between carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) as determined by a venous sample and the pH as determined by arterial blood gas analysis. The range of COHb levels in our study was 10-64% (mean 21.8% +/- 10.2%). Smoke inhalation cases (n = 3) were excluded from our study because they did not represent pure CO intoxication. Of the remaining 46 cases, 18 had arterial blood gases drawn. In none of these 18 cases (mean COHb 24.5% +/- 12.6%) did we find a correlation between COHb levels and the pH as determined by linear regression analysis. Also, in none of the 18 cases were there any therapeutic interventions associated with the arterial blood gas result. Additionally, in none of the remaining 28 cases were any therapeutic interventions performed with regards to patients' acidosis or ventilatory status (except 100% oxygen administration. We also retrospectively reviewed records of 104 cases who presented to Cook County Hospital Emergency Department with COHb levels over 10% during the period between March 1986 and May 1988. In these cases, we found no significant correlation between COHb level and arterial pH. We therefore conclude that arterial blood gases drawn in order to determine the degree of acidosis in mild CO intoxication without respiratory distress may not be useful in guiding therapeutic intervention and need not be routinely drawn. PMID:2929122

  20. Assessment of a continuous blood gas monitoring system in animals during circulatory stress

    Renzulli Attilio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was aimed to determine the measurement accuracy of The CDI™ blood parameter monitoring system 500 (Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Corporation, Ann Arbor MI in the real-time continuous measurement of arterial blood gases under different cardiocirculatory stress conditions Methods Inotropic stimulation (Dobutamine 2.5 and 5 μg/kg/min, vasoconstriction (Arginine-vasopressin 4, 8 and 16 IU/h, hemorrhage (-10%, -20%, -35%, and -50% of the theoretical volemia, and volume resuscitation were induced in ten swine (57.4 ± 10.7 Kg.Intermittent blood gas assessments were carried out using a routine gas analyzer at any experimental phase and compared with values obtained at the same time settings during continuous monitoring with CDI™ 500 system. The Bland-Altman analysis was employed. Results Bias and precision for pO2 were - 0.06 kPa and 0.22 kPa, respectively (r2 = 0.96; pCO2 - 0.02 kPa and 0.15 kPa, respectively; pH -0.001 and 0.01 units, respectively ( r2 = 0.96. The analysis showed very good agreement for SO2 (bias 0.04,precision 0.33, r2 = 0.95, Base excess (bias 0.04,precision 0.28, r2 = 0.98, HCO3 (bias 0.05,precision 0.62, r2 = 0.92,hemoglobin (bias 0.02,precision 0.23, r2 = 0.96 and K+ (bias 0.02, precision 0.27, r2 = 0.93. The sensor was reliable throughout the experiment during hemodynamic variations. Conclusions Continuous blood gas analysis with the CDI™ 500 system was reliable and it might represent a new useful tool to accurately and timely monitor gas exchange in critically ill patients. Nonetheless, our findings need to be confirmed by larger studies to prove its reliability in the clinical setting.

  1. The physiological basis of pulmonary gas exchange: implications for clinical interpretation of arterial blood gases.

    Wagner, Peter D


    The field of pulmonary gas exchange is mature, with the basic principles developed more than 60 years ago. Arterial blood gas measurements (tensions and concentrations of O₂ and CO₂) constitute a mainstay of clinical care to assess the degree of pulmonary gas exchange abnormality. However, the factors that dictate arterial blood gas values are often multifactorial and complex, with six different causes of hypoxaemia (inspiratory hypoxia, hypoventilation, ventilation/perfusion inequality, diffusion limitation, shunting and reduced mixed venous oxygenation) contributing variably to the arterial O₂ and CO₂ tension in any given patient. Blood gas values are then usually further affected by the body's abilities to compensate for gas exchange disturbances by three tactics (greater O₂ extraction, increasing ventilation and increasing cardiac output). This article explains the basic principles of gas exchange in health, mechanisms of altered gas exchange in disease, how the body compensates for abnormal gas exchange, and based on these principles, the tools available to interpret blood gas data and, quantitatively, to best understand the physiological state of each patient. This understanding is important because therapeutic intervention to improve abnormal gas exchange in any given patient needs to be based on the particular physiological mechanisms affecting gas exchange in that patient. PMID:25323225

  2. Analysis of Cyanide in Blood by Headspace-Isotope-Dilution-GC-MS

    Løbger, Lise Lotte; Petersen, Henning Willads; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov


    An uncomplicated, rapid, automated procedure for the analysis of low cyanide concentrations in whole blood is reported. The analysis was performed by headspace gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the (1H12C14N) and m/z 29 (1H13C15N). Carryover from cyanide adsorption onto the surface of t...

  3. Is liquid heparin comparable to dry balanced heparin for blood gas sampling in intensive care unit?

    Viswas Chhapola


    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood gas (BG analysis is required for management of critically ill patients in emergency and intensive care units. BG parameters can be affected by the type of heparin formulations used-liquid heparin (LH or dry balanced heparin (DBH. This study was conducted to determine whether blood gas, electrolyte, and metabolite estimations performed by using DBH and LH are comparable. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted at pediatric intensive care unit (PICU of a tertiary care hospital. Paired venous samples were collected from 35 consecutive children in commercially prepared DBH syringes and custom-prepared LH syringes. Samples were immediately analyzed by blood gas analyzer and compared for pH, pCO 2 , pO 2 , HCO 3 - , Na + , K + , Cl - , and lactate. Paired comparisons were done and agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman difference plots. The 95% limits of absolute agreement (LOA were compared with the specifications for total allowable error (TEa. Results: The P values were significant for all measured parameters, with the exception of pCO 2 and K +. Bland-Altman difference plots showed wide LOA for pCO 2 , pO 2 , HCO3 - , Na + , K + , and Cl - when compared against TEa. For pCO 2 , HCO3 - , Na + , K + , and Cl - , 40%, 23%, 77%, 34%, and 54% of samples were outside the TEa limits, respectively, with LH. Conclusion: Our study showed that there is poor agreement between LH and DBH for the BG parameters pCO2, pO2, HCO3 - , K + , Na + , and Cl - and, thus, are not comparable. But for pH and lactate, LH and DBH can be used interchangeably.

  4. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)


    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  5. Use of a blood glucose meter for radiochromic film analysis in blood irradiation

    The use of a diabetic blood glucose meter for radiochromic film dosimetry in blood irradiation using x-ray beams on a medical linear accelerator has been investigated. The glucose meter provides optical density analysis in the visible and infrared region using a reflectance measurement technique. By comparing the 'blood sugar' level output with standard calibration gafchromic films a calibration curve is produced for quantitative analysis. Results show that a reproducible dose to meter output curve can be fitted using a second order polynomial function and that blood irradiation doses in vitro were measured to within 7.9% mean error (as compared to ionization chamber results) using the blood glucose meter. This level of accuracy falls below that measured with a standard densitometer (4.3%); however, results show that the blood glucose meter, which would be available in any haematology department, produces an adequate measure of gafchromic film optical density for blood irradiation dosimetry. (author)


    Vedita Bobde; Sanjay Parate; Dinkar Kumbhalkar


    BACKGROUND: Transfusion requests are always more than the supply due to advances in health care delivery . Injudicious use of whole blood and blood components strains the transfusion services. This mandates the proper analysis of real need of transfusion and the discard of this scarce resource. MATERIALS & METHODS: Total 31143 voluntary and...

  7. Neonatal apgar scores and umbilical blood gas changes in vaginal delivery and cesarean: a comparative study

    SH. Raafati


    Full Text Available Background: Umbilical cord blood gas analysis is a useful method for assessment of oxygenation and acid-base status in neonates. Severe fetal acidemia is associated with increased perinatal mortality and increased risk of subsequent impaired neurological development. Due to high percentage of C/S in our country and the effect of anesthetic medications on umbilical blood gases which can cause neonatal acidosis and hypoxemia, the study of umbilical cord blood gas in vaginal delivery versus cesarean section is mandatory. Methods: In this cross-sectional study one hundred samples were taken from Mostafa Khomeini hospital in summer 2004. The samples were taken immediately of umbilical vein after clamping the umbilical cord and analyzed after 10 minutes. Cases were classified in to 3 groups: vaginal delivery (n=40, elective C/S under general anesthesia (n=35 and C/S under spinal anesthesia (n=25. Duration of anesthesia and its effect on blood gas and infants apgar were assessed. Results: In the first group (vaginal delivery mean blood gase parameters were; pH=7.3064.73, pO2=25.246.87, HCO3=20.562.03, Apgar=8.820.38 and pCO2=41.826.57. In the second group (general anesthesia mean blood gaze parameters were: pH=7.3044.73, pO2=38.7014.02, pCO2=43.265.87, HCO3=21.1113 and apgar score=8.170.7. In the third group (spinal anesthesia mean blood gaze parameters were: pH=7.3014.50, pCO2=44.14.99, HCO3=21.382.15, pO2=26.625.5 and apgar=8.600.62. The apgar scores and pO2 demonstrated significant relationship with type of anesthesia. The apgar score was lower and pO2 was higher in C/S under general anesthesia compared with the other two groups. There was significant relationship between duration of anesthesia and umbilical pO With increasing duration of anesthesia, pO2 was reduced. Between the type of delivery and anesthesia duration with PH, pO2, pCO2 and HCO3 were not meaningful relationship (P<0.05. Conclusion: There

  8. Thermodilution versus inert gas rebreathing for estimation of effective pulmonary blood flow

    Christensen, P; Clemensen, P; Andersen, P K; Henneberg, S W


    To compare measurements of the effective pulmonary blood flow (Qep, i.e., nonshunted fraction of cardiac output, Qt) by the inert gas rebreathing (RB) method and the thermodilution (TD) technique in critically ill patients.......To compare measurements of the effective pulmonary blood flow (Qep, i.e., nonshunted fraction of cardiac output, Qt) by the inert gas rebreathing (RB) method and the thermodilution (TD) technique in critically ill patients....

  9. Arterial blood gas levels in high altitude Kashmiri population, India

    Sheikh Imran Sayeed


    Conclusions: The present study might provide useful base line normal values of Arterial Blood Gases for the local population and will be beneficial to the clinicians. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3283-3287

  10. Corporeal blood gas changes according to duration of drug-induced prolonged erection.

    Kim, S.C.; Seo, K. K.; Oh, C. H.


    The corporeal blood gas changes in accordance with the duration of the prolonged erection which developed after intracorporeal pharmacotherapy with papaverine and phentolamine were investigated in 62 impotence patients. The picture of the corporeal blood taken from 15 psychogenic impotence patients (a control group) at 10 minutes after intracavernous injection when they showed full erections was arterial but there was pCO2 rise and pH drop compared to femoral artery blood taken simultaneously...


    Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa


    adequadamente conservadas em banho de água gelada, mantendo, assim, o seu valor diagnóstico.In order to verify the viability of blood gas analysis in bovine venous blood stored on ice water bath, two samples (10ml each were taken from the jugular vein of 14 healthy animals (7 males and 7 females, 1- to 5-year-old, using plastic syringes and attached needles filled with sodium heparin (1,000IU. The blood samples were obtained anaerobically, the air bubbles observed were immediately removed, and the needle was maintened capped with a rubber stopper. Each syringe of the pair was distinctally stored at room temperature (23-30ºC or in ice water bath (0-4ºC during the experimental period. Values of pH, carbon dioxide (PvCO2 and oxigen (PvO2 tensions, bicarbonate (HCO3-, total carbon dioxide (TCO2, base excess (BE, standard bicarbonate (StB, oxigen saturation (SatO2, and oxigen content (O2 were determined soon after sampling and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. According to the type of storage temperature, the results were analysed through repeated measurements ANOVA, considering the contrast between the mean value of each time and the initial one. On the storage at room temperature, the in vitro changes were characterized from continuous decreases in pH, PvO2, BE, StB, SatO2, and O2 values, and gradual increase in PvCO2, starting at 2- or 3-hour after the collection. In the samples stored at 0-4ºC, on the other hand, the changes in pH occurred only at the 4th hour, and the stability of the PvCO2, BE, and StB values were maintened for up to the 6th hour. These results indicated that the diagnostic utility of blood gas analysis is conserved in bovine venous blood samples adequately stored up to 6 hours in ice water bath, at 0-4ºC.

  12. Blood gas analyzer utility in evaluating oxygen kinetics of the aqueous humor

    Ismail Ersan


    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 and carbon dioxide (PCO2 and the pH of aqueous humor (AH and arterial blood samples from rabbits using a blood gas analyzer. Methods: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized intramuscularly with ketamine and xylazine and were then allowed to breathe room air. Using a gas blood analyzer, arterial blood and AH samples were analyzed for PO2, PCO2, and pH. Results: The mean arterial blood pressure was 87.14 ± 15.0 mmHg. The mean blood and AH PO2 were 95.18 ± 11.76 mmHg and 88.83 ± 9.92 mmHg, the mean blood and AH PCO2 were 25.86 ± 5.46 mmHg and 29.50 ± 5.36 mmHg, and the mean blood and AH pH were 7.38 ± 0.06 and 7.33 ± 0.09, respectively. Conclusion: Conclusions: The blood gas analyzer was easily employed to evaluate the aqueous humor in rabbits. When comparing the results of studies evaluating aqueous PO2, care should be taken to determine the methods used in these studies.

  13. Blood compatibility of gas plasma-treated diamond-like carbon surface-Effect of physicochemical properties of DLC surface on blood compatibility

    From the knowledge that zwitterion-type polymers show good blood compatibility, the introduction of both cationic and anionic functional groups onto diamond-like carbon (DLC) surface is expected to improve blood compatibility. Thus, DLC films were treated with oxygen and ammonia gas plasmas. The surfaces were characterized in terms of chemical composition by XPS, contact angle, and zeta potential. XPS analysis showed the introductions of a carboxyl group by oxygen plasma treatment and nitrogen atoms by ammonia plasma treatment. The evaluation of blood compatibility for the DLC surfaces was carried out in terms of platelets and the coagulation system. Excellent improvement of platelet compatibility was observed by the treatment with the gas plasmas, regardless of the plasma species. As for the compatibility with the coagulation system, DLC surfaces with a high concentration of carboxyl groups (COOH) markedly activated the system via the intrinsic pathway. However, the surfaces treated with ammonia plasma did not activate the system even though they had high COOH concentration. Measurement of the zeta potential revealed that the ammonia plasma treatment raised the potential from a negative value to a positive one. Though the introduction of amino groups to the surface was not detected directly, the treatment of ammonia plasma changed the electrical state of the DLC surface having COOH group, causing a difference in blood compatibility among the DLCs obtained by various plasma conditions.

  14. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood

    H.A. Hussein


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10, at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10 and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10 for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0, there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (p<0.05, the pH value of refrigerated blood samples exhibited insignificant changes during the study (p<0.05. Mean values of pCO2 showed a significant increase in Group I and Group III after 1 h then a progressive decrease after 12 h in all Groups. Mean pO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (p<0.05. In general, base excess decreased significantly for all the groups during the study especially in Groups II and III. In comparison with baseline values, in all groups, bicarbonate (HCO3 increased between 1 h and 6 h (p<0.05, and later decreased at the end of the study (p<0.05. In conclusion, status of acid-base indices of the samples stored at refrigerator and RT were found within normal reference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  15. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya; Dr.Nandita Mehta; Dr.Hansa Goswami; Dr.R.N.Gonsai


    The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC) parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results an...

  16. [Hemodynamic analysis of a centrifugal blood pump].

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Ming; Xu, Zihao; Zhuang, Xiaoqi; Li, Qilei; Xu, Liang


    This paper built the mathematical model of a centrifugal blood pump, which was designed by ourselves, combined it with that of the human cardiovascular system and simulated the coupling system using Matlab. Then we set up the experiment platform, linked the blood pump to mock human cardiovascular system in case of three-stage heart failure, and measured aortic pressure and flow under different speed. The comparison between experiment results and simulation results not only indicates the coupling model is correct and the blood pump works well, but also shows that with the increase of blood pump speed, the pulsation of aortic pressure and flow will be reduced, this situation will affect the structure and function of blood vessels. PMID:26027287

  17. Blood gas and blood biochemical parameter change on the correlation analysis of early diagnosis of pulmonary edema%血气及血生化参数改变对肺水肿早期诊断的相关分析

    郭大敏; 劳程强; 曾灶英


    目的:探讨血气以及血生化参数的改变对肺水肿早期诊断的相关意义,为肺水肿的及时确诊和治疗提供一定的理论依据。方法从2013年2月~2014年7月我院收治的肺水肿患者中选取34例作为观察组,同期选择34例健康志愿者作为对照组,分别检测观察组以及对照组的血常规、血气以及血生化指标,并对两个实验组的各项指标进行比较分析。结果观察组的白细胞计数(WBC)明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。通过对比两个实验组的血气指标结果发现,观察组的pH值、PaO2、PaCO2、SaO2、以及FiO2/PaO2均显著低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。而观察组和对照组的血生化指标情况除在K+上存在较为明显差异之外,其余Na+、Cl-、BUN(尿素氮)以及GLU(血糖)差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论肺水肿患者在早期出现白细胞计数明显增加以及低氧血症持续性进行性加重,加强血常规及血气指标的检测,有利于肺水肿的早期诊断和治疗。%ObjectiveTo investigate the blood gas and blood biochemical parameters related to the change of early diagnosis of pulmonary edema, provides certain theory basis for timely diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary edema.MethodsPulmonary edema patients were randomly selected in our hospital from February 2013 to July 2014, 34 cases as the observation group, select the same period 34 cases of healthy volunteers as control group, the observation group and the control group were detected in the blood routine test, blood gas and blood biochemical index, and the indicators of the two experimental groups were compared and analyzed.Results The white blood cell count (WBC) in the observation group were significantly higher than the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P0.05).Conclusion Patients with pulmonary edema appeared white blood cell count

  18. Penile rehabilitation with a vacuum erectile device in an animal model is related to an antihypoxic mechanism: blood gas evidence.

    Lin, Hao-Cheng; Yang, Wen-Li; Zhang, Jun-Lan; Dai, Yu-Tian; Wang, Run


    Our previous study showed that vacuum erectile device (VED) therapy has improved erectile function in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) injuries. This study was designed to explore the mechanism of VED in penile rehabilitation by analyzing cavernous oxygen saturation (SO2) and to examine the effect of VED therapy on preventing penile shrinkage after BCNC. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: group 1, sham surgery; group 2, BCNC; and group 3, BCNC+VED. Penile length and diameter were measured on a weekly basis. After 4 weeks of therapy, the penile blood was extracted by three methods for blood gas analysis (BGA): method 1, cavernous blood was aspirated at the flaccid state; method 2, cavernous blood was aspirated at the traction state; and method 3, cavernous blood was aspirated immediately after applying VED. SO2 values were tested by the blood gas analyzer. The results showed that VED therapy is effective in preventing penile shrinkage induced by BCNC (Penile shortening: BCNC group 1.9±1.1 mm; VED group 0.3±1.0 mm; PVED group 0.04±0.14 mm; PVED application (88.25%±4.94%) compared to the flaccid (76.53%±4.16%) or traction groups (78.93%±2.56%) (PVED application were 62% arterial and 38% venous blood. These findings suggest that VED therapy can effectively preserve penile size in rats with BCNC injury. The beneficial effect of VED therapy is related to antihypoxia by increasing cavernous blood SO2. PMID:23564044

  19. Genetic and phenotypic relationships between blood gas parameters and ascites-related traits in broilers.

    Closter, A M; van As, P; Groenen, M A M; Vereijken, A L J; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H


    Ascites, also called pulmonary hypertension syndrome, is a metabolic disorder in chickens that have an insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. The tendency of broilers to develop ascites is heritable, and successful selection against this susceptibility would benefit from good and easy-to-measure indicator traits. Blood gas parameters have been suggested as indicator traits for ascites susceptibility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the heritability of blood gas parameters and the genetic and phenotypic correlations between blood gas parameters, heart ratio (postmortem indicator for ascites), and BW at 2 different ages. For this purpose, blood gas parameters, including the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood (pvCO(2)), the partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood (pvO(2)), and blood oxygen saturation, were measured at an average age of 22 d in nearly 3,000 broilers. To challenge the resistance of the birds to ascites, they were kept under cold conditions. Heritability for heart ratio was 0.43, and the heritability estimates were low: 0.02 for pvCO(2), 0.03 for pvO(2), and 0.07 for blood oxygen saturation. The estimated heritability for pH was 0.15, for bicarbonate was 0.19, and for total carbon dioxide content was 0.19. The genetic correlations between heart ratio and total carbon dioxide content (0.31 +/- 0.15) and between heart ratio and bicarbonate (0.31 +/- 0.15) were moderate and positive. For pvO(2), the genetic correlation with heart ratio was stronger and negative (-0.62 +/- 0.21); however, this correlation could not be estimated accurately because of the low heritability of pvO(2). For pvCO(2), the genetic correlation with the heart ratio was close to zero (-0.04 +/- 0.45). Phenotypic correlations between traits were, in general, similar to the genetic correlations. Heritabilities for blood gas parameters and the genetic correlations between blood gas parameters and the heart ratio estimated in the present study

  20. Elemental analysis of some traditional herbal blood tonics and pharmaceutical blood tonics using INAA

    Iron content and some essential trace elements in six traditional Ghanaian herbal blood tonics and four pharmaceutical blood tonics have been determined using Thermal and Epithermal Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (TINAA and EINAA). The samples were irradiated in one inner and one outer irradiation sites of the Ghana research reactor-1 (GHARR-1) operating at a thermal neutron flux of 5.0x1011. After irradiation, the samples were counted directly using an N-type high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The qualitative and quantitative determination was achieved using the gamma ray spectrum analysis software SPAN5.0. In all, 26 chemical elements were measured. In the liquid form, the pharmaceutical blood tonics have higher amount of Fe than the traditional herbal blood tonics. But the Fe content in traditional blood tonics compare favourably with the pharmaceutical tonics when freeze-dried. There were more essential elements in the herbal tonics than the pharmaceutical ones (author)

  1. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis Details

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Summary project inventory with independent analysis to quantify the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private...

  2. Exploring the applicability of equine blood to bloodstain pattern analysis.

    Larkin, Bethany A J; Banks, Craig E


    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic application of the interpretation of distinct patterns which blood exhibits during a bloodletting incident, providing key evidence with its ability to map the sequence of events. Here, we explore the use of equine blood and investigate its suitability within the field of BPA. Blood is a complex fluid, and finding a suitable safe substitute to human blood that encompasses all of its characteristics has been the focus of many investigations. Animal blood has been concluded as the closest and therefore the most suitable alternate. However, it seems that currently only porcine blood is most prominently utilised.In this study, equine blood was investigated, using two different anti-clotting methods, where blood impacts were explored over a typical range of varying impact velocities upon a selection of commonly encountered surfaces. Key BPA parameters, such as the diameters of the resulting bloodstains, number of spines and area of origin were measured, which were subsequently applied into previously derived BPA equations.We find that defibrinated equine blood is a suitable alternative and offers the same conclusive outcomes to human blood. This gives bloodstain pattern investigators and researchers an additional choice of blood which can be of benefit when certain bloods are difficult to attain or when the activity involves the usage of a large quantity of blood. Additionally we explore the effect on BPA of aged blood, which revealed a significant decrease in stain diameter of up to 12.78 % when blood has been left for 57 days. A shelf life of no more than 12 days is recommended when blood is refrigerated at 4℃. PMID:25013163

  3. Gas chromatographic analysis of trace gas impurities in tungsten hexafluoride.

    Laurens, J B; de Coning, J P; Swinley, J M


    Highly reactive fluorinated gaseous matrices require special equipment and techniques for the gas chromatographic analysis of trace impurities in these gases. The impurities that were analysed at the low-microg/l levels included oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur hexafluoride and hydrogen. This paper describes the use of a system utilising backflush column switching to protect the columns and detectors in the analysis of trace gas impurities in tungsten hexafluoride. Two separate channels were used for the analysis of H2, O2, N2, CO, CO2 and SF6 impurities with pulsed discharge helium ionisation detection. PMID:11269587

  4. Effects of Imidapril on Venous Blood Gas Values in Broiler Chickens Exposed to Low Ambient Temperature

    Xueqin HAO; Meng LI; Shouyan ZHANG; Yongshu WANG; Tongwen SUN


    [Objective] This study was designed to evaluate the effects of imidapril on blood gas parameters in broiler chickens.[Method] Twenty-four chickens were randomly divided into three groups (n=8),control group,low temperature group and imidapril group.Chickens in low temperature group and imidapril group were exposed to low ambient temperature (12-18 ℃) from age at 14 d to 45 d,whereas the control group was exposed to 24-30 ℃; chickens in imidapril group were gavaged with imidapril (3 mg/kg) once daily for 30 d.At age of 45 d,blood was taken from wing vein and blood gas parameters were evaluated by blood gas analyzer in Luoyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University.[Result] Imidapril significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) and total hemoglobin content (THBC) and blood Na concentration in broiler chickens exposed to low ambient temperature.No significant differences were observed in pH,Pco2,Po2,K+,Ca2+,HCO3-,HCO3std,Tco2,BE and SO2c.[Conclusion] Imidapril increases hematocrit,total hemoglobin content and blood Na+concentration in chickens exposed to low ambient temperature.

