Sample records for blatt-biedenharn formalism

  1. Formal Phonology

    Dave Odden


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE Two problematic trends have dominated modern phonological theorizing: over-reliance on machinery of Universal Grammar, and reification of functional properties in grammar. The former trend leads to arbitrary postulation of grammatical principles because UG “has no cost”, which leads to a welter of contradictory and unresolvable claims. The latter trend amounts to rejection of phonology and indeed grammatical computation, as a legitimate independent area of scientific investigation. This paper outlines Formal Phonology, which is a metatheoretical approach rooted in an inductive epistemology, committed to seriously engaging the fundamental logic of the discipline, one which demands justification of claims and an integrated consideration of what is known about phonological grammars, eschewing ad libitum conjectures and isolated positing of novel claims without evaluating how the claim interacts with other aspects of phonology. Debate over the proper mechanism for apparent segment-transparency in harmony, or the binary vs. privative nature of features, is ultimately doomed if we do not have a clear awareness of what a “grammar” and a “phonology” are. Misconstruing the nature of a phonology as being a model of observed behavior negatively affects theoretical choices, leads to confusion over what could motivate a claim about the nature of grammar, and in general, a lack of developed epistemological foundation leads to confusion over how to approach theory-construction.

  2. 58Ni + n transmission, differential elastic scattering and capture measurements and analysis from 5 to 813 keV

    High-resolution neutron measurements for 58Ni-enriched targets were made at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) from 100 eV to ∼20 MeV in transmission, from 10 keV to 5 MeV in differential elastic, and from 2.5 keV to 5 MeV in capture. The transmission data were analyzed from 10 to 813 keV with the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY which uses Bayes' theorem for the fitting process. This code provides energies and neutron widths of the resonances inside the 10- to 813-keV region as well as a possible parameterization for resonances external to that region to describe the smooth cross section from 10 to 813 keV. The differential elastic data at different scattering angles were compared to theoretical calculations from 30 to 813 keV using an R-matrix code based on the Blatt-Biedenharn formalism. Various combinations of spin and parity were tried to predict cross sections for the well defined /ell/ > 0 resonances, and comparison with the data then provided spin and parity assignments for most of these resonances. the capture data were analyzed from 5 to 450 keV with a least-squares fitting code using the Breit-Wigner formula. In this energy region 30% more resonances were observed in the capture data than in the transmission data. 55 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Masses of Formal Philosophy

    Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods in...... philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions....

  4. Parametrization of the coupled channels S matrix in the inelastic case: Relation to Arndt-Roper form

    A previously introduced parametrization of the S matrix for two coupled channels is extended to allow use of Blatt-Biedenharn type phase shifts. It is then shown how the K-matrix parametrization of Arndt and Roper is related to the other schemes

  5. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    Danvy, Olivier


    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal sem...

  6. Industrial use of formal methods formal verification

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis


    At present the literature gives students and researchers of the very general books on the formal technics. The purpose of this book is to present in a single book, a return of experience on the used of the "formal technics" (such proof and model-checking) on industrial examples for the transportation domain. This book is based on the experience of people which are completely involved in the realization and the evaluation of safety critical system software based.  The implication of the industrialists allows to raise the problems of confidentiality which could appear and so allow

  7. Developments in Formal Proofs

    Hales, Thomas C.


    This report describes three particular technological advances in formal proofs. The HOL Light proof assistant will be used to illustrate the design of a highly reliable system. Today, proof assistants can verify large bodies of advanced mathematics; and as an example, we turn to the formal proof in Coq of the Feit-Thompson Odd Order theorem in group theory. Finally, we discuss advances in the automation of formal proofs, as implemented in proof assistants such as Mizar, Coq, Isabelle, and HOL...

  8. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook


    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  9. More than Formal Proof.

    Hanna, Gila


    The origins of the emphasis on formal proof are discussed as well as more recent views. Factors in acceptance of a proof and the social process of acceptance by mathematicians are included. The impact of formal proof on the curriculum and implications for teaching are given. (DC)

  10. The Benefits of Formalization

    Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth


    Based on unique panel data consisting of both formal and informal firms, this paper uses a matched double difference approach to examine the relationship between legal status and firm level outcomes in micro, small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. Controlling for determining...... factors and observable time-variant factors that may simultaneously influence the decision to formalize and subsequent firm performance, we find evidence that becoming officially registered leads to an increase in profits and investments, and a decrease in the use of casual labor (improved contract...... conditions for workers). Thus, we conclude that formalizing is beneficial both to firms and the workers in these firms....

  11. Formal languages and compilation

    Reghizzi, Stefano Crespi


    Covers the fundamental concepts of formal languages and compilation, which are central to computer science and based on well-consolidated principles. Based on definitions and algorithms, this book focuses on the importance of combining theoretical concepts with practical applications.

  12. Fear of the Formal

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    could either be done under the headline ‘Gov 2.0’ that re-envisions the function of government as a platform around which creative citizens collaborate (O’Reilly, 2009), or by adopting a whole new mindset where a organo-centric view of the world is replaced by a more democratic, co-creative, ecosystem...... manifestation in relation to recent and ongoing reforms of organizational life and state administration. At the same time, we seek to indicate the continuing constitutive significance of formality and formalization for both the securing of organizational purposes and the individual freedom, and for ‘stateness...

  13. Formal Definition of AI

    Dobrev, Dimiter


    A definition of Artificial Intelligence was proposed in [1] but this definition was not absolutely formal at least because the word "Human" was used. In this paper we will formalize the definition from [1]. The biggest problem in this definition was that the level of intelligence of AI is compared to the intelligence of a human being. In order to change this we will introduce some parameters to which AI will depend. One of this parameters will be the level of intelligence and we will define o...

  14. Formality theorem for gerbes

    Bressler, Paul; Gorokhovsky, Alexander; Nest, Ryszard;


    The main result of the present paper is an analogue of Kontsevich formality theorem in the context of the deformation theory of gerbes. We construct an L∞L∞ deformation of the Schouten algebra of multi-vectors which controls the deformation theory of a gerbe.......The main result of the present paper is an analogue of Kontsevich formality theorem in the context of the deformation theory of gerbes. We construct an L∞L∞ deformation of the Schouten algebra of multi-vectors which controls the deformation theory of a gerbe....

  15. Formality in Brackets

    Garsten, Christina; Nyqvist, Anette

    suits’ (Nyqvist 2013), and of doing ‘ethnography by failure’ (Garsten 2013). In this paper, we explore the layers of informality and formality in our fieldwork experiences among financial investors and policy experts, and discuss how to ethnographically represent embodied fieldwork practices. How do we...

  16. Formalization of Medical Guidelines

    Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Šebesta, K.; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvára, K.; Zvárová, Jana


    Roč. 1, - (2005), s. 133-141. ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GLIF model * formalization of guidelines * prevention of cardiovascular diseases Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  17. Fear of the Formal

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas


    term this ‘fear of the formal’, outlining key elements of its genealogy and exploring its contemporary manifestation in relation to recent and ongoing reforms of organisational life in a range of contexts. At the same time, we seek to indicate the continuing constitutive significance of formality...

  18. Formalizations of Commonsense Psychology

    Gordon, Andrew S.; Hobbs, Jerry R.


    The central challenge in commonsense knowledge representation research is to develop content theories that achieve a high degree of both competency and coverage. We describe a new methodology for constructing formal theories in commonsense knowledge domains that complements traditional knowledge representation approaches by first addressing issues of coverage. We show how a close examination of a very general task (strategic planning) leads to a catalog of the concepts and facts that must be ...

  19. {\\delta}N formalism

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Futamase, Toshifumi


    Precise understanding of nonlinear evolution of cosmological perturbations during inflation is necessary for the correct interpretation of measurements of non-Gaussian correlations in the cosmic microwave background and the large-scale structure of the universe. The "{\\delta}N formalism" is a popular and powerful technique for computing non-linear evolution of cosmological perturbations on large scales. In particular, it enables us to compute the curvature perturbation, {\\zeta}, on large scal...

  20. Nuclear orientation formalism

    The formalism necessary for the description, analysis and interpretation of experiments with oriented nuclei is considered in detail. The formalism is conveniently expressed as a sum of products where the number of terms appearing in the summation is determined by the spins of the nuclear levels and by the properties of the observed radiation. Each term of the product is identified with one particular aspect of the process which leads from the initial oriented state to the observed radiation. The orientation parameters and statistical tensors, used to describe the initial state, are discussed. The effective orientation is determined by the initial orientation modified by the deorientation coefficients. Further modifications, due to direct interactions of the electromagnetic moments of that state with the nuclear environment, are described by perturbation coefficients. The observed radiation is described by the angular distribution coefficients which depend on the multipole character of the observed radiation. Applications for various types of radiations are considered. Examples are given of angular correlation measurements, in which two radiations, e.g in a cascade, are measured in coincidence. Modifications of the standard angular distribution formalism, brought about by the finite size of the sources and detectors, are discussed. (Auth.)

  1. Formalizing the concept of sound.

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.


    The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

  2. Formal Methods in Industry

    Alexei Serna A.


    Full Text Available The application of formal methods in industry has progressed extensively over the past decade and the results are promising. But despite these achievements and it have been documented in numerous studies, it is still very common the skepticism about its usefulness and applicability. The goal of this paper is to show that its evolution over the past decade exceeds all previous processes and each time they do a better job to satisfy industrial needs. This is achieved by the description of some experiments and the result of various applications in industry and through an analyzing of the needs of companies that must be satisfy the research community in this field.

  3. Advanced formal verification

    Drechsler, Rolf


    Preface. Contributing Authors. Introduction; R. Drechsler. 1. Formal Verification. 2. Challenges. 3. Contributions to this Book. 1: What SAT-Solvers Can and Cannot Do; E. Goldberg. 1. Introduction. 2. Hard Equivalence Checking CNF Formulas. 3. Stable Sets of Points. 2: Advancements in Mixed BDD and SAT Techniques; G. Cabodi, S. Quer. 1. Introduction. 2. Background. 3. Comparing SAT and BDD Approaches: Are they Different? 4. Decision Diagrams as a Slave Engine in General SAT: Clause Compression by Means of ZBDDs. 5. Decision Diagram Preprocessing and Circuit-Based SAT. 6. Using SAT in Symbolic

  4. Formal methods in knowledge engineering.

    Harmelen, van, F.; Fensel, D.


    This paper presents a general discussion of the role of formal methods in Knowledge Engineering. We give an historical account of the development of the field of Knowledge Engineering towards the use of formal methods. Subsequently, we discuss the pro's and cons of formal methods. We do this by summarising the proclaimed advantages, and by arguing against some of the commonly heard objections against formal methods. We briefly summarise the current state of the art and discuss the most import...

  5. una experiencia no formal

    Peter J. Scott


    Full Text Available En este documento presentamos parte de un estudio en el que se ha analizado un proceso de aprendizaje desarrollado por estudiantes en interacción directa a través de un entorno de videoconferencia. El estudio cubre un periodo de 6 meses de interacción de un grupo de estudiantes de animación gráfica en diferentes países, quienes han llevado a cabo un total de 99 reuniones. Cada una de estas reuniones ha sido organizada y manejada por la propia comunidad de estudiantes. Al final, los integrantes de la comunidad aparecen como sus propios mentores naturales, y el grupo muestra una enorme capacidad de apoyo mutuo y de asunción de roles de facilitación mutua en el contexto de dicho intercambio. En este estudio podemos ver cómo los estudiantes pueden apoyarse mutuamente de manera eficiente en un contexto de colaboración no formal y además podemos observar cómo sistemas de videoconferencia en red pueden ayudar a facilitar y transformar una comunidad de aprendizaje, incluso sin la intervención formal de aulas o profesores.

  6. Formalization of Database Systems -- and a Formal Definition of {IMS}

    Bjørner, Dines; Løvengreen, Hans Henrik


    Drawing upon an analogy between Programming Language Systems and Database Systems we outline the requirements that architectural specifications of database systems must futfitl, and argue that only formal, mathematical definitions may 6atisfy these. Then we illustrate home aspects and touch upon...... come ueee of formal definitions of data models and databaee management systems. A formal model of INS will carry this discussion. Finally we survey some of the exkting literature on formal definitions of database systems. The emphasis will be on constructive definitions in the denotationul semantics...

  7. Spinor formalism and complex-vector formalism of general relativity

    In this paper, using E. Cartan's exterior calculus, we give the spinor form of the structure equations, which leads naturally to the Newman--Penrose equations. Furthermore, starting from the spinor spaces and the el (2C) algebra, we construct the general complex-vector formalism of general relativity. We find that both the Cahen--Debever--Defrise complex-vector formalism and that of Brans are its special cases. Thus, the spinor formalism and the complex-vector formalism of general relativity are unified on the basis of the uni-modular group SL(2C) and its Lie algebra

  8. 40 years of formal methods

    Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus


    In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification......-oriented methods to analysis-oriented methods. Then, Sect. 2, we shall provide a "survey": which are the 'prerequisite works' that have enabled formal methods, Sect. 2.1, and which are, to us, the, by now, classical 'formal methods', Sect. 2.2. We then ask ourselves the question: have formal methods for software...... development, in the sense of this paper been successful? Our answer is, regretfully, no! We motivate this answer, in Sect. 3.2, by discussing eight obstacles or hindrances to the proper integration of formal methods in university research and education as well as in industry practice. This "looking back" is...

  9. A Formalization of Linkage Analysis

    Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Christensen, A.I.; Hansen, Jens A.;

    In this report a formalization of genetic linkage analysis is introduced. Linkage analysis is a computationally hard biomathematical method, which purpose is to locate genes on the human genome. It is rooted in the new area of bioinformatics and no formalization of the method has previously been ...

  10. Formal Verification of UML Profil

    Bhutto, Arifa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar


    and object diagrams and behavioral view model by the activity, use case, state, and sequence diagram. However, UML does not provide the formal syntax, therefore its semantics is not formally definable, so for assure of correctness, we need to incorporate semantic reasoning through verification...

  11. New procedure for departure formalities

    HR & GS Departments


    As part of the process of simplifying procedures and rationalising administrative processes, the HR and GS Departments have introduced new personalised departure formalities on EDH. These new formalities have applied to students leaving CERN since last year and from 17 October 2011 this procedure will be extended to the following categories of CERN personnel: Staff members, Fellows and Associates. It is planned to extend this electronic procedure to the users in due course. What purpose do departure formalities serve? The departure formalities are designed to ensure that members of the personnel contact all the relevant services in order to return any necessary items (equipment, cards, keys, dosimeter, electronic equipment, books, etc.) and are aware of all the benefits to which they are entitled on termination of their contract. The new departure formalities on EDH have the advantage of tailoring the list of services that each member of the personnel must visit to suit his individual contractual and p...

  12. Formal connections in deformation quantization

    Masulli, Paolo

    manifold. Gammelgaard gave an explicit formula for a class of star products in this setting. We review his construction, which is combinatorial and based on a certain family of graphs and extend it, to provide the graph formalism with the notions of composition and differentiation. We shall focus our...... attention on symplectic manifolds equipped with a family of star products, indexed by a parameter space. In this situation we can define a connection in the trivial bundle over the parameter space with fibres the formal smooth functions on the manifold, which relates the star products in the family and is...... called a formal connection. We study the question of classifying such formal connections. To each star product we can associate a certain cohomology class called the characteristic class. It turns out that a formal connection exists if and only if all the star products in the family have the same...

