Sample records for biological psychiatry wfsbp

  1. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia, Part 2

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas;


    These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in 2006. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizoph......These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in 2006. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of...... evidence for its efficacy and then categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5) ( Bandelow et al. 2008a ,b, World J Biol Psychiatry 9:242, see Table 1 ). This second part of the updated guidelines covers long-term treatment as well as the management of relevant side...

  2. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia. Part 3

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas;


    These updated guidelines are based on the first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in the years 2005 and 2006. For this 2015 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological....... Based on the first version of these guidelines a systematic review, as well as a data extraction from national guidelines have been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its efficacy and subsequently categorised into six levels of...

  3. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia, part 1

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas;


    These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia published in 2005. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia were...... on the first version of these guidelines, a systematic review of the MEDLINE/PUBMED database and the Cochrane Library, in addition to data extraction from national treatment guidelines, has been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of...... evidence for its efficacy and then categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F; Bandelow et al. 2008b, World J Biol Psychiatry 9:242). This first part of the updated guidelines covers the general descriptions of antipsychotics and their side effects, the biological treatment of acute schizophrenia and the...

  4. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders - first revision.

    Bandelow, Borwin; Zohar, Joseph; Hollander, Eric; Kasper, Siegfried; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Zohar, Joseph; Hollander, Eric; Kasper, Siegfried; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Bandelow, Borwin; Allgulander, Christer; Ayuso-Gutierrez, José; Baldwin, David S; Buenvicius, Robertas; Cassano, Giovanni; Fineberg, Naomi; Gabriels, Loes; Hindmarch, Ian; Kaiya, Hisanobu; Klein, Donald F; Lader, Malcolm; Lecrubier, Yves; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Liebowitz, Michael R; Lopez-Ibor, Juan José; Marazziti, Donatella; Miguel, Euripedes C; Oh, Kang Seob; Preter, Maurice; Rupprecht, Rainer; Sato, Mitsumoto; Starcevic, Vladan; Stein, Dan J; van Ameringen, Michael; Vega, Johann


    In this report, which is an update of a guideline published in 2002 (Bandelow et al. 2002, World J Biol Psychiatry 3:171), recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are presented. Since the publication of the first version of this guideline, a substantial number of new randomized controlled studies of anxiolytics have been published. In particular, more relapse prevention studies are now available that show sustained efficacy of anxiolytic drugs. The recommendations, developed by the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Task Force for the Pharmacological Treatment of Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive and Post-traumatic Stress Disorders, a consensus panel of 30 international experts, are now based on 510 published randomized, placebo- or comparator-controlled clinical studies (RCTs) and 130 open studies and case reports. First-line treatments for these disorders are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and the calcium channel modulator pregabalin. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are equally effective for some disorders, but many are less well tolerated than the SSRIs/SNRIs. In treatment-resistant cases, benzodiazepines may be used when the patient does not have a history of substance abuse disorders. Potential treatment options for patients unresponsive to standard treatments are described in this overview. Although these guidelines focus on medications, non-pharmacological were also considered. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and other variants of behaviour therapy have been sufficiently investigated in controlled studies in patients with anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD to support them being recommended either alone or in combination with the above medicines. PMID:18949648

  5. Diretrizes da Federação Mundial das Sociedades de Psiquiatria Biológica para o tratamento biológico da esquizofrenia. Parte 1: tratamento agudo World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia. Part 1: acute treatment