  5. Analysis of arterial blood gas for 113 patients with acute respiratory stress syndrome%急性呼吸窘迫综合征的动态血气监测113例分析

    张玉梅; 周泽芬; 任成山


    目的 探讨动态监测血气对急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)的早期诊断、治疗和预后判断的临床意义。方法 回顾分析了我院16年间危重病患者并发ARDS 113例655例次动脉血气分析、酸碱紊乱类型和氧合指数(PaO2/FiO2)等资料。结果 (1)酸碱失衡类型:113例中单纯酸碱紊乱44例,含呼碱20例,呼酸11例,代酸10例,代碱3例;二重酸碱紊乱53例,含呼碱并代酸12例,呼碱并代碱14例,呼酸并代酸21例,呼酸并代碱6例;三重酸碱失衡(TABD)16例,含呼碱型TABD11例,呼酸型TABD5例。治愈各组以单纯呼碱(17例)和呼碱并代碱(12例)等类型多见;死亡组以呼酸并代酸(19例)、TABD(14例)、呼酸(9例)等类型多见;(2)氧合指数:113例患者的氧合指数均<26.7kPa;(3)113例ARDS治愈52例(46.0%),死亡61例(54.0%)。结论 通过对113例危重患者并发ARDS的血气分析,动态监测血气和计算氧合指数,对ARDS的早期诊断和治疗具有重要的临床价值,而正确分析、判断酸碱失衡类型是正确治疗和提高治愈率的重要环节。%Objective To explore the significance of dynamic determination of arterial blood gas for early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of patients with acute respiratory stress syndrome(ARDS). Methods The results of 655 times arterial blood gas assayed in 113 patients with ARDS were analysed retrospectively.Results (1)Types of acid-basic disturbance:The simple acid-base disturbances were 44 cases,in which respiratory alkalosis were 20 cases, respiratory acidosis 11 cases, metabolic acidosis 10 cases, metabolic alkalosis 3 cases. Complex acid-base disturbances were 53 cases,in which respiratory alkalosis with metabolic acidosis were12 cases, respiratory alkalosis with metabolic alkalosis 14 cases, respiratory acidosis with metabolic acidosis 21 cases, respiratory alkalosis with metabolic alkalosis 6 cases. Triple acid-base disturbances (TABD) were 16

  6. Changes in electrolytes and blood gas after transfusion of irradiated MAP

    This study was undertaken to investigate the changes in recipient serum electrolytes and arterial blood gas after irradiated blood transfusion. We measured electrolytes and arterial blood gas before and after the transfusion during elective surgery in 55 patients. The mean blood loss was 1,477 g and the mean transfused blood unit of irradiated Mannitol-Adenine-Phosphate (MAP) was 5.9 units. Potassium concentration increased from 3.8 to 4.2 mEq·l-1. A total of 187 units, which had been stored for 12.3±3.5 days after donation and for 5.1±3.8 days after irradiation, was used. There was a significant correlation between the storage period from the day of irradiation and the potassium concentration of the supernatant (r=0.56, p<0.0001). This study recommends that a safe transfusion rate of irradiated blood should be determined because the high potassium concentration of irradiated blood may lead to lethal complications in case of rapid transfusion. (author)

  7. Changes in electrolytes and blood gas after transfusion of irradiated MAP

    Miyao, Hideki; Katayama, Akinori; Okamoto, Yumi; Koyama, Kaoru; Kawasaki, Jun; Kawazoe, Taro [Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Saitama Medical Center


    This study was undertaken to investigate the changes in recipient serum electrolytes and arterial blood gas after irradiated blood transfusion. We measured electrolytes and arterial blood gas before and after the transfusion during elective surgery in 55 patients. The mean blood loss was 1,477 g and the mean transfused blood unit of irradiated Mannitol-Adenine-Phosphate (MAP) was 5.9 units. Potassium concentration increased from 3.8 to 4.2 mEq{center_dot}l{sup -1}. A total of 187 units, which had been stored for 12.3{+-}3.5 days after donation and for 5.1{+-}3.8 days after irradiation, was used. There was a significant correlation between the storage period from the day of irradiation and the potassium concentration of the supernatant (r=0.56, p<0.0001). This study recommends that a safe transfusion rate of irradiated blood should be determined because the high potassium concentration of irradiated blood may lead to lethal complications in case of rapid transfusion. (author)

  8. Effect of stratified inequality of blood flow on gas exchange in liquid-filled lungs.

    West, J. B.; Maloney, J. E.; Castle, B. L.


    This investigation set out to answer two questions: (1) are the distal alveoli in the terminal lung units less well perfused than the proximal alveoli, i.e., is there stratification of blood flow; and (2) if so, does this enhance gas exchange in the presence of stratified inequality of ventilation. Excised dog lungs were ventilated with saline and perfused with blood. Following single inspirations of xenon 133 in saline and various periods of breath holding, the expired xenon concentration against volume was measured and it confirmed marked stratified inequality of ventilation under these conditions. By measuring the rate of depletion of xenon from alveoli during a period of blood flow, we showed that the alveoli which emptied at the end of expiration had 16% less blood flow than those exhaling earlier. However, by measuring the xenon concentration in pulmonary venous blood, we found that about 10% less tracer was transferred from the alveoli into the blood when the inspired xenon was stratified within the respiratory zone. Thus while stratification of blood flow was confirmed, it was shown to impair rather than enhance the efficiency of gas transfer.

  9. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: A signal analysis

    Barbé, K.; Van Moer, W.; Lauwers, L.


    In this paper, the oscillometric waveform measured by automatic non-invasive blood pressure meters (NIBP) is analyzed by transforming the data from the time domain to the frequency domain. The signal's spectrum of the oscillometric waveform is in current literature badly understood or explored. The only known link between the oscillometric waveform and the blood pressure is the maximum of the oscillometry's envelope equalling the mean arterial pressure (MAP). This link is established under the assumption that the oscillometry is an AM-signal. Unfortunately, computing the MAP is difficult in practice due to the non-sinusoidal nature of the actual measured signals. In this paper, we construct the best AM-signal approximation of the oscillometry and explore its use to compute the MAP.

  10. Optical analysis of red blood cell suspension

    Szołna, Alicja A.; Grzegorzewski, Bronisław


    The optical properties of suspensions of red blood cells (RBCs) were studied. Fresh human venues blood was obtained from adult healthy donors. RBCs were suspended in isotonic salt solution, and in autologous plasma. Suspensions with haematocrit 0.25 - 3% were investigated. Novel technique was proposed to determine the scattering coefficient μs for the suspensions. The intensity of He-Ne laser light transmitted through a wedge-shape container filled with a suspension was recorded. To find the dependence of the intensity on the thickness of the sample the container was moved horizontally. The dependence of μs on the haematocrit was determined for RBCs suspended in the isotonic salt solution. RBCs suspended in plasma tend to form rouleaux. For the RBCs suspended in plasma, the scattering coefficient as a function of time was obtained. It is shown that this technique can be useful in the study of rouleaux formation.

  11. Analysis of blood plasma at terahertz frequencies

    Cherkasova, O. P.; Nazarov, M. M.; Angeluts, A. A.; Shkurinov, A. P.


    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 0.05-2.5 THz frequency range was employed to analyze blood plasma samples obtained from laboratory animals with experimental diabetes and from healthy controls. It was found that transmission and reflection coefficients of samples from rats with diabetes differed significantly from control values in both amplitude and phase. The cause of the detected differences is discussed with respect to variation in the terahertz response of water.

  12. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS (∼75 μL of blood) were -1. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL-1 range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  13. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will fabricate and test microfluidic designs for a micro-electromechanical system based complete blood count (CBC) analysis in separate modules and integrate...

  14. Mathematical modeling of blood-gas kinetics for the volatile organic compounds isoprene and acetone

    Breath gas analysis is based on the compelling concept that the exhaled breath levels of endogenously produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide a direct, non-invasive window to the blood and hence, by inference, to the body. In this sense, breath VOCs are regarded as a comprehensive repository of valuable physiological and clinical information, that might be exploited in such diverse areas as diagnostics, therapeutic monitoring or general dynamic assessments of metabolic function, pharmacodynamics (e.g., in drug testing) and environmental exposure (e.g., in occupational health). Despite this enormous potential, the lack of standardized breath sampling regimes as well as the poor mechanistic understanding of VOC exhalation kinetics could cast a cloud over the widespread use of breath gas analysis in the biomedical sciences. In this context, a primary goal of the present thesis is to provide a better quantitative insight into the breath behavior of two prototypic VOCs, isoprene and acetone. A compartmental modeling framework is developed and validated by virtue of real-time breath measurements of these trace gases during distinct physiological states. In particular, the influence of various hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters on VOC concentrations in exhaled breath is investigated. This approach also complements previous steady state investigations in toxicology. From a phenomenological point of view, both acetone and isoprene concentrations in end-tidal breath are demonstrated to exhibit a reproducible non-steady state behavior during moderate workload challenges on a stationary bicycle. However, these dynamics depart drastically from what is expected on the basis of classical pulmonary inert gas elimination theory. More specifically, the start of exercise is accompanied by an abrupt increase in breath isoprene levels, usually by a factor of 3 to 4 compared with the steady state value during rest. This phase is followed by a gradual decline and the

  15. Dexmedetomidine on the hemodynamics and blood gas analysis in morbidly obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea%右美托咪定对病态肥胖的阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征患者的血气分析

    葛云芬; 胡双飞


    目的 评价右美托咪定对病态肥胖的阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征患者血气分析的影响.方法 40例ASAⅢ级欲行悬雍垂腭咽成形术的病态肥胖的阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征患者,随机分成右美托咪定组和安慰剂组,右美托咪定组给予负荷剂量1 μg· kg-1(20 min)的右美托咪定,安慰剂组则给予容量和外形相似的生理盐水.观察用药后患者的血流动力学及用药前后血气分析的变化.结果 右美托咪定组20 min后的心率(HR)、平均血压(BP)、血氧分压(PaO2)与安慰剂组相比显著降低;二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)及pH值与安慰剂组相比差异无统计学意义.结论 短时间内大剂量的右美托咪定应用于病态肥胖的阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征患者也可以产生呼吸抑制.%Objective To assess the effect of dexmedetomidine on the hemodynamics and blood gas analysis in morbidly obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Methods Forty patients scheduled for uvulo palatopharyngoplasty were randomized assigned into receive dexmedetomidine group or placebo group, respectively. In dexmedtomidine group patients received a loading dose of dexmedetomidine 1 μg ? Kg-1 during 20 minutes, In placebo group patients received a volume matched 0. 9% saline. Heart rate ( HR) , blood pressure ( BP)' and blood gas analysis were monitored. Results HR, mean arterial blood pressure and arterial PaO2 presented a statistically significant reduction in the dexmedetomidine group after 20 minutes as compared to the placebo group. Blood PaCO2 and pH were similar for both groups. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine produced respiratory depression in morbidly obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  16. Determination of ketone bodies in blood by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Holm, Karen Marie Dollerup; Linnet, Kristian; Rasmussen, Brian Schou;


    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for determination of ketone bodies (ß-hydroxybutyrate, acetone, and acetoacetate) in blood is presented. The method is based on enzymatic oxidation of D-ß-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate, followed by decarboxylation to acetone, which was...

  17. Effects of ambient air particulate exposure on blood-gas barrier permeability and lung function

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mortensen, Jann; Møller, Peter;


    Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of pulmonary diseases and detrimental outcomes related to the cardiovascular system, including altered vessel functions. This study's objective was too evaluate the effects of ambient particle exposure on the blood-gas permeability, lung...... effect on the concentration of CC16 in plasma and urine or on the static and dynamic volumes or ventilation distribution of the lungs. The study thus demonstrates increased permeability of the alveolar blood-gas barrier following moderate exercise, whereas exposure to ambient levels of urban air.......5-15.8 microg/m(3) PM(10-2.5)) or filtered (91-542 particles/cm(3)) air collected above a busy street. The clearance rate of aerosolized (99m)Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) was measured as an index for the alveolar epithelial membrane integrity and permeability of the lung blood...

  18. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis



    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.

  19. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya


    Full Text Available The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results and to make presumptive diagnosis. In this article we have taken 100 samples for comparative study between RBC histograms obtained by automated haematology analyzer with peripheral blood smear. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteristic changes in their RBC histograms.

  20. Permanent gas analysis using gas chromatography with vacuum ultraviolet detection.

    Bai, Ling; Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip; Fan, Hui; Hildenbrand, Zacariah; Wong, Derek; Wetz, David; Schug, Kevin A


    The analysis of complex mixtures of permanent gases consisting of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, inert gases, and toxic species plays an increasingly important role in today's economy. A new gas chromatography detector based on vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy (GC-VUV), which simultaneously collects full scan (115-240 nm) VUV and UV absorption of eluting analytes, was applied to analyze mixtures of permanent gases. Sample mixtures ranged from off-gassing of decomposing Li-ion and Li-metal batteries to natural gas samples and water samples taken from private wells in close proximity to unconventional natural gas extraction. Gas chromatography separations were performed with a porous layer open tubular column. Components such as C1-C5 linear and branched hydrocarbons, water, oxygen, and nitrogen were separated and detected in natural gas and the headspace of natural gas-contaminated water samples. Of interest for the transport of lithium batteries were the detection of flammable and toxic gases, such as methane, ethylene, chloromethane, dimethyl ether, 1,3-butadiene, CS2, and methylproprionate, among others. Featured is the capability for deconvolution of co-eluting signals from different analytes. PMID:25724098

  1. Analysis of K west basin canister gas

    Trimble, D.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford


    Gas and Liquid samples have been collected from a selection of the approximately 3,820 spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin. The samples were taken to characterize the contents of the gas and water in the canisters providing source term information for two subprojects of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) (Fulton 1994): the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment System Subproject (Ball 1996) and the K Basins Fuel Retrieval System Subproject (Waymire 1996). The barrels of ten canisters were sampled for gas and liquid in 1995, and 50 canisters were sampled in a second campaign in 1996. The analysis results from the first campaign have been reported (Trimble 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b). The analysis results from the second campaign liquid samples have been documented (Trimble and Welsh 1997; Trimble 1997). This report documents the results for the gas samples from the second campaign and evaluates all gas data in terms of expected releases when opening the canisters for SNFP activities. The fuel storage canisters consist of two closed and sealed barrels, each with a gas trap. The barrels are attached at a trunion to make a canister, but are otherwise independent (Figure 1). Each barrel contains up to seven N Reactor fuel element assemblies. A gas space of nitrogen was established in the top 2.2 to 2.5 inches (5.6 to 6.4 cm) of each barrel. Many of the fuel elements were damaged allowing the metallic uranium fuel to be corroded by the canister water. The corrosion releases fission products and generates hydrogen gas. The released gas mixes with the gas-space gas and excess gas passes through the gas trap into the basin water. The canister design does not allow canister water to be exchanged with basin water.


    卜会驹; 杨秀洁; 杭寒皎; 陈亮


    目的 探讨中心静脉和动脉血气联合分析在脓毒血症患者诊疗中的应用价值.方法 脓毒血症患者46例,定时进行中心静脉和动脉血气分析,记录相关数据,同时记录中心静脉压(CVP)、平均动脉压(MAP)、每小时尿量.根据3d后APACHEⅢ评分是否≥80,分为A组(23例)、B组(23例),比较入院时的APACHEⅢ评分,动脉血气,静脉血气.根据治疗过程中是否发生休克,分为C组(17例)、D组(29例),比较休克前一次的动脉和静脉血气.3d后,选择生命体征平稳,疗效较好的患者,设定为E组(16例),比较每个时段的动静脉血氧饱和度,CVP、MAP、尿量变化.结果 A,B二组患者入科时,APACHEⅢ评分、动脉血气分析各项指标无差异,但静脉血气氧分压、二氧化碳分压、pH值、A-VpH(动静脉pH值差),A-VPCO2(动静脉二氧化碳分压差)差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).D组患者休克发生前血气与无休克患者比较,动脉血气值差异无统计学意义,但是A-VpH,A-VPCO2和静脉血气分析各项数据差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).在E组患者中,随着病情好转,A-VpH,A-VPCO2和静脉氧饱和度比MAP、CVP、每小时尿量等数据更快出现改善(P<0.05).结论 中心静脉和动脉血气联合分析在脓毒血症患者诊疗中,有早期判断预后,提示休克发生,快速判断疗效等几大预警作用.%Objective To investigate the precaution of central venous and arterial blood gas associated analysis in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sepsis. Methods 46 sepsis patients were recruited, central venous blood gas and arterial gas values, central venous pressure(CVP),average arterial pressure (MAP),quantities of urine per hour were timed and recorded. Based on APACHE Ⅲ grade exceed 80 or not after 3 days , patients were divided into two groups: group A(23 cases),group B(23 cases),compared the first APACHEⅢgrade, central venous blood gas and arterial gas value of these groups. Based on

  3. Cardiac Morphology and Function, and Blood Gas Transport in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice

    Al-Samir, Samer; Wang, Yong; Meissner, Joachim D.; Gros, Gerolf; Endeward, Volker


    We have studied cardiac and respiratory functions of aquaporin-1-deficient mice by the Pressure-Volume-loop technique and by blood gas analysis. In addition, the morphological properties of the animals' hearts were analyzed. In anesthesia under maximal dobutamine stimulation, the mice exhibit a moderately elevated heart rate of < 600 min−1 and an O2 consumption of ~0.6 ml/min/g, which is about twice the basal rate. In this state, which is similar to the resting state of the conscious animal, all cardiac functions including stroke volume and cardiac output exhibited resting values and were identical between deficient and wildtype animals. Likewise, pulmonary and peripheral exchange of O2 and CO2 were normal. In contrast, several morphological parameters of the heart tissue of deficient mice were altered: (1) left ventricular wall thickness was reduced by 12%, (2) left ventricular mass, normalized to tibia length, was reduced by 10–20%, (3) cardiac muscle fiber cross sectional area was decreased by 17%, and (4) capillary density was diminished by 10%. As the P-V-loop technique yielded normal end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes, the deficient hearts are characterized by thin ventricular walls in combination with normal intraventricular volumes. The aquaporin-1-deficient heart thus seems to be at a disadvantage compared to the wild-type heart by a reduced left-ventricular wall thickness and an increased diffusion distance between blood capillaries and muscle mitochondria. While under the present quasi-resting conditions these morphological alterations have no consequences for cardiac function, we expect that the deficient hearts will show a reduced maximal cardiac output. PMID:27252655

  4. Analysis for blood manganese used to assess environmental exposure

    Hams, G.A.; Fabri, J.K.


    In this graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometric method for measuring manganese in whole blood, we use a pyrolytic platform to minimize interference by sample matrix. For optimal sample ashing we denature the sample within the furnace with nitric acid and use oxygen as the purge gas at low temperatures. The mean manganese concentration found in blood from 15 unexposed city dwellers was 215 (2 SD 135) nmol/L. By comparison, the range of manganese concentrations in blood sampled from a group of Australian aborigines living near a surface manganese ore deposit on Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, was much higher (median 405 nmol/L, range 175 to 990 nmol/L).

  5. Wavelet-analysis for Laser Images of Blood Plasma



    Full Text Available The possibilities of the local wavelet-analysis of polarization-inhomogeneous laser image of human blood plasma were considered. The set of statistics, correlation and fractal parameters of the distributions of wavelet-coefficients that are characterize different scales of the polarization maps of polycrystalline networks of amino acids of blood plasma were defined. The criteria for the differentiation of the transformation of birefringence optical-anisotropic structures of blood plasma at different scales of their geometric dimensions were determined.

  6. Dried blood spot analysis ; facing new challenges

    Koster, Remco A; Touw, Daan J; Alffenaar, Jan-willem C


    Over the last decade, DBS analysis has gained popularity for TDM because it’s a patient friendly sampling proce- dure [1-4]. Additional advantages are prolonged sample stability, lower risk of infections and transportation at ambient temperature [1-3,5]. These advantages may fa- cilitate implementat

  7. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

    Ried Karin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive. Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P Results Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change ± SE: SBP: -3.2 ± 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003. However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01, while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12. Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30

  8. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Suzanne Miyamoto


    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC adenocarcinoma and other lung cancer cases. Metabolomic analysis of blood samples from the two studies yielded a total of 437 metabolites, of which 148 were identified as known compounds and 289 identified as unknown compounds. Differential analysis identified 15 known metabolites in one study and 18 in a second study that were statistically different (p-values <0.05. Levels of maltose, palmitic acid, glycerol, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, and lactic acid were increased in cancer samples while amino acids tryptophan, lysine and histidine decreased. Many of the metabolites were found to be significantly different in both studies, suggesting that metabolomics appears to be robust enough to find systemic changes from lung cancer, thus showing the potential of this type of analysis for lung cancer detection.

  9. Non-arterial assessment of blood gas status in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

    Elborn, J. S.; Finch, M B; Stanford, C. F.


    Assessment of blood gas status is important in the management of patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Arterial puncture is often painful and may damage the arterial wall. Measurement of oxygen saturation by transcutaneous oximetry offers a non-invasive alternative to arterial methods but does not allow assessment of partial pressure of carbon dioxide. We have examined the value of oximetry and dorsal hand venous carbon dioxide as an alternative to arterial puncture. Transcutaneous oxygen ...

  10. 20 CFR Appendix C to Part 718 - Blood-Gas Tables


    ... level: Arterial PCO2 (mm Hg) Arterial PO2 equal to or less than (mm Hg) 25 or below 75 26 74 27 73 28 72...: Arterial PCO2 (mm Hg) Arterial PO2 equal to or less than (mm Hg) 25 or below 70 26 69 27 68 28 67 29 66 30... arterial blood-gas studies performed at test sites 6,000 feet or more above sea level: Arterial PCO2 (mm...