  13. Formal verification - Robust and efficient code: Introduction to Formal Verification

    CERN. Geneva


    In general, FV means "proving that certain properties hold for a given system using formal mathematics". This definition can certainly feel daunting, however, as we will learn, we can reap benefits from the paradigm without digging too deep into ...

  14. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    Ray, Sandip


    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  15. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    Madlener, Ken; van Eekelen, Marko; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.2


    One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

  16. Formal Methods: Practice and Experience

    Woodcock, Jim; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Bicarregui, Juan;


    Formal methods use mathematical models for analysis and verification at any part of the program life-cycle. We describe the state of the art in the industrial use of formal methods, concentrating on their increasing use at the earlier stages of specification and design. We do this by reporting on a....... Based on this, we discuss the issues surrounding the industrial adoption of formal methods. Finally, we look to the future and describe the development of a Verified Software Repository, part of the worldwide Verified Software Initiative. We introduce the initial projects being used to populate the...

  17. El Salvador - Formal Technical Education

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — With a budget of nearly $20 million, the Formal Technical Education Sub-Activity was designed to strengthen technical and vocational educational institutions in the...

  18. Helicity formalism and spin effects

    The helicity formalism and the technique to compute amplitudes for interaction processes involving leptons, quarks, photons and gluons are reviewed. Explicit calculations and examples of exploitation of symmetry properties are shown. The formalism is then applied to the discussion of several hadronic processes and spin effects: the experimental data, when related to the properties of the elementary constituent interactions, show many not understood features. Also the nucleon spin problem is briefly reviewed. (author)

  19. Complex cobordism and formal groups

    Buchstaber, Viktor M.


    This paper surveys the current state of the theory of cobordism, focusing on geometric and universal properties of complex cobordism, the Landweber-Novikov algebra, and the formal group law of geometric cobordisms. The relationships with K-theory, algebraic cycles, formal group laws, compact Lie group actions on manifolds, toric topology, infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, and nilmanifolds are described. The survey contains key results and open problems. Bibliography: 124 titles.

  20. Topological Properties of Rough Soft Formal Context

    Li Fu


    In this paper, the topological structure is discussed in the rough soft formal context. The rough soft formal context is defined on the rough formal context with some soft operators, the topology and the topological space are given in the rough soft formal context. And some topological properties are discussed over the rough soft formal context.

  1. A short introduction to the quantum formalism[s

    David, Francois


    These notes are an elaboration on: (i) a short course that I gave at the IPhT-Saclay in May-June 2012; (ii) a previous letter on reversibility in quantum mechanics. They present an introductory, but hopefully coherent, view of the main formalizations of quantum mechanics, of their interrelations and of their common physical underpinnings: causality, reversibility and locality/separability. The approaches covered are mainly: (ii) the canonical formalism; (ii) the algebraic formalism; (iii) the quantum logic formulation. Other subjects: quantum information approaches, quantum correlations, contextuality and non-locality issues, quantum measurements, interpretations and alternate theories, quantum gravity, are only very briefly and superficially discussed. Most of the material is not new, but is presented in an original, homogeneous and hopefully not technical or abstract way. I try to define simply all the mathematical concepts used and to justify them physically. These notes should be accessible to young physi...

  2. UML-ising formal techniques

    Bjørner, Dines; George, Chris W.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth;


    This invited paper presents a number of correlated specifications of example railway system problems. They use a variety of partially or fully integrated formal specification. The paper thus represents a mere repository of what we consider interesting case studies. The existence of the Unified...... these different UML views are unified, integrated, correlated or merely co-located is for others to dispute. We also seek to support multiple views, but are also in no doubt that there must be sound, well defined relations between such views. We thus report on ways and means of integrating formal...... techniques such as RAISE (RSL) [58,59], Petri Nets [56,62,37,61,411, Message and Live Sequence Charts [42,43,44,64,13], Statecharts [23,24,26,27], RAISE with Timing (TRSL) [18,45,461, and TRSL with Duration Calculus (79,30]. In this way one achieves a firm foundation for combined uses of these formal...

  3. Worldline Formalism and Noncommutative Theories

    Franchino-Viñas, Sebastián A


    The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is the implementation of the Worldline Formalism in the frame of Noncommutative Quantum Field Theories. The result is a master formula for the 1-loop effective action that is applied to a number of scalar models -- among them the Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. As a byproduct we find an expression for the small propertime expansion of general nonlocal operators' Heat Kernel. As an introduction, basic notions of spectral functions, Quantum Field Theories --path integrals and renormalization by means of spectral functions-- and the Worldline Formalism for commutative theories are given.

  4. Leibniz' First Formalization of Syllogistics

    Robering, Klaus


    In his Dissertatio de Arte Combinatoria from 1666 Leibniz provides a formal presentation of syllogistics within the framework of his general-combinatoric program. He does not set up an axiomatic system for the derivation of all valid syllogistic mode, rather he formulates a set of rules which dis...

  5. The Role of Formal Instruction

    Sun Yu


    This paper looks at second language acquisition in a classroom setting. It considers whether formal instruction makes a difference to SLA. This is an important issue, because it address the question of the role played by environmental factors in SLA. It is also an important educational issue, as language pedagogy has traditionally operated on the assumption that grammar can be taught.

  6. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.


    cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries...

  7. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent cross-country stud...

  8. Cohomology and the operator formalism

    This letter points a close parallel between the operator formalism for string theory and the action of a Lie algebra on a differential complex. The construction of conformal field theories can then be regarded as a cohomology problem; we suggest that this viewpoint may survive the generalization beyond finite genus Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  9. Formal Verification of Continuous Systems

    Sloth, Christoffer


    losses. Furthermore, a malfunction in the control system of a surgical robot may cause death of patients. The previous examples involve complex systems that are required to operate according to complex specifications. The systems cannot be formally verified by modern verification techniques, due to the...

  10. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...

  11. Ambitwistor String Theory in the Operator Formalism

    Reid-Edwards, R. A.


    After a brief overview of the operator formalism for conventional string theory, an operator formalism for ambitwistor string theory is presented. It is shown how tree level supergravity scattering amplitudes are recovered in this formalism. More general applications of this formalism to loop amplitudes and the construction of an ambitwistor string field theory are briefly discussed.

  12. Ambitwistor string theory in the operator formalism

    Reid-Edwards, R. A.


    After a brief overview of the operator formalism for conventional string theory, an operator formalism for ambitwistor string theory is presented. It is shown how tree level supergravity scattering amplitudes are recovered in this formalism. More general applications of this formalism to loop amplitudes and the construction of an ambitwistor string field theory are briefly discussed.

  13. Notoph gauge theory: superfield formalism

    We derive absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations for the 4D free Abelian 2-form gauge theory by exploiting the superfield approach to BRST formalism. The antisymmetric tensor gauge field of the above theory was christened as the 'notoph' (i.e., the opposite of 'photon') gauge field by Ogievetsky and Polubarinov way back in 1966-67. We briefly outline the problems involved in obtaining the absolute anticommutativity of the (anti-)BRST formalism. One of the highlights of our results is the emergence of a Curci-Ferrari type of restriction in the context of 4D Abelian 2-form (notoph) gauge theory which renders the nilpotent (anti-)BRST symmetries of the theory to be absolutely anticommutative in nature

  14. Informal work and formal plans

    Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm;


    trajectories. METHODS AND THEORY: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. RESULTS: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment...... and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories. Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed. DISCUSSION: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work....... The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients' active...

  15. Methodology of formal software evaluation

    Sydkraft AB, the major Swedish utility, owner of ca 6000 MWel installed in nuclear (NPP Barsebaeck and NPP Oskarshamn), fossil fuel and hydro Power Plants is facing modernization of the control systems of the plants. Standards applicable require structured, formal methods for implementation of the control functions in the modem, real time software systems. This presentation introduces implementation methodology as discussed presently at the Sydkraft organisation. The approach suggested is based upon the process of co-operation of three parties taking part in the implementation; owner of the plant, vendor and Quality Assurance (QA) organisation. QA will be based on tools for formal software validation and on systematic gathering by the owner of validated and proved-by-operation control modules for the concern-wide utilisation. (author)

  16. Contextual approach to quantum formalism

    Khrennikov, Andrei


    The aim of this book is to show that the probabilistic formalisms of classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be unified on the basis of a general contextual probabilistic model. By taking into account the dependence of (classical) probabilities on contexts (i.e. complexes of physical conditions), one can reproduce all distinct features of quantum probabilities such as the interference of probabilities and the violation of Bell’s inequality. Moreover, by starting with a formula for the interference of probabilities (which generalizes the well known classical formula of total probability), one can construct the representation of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes or, in the abstract formalism, by normalized vectors of the complex Hilbert space or its hyperbolic generalization. Thus the Hilbert space representation of probabilities can be naturally derived from classical probabilistic assumptions. An important chapter of the book critically reviews known no-go theorems...

  17. Formal Verification of Quantum Protocols

    Nagarajan, R; Nagarajan, Rajagopal; Gay, Simon


    We propose to analyse quantum protocols by applying formal verification techniques developed in classical computing for the analysis of communicating concurrent systems. One area of successful application of these techniques is that of classical security protocols, exemplified by Lowe's discovery and fix of a flaw in the well-known Needham-Schroeder authentication protocol. Secure quantum cryptographic protocols are also notoriously difficult to design. Quantum cryptography is therefore an interesting target for formal verification, and provides our first example; we expect the approach to be transferable to more general quantum information processing scenarios. The example we use is the quantum key distribution protocol proposed by Bennett and Brassard, commonly referred to as BB84. We present a model of the protocol in the process calculus CCS and the results of some initial analyses using the Concurrency Workbench of the New Century (CWB-NC).

  18. Formal modelling of cognitive interpretation

    Rukšenas, R.; Curzon, P.; Back, J.; Blandford, A.


    We formally specify the interpretation stage in a dual state space human-computer interaction cycle. This is done by extending/reorganising our previous cognitive architecture. In particular, we focus on shape related aspects of the interpretation process associated with device input prompts. A cash-point example illustrates our approach. Using the SAL model checking environment, we show how the extended cognitive architecture facilitates detection of prompt-shape induced human error. © Sprin...

  19. Stroh formalism and Rayleigh waves

    Tanuma, Kazumi


    Introduces a powerful and elegant mathematical method for the analysis of anisotropic elasticity equationsThe reader can grasp the essentials as quickly as possibleCan be used as a textbook, which presents compactly introduction and applications of the Stroh formalismAppeals to the people not only in mathematics but also in mechanics and engineering sciencePrerequisites are only basic linear algebra, calculus and fundamentals of differential equations

  20. Geometrical formalism in gauge theories

    Kubyshin, Yuri A.


    We review the basic elements of the geometrical formalism for description of gauge fields and the theory of invariant connections, and their applications to the coset space dimensional reduction of Yang-Mills theories. We also discuss the problem of classification of principal fibre bundles, which is important for the quantization of gauge theories. Some results for bundles over two-dimensional spaces are presented.

  1. Review of the helicity formalism

    Our purpose in these notes has been to present a brief and general review of the helicity formalism. We begin by discussing Lorentz invariance, spin and helicity ideas, in section 1 . In section 2 we deal with the construction of relativistic states and scattering amplitudes in the helicity basis and we study their transformation properties under discrete symmetries. Finally we present some more sophisticated topics like kinematical singularities of helicity amplitudes, kinematical constraints and crossing relations 3, 4, 5 respectively. (Author) 8 refs

  2. Formalizing Arrow’s theorem

    Freek Wiedijk


    A small project in which I encoded a proof of Arrow’s theorem—probably the most famous results in the economics field of social choice theory—in the computer using the Mizar system is presented here. The details of this specific project, as well as the process of formalization (encoding proofs in the computer) in general are discussed.

  3. Formal aspects of component software

    Sun, Meng; Schatz, B.


    This issue includes extended versions of selected best papers from the 7th International Workshop on Formal Aspects of Component Software (FACS 2010) held in Guimarães, Portugal on October 14–16, 2010. The component-based software development approach has emerged as a promising paradigm to cope with an ever increasing complexity of present-day software solutions by bringing sound production and engineering principles into software engineering. However, many conceptual and technological iss...

  4. Formal Verification under Unknown Constraints

    LI Guang-hui; LI Xiao-wei


    We present a formal method of verifying designs with unknown constraints (e. g. , black boxes) using Boolean satisfiability (SAT). This method is based on a new encoding scheme of unknown constraints, and solves the corresponding conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Furthermore, this method can avoid the potential memory explosion, which the binary decision diagram (BDD) based techniques maybe suffer from, thus it has the capacity of verifying large designs. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed method.

  5. Formal Analysis of Meaning in Natural Languages

    Ljiljana Saric


    Full Text Available Broadly, the subject of this paper is the relation between logic and linguistics. More narrowly, it concentrates on formal semantics. The first part of the text discusses the topics and methods of formal semantics, and the second part the history of formal semantics. Formal semantic analysis has not been widely known and applied in our research community, and formal methods have been applied extremely rarely in linguistic analyses. This is why it is useful to point out the significant achievements of formal semantics. This inspiring interdisciplinary field of research has been successfully connecting research in linguistics, logic and philosophy since the early 1970s.

  6. Computer education in formal and non-formal education

    Mrak Merhar, Irena


    During my work with the nongovermental youth organization Društvo mladinski ceh, the Computer studies at the Faculty of Education and working with my obligatory computer practice I've become acquainted with the formal and informal computer education. In my diploma I've asked myself how to improve both types of education, which are the weaknesses and the advantages with either computer education. In the first part of my diploma I studied all curricula for Computer science and Informatics f...

  7. The Bondi-Sachs Formalism

    Mädler, Thomas


    The Bondi-Sachs formalism of General Relativity is a metric-based treatment of the Einstein equations in which the coordinates are adapted to the null geodesics of the spacetime. It provided the first convincing evidence that gravitational radiation is a nonlinear effect of general relativity and that the emission of gravitational waves from an isolated system is accompanied by a mass loss from the system. The asymptotic behaviour of the Bondi-Sachs metric revealed the existence of the symmetry group at null infinity, the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs group, which turned out to be larger than the Poincare group.

  8. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    Žáček, Martin


    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  9. Measuring the effect of formalization

    We present an ongoing research activity concerned with measuring the effect of an increased level of formalization in software development. We summarize the experiences from a first experimental development. Based on these experiences, we discuss a number of technical issues; in particular, problems connected to metrics based on fault reports. First of all, what is a fault? Secondly, how should the fault counting be integrated in the development process? Thirdly, any reasonable definition of fault depends on a notion of satisfaction. Hence, we must address the question: What does it mean for a specification or an implementation to satisfy a requirement imposed by a more high-level specification? (author)

  10. Quantum mechanics principles and formalism

    McWeeny, R


    Quantum Mechanics: Principles and Formalism gives importance to the exposition of the fundamental bases of quantum mechanics. This text first discusses the physical basis of quantum theory. This book then provides some simple solutions of Schrödinger's equation, eigenvalue equations, and general formulation of quantum mechanics. The general theory of representations is also tackled. In discussing this topic, this text specifically looks into the harmonic oscillator, Dirac notation, time-evolution, Schrödinger equation in momentum space, and transformation theory. This publication will be inv

  11. Quantum mechanical formalism of particle beam optics

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed


    A general procedure for construction of the formalism of quantum beam optics for any particle is reviewed. The quantum formalism of spin-1/2 particle beam optics is presented starting {\\em ab initio} with the Dirac equation. As an example of application the case of normal magnetic quadrupole lens is discussed. In the classical limit the quantum formalism leads to the well-known Lie algebraic formalism of classical particle beam optics.

  12. A Survey of Formal Languages for Contracts

    Hvitved, Tom

    In this short paper we present the current status on formal languages and models for contracts. By a formal model is meant an unambiguous and rigorous representation of contracts, in order to enable their automatic validation, execution, and analysis — activates that are collectively referred to as...... contract lifecycle management (CLM). We present a set of formalism requirements, which represent features that any ideal contract model should support, based on which we present a comparative survey of existing contract formalisms....

  13. Formalizing Preference Utilitarianism in Physical World Models

    Oesterheld, Caspar


    Most ethical work is done at a low level of formality. This makes practical moral questions inaccessible to formal and natural sciences and can lead to misunderstandings in ethical discussion. In this paper, we use Bayesian inference to introduce a formalization of preference utilitarianism in physical world models, specifically cellular automata. Even though our formalization is not immediately applicable, it is a first step in providing ethics and ultimately the question of how to "make the...

  14. Formal Connections for families of Star Products

    Ellegaard Andersen, Jørgen; Masulli, Paolo; Schaetz, Florian

    We define the notion of a formal connection for a smooth family of star products with fixed underlying symplectic structure. Such a formal connection allows one to relate star products at different points in the family. This generalizes the formal Hitchin connection introduced by the first author...

  15. Formal Testing of Correspondence Carrying Software

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.; Maharaj, S.


    Nowadays formal software development is characterised by use of multitude formal specification languages. Test case generation from formal specifications depends in general on a specific language, and, moreover, there are competing methods for each language. There is a need for a generic approach to

  16. Formalizing the concept phase of product development

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.


    We discuss the use of formal techniques to improve the concept phase of product realisation. As an industrial application, a new concept of interventional X-ray systems has been formalized, using model checking techniques and the simulation of formal models. cop. Springer International Publishing Sw

  17. Fuzzy Set Approximations in Fuzzy Formal Contexts

    Mingwen Shao; Shiqing Fan


    In this paper, a kind of multi-level formal concept is introduced. Based on the proposed multi-level formal concept, we present a pair of rough fuzzy set approximations within fuzzy formal contexts. By the proposed rough fuzzy set approximations, we can approximate a fuzzy set according to different precision level. We discuss the properties of the proposed approximation operators in detail.

  18. Formal Proofs for Nonlinear Optimization

    Victor Magron


    Full Text Available We present a formally verified global optimization framework. Given a semialgebraic or transcendental function f and a compact semialgebraic domain K, we use the nonlinear maxplus template approximation algorithm to provide a certified lower bound of f over K.This method allows to bound in a modular way some of the constituents of f by suprema of quadratic forms with a well chosen curvature. Thus, we reduce the initial goal to a hierarchy of semialgebraic optimization problems, solved by sums of squares relaxations. Our implementation tool interleaves  semialgebraic approximations with sums of squares witnesses to form certificates. It is interfaced with Coq and thus benefits from the trusted arithmetic available inside the proof assistant. This feature is used to produce, from the certificates, both valid underestimators and lower bounds for each approximated constituent.The application range for such a tool is widespread; for instance Hales' proof of Kepler's conjecture yields thousands of multivariate transcendental inequalities. We illustrate the performance of our formal framework on some of these inequalities as well as on examples from the global optimization literature.

  19. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments

    Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.


    Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

  20. Formal Aspects of Grid Brokering

    Kertész, Attila; 10.4204/EPTCS.14.2


    Coordination in distributed environments, like Grids, involves selecting the most appropriate services, resources or compositions to carry out the planned activities. Such functionalities appear at various levels of the infrastructure and in various means forming a blurry domain, where it is hard to see how the participating components are related and what their relevant properties are. In this paper we focus on a subset of these problems: resource brokering in Grid middleware. This paper aims at establishing a semantical model for brokering and related activities by defining brokering agents at three levels of the Grid middleware for resource, host and broker selection. The main contribution of this paper is the definition and decomposition of different brokering components in Grids by providing a formal model using Abstract State Machines.

  1. Formal analysis of physical theories

    The rules of inference that are made use of in formalization are considered. It is maintained that a physical law represents the universal assertion of a probability, and not the assessment of the probability of a universal assertion. The precision of the apparatus used to collect the experimental evidence is introduced as an essential part of the theoretical structure of physics. This approach allows the author to define the concept of truth in a satisfactory way, abandoning the unacceptable notion of approximate truth. It is shown that a considerable amount of light can be shed on a number of much debated problems arising in the logic of quantum mechanics. It is stressed that the deductive structure of quantum theory seems to be essentially founded on a kind of mixture of different logics. Two different concepts of truth are distinguished within quantum theory, an empirical truth and quantum-logical truth. (Auth.)

  2. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal

    P K Khare; P L Jain; R K Pandey


    In the present paper charging and discharging transient currents in polyvinyl formal (PVF) were measured as a function of temperatures (40–80°C), poling fields (9.0 × 103–9.0 × 104 V/cm) and electrode combinations (Al–Al, Au–Al, Zn–Al, Bi–Al, Cu–Al and Ag–Al). The current–time characteristics have different values of slope lying between 0.42–0.56 and 1.42–1.63. The polarization is considered to be due to dipolar reorientation associated with structural motions and space charge relaxations due to trapping of injected charge carriers in energetically distributed traps.

  3. Measurement-feedback formalism meets information reservoirs

    Shiraishi, Naoto; Matsumoto, Takumi; Sagawa, Takahiro


    There have been two distinct formalisms of thermodynamics of information: one is the measurement-feedback formalism, which concerns bipartite systems with measurement and feedback processes, and the other is the information reservoir formalism, which considers bit sequences as a thermodynamic fuel. In this paper, we derive a second-law-like inequality by applying the measurement-feedback formalism to information reservoirs, which provides a stronger bound of extractable work than any other known inequality in the same setup. In addition, we demonstrate that the Mandal-Jarzynski model, which is a prominent model of the information reservoir formalism, is equivalent to a model obtained by the contraction of a bipartite system with autonomous measurement and feedback. Our results provide a unified view on the measurement-feedback and the information-reservoir formalisms.

  4. Enhancing System Realisation in Formal Model Development

    Tran-Jørgensen, Peter Würtz Vinther


    Software for mission-critical systems is sometimes analysed using formal specification to increase the chances of the system behaving as intended. When sufficient insights into the system have been obtained from the formal analysis, the formal specification is realised in the form of a software...... implementation. One way to realise the system’s software is by automatically generating it from the formal specification – a technique referred to as code generation. However, in general it is difficult to make guarantees about the correctness of the generated code – especially while requiring automation of the...... steps involved in realising the formal specification. This PhD dissertation investigates ways to improve the automation of the steps involved in realising and validating a system based on a formal specification. The approach aims to develop properly designed software tools which support the integration...

  5. M-Theory in the Gaugeon Formalism

    Mir Faizal


    In this paper we will analyse the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory in N = 1 superspace formalism. We then study the quantum gauge transformations for this ABJM theory in gaugeon formalism. We will also analyse the extended BRST symmetry for this ABJM theory in gaugeon formalism and show that these BRST transformations for this theory are nilpotent and this in turn leads to the unitary evolution of the S-matrix.

  6. Quantum formalism to describe binocular rivalry

    Manousakis, Efstratios


    On the basis of the general character and operation of the process of perception, a formalism is sought to mathematically describe the subjective or abstract/mental process of perception. It is shown that the formalism of orthodox quantum theory of measurement, where the observer plays a key role, is a broader mathematical foundation which can be adopted to describe the dynamics of the subjective experience. The mathematical formalism describes the psychophysical dynamics of the subjective or...

  7. Survey of Existing Tools for Formal Verification.

    Punnoose, Ratish J.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Jackson, Mayo


    Formal methods have come into wide use because of their effectiveness in verifying "safety and security" requirements of digital systems; a set of requirements for which testing is mostly ineffective. Formal methods are routinely used in the design and verification of high-consequence digital systems in industry. This report outlines our work in assessing the capabilities of commercial and open source formal tools and the ways in which they can be leveraged in digital design workflows.

  8. A Mathematical Formalization Proposal for Business Growth



    Economic sciences have known a spectacular evolution in the last century; beginning to use axiomatic methods, applying mathematical instruments as a decision-making tool. The quest to formalization needs to be addressed from various different angles, reducing entry and operating formal costs, increasing the incentives for firms to operate formally, reducing obstacles to their growth, and searching for inexpensive approaches through which to enforce compliancy with government regulations. This...


    Dougherty Steven T.; Liu Hongwei


    In this article, cyclic codes and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings are studied. The structure of cyclic codes over this class of rings is given, and the relationship between these codes and cyclic codes over finite chain rings is obtained. Using an isomorphism between cyclic and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings, the structure of negacyclic codes over the formal power series rings is obtained.

  10. Formalization of P Systems by Maude


    Rewriting logic is a unified model of concurrency, which provides a formal common framework of wellknown models of concurrent systems. A new formal method of the specification and execution of P systems using rewriting logic was proposed. The powerful tool Maude 2.0 is used to implement this specification. In order to present the general ideas in a concrete case study, a simple and classical example from the literature is adopted to present how to formally specify and execute a P system.

  11. Wild attractors and thermodynamic formalism

    Bruin, Henk


    Fibonacci unimodal maps can have a wild Cantor attractor, and hence be Lebesgue dissipative, depending on the order of the critical point. We present a one-parameter family $f_\\lambda$ of countably piecewise linear unimodal Fibonacci maps in order to study the thermodynamic formalism of dynamics where dissipativity of Lebesgue (and conformal) measure is responsible for phase transitions. We show that for the potential $\\phi_t = -t\\log|f'_\\lambda|$, there is a unique phase transition at some $t_1 \\le 1$, and the pressure $P(\\phi_t)$ is analytic (with unique equilibrium state) elsewhere. The pressure is majorised by a non-analytic $C^\\infty$ curve (with all derivatives equal to 0 at $t_1 < 1$) at the emergence of a wild attractor, whereas the phase transition at $t_1 = 1$ can be of any finite order for those $\\lambda$ for which $f_\\lambda$ is Lebesgue conservative. We also obtain results on the existence of conformal measures and equilibrium states, as well as the hyperbolic dimension and the dimension of th...

  12. Universal formalism of Fano resonance

    The phenomenon of Fano resonance is ubiquitous in a large variety of wave scattering systems, where the resonance profile is typically asymmetric. Whether the parameter characterizing the asymmetry should be complex or real is an issue of great experimental interest. Using coherent quantum transport as a paradigm and taking into account of the collective contribution from all available scattering channels, we derive a universal formula for the Fano-resonance profile. We show that our formula bridges naturally the traditional Fano formulas with complex and real asymmetry parameters, indicating that the two types of formulas are fundamentally equivalent (except for an offset). The connection also reveals a clear footprint for the conductance resonance during a dephasing process. Therefore, the emergence of complex asymmetric parameter when fitting with experimental data needs to be properly interpreted. Furthermore, we have provided a theory for the width of the resonance, which relates explicitly the width to the degree of localization of the close-by eigenstates and the corresponding coupling matrices or the self-energies caused by the leads. Our work not only resolves the issue about the nature of the asymmetry parameter, but also provides deeper physical insights into the origin of Fano resonance. Since the only assumption in our treatment is that the transport can be described by the Green’s function formalism, our results are also valid for broad disciplines including scattering problems of electromagnetic waves, acoustics, and seismology

  13. Anyons in the operational formalism

    The operational formalism to quantum mechanics seeks to base the theory on a firm foundation of physically well-motivated axioms [1]. It has succeeded in deriving the Feynman rules [2] for general quantum systems. Additional elaborations have applied the same logic to the question of identical particles, confirming the so-called Symmetrization Postulate [3]: that the only two options available are fermions and bosons [4, 5]. However, this seems to run counter to results in two-dimensional systems, which allow for anyons, particles with statistics which interpolate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein (see [6] for a review). In this talk we will show that the results in two dimensions can be made compatible with the operational results. That is, we will show that anyonic behavior is a result of the topology of the space in two dimensions [7], and does not depend on the particles being identical; but that nevertheless, if the particles are identical, the resulting system is still anyonic

  14. Unifying Clifford algebra formalism for relativistic fields

    It is shown that a Clifford algebra formalism provides a unifying description of spin-0, -1/2, and -1 fields. Since the operators and operands are both expressed in terms of the same Clifford algebra, the formalism obtains some results which are considerably different from those of the standard of formalisms for these fields. In particular, the conservation laws are obtained uniquely and unambiguously from the equations of motion in this formalism and do not suffer from the ambiguities and inconsistencies of the standard methods

  15. Formal language constrained path problems

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.


    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  16. Small firms' formalization: The stick treatment

    De Giorgi, Giacomo; Ploenzke, Matthew; Rahman, Aminur


    Firm informality is pervasive throughout the developing world, Bangladesh being no exception. The informal status of many firms substantially reduces the tax basis and therefore impacts the provision of public goods. The literature on encouraging formalization has predominantly focused on reducing the direct costs of formalization and has found negligible impacts of such policies. This pap...

  17. Multifractal formalism and anisotropic selfsimilar functions

    Ben Slimane, Mourad


    In this paper we prove that the conjectures of Frisch and Parisi and Arneodo et al. (called the multifractal formalism for functions) may fail for some non-homogeneous selfsimilar functions on [open face R]2. In these cases, we compute the correct spectrum of singularities and we show how the multifractal formalism must be modified.

  18. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for linearized gravity

    Bertin, M C [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adalia, 166, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Pimentel, B M; Valcarcel, C E [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, PO Box 70532-2, 01156-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zambrano, G E R, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Narino, Calle 18 Carrera 50, San Juan de Pasto, Narino (Colombia)


    In this work, we study the theory of linearized gravity via the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. We make a brief review of this theory and its Lagrangian description, as well as a review of the Hamilton-Jacobi approach for singular systems. Then, we apply this formalism to analyze the constraint structure of the linearized gravity in instant- and front-form dynamics.

  19. Formal Engineering Hybrid Systems: Semantic Underpinnings

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.


    In this work we investigate some issues in applying formal methods to hybrid system development and develop a categorical framework. We study the themes of stochastic reasoning, heterogeneous formal specification and retrenchment. Hybrid systems raise a rich pallets of aspects that need to be invest

  20. Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education

    Carter, Candice C.