  11. The use of blood gas parameters to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers.

    van As, P; Elferink, M G; Closter, A M; Vereijken, A; Bovenhuis, H; Crooijmans, R P M A; Decuypere, E; Groenen, M A M


    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder found in modern broilers that have insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. Commercial breeding programs have heavily focused on high growth rate, which led to fast-growing chickens, but as a negative consequence, the incidence of ascites syndrome increased. However, not all birds with a high growth rate will suffer from ascites syndrome, which might indicate a genetic susceptibility to ascites. Information on blood gas parameters measured early in life and their relation to ascites susceptibility is expected to contribute to identification on the cause of ascites syndrome. In this study, several physiological parameters, such as blood gas parameters [pH, partial pressure of CO(2) in venous blood (pvCO(2)), and partial pressure of O(2) in venous blood], hematocrit, electrolytes (Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+)), metabolites (lactate and glucose), were measured at d 11 to 12 of age from 100 female and 100 male broilers. From d 14 onward, the birds were challenged to provoke the development of ascites syndrome. Our results showed that high pvCO(2) values together with low pH values (males) or high pH values (females) in the venous blood of juvenile broilers coincided with ascites. Therefore, blood pvCO(2) and pH in both juvenile male and female broilers seem to be critical factors in ascites pathophysiology and can be used as phenotypic traits to predict ascites susceptibility in juvenile broilers at d 11 to 12. A prediction model was built on a subpopulation of the broilers without any loss in sensitivity (0.52) and specificity (0.78) when applied to the validation population. The parameter sex was included in the prediction model because levels of pvCO(2) and pH that associated with ascites susceptibility are different between males and females. Commercial breeders can include these phenotypic traits in their genetic selection programs to reduce the incidence of ascites syndrome. PMID:20634524

  12. Congenital Hypothyroidism Screening with Umbilical Cord Blood: Retrospective Analysis.

    Anand, M R; Ramesh, Preetha; Nath, Divia


    Incidence of congenital hypothyroidism varies across countries and different geographic regions. A retrospective analysis of cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone values, and their subsequent follow-up, was done in a tertiary-care center in Kerala, India. Congenital hypothyroidism was found at the rate of 1 in 244, which is higher than reported incidence from other centers. PMID:26061935

  13. Finite-sized gas bubble motion in a blood vessel: non-Newtonian effects.

    Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S; Eckmann, David M


    We have numerically investigated the axisymmetric motion of a finite-sized nearly occluding air bubble through a shear-thinning Casson fluid flowing in blood vessels of circular cross section. The numerical solution entails solving a two-layer fluid model--a cell-free layer and a non-Newtonian core together with the gas bubble. This problem is of interest to the field of rheology and for gas embolism studies in health sciences. The numerical method is based on a modified front-tracking method. The viscosity expression in the Casson model for blood (bulk fluid) includes the hematocrit [the volume fraction of red blood cells (RBCs)] as an explicit parameter. Three different flow Reynolds numbers, Reapp=rholUmaxdmicroapp , in the neighborhood of 0.2, 2, and 200 are investigated. Here, rhol is the density of blood, Umax is the centerline velocity of the inlet Casson profile, d is the diameter of the vessel, and microapp is the apparent viscosity of whole blood. Three different hematocrits have also been considered: 0.45, 0.4, and 0.335. The vessel sizes considered correspond to small arteries, and small and large arterioles in normal humans. The degree of bubble occlusion is characterized by the ratio of bubble to vessel radius (aspect ratio), lambda , in the range 0.9 - --> +) imparted to the cell surface during bubble motion; (iii) large shear stress gradients together with sign reversals are ascribable to the development of a recirculation vortex at the rear of the bubble; (iv) computed magnitudes of shear stress gradients coupled with their sign reversals may correspond to levels that cause injury to the cell by membrane disruption through impulsive compression and stretching; and (v) for the vessel sizes and flow rates investigated, gravitational effects are negligible. PMID:18851139

  14. Performance Analysis of Retinal Image Blood Vessel Segmentation

    D.Siva Sundhara Raja


    Full Text Available The retinal image diagnosis is an important methodology for diabetic retinopathy detection and analysis. in this paper, the morphological operations and svm classifier are used to detect and segment the blood vessels from the retinal image. the proposed system consists of three stages-first is preprocessing of retinal image to separate the green channel and second stage is retinal image enhancement and third stage is blood vessel segmentation using morphological operations and svm classifier. the performance of the proposed system is analyzed using publicly available dataset.

  15. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.


    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  16. HD gas analysis with Gas Chromatography and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouille, G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M


    A gas analyzer system has been developed to analyze Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for producing frozen-spin polarized HD targets, which are used for hadron photoproduction experiments at SPring-8. Small amounts of ortho-H$_{2}$ and para-D$_{2}$ gas mixtures ($\\sim$0.01%) in the purified HD gas are a key to realize a frozen-spin polarized target. In order to obtain reliable concentrations of these gas mixtures in the HD gas, we produced a new gas analyzer system combining two independent measurements with the gas chromatography and the QMS. The para-H$_{2}$, ortho-H$_{2}$, HD, and D$_{2}$ are separated using the retention time of the gas chromatography and the mass/charge. It is found that the new gas analyzer system can measure small concentrations of $\\sim$0.01% for the otho-H$_2$ and D$_2$ with good S/N ratios.

  17. Umbilical artery blood gas analysis in the diagnosis of multiple organ damage of neonatal asphyxia%新生儿脐动脉血气分析在新生儿窒息多器官损害诊断中的应用



    Objective To study the relationship between umbilical arterial blood gas analysis and perinatal high risk factors, Apgar score and multiple organ damage of neonatal asphyxia. Methods Clinical data of cases of neonatal asphyxia in from the Neonatal Department and Intensive Care Unit of our research group from November 2012 to December 2014 were studied. Full term infants and premature infants ( gestational age >34 weeks, birth weight >2500 g) with neonatal asphyxia, whose umbilical artery blood gas analysis ( including pH and BE) were tested were enrolled in our study. Neonatal asphyxia was diagnosed according to the Apgar score, umbilical artery blood gas analysis, mild asphyxia group and severe asphyxia group were assigned into three groups respectively: severe metabolic acidosis group: pH≤7 and/or BE≤-16 mmol/L; non-severe metabolic acidosis group:77. 2, BE> -8 mmol/L. The diagnosis of multiple organ damage of neonatal asphyxia was made according to the history of perinatal hypoxia,clinical manifestations,laboratory examination and imaging examination.Results Therewere 111 cases in our study ( mild asphyxia: n =79 , severe asphyxia: n =32 ) . ( 1 ) The pH and BE of umbilical artery blood gas were positively related to 1 minute Apgar score ( pH: r=0. 223, P=0. 016;BE: r=0. 293, P=0. 002). (2) Multi-factor analysis of umbilical artery blood pH and BE showed that abnormal fetal heart rate was an important factor (β =0. 080 , 95℅ CI 0. 010 -0. 160 , P =0. 025 ) . (3) The incidence of multiple organ damage in severe asphyxia group was significantly higher than that in mild asphyxia group (75. 0℅ vs. 29. 1℅, Χ2 =17. 810, P34周、生后检测脐动脉血pH和BE的窒息新生儿,根据Apgar评分诊断新生儿窒息,根据脐血血气分析将轻度窒息组和重度窒息组分别分为严重代谢性酸中毒组(pH≤7和/或BE≤-16mmol/L)、非严重代谢性酸中毒组(77.2且BE>-8).根据围产期缺氧病史、临床表现、实验室检查和影

  18. Operating cost analysis aids gas turbine selection

    Roy, G.K. [PT Indo-Rama Synthetics tbk., Purwakarta (Indonesia)


    If one considers the design life of a gas turbine to be 20 years, probably more than 70% of the plant operating costs will consist of fuel. And as fuel cost varies geographically, it is obvious that choosing a gas turbine, or for that matter any other prime mover, will depend on the fuel cost prevailing in that country. Spreadsheets make the analysis easier. A few options are presented to show the possible variations. The data taken for examples are typical. To illustrate the options, a typical requirement has been suggested for a plant--an electric power requirement of 50 MW and a process steam requirement of 70 tph. The selected gas/steam turbines, or diesel engine, will generate the electric power. When the equipment is down, the state electrical grid will provide the power.

  19. Effects of SO2 and pH on blood-gas partition coefficients of inert gases.

    Yamaguchi, K; Mori, M; Kawai, A; Asano, K; Takasugi, T; Umeda, A; Yokoyama, T


    Potential effects of SO2 and of pH on blood-gas partition coefficients, lambda, for inert gases, including SF6, ethane, cyclopropane, halothane, diethyl ether, acetone and N2, were systematically investigated using human blood. Measurements on lambda were performed at 37 degrees C in conditions of varied SO2 and pH using gas chromatography. Incorporating the experimental data on lambda, multiple inert gas elimination was applied to 18 patients with varied chronic lung diseases, in order to estimate the effects of SO2 and of pH on both inert gas exchange and resultant recovery of VA/Q distribution in the lung. For this purpose, the data obtained by the procedure of multiple inert gas elimination were analyzed with the classical approach but allowance was made for lambda of the indicator gas to vary according to exchange of O2 and of CO2 in the pulmonary capillary. Among the gases studied, ethane, cyclopropane, halothane and diethyl ether showed significantly smaller lambda values in the oxygenated blood than in deoxygenated blood, whereas SF6, acetone and N2 were little dependent on SO2. An increase in lambda was found for ethane and a decrease for halothane with increasing pH in the blood. The other gases were not significantly influenced by pH. In spite of these experimental findings, regional difference of either SO2 or pH in the lung did not exert important influence on the inert gas exchange or on the predicted VA/Q distribution. In conclusion, blood-gas partition coefficients of some inert gases are consistently altered by SO2 and pH, but their possible effects on inert gas exchange seem to be negligible. PMID:1965757

  20. Impact of Perioperative Synthetic Insulation Measures on Vital Sign,Blood Gas Analysis Re-sults,Blood Coagulation and Other Indexes in Puerperas with Hemorrhagic Shock During Cesar-ean Section%围术期综合保温措施对失血性休克产妇剖宫产手术中生命体征、血气分析及凝血功能等指标的影响



    To assess the impact of perioperative synthetic insulation measures on the result of operation for puerperas with hemorrhagic shock .[Methods] Totally 200 patients were randomly divided into two groups .The control group was treated with conventional surgical method ,while the observation group was given perioperative synthetic insulation measures .Blood pressure ,heart rate ,respiration ,nasopharyngeal temperature ,blood coagulation ,blood gas analysis results ,hematocrit ,blood lactic acid value ,the incidence of postoperative shivering ,the rate of successful rescue and hospital stay were compared between two groups .[Results] The vital signs of patients in observation group were all better than those of patients in control group ( P <0 .05) .The incidence of postoperative shivering in observation group was 16 .00% ,which was lower than that in control group(37 .00% ) ,and the rate of successful rescue was 93% ,which was higher than that in control group(76 .00% ) .The length of stay in observation group were (10 .20 ± 5 .10)d ,which was shorter than that in control group .There were significant differences( P<0 .05) .[Conclusion]Perioperative synthetic insulation measures can reduce the incidence of maternal complications of puerpera with hemorrhagic shock , improve the success rate of operation rescue ,help the recovery of patients and shorten the hospital stay .%【目的】评估围手术期综合保温措施对失血性休克产妇剖宫产手术中生命体征、血气分析及凝血功能等指标的影响。【方法】将200例失血性休克拟行剖宫产产妇随机分为两组,对照组围术期按照常规进行护理,观察组围手术期采用综合保温措施,比较两组患者的血压、心率、呼吸、鼻咽部体温、凝血功能、血气分析结果、红细胞压积、血乳酸值及术后寒战发生率、抢救成功率和住院时间。【结果】观察组患者的各项生命体征均优于对照组( P <0.05);患

  1. Stress Analysis of Shallow Sea Gas Pipelines

    Xiaonan Wu


    Full Text Available Shallow sea gas pipelines usually operate in complicated and changeable regional environments and can generate corresponding stresses and displacement under the influence of internal pressures, earthquakes, waves and other loadings. An unevenly distributed stress will lead to shallow sea gas pipeline failure easily. In order to ensure the safety of pipeline, it is necessary to research the stress conditions of the shallow sea gas pipeline and check whether it can meet the safety requirements or not. In this study, we analyze the stress conditions of shallow sea gas pipelines of two laying modes in XX areas using stress analysis software CAESAR II, discuss the loading conditions under the operating condition and determine the position of the key point where pipeline damage is most likely to happen, the bend pipe. The comprehensive experiments show that underground method more secure than the sea-bed method, it greatly improves the reliability of the shallow sea pipeline running. Our research provides a theoretical basis for the construction of shallow sea gas pipelines.

  2. Natural gas product and strategic analysis

    Product and strategic analysis at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) crosscuts all sectors of the natural gas industry. This includes the supply, transportation, and end-use sectors of the natural-gas market. Projects in the Natural Gas Resource and Extraction supply program have been integrated into a new product focus. Product development facilitates commercialization and technology transfer through DOE/industry cost-shared research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D). Four products under the Resource and Extraction program include Resource and Reserves; Low Permeability Formations; Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation: and Natural Gas Upgrading. Engineering process analyses have been performed for the Slant Hole Completion Test project. These analyses focused on evaluation of horizontal-well recovery potential and applications of slant-hole technology. Figures 2 and 3 depict slant-well in situ stress conditions and hydraulic fracture configurations. Figure 4 presents Paludal Formation coal-gas production curves used to optimize the hydraulic fracture design for the slant well. Economic analyses have utilized data generated from vertical test wells to evaluate the profitability of horizontal technology for low-permeability formations in Yuma County, Colorado, and Maverick County, Texas

  3. Gene expression analysis in human breast cancer associated blood vessels.

    Dylan T Jones

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5-72 fold in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of

  4. Effect of saline infusion for the maintenance of blood volume on pulmonary gas exchange during temporary abdominal aortic occlusion

    F.F. Amorim


    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of saline infusion for the maintenance of blood volume on pulmonary gas exchange in ischemia-reperfusion syndrome during temporary abdominal aortic occlusion in dogs. We studied 20 adult mongrel dogs weighing 12 to 23 kg divided into two groups: ischemia-reperfusion group (IRG, N = 10 and IRG submitted to saline infusion for the maintenance of mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure between 10 and 20 mmHg (IRG-SS, N = 10. All animals were anesthetized and maintained on spontaneous ventilation. After obtaining baseline measurements, occlusion of the supraceliac aorta was performed by the inflation of a Fogarty catheter. After 60 min of ischemia, the balloon was deflated and the animals were observed for another 60 min of reperfusion. The measurements were made at 10 and 45 min of ischemia, and 5, 30, and 60 min of reperfusion. Pulmonary gas exchange was impaired in the IRG-SS group as demonstrated by the increase of the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (21 ± 14 in IRG-SS vs 11 ± 8 in IRG after 60 min of reperfusion, P = 0.004 in IRG-SS in relation to baseline values and the decrease of oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood (58 ± 15 in IRG-SS vs 76 ± 15 in IRG after 60 min of reperfusion, P = 0.001 in IRG-SS in relation to baseline values, which was correlated with the highest degree of pulmonary edema in morphometric analysis (0.16 ± 0.06 in IRG-SS vs 0.09 ± 0.04 in IRG, P = 0.03 between groups. There was also a smaller ventilatory compensation of metabolic acidosis after the reperfusion. We conclude that infusion of normal saline worsened the gas exchange induced by pulmonary reperfusion injury in this experimental model.

  5. Effect of caffeine citrate on the blood gas indexes in newborns with apnea

    Chun-Yan Wu; Xiao-Jiao Wang; Yuan-Yuan Wang


    Objective:To explore the effect of caffeine citrate on the blood gas indexes in newborns with apnea.Methods: A total of 108 primary premature infants diagnosed with apnea were included in the study and randomized into the caffeine citrate treatment group and the aminophylline control group with 54 cases in each group. The apnea episode duration 72 h after medication, and the blood gas before medication and 24, 48, 72 h after medication between the two groups were compared.Results: The apnea episode duration 24, 48, 72 h after medication in the treatment group was significantly shorter than that in the control group. PaO2 24, 48, 72 h after medication in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group, while PaCO2 was significantly reduced when compared with the control group.Conclusions:Caffeine citrate has achieved a significantly clinical effect in the treatment of newborn apnea, as a new therapeutic drug, is worthy of being widely recommended in the clinic.

  6. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients

    Chen, Jianing; Gorman, Monique; O’Reilly, Bill; Chen, Yu


    The epoc® blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc® system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article “Analytical evaluation of the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients” [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc® meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters. PMID:26937460

  7. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc(®) point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients.

    Chen, Jianing; Gorman, Monique; O'Reilly, Bill; Chen, Yu


    The epoc(®) blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc(®) system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article "Analytical evaluation of the epoc(®) point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients" [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc(®) meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters. PMID:26937460

  8. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients

    Jianing Chen


    Full Text Available The epoc® blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc® system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article “Analytical evaluation of the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients” [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc® meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters.

  9. 肺表面活性物质联合布地奈德对急性呼吸窘迫综合征极低出生体质量儿血气分析的影响%Effect of using pulmonary surfactant mixed with budesonide on blood gas analysis in very low birth weight premature with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    魏红娟; 任秀伟; 刘俊影; 王会悦; 宋思佳


    Objective:To explore the influence of Blood gas analysis in very low birth weight premature with acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS) after using pulmonary surfactant(PS) mixed with budesonide,and evaluate the therapeutic effect of combination. Methods:Twenty-eight premature infants with gestational age <33weeks,birth weight <1500 g,whose ARDS occurred within 6 hours after birth were andomly assigned into the experimental group and treatment group in Daqing Oil Field Gneral Hspital from December 2013 to November 2014,Experimental group using lung pulmonary surfactant 100mg/kg +budesonide 0.25mg/kg (male 8 cases, female 6 ca-ses) drip endotracheal cooperate with mechanical ventilation.The treatment group used alone lung pulmonary surfactant ( male 9 case,fe-male 5 cases) , 100mg/kg endotracheal drip with mechanical ventilation, drug drip time within 60 minutes after birth.Track two groups of Blood gas analysis.Results:The experimental group a newborn and the treatment group 1, 6, 12, 24 h blood gas analysis of pH value, oxygen partial pressure(Pa O2), CO2 partial pressure (Pa CO2), alveolar artery oxygen partial pressure difference (AaDO2) were sig-nificant differences (P <0.05).Conclusion:using PS joint budesonide on ARDS could improve blood gas analysis, improve the diffi-culty in breathing, shorten the time of oxygen, might be advantageous to the premature stop oxygen as soon as possible, reduce the lung injury, relieve the patient's medical expenses, worth clinical promotion.%目的:探讨肺表面活性物质( PS)联合布地奈德对急性呼吸窘迫综合征( ARDS)极低出生体质量儿血气分析的影响,并评价用药的治疗效果。方法:2013年12月~2014年11月在大庆油田总医院新生儿科收治的的胎龄<33周、出生体质量<1500 g、出生6小时内发生ARDS的早产儿28例,随机分为实验组和治疗组,实验组使用肺表面活性物质(固尔苏)100mg/kg+布地奈德0.25mg

  10. Stability of blood gases when refrigerated

    Ferreira, J.; S. Silva; Rodrigues, P.; Abreu, M.; Maia, J.; Carvalho, D; Carvalho, L.


    Background: Blood gas analysis is a widely used procedure. In clinical practice, the physicians may not always have a blood gas analyzer in their proximity. Not infrequently, blood gas samples are stored in a fridge or on ice and read retrospectively. Continued anaerobic and aerobic metabolism in the blood may alter blood gases in the interval between drawing arterial blood and its analysis, which may cause a fall in the PaO2 and pH and a rise in the PaCO2. Methods: Two s...

  11. Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop

    Galhardo, C E C; Penna, T J P; Argollo de Menezes, M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea, s/n, 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Soares, P P S [Instituto Biomedico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, R. Prof. Hernani Melo n. 101, 24210-130, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail:


    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  12. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop

    Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S


    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  13. Laser speckle imaging of rat retinal blood flow with hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method

    Cheng, Haiying; Yan, Yumei; Duong, Timothy Q.


    Noninvasive monitoring of blood flow in retinal circulation will reveal the progression and treatment of ocular disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. A non-invasive and direct BF measurement technique with high spatial-temporal resolution is needed for retinal imaging. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is such a method. Currently, there are two analysis methods for LSI: spatial statistics LSI (SS-LSI) and temporal statistical LSI (TS-LSI). Comparing these two analysis methods, SS-LSI has higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and TSLSI is less susceptible to artifacts from stationary speckle. We proposed a hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (HTS-LSI) to measure the retinal blood flow. Gas challenge experiment was performed and images were analyzed by HTS-LSI. Results showed that HTS-LSI can not only remove the stationary speckle but also increase the SNR. Under 100% O2, retinal BF decreased by 20-30%. This was consistent with the results observed with laser Doppler technique. As retinal blood flow is a critical physiological parameter and its perturbation has been implicated in the early stages of many retinal diseases, HTS-LSI will be an efficient method in early detection of retina diseases.

  14. Environmental analysis for pipeline gas demonstration plants

    Stinton, L.H.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented programs for encouraging the development and commercialization of coal-related technologies, which include coal gasification demonstration-scale activities. In support of commercialization activities the Environmental Analysis for Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plants has been prepared as a reference document to be used in evaluating potential environmental and socioeconomic effects from construction and operation of site- and process-specific projects. Effluents and associated impacts are identified for six coal gasification processes at three contrasting settings. In general, impacts from construction of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant are similar to those caused by the construction of any chemical plant of similar size. The operation of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant, however, has several unique aspects that differentiate it from other chemical plants. Offsite development (surface mining) and disposal of large quantities of waste solids constitute important sources of potential impact. In addition, air emissions require monitoring for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and other emissions. Potential biological impacts from long-term exposure to these emissions are unknown, and additional research and data analysis may be necessary to determine such effects. Possible effects of pollutants on vegetation and human populations are discussed. The occurrence of chemical contaminants in liquid effluents and the bioaccumulation of these contaminants in aquatic organisms may lead to adverse ecological impact. Socioeconomic impacts are similar to those from a chemical plant of equivalent size and are summarized and contrasted for the three surrogate sites.

  15. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review

    Emad A Mohammed


    Full Text Available Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural networks (ANNs are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  16. Determination of dimethyl trisulfide in rabbit blood using stir bar sorptive extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Manandhar, Erica; Maslamani, Nujud; Petrikovics, Ilona; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A


    Cyanide poisoning by accidental or intentional exposure poses a severe health risk. The current Food and Drug Administration approved antidotes for cyanide poisoning can be effective, but each suffers from specific major limitations concerning large effective dosage, delayed onset of action, or dependence on enzymes generally confined to specific organs. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), a sulfur donor that detoxifies cyanide by converting it into thiocyanate (a relatively nontoxic cyanide metabolite), is a promising next generation cyanide antidote. Although a validated analytical method to analyze DMTS from any matrix is not currently available, one will be vital for the approval of DMTS as a therapeutic agent against cyanide poisoning. Hence, a stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the analysis of DMTS from rabbit whole blood. Following acid denaturation of blood, DMTS was extracted into a polydimethylsiloxane-coated stir bar. The DMTS was then thermally desorbed from the stir bar and analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection of DMTS using this method was 0.06μM with dynamic range from 0.5-100μM. For quality control standards, the precision, as measured by percent relative standard deviation, was below 10%, and the accuracy was within 15% of the nominal concentration. The method described here will allow further investigations of DMTS as a promising antidote for cyanide poisoning. PMID:27477518

  17. Method Development and Validation for Determining 1,3-Butadiene in Human Blood by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Head-Space Gas Chromatography%Method Development and Validation for Determining1,3-Butadiene in Human Blood by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Head-Space Gas Chromatography

    ZHANG Su-jing; SHEN Bao-hua; ZHUO Xian-yi


    To develop a simple,validated method for identifying and quantifying 1,3-butadiene (BD) in human blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and head-space gas chromatography (HS-GC).BD was identified by GC-MS and HS-GC,and quantified by HS-GC.The method showed that BD had a good linearity from 50 to 500 μg/mL (r>0.99).The limits of detection and quantification were 10 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL,respectively.Both the intra-day precision and inter-day precision were <6.08%,and the accuracy was 96.98%-103.81%.The method was applied to an actual case,and the concentration of BD in the case was 242 μg/mL in human blood.This simple method is found to be useful for the routine forensic analysis of acute exposure to BD.