    This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

  1. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    Vliet, Rudy van


    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  2. General Formalism for the BRST Symmetry

    Abstract In this paper we will discuss Faddeev—Popov method for gauge theories with a general form of gauge symmetry in an abstract way. We will then develope a general formalism for dealing with the BRST symmetry. This formalism will make it possible to analyse the BRST symmetry for any theory. (physics of elementary particles and fields)

  3. Does (In)Formal Learning Enhance Employability?

    van der Heijden, Beatrice I.J.M.; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Meys, Ely


    Not much is known about the actual contribution of informal learning to employability over and above formal learning activities. This paper presents findings of a research project among university staff members and is aimed to determine the contribution of formal and informal learning activities in the light of future career potential. Findings…

  4. Acrylates and methacrylates of formal-glycerine

    Present article is devoted acrylates and methacrylates of formal-glycerine. The formal-glycerine was obtained in the form of mixture of isomers 1.2 and 1.3 from glycerine and paraform with hydrochloric acid. The structure of obtained acrylates and methacrylates is studied by means of molecular refraction, element analysis and infrared spectroscopy.

  5. A Conceptual Formalization of Crosscutting in AOSD

    Berg, van den K.G.; Conejero, J.M.


    We propose a formalization of crosscutting based on a conceptual framework for AOSD. Crosscutting is clearly distinguished from the related concepts scattering and tangling. The definitions of these concepts are formalized and visualized with matrices and matrix operations. This allows more precise

  6. Formalizing Evaluation in Music Information Retrieval

    Sturm, Bob L.


    We develop a formalism to disambiguate the evaluation of music information retrieval systems. We define a ``system,'' what it means to ``analyze'' one, and make clear the aims, parts, design, execution, interpretation, and assumptions of its ``evaluation.'' We apply this formalism to discuss the...

  7. A computational formalization for partial evaluation

    Hatcliff, John; Danvy, Olivier


    We formalize a partial evaluator for Eugenio Moggi's computational metalanguage. This formalization gives an evaluation-order independent view of binding-time analysis and program specialization, including a proper treatment of call unfolding. It also enables us to express the essence of `control...

  8. The Formal Specifications for Protocols of Decoders

    YUAN Meng-ting; WU Guo-qing; SHU Feng-di


    This paper presents a formal approach, FSPD (Formal Specifications for Protocols of Decoders), to specify decoder communication protocols. Based on axiomatic, FSPD is a precise language with which programmers could use only one suitable driver to handle various types of decoders. FSPD is helpful for programmers to get high adaptability and reusability of decoder-driver software.

  9. A computational formalization for partial evaluation

    Hatcliff, John; Danvy, Olivier


    We formalize a partial evaluator for Eugenio Moggi's computational metalanguage. This formalization gives an evaluation-order independent view of binding-time analysis and program specialization, including a proper treatment of call unfolding. It also enables us to express the essence of `control...

  10. On Fitting a Formal Method into Practice

    Gmehlich, Rainer; Grau, Katrin; Hallerstede, Stefan;


    The development of the Event-B formal method and the supporting tools Rodin and ProB was guided by practical experiences with the B-Method, the Z specification notation, VDM and similar practical formal methods. The case study discussed in this article - a cruise control system - is a serious test...... of industrial use. We report on where Event-B and its tools have succeeded, where they have not. We also report on advances that were inspired by the case study. Interestingly, the case study was not a pure formal methods problem. In addition to Event-B, it used Problem Frames for capturing...... requirements. The interaction between the two proved to be crucial for the success of the case study. The heart of the problem was tracing informal requirements from Problem Frames descriptions to formal Event-B models. To a large degree, this issue dictated the approach that had to be used for formal...

  11. Shape-independent expansion for the 3S1 - 3D1 mixing parameter

    A low-energy shape-independent expansion is suggested for the function [tan(2εBB)/(2 k2)], where εBB is the Blatt-Biedenharn mixing parameter for the 3 S1-3 D1 channel. This expansion allows an evaluation of the mixing parameters εBB from a knowledge of the deuteron asymptotic D to S ratio, pion mass and other low-energy observables, such as the scattering lengths, deuteron binding etc., of the nucleon-nucleon system. It is demonstrated that the correct long range behavior of the tensor potential is essential for a realistic reproduction of εBB. (author)

  12. Thermodynamic Formalism and Applications to Dimension Theory

    Barreira, Luis


    This self-contained monograph presents a unified exposition of the thermodynamic formalism and some of its main extensions, with emphasis on the relation to dimension theory and multifractal analysis of dynamical systems. In particular, the book considers three different flavors of the thermodynamic formalism, namely nonadditive, subadditive, and almost additive, and provides a detailed discussion of some of the most significant results in the area, some of them quite recent. It also includes a discussion of the most substantial applications of these flavors of the thermodynamic formalism to d

  13. A 4-vector formalism for classical mechanics

    Güémez, Julio


    We present a matrix formalism, inspired by the Minkowski four-vectors of special relativity, useful to solve classical physics problems related to both mechanics and thermodynamics. The formalism turns out to be convenient to deal with exercises involving non-conservative forces and production or destruction of mechanical energy. On the other hand, it provides a framework to treat straightforwardly changes of inertial reference frames, since it embodies the Principle of Relativity. We apply the formalism to a few cases to better show how it works.

  14. Industrial Practice in Formal Methods : A Review

    Bicarregui, Juan C.; Fitzgerald, John; Larsen, Peter Gorm;


    We examine the the industrial application of formal methods using data gathered in a review of 62 projects taking place over the last 25 years. The review suggests that formal methods are being applied in a wide range of application domains, with increasingly strong tool support. Significant...... challenges remain in providing usable tools that can be integrated into established development processes; in education and training; in taking formal methods from first use to second use, and in gathering and evidence to support informed selection of methods and tools....

  15. Inter-rater Agreement on Sentence Formality

    Lahiri, Shibamouli


    Formality is one of the most important dimensions of writing style variation. In this study we conducted an inter-rater reliability experiment for assessing sentence formality on a five-point Likert scale, and obtained good agreement results as well as different rating distributions for different sentence categories. We also performed a difficulty analysis to identify the bottlenecks of our rating procedure. Our main objective is to design an automatic scoring mechanism for sentence-level formality, and this study is important for that purpose.

  16. Generalized Effective Operator Formalism for Decaying Systems

    Paraschiv, Marius; Mannel, Thomas; Gühne, Otfried


    Systems of neutral kaons can be used to observe entanglement and the violation of Bell inequalities. The decay of these particles poses some problems, however, and recently an effective formalism for treating such systems has been derived. We generalize this formalism and make it applicable to other quantum systems that can be made to behave in a similar manner. As examples, we discuss two possible implementations of the generalized formalism using trapped ions such as $^{171}$Yb or $^{172}$Yb, which may be used to simulate kaonic behavior in a quantum optical system.

  17. Statistical Survey of Non-Formal Education

    Ondřej Nývlt


    Full Text Available focused on a programme within a regular education system. Labour market flexibility and new requirements on employees create a new domain of education called non-formal education. Is there a reliable statistical source with a good methodological definition for the Czech Republic? Labour Force Survey (LFS has been the basic statistical source for time comparison of non-formal education for the last ten years. Furthermore, a special Adult Education Survey (AES in 2011 was focused on individual components of non-formal education in a detailed way. In general, the goal of the EU is to use data from both internationally comparable surveys for analyses of the particular fields of lifelong learning in the way, that annual LFS data could be enlarged by detailed information from AES in five years periods. This article describes reliability of statistical data aboutnon-formal education. This analysis is usually connected with sampling and non-sampling errors.


    Sundararaj, P. Selva Peter; Kumar, P. Surendra


    The non-availability of health care in the rural area leads to the problems like infant mortality, infectious disease deaths and malnutrition. Rural health can be promoted both at preventive and promotive levels through non-formal education.

  19. El Salvador - Non-Formal Skills Development

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The Non-Formal Skills Development Sub-Activity had a budget of $5 million (USD) to provide short-term training to vulnerable populations in El Salvador's Northern...

  20. Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace

    Olson, Joann S.


    This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

  1. Does (in)formal learning enhance employability?

    Van der Heijden, Beate; Boon, Jo; Van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely


    Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Boon, J., Van der Klink, M., & Meys, E. (2008). Does (in)formal learning enhance employability? Paper presented at the AHRD Conference. February, 2008, Panama Florida, USA.

  2. Organizations and policies of non formal education

    Eduard Angelo Bendrath

    Full Text Available From a public policy centric view of education, this text provides a conceptual discussion of the influence of international organizations in formal models and non-formal education. The participation of financial agencies and UNESCO in the implementation of reforms and programs in developing countries is discussed, with the main discussion of the implementation in Brazil Open School Program of the Federal Government in partnership with UNESCO. This program aims at the inclusion of communities in schools through non-formal education, offering the possibility of access to cultural goods, professional, sports and health. It is concluded that the non-formal education is seen as a growing field, with special attention of international organizations, supported mainly by complementary actions of human formation.

  3. A non-commuting stabilizer formalism

    Ni, Xiaotong; Van den Nest, Maarten [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Buerschaper, Oliver [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Dahlem Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)


    We propose a non-commutative extension of the Pauli stabilizer formalism. The aim is to describe a class of many-body quantum states which is richer than the standard Pauli stabilizer states. In our framework, stabilizer operators are tensor products of single-qubit operators drawn from the group 〈αI, X, S〉, where α = e{sup iπ/4} and S = diag(1, i). We provide techniques to efficiently compute various properties related to bipartite entanglement, expectation values of local observables, preparation by means of quantum circuits, parent Hamiltonians, etc. We also highlight significant differences compared to the Pauli stabilizer formalism. In particular, we give examples of states in our formalism which cannot arise in the Pauli stabilizer formalism, such as topological models that support non-Abelian anyons.

  4. General formalism for singly thermostated Hamiltonian dynamics.

    Ramshaw, John D


    A general formalism is developed for constructing modified Hamiltonian dynamical systems which preserve a canonical equilibrium distribution by adding a time evolution equation for a single additional thermostat variable. When such systems are ergodic, canonical ensemble averages can be computed as dynamical time averages over a single trajectory. Systems of this type were unknown until their recent discovery by Hoover and colleagues. The present formalism should facilitate the discovery, construction, and classification of other such systems by encompassing a wide class of them within a single unified framework. This formalism includes both canonical and generalized Hamiltonian systems in a state space of arbitrary dimensionality (either even or odd) and therefore encompasses both few- and many-particle systems. Particular attention is devoted to the physical motivation and interpretation of the formalism, which largely determine its structure. An analogy to stochastic thermostats and fluctuation-dissipation theorems is briefly discussed. PMID:26651677

  5. Kernels and ranges in the variational formalism

    An extension of the concept of variational derivative is introduced which allows one to derive an integral identity in the variational formalism. It is applied to characterize the kernel and range of the variational derivative and the divergence operator. (Auth.)

  6. Overview of Distributed Control Systems Formalisms

    Peter Holecko


    Full Text Available This paper discusses a chosen set of mainly object-oriented formal and semiformal methods, methodics, environments and tools for specification, analysis, modeling, simulation, verification, development and synthesis of distributed control systems (DCS.

  7. Exploration tools in formal concept analysis

    Stumme, Gerd


    The development of conceptual knowledge systems specifically requests knowledge acquisition tools within the framework of formal concept analysis. In this paper, the existing tools are presented, and furhter developments are discussed.

  8. Formalisms for reuse and systems integration

    Rubin, Stuart


    Reuse and integration are defined as synergistic concepts, where reuse addresses how to minimize redundancy in the creation of components; while, integration focuses on component composition. Integration supports reuse and vice versa. These related concepts support the design of software and systems for maximizing performance while minimizing cost. Knowledge, like data, is subject to reuse; and, each can be interpreted as the other. This means that inherent complexity, a measure of the potential utility of a system, is directly proportional to the extent to which it maximizes reuse and integration. Formal methods can provide an appropriate context for the rigorous handling of these synergistic concepts. Furthermore, formal languages allow for non ambiguous model specification; and, formal verification techniques provide support for insuring the validity of reuse and integration mechanisms.   This edited book includes 12 high quality research papers written by experts in formal aspects of reuse and integratio...

  9. Model theory and the Tannakian formalism

    Kamensky, Moshe


    We draw the connection between the model theoretic notions of internality and the binding group on one hand, and the Tannakian formalism on the other. More precisely, we deduce the fundamental results of the Tannakian formalism by associating to a Tannakian category a first order theory, and applying the results on internality there. In the other direction, we formulate prove a general categorical statement that can be viewed as a ``non-linear'' version of the Tannakian formalism, and deduce the model theoretic result from it. For dessert, we formulate a version of the Tannakian formalism for differential linear groups, and show how the same techniques can be used to deduce the analogous results in that context.

  10. Formal validation of a deterministic MAC protocol

    Godary-Dejean K.; Andreu D.


    This article deals with the formal validation of a medium access protocol. This protocol has been designed to meet the specific requirements of an implantable network-based neuroprosthese. This article presents the modeling of STIMAP with Time Petri Nets (TPN), and the verification of the deterministic medium access it provides, using timed model checking. Doing so, we show that existent formal methods and tools are not perfectly suitable for the validation of real system, espe- cially when s...

  11. Formality of Positive Quaternion Kaehler Manifolds

    Amann, Manuel


    Positive Quaternion Kaehler Manifolds are Riemannian manifolds with holonomy contained in Sp(n)Sp(1) and with positive scalar curvature. Conjecturally, they are symmetric spaces. We offer a new approach to this field of study via Rational Homotopy Theory, thereby proving the formality of Positive Quaternion Kaehler Manifolds. This result is established by means of an in-depth investigation on how formality behaves under spherical fibrations.

  12. A Formal Theory of Key Conjuring

    Cortier, Véronique; Delaune, Stéphanie; Steel, Graham


    We describe a formalism for key conjuring, the process by which an attacker obtains an unknown, encrypted key by repeatedly calling a cryptographic API function with random values in place of keys. This technique has been used to attack the security APIs of several Hardware Security Modules (HSMs), which are widely deployed in the ATM (cash machine) network. We propose a formalism for detecting computationally feasible key conjuring operations, incorporated into a Dolev-Yao style model of the...

  13. Measuring the formal independence of regulatory agencies

    HANRETTY, Chris; Koop, Christel


    While the literature on delegation has discussed at length the benefits of creating independent regulatory agencies (IRAs), not much attention has been paid to the conceptualization and operationalization of agency independence. In this study, we argue that existing attempts to operationalize the formal political independence of IRAs suffer from a number of conceptual and methodological flaws. To address these, we define what we understand by independence, and in particular formal independenc...

  14. Code Formal Verification of Operation System

    Yu Zhang; Yunwei Dong; Huo Hong; Fan Zhang


    with the increasing pressure on non-function attributes (security, safety and reliability) requirements of an operation system, high–confidence operation system is becoming more important. Formal verification is the only known way to guarantee that a system is free of programming errors. We research on formal verification of operation system kernel in system code level and take theorem proving and model checking as the main technical methods to resolve the key techniques of verifying operatio...

  15. Design for validation, based on formal methods

    Butler, Ricky W.