  18. Comparative Study of Unarmed and CPR Machine for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Blood Gas Analysis%徒手和心肺复苏机用于心肺复苏对血气分析的影响对比研究

    葛志文; 涂久生


    目的:对比探究对呼吸心脏骤停患者进行徒手救助和心肺复苏机施救两种急救方法对血气分析的影响和临床的效果。方法将我院收治的90例心脏骤停急救患者进行分组,其中对照组采用徒手救助使其心肺复苏,而观察组则采用心肺复苏机进行患者的急救治疗,对比两组患者在心肺复苏后5 min、15 min以及30 min时的动脉血气指标结果,探究两种急救方式的临床效果。结果两组接受相应治疗后观察组有效率达31.1%高于对照组,而在5 min时两组在血气指标无差异,在15 min和30 min时,观察组的PaO2和SaO2两项指标相比较对照组有很大提高,而PaCO2出现下降(P<0.05)。结论采用心肺复苏机进行该病患者的急救治疗,能够提高患者的心肺脑供血供氧水平,增加患者的心输出量,增加了治疗的有效率,保证患者的生命安全。%Objective To compare the exploration of respiratory cardiac arrest patients with clinical impact and effectiveness of unarmed aid and CPR machine emergency rescue of two methods of blood gas analysis. Methods 90 cases in our hospital cardiac arrest emergency patient group,which controls the use of unarmed CPR rescue it,and the observation group is using CPR machine for first aid treatment of patients,compared two groups of patients in cardiopulmonary resuscitation 5 min,15 min and 30 min,arterial blood gas results,explore the clinical effects of two emergency mode. Results The two groups receive appropriate treatment observation group was significantly higher effective rate of 31.1%,while in 5min two groups showed no difference in the flesh,at 15 and 30 min time, PaO2 and SaO2 two indicators of the observation group phase comparison of the control group has greatly improved,while PaCO2 decline(P< 0.05). Conclusion CPR machine first aid treatment of the disease patients can improve heart and lung patients with brain blood oxygen levels

  19. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Suzanne Miyamoto; Taylor, Sandra L.; Barupal, Dinesh K; Ayumu Taguchi; Gert Wohlgemuth; Wikoff, William R.; Yoneda, Ken Y.; Gandara, David R.; Samir M. Hanash; Kyoungmi Kim; Oliver Fiehn


    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer ...

  20. TRU Drum Headspace Gas Analysis System

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has approximately 10,000 Transuranic (TRU) waste drums whose final disposition is the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Each drum, prior to shipment to WIPP, must be inspected and tested to certify that is meets the WIPP requirements for acceptance. One, of many requirements, is the analysis of the TRU drum vapor space for hydrogen, methane, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DOE Carlsbad Area Office has published two documents specifying the analytical methodologies and the quality assurance requirements for analyzing TRU drum vapor space.The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was contracted by the Solid Waste Division of SRS to specify, assemble, and test a system that would satisfy the WIPP requirements for drum headspace gas analysis. Since no single vendor supplies a complete system, analytical instrumentation and supporting components were integrated into a configuration that performed that required analyses. This required both software and hardware design and modifications. The major goal of the design team was to integrate commercially available instrumentation and equipment into a seamless production process. The final output of the process is an analytical report formatted to the specifications outlined in the WIPP Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). SRTC has assembled the necessary analytical instrumentation and installed it in a mobile trailer to perform the TRU drum vapor space analyses. This mobile trailer had previously housed instrumentation for reactor tank inspections. As a cost savings it was decided to renovate and install the instrumentation in this trailer to eliminate the need of building or modifying permanent structures. This also allows for portability to meet future analytical needs on or off site.This task was divided into three sub tasks: headspace gas sampling, gas analysis and system component integration, and sample canister cleaning. The following sections

  1. Influence of nursing intervention on vital signs and blood gas analysis indexes of AECOPD patients complicated with respiratory failure received non invasive ventilation treatment%护理干预对无创通气治疗 AECOPD 合并呼吸衰竭病人生命体征及血气分析指标的影响



    [目的]探讨护理干预对无创通气治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)合并呼吸衰竭病人生命体征及血气分析指标的影响。[方法]选择合肥市第三人民医院呼吸内科2010年10月—2012年2月收治的应用无创通气治疗 AECOPD 合并呼吸衰竭病人37例,在无创通气前、通气中进行有效的护理干预,观察通气前后心率、RR、pH、血二氧化碳分压(PaCO 2)、血氧分压(PaO 2)、血氧饱和度(SpO 2)的变化。[结果]通过有效的护理干预措施,通气治疗后的心率、RR、pH、PaCO 2、PaO 2、SpO 2较通气前有明显改善,差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。[结论]对于 AECOPD 合并呼吸衰竭病人应用无创通气治疗时护理人员采取适时的护理干预,可显著提高治疗效果。%Objective:To probe into the influence of nursing intervention on vital signs and blood gas analysis in-dexes of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute exacerbation (AECOPD)complicated with respiratory failure received non invasive ventilation treatment Methods:A total of 37 cases of AECOPD patients complicated with respiratory failure were selected who were treated with noninvasive ventilation in de-partment of respiratory medicine in the third people’s hospital in hefei city from October 2010 to February 2012.They received the effective nursing intervention before noninvasive ventilation and during ventilation and to observe the change of heart rate,RR,pH,blood CO 2 partial pressure(PaCO 2 ),blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO 2 ),blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 )before and after the ventilation.Results:Through effective nursing in-terventions,the heart rate,RR,pH,PaCO 2 ,PaO 2 ,SpO 2 were improved significantly after ventilation treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.01 ).Conclusion:For the AECOPD patients complicated with respiratory failure receiving non invasive ventilation,the timely nursing intervention can

  2. Geochemistry and Geologic Analysis in Shale Gas Play

    Wenwu Xia; Mike D. Burnaman; John Shelton


    The understanding from the conventional geochemistry and geology analysis is very different when trying to apply them to shale gas plays. This paper is a summary for U.S. shale gas plays on geochemistry and geologic analysis application, and real field data from active U.S. shale gas plays is used in the discussion of different concepts.

  3. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit

  4. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    Tiernan, T.; Entine, G.; Stump, D.A.; Prough, D.S.


    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit.

  5. Whole blood donor deferral analysis at Genera l hospital blood bank – A retrospective study.

    Hinal Gajjar


    Full Text Available Background: A blood transfusion is a life saving procedure in many instances and it requir es an adequate supply of safe blood. The most important is the selection of blood donors by donor selection criteria. A large number of blood donors are deferred from donating blood for several reasons either temporarily or permanently. A shortage of safe blood donor is frequent and it is important to understand the causes of deferral of potential donors. Aims: 1. Primary objective of this study was to record and document the current rate and reasons for donor deferred in our blood bank. 2. Apply relevant findings to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. Materials and methods: Data for WBD presenting for blood donation in a blood bank V S General Hospital and outdoor camps over two and half years from January 2011 to June 2013 were analysed retrospectively. National Guidelines were used for selection & deferral of WBD. Results: 3836 (11.16% WBD were deferred out of 34373 registered donors during the study period. Donor deferrals were tabulated into temporary and permanent reasons. Temporary deferrals were 3113 (81.15% and permanent deferrals were 723 (18.85%. The most common reasons were low haemoglobin (48.33%, high blood pressure (11.94%, underweight donors (7.95% and history of medication use (6.13% among total deferral donors. Majority of donors (47.16% deferred were between 18 -30 years. Females were found to have higher deferral rate (25.48% than males (10.76%. Discussion and conclusion: A deferral study in blood donors may shed light on the health status of general population which may affect the present and future blood supply. It is important to provide donors with a clear message on their deferral status so that most of temporary deferral donors will return for donation in future.

  6. FTIR gas chromatographic analysis of perfumes

    Diederich, H.; Stout, Phillip J.; Hill, Stephen L.; Krishnan, K.


    Perfumes, natural or synthetic, are complex mixtures consisting of numerous components. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques have been extensively utilized for the analysis of perfumes and essential oils. A limited number of perfume samples have also been analyzed by FT-IR gas chromatographic (GC-FTIR) techniques. Most of the latter studies have been performed using the conventional light pipe (LP) based GC-FTIR systems. In recent years, cold-trapping (in a matrix or neat) GC-FTIR systems have become available. The cold-trapping systems are capable of sub-nanogram sensitivities. In this paper, comparison data between the LP and the neat cold-trapping GC- FTIR systems is presented. The neat cold-trapping interface is known as Tracer. The results of GC-FTIR analysis of some commercial perfumes is also presented. For comparison of LP and Tracer GC-FTIR systems, a reference (synthetic) mixture containing 16 major and numerous minor constituents was used. The components of the mixture are the compounds commonly encountered in commercial perfumes. The GC-FTIR spectra of the reference mixture was obtained under identical chromatographic conditions from an LP and a Tracer system. A comparison of the two sets of data thus generated do indeed show the enhanced sensitivity level of the Tracer system. The comparison also shows that some of the major components detected by the Tracer system were absent from the LP data. Closer examination reveals that these compounds undergo thermal decomposition on contact with the hot gold surface that is part of the LP system. GC-FTIR data were obtained for three commercial perfume samples. The major components of these samples could easily be identified by spectra search against a digitized spectral library created using the Tracer data from the reference mixture.

  7. Simple gas chromatographic method for furfural analysis.

    Gaspar, Elvira M S M; Lopes, João F


    A new, simple, gas chromatographic method was developed for the direct analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furfural (2-F) and 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) in liquid and water soluble foods, using direct immersion SPME coupled to GC-FID and/or GC-TOF-MS. The fiber (DVB/CAR/PDMS) conditions were optimized: pH effect, temperature, adsorption and desorption times. The method is simple and accurate (RSDHMF; GC-TOF-MS: 0.3, 1.2 and 0.9 ngmL(-1) for 2-F, 5-MF and 5-HMF, respectively). It was applied to different commercial food matrices: honey, white, demerara, brown and yellow table sugars, and white and red balsamic vinegars. This one-step, sensitive and direct method for the analysis of furfurals will contribute to characterise and quantify their presence in the human diet. PMID:18976770

  8. Spatial Analysis of the Japanese Gas Industry

    Akio Kusakabe; Jinhwan Oh


    This study analyzes gas prices, costs, and expenditures in Japan from a spatial perspective. The main findings are as follows: (1) Gas prices, costs, and expenditures exhibit spatially dependent patterns throughout Japan and are related to the service area locations of the gas distributors. (2) Regional conditions, including weather, production shipment, and availability and method of procuring domestic natural gas are the main determinants influencing gas prices and cost levels in Japan. The...

  9. Associations of methylmercury and inorganic mercury between human cord blood and maternal blood: A meta-analysis and its application

    Considering the different ability of placental transfer, an assessment of the cord:maternal blood ratio for both methylmercury (MeHg) and inorganic mercury (IHg) is needed especially for interpreting the low-level prenatal exposure. In this study, we conducted a Monte Carlo-based meta-analysis to comprehensively estimate that ratio for MeHg (RMeHg) and IHg (RIHg). The obtained values followed log-normal distributions, with a mean (standard deviation) of 1.89 (0.98) and 1.01 (0.55) for RMeHg and RIHg, respectively. We also estimated the percentage of MeHg in the blood by means of THg in cord and maternal blood using the RMeHg and RIHg, and obtained a value very close to the measured one (relative deviation, −0.4%). In conclusion, the fetus is exposed to approximately twice as much MeHg and to the same level of IHg as in maternal blood; the introduced model provides a rough but reasonable estimate of the percentage of MeHg in the blood. - Highlights: • The cord:maternal blood ratio for methylmerucry was obtained by meta-analyses. • The cord:maternal blood ratio for inorganic mercury was obtained by meta-analyses. • A new model to estimate the percentage of methylmercury in blood was introduced. - The cord:maternal blood ratio distributions and the approach to estimate MeHg percentage in the blood in this paper may provide a new perspective of interpreting prenatal mercury exposure

  10. Reliability of point-of-care hematocrit, blood gas, electrolyte, lactate and glucose measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Steinfelder-Visscher, J.; Weerwind, P.W.; Teerenstra, S.; Brouwer, M.H.J.


    BACKGROUND: Recently, the GEM Premier blood gas analyser was upgraded to the GEM Premier 3000. In addition to pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and hematocrit measurement, glucose and lactate can be measured on the GEM Premier 3000. In this prospective clinical study, the analytical performance of the G

  11. Analysis of Flux of Gas Passing Circle Lacuna

    ZHAO Shi-jun; SUN Ke-yu; YU Xiu-ping


    The rate of flow of the gas flowing through cirque chink often needs calculation in engineering. The characters of compressibility and thermodynamics have some effect on the gas flowing, so the analysis on the flow of gas is more complex than that of liquid. But under different conditions and different requirements of precision the analysis can be simplified suitably, then make the formulae given become simple subsequently. This paper analyzes various gas flux based on basic characters and motion laws of gas and the analysis is just applied in an engineering project.

  12. Residual gas analysis in ISX-A

    A computer-controlled mass analyzer was utilized to observe the residual gases in the ISX-A tokamak. This residual gas analysis (RGA) system enabled time resolved measurements of preselected m/e peak heights to be made during and after tokamak discharges. Routine mass scans were also made and displayed in the form of semilogarithmic plots of partial pressure (torr) versus m/e. Wall conditioning of the stainless steel torus consisted of hydrogen discharge cleaning and titanium gettering, which ultimately produced gage pressures on the order of 10-8 and 10-9 torr, respectively. The dominant plasma impurities, carbon and oxygen, were observed by the RGA as light hydrocarbons and water vapor. Entrapment of deuterium by the walls was investigated by monitoring the residual D2 content after the working gas was changed to H2. The effective nuclear charge (Z/sub eff/) was found to be proportional to the residual contaminants measured by the RGA immediately following a discharge

  13. Nondestructive fission gas release measurement and analysis

    O' Leary, P.M.; Packard, D.R. (Siemens Nuclear Power Corp., Richland, WA (United States))


    Siemens Power Corporation (SPC) has performed reactor poolside gamma scanning measurements of fuel rods for fission gas release (FGR) detection for more than 10 yr. The measurement system has been previously described. Over the years, the data acquisition system, the method of spectrum analysis, and the means of reducing spectrum interference have been significantly improved. A personal computer (PC)-based multichannel analyzer (MCA) package is used to collect, display, and store high-resolution gamma-ray spectra measured in the fuel rod plenum. A PC spread sheet is used to fit the measured spectra and compute sample count rates after Compton background subtraction. A Zircaloy plenum spacer is often used to reduce positron annihilation interference that can arise from the INCONEL[sup [reg sign

  14. Investments in natural gas - an empirical analysis with emphasis on the shale gas revolution

    Lorentzen, Pål Holmefjord


    The main objective in this thesis is to investigate how various factors are influencing investments in the US natural gas industry. The thesis puts a special emphasis on the “Shale Gas Revolution” that struck the US natural gas market in 2006/2007 and how it has affected investments in natural gas. The yearly growth rate in shale gas production from 2007-2013 was 31 %. The analysis is based on data from the period 1990-2013. The thesis gives an overview of the US natural gas market and its p...

  15. Methods for analysis of citrinin in human blood and urine.

    Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Muñoz, Katherine; Degen, Gisela H


    Citrinin (CIT), produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus species, has been detected as contaminant in feeds, grains, and other food commodities. CIT can co-occur with ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin also known for its nephrotoxicity, and this raises concern regarding possible combined effects. But, in contrast to OTA, data on CIT contamination in foods for human consumption are scarce, and CIT biomonitoring has not been conducted so far due a lack of suitable methods for human specimen. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to develop sensitive methods for the analysis of CIT in human blood and urine to investigate human exposure. To this end, we assessed different methods of sample preparation and instrumental analysis for these matrices. Clean-up of blood plasma by protein precipitation followed by LC-MS/MS-based analysis allowed robust detection of CIT (LOD 0.07 ng/mL, LOQ 0.15 ng/mL). For urine, sample clean-up by an immunoaffinity column (CitriTest(®)) proved to be clearly superior to SPE with RP(18) material for subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS. For CIT and its metabolite dihydrocitrinone (HO-CIT), the LOD and LOQ determined by external calibration curves in matrix were 0.02 and 0.05 ng/mL for CIT, and those for HO-CIT were 0.05 and 0.1 ng/mL urine. The newly developed method was applied in a small pilot study: CIT was present in all plasma samples from 8 German adults, at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 0.26 ng/mL. The molar (nM) concentrations of CIT are similar to those measured for OTA in these samples as a result of dietary mycotoxin intake. CIT was detected in 8/10 urines (from 4 adults and 6 infants) in a range of 0.16-0.79 ng/mL, and HO-CIT was present in 5/10 samples at similar concentrations. Thus, CIT is excreted in urine as parent compound and also as metabolite. These first results in humans point to the need for further studies on CIT exposure. PMID:23354378

  16. Non-invasive pulmonary blood flow analysis and blood pressure mapping derived from 4D flow MRI

    Delles, Michael; Rengier, Fabian; Azad, Yoo-Jin; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Ley, Sebastian; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Dillmann, Rüdiger


    In diagnostics and therapy control of cardiovascular diseases, detailed knowledge about the patient-specific behavior of blood flow and pressure can be essential. The only method capable of measuring complete time-resolved three-dimensional vector fields of the blood flow velocities is velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), often denoted as 4D flow MRI. Furthermore, relative pressure maps can be computed from this data source, as presented by different groups in recent years. Hence, analysis of blood flow and pressure using 4D flow MRI can be a valuable technique in management of cardiovascular diseases. In order to perform these tasks, all necessary steps in the corresponding process chain can be carried out in our in-house developed software framework MEDIFRAME. In this article, we apply MEDIFRAME for a study of hemodynamics in the pulmonary arteries of five healthy volunteers. The study included measuring vector fields of blood flow velocities by phase-contrast MRI and subsequently computing relative blood pressure maps. We visualized blood flow by streamline depictions and computed characteristic values for the left and the right pulmonary artery (LPA and RPA). In all volunteers, we observed a lower amount of blood flow in the LPA compared to the RPA. Furthermore, we visualized blood pressure maps using volume rendering and generated graphs of pressure differences between the LPA, the RPA and the main pulmonary artery. In most volunteers, blood pressure was increased near to the bifurcation and in the proximal LPA, leading to higher average pressure values in the LPA compared to the RPA.

  17. Penile rehabilitation with a vacuum erectile device in an animal model is related to an antihypoxic mechanism:blood gas evidence

    Hao-Cheng Lin; Wen-Li Yang; Jun-Lan Zhang; Yu-Tian Dai; Run Wang


    Our previous study showed that vacuum erectile device (VED) therapy has improved erectile function in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) injuries.This study was designed to explore the mechanism of VED in penile rehabilitation by analyzing cavernous oxygen saturation (S02) and to examine the effect of VED therapy on preventing penile shrinkage after BCNC.Thirty adult SpragueDawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups:group 1,sham surgery; group 2,BCNC; and group 3,BCNC+VED.Penile length and diameter were measured on a weekly basis.After 4 weeks of therapy,the penile blood was extracted by three methods for blood gas analysis (BGA):method 1,cavernous blood was aspirated at the flaccid state; method 2,cavernous blood was aspirated at the traction state; and method 3,cavernous blood was aspirated immediately after applying VED.SO2 values were tested by the blood gas analyzer.The results showed that VED therapy is effective in preventing penile shrinkage induced by BCNC (Penile shortening:BCNC group 1.9±1.1 mm; VED group 0.3±1.0 mm; P<0.01.Penile diameter reduction:BCNC group 0.28±0.14 mm; VED group 0.04±0.14 mm; P<0.0 1).The mean S02±s.d.values were increased by VED application (88.25%±4.94%) compared to the flaccid (76.53%±4.16%) or traction groups (78.93%±2.56%) (P<0.05).The calculated blood constructs in the corpus cavernosum right after VED application were 62% arterial and 38% venous blood.These findings suggest that VED therapy can effectively preserve penile size in rats with BCNC injury.The beneficial effect of VED therapy is related to antihypexia by increasing cavernous blood S02.

  18. PIXE analysis of chinese chicken-blood stone

    This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al2O3 and SiO2. The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)


    F. Abramchuk


    Full Text Available The results of comparison analysis of gas engine monospark and multispark ignition systems indices are presented. The results of these systems experimental investigation are given.

  20. Determination of cis-permethrin, trans-permethrin and associated metabolites in rat blood and organs by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Lestremau, F; Willemin, M-E; Chatellier, C; Desmots, S; Brochot, C


    An analytical method was developed to measure cis-permethrin and trans-permethrin in different biological rat matrices and fluids (whole blood, red blood cells, plasma, brain, liver, muscle, testes, kidneys, fat and faeces). The method was also suitable for the simultaneous quantification of their associated metabolites [cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (trans-DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA)] in blood (whole blood, red blood cells, plasma) and liver. The target analytes were derivatised in samples using a methanolic/hydrochloric acid solution and then extracted with toluene. The analysis was performed by gas chromatography, and detection using ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. The selectivity obtained for complex matrices such as rat organs allowed the use of a purification step to be avoided for most of the matrices investigated. In the case of fat, where permethrin is suspected to accumulate, a dedicated purification step was developed. In fluids, the limits of quantification were at the 50 ng/mL level for the parent compounds and 3-PBA and at 25 ng/mL for cis-DCCA and trans-DCCA. For solid matrices excluding fat, the limits of quantification ranged from 50 ng/g for muscle to 100 ng/g for brain and testes for both cis-permethrin and trans-permethrin. The extraction recoveries ranged primarily between 80 and 120% for the matrix tested. The stability of blood samples was tested through the addition of 1% v/v formic acid. The methods developed were applied in a toxicokinetic study in adult rats. cis-Permethrin and the metabolites were detected in all corresponding matrices, whereas trans-permethrin was detected only in blood, plasma and faeces. PMID:24718437

  1. Cooled gas turbine blade edge flow analysis

    Mendonca, Marcio Teixeira de [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica Aeronautica ITA/IEM, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:


    The flow on the rotating blades of a turbine is unsteady due to the wake of the stator blade row upstream. This unsteadiness is a source of losses and complex flow structures on the rotor blade due to the variation on the turbulence levels and location of the boundary layer laminar to turbulent transition. Convective cooled blades often time have cooling air ejected at the trailing edge right at the blade wake. The present investigation presents an analysis of a canonical flow consistent with the flow topology found at the trailing edge of a gas turbine blade with coolant ejection. A hydrodynamic stability analysis is performed for the combined wake and jet velocity profiles given by a gaussian distribution representing the turbulent rms wake and a laminar jet superposed. The growth rate of any instability found on the flow is an indication of faster mixing, resulting in a reduction on the wake velocity defect and consequently on the complexity associated with it. The results show that increasing the Mach number or the three-dimensionality of the disturbances result in a reduction of the amplification rate. When the flow at the trailing edge is modified by a jet, the amplification rates are lower, but the range of unstable stream wise wavenumbers is larger. (author)

  2. Simulation Analysis of Indoor Gas Explosion Damage

    钱新明; 陈林顺; 冯长根


    The influence factors and process of indoor gas explosion are studied with AutoReaGas explosion simulator. The result shows that venting pressure has great influence on the indoor gas explosion damage. The higher the venting pressure is, the more serious the hazard consequence will be. The ignition location has also evident effect on the gas explosion damage. The explosion static overpressure would not cause major injury to person and serious damage to structure in the case of low venting pressure (lower than 2 kPa). The high temperature combustion after the explosion is the major factor to person injury in indoor gas explosion accidents.

  3. Performance-analysis-based gas turbine diagnostics: a review.

    Li, Y.G.


    Gas turbine diagnostics has a history almost as long as gas turbine development itself. Early engine fault diagnosis was carried out based on manufacturer information supplied in a technical manual combined with maintenance experience. In the late 1960’s when Urban introduced Gas Path Analysis, gas turbine diagnostics made a big breakthrough. Since then different methods have been developed and used in both aero and industrial applications. Until now a substantial number of papers have been p...

  4. The Analysis of Russian Oil and Gas Reserves

    Yulia Grama


    This paper devotes to the analysis of Russian oil and gas reserves. Currently, Russia holds world’s leading positions in oil and gas supply, but there is uncertainty for how long the country would be able to maintain it. After analyzing the situation in this industry, studying oil and gas fields and governmental policy towards hydro carbonates production and supply in Russia, the author will provide her projection about the future development of Russian oil and gas supplies to the global mark...

  5. Functional proteomic analysis of Ankaferd® Blood Stopper

    Duygu Özel Demiralp


    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd® Blood Stopper (ABS comprises a standardized mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. The basic mechanism of action for ABS is the formation of an encapsulated protein network that provides focal points for vital erythrocyte aggregation. ABS–induced protein network formation with blood cells, particularly erythrocytes, covers the primary and secondary hemostatic system without disturbing individual coagulation factors. Materials and Methods: To understand the effect mechanisms of ABS on hemostasis, a proteomic analysis using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometer was performed. Results: Proteins of plant origin in Ankaferd® were NADP-dependent-malic enzyme, ribulose bisphosphate-carboxylase-large chain, maturase K, ATP synthase subunit-beta, ATP synthase subunit-alpha, chalcone-flavanone isomerase-1, chalcone-flavanone isomerase-2, and actin-depolymerizing factor. Furthermore, functional proteomic studies revealed that proteins resembling human peptides have been detected within Ankaferd®, including ATP synthase, mucin-16 (CD164 sialomucin-like 2 protein, coiled-coil domain containing 141 hypothetical protein LOC283638 isoform 1, hypothetical protein LOC283638 isoform 2, dynactin 5, complex I intermediate-associated protein 30, mitochondrial, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 alpha subcomplex, TP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial actin binding 1 isoform, LIM domain and actin binding 1 isoform a, LIM domain and actin binding 1 isoform b, spectrin alpha non erythrocytic 1, prolactin releasing hormone receptor, utrophin, tet oncogene family member 2 isoform b, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A, NIMA (never in mitosis gene a-related kinase, ATP-binding cassette protein C12, Homo sapiens malic enzyme 1, mitochondrial NADP(+-dependent malic enzyme 3, ME2 protein, nuclear factor 1 B-type, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 12B, E

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn


    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indi-rectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supple-mentary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas or pyrolysis gas. Intuitively, sup-plementary firing is expected to...... the recu-perated gas turbine. Instead, other process changes may be considered in order to obtain a high marginal efficiency on natural gas. Two possibilities are discussed: Integration between an IFGT and pyrolysis of the biofuel which will result in a highly efficient utilization of the biomass, and...... indirectly fired gas turbine (IFGT) and for the supplementary-fired IFGT. These results show that the combination of external firing and internal firing have the potential of reducing or solving some problems associated with the use of biomass both in the recuperated and the indirectly fired gas turbine: The...

  7. Clinical value of blood gas analysis in the early prognosis of severe acute pancreatitis%动静脉血气分析在重症胰腺炎患者早期预后判断中的临床价值

    李晓; 高伟芳; 桑荣霞; 张纪元; 胡静; 刘润; 韩占波


    decreased, and the level in the survival group was significantly lower than that in death group [(1.47 ± 0.50) mmol/L vs (1.22 ± 0.38) mmol/L,P<0.05]. In order to determine the value of PCO2, HCO3-and BE in the prognosis of patients with SAP, the ROC curves were used to calculate the accuracy rate of prognosis of patients with SAP. The area under the ROC curve of BE and APACHEⅡscore was the largest, which indicated the highest diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion The early detection of blood gas analysis in patients with SAP is more conducive to the judg-ment of prognosis. The prognosis of patients with bigger negative BE score and older age may be poor.

  8. Gas exchange as monitored in mixed venous and arterial blood during experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Wiklund, L; Jorfeldt, L; Stjernström, H; Rubertsson, S


    Nineteen anaesthetized piglets were investigated. After catheterization and a stabilization period, ventricular fibrillation was induced with a transthoracic DC shock, after which a 10-min period of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) took place. CPR included manual chest compression and mechanical ventilation with pure oxygen. After 1 min of CPR, an infusion of alkaline buffer was begun and completed within 5 min. A total of 50 mmol of either sodium bicarbonate (n = 6) or tris buffer mixture (n = 7) were given. These two groups were compared with a third control group (n = 6) receiving the same volume of normal saline. After 8 min of CPR all animals were given 0.5 mg adrenaline i.v., and after 10 min DC shocks were used to revert the heart back to normal sinus rhythm. Our results demonstrate that blood flow and not ventilation is the limiting factor for the efficient disposal of CO2 during CPR. This also applied when the demand for CO2 transport was increased by administration of sodium bicarbonate. The respiratory exchange ratio increased 1.9-fold, indicating that the transport of carbon dioxide was less affected than that of oxygen. The estimated alveolo-arterial oxygen tension difference, shunt, and overall ventilation/perfusion ratio increased, creating an inverse hyperbolic relationship between arterial PCO2 and PO2. The difference between mixed venous and arterial PCO2 correlated well to the mixed venous PCO2, implying more efficient pulmonary elimination of PCO2 when the mixed venous PCO2 was high. Pulmonary gas exchange during CPR appears to be independent of alkaline buffer therapy in the form of sodium bicarbonate or tris buffer mixture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1632165

  9. Uranium trace analysis in human blood using fission track technique

    Fission track technique makes the measurement of the content of uranium in human blood. By choosing solid state nuclear track detectors of the high sensitivity, uranium can be determined using U(n,f) reaction. Blood samples are directly taken from finger and irradiated in a nuclear reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 3.5 x 1016 n/cm2. In normal human blood, the uranium contents varied from 2.43 to 3.80 x 10-10 g/ml, the average of the values is (3.06 ± 0.10) x 10-10 g/ml. In U-exposed workers blood, it varied from 3.07 to 5.57 x 10-10 g/ml, the average value is (4.53 ± 0.12) x 10-10 g/ml. In leukemia patients blood, 3.90 to 12.07 x 10-10 g/ml, the mean U-content is (7.74 ± 0.15) x 10-10 g/ml, which is 2.5 times higher than the mean of normal human blood. These results show a possible relation between the leukemia and the uranium content in the blood. If there is such a relationship, the Nuclear Fission Track Technique will be an important diagnostic tool in medicine

  10. Analysis of blood and tissue in gallbladder cancer

    Rautray, T.R. [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, 2-188-1 Samduk-dong, Jung-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:; Vijayan, V. [Dept. of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, SRM Nagar, Chennai (India); Sudarshan, M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, 3/LB-8 Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 098, West Bengal (India); Panigrahi, S. [Dept. of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)


    Particle induced X-ray emission, particle induced {gamma}-ray emission studies has been carried out to analyse normal and carcinoma tissues and blood samples of gallbladder of both sexes and seventeen trace elements namely Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br and Pb were estimated in the tissue and blood samples. In the present study, concentration of Zn in the carcinoma gallbladder tissue is less than that of the normal gallbladder tissue. Tobacco habit could be one of the important factors to decrease the elemental concentrations in blood and tissue samples.

  11. Blood gas and patient safety: considerations based on experience developed in accordance with the Risk Management perspective.

    Rambaldi, Marco; Baranzoni, Mariateresa; Coppolecchia, Pasquale; Moschello, Jennifer N; Novaco, Francesca


    It is the responsibility of health organizations to guarantee a high level of healthcare by using adequate methodologies and instruments, creating secure conditions for treatment, and preventing adverse events due to human or system errors. It is necessary to introduce Risk Management programs, and in particular to promote Clinical Risk Management, one of the constituent elements of Clinical Governance, to assure the delivery of high-quality performance and services. In the point-of-care testing (POCT) context, using an analysis of our experiences, we discuss the entire analytical process, including acquisition and usage, while focusing on blood gas analyzers. Our experience confirms that within a Clinical Governance framework, it is necessary to apply, even when choosing instruments, a systematic vision that is not limited to analytical validation, but also includes an in-depth analysis of the impact in a specific context. Assessment of the correlated risks, independent of the analytical methodology used, is indispensable in a clinical environment to identify the most suitable approach for such risks. A study of the latent factors can be proactively performed to identify (and stimulate) what the pre-organizational environment (producer companies) can offer in terms of product orientation to effectively reduce correlated risk during use. Among the different options for possible treatment of risk, one involves the transfer of the assumption of risk to third parties (e.g., maintenance and quality controls). Transferring the responsibility for control operations to the operator of the instrument, which follows the quality controls with total autonomy, is equivalent to transferring the correlated risk for the clinician (in the POCT case) to the producer, who becomes the guarantor. In practice this is equivalent to a specific assurance stipulation with zero cost. PMID:17579531

  12. Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Somesfalean, Gabriel.; Alnis, J.; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune


    Monitoring of free gas embedded in scattering media, such as wood, fruits, and synthetic materials, is demonstrated by use of diode laser spectroscopy combined with sensitive modulation techniques. Gas detection is made possible by the contrast of the narrow absorptive feature of the free-gas molecules with the slow wavelength dependence of the absorption and scattering cross sections in solids and liquids. An absorption sensitivity of 2.5 x 10(-4), corresponding to a 1.25-mm air column, is d...

  13. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RMD proposes to develop a MEMS based complete blood count (CBC) instrument that can be used aboard a spacecraft. We will produce a microfluidic scale combination...

  14. Reagents for Lithium Electrodes and Sensors for Blood Serum Analysis

    Gary D. Christian


    Full Text Available The measurement of lithium in blood serum requires high selectivity since the blood contains about 140 mM sodium compared to the 0.5-1.5 mM lithium level in manic depressive patients under treatment with lithium salts. This review traces the development of optical and potentiometric methods for the selective measurement of lithium in the presence of sodium. Selectivities of over 1,000:1 are achievable with properly designed ionophores.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of Neisseria meningitidis in human whole blood and mutagenesis studies identify virulence factors involved in blood survival.

    Hebert Echenique-Rivera


    Full Text Available During infection Neisseria meningitidis (Nm encounters multiple environments within the host, which makes rapid adaptation a crucial factor for meningococcal survival. Despite the importance of invasion into the bloodstream in the meningococcal disease process, little is known about how Nm adapts to permit survival and growth in blood. To address this, we performed a time-course transcriptome analysis using an ex vivo model of human whole blood infection. We observed that Nm alters the expression of ≈30% of ORFs of the genome and major dynamic changes were observed in the expression of transcriptional regulators, transport and binding proteins, energy metabolism, and surface-exposed virulence factors. In particular, we found that the gene encoding the regulator Fur, as well as all genes encoding iron uptake systems, were significantly up-regulated. Analysis of regulated genes encoding for surface-exposed proteins involved in Nm pathogenesis allowed us to better understand mechanisms used to circumvent host defenses. During blood infection, Nm activates genes encoding for the factor H binding proteins, fHbp and NspA, genes encoding for detoxifying enzymes such as SodC, Kat and AniA, as well as several less characterized surface-exposed proteins that might have a role in blood survival. Through mutagenesis studies of a subset of up-regulated genes we were able to identify new proteins important for survival in human blood and also to identify additional roles of previously known virulence factors in aiding survival in blood. Nm mutant strains lacking the genes encoding the hypothetical protein NMB1483 and the surface-exposed proteins NalP, Mip and NspA, the Fur regulator, the transferrin binding protein TbpB, and the L-lactate permease LctP were sensitive to killing by human blood. This increased knowledge of how Nm responds to adaptation in blood could also be helpful to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to control the devastating


    Anil Kumar; C.L. Varshney; G.C. Sharma


    Two different non-Newtonian models for blood flow are considered, first a simple power law model displaying shear thinning viscosity, and second a generalized Maxwell model displaying both shear thinning viscosity and oscillating flow viscous-elasticity. These models are used along with a Newtonian model to study sinusoidal flow of blood in rigid and elastic straight arteries in the presence of magnetic field. The elasticity of blood does not appear to influence its flow behavior under physiological conditions in the large arteries,purely viscous shear thinning model should be quite realistic for simulating blood flow under these conditions. On using the power law model with high shear rate for sinusoidal flow simulation in elastic arteries, the mean and amplitude of the flow rate were found to be lower for a power law fluid compared to Newtonian fluid for the same pressure gradient. The governing equations have been solved by Crank-Niclson scheme. The results are interpreted in the context of blood in the elastic arteries keeping the magnetic effects in view. For physiological flow simulation in the aorta, an increase in mean wall shear stress, but a reduction in peak wall shear stress were observed for power law model compared to a Newtonian fluid model for matched flow rate wave form. Blood flow in the presence of transverse magnetic field in an elastic artery is investigated and the influence of factors such as morphology and surface irregularity is evaluated.

  17. A historical analysis of natural gas demand

    Dalbec, Nathan Richard

    This thesis analyzes demand in the US energy market for natural gas, oil, and coal over the period of 1918-2013 and examines their price relationship over the period of 2007-2013. Diagnostic tests for time series were used; Augmented Dickey-Fuller, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin, Johansen cointegration, Granger Causality and weak exogeneity tests. Directed acyclic graphs were used as a complimentary test for endogeneity. Due to the varied results in determining endogeneity, a seemingly unrelated regression model was used which assumes all right hand side variables in the three demand equations were exogenous. A number of factors were significant in determining demand for natural gas including its own price, lagged demand, a number of structural break dummies, and trend, while oil indicate some substitutability with natural gas. An error correction model was used to examine the price relationships. Natural gas price was found not to have a significant cointegrating vector.

  18. Analysis of Natural Gas Vehicle Industry : none

    Li, Zhen


    A vehicle powered by natural gas is becoming a prevalent trend and direction in automobile manufacturing. The thesis is aiming at analyzing the natural gas vehicle industry from its environmental effectiveness, economic effectiveness, recent status and its development in the near future with statistical data. And also it will find out the potential problems and relevant technologies. Investigation and literature research method are mainly used to fully collect the correct information and d...

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn


    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indirectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supplementary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas, or pyrolysis gas. {The interest in this cycle arise from a recent...... requires a clean, expensive fuel. The latter is limited in efficiency due to limitations in material temperature of the heat exchanger. Thus, in the case of an IBFGT, it would be very appropriate to use a cheap biomass or waste fuel for low temperature combustion and external firing and use natural gas at...... analysed: Integration between an IFGT and pyrolysis of the biofuel which will result in a highly efficient utilization of the biomass, and integration between external biomass firing, internal biomass firing and internal natural gas firing. The marginal efficiency of the natural gas is in this case found...

  20. Method development of gas analysis with mass spectrometer

    Dissolved gas content in deep saline groundwater is an important factor, which has to be known and taken into account when planning the deep repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Posiva has investigated dissolved gases in deep groundwaters since the 1990's. In 2002 Posiva started a project that focused on developing the mass spectrometric method for measuring the dissolved gas content in deep saline groundwater. The main idea of the project was to analyse the dissolved gas content of both the gas phase and the water phase by a mass spectrometer. The development of the method started in 2003 (in the autumn). One of the aims was to create a parallel method for gas analysis with the gas chromatographic method. The starting point of this project was to test if gases could be analysed directly from water using a membrane inlet in the mass spectrometer. The main objective was to develop mass spectrometric methods for gas analysis with direct and membrane inlets. An analysis method for dissolved gases was developed for direct gas inlet mass spectrometry. The accuracy of the analysis method is tested with parallel real PAVE samples analysed in the laboratory of Insinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy. The results were good. The development of the membrane inlet mass spectrometric method still continues. Two different membrane materials (silicone and teflon) were tested. Some basic tests (linearity,repeatability and detection limits for different gases) will be done by this method. (orig.)

  1. Hemogasometria e ânion gap em equinos tratados com soluções eletrolíticas enterais contendo diferentes fontes de energia Blood gas analysis and anion gap in horses treated with enteral electrolyte solutions containing different energy sources

    Sheila Kreutzfeld de Farias


    chloride, 0.2g of magnesium pidolate, 1g of calcium gluconate and 10g of maltodextrin diluted in 1.000mL of water. The osmolality measured was of 181mOsmol L-1 and SEProp - 5g of sodium chloride, 0.5g of potassium chloride, 0.2g of magnesium pidolate, 1g of calcium gluconate and 10g of calcium propionate diluted in 1.000mL of water. The osmolality measured was of 282mOsm L-1. The electrolyte solutions were administered in a dose of 15mL kg-1 h-1 for 12 hours. The treatments with enteral electrolyte solutions containing dextrose, maltodextrin and calcium propionate did not change blood gas analysis values in these animals.

  2. The Analysis of Russian Oil and Gas Reserves

    Yulia Grama


    Full Text Available This paper devotes to the analysis of Russian oil and gas reserves. Currently, Russia holds world’s leading positions in oil and gas supply, but there is uncertainty for how long the country would be able to maintain it. After analyzing the situation in this industry, studying oil and gas fields and governmental policy towards hydro carbonates production and supply in Russia, the author will provide her projection about the future development of Russian oil and gas supplies to the global market.

  3. Evolved gas analysis of hydrated phases in Murchison and Orgueil

    Morris, A.A.; Baker, L; Franchi, I.A.; Wright, I. P.


    To better characterise the hydrated minerals in chondrites Evolved Gas Analysis of Murchison, Orgueil and selected minerals has been carried out. Meteorite water release profiles show significant differences to expected reference minerals.

  4. Dynamical Analysis in the Mathematical Modelling of Human Blood Glucose

    Bae, Saebyok; Kang, Byungmin


    We want to apply the geometrical method to a dynamical system of human blood glucose. Due to the educational importance of model building, we show a relatively general modelling process using observational facts. Next, two models of some concrete forms are analysed in the phase plane by means of linear stability, phase portrait and vector…

  5. Modified mouse peripheral blood lymphocyte culture system for cytogenetic analysis

    A detailed methodology is presented for culturing mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated on density gradients and stimulated to divide using either phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, or lipopolysaccharide. The techniques described yield more than sufficient numbers of mitotic cells for analyzing sister chromatid exchange, chromosome, aberrations, and micronuclei following in vitro or in vivo exposure to chemicals or radiation

  6. Using skills of ABL80 FLEX blood gas analyzer in ICU%ICU科内ABL80 FLEX血气分析仪使用技巧

    刘颖; 席廷阳; 苏春燕; 王璇


    血气分析技术一直在临床手术、抢救与监护过程中发挥着至关重要的作用,但如使用不当会导致仪器设备发生故障,减少仪器使用寿命,进而影响患者的救治。本文总结了多年在ICU 工作的科内血气分析仪使用的经验,期望能对初入ICU的同行有所帮助。%Blood gas analysis played a vital role in the process of clinical surgery, rescue and care�Yet improper use can result in equipment failure, reduce the service life of the instrument, and then affect the treatment of the patients� This article summarized the working experience for ABL80 FLEX blood gas analyzer in ICU to help new ICU nurses.

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn


    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indi-rectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supple-mentary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas or pyrolysis gas. Intuitively, sup-plementary firing is expected to...... former requires a clean, expensive fuel. The latter is limited in efficiency due to limita-tions in material temperature of the heat exchanger. Thus, in the case of an IBFGT, it would appear be very appropriate to use a cheap biomass or waste fuel for low tempera-ture combustion and external firing and...... the recu-perated gas turbine. Instead, other process changes may be considered in order to obtain a high marginal efficiency on natural gas. Two possibilities are discussed: Integration between an IFGT and pyrolysis of the biofuel which will result in a highly efficient utilization of the biomass, and...

  8. In Vivo Measurements Of Coronary Blood Volumi By Dye And Inert Gas Dilution Technic

    Hoeft, A.; Korb, H.; Wolpers, H. G.


    The application of a double fiberoptic device for measurements of arterial and coronary venous dye dilution curves facilitates the determination of coronary mean transit times even under clinical conditions. Since the dye, indocyanine green, is an intravascular tracer, the calculation of tissue blood flow would be possible if the intracoronary blood volume per unit of muscular weight is known. This study was therefore designed to investigate the physiologic range and the influence of coronary vasodilation and different hemodynamic conditions on the amount of myocardial blood volume. All experiments were carried out on anaesthetized close chest mongrel dogs in heart catheterization technic. Myocardial preload, afterload and inotropism and coronary vascular tone were varied by induction of hypo-, normo- and hypervolemia as well as by intravenous application of catecholamines, 13-blocking agents and vasodilating drugs. The determination of coronary blood volume was based on arterial and coronary venous kinetics of the intravascular tracer indocyanine green and the freely diffusible tracers helium and argon. Simultaneous measurements of the dye and the inert gases were obtained by a double fiberoptic system and a twin mass spectrometer, respectively. The intravascular and the tissue mean transit times as well as the coronary blood volume per unit of tissue weight were computed from the impulse response functions obtained by numerical deconvolution of the arterial and coronary venous indicator dilution curves. In contrast to reports of other authors coronary blood volume did not increase to a major extend during coronary vasodilation or elevated afterload. These new results suggest that the variation of coronary blood volume described in the literature is mainly due to methodological errors resulting from monoexponential extrapolation and distortion of the dye signal by the sampling catheter. These systematic errors, which, in particular, lead to an overestimation of

  9. Changes in pulmonary blood flow do not affect gas exchange during intermittent ventilation in resting turtles

    Wang, Tobias; Hicks, James W.


    The breathing pattern of many different air-breathing vertebrates, including lungfish, anuran amphibians, turtles, crocodiles and snakes, is characterized by brief periods of lung ventilation interspersed among apnoeas of variable duration. These intermittent ventilatory cycles are associated......2 excretion did not correlate with changes in pulmonary blood flow. We conclude that increases in pulmonary blood flow associated with ventilation are not required to maintain resting rates of oxygen uptake and CO2 excretion in resting animals....

  10. Analysis of Ca and Mg in blood of golden hamster using NAA technique

    Aguiar, Rodrigo O.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:


    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine simultaneously Ca and Mg concentrations in whole blood of Golden Hamster. The reference values for Ca (0.17 - 0.29 gL{sup -1} ) and Mg (0.042 - 0.074 gL{sup -1} ) can be used to performed biochemistry investigation using whole blood. (author)

  11. Analysis of Ca and Mg in blood of golden hamster using NAA technique

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine simultaneously Ca and Mg concentrations in whole blood of Golden Hamster. The reference values for Ca (0.17 - 0.29 gL-1 ) and Mg (0.042 - 0.074 gL-1 ) can be used to performed biochemistry investigation using whole blood. (author)

  12. Institutional Knots: A Comparative Analysis of Cord Blood Policy in Canada and the United States.

    Denburg, Avram


    Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of blood stem cells, which are of critical clinical importance in the treatment of a variety of malignant and genetic conditions requiring stem cell transplantation. Many countries have established national public cord blood banks; such banks often coexist with a panoply of private options for cord blood banking. Until recently, Canada was the only G8 country without a national cord blood bank. This differs markedly from the United States, which years ago established a national cord blood bank policy and inventory. This article investigates potential reasons for this discrepancy through a comparative analysis of the evolution of programs and policies on national cord blood banking in Canada and the United States. My analysis suggests that cross-national discrepancies in policy on public cord blood banking were determined primarily by institutional factors, principal among them formal governmental structure and the legacy of past policies. Institutional entrepreneurialism in the health sector played a constitutive role in the earlier evolution of national cord blood policy in the United States as compared to Canada. PMID:26567379

  13. Gas analysis system for ageing studies of gaseous radiation detectors

    A special gas analysis system has been constructed to analyze compounds created in electron avalanches in gaseous radiation detectors during their operation. The analysis method is based on utilisation of cryogenic concentration unit connected to a tandem gas chromatograph and a mass spectrometer. The system has been designed for quantitative analysis of organic compounds potentially involved in ageing processes of detectors. It can be exploited to identify compounds prone to polymerise and to measure variation of compounds as a function of detector construction materials and additives in the gas mixture. As a quantitative instrument it can be used to measure dependence of concentration of compounds on operating parameters of detectors, e.g. gas amplification and irradiation rate and type

  14. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry computer analysis of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in man and his environment--A multimedia environmental study.

    Barkley, J; Bunch, J; Bursey, J T; Castillo, N; Cooper, S D; Davis, J M; Erickson, M D; Harris, B S; Kirkpatrick, M; Michael, L C; Parks, S P; Pellizzari, E D; Ray, M; Smith, D; Tomer, K B; Wagner, R; Zweidinger, R A


    As part of a study to make a comparative analysis of selected halogenated compounds in man and the environmental media, a quantitative gas chromatography mass spectrometric analysis of the levels of the halogenated compounds found in the breath, blood and urine of an exposed population (Old Love Canal area, Niagara, New York) and their immediate environment (air and water) was undertaken. In addition, levels of halogenated hydrocarbons in air samples taken in the general Buffalo, Niagara Falls area were determined. PMID:7448328

  15. Numerical Analysis of the FDA Centrifugal Blood Pump

    Marinova, V.; Kerroumi, I.; Lintermann, Andreas; Göbbert, Jens Henrik; Moulinec, C.; Rible, S.; Fournier, Y.; Behbahani, M.


    Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs) are commonly implanted to assist patients suffering fromheart diseases. They provide long- and short-term support for the human heart and help patientsto recover from heart attacks and from congestive heart failure. It is essential to design bloodsensitiveVADs to minimise the risk of hemolysis and thrombosis. The blood pump, however,must operate at a wide range of flow rates and pressure heads which makes a low-risk design achallenging task. In this study the...

  16. Changes in blood gas transport of altitude native soccer players near sea-level and sea-level native soccer players at altitude (ISA3600)

    Wachsmuth, Nadine; Kley, Marlen; Spielvogel, Hilde; Aughey, Robert J; Gore, Christopher J; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Hammond, Kristal; Sargent, Charli; Roach, Gregory D.; Sanchez, Rudy Soria; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Schmidt, Walter F; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A


    Objectives The optimal strategy for soccer teams playing at altitude is not known, that is, ‘fly-in, fly-out’ versus short-term acclimatisation. Here, we document changes in blood gas and vascular volumes of sea-level (Australian, n=20) and altitude (Bolivian, n=19) native soccer players at 3600 m. Methods Haemoglobin-oxygen saturation (Hb-sO2), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), haemoglobin mass (Hbmass), blood volume (BV) and blood gas concentrations were measured before descent (Bolivians onl...

  17. Prehospital point of care testing of blood gases and electrolytes — an evaluation of IRMA

    Prause, Gerhard; Ratzenhofer-Komenda, Beatrice; Offner, Anton; Lauda, Peter; Voit, Henrika; Pojer, Horst


    Background: This study evaluated the feasibility of blood gas analysis and electrolyte measurements during emergency transport prior to hospital admission. Results: A portable, battery-powered blood analyzer was used on patients in life threatening conditions to determine pH, pCO2, pO2, sodium, potassium and ionized calcium. Arterial blood was used for blood gas analysis and electrolyte measurements. Venous blood was used for electrolyte measurement alone. During the observation period of 4 m...

  18. Spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability in primary Sjogren's syndrome

    P.J. Barendregt (Pieternella); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); A.H. van den Meiracker (Anton); H.M. Markusse


    textabstractBACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction has been described in primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the circulatory autonomic regulation in patients with primary SS by power spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability. METHODS: Forty th

  19. Use of a blood gas analyzer and a laboratory autoanalyzer in routine practice to measure electrolytes in intensive care unit patients

    Budak Yasemin U


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrolyte values are measured in most critically ill intensive care unit (ICU patients using both an arterial blood gas analyzer (ABG and a central laboratory auto-analyzer (AA. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether electrolyte levels assessed using an ABG and an AA were equivalent; data on sodium and potassium ion concentrations were examined. Methods We retrospectively studied patients hospitalized in the ICU between July and August 2011. Of 1,105 test samples, we identified 84 instances of simultaneous sampling of arterial and venous blood, where both Na+ and K+ levels were measured using a pHOx Stat Profile Plus L blood gas analyzer (Nova Biomedical, Waltham MA, USA and a Roche Modular P autoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany. Statistical measures employed to compare the data included Spearman's correlation coefficients, paired Student’s t-tests, Deming regression analysis, and Bland-Altman plots. Results The mean sodium concentration was 138.1 mmol/L (SD 10.2 mmol/L using the ABG and 143.0 mmol/L (SD 10.5 using the AA (p + and Na+, with biases of 0.150-0.352 and −0.97-10.05 respectively; the associated correlation coefficients were 0.88 and 0.90. Conclusions We conclude that the ABG and AA do not yield equivalent Na+ and K+ data. Concordance between ABG and AA should be established prior to introduction of new ABG systems.

  20. Analysis of blood transfusion predictors in patients undergoing elective oesophagectomy for cancer

    Welch Neil T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oesophagectomy for cancers is a major operation with significant blood loss and usage. Concerns exist about the side effects of blood transfusion, cost and availability of donated blood. We are not aware of any previous study that has evaluated predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective oesophagectomy for cancer. This study aimed to audit the pattern of blood crossmatch and to evaluate factors predictive of transfusion requirements in oesophagectomy patients. Methods Data was collected from the database of all patients who underwent oesophagectomy for cancer over a 2-year period. Clinico-pathological data collected included patients demographics, clinical factors, tumour histopathological data, preoperative and discharge haemoglobin levels, total blood loss, number of units of blood crossmatched pre-, intra- and postoperatively, number of blood units transfused, crossmatched units reused for another patient and number of blood units wasted. Clinico-pathological variables were evaluated and logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which factors were predictive of blood transfusion. Results A total of 145 patients with a male to female ratio of 2.5:1 and median age of 68 (40–85 years were audited. The mean preoperative haemoglobin (Hb was 13.0 g/dl. 37% of males (Hb 70 years, Hb level Conclusion The cohort of patients audited was over-crossmatched. The identified independent predictors of blood transfusion should be considered in preoperative blood ordering for oesophagectomy patients. This study has directly led to a reduction in the maximum surgical blood-ordering schedule for oesophagectomy to 2 units and a reaudit is underway.

  1. Residual gas analysis system of synchrotron radiation source Indus-2

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV e- storage ring dedicated for its application as Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) in the X-ray wavelength region. The beam lifetime is expected to be nearly 20 hours at 300 mA beam current with 2.5 GeV energy. The beam lifetime of 2.5 GeV storage ring is mainly dependent on the vacuum in the storage ring and on the species of gas molecules therein. The residual gas analysis provides the information about gas species present in the Indus-2 vacuum envelope. Eleven Residual Gas Analyzers (RGAs) were installed to know about the residual gas species present inside the Indus-2 vacuum system. A short overview of the installed RGA system is given in detail. During Indus-2 operation residual gas analysis is carried out with RGAs at the important locations. RGAs are also used for in-situ leak detection. This paper outlines the present status of Residual Gas Analysis (RGA) System on Indus-2, its performance over the last few years and their application as leak detector in Indus-2. (author)

  2. Analysis of gas turbine integrated cogeneration plant: Process integration approach

    Cogeneration is defined as generation of two forms of energy viz. heat and work using single primary fuel. Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is important in improving energy efficiency of the overall plant and in reducing environmental pollution. A methodology, based on pinch analysis, is proposed in this paper to integrate gas turbine and regenerator with a process plant to minimize fuel consumption. Thermodynamic analysis of gas turbine integrated CHP plant is presented on gas turbine pressure ratio versus power to heat ratio diagram. On this novel diagram, limits of integration are identified and various regions of integration are represented. Additionally, contour plots of energy utilization factors and fuel energy saving ratios are represented on this diagram for optimal integration of gas turbine with a process plant. It is interesting to note that though the contour plots of energy utilization factors and fuel energy saving ratios differ significantly, loci of the maximal energy utilization factor and the maximal fuel energy saving ratio are identical. Optimum sizing of gas turbine integrated cogeneration plant for grassroots design and retrofitting are performed based on these diagrams. - Highlights: • Methodology for direct integration of gas turbine, regenerator, and process plant. • Integrated system analysis plotted on turbine pressure ratio vs. power to heat ratio. • Regions of integration are identified on this new diagram. • Variations of energy utilization factor and fuel energy saving ratio are indicated. • Optimal sizing of integrated gas turbine for retrofitting and grassroots design

  3. Numerical Analysis on Transient of Steam-gas Pressurizer

    In nuclear reactors, various pressurizers are adopted to satisfy their characteristics and uses. The additional active systems such as heater, pressurizer cooler, spray and insulator are essential for a steam or a gas pressurizer. With a steam-gas pressurizer, additional systems are not required due to the use of steam and non-condensable gas as pressure-buffering materials. The steam-gas pressurizer in integrated small reactors experiences very complicated thermal-hydraulic phenomena. To ensure the integrity of this pressurizer type, the analysis on the transient behavior of the steam-gas pressure is indispensable. For this purpose, the steam-gas pressurizer model is introduced to predict the accurate system pressure. The proposed model includes bulk flashing, rainout, inter-region heat and mass transfer and wall condensation with non-condensable gas. However, the ideal gas law is not applied because of significant interaction at high pressure between steam and non-condensable gas. The results obtained from this proposed model agree with those from pressurizer tests. (authors)

  4. A life cycle analysis of the Canadian natural gas system

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) model has been developed for the Canadian natural gas industry using Battelle's Life-Cycle AdvantageTM model which was developed on behalf of the Canadian Gas Association and the Gas Research Institute of Canada. The model makes it possible to determine cradle to grave emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides gases through each segment of the Canadian natural gas industry, including upstream, transmission, storage, distribution and end-use. Another advantage of the model is that it allows for a full fuel cycle comparison of natural gas with other fossil fuels on an equivalent end-use energy basis. This information is helpful when dealing with national climate change issues and for determining the role of natural gas in reducing Canada's greenhouse gas emissions as outlined in the Kyoto Protocol. The model was developed to address the need to have a defensible answer to future regulatory requirements regarding the full impact of natural gas systems and end use. This need became apparent with the sharp increase in new natural gas projects throughout Canada. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Validation of the pulse decomposition analysis algorithm using central arterial blood pressure

    Baruch, Martin C; Kalantari, Kambiz; Gerdt, David W; Adkins, Charles M


    Background There is a significant need for continuous noninvasive blood pressure (cNIBP) monitoring, especially for anesthetized surgery and ICU recovery. cNIBP systems could lower costs and expand the use of continuous blood pressure monitoring, lowering risk and improving outcomes. The test system examined here is the CareTaker® and a pulse contour analysis algorithm, Pulse Decomposition Analysis (PDA). PDA’s premise is that the peripheral arterial pressure pulse is a superposition of five ...

  6. Multifactorial analysis of human blood cell responses to clinical total body irradiation

    Yuhas, J. M.; Stokes, T. R.; Lushbaugh, C. C.


    Multiple regression analysis techniques are used to study the effects of therapeutic radiation exposure, number of fractions, and time on such quantal responses as tumor control and skin injury. The potential of these methods for the analysis of human blood cell responses is demonstrated and estimates are given of the effects of total amount of exposure and time of protraction in determining the minimum white blood cell concentration observed after exposure of patients from four disease groups.

  7. Gas analysis modeling system forecast for the Energy Modeling Forum North American Natural Gas Market Study

    The Gas Analysis Modeling System is a large computer-based model for analyzing the complex US natural gas industry, including production, transportation, and consumption activities. The model was developed and first used in 1982 after the passage of the NGPA, which initiated a phased decontrol of most natural gas prices at the wellhead. The categorization of gas under the NGPA and the contractual nature of the natural gas market, which existed at the time, were primary factors in the development of the basic structure of the model. As laws and regulations concerning the natural gas market have changed, the model has evolved accordingly. Recent increases in competition in the wellhead market have also led to changes in the model. GAMS produces forecasts of natural gas production, consumption, and prices annually through 2010. It is an engineering-economic model that incorporates several different mathematical structures in order to represent the interaction of the key groups involved in the natural gas market. GAMS has separate supply and demand components that are equilibrated for each year of the forecast by means of a detailed transaction network

  8. Shallow gas cloud illumination analysis by the focal beam method

    Latiff, Abdul Halim Abdul


    This research will address the illumination issue of seismic data below a shallow gas cloud, also known as shallow gas accumulation. In general, poor and distorted seismic data underneath gas zones depend on four major factors; namely the velocity of the gas zones, the depth of the target reflector, the location of the source and the receiver during seismic acquisition, and the frequency of the seismic signals. These factors will be scrutinized in detail by using the focal beam method. The focal beam method incorporates the double focusing concept in order to obtain two important attributes for illumination analysis: (i) Resolution function beam, (ii) amplitude versus ray parameter (AVP) imprint, which is obtained by transforming the modelled data into the radon domain. Both illumination attributes are then applied to a gas-affected field in the Malaysia Basin. The results show well-defined illumination beneath the shallow anomalies and provide a better representation of the subsurface.

  9. A method for calculating regional cerebral blood flow from emission computed tomography of inert gas concentrations

    Celsis, P; Goldman, T; Henriksen, L; Lassen, N A


    Emission tomography of positron or gamma emitting inert gases allows calculation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in cross-sectional slices of human brain. An algorithm is presented for rCBF calculations from a sequence of time averaged tomograms using inhaled 133Xe. The approach is designe...

  10. Comparative analysis from hydroelectric generation versus natural gas

    The aim of the work was to present a comparative analysis between hydroelectric generation and natural gas based on integrated resource planning and sustainable development. The introduced comparative analysis considers the financial aspects; the appropriated technology; and the social, environmental and political factors. The hydroelectric option it showed more advantageous than the thermoelectric. This result was independent of the enterprise scale

  11. Unlocking thin bed potential: gas identification through downhole fluid analysis

    Loi, D.; Mazzoni, S.; Gigliotti, M.; Baio, C.; Borghi, M.; Baldini, D.; Italiano, F. [Schlumberger (United States)


    Thin beds have been recently proposed as an alternative to multilayer sand reservoirs for countering the decline in production from offshore gas fields. However, this approach is still not applied because of difficulties in identifying gas bearing zones. This paper presents a critical review of existing thin bed evaluation techniques and describes a successful case history in the Adriatic sea in which wireline formation testing (RFT) technology, using a dual packer string with downhole fluid analysis capabilities, including fluid density measurement, was used to distinguish gas zones from water zones. This approach gave a 100% success ratio for downhole fluid analysis stations in a tight environment and provided an effective way to acquire reservoir pressure without supercharging effects and allow the operator to confirm gas presence in several thin bed levels. Moreover, this approach also helps to improve optimization of completion techniques (FracPack and High Rate Water Pack) and saves the cost of multiple well testings, thus reducing total costs.

  12. The Use of Gas Chromatography for Biogas Analysis

    Andersen, Amanda; Seeley, John; Aurandt, Jennifer


    Energy from natural gas accounts for 24 percent of energy consumed in the US. Natural gas is a robust form of energy which is rich in methane content and is low in impurities. This quality suggests that it is a very clean and safe gas; it can be used in providing heat, a source for cooking, and in powering vehicles. The downside is that it is a non-renewable resource. On the contrary, methane rich gas that is produced by the breakdown of organic material in an anaerobic environment, called biogas, is a renewable energy source. This research focuses on the gas analysis portion of the creation of the anaerobic digestion and verification laboratory where content and forensic analysis of biogas is performed. Gas Chromatography is implemented as the optimal analytical tool for quantifying the components of the biogas including methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes. In addition, the problems associated with the undesirable components are discussed. Anaerobic digestion of primary sludge has consistently produced about 55 percent methane; future goals of this research include studying different substrates to increase the methane yield and decrease levels of impurities in the gas.

  13. Exergy analysis of waste emissions from gas flaring

    Olawale Saheed ISMAIL


    Full Text Available Gas flaring produces a stream of waste gases at high temperature and pressure which contains carbon monoxide, Hydrogen Sulphide etc. The resultant effect of which is detrimental to our planet and, consequently, to the life of both the living and the non-living things. It’s well known that gas flaring contributes in no small measure to the global warming. Exergy analysis is applied in this work to analyze waste emissions from gas flaring so as to have a model through which impact of gas flaring can be measured. The study considers both the thermo-mechanical exergy and the chemical exergy of these gases. Relevant data on gas flaring activities in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria between the periods of fifteen (15 years was obtained from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC. A computer program (Exergy Calculator was developed based on the equations generated in the Model. Exergy associated with gas flaring activities in Nigeria between the periods of 1998 through 2012 was calculated. The results show that 1 mscf (in thousand cubic feet of flared gases generate 0.000041 MWh of energy leading to a value of 440158.607 MWh of energy for the period under review.The analysis provides important conclusions and recommendations for improving oil platforms operationsin in order to safeguard the environment, health of the populace, and maximize recovered exergy from gas flaring.

  14. Cost-benefit analysis for gas infrastructure projects

    Keyaerts, Nico; Glachant, Jean-Michel


    QM-AI-14-003-EN-C QM-AI-14-003-EN-N • To reinvigorate the building of new gas infrastructure in Europe, the Euro­pean Union has introduced ‘projects of common interest’ (PCI) in its Energy Infrastructure Package. These PCIs will be evaluated and selected on the basis of systematic cost-benefit analysis (CBA), a method that is novel for the Euro­pean gas industry. A consistent gas-CBA method has to be designed by ENT­SOG, who published a preliminary draft method for public consultation o...

  15. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.


    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Market Analysis for Gas Engine Technology in Algeria

    Michaut, Stephane


    The objective of this diploma thesis is to investigate the potential of combined heat and power plants based on gas engine technology in Algeria. This market analysis has been performed in order to identify the key markets for the newly created French subsidiary of Clarke Energy Group to expand its business in North Africa. After analyzing the structure of the Algerian energy sector and the potential of each gas engine application, three key sectors were identified. For each sector, a technic...

  17. Whole blood glucose analysis based on smartphone camera module.

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo


    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations (110–586 mg∕dL) of mouse blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent is immobilized onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles as an electrostatic attraction in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the chip. The assay reagent immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticles develop a semi-transparent reaction platform, which is technically a suitable chip to analyze by a camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique; the photon number decreases when the glucose concentration increases. The combination of these components, the CMOS image sensor and enzyme immobilized PET film chip, constitute a compact, accurate, inexpensive, precise, digital, highly sensitive, specific, and optical glucose-sensing approach for POC diagnosis. PMID:26524683

  18. Whole blood glucose analysis based on smartphone camera module

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo


    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations (110-586 mg/dL) of mouse blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent is immobilized onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles as an electrostatic attraction in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the chip. The assay reagent immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticles develop a semi-transparent reaction platform, which is technically a suitable chip to analyze by a camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique; the photon number decreases when the glucose concentration increases. The combination of these components, the CMOS image sensor and enzyme immobilized PET film chip, constitute a compact, accurate, inexpensive, precise, digital, highly sensitive, specific, and optical glucose-sensing approach for POC diagnosis.

  19. Development of a gas systems analysis model (GSAM)

    Godec, M.L. [IFC Resources Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)


    The objectives of developing a Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) are to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, PC based model of domestic gas industry activity. The system is capable of assessing the impacts of various changes in the natural gas system within North America. The individual and collective impacts due to changes in technology and economic conditions are explicitly modeled in GSAM. Major gas resources are all modeled, including conventional, tight, Devonian Shale, coalbed methane, and low-quality gas sources. The modeling system asseses all key components of the gas industry, including available resources, exploration, drilling, completion, production, and processing practices, both for now and in the future. The model similarly assesses the distribution, storage, and utilization of natural gas in a dynamic market-based analytical structure. GSAM is designed to provide METC managers with a tool to project the impacts of future research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) benefits in order to determine priorities in a rapidly changing, market-driven gas industry.

  20. Maternal and fetal arterial blood gas data during general anaesthesia for caesarean delivery of preterm twin lambs.

    Musk, G C; Kemp, M W


    Much remains to be understood with regards the effects of prolonged anaesthesia on maternal and fetal haemodynamics and oxygenation. With the aim of improving anaesthetic management of pregnant sheep undergoing recovery surgery under anaesthesia, paired maternal and fetal arterial blood samples were collected during caesarean delivery of twin preterm lambs to document the blood gas status of the ewe and fetus. Twenty-one Merino twin pregnant ewes at 126 (±1) days of gestation were anaesthetized for caesarean delivery of their fetuses. Arterial blood samples were collected from the radial artery of the ewe and umbilical artery of the fetus at the point of delivery. There was a significant difference between maternal PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 and alveolar and arterial PaO2, indicating ventilation perfusion mismatch. Interestingly, the ewes were anaemic but the fetuses were not. These data underscore the need to undertake further work to determine the optimal anaesthetic regimen for twin pregnant ewes at different gestational ages in a biomedical research setting. PMID:26219550

  1. Gas migration through argillaceous sediments: soil gas analysis as an investigation tool

    Soil gas analysis is based on the measurement of gases, originating in deep crustal layers, in the soil pores. Since gases flow preferentially in channels of enhanced permeability, such as fractures and faults, the technique can provide valuable information for possible application in different fields. Review of recent activities in different areas underlain by argillaceous sediments shows that soil gas analysis may contribute to the characterization of candidate sites for the isolation of hazardous substances, including radioactive waste. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  2. Membrane oxygenator heat exchanger failure detected by unique blood gas findings.

    Hawkins, Justin L


    Failure of components integrated into the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit, although rare, can bring about catastrophic results. One of these components is the heat exchanger of the membrane oxygenator. In this compartment, unsterile water from the heater cooler device is separated from the sterile blood by stainless steel, aluminum, or by polyurethane. These areas are glued or welded to keep the two compartments separate, maintaining sterility of the blood. Although quality control testing is performed by the manufacturer at the factory level, transport presents the real possibility for damage. Because of this, each manufacturer has included in the instructions for use a testing procedure for testing the integrity of the heat exchanger component. Water is circulated through the heat exchanger before priming and a visible check is made of the oxygenator bundle to check for leaks. If none are apparent, then priming of the oxygenator is performed. In this particular case, this procedure was not useful in detecting communication between the water and blood chambers of the oxygenator. PMID:24779125

  3. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    Bjørn Qvale


    Full Text Available

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indi-rectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supplementary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas or pyrolysis gas. Intuitively, supplementary firing is expected to result in a high marginal efficiency. The paper shows that depending on the application, this is not always the case.

    The interest in this cycle arises from a recent demonstration of the feasibility of a two-stage gasification process through construction of several plants. The gas from this process could be divided into two streams, one for primary and one for supplementary firing. A preliminary analysis of the ideal, recuperated Brayton cycle shows that for this cycle any supplementary firing will have a marginal efficiency of unity per extra unit of fuel. The same result is obtained for the indirectly fired gas turbine (IFGT and for the supplementary-fired IFGT. These results show that the combination of external firing and internal firing have the potential of reducing or solving some problems associated with the use of biomass both in the recuperated and the indirectly fired gas turbine: The former requires a clean, expensive fuel. The latter is limited in efficiency due to limitations in material temperature of the heat exchanger. Thus, in the case of an IBFGT, it would appear be very appropriate to use a cheap biomass or waste fuel for low temperature combustion and external firing and use natural gas at a high marginal efficiency for high temperature heating. However, it is shown that this is not the case for a simple IBFGT supplementary-fired with natural gas. The marginal efficiency of the natural gas is in this case found to be independent of temperature ratio and lower than for the recuperated gas turbine. Instead, other process changes may be considered in order to obtain a high marginal efficiency on natural gas. Two possibilities

  4. Analysis of reasons for discarding blood and blood components in a blood bank of tertiary care hospital in central India: A prospective study

    Alok Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: Many modern surgical procedures could not be carried out without the use of blood. There are no substitutes for human blood. Thus, proper utilization of blood is necessary with minimal wasting. Materials and Methods: A total of 10,582 donors donated blood during the study period of 19 months in blood bank of a tertiary care hospital, central India from 1 st of November 2009 to 31 st May 2011, which were screened. Results: A total of 346 whole blood bags were discarded. Out of these 346 blood bags, 257 (74.30% were discarded because of seropositivity for transfusion transmissible infectious diseases. A total of 542 blood components were discarded against 3702 blood components prepared during the study period. Among blood components discarded, most common units were platelets. The most common cause of discarding the blood components was expiry of date due to non-utilization (87.00%. Conclusion: A properly conducted donor interview, notification of permanently deferred donors will help in discarding less number of bags from collected units. Similarly, properly implemented blood transfusion policies will also help in discarding less number of blood bags due to expiry. These discarded bags, because they are unutilized are both financially as well as socially harmful to the blood bank.