    Validation of ultra-reliable systems decomposes into two subproblems: (1) quantification of probability of system failure due to physical failure; (2) establishing that Design Errors are not present. Methods of design, testing, and analysis of ultra-reliable software are discussed. It is concluded that a design-for-validation based on formal methods is needed for the digital flight control systems problem, and also that formal methods will play a major role in the development of future high reliability digital systems.

  16. Formal Analysis of Concurrent Java Systems

    Welch, Peter H.; Martin, Jeremy M. R.


    Java threads are synchronised through primitives based upon monitor concepts developed in the early 1970s. The semantics of Java's primitives have only been presented in natural language � this paper remedies this with a simple and formal CSP model. In view of the dif�culties encountered in reasoning about any non-trivial interactions between Java threads, being able to perform that reasoning in a formal context (where careless errors can be highlighted by mechanical checks) sh...

  17. Informal and Formal Labour Flexibility in Mexico

    Alcaraz Carlo


    We address a vital topic about labour markets in developing countries: The flexibility of the formal and informal labour sectors. For the Mexican economy, we use a panel from the National Survey of Urban Employment (ENEU) from 1995 to 2001. We control for workers´ observable characteristics, sample selection and non observable regional heterogeneity. We also take into account the possible endogeneity of the unemployment rate. The results show evidence that in the formal sector, unemployment d...

  18. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    Barbara H Partee


    Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural langu...

  19. Young People, Entrepreneurship And Non Formal Learning

    Pantea, Maria-Carmen; Diroescu, Raluca; Podlasek-Ziegler, Maria


    The book was published by SALTO-Youth Participation, a Resource Centre of the European Commission. It looks into the relationship between youth work (non-formal learning) and entrepreneurship. The book explores the theoretical developments in the field, the ethical dilemmas and tensions, and proposes practice-oriented information: illustrative examples, strategies for action and methods of non-formal education. Structured in 24 chapters, the book is an opportunity to open up debates and quest...

  20. Formal Foundations for Networking (Dagstuhl Seminar 15071)

    Bjorner, Nikolaj; Foster, Nate; Godfrey, Philip Brighten; Zave, Pamela


    This report documents the program and outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 15071 "Formal Foundations for Networking." Networking is in the midst of a revolution being driven by rapidly expanding infrastructures and emerging software-defined networking architectures. There is a growing need for tools and methodologies that provide rigorous guarantees about performance, reliability, and security. This seminar brought together leading researchers and practitioners from the fields of formal methods, netw...

  1. Towards a Formal Notion of Trust

    Nielsen, Mogens; Krukow, Karl Kristian


    Trust management systems have been proposed as an alternative to traditional security mechanisms in Global Computing. We present some challenges in establishing a formal foundation for the notion of trust, and some preliminary ideas towards a category of trust models.......Trust management systems have been proposed as an alternative to traditional security mechanisms in Global Computing. We present some challenges in establishing a formal foundation for the notion of trust, and some preliminary ideas towards a category of trust models....

  2. Formalizing the Evaluation of OCL Constraints

    Gergely Mezei


    Full Text Available Domain-specific modeling has growing importance in many fields of softwareenginering, such as modeling control flows of data processing, or in man-machine systems.Customizable language dictionary and customizable notations of the model elementsoffered by domain-specific technologies make software systems easier to create andmaintain. However, visual model definitions have a tendency to be incomplete, orimprecise; the definitions can be extended by textual constraints attached to the modelitems. Textual constraints can eliminate the incompleteness stemming from the limitationsof the structural definition as well. The Object Constraint Language (OCL is one of themost popular constraint languages in the field of UML and Domain Specific ModelingLanguages. OCL is a flexible, yet formal language with a mathematical background.Existing formalisms of OCL does not describe dynamic behavior of constraints. Ourresearch aims at creating an OCL optimization solution and prove its correctness formally.However, the shortcomings of the existing formalism has led us to create a new formalism.The paper presents OCLASM, a new formalism for OCL, which can describe both thesemantics and the dynamical behavior of the language constructs, thus, it is capable ofdescribing proofs of optimization algortihms. OCLASM is based on the Abstract StateMachines technique.

  3. Application of Formal Methods in Software Engineering

    Adriana Morales


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to examine: (1 why are necessary the formal methods for software systems today, (2 high integrity systems through the methodology C-by-C –Correctness-by-Construction–, and (3 an affordable methodology to apply formal methods in software engineering. The research process included reviews of the literature through Internet, in publications and presentations in events. Among the Research results found that: (1 there is increasing the dependence that the nations have, the companies and people of software systems, (2 there is growing demand for software Engineering to increase social trust in the software systems, (3 exist methodologies, as C-by-C, that can provide that level of trust, (4 Formal Methods constitute a principle of computer science that can be applied software engineering to perform reliable process in software development, (5 software users have the responsibility to demand reliable software products, and (6 software engineers have the responsibility to develop reliable software products. Furthermore, it is concluded that: (1 it takes more research to identify and analyze other methodologies and tools that provide process to apply the Formal Software Engineering methods, (2 Formal Methods provide an unprecedented ability to increase the trust in the exactitude of the software products and (3 by development of new methodologies and tools is being achieved costs are not more a disadvantage for application of formal methods.

  4. Balancing Formality and Informality in Business Exchanges as a Duality

    Lin, Daomi; Lu, Jiangyong; Li, Peter Ping;


    emphasized formality more than informality, while local entrepreneurs stressed informality more than formality. However, the formality-informality balance among both returnee and local entrepreneurs converged over time in line with the institutional transition in China. Returnee entrepreneurs increased...

  5. Formal verification of industrial control systems

    CERN. Geneva


    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. For many kinds of problems, testing is not an efficient method. Formal methods, such as model checking appears to be an appropriate complementary method. However, it is not common to use model checking in industry yet, as this method needs typically formal methods expertise and huge computing power. In the EN-ICE-PLC section, we are working on a [methodology][1] and a tool ([PLCverif][2]) to overcome these challenges and to integrate formal verification in the development process of our PLC-based control systems. [1]: [2]:

  6. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    Fernández Adiego, Borja


    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  7. Industrial-Strength Formally Certified SAT Solving

    Darbari, Ashish; Marques-Silva, Joao


    Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) solvers are now routinely used in the verification of large industrial problems. However, their application in safety-critical domains such as the railways, avionics, and automotive industries requires some form of assurance for the results, as the solvers can (and sometimes do) have bugs. Unfortunately, the complexity of modern, highly optimized SAT solvers renders impractical the development of direct formal proofs of their correctness. This paper presents an alternative approach where an untrusted, industrial-strength, SAT solver is plugged into a trusted, formally certified, SAT proof checker to provide industrial-strength certified SAT solving. The key novelties and characteristics of our approach are (i) that the checker is automatically extracted from the formal development, (ii), that the combined system can be used as a standalone executable program independent of any supporting theorem prover, and (iii) that the checker certifies any SAT solver respecting the agreed form...

  8. Unifying Class-Based Representation Formalisms

    Calvanese, D; Nardi, D; 10.1613/jair.548


    The notion of class is ubiquitous in computer science and is central in many formalisms for the representation of structured knowledge used both in knowledge representation and in databases. In this paper we study the basic issues underlying such representation formalisms and single out both their common characteristics and their distinguishing features. Such investigation leads us to propose a unifying framework in which we are able to capture the fundamental aspects of several representation languages used in different contexts. The proposed formalism is expressed in the style of description logics, which have been introduced in knowledge representation as a means to provide a semantically well-founded basis for the structural aspects of knowledge representation systems. The description logic considered in this paper is a subset of first order logic with nice computational characteristics. It is quite expressive and features a novel combination of constructs that has not been studied before. The distinguish...

  9. Weyl spinors and the helicity formalism

    Diaz-Cruz, J Lorenzo; Meza-Aldama, O; Perez, Jonathan Reyes


    In this work we give a review of the original formulation of the relativistic wave equation for particles with spin one-half. Traditionally \\`a la Dirac, it's proposed that the ``square root'' of the Klein-Gordon (K-G) equation involves a 4 component (Dirac) spinor and in the non-relativistic limit it can be written as 2 equations for two 2 component spinors. On the other hand, there exists Weyl's formalism, in which one works from the beginning with 2 component Weyl spinors, which are the fundamental objects of the helicity formalism. In this work we rederive Weyl's equations directly, starting from K-G equation. We also obtain the electromagnetic interaction through minimal coupling and we get the interaction with the magnetic moment. As an example of the use of that formalism, we calculate Compton scattering using the helicity methods.

  10. First order formalism for quantum gravity

    Gleiser, M.; Holman, R.; Neto, N.P.


    We develop a first order formalism for the quantization of gravity. We take as canonical variables both the induced metric and the extrinsic curvature of the (d - 1) -dimensional hypersurfaces obtained by the foliation of the d - dimensional spacetime. After solving the constraint algebra we use the Dirac formalism to quantize the theory and obtain a new representation for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, defined in the functional space of the extrinsic curvature. We also show how to obtain several different representations of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation by considering actions differing by a total divergence. In particular, the intrinsic and extrinsic time approaches appear in a natural way, as do equivalent representations obtained by functional Fourier transforms of appropriate variables. We conclude with some remarks about the construction of the Hilbert space within the first order formalism. 10 refs.

  11. Formalisms to Support the Definition of Processes

    Leon J.Osterweil


    This paper emphasizes the importance of defining processes rigorously, completely, clearly, and in detail in order to support the complex projects that are essential to the modern world. The paper argues that such process definitions provide needed structure and context for the development of effective software systems. The centrality of process is argued by enumerating seven key ways in which processes and their definitions are expected to provide important benefits to society. The paper provides an example of a process formalism that makes good progress towards the difficult goal of being simultaneously rigorous, detailed, broad, and clear. Early experience suggests that these four key characteristics of this formalism do indeed seem to help it to support meeting the seven key benefits sought from process definitions. Additional research is suggested in order to gain more insights into needs in the area of process definition formalisms.

  12. Formal and informal systems in prison

    Macanović Nebojša


    Full Text Available Main question of modern penological theory and penitentiary practise is finding deeper social sense through general goal, which we define as resocialization of prisoners and creating conditions for successful life after leaving prison. Success of resocialization depends also on attitude of prisoners to formal system and following the rules and principles of that system. Opposite to formal system which is based on prison staff and normative system (Law of carrying out of a sentence and Book of regulations for house rules, exists informal system which is based on prisoners and their mutual relationships, as well as on prisoner's codex, and which has negative influence to resocilazation process. Attitude of prisoners to formal system during serving a sentence represents very significant indicator of prisoner's readiness for return to community and acceptance of society norms.

  13. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Grafen, Alan


    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science. PMID:19805422

  14. Formalizing the Problem of Music Description

    Sturm, Bob L.; Bardeli, Rolf; Langlois, Thibault;


    The lack of a formalism for “the problem of music descrip- tion” results in, among other things: ambiguity in what problem a music description system must address, how it should be evaluated, what criteria define its success, and the paradox that a music description system can reproduce the “ground...... truth” of a music dataset without attending to the music it contains. To address these issues, we formal- ize the problem of music description such that all elements of an instance of it are made explicit. This can thus inform the building of a system, and how it should be evaluated in a meaningful way....... We provide illustrations of this formal- ism applied to three examples drawn from the literature....

  15. MOOC & B-Learning: Students' Barriers and Satisfaction in Formal and Non-Formal Learning Environments

    Gutiérrez-Santiuste, Elba; Gámiz-Sánchez, Vanesa-M.; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jose


    The study presents a comparative analysis of two virtual learning formats: one non-formal through a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) and the other formal through b-learning. We compare the communication barriers and the satisfaction perceived by the students (N = 249) by developing a qualitative analysis using semi-structured questionnaires and…

  16. Exploiting formal, non-formal and informal learning when using business games in leadership education

    Børgesen, Kenneth; Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Henriksen, Thomas Duus


    Purpose This article addresses the necessity of allowing non-formal and informal processes to unfold when using business games for leadership development. While games and simulations have long been used in management training and leadership development, emphasis has been placed on the formal part...

  17. Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development

    Misko, Josie


    This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…

  18. The MODUS approach to formal verification

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Soler, José; Berger, Michael Stübert


    process of providing competitive products Objectives: In relation to this, MODUS (Method and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide small and medium-sized businesses ways to improve their position in the embedded market through a pragmatic and viable solution...... Methods/Approach: This paper will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that can assist formal verification and formal model checking. Results: Based on automated analysis of the characteristics of the system and by controlling the choice of the existing opensource model...

  19. Aesthetism, Russian Formalism, and Their Comparison



    In our class, we have already learned some articles of Aesthetism. The famous aesthetes, such as Walter Pater, Oscar Wilde, Benedetto Croce, all give us huge impressions. And Russian Formalism is also very important school of thoughts. As they all study art, literature and form, I would like to know the relationship between them. In this paper, first I will show some of my own understandings on Both Aesthetism and Russian Formalism. Then I will compare them to find similarities and differences. At last, I will say something about my preference.

  20. Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds

    Ansari, M.; Nazarov, Y. V.


    We present a compact and self-contained review of the recently developed Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds. The formalism has been applied to consistent quantum evaluation of the flows of informational quantities, in particular, to the evaluation of Renyi and Shannon entropy flows. We start with the formulation of the standard and extended Keldysh techniques in a single world in a form convenient for our presentation. We explain the use of Keldysh contours encompassing multiple parallel worlds. In the end, we briefly summarize the concrete results obtained with the method.

  1. Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds

    Ansari, Mohammad


    We present here a compact and self-contained review of recently developed Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds. The formalism has been applied to consistent quantum evaluation of the flows of informational quantities, in particular, to evaluation of Renyi and Shannon entropy flows. We start with the formulation of standard and extended Keldysh technique in single world in a form convenient for our presentation. We explain the use of Keldysh contours encompassing multiple parallel worlds In the end, we shortly summarize the concrete results obtained with the method.

  2. Formal derivation of distributed MapReduce

    Pereverzeva, Inna; Butler, Michael; Salehi Fathabadi, Asieh; Laibinis, Linas; Troubitsyna, Elena


    MapReduce is a powerful distributed data processing model that is currently adopted in a wide range of domains to efficiently handle large volumes of data, i.e., cope with the big data surge. In this paper, we propose an approach to formal derivation of the MapReduce framework. Our approach relies on stepwise refinement in Event-B and, in particu- lar, the event refinement structure approach – a diagrammatic notation facilitating formal development. Our approach allows us to derive the system...

  3. On formalizing and verifying web services

    Wei Yinxing; Zhang Shensheng; Zhong Farong


    Web services are becoming an important paradigm for web-based computing. However the mainstream web service description language such as WSDL (Web Service Description Language) is lack of formal basis. In order to verify the behavioral properties of web services, we adopt the π-calculus as a precise language because it provides many useful facilities such as behavioral equivalence, mobility that are lack in other formal language. The basic elements of WSDL are translated into the terms in the π-calculus. By means of the MWB (Mobility Workbench), a concurrency tool, the behavioral property of web services denoted by processes is verified.

  4. A Formal Approach to Protocol Interoperability Testing

    郝瑞兵; 吴建平


    Porotocol Interoperability testing is an important means to ensure the interconnection and interoperation between protocol products.In this paper,we proposed a formal approach to protocol interoperability testing based on the operational semantics of Concurrent TTCN.We define Concurrent TTCN's operational semantics by using Labeled Transition System,and describe the interoperability test execution and test verdict based on Concurrent TTCN.This approach is very helpful for the formation of formal interoperability testing theory and construction of general interoperability testing system.

  5. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus


    The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare these...... approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey...

  6. Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Niebert, Peter

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the First International Workshop on Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems, FORMATS 2003, held in Marseille, France in September 2003. The 19 revised full papers presented together with an invited paper and the abstracts of...... two invited talks were carefully selected from 36 submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. All current aspects of formal method for modeling and analyzing timed systems are addressed; among the timed systems dealt with are timed automata, timed Petri nets, max-plus algebras, real...

  7. Formal Foundations for Hierarchical Safety Cases

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Whiteside, Iain


    Safety cases are increasingly being required in many safety-critical domains to assure, using structured argumentation and evidence, that a system is acceptably safe. However, comprehensive system-wide safety arguments present appreciable challenges to develop, understand, evaluate, and manage, partly due to the volume of information that they aggregate, such as the results of hazard analysis, requirements analysis, testing, formal verification, and other engineering activities. Previously, we have proposed hierarchical safety cases, hicases, to aid the comprehension of safety case argument structures. In this paper, we build on a formal notion of safety case to formalise the use of hierarchy as a structuring technique, and show that hicases satisfy several desirable properties. Our aim is to provide a formal, theoretical foundation for safety cases. In particular, we believe that tools for high assurance systems should be granted similar assurance to the systems to which they are applied. To this end, we formally specify and prove the correctness of key operations for constructing and managing hicases, which gives the specification for implementing hicases in AdvoCATE, our toolset for safety case automation. We motivate and explain the theory with the help of a simple running example, extracted from a real safety case and developed using AdvoCATE.

  8. 14 CFR 302.20 - Formal intervention.


    ... Proceedings § 302.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. Any person who has a statutory right to be... members of the public in Department proceedings: (1) The nature of the petitioner's right under the...) days prior to the hearing. (ii) A petition to intervene filed by a city, other public body, or...

  9. A Formal Model of Identity Mixer

    Camenisch, Jan; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Sommer, Dieter

    Identity Mixer is an anonymous credential system developed at IBM that allows users for instance to prove that they are over 18 years old without revealing their name or birthdate. This privacy-friendly tech- nology is realized using zero-knowledge proofs. We describe a formal model of Identity...

  10. Preparing for Formal Proofs in Geometry

    Johnson, Art


    One way in which geometry teachers can help students develop their reasoning is by providing proof-readiness experiences. Blum and Kirsch (1991) suggest that "preformal proofs" can help students develop deductive reasoning. Preformal proofs, which follow the basic principles of deductive reasoning, can help prepare students for formal deduction in…

  11. Formal truncations of connected kernel equations

    The Connected Kernel Equations (CKE) of Alt, Grassberger and Sandhas (AGS); Kouri, Levin and Tobocman (KLT); and Bencze, Redish and Sloan (BRS) are compared against reaction theory criteria after formal channel space and/or operator truncations have been introduced. The Channel Coupling Class concept is used to study the structure of these CKE's. The related wave function formalism of Sandhas, of L'Huillier, Redish and Tandy and of Kouri, Krueger and Levin are also presented. New N-body connected kernel equations which are generalizations of the Lovelace three-body equations are derived. A method for systematically constructing fewer body models from the N-body BRS and generalized Lovelace (GL) equations is developed. The formally truncated AGS, BRS, KLT and GL equations are analyzed by employing the criteria of reciprocity and two-cluster unitarity. Reciprocity considerations suggest that formal truncations of BRS, KLT and GL equations can lead to reciprocity-violating results. This study suggests that atomic problems should employ three-cluster connected truncations and that the two-cluster connected truncations should be a useful starting point for nuclear systems

  12. New formalism for QCD parton showers

    Gieseke, S; Webber, Bryan R; Gieseke, Stefan; Stephens, Philip; Webber, Bryan


    We present a new formalism for parton shower simulation of QCD jets, which incorporates the following features: invariance under boosts along jet axes, improved treatment of heavy quark fragmentation, angular-ordered evolution with soft gluon coherence, more correct soft gluon angular distributions, and better coverage of phase space. It is implemented in the new HERWIG++ event generator.

  13. Ontology Assisted Formal Specification Extraction from Text

    Andreea Mihis


    In the field of knowledge processing, the ontologies are the most important mean. They make possible for the computer to understand better the natural language and to make judgments. In this paper, a method which use ontologies in the semi-automatic extraction of formal specifications from a natural language text is proposed.

  14. Ontology Assisted Formal Specification Extraction from Text

    Andreea Mihis


    Full Text Available In the field of knowledge processing, the ontologies are the most important mean. They make possible for the computer to understand better the natural language and to make judgments. In this paper, a method which use ontologies in the semi-automatic extraction of formal specifications from a natural language text is proposed.

  15. Quantum formalism to describe binocular rivalry.

    Manousakis, Efstratios


    On the basis of the general character and operation of the process of perception, a formalism is sought to mathematically describe the subjective or abstract/mental process of perception. It is shown that the formalism of orthodox quantum theory of measurement, where the observer plays a key role, is a broader mathematical foundation which can be adopted to describe the dynamics of the subjective experience. The mathematical formalism describes the psychophysical dynamics of the subjective or cognitive experience as communicated to us by the subject. Subsequently, the formalism is used to describe simple perception processes and, in particular, to describe the probability distribution of dominance duration obtained from the testimony of subjects experiencing binocular rivalry. Using this theory and parameters based on known values of neuronal oscillation frequencies and firing rates, the calculated probability distribution of dominance duration of rival states in binocular rivalry under various conditions is found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. This theory naturally explains an observed marked increase in dominance duration in binocular rivalry upon periodic interruption of stimulus and yields testable predictions for the distribution of perceptual alteration in time. PMID:19520143




  17. Rhythmic Characteristics of Colloquial and Formal Tamil

    Keane, Elinor


    Application of recently developed rhythmic measures to passages of read speech in colloquial and formal Tamil revealed some significant differences between the two varieties, which are in diglossic distribution. Both were also distinguished from a set of control data from British English speakers reading an equivalent passage. The findings have…

  18. A formal model of fair exchange protocols

    QING Sihan; LI Gaicheng


    Based on the study of existing fair exchange protocols, this paper sets up an accurate formal model by stepwise refinement. In the process of refinement an unreliable channel is employed to simulate an attack behavior. The model provides a novel formal definition of exchanged items, and presents the formal goals for fairness, accountability,etc., reflecting the inherent requirements for fair exchange protocols across-the-board. In order to check, prove, and design fair exchange protocols effectively and efficiently, the model puts forward a novel property of abuse-freeness which applies to all fair exchange protocols, gives a formal definition for trust strand of the third party, and presents general criteria of designing a secure and effective fair exchange protocol. Taking a typical fair exchange protocol as an example, this paper presents the analysis steps of fair exchange protocols appealing to our model. An unknown attack is uncovered. The analysis reveals the process of a complete attack, discovering deeper reasons for causing an attack.Finally, we modify the flawed protocol and the revised protocol ensures the desirable properties.

  19. Teaching Some Informatics Concepts Using Formal System

    Yang, Sojung; Park, Seongbin


    There are many important issues in informatics and many agree that algorithms and programming are most important issues that need to be included in informatics education (Dagiene and Jevsikova, 2012). In this paper, we propose how some of these issues can be easily taught using the notion of a formal system which consists of axioms and inference…

  20. Towards a Formal Model of Context Awareness

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan


    There is a definite lack of formal support for modeling realistic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The CONAWA calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new constructs...

  1. Towards Formal Verification of Toolbus Scripts

    Fokkink, W.J.; Klint, P.; Lisser, B.; Usenko, Y.S.; Meseguer, J.; Rosu, G.



    TOOLBUS allows one to connect tools via a software bus. Programming is done using the scripting language TSCRIPT, which is based on the process algebra ACP. TSCRIPT was originally designed to enable formal ver

  2. Formal Description of Components in Operating Systems

    Iliev, Asen Petkov


    The contemporary development of hardware components is a prerequisite for increasing the concentration of computing power. System software is developing at a much slower pace. To use available resources efficiently modeling is required. Formalization of elements, present in the material, provides the basis for modeling. Examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the concept.

  3. Formal analogies in physics teacher education

    Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo; Ricardo, Elio


    . Despite the relevance of the subject, formal analogies are rarely systematically approached in physics education. In order to discuss this issue with pre-service physics teachers, we planned a lecture and designed a questionnaire with the goal of encouraging them to think about some “coincidences” in well...

  4. Formal and Applied Counseling in Israel

    Israelashvili, Moshe; Wegman-Rozi, Orit


    Living in Israel is intensive and demanding but also meaningful and exciting. This article addresses the gap between the narrowly defined formal status of counseling in Israel and the widespread occurrence of counseling in various settings. It is argued that several recent changes, especially in the definition of treatment, along with the…

  5. A Formal Model for Context-Awareness

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan

    here is a definite lack of formal support for modeling real- istic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The Conawa calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new construc...

  6. Formal Institutions and Subjective Well-Being

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent cross...

  7. Relational algebra as formalism for hardware design

    Berg, ten A.J.W.M.; Huijs, C.; Krol, Th.


    This paper introduces relational algebra as an elegant formalism to describe hardware behaviour. Hardware behaviour is modelled by functions that are represented by sets of tables. Relational algebra, developed for designing large and consistent databases is capable to operate on sets of tables and

  8. A New Formalism for Relational Algebra

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Larsen, Kim Skak; Schmidt, Erik Meineche


    We present a new formalism for relational algebra, the FC language, which is based on a novel factorization of relations. The acronym stands for factorize and combine. A pure version of this language is equivalent to relational algebra in the sense that semantics preserving translations exist...

  9. Formal Protection Architecture for Cloud Computing System

    Yasha Chen; Jianpeng Zhao; Junmao Zhu; Fei Yan


    Cloud computing systems play a vital role in national securi-ty. This paper describes a conceptual framework called dual-system architecture for protecting computing environments. While attempting to be logical and rigorous, formalism meth-od is avoided and this paper chooses algebra Communication Sequential Process.

  10. Towards a Formal Framework for Computational Trust

    Nielsen, Mogens; Krukow, Karl Kristian; Sassone, Vladimiro


    We define a mathematical measure for the quantitative comparison of probabilistic computational trust systems, and use it to compare a well-known class of algorithms based on the so-called beta model. The main novelty is that our approach is formal, rather than based on experimental simulation....

  11. A Formal Model for Trust Lifecycle Management

    Wagealla, Waleed; Carbone, Marco; English, Colin;


    We propose a formal model of trust informed by the Global Computing scenario and focusing on the aspects of trust formation, evolution, and propagation. The model is based on a novel notion of trust structures which, building on concepts from trust management and domain theory, feature at the same...


    Wang Jiayang; Chen Songqiao; Luo An


    Model integration is an important section of the model management research area. The paper puts forward a formalization representation of model, and presents some concepts, such as the compound model relation, the composite model and so on. Additionally, the existence of model integration is also analyzed in detail and several sufficient conditions are proved.

  13. Formalism and the notion of truth

    Spencer, Joseph M.

    The most widely acknowledged conceptions of truth take some kind of relation to be at truth's core. This dissertation attempts to establish that an adequate conception of this relation begins with an investigation of the entanglement of the formal and the material as set forth in the model theoretical development of set theoretical mathematics. Truth concerns first and most crucially a certain commerce across the border between the formal and the material, between the ideal and the real. The entanglement of the formal and the material must be thought in itself, apart from or prior to any assimilation into philosophical schemas committed to larger metaphysical claims. This is accomplished in model theory. The twentieth century witnessed two attempts at bringing model theoretical mathematics to bear on accounting philosophically for the concept of truth: that of Alfred Tarski, and that of Alain Badiou. In order to investigate the relevance of model theory to the task of working out a philosophical conception of truth, this dissertation investigates, through comparative work, these two thinkers. It is necessary to see where their projects converge in important ways, as well as where their projects diverge in equally important ways. What brings their work into close proximity is their shared conviction that truth must be thought in light of model theory. Nonetheless, the two do not agree about exactly how model theory sheds light on truth. Comparative study thus reveals both a shared site for thinking and a struggle over the significance of that site. Agreement between Tarski and Badiou concerns the excess of the purely formal over itself, marked by the generation of an undecidable statement within formal systems of a certain level of complexity. Both thinkers determine that this formal excess touches on the material, and both further determine that the consequent entanglement of the formal and the material provides the basic frame for any philosophical consideration

  14. Formal methods demonstration project for space applications

    Divito, Ben L.


    The Space Shuttle program is cooperating in a pilot project to apply formal methods to live requirements analysis activities. As one of the larger ongoing shuttle Change Requests (CR's), the Global Positioning System (GPS) CR involves a significant upgrade to the Shuttle's navigation capability. Shuttles are to be outfitted with GPS receivers and the primary avionics software will be enhanced to accept GPS-provided positions and integrate them into navigation calculations. Prior to implementing the CR, requirements analysts at Loral Space Information Systems, the Shuttle software contractor, must scrutinize the CR to identify and resolve any requirements issues. We describe an ongoing task of the Formal Methods Demonstration Project for Space Applications whose goal is to find an effective way to use formal methods in the GPS CR requirements analysis phase. This phase is currently under way and a small team from NASA Langley, ViGYAN Inc. and Loral is now engaged in this task. Background on the GPS CR is provided and an overview of the hardware/software architecture is presented. We outline the approach being taken to formalize the requirements, only a subset of which is being attempted. The approach features the use of the PVS specification language to model 'principal functions', which are major units of Shuttle software. Conventional state machine techniques form the basis of our approach. Given this background, we present interim results based on a snapshot of work in progress. Samples of requirements specifications rendered in PVS are offered to illustration. We walk through a specification sketch for the principal function known as GPS Receiver State processing. Results to date are summarized and feedback from Loral requirements analysts is highlighted. Preliminary data is shown comparing issues detected by the formal methods team versus those detected using existing requirements analysis methods. We conclude by discussing our plan to complete the remaining

  15. Concepciones acerca de la maternidad en la educación formal y no formal

    Alvarado Calderón, Kathia


    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta algunos resultados de la investigación desarrollada en el Instituto de Investigación en Educación (INIE, bajo el nombre "Construcción del concepto de maternidad en la educación formal y no formal". Utilizando un enfoque cualitativo de investigación, recurrimos a las técnicas de elaboración de dibujos, entrevistas y grupo focal como recursos para la recolección de la información. De esta manera, podemos acercarnos a las concepciones de la maternidad que utilizan los participantes de las diferentes instancias educativas (formal y no formal con quienes se trabajó. This article presents some results the research developed in the Instituto de Investigación en Educación (INIE, named "Construcción del concepto de maternidad en la educación formal y no formal". It begins with a theoretical analysis about social conceptions regarding motherhood in the occidental societies. Among the techniques for gathering information were thematic drawing, interview and focus group, using a qualitative approach research method. This is followed by a brief summary of main findings. The article concludes with a proposal of future working lines for the deconstruction of the motherhood concept in formal and informal education contexts.