  5. Depleted uranium analysis in blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Todorov, T.I.; Xu, H.; Ejnik, J.W.; Mullick, F.G.; Squibb, K.; McDiarmid, M.A.; Centeno, J.A.


    In this study we report depleted uranium (DU) analysis in whole blood samples. Internal exposure to DU causes increased uranium levels as well as change in the uranium isotopic composition in blood specimen. For identification of DU exposure we used the 235U/238U ratio in blood samples, which ranges from 0.00725 for natural uranium to 0.002 for depleted uranium. Uranium quantification and isotopic composition analysis were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For method validation we used eight spiked blood samples with known uranium concentrations and isotopic composition. The detection limit for quantification was determined to be 4 ng L-1 uranium in whole blood. The data reproduced within 1-5% RSD and an accuracy of 1-4%. In order to achieve a 235U/238U ratio range of 0.00698-0.00752% with 99.7% confidence limit a minimum whole blood uranium concentration of 60 ng L??1 was required. An additional 10 samples from a cohort of veterans exposed to DU in Gulf War I were analyzed with no knowledge of their medical history. The measured 235U/ 238U ratios in the blood samples were used to identify the presence or absence of DU exposure within this patient group. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Bioimpedance spectroscopy as technique of hematological and biochemical analysis of blood

    Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Melnikov, A. A.; Vikulov, A. D.


    Bioimpedance spectroscopy may become a useful method for the express analysis and monitoring of blood parameters. The aim of this study was to identify biochemical and hematological parameters of blood that can be accurately predicted by means of bioimpedance technique. Hematological (red blood cell and white blood cell parameters) and biochemical (total proteins, albumins, fibrinogen, sodium, potassium, chloride ion concentrations in plasma) parameters were measured with a hematological analyzer and routine methods. Bioimpedance spectroscopy of the whole blood (1.5 ml) in frequency range 5-500 kHz (31 frequencies) was performed using BIA analyzer ABC-01 "Medass". Frequency relationships of resistance and reactance of the whole blood and the parameters of the Cole model were investigated. Close simple and multiple correlations of bioimpedance indices were observed only with erythrocyte parameters (Ht, Hb, RBC). Thus bioimpedance analysis of the whole blood can accurately predict red cell parameters but it is less effective for estimation of plasma biochemical and white cell parameters.

  7. Analysis of reasons for discarding blood and blood components in a blood bank of tertiary care hospital in central India: A prospective study

    Alok Kumar; Satish Sharma,; Narayan Shyamrao Ingole; Nitin Gangane


    Background: Many modern surgical procedures could not be carried out without the use of blood. There are no substitutes for human blood. Thus, proper utilization of blood is necessary with minimal wasting. Materials and Methods: A total of 10,582 donors donated blood during the study period of 19 months in blood bank of a tertiary care hospital, central India from 1 st of November 2009 to 31 st May 2011, which were screened. Results: A total of 346 whole blood bags were discarded. Out of thes...

  8. A numerical analysis on the curved bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve (MHV) : leaflet motion and blood flow in an elastic blood vessel

    In blood flow passing through the Mechanical Heart Valve (MHV) and elastic blood vessel, hemolysis and platelet activation causing thrombus formation can be seen owing to the shear stress in the blood. Also, fracture and deformation of leaflets can be observed depending on the shape and material properties of the leaflets which is opened and closed in a cycle. Hence, comprehensive study is needed on the hemodynamics which is associated with the motion of leaflet and elastic blood vessel in terms of fluid-structure interaction. In this paper, a numerical analysis has been performed for a three-dimensional pulsatile blood flow associated with the elastic blood vessel and curved bileaflet for multiple cycles in light of fluid-structure interaction. From this analysis fluttering phenomenon and rebound of the leaflet have been observed and recirculation and regurgitation have been found in the flow fields of the blood. Also, the pressure distribution and the radial displacement of the elastic blood vessel have been obtained. The motion of the leaflet and flow fields of the blood have shown similar tendency compared with the previous experiments carried out in other studies. The present study can contribute to the design methodology for the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve. Furthermore, the proposed fluid-structure interaction method will be effectively used in various fields where the interaction between fluid flow and structure are involved

  9. Diastolic blood pressure and area of residence: multilevel versus ecological analysis of social inequity

    Merlo, Juan; Östergren, Per-Olof; Hagberg, Oskar; Lindström, Martin; Lindgren, Anna; Melander, Arne; Råstam, Lennart; Berglund, Göran


    STUDY OBJECTIVES---To study geographical differences in diastolic blood pressure and the influence of the social environment (census percentage of people with low educational achievement) on individual diastolic blood pressure level, after controlling for individual age and educational achievement. To compare the results of multilevel and ecological analyses. DESIGN---Cross sectional analysis performed by multilevel linear regression modelling, with women at the first level and urban areas...

  10. Scale Space Methods for Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Patients' Blood Glucose Values

    Stein Olav Skrøvseth; Fred Godtliebsen


    We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to ...

  11. Principal-component-analysis-based estimation of blood flow velocities using optical coherence tomography intensity signals

    Mohan, Nishant; Vakoc, Benjamin


    The intensity signal in optical coherence tomography contains information about the translational velocity of scatterers, and can be used to quantify blood flow. We apply principal component analysis to efficiently extract this information. We also study use of nonuniform temporal sampling of the intensity signal to increase the range of quantifiable flow velocities. We demonstrate this technique in simulation, phantom and in vivo blood flow measurements, and highlight its potential to enable...

  12. Importance of blood gas measurements in perinatal asphyxia and alternatives to restore the acid base balance status to improve the newborn performance

    H. Orozco-Gregorio


    Full Text Available Prolonged or intermittent asphyxia in utero and during farrowing weakens piglets and renders them less capable of adaptation to extrauterine life. Piglets with lesser viability at birth have increased blood pCO2 and blood lactic acid concentrations and decreased blood pH. Moreover, the ability to thermoregulate during an acute cold stress is inversely related to umbilical blood lactate concentrations. Blood gas measurements and noninvasive estimations provide important information about oxygenation. The general goals of oxygen therapy in the neonate are to maintain adequate arterial PaO2 and SaO2, and to minimize cardiac work and the work of breathing. Arterial blood gas determinations of pCO2 provide the most accurate determinations of the adequacy of alveolar ventilation. Blood gases obtained in the immediate perinatal period can help assess perinatal asphyxia, but particular attention must be paid to the sampling site, the time of life, and the possible and proven diagnoses. The decision to obtain blood gases must be weighed by the individual clinician against the potential benefits. Current measures for restoring the acid base balance status in the newborn with perinatal asphyxia are discussed.

  13. Simultaneous blood flow and blood oxygenation measurements using a combination of diffuse speckle contrast analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Seong, Myeongsu; Phillips, Zephaniah; Mai, Phuong Minh; Yeo, Chaebeom; Song, Cheol; Lee, Kijoon; Kim, Jae Gwan


    A combined diffuse speckle contrast analysis (DSCA)-near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system is proposed to simultaneously measure qualitative blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in human tissue. The system employs an optical switch to alternate two laser sources at two different wavelengths and a CCD camera to capture the speckle image. Therefore, an optical density can be measured from two wavelengths for NIRS measurements and a speckle contrast can be calculated for DSCA measurements. In order to validate the system, a flow phantom test and an arm occlusion protocol for arterial and venous occlusion were performed. Shorter exposure times (<1 ms) show a higher drop (between 50% and 66%) and recovery of 1/KS2 values after occlusion (approximately 150%), but longer exposure time (3 ms) shows more consistent hemodynamic changes. For four subjects, the 1/KS2 values dropped to an average of 82.1±4.0% during the occlusion period and the average recovery of 1/KS2 values after occlusion was 109.1±0.8%. There was also an approximately equivalent amplitude change in oxyhemoglobin (OHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (RHb) during arterial occlusion (max RHb=0.0085±0.0024 mM/DPF, min OHb=-0.0057±0.0044 mM/DPF). The sensitivity of the system makes it a suitable modality to observe qualitative hemodynamic trends during induced physiological changes.

  14. Linkage analysis of systolic blood pressure: a score statistic and computer implementation

    Peng Yingwei; Wang Kai


    Abstract A genome-wide linkage analysis was conducted on systolic blood pressure using a score statistic. The randomly selected Replicate 34 of the simulated data was used. The score statistic was applied to the sibships derived from the general pedigrees. An add-on R program to GENEHUNTER was developed for this analysis and is freely available.

  15. Gas quality analysis and evaluation program for project Gasbuggy

    Experimental results of the gas quality analysis program for Project Gasbuggy through August 1969 are presented graphically, addressing the questions raised by the preshot program goals. The chemical composition and the concentrations of tritium, krypton-85, carbon-14 and argon-37, 39 are presented as a function of time and gas production from the nuclear chimney. Chemically, the presence of CO2, CO and H2 served to dilute the formation gas and caused reactions which significantly altered the gas composition at early times. The radionuclide content of the chimney gas at reentry was some 800 pCi/cm3 of which about 80% was CH3T. Lesser quantities of tritium were observed as HT, C2H5T and C3H7T. The other major contaminant was Kr85 which was present at about one-fifth the level of CH3T. Small quantities of carbon-14 and argon-39 were also identified. The only other radionuclides identified in the gas were relatively short-lived rare gases. During the production testing, about two and one-half chimney volumes of gas at formation pressure were removed. This removal, accompanied by dilution, has reduced the radionuclide concentrations to about 7% of their levels at reentry. The production characteristics of the Gasbuggy environment prevented an adequate test of the effectiveness of chimney flushing. However, the rapid drawdown concept is supported by the available data as an effective means of reducing contaminant levels. The changes in composition during production or testing are seen to be consistent with a model involving a non-uniform gas influx rate and flow distribution over the chimney region. Mixing times are estimated to be on the order of a few days, so that increasing concentrations following a sudden gas influx can be explained. (author)

  16. Greenhouse gas emission measurement and economic analysis of Iran natural gas fired power plants

    This study attempts to examine the natural gas fired power plants in Iran. The required data from natural gas fired power plants were gathered during 2008. The characteristics of thirty two gas turbine power plants and twenty steam power plants have been measured. Their emission factor values were then compared with the standards of Energy Protection Agency, Euro Union and World Bank. Emission factors of gas turbine and steam power plants show that gas turbine power plants have a better performance than steam power plants. For economic analysis, fuel consumption and environmental damages caused by the emitted pollutants are considered as cost functions; and electricity sales revenue are taken as benefit functions. All of these functions have been obtained according to the capacity factor. Total revenue functions show that gas turbine and steam power plants are economically efficient at 98.15% and 90.89% of capacity factor, respectively; this indicates that long operating years of power plants leads to reduction of optimum capacity factor. The stated method could be implemented to assess the economic status of a country’s power plants where as efficient capacity factor close to one means that power plant works in much better condition. - Highlights: • CO2 and NOx emissions of Iran natural gas fired power plants have been studied. • CO2 and NOx emission factors are compared with EPA, EU and World Bank standards. • Costs and benefit as economic functions are obtained according to capacity factor. • Maximum economic profit is obtained for gas turbine and steam power plants. • Investment in CO2 reduction is recommended instead of investment in NOx reduction

  17. Greenhouse gas and energy analysis of substitute natural gas from biomass for space heat

    In this paper, the greenhouse gas and energy balances of the production and use for space heating of substitute natural gas from biomass (bio-SNG) for space heat are analysed. These balances are compared to the use of natural gas and solid biomass as wood chips to provide the same service. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq.) – carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide – and of the fossil primary energy use is investigated in a life cycle assessment (LCA). This assessment was performed for nine systems for bio-SNG; three types of gasification technologies (O2-blown entrained flow, O2-blown circulating fluidised bed and air–steam indirect gasification) with three different types of feedstock (forest residues, miscanthus and short rotation forestry). The greenhouse gas analysis shows that forest residues using the air–steam indirect gasification technology result in the lowest greenhouse gas emissions (in CO2-eq. 32 kg MWh−1 of heat output). This combination results in 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared to natural gas and a 29% reduction of greenhouse gases if the forest residues were converted to wood chips and combusted. The gasification technologies O2-blown entrained flow and O2-blown circulating fluidised bed gasification have higher greenhouse gas emissions that range between in CO2-eq. 41 to 75 kg MWh−1 of heat output depending on the feedstock. When comparing feedstocks in the bio-SNG systems, miscanthus had the highest greenhouse gas emissions bio-SNG systems producing in CO2-eq. 57–75 kg MWh−1 of heat output. Energy analysis shows that the total primary energy use is higher for bio-SNG systems (1.59–2.13 MWh MWh−1 of heat output) than for the reference systems (in 1.37–1.51 MWh MWh−1 of heat output). However, with bio-SNG the fossil primary energy consumption is reduced compared to natural gas. For example, fossil primary energy use is reduced by 92% when air–steam indirect gasification

  18. Quantification of myocardial blood flow using dynamic N-13 ammonia PET and factor analysis

    We evaluate the feasibility of extracting pure left ventricular blood pool and myocardial time activity curves (TACs) and of generating factor images from human dynamic N-13 ammonia PET using factor analysis. The myocardial blood flow (MBF) estimates obtained with factor analysis were compared with those obtained with the user drawn region-of-interest (ROI) method. Stress and rest N-13 ammonia cardiac PET imaging was acquired for 23 min in 5 patients with coronary artery disease using GE Advance tomography. Factor analysis generated physiological TACs and factor images using the normalized TACs from each dixel. Four steps were involved in this algorithm: (a) data preprocessing; (b) principal component analysis; (c) oblique rotation with positivity constraints; (d) factor image computation. Area under curves and MBF estimated using the two compartment N-13 ammonia model were used to validate the accuracy of the factor analysis generated physiological TACs. The MBF values obtained by factor analysis were linearly correlated with MBF obtained by the ROI method (slope = 0.84, r=0.91. Left ventricular blood pool TACs obtained by the two methods agreed well (Area under curve ratio: 1.02 (0∼1 min), 0.98 (0∼2 min), 0.86 (1∼2 min). The results of this study demonstrates that MBF can be measured accurately and noninvasively with dynamic N-13 ammonia PET imaging and factor analysis. This method is simple and accurate, and can measure MBF without blood sampling, ROI definition or spillover correction

  19. Gas-cooled reactor safety and accident analysis

    The Specialists' Meeting on Gas-Cooled Reactor Safety and Accident Analysis was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Oak Ridge on the invitation of the Department of Energy in Washington, USA. The meeting was hosted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an opportunity to compare and discuss results of safety and accident analysis of gas-cooled reactors under development, construction or in operation, to review their lay-out, design, and their operational performance, and to identify areas in which additional research and development are needed. The meeting emphasized the high safety margins of gas-cooled reactors and gave particular attention to the inherent safety features of small reactor units. The meeting was subdivided into four technical sessions: Safety and Related Experience with Operating Gas-Cooled Reactors (4 papers); Risk and Safety Analysis (11 papers); Accident Analysis (9 papers); Miscellaneous Related Topics (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  20. Using Single Drop Microextraction for Headspace Analysis with Gas Chromatography

    Riccio, Daniel; Wood, Derrick C.; Miller, James M.


    Headspace (HS) gas chromatography (GC) is commonly used to analyze samples that contain non-volatiles. In 1996, a new sampling technique called single drop microextraction, SDME, was introduced, and in 2001 it was applied to HS analysis. It is a simple technique that uses equipment normally found in the undergraduate laboratory, making it ideal…

  1. In vivo analysis of physiological 3D blood flow of cerebral veins

    Schuchardt, Florian; Schroeder, Laure; Baeuerle, Jochen; Harloff, Andreas [University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Anastasopoulos, Constantin [University Medical Center, Department of Neuropaediatrics and Muscle Disorders, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Centre, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine and McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Hennemuth, Anja; Drexl, Johann [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Valdueza, Jose M. [Neurological Center, Segeberger Kliniken, Bad Segeberg (Germany); Mader, Irina [University Medical Centre, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany)


    To visualize and quantify physiological blood flow of intracranial veins in vivo using time-resolved, 3D phase-contrast MRI (4D flow MRI), and to test measurement accuracy. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent repeated ECG-triggered 4D flow MRI (3 Tesla, 32-channel head coil). Intracranial venous blood flow was analysed using dedicated software allowing for blood flow visualization and quantification in analysis planes at the superior sagittal, straight, and transverse sinuses. MRI was evaluated for intra- and inter-observer agreement and scan-rescan reproducibility. Measurements of the transverse sinuses were compared with transcranial two-dimensional duplex ultrasound. Visualization of 3D blood flow within cerebral sinuses was feasible in 100 % and within at least one deep cerebral vein in 87 % of the volunteers. Blood flow velocity/volume increased along the superior sagittal sinus and was lower in the left compared to the right transverse sinus. Intra- and inter-observer reliability and reproducibility of blood flow velocity (mean difference 0.01/0.02/0.02 m/s) and volume (mean difference 0.0002/-0.0003/0.00003 l/s) were good to excellent. High/low velocities were more pronounced (8 % overestimation/9 % underestimation) in MRI compared to ultrasound. Four-dimensional flow MRI reliably visualizes and quantifies three-dimensional cerebral venous blood flow in vivo and is promising for studies in patients with sinus thrombosis and related diseases. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of the Energy Balance of Shale Gas Development

    Hiroaki Yaritani


    Full Text Available Interest has rapidly grown in the use of unconventional resources to compensate for depletion of conventional hydrocarbon resources (“easy hydrocarbon” that are produced at relatively low cost from oil and gas fields with large proven reserves. When one wants to ensure the prospects for development of unconventional resources that are potentially vast in terms of their energy potential, it is essential to determine the quality of that energy. Here we consider the development of shale gas, an unconventional energy resource of particularly strong interest of late, through analysis of its energy return on investment (EROI, a key indicator for qualitative assessment of energy resources. We used a Monte Carlo approach for the carbon footprint of U.S. operations in shale gas development to estimate expected ranges of EROI values by incorporating parameter variability. We obtained an EROI of between 13 and 23, with a mean of approximately 17 at the start of the pipeline. When we incorporated all the costs required to bring shale gas to the consumer, the mean value of EROI drops from about 17 at the start of the pipeline to 12 when delivered to the consumer. The shale gas EROI values estimated in the present study are in the initial stage of shale gas exploitation where the quality of that resource may be considerably higher than the mean and thus the careful and continuous investigation of change in EROI is needed, especially as production moves off the initial “sweet spots”.

  3. Performance Analysis of Producer Gas Based Diesel Engine

    J. P. Yadav


    Full Text Available Producer gas is one out of the alternative fuels used in internal combustion engines. Conventionally, it is made by flowing air and steam through a thick coal or coke bed which ranges in temperature from red hot to low temperature. The oxygen in air burns the carbon to CO2. This CO2 gets reduced to CO by contacting with carbon above the combustion zone. The freed oxygen combines with carbon and steam gets dissociated which introduces hydrogen. Producer gas has a high percentage of nitrogen since air is used [1]. Thus, in the present work a gasifier is designed and developed which could gasify any form of biomass. In the present work waste wood chips, bagasse, rice husk, and eucalyptus, etc are used for gasification in a fabricated updraft gasifier to produce producer gas. The producer gas obtained from the developed gasifier is sent along with air into a diesel engine with diesel as the primary fuel and the performance characteristics ie brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and brake specific energy consumption of the engine are studied along with economic analysis with and without aid of producer gas.

  4. Exergy analysis of a gas-hydrate cool storage system

    Based on exergy analysis of charging and discharging processes in a gas-hydrate cool storage system, the formulas for exergy efficiency at the sensible heat transfer stage and the phase change stage corresponding to gas-hydrate charging and discharging processes are obtained. Furthermore, the overall exergy efficiency expressions of charging, discharging processes and the thermodynamic cycle of the gas-hydrate cool storage system are obtained. By using the above expressions, the effects of number of transfer units, the inlet temperatures of the cooling medium and the heating medium on exergy efficiencies of the gas-hydrate cool storage system are emphatically analyzed. The research results can be directly used to evaluate the performance of gas-hydrate cool storage systems and design more efficient energy systems by reducing the sources of inefficiency in gas-hydrate cool storage systems. - Highlights: • Formulas for exergy efficiency at four stages are obtained. • Exergy efficiency expressions of two processes and one cycle are obtained. • Three mainly influencing factors on exergy efficiencies are analyzed. • With increasing the inlet temperature of cooling medium, exergy efficiency increases. • With decreasing the inlet temperature of heating medium, exergy efficiency increases

  5. Effects of Breath Training Pattern "End-Inspiratory Pause" on Respiratory Mechanics and Arterial Blood Gas of Patients with COPD

    梁永杰; 蔡映云


    Objective:In order to explore the mechanism of Chinese traditional breath training, theeffects of end-inspiratory pause breathing (EIPB) on the respiratory mechanics and arterial blood gas werestudied in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Ten patients in steadystage participating in the study had a breath training of regulating the respiration rhythm as to having apause between the deep and slow inspiration and the slow expiration. Effect of the training was observed byvisual feedback from the screen of the respiratory inductive plethysmograph. The dynamic change of par-tial pressure of oxygen saturation in blood (SpO2) was recorded with sphygmo-oximeter, the pulmonarymechanics and EIPB were determined with spirometer, and the data of arterial blood gases in tranquilizedbreathing and EIPB were analysed. Results: After EIPB training, SpO2 increased progressively, PaO2 in-creased and PaCO2 decreased, and the PaO2 increment was greater than the PaCO2 decrement. Further-more, the tidal volume increased and the frequency of respiration decreased significantly, both inspirationtime and expiration time were prolonged. There was no significant change in both mean inspiration flowrate (VT/Ti) and expiration flow rate (VT/Te). The baselines in spirogram during EIPB training had noraise. Conclusion: EIPB could decrease the ratio of the dead space and tidal volume (VD/VT), cause in-crease of PaO2 more than the decrease of PaCO2, suggesting that this training could improve both the func-tion of ventilation and gaseous exchange in the lung. EIPB training might be a breathing training patternfor rehabilitation of patients with COPD.