  16. Concepciones acerca de la maternidad en la educación formal y no formal

    Kathia Alvarado Calderón


    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta algunos resultados de la investigación desarrollada en el Instituto de Investigación en Educación (INIE, bajo el nombre "Construcción del concepto de maternidad en la educación formal y no formal". Utilizando un enfoque cualitativo de investigación, recurrimos a las técnicas de elaboración de dibujos, entrevistas y grupo focal como recursos para la recolección de la información. De esta manera, podemos acercarnos a las concepciones de la maternidad que utilizan los participantes de las diferentes instancias educativas (formal y no formal con quienes se trabajó.

  17. The Dynamics of Formal Organization: Essays on bureaucracy and formal rules

    Osadchiy, Sergey


    textabstractTheories of bureaucracy in organization studies constitute a perspective in which formal or written rules are seen as fundamental to the understanding of organization. It is argued, for example, that formal rules facilitate organizational decision-making, establish the basis for coordination and control, and help to increase an organization’s legitimacy within the broader institutional environment. Like other elements of organizations, rules also change over time with potential co...

  18. Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes

    Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst

    Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.

  19. Towards a Formal Model of Social Data

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid

    , transform, analyse, and report social data from social media platforms such as Facebook and twitter. Formal methods, models and tools for social data are largely limited to graph theoretical approaches informing conceptual developments in relational sociology and methodological developments in social...... network analysis. As far as we know, there are no integrated modeling approaches to social data across the conceptual, formal and software realms. Social media analytics can be undertaken in two main ways - ”Social Graph Analytics” and ”Social Text Analytics” (Vatrapu, in press/2013). Social graph...... analytics is concerned with the structure of the relationships emerging from social media use. It focuses on identifying the actors involved, the activities they undertake, and the artifacts they create and interact with. Social text analytics is more concerned with the substantive nature...

  20. A Formal Semantics of DAI Language NUML

    许满武; 陆剑锋; 等


    Traditional AI systems are brittle in the sense that they fail miserably when presented with problems even sliphtly outside of their limited range of expertise.A powerful,extensible strategy of Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) for overcoming such bounds is to put the system in a society of systems.So the ability to coordinate group activities of individuals and to communicate between each other is necessary for a language describing DAI systems.Agent-oriented language NUML is such a language.It is a specific kind of object-oriented language.To give formal semantics to NUML,there is the problem to formalise object-oriented programming paradigm which is still open.The theory of higher-order π-calculus is a concurrent computation model with sufficient capability,which provides us a mathematical tool to do the formalization.This paper tries to use higher-order π-calculus to formalise NUML.

  1. Formalism and physical interpretation in Schroedinger

    The question of the relation between a formalism and its physical interpretation arises not only when theoretical and conceptual systems are reorganized, but in the theoretical elaboration as well. The Schroedinger's work and thought are examined in this paper with this double concern. His work on the mathematical formalism is constantly sustained by a proper physical thought which takes the form of a wave intuition that guarantees him intelligibility. Concerning his interpretation of quantum mechanics, his thought remains characterized, through its evolution, by a wave image of the world. The way he deals with space-time structure in General Relativity and favours the possibility of a direct interpretation of space-time geometrical quantities, is also studied. (author). 75 refs

  2. Code Formal Verification of Operation System

    Yu Zhang


    Full Text Available with the increasing pressure on non-function attributes (security, safety and reliability requirements of an operation system, high–confidence operation system is becoming more important. Formal verification is the only known way to guarantee that a system is free of programming errors. We research on formal verification of operation system kernel in system code level and take theorem proving and model checking as the main technical methods to resolve the key techniques of verifying operation system kernel in C code level. We present a case study to the verification of real-world C systems code derived from an implementation of μC/OS – II in the end.

  3. Large Formal Wikis: Issues and Solutions

    Alama, Jesse; Mamane, Lionel; Urban, Josef


    We present several steps towards large formal mathematical wikis. The Coq proof assistant together with the CoRN repository are added to the pool of systems handled by the general wiki system described in \\cite{DBLP:conf/aisc/UrbanARG10}. A smart re-verification scheme for the large formal libraries in the wiki is suggested for Mizar/MML and Coq/CoRN, based on recently developed precise tracking of mathematical dependencies. We propose to use features of state-of-the-art filesystems to allow real-time cloning and sandboxing of the entire libraries, allowing also to extend the wiki to a true multi-user collaborative area. A number of related issues are discussed.

  4. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    Diederik eAerts


    Full Text Available Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.

  5. $\\delta N$ formalism from superpotential and holography

    Garriga, Jaume; Vernizzi, Filippo


    We consider the superpotential formalism to describe the evolution of scalar fields during inflation, generalizing it to include the case with non-canonical kinetic terms. We provide a characterization of the attractor behaviour of the background evolution in terms of first and second slow-roll parameters (which need not be small). We find that the superpotential is useful in justifying the separate universe approximation from the gradient expansion, and also in computing the spectra of primordial perturbations around attractor solutions in the $\\delta N$ formalism. As an application, we consider a class of models where the background trajectories for the inflaton fields are derived from a product separable superpotential. In the perspective of the holographic inflation scenario, such models are dual to a deformed CFT boundary theory, with $D$ mutually uncorrelated deformation operators. We compute the bulk power spectra of primordial adiabatic and entropy cosmological perturbations, and show that the results...

  6. Formal verification of a deadlock detection algorithm

    Verbeek, Freek; 10.4204/EPTCS.70.8


    Deadlock detection is a challenging issue in the analysis and design of on-chip networks. We have designed an algorithm to detect deadlocks automatically in on-chip networks with wormhole switching. The algorithm has been specified and proven correct in ACL2. To enable a top-down proof methodology, some parts of the algorithm have been left unimplemented. For these parts, the ACL2 specification contains constrained functions introduced with defun-sk. We used single-threaded objects to represent the data structures used by the algorithm. In this paper, we present details on the proof of correctness of the algorithm. The process of formal verification was crucial to get the algorithm flawless. Our ultimate objective is to have an efficient executable, and formally proven correct implementation of the algorithm running in ACL2.

  7. Formal Concept Analysis for Information Retrieval

    Qadi, Abderrahim El; Ennouary, Yassine


    In this paper we describe a mechanism to improve Information Retrieval (IR) on the web. The method is based on Formal Concepts Analysis (FCA) that it is makes semantical relations during the queries, and allows a reorganizing, in the shape of a lattice of concepts, the answers provided by a search engine. We proposed for the IR an incremental algorithm based on Galois lattice. This algorithm allows a formal clustering of the data sources, and the results which it turns over are classified by order of relevance. The control of relevance is exploited in clustering, we improved the result by using ontology in field of image processing, and reformulating the user queries which make it possible to give more relevant documents.

  8. Formality theorem for Hochschild cochains via transfer

    Dolgushev, Vasily


    We construct a natural 2-colored extension G^+ of the operad G of homotopy Gerstenhaber algebras. We show that Tamarkin's G-structure on the Hochschild cochain complex C(A) of an A-infinity algebra A extends naturally to a G^+ structure on the pair (C(A), A). We show that a formality quasi-isomorphism for the Hochschild cochains of the polynomial algebra can be obtained via transfer of this G^+ structure to the cohomology of the pair (C(A), A). We show that G^+ is a sub DG operad of the first sheet E^1(SC) of the homology spectral sequence for the Fulton-MacPherson version SC of Voronov's Swiss Cheese operad. Finally, we prove that the DG operads G^+ and E^1(SC) are non-formal.

  9. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro


    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436


    Vasile Mazilescu


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a formalism for fuzzy rule bases, included in our prototype system FUZZY_ENTERPRISE. This framework can be used in Distributed Knowledge Management Systems (DKMSs, real-time interdisciplinary decision making systems, that often require increasing technical support to high quality decisions in a timely manner. The language of the first-degree predicates facilitates the formulation of complex knowledge in a rigorous way, imposing appropriate reasoning techniques.

  11. Decidability of formal theories and hyperincursivity theory

    Grappone, Arturo G.


    This paper shows the limits of the Proof Standard Theory (briefly, PST) and gives some ideas of how to build a proof anticipatory theory (briefly, PAT) that has no such limits. Also, this paper considers that Gödel's proof of the undecidability of Principia Mathematica formal theory is not valid for axiomatic theories that use a PAT to build their proofs because the (hyper)incursive functions are self-representable.

  12. Textile materials trading center formally launched online


    Textile materials trading center was formally launched online in Wuxi City,Jiangsu Province. This is the first third-party electronic trading platform for spot trading in China textile materials professional market. The project will strive to build the most influential textile materials trading center of East China,the whole country and even the whole world China textile materials trading center will be

  13. Controllability of (max,+) formal power series

    Komenda, Jan; Lahaye, S.; Boimond, J.-L.

    Bari: The International Federation of Automatic Control, 2009 - (Fanti, M.; Dotoli, M.), s. 97-102 ISBN 978-3-902661-44-9. [2nd IFAC Workshop on Dependable Control of Discrete Systems. Bari (IT), 10.06.2009-12.06.2009] Grant ostatní: EU Projekt(XE) EU. ICT .DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : controllability * (max,+) automata * (max,+) formal power series * Hadamard product Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Quantum mechanical formalism for biological evolution

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph


    We study the evolution of sexual and asexual populations in general fitness landscapes. We find deep relations between the mathematics of biological evolution and the formalism of quantum mechanics. We give the general structure of the evolution of populations which is in general an off-equilibrium process that can be expressed by path integrals over phylogenies. These phylogenies are sums of linear lineages for asexual populations. For sexual populations instead, each lineage is a tree of br...

  15. Toward a Formal Evaluation of Refactorings

    Paul, John; Kuzmina, Nadya; Gamboa, Ruben; Caldwell, James


    Refactoring is a software development strategy that characteristically alters the syntactic structure of a program without changing its external behavior [2]. In this talk we present a methodology for extracting formal models from programs in order to evaluate how incremental refactorings affect the verifiability of their structural specifications. We envision that this same technique may be applicable to other types of properties such as those that concern the design and maintenance of safety-critical systems.

  16. Towards a Formal Model of Social Data

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid


    Computational social science (CSS) is an emerging field of research that seeks to apply computational methods and tools to important and interesting social science questions and problems. Situated within CSS, Social data analytics as a research stream aims to collect, archive, retrieve, process, transform, analyse, and report social data from social media platforms such as Facebook and twitter. Formal methods, models and tools for social data are largely limited to graph theoretical approache...

  17. Developing Human-Robot Dialogue Management Formally

    Bateman, John; Shi, Hui


    In shared-control systems, such as intelligent service robots, a human operator and an automated technical system are interdependently in charge of control. Natural Language dialogues have long been acknowledged as a potentially fruitful modality for instructing, describing and negotiating in human-machine interfaces. Since shared-control systems are often embedded in safety-critical devices, formal methods are thus widely used for improving the quality of such systems. In this paper, we pres...

  18. Maxwell Optics: II. An Exact Formalism

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed


    We present a formalism for light optics starting with the Maxwell equations and casting them into an exact matrix form taking into account the spatial and temporal variations of the permittivity and permeability. This $8 \\times 8$ matrix representation is used to construct the optical Hamiltonian. This has a close analogy with the algebraic structure of the Dirac equation, enabling the use of the rich machinery of the Dirac electron theory. We get interesting wavelength-dependent contribution...

  19. Mining association rules using formal concept analysis

    Pasquier, Nicolas


    In this paper, we give an overview of the use of Formal Concept Analysis in the framework of association rule extraction. Using frequent closed itemsets and their generators, that are defined using the Galois closure operator, we address two major problems: response times of association rule extraction and the relevance and usefulness of discovered association rules. We quickly review the Close and the A-Close algorithms for extracting frequent closed itemsets using their generators that redu...

  20. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms

  1. A Formal Definition of VDM-SL

    Bruun, Hans; Damm, F.; Dawes, J.;


    This joint report from the Danish Institute for Applied Computer Science (IFAD), the Technical Universities of Delft and Denmark and the University of Leicester contains the background and technical material used in the production of the ISO Standard that defines the specification language part of...... participants and reviewers of the project - these changes have improved the style and technical correctness of the formal definitions used to define VDM-SL....

  2. Dynamic Maputo: where formal and informal meet

    Wambecq, Wim; Beja da Costa, Ana


    The historical link between Maputo and Johannesburg is known since the early start of both [colonial] settlements. Johannesburg was the powerful and rich gold producing centre, while Maputo was the merchant connection at the ocean’s shore. The dynamic that existed, and still exists between them is of extreme influence in shaping Maputo’s urban form. Today the main connection between the two cities is the N4 highway that penetrates the Cimento, the formal city grid structure and the exclusion ...

  3. Formal Methods of Software Testing and Terminology

    Sunil Kumar Scholar; DR. P.K. YADAV


    Software provides a complete set of application development tools for building stand-alone, client-server, and Internet-enabled applications. But making it easy to build applications can be a two-edged sword. Not only can developers build powerful, sophisticated applications, but they can also build applications that frustrate users, waste computer resources, and damage the credibility of both the developer. Formal testing will help prevent bad applications from being released. For those unf...

  4. Fourth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler)


    This publication consists of papers presented at NASA Langley Research Center's fourth workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. Topic considered include: Proving properties of accident; modeling and validating SAFER in VDM-SL; requirement analysis of real-time control systems using PVS; a tabular language for system design; automated deductive verification of parallel systems. Also included is a fundamental hardware design in PVS.

  5. Coinductive Formal Reasoning in Exact Real Arithmetic

    Niqui, Milad


    In this article we present a method for formally proving the correctness of the lazy algorithms for computing homographic and quadratic transformations -- of which field operations are special cases-- on a representation of real numbers by coinductive streams. The algorithms work on coinductive stream of M\\"{o}bius maps and form the basis of the Edalat--Potts exact real arithmetic. We use the machinery of the Coq proof assistant for the coinductive types to present the formalisation. The form...

  6. Context-Free Language Theory Formalization

    Ramos, Marcus Vinícius Midena; de Queiroz, Ruy J. G. B.


    Proof assistants are software-based tools that are used in the mechanization of proof construction and validation in mathematics and computer science, and also in certified program development. Different tools are being increasingly used in order to accelerate and simplify proof checking. Context-free language theory is a well-established area of mathematics, relevant to computer science foundations and technology. This proposal aims at formalizing parts of context-free language theory in the...

  7. The eth formalism in numerical relativity

    Gomez, R.; Lehner, L.; Papadopoulos, P.; Winicour, J.


    We present a finite difference version of the eth formalism, which allows use of tensor fields in spherical coordinates in a manner which avoids polar singularities. The method employs two overlapping stereographic coordinate patches, with interpolations between the patches in the regions of overlap. It provides a new and effective computational tool for dealing with a wide variety of systems in which spherical coordinates are natural, such as the generation of radiation from an isolated sour...