  6. Blood Warming and Hemolysis: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis.

    Poder, Thomas G; Nonkani, Wendyam G; Tsakeu Leponkouo, Élyonore


    The use of fluid warmers during blood transfusion is recommended to avoid inducing hypothermia and its harmful effects. Fluid warmers offered by manufacturers can reach temperatures of 43°C. However, the recommendations of national regulatory organizations do not clearly indicate the maximum heating temperature in relation to the risk of hemolysis. To fill this gap, we conducted a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis. To match clinical practice, this review was limited to fluid warmers that used contact heating; thus, studies that used radiofrequency or microwave heating were excluded. Twenty-four observational studies were included, 17 of which were the subject of a meta-analysis. A preliminary descriptive analysis indicated that multiple factors can influence the level of hemolysis during blood heating with a liquid warmer, including blood age, anticoagulant type, duration of exposure to heat, stirring the blood during heating, and various elements of the circuit through which blood flows (eg, type of infusion pump with pressure and flow, type of microfilter, and type of tubing). Moreover, the duration between sampling and hemolysis assay was a source of heterogeneity among studies, as were the initial free hemoglobin levels in the various experiments. In general, the increase generated by each of these factors other than temperature appears to have been limited except for blood age, which is an important parameter of hemolysis, the length of exposure to heat, and, in some studies, the type of infusion pump used. Regarding the meta-analysis, at temperatures at or less than 43°C and even up to 45-46°C, it appears that blood heating is safe and causes hemolysis only in clinically negligible proportions. PMID:25840802

  7. Combined blood/tissue analysis for cancer biomarker discovery: application to renal cell carcinoma.

    Johann, Donald J; Wei, Bih-Rong; Prieto, DaRue A; Chan, King C; Ye, Xiaying; Valera, Vladimir A; Simpson, R Mark; Rudnick, Paul A; Xiao, Zhen; Issaq, Haleem J; Linehan, W Marston; Stein, Stephen E; Veenstra, Timothy D; Blonder, Josip


    A method that relies on subtractive tissue-directed shot-gun proteomics to identify tumor proteins in the blood of a patient newly diagnosed with cancer is described. To avoid analytical and statistical biases caused by physiologic variability of protein expression in the human population, this method was applied on clinical specimens obtained from a single patient diagnosed with nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The proteomes extracted from tumor, normal adjacent tissue and preoperative plasma were analyzed using 2D-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The lists of identified proteins were filtered to discover proteins that (i) were found in the tumor but not normal tissue, (ii) were identified in matching plasma, and (iii) whose spectral count was higher in tumor tissue than plasma. These filtering criteria resulted in identification of eight tumor proteins in the blood. Subsequent Western-blot analysis confirmed the presence of cadherin-5, cadherin-11, DEAD-box protein-23, and pyruvate kinase in the blood of the patient in the study as well as in the blood of four other patients diagnosed with RCC. These results demonstrate the utility of a combined blood/tissue analysis strategy that permits the detection of tumor proteins in the blood of a patient diagnosed with RCC. PMID:20121140


    Rama Devi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At present Diabetes Mellitus is a global phenomenon with the disease topping the list, comprising of about 32 million cases , India is in the forefront with 30% of the cases . The disease affects multiple organs and is a leading cause of much morbidity and mortality. Since it is a multi - factorial disease a major step would be to identify different associated factors, for an early diagnosis and prompt treatment. The ABO blood groups are often associated with several diseases, with one blood group more often seen with the patients of a particular disease. Our study will help to determine the frequency and distribution of blood groups in correlation with Diabetes Mellitus. MATERIAL & METHODS: This study was conducted in the Gandhi Medical College, Secunderabad, during a two year period. A random study involving every third diabetic patient was chosen and their blood group was determined. A total of 3 00 patients were selected with 150 male and 150 female patients. Another 300 volunteers who were not diabetics were chosen as controls and their blood groups were also determined. A pro - forma was given to both diabetics and controls which included the following variables : 1 . Demographic data 2. Blood grouping 3. Fasting and post prandial blood sugar. Following this, blood groups of both cohorts and controls were determined by antigen antibody agglutination method. Data analysis was do ne after data was entered into excel sheet and double checked for errors using SPSS Software RESULTS: Our a nalysis showed that O group was significantly more among diabetic patients when all patients were compared to control . ² there was a preponderance of blood group O among female diabetics and B among male diabetics. CONCLUSION: ABO blood groups have been determined in 300 diabetic patients and compared with the controls comprising of a series of 300 voluntary blood donors. When the results were analysed on the basis of sex, there was preponderance

  9. Buffering blood pressure fluctuations by respiratory sinus arrhythmia may in fact enhance them: a theoretical analysis

    Buchner, Teodor; Gielerak, Grzegorz


    Using a three-compartment model of blood pressure dynamics, we analyze theoretically the short term cardiovascular variability: how the respiratory-related blood pressure fluctuations are buffered by appropriate heart rate changes: i.e. the respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The buffering is shown to be crucially dependent on the time delay between the stimulus (such as e.g. the inspiration onset) and the application of the control (the moment in time when the efferent response is delivered to the heart). This theoretical analysis shows that the buffering mechanism is effective only in the upright position of the body. It explains a paradoxical effect of enhancement of the blood pressure fluctuations by an ineffective control. Such a phenomenon was observed experimentally. Using the basis of the model, we discuss the blood pressure variability and heart rate variability under such clinical conditions as the states of expressed adrenergic drive and the tilt-test during the parasympathetic blockade or fixed rate atr...

  10. Analysis of gas turbine systems for sustainable energy conversion

    Anheden, Marie


    Increased energy demands and fear of global warming due to the emission of greenhouse gases call for development of new efficient power generation systems with low or no carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, two different gas turbine power generation systems, which are designed with these issues in mind, are theoretically investigated and analyzed. In the first gas turbine system, the fuel is combusted using a metal oxide as an oxidant instead of oxygen in the air. This process is known as Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC). CLC is claimed to decrease combustion exergy destruction and increase the power generation efficiency. Another advantage is the possibility to separate CO{sub 2} without a costly and energy demanding gas separation process. The system analysis presented includes computer-based simulations of CLC gas turbine systems with different metal oxides as oxygen carriers and different fuels. An exergy analysis comparing the exergy destruction of the gas turbine system with CLC and conventional combustion is also presented. The results show that it is theoretically possible to increase the power generation efficiency of a simple gas turbine system by introducing CLC. A combined gas/steam turbine cycle system with CLC is, however, estimated to reach a similar efficiency as the conventional combined cycle system. If the benefit of easy and energy-efficient CO{sub 2} separation is accounted for, a CLC combined cycle system has a potential to be favorable compared to a combined cycle system with CO{sub 2} separation. In the second investigation, a solid, CO{sub 2}-neutral biomass fuel is used in a small-scale externally fired gas turbine system for cogeneration of power and district heating. Both open and closed gas turbines with different working fluids are simulated and analyzed regarding thermodynamic performance, equipment size, and economics. The results show that it is possible to reach high power generation efficiency and total (power

  11. Numerical analysis and experiments on laminar gas jets discharged into stagnant gas of different density

    In the pipe rupture accident of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor, the atmospheric air breaks into the pressure vessel by the buoyancy-driven exchange flow or the natural convection flow in the coaxial tube, and it causes corrosion of the graphite structures. To prevent this phenomenon, injection of inert gas is very effective. The objective of this study is to investigate numerically and experimentally the behavior of fluid flow and mass transfer of laminar gas jets discharged into stagnant air. The authors have developed a code, in which a mass diffusion equation solver is incorporated, based on the SIMPLEST algorithm. By using this code, they have analyzed the transient and steady behavior of gas jets. Experimentally they have measured the velocity distribution of jets by the LDV system and compared the results with those from numerical calculations. The transient analyses show that there exists a vortex ring around the jet and the maximum value of its acceleration is correlated with the densimetric Froude number. The discharged gas is repelled along the radial direction while flooding in the axial direction. In the steady states, they succeeded in generalizing the condition on which the discharged gas at the centerline is accelerated by the gravity with the use of the densimetric Froude number. The half radius of the mass fraction of the discharged gas varies along the axial direction and has a minimum value at downstream of the outlet. The distances between the outlet of jets and the points where the half radii become minimum are related to the densimetric Froude number. By the LDV experiments, they have got the exact velocity fields which support the results of numerical analysis

  12. Automotive gasoline quality analysis by gas chromatography: study of adulteration

    Moreira, L.S.; Azevedo, D.A. [Dept. de Quimica Organica, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); d' Avila, L.A. [Dept. de Processos Organicos, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The addition of organic solvents (light aliphatic, heavy aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) in Brazilian gasoline is unfortunately very frequent, and this illicit practice impares gasoline quality. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses can be used as a procedure to improve the detection of adulterated gasoline. The results showed that adulterated samples and also the type of organic solvent used in adulteration can be detected by comparison of chromatographic profiles (standard samples versus adulterated samples). However, a single GC analysis can detect an adulterated gasoline, and so decrease the number of adulterated samples approved as presenting good quality. (orig.)

  13. GC-MS identification of MIC trimer: a constituent of tank residue in preserved autopsy blood of Bhopal gas victims.

    Chandra, H; Rao, G J; Saraf, A K; Sharma, V K; Jadhav, R K; Sriramachari, S


    Based on the external and internal findings of Bhopal gas disaster victims, it was apparent that the gases and particulate matter came out as an aerosol. This was possibly the pyrolysed, reformulated, reconjugated suspension of constituents of the tank E-610 of Union Carbide India Limited, Bhopal, while it was claimed to be methyl isocyanate (MIC) only. It was postulated by the manufacturer of MIC, that the material inhaled by the victims of the Bhopal gas disaster does not cross the lung barrier (UCC press conference on 14th December 1984). It was observed that the more the victims ran, the more aerosol they inhaled and the fatalities were observed in such victims. The tissues, which were preserved in the deep freeze, were randomly selected and analysed by GC coupled with MS (ITD) Finnigan MAT, UK. 14 out of 34 autopsy cases showed MIC trimer peak in extracts of blood. This was one of the constituents of the aerosol and was also located in the tank residue, thereby proving that the trimer had passed the lung barrier. PMID:1795611


    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a SST. The calculation applies reasonably conservative input parameters in accordance with guidance in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding flammable gas accident. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94, Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent in order to identify and evaluate safety-class structures, systems, and components. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank (SST). A detonation versus a deflagration was selected for analysis because the faster flame speed of a detonation can potentially result in a larger release of respirable material. A detonation in an SST versus a double-shell tank (DST) was selected as the bounding accident because the estimated respirable release masses are the same and because the doses per unit quantity of waste inhaled are greater for SSTs than for DSTs. Appendix A contains a DST analysis for comparison purposes

  15. RNA/DNA co-analysis from blood stains--Results of a second collaborative EDNAP exercise

    Haas, C.; Hanson, E.; Anjos, M.J.;


    A second collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid identification and STR profiling was organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP). Six human blood stains, two blood dilution series (5-0.001 [mu]l blood) and, optionally, bona fide or mock casework samples of human or...

  16. Multiple-injection high-throughput gas chromatography analysis.

    Schafer, Wes; Wang, Heather; Welch, Christopher J


    Multiple-injection techniques have been shown to be a simple way to perform high-throughput analysis where the entire experiment resides in a single chromatogram, simplifying the data analysis and interpretation. In this study, multiple-injection techniques are applied to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and mass detection to significantly increase sample throughput. The unique issues of implementing a traditional "Fast" injection mode of multiple-injection techniques with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are discussed. Stacked injections are also discussed as means to increase the throughput of longer methods where mass detection is unable to distinguish between analytes of the same mass and longer retentions are required to resolve components of interest. Multiple-injection techniques are shown to increase instrument throughput by up to 70% and to simplify data analysis, allowing hits in multiple parallel experiments to be identified easily. PMID:27292909

  17. Integrated analysis of halogenated organic pollutants in sub-millilitre volumes of venous and umbilical cord blood sera

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Carrizo, Daniel; Otero, Raquel; Vizcaino, Esther [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC), Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Howsam, Mike [Universite de Lille 2, Centre Universitaire de Mesure et d' Analyse, Faculte de Pharmacie, Lille (France); Rodrigues de Marchi, Mary Rosa [Institute of Chemistry UNESP, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)


    A rapid, robust and economical method for the analysis of persistent halogenated organic compounds in small volumes of human serum and umbilical cord blood is described. The pollutants studied cover a broad range of molecules of contemporary epidemiological and legislative concern, including polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorobenzenes (CBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, polychlorostyrenes (PCSs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Extraction and clean-up with n-hexane and concentrated sulphuric acid was followed with analysis by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture (GC-ECD) and GC coupled to negative ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS). The advantages of this method rest in the broad range of analytes and its simplicity and robustness, while the use of concentrated sulphuric acid extraction/clean-up destroys viruses that may be present in the samples. Small volumes of reference serum between 50 and 1000{mu}L were extracted and the limits of detection/quantification and repeatability were determined. Recoveries of spiked compounds for the extraction of small volumes ({>=}300 {mu}L) of the spiked reference serum were between 90% and 120%. The coefficients of variation of repeatability ranged from 0.1-14%, depending on the compound. Samples of 4-year-old serum and umbilical cord blood (n=73 and 40, respectively) from a population inhabiting a village near a chloro-alkali plant were screened for the above-mentioned halogenated pollutants using this method and the results are briefly described. (orig.)

  18. Effects of regulation mode of cabin gas on arterial blood gas of mariners during a prolonged voyage in a nuclear submarine

    Xiao-feng LIU


    Full Text Available Objective To study the effect of different regulation modes of the air in cabin on the arterial blood gas of mariners during a prolonged voyage in a nuclear submarine. Methods During three long distance voyages of the same nuclear submarine, the same air-regeneration device was adopted. According to the different doses and percentages of the oxygen-lithium hydroxide absorbers, the mariners of three voyages were divided by sequence of voyages into control group (C, observation group 1 (A, and observation group 2 (B. The change in arterial blood PaO2 and PaCO2 of mariners in the three groups were detected on the third day of surface navigation (T1, 10th day (T2, 12nd day (T3, 13th day (T4 of submarine navigation, and the day before returning (T5. Result There was no difference between the three groups in T1 and T2 (P>0.05. There was a significant difference in PaO2 and PaCO2 between the two observation groups and the control group on T3, T4 and T5 (P<0.05. Conclusions Different amount and percentage of the oxygenlithium hydroxide showed an influence on PaO2 and PaCO2 of the mariners. Optimal amount and percentage of the oxygen-lithium hydroxide is very important in keeping normal physiological status of mariners in a nuclear submarine. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.14

  19. Exergy analysis of gas turbine with air bottoming cycle

    In this paper, the exergy analysis of a conventional gas turbine and a gas turbine with air bottoming cycle (ABC) is presented in order to study the important parameters involved in improving the performance characteristics of the ABC based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. In this study, work output, specific fuel consumption (SFC) and the exergy destruction of the components are investigated using a computer model. The variations of the ABC cycle exergy parameters are comprehensively discussed and compared with those of the simple gas turbine. The results indicate that the amount of the exhaust exergy recovery in different operating conditions varies between 8.6 and 14.1% of the fuel exergy, while the exergy destruction due to the extra components in the ABC makes up only 4.7–7.4% of the fuel exergy. This is the reason why the SFC of the ABC is averagely 13.3% less and the specific work 15.4% more than those of the simple gas turbine. The results also reveal that in the ABC cycle, at a small value of pressure ratio, a higher specific work with lower SFC can be achieved in comparison with those of the simple gas turbine. - Highlights: • Exhaust exergy recovery in ABC gas turbine varies with 8.6–14.1% of the fuel exergy. • Irreversibility of the extra devices in ABC makes up 4.7–7.4% of the fuel exergy. • SFC in ABC is poor due to exergy recovery more than extra devices irreversibility. • At the same TIT and Rc, specific work in the ABC is more than simple gas turbine. • The recuperator has the largest contribution in the irreversibility of the ABC


    Marushchak, M; Krynytska, I; Petrenko, N; Klishch, I


    Acute lung injury (ALI) remains a major cause of acute respiratory failure and death of patients. Despite the achievements at the current stage in treatment, morbidity and mortality of ALI remain high. However, a deeper understanding of the pathogenetic links of ALI, identifying of the predictors that positively or negatively influence on the course of the syndrome, the correlation between some pathogenetic mechanisms will improve therapeutic strategies for patients with ALI, which makes the actuality of this study. The aim of the research was to detect additional pathogenetic mechanisms of the acute lung injury development in rats based on a comparative analysis of the correlations between the level of reactive oxygen species in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage, contents of neutrophils and blood gas composition. The experiments were performed on 54 white nonlinear mature male rats 200-220g in weight. The animals were divided into 5 groups: the 1st - control group (n=6), the 2nd - animals affected by hydrochloric acid for 2 hours (n=12), the 3rd - animals affected by hydrochloric acid for 6 hours (n=12), the 4th - animals affected by hydrochloric acid for 12 hours (n=12), the 5th - animals affected by hydrochloric acid for 24 hours (n=12). Correlation analysis was performed between all the studied indices. Coefficient of linear correlation (r) and its fidelity (p) was calculated that was accordingly denoted in the tables (correlation matrices). The correlation coefficient was significant at palveoli. On this background non-specific inflammatory reaction is developed at lung microvessels level with violation of lung homeostasis, which is iniciated by neutrophils' activation, which are producing ROS. PMID:27249444

  1. Gas chromatographic isolation technique for compound-specific radiocarbon analysis

    Full text: We present here a gas chromatographic isolation technique for the compound-specific radiocarbon analysis of biomarkers from the marine sediments. The biomarkers of fatty acids, hydrocarbon and sterols were isolated with enough amount for radiocarbon analysis using a preparative capillary gas chromatograph (PCGC) system. The PCGC systems used here is composed of an HP 6890 GC with FID, a cooled injection system (CIS, Gerstel, Germany), a zero-dead-volume effluent splitter, and a cryogenic preparative collection device (PFC, Gerstel). For AMS analysis, we need to separate and recover sufficient quantity of target individual compounds (>50 μgC). Yields of target compounds from C14 n-alkanes to C40 to C30 n-alkanes and approximately that of 80% for higher molecular weights compounds more than C30 n-alkanes. Compound specific radiocarbon analysis of organic compounds, as well as compound-specific stable isotope analysis, provide valuable information on the origins and carbon cycling in marine system. Above PCGC conditions, we applied compound-specific radiocarbon analysis to the marine sediments from western north Pacific, which showed the possibility of a useful chronology tool for estimating the age of sediment using organic matter in paleoceanographic study, in the area where enough amounts of planktonic foraminifera for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are difficult to obtain due to dissolution of calcium carbonate. (author)

  2. Rice husk combustion evolved gas analysis experiments and modelling

    Rice husk is a major agricultural waste which could be a major source of fuel for boilers and furnaces if its calorific value could be realized efficiently. The oxidation kinetics of rice husks combustion were investigated using an evolved gas analysis technique. Rice husk samples were heated from 100 °C to 500 °C at a constant rate inside a small pressurised reactor. An oxygen-containing gas was passed through the reactor at a controlled flow rate and the evolved gas was continually analysed for its oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide contents after moisture had been removed. A model for the oxidation of the rice husks samples is proposed that considers that the many simultaneous and competing oxidation reactions may be adequately represented by grouping them into three overlapping and competing reaction regimes in which CO2, CO and H2O are the only reaction products. The activation energies, and peak oxygen consumption temperatures were all found to be linear functions of the oxygen partial pressure in the reactor. Increasing the oxygen partial pressure decreased the temperatures at which peak oxygen consumption occurred. The total system pressure had no effect on the combustion behaviour other than through the oxygen partial pressure. At a heating rate of 80 K h−1 and a system pressure of 500 kPa values for E/R for the low temperature, medium temperature and high temperature oxidation reactions are 14.7, 19.2 and 17.4 respectively. - Highlights: • Oxidation kinetics of rice husk waste investigated using evolved gas analysis. • Proposed kinetics model assumes three competing and overlapping reactions occur. • Three oxidation reaction model fits evolved gas analysis well. • Activation energies of reactions are linear functions of O2 partial pressure. • O2 consumption peak temperatures decrease with increasing O2 partial pressure

  3. Effects of thoracic explosive injury on blood gas and acid base balance in rabbits at high altitude%高原家兔胸部爆炸伤对血气及酸碱平衡的影响

    陈忠东; 李素芝; 王洪亚; 吴前进; 肖嘉芳; 易映红


    Objective To study the changes of arterial blood gas and acid base balance in rabbits suffered from thoracic explosive injury at high altitude. Methods 24 rabbits were randomly divided into high - altitude injured group ( group A ), highaltitude control group ( group B ) and plain injured group ( group C ). In group A and C, a detonator was placed above the 5th right intercostal space of rabbit and exploded to cause the thoracic injury. In group B, animals were anesthetized and cannulated without thoracic injury. Blood samples were respectively collected before injury and at 1,3,6 h after injury for arterial blood gas analysis.Results After injury,each injured group showed persistent metabolic acidosis and lower blood gas parameters than those before injury ( P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ). There were significant differences in each blood gas parameter between group A and C ( P < 0.05 or P <0.01 ). Conclusion Decreased blood gas parameters and persistent metabolic acidosis are the most characteristic changes in rabbits suffered from thoracic explosive injury at high altitude. These changes are of significant value in the early treatment of such injury.%目的 研究高原家兔胸部爆炸伤后动脉血气分析及酸碱平衡的变化特点.方法 将家兔随机分为高原致伤组、高原对照组和平原致伤组,分别于伤前和伤后1、3、6 h采集动脉血进行血气分析.结果 伤后各致伤组均表现为持续性的代谢性酸中毒,与伤前比较血气指标值明显下降(P<0.05或P<0.01),伤后各时点高原致伤组与平原致伤组血气指标比较均有显著差异(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 伤后高原致伤组的血气指标降低以及持续性代谢性酸中毒是高原胸部爆炸伤的最主要特征性改变,对于及早救治具有重要意义.

  4. Brazilian gas network computational model for reliability analysis

    Carvalho, Thomaz; Bilhim, Thiago; Ferreira, Gustavo P. D.; Pires, Luis F. G. [Dept. Eng. Mecanica, PUC-Rio (Brazil); Faertes, Denise; Saker, Leonardo [PETROBRAS Gas and Energia (Brazil)


    Pipeline thermo-hydraulic simulation is useful to support operation, design development and reliability analysis. PETROBRAS carried reliability programs in the last years. These studies are developed to evaluate gas chain security of supply, pointing out vulnerable points and proposing optimization measures to adopt. Previously, the Brazilian gas network could be modeled using sub-networks because of the physical separation between the Northeast and the Southeast networks, but in 2010 the new GASCAC pipeline will start up and change this. The new simulation models will have to handle this new configuration. The simulations developed by the Pontifice Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro deal with steady state and transient scenarios provided by a PETROBRAS group of experts. This paper discusses the alternatives and strategies used in the thermo-hydraulic simulation of the Brazilian gas pipeline network and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of each approach and the option used to meet the demands of the reliability analysis of the PETROBRAS gas reliability management sector.

  5. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans


    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal desorp

  6. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.


    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal desorp

  7. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis

    OBJECTIVE – To determine if meta-analysis of recent clinical studies of cinnamon intake by people with Type II diabetes and/or prediabetes resulted in significant changes in fasting blood glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- Published clinical studies were identified using a literature search (P...

  8. [Characterization of aroma active compounds in blood orange juice by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry].

    Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bijun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Pan, Siyi


    Volatile compounds of fresh blood orange juice were analyzed by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and the aroma active compounds were identified by olfactometry. The volatile compounds were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber for 40 min at 40 degrees C. The analysis was carried out using an HP 6890N GC equipped with an HP-5 column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm ) directly connected to an HP 5975 series mass selective detector and a sniffing port (ODP2, Gerstel) using helium as carrier gas. Compound identifications were made by the comparison of the mass spectra, retention times, retention indices (I(R)) and odor of the volatile components in the extracts with those of the corresponding reference standards. Forty-six compounds were identified by GC-MS and I(R). The major components of the juice were limonene (86.36%), linalool (3.69%), beta-myrcene (1.79%), octanal (1.32%) and valencene (1.27%). GC-MS-olfactometry analysis was performed to determine 34 compounds with aroma activity, of which 23 compounds were identified. The major contributors to orange juice aroma activity are ethyl butanoate, octanal, gamma-terpinene, 4-acetyl-1-methyleyclohexene, decanal, (-)-carvone, geranyl acetate, valencene. These compounds of strong aroma intensity represent 7.22% of the total volatile compounds. Other four unknown compounds (I(R), <800; I(R) = 1020, 1143, 1169, separately) are also the major contributors to the overall aroma. PMID:18959252

  9. Effect of Grape Polyphenols on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Shao-Hua Li; Peng Zhao; Hong-Bo Tian; Liang-Hua Chen; Lian-Qun Cui


    Background The effect of grape polyphenols on blood pressure remains unclear, which we aimed to address via a meta-analysis study. Methods We conducted study trial searches in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were obtained by using fixed-effects models. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. The protocol details of our meta-analysis have been submitted to the inter...

  10. Analysis of catalytic gas products using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and residual gas analysis for operando transmission electron microscopy.

    Miller, Benjamin K; Crozier, Peter A


    Operando transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of catalytic reactions requires that the gas composition inside the TEM be known during the in situ reaction. Two techniques for measuring gas composition inside the environmental TEM are described and compared here. First, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, both in the low-loss and core-loss regions of the spectrum was utilized. The data were quantified using a linear combination of reference spectra from individual gasses to fit a mixture spectrum. Mass spectrometry using a residual gas analyzer was also used to quantify the gas inside the environmental cell. Both electron energy-loss spectroscopy and residual gas analysis were applied simultaneously to a known 50/50 mixture of CO and CO2, so the results from the two techniques could be compared and evaluated. An operando TEM experiment was performed using a Ru catalyst supported on silica spheres and loaded into the TEM on a specially developed porous pellet TEM sample. Both techniques were used to monitor the conversion of CO to CO2 over the catalyst, while simultaneous atomic resolution imaging of the catalyst was performed. PMID:24815065