  8. Teaching Some Informatics Concepts Using Formal System

    Sojung YANG; Park, Seongbin


    There are many important issues in informatics and many agree that algorithms and programming are most important issues that need to be included in informatics education (Dagiene and Jevsikova, 2012). In this paper, we propose how some of these issues can be easily taught using the notion of a formal system which consists of axioms and inference rules by which theorems can be proved. As is argued in (Dagiene and Jevsikova, 2012), we can introduce important topics in informatics using puzzle-l...

  9. A Formal Approach to Protocol Performance Testing

    XU Mingwei; WU Jianping


    This paper proposes a formal approach to protocol performance testing based on the extended concurrent TTCN. To meet the needs of protocol performance testing, concurrent TTCN is extended, and the extended concurrent TTCN's operational semantics is defined in terms of Input-Output Labeled Transition System. An architecture design of protocol performance test system is described, and an example of test cases and its test resultare given.

  10. Formal First Integrals of General Dynamical Systems

    Jia Jiao


    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is trying to make a complete study on the integrability for general analytic nonlinear systems by first integrals. We will firstly give an exhaustive discussion on analytic planar systems. Then a class of higher dimensional systems with invariant manifolds will be considered; we will develop several criteria for existence of formal integrals and give some applications to illustrate our results at last.

  11. Qualitative simulation in formal process modelling

    In relation to several different research activities at the OECD Halden Reactor Project, the usefulness of formal process models has been identified. Being represented in some appropriate representation language, the purpose of these models is to model process plants and plant automatics in a unified way to allow verification and computer aided design of control strategies. The present report discusses qualitative simulation and the tool QSIM as one approach to formal process models. In particular, the report aims at investigating how recent improvements of the tool facilitate the use of the approach in areas like process system analysis, procedure verification, and control software safety analysis. An important long term goal is to provide a basis for using qualitative reasoning in combination with other techniques to facilitate the treatment of embedded programmable systems in Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). This is motivated from the potential of such a combination in safety analysis based on models comprising both software, hardware, and operator. It is anticipated that the research results from this activity will benefit V and V in a wide variety of applications where formal process models can be utilized. Examples are operator procedures, intelligent decision support systems, and common model repositories (author) (ml)

  12. Leslie Martin and the formal order

    Jaime J. Ferrer Fores


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper analyzes the architecture of Sir Leslie Martin (1908-2000 and covers the intense professional career that starts with the Nursery School at Northwich, Cheshire (1937-1938 or the Alastair Morton house at Brampton (1938 which are ascribed to the orthodoxy of modern architecture, and  continues with the projects he planned as the architect responsible of the railway company for stations and railroad infrastructure rearrangements in the postwar, interventions that will prepare him for his architectural maturity stage which he crystallizes in buildings for the Royal Festival Hall in London (1948-1951, the Harvey Court, Cambridge (1958-1962, the auditoriums  for the Middleton Hall, University of Hull (1958 , the School of Music  (1974 and College (1979 at Cambridge University and his proposal for  the University of Bristol (1979 that illustrate the essential basis of his  coherent architectural career where the tradition of modern architecture, the spatial continuity and the formal order converge. This analysis of the works in the fifties, sixties and seventies illustrates the architect’s constants  through the chronological exploration of his works that reveal the  compositional mechanisms, the search for formal order and the correct spatial organization taking into account the functional requirements, the relationship with the site and the technological resources that determine his entire career which is characterized by formal consistency and architectural coherence.

  13. [How to write an article: formal aspects].

    Corral de la Calle, M A; Encinas de la Iglesia, J


    Scientific research and the publication of the results of the studies go hand in hand. Exquisite research methods can only be adequately reflected in formal publication with the optimum structure. To ensure the success of this process, it is necessary to follow orderly steps, including selecting the journal in which to publish and following the instructions to authors strictly as well as the guidelines elaborated by diverse societies of editors and other institutions. It is also necessary to structure the contents of the article in a logical and attractive way and to use an accurate, clear, and concise style of language. Although not all the authors are directly involved in the actual writing, elaborating a scientific article is a collective undertaking that does not finish until the article is published. This article provides practical advice about formal and not-so-formal details to take into account when writing a scientific article as well as references that will help readers find more information in greater detail. PMID:23489765

  14. On the spinor formalism for even n

    Andreev, K V


    Spinor formalism is the formalism induced by solutions of the Clifford equation (the connection operators).For the space-time manifold (n = 4), those operators that connect the tangent and spinor bundle are operators that are represented by the Dirac matrices in the special basis. Reduced connecting operators are represented by the Pauli matrices. In order to uniquely extended the Killing equation from the tangent bundle to the spin bundle over the space-time manifold, it is necessary to pass to the complexification of the manifold and the corresponding bundles, and then to pass to the real representation. Returning reverse motion, it is possible to receive already two copies of the spin bundle. Whether their set allows to construct the Lee opertor analogues for the spinors. Similar procedure is feasible for any even n. For n=6 the specified formalism is closely connected with the Bogolyubov-Valatin transformations. For n mod 8=0, being based on the Bott periodicity, the reduced connecting operators generate ...

  15. Peranan Pendidikan Formal Terhadap Aspek Kehidupan Politik

    Yahya Yahya


    Full Text Available Formal education is the education which is developed at certain school or place systematically which has certain time sequence from Elementary to University level. Whereas the aspect of education life is one of the aspects in society that always develop and change to be more advance as the increasing of politic consciousness in society.This article concerns with the role of formal education to the aspects of politic life where the education is implemented based on the existing politic system by virtue of Pancasila (the five basic principles of the Republic of Indonesia and UUD 1945, it means that politic determines the education policy. On the contrary, the existing politic system is determined by the education title owned by society where the higher education level of society will impact the consciousness to help forward the aspect of politic life in society. It is because formal education is one of media to socialize politic and great strategy to transfer the wide knowledge to the elite politic by giving training and also other facilities to build politic consciousness. It is the right moment to commit integration especially in terms of national politic consciousness.

  16. Formal specification is an experimental science

    Bjorner, D. [Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)


    Traditionally, abstract models of large, complex systems have been given in free-form mathematics, combining - often in ad-hoc, not formally supported ways - notions from the disciplines of partial differential equations, functional analysis, mathematical statistics, etc. Such models have been very useful for assimilation of information, analysis (investigation), and prediction (simulation). These models have, however, usually not been helpful in deriving computer representations of the modelled systems - for the purposes of computerized monitoring and control, Computing science, concerned with how to construct objects that can exist within the computer, offers ways of complementing, and in some cases, replacing or combining traditional mathematical models. Formal, model-, as well as property-oriented, specifications in the styles of denotational (respectively, algebraic semantics) represent major approaches to such modelling. In this expository, discursive paper we illustrate what we mean by model-oriented specifications of large, complex technological computing systems. The three modelling examples covers the introvert programming methodological subject of SDEs: software development environments, the distributed computing system subject of wfs`s: (transaction) work flow systems, and the extrovert subject of robots: robotics! the thesis is, just as for mathematical modelling, that we can derive much understanding, etc., from experimentally creating such formally specified models - on paper - and that we gain little in additionally building ad-hoc prototypes. Our models are expressed in a model-oriented style using the VDM specification language Meta-IV In this paper the models only reflect the {open_quotes}data modelling{close_quotes} aspects. We observe that such data models are more easily captured in the model-oriented siyle than in the algebraic semantics property-oriented style which originally was built of the abstraction of operations. 101 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Formal methods in software development: A road less travelled

    John A van der Poll


    Full Text Available An integration of traditional verification techniques and formal specifications in software engineering is presented. Advocates of such techniques claim that mathematical formalisms allow them to produce quality, verifiably correct, or at least highly dependable software and that the testing and maintenance phases are shortened. Critics on the other hand maintain that software formalisms are hard to master, tedious to use and not well suited for the fast turnaround times demanded by industry. In this paper some popular formalisms and the advantages of using these during the early phases of the software development life cycle are presented. Employing the Floyd-Hoare verification principles during the formal specification phase facilitates reasoning about the properties of a specification. Some observations that may help to alleviate the formal-methods controversy are established and a number of formal methods successes is presented. Possible conditions for an increased acceptance of formalisms in oftware development are discussed.

  18. Proceedings Second Workshop on Formal Aspects of Virtual Organisations

    Bryans, Jeremy; Fitzgerald, John


    FAVO2009 was the second workshop on Formal Aspects of Virtual Organisations. The purpose of the FAVO workshops is to encourage an active community of researchers and practitioners using formal methods in the research and development of Virtual Organisations.

  19. Formal Test Purposes and The Validity of Test Cases

    Deussen, Peter H.; Tobies, Stephan


    We give a formalization of the notion of test purpose based on (suitably restricted) Message Sequence Charts. We define the validity of test cases with respect to such a formal test purpose and provide a simple decision procedure for validity.

  20. The formality of learning science in everyday life

    Bonderup Dohn, Niels


    The terms non-formal and informal are attributed to learning in everyday life by many authors, often linked to their interests in particular learning practices. However, many authors use the terms without any clear definition, or employ conflicting definitions and boundaries. An analysis of...... relevant literature revealed two fundamentally different interpretations of informal learning. The one describes formality of education at the organizational level, while the second describes formality of learning at the psychological level. This article presents a conceptual reconciling of these two...... perspectives. Based on a literature review, the educational modes of education are defined as discrete entities (formal, non-formal, and informal education), whereas formality at the psychological level is defined in terms of attributes of formality and informality along a continuum (formal - informal learning...


    施惟慧; 沈臻


    Based on stratification theory, the existence theorems of formal solutions of partial differential equation (PDE) are given. And the relationship between formal solutions and projective limit of Ehresmann chain is presented.

  2. The Conformal Window from the Worldline Formalism

    Armoni, Adi


    We use the worldline formalism to derive a universal relation for the lower boundary of the conformal window in non-supersymmetric QCD-like theories. The derivation relies on the convergence of the expansion of the fermionic determinant in terms of Wilson loops. The expansion shares a similarity with the lattice strong coupling expansion and the genus expansion in string theory. Our result relates the lower boundary of the conformal window in theories with different representations and different gauge groups. Finally, we use SQCD to estimate the boundary of the conformal window in QCD-like theories and compare it with other approaches.

  3. Does Formal Employment Reduce Informal Caregiving?

    He, Daifeng; McHenry, Peter


    Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine the impact of formal employment on informal caregiving. We instrument for individual work hours with state unemployment rates. We find that, among women of prime caregiving ages (40-64 years), working 10% more hours per week reduces the probability of providing informal care by about 2 percentage points. The effects are stronger for more time-intensive caregiving and if care recipients are household members. Our results imply that work-promoting policies have the unintended consequence of reducing informal caregiving in an aging society. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26017375

  4. Hamilton-Jacobi Formalism for Tachyon Inflation

    Aghamohammadi, A; Golanbari, T; Saaidi, Kh


    Tachyon inflation is reconsidered by using the recent observational data obtained from Planck-2013 and BICEP2. The Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is picked out as a desirable approach in this work, which allows one to easily obtain the main parameters of the model. The Hubble parameter is supposed as a power-law and exponential function of the scalar field, and each case is considered separately. The constraints on the model, which come from observational data, are explained during the work. The results show a suitable value for the tensor spectral index and an appropriate form of the potential.

  5. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for tachyon inflation

    Aghamohammadi, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Golanbari, T.; Saaidi, Kh.


    Tachyon inflation is reconsidered by using the recent observational data obtained from Planck-2013 and BICEP2. The Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is picked out as a desirable approach in this work, which allows one to easily obtain the main parameters of the model. The Hubble parameter is supposed as a power-law and exponential function of the scalar field, and each case is considered separately. The constraints on the model, which come from observational data, are explained during the work. The results show a suitable value for the tensor spectral index and an appropriate form of the potential.

  6. Representations of spacetime: Formalism and ontological commitment

    Bain, Jonathan Stanley

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The first is on the relation between formalism and ontological commitment in the context of theories of spacetime, and the second is on scientific realism. The first part begins with a look at how the substantivalist/relationist debate over the ontological status of spacetime has been influenced by a particular mathematical formalism, that of tensor analysis on differential manifolds (TADM). This formalism has motivated the substantivalist position known as manifold substantivalism. Chapter 1 focuses on the hole argument which maintains that manifold substantivalism is incompatible with determinism. I claim that the realist motivations underlying manifold substantivalism can be upheld, and the hole argument avoided, by adopting structural realism with respect to spacetime. In this context, this is the claim that it is the structure that spacetime points enter into that warrants belief and not the points themselves. In Chapter 2, an elimination principle is defined by means of which a distinction can be made between surplus structure and essential structure with respect to formulations of a theory in two distinct mathematical formulations and some prior ontological commitments. This principle is then used to demonstrate that manifold points may be considered surplus structure in the formulation of field theories. This suggests that, if we are disposed to read field theories literally, then, at most, it should be the essential structure common to all alternative formulations of such theories that should be taken literally. I also investigate how the adoption of alternative formalisms informs other issues in the philosophy of spacetime. Chapter 3 offers a realist position which takes a semantic moral from the preceding investigation and an epistemic moral from work done on reliability. The semantic moral advises us to read only the essential structure of our theories literally. The epistemic moral shows us that such structure

  7. Constraint satisfaction problems CSP formalisms and techniques

    Ghedira, Khaled


    A Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) consists of a set of variables, a domain of values for each variable and a set of constraints. The objective is to assign a value for each variable such that all constraints are satisfied. CSPs continue to receive increased attention because of both their high complexity and their omnipresence in academic, industrial and even real-life problems. This is why they are the subject of intense research in both artificial intelligence and operations research. This book introduces the classic CSP and details several extensions/improvements of both formalisms a

  8. Entropy current formalism for supersymmetric theories

    L. Andrianopoli


    Full Text Available The recent developments in fluid/gravity correspondence give a new impulse to the study of fluid dynamics of supersymmetric theories. In that respect, the entropy current formalism requires some modifications in order to be adapted to supersymmetric theories and supergravities. We formulate a new entropy current in superspace with the properties: 1 it is conserved off-shell for non-dissipative fluids, 2 it is invariant under rigid supersymmetry transformations, 3 it is covariantly closed in local supersymmetric theories, 4 it reduces to its bosonic expression on space–time.

  9. Closing the gap between formalism and application

    Christensen, Ole Ravn


    A common problem in learning mathematics concerns the gap between, on the one hand, doing the formalisms and calculations of abstract mathematics and, on the other hand, applying these in a specific contextualized setting for example the engineering world. The skills acquired through problem......-based learning (PBL), in the special model used at Aalborg University, Denmark, may give us some idea of how to bridge this gap. Through an investigation of a series of examples of student projects concerning the application of mathematical subjects-such as matrices, differential equations, cluster analysis...

  10. Comment on phase conventions in helicity formalism

    ZHANG Feng; GAO Yuan-Ning; HUO Lei


    Using the sequential decay process ee→ J/ψ→ΛΛ, Λ→pπ,Λ→pπ as an example, the procedure for deducing the full angular distribution is illustrated by adopting both the Jacob-Wick and Jackson conventions in the helicity formalism. To make sure that the final physical result is free of phase conventions, we point out that the coefficients that relate the angular momentum states in different coordinate systems of reference frames have to be taken into account properly in the procedure. The fact that those coefficients are constants suggests that the Jackson convention is favorable in dealing with the processes with sequential decays.