    Peter Falkai


    Full Text Available Estas diretrizes para o tratamento biológico da esquizofrenia foram desenvolvidas pela Força-Tarefa da Federação Mundial das Sociedades de Psiquiatria Biológica (World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry, WFSBP. A meta fixada durante o desenvolvimento destas diretrizes foi rever sistematicamente todas as evidências disponíveis referentes ao tratamento da esquizofrenia, tanto no âmbito clínico como científico, e chegar a um consenso sobre as principais recomendações para a prática psiquiátrica. Estas diretrizes são destinadas a todos os médicos que atendem e tratam de pacientes portadores de esquizofrenia. Os dados usados para desenvolver estas diretrizes foram extraídos primariamente de vários painéis e diretrizes nacionais de tratamento para esquizofrenia, assim como de metanálises, revisões e estudos clínicos randomizados sobre a eficácia do tratamento farmacológico e de outras intervenções terapêuticas biológicas, identificadas por uma busca nas bases de dados MedLine e Biblioteca Cochrane. A literatura identificada foi avaliada no que diz respeito à solidez das evidências a favor da eficácia de uma dada intervenção e, então, categorizada em quatro níveis de evidências (de A a D. A primeira parte das diretrizes abrange a definição da doença, sua classificação, a epidemiologia e o curso da esquizofrenia, assim como o manejo terapêutico de fase aguda. Estas diretrizes são primariamente relacionadas ao tratamento biológico de adultos esquizofrênicos, incluindo medicação antipsicótica, outras opções de tratamento farmacológico, terapia eletroconvulsiva, estratégias terapêuticas recentes e complementares.These guidelines for the biological treatment of schizophrenia were developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP. The goal during the development of these guidelines was to review systematically all available evidence

  6. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of dementias in primary care

    Ihl, Ralf; Bunevicius, Robertas; Frölich, Lutz;


    OBJECTIVE: To define a practice guideline for biological treatment of dementias for general practitioners in primary care. METHODS: This paper is a short and practical summary of the World Federation of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the Biological treatment of Alzheimer's disease a...

  7. Schizophrenia: from the brain to peripheral markers. A consensus paper of the WFSBP task force on biological markers

    Stober, Gerald; Ben-Shachar, Dorit; Cardon, M;


    traits that are specific to particular conditions. An important aim of biomarker discovery is the detection of disease correlates that can be used as diagnostic tools. Method. A selective review of the WFSBP Task Force on Biological Markers in schizophrenia is provided from the central nervous system to...... phenotypes, functional brain systems, chromosomal loci with potential genetic markers to the peripheral systems. Results. A number of biological measures have been proposed to be correlated with schizophrenia. At present, not a single biological trait in schizophrenia is available which achieves sufficient...

  8. Psychiatry Today : Biology vs. Psychology.

    Berman, I; Fried, W; Berman, S M; Lengua, J A; Alpert, M


    This research addresses preferences and theoretical leanings of present-day psychiatrists along the continuum defined at one end by biology and at the other by psychology. A questionnaire was devised and sent to 5,702 randomly selected members of the American Psychiatric Association in 1990. The response rate was 307%. The results were analyzed for two groups: psychiatrists with fewer than 15 years of practice since residency and psychiatrists with more than 15 years of practice since graduation. Although the great majority of psychiatrists in both groups equally valued psychology and biology, the senior group attributed a greater importance to psychological methods, whereas the younger group stressed equally the importance of biology and psychology. This suggests that psychiatry has evolved over the years from a predominantly psychological practice to one with a more equal emphasis on psychology and biology. Recent advances in neuroscience may have shifted the pendulum toward a more balanced willingness of clinicians to consider the broad armamentarium of psychosocial and biological treatments. The results point to the need for further conceptualization into the relationship between biology and psychology and its incorporation into the psychiatric residency curriculum. PMID:24442524

  9. Biological Psychiatry, Research And Industry

    Ajai R. Singh


    Full Text Available In this section, we look at how the biological paradigm shift in psychiatry has been aided and abetted by industry for serving its own needs; which stymies other promising approaches; but which, nonetheless, can serve to advance biomedicine if checks and balances are in place. Industry, Biological Psychiatry And Non-pharmacological Advance The larger issue of benefit to society also concerns us when we realize that industry sponsorship is mainly for potential medications, not for trying to determine whether there may be non-pharmacological interventions that may be equally good, if not better. …a lack of balance in research activities, with a focus mainly on potential medications, is likely to divert talented researchers from the pursuit of profound scientific questions or divert them from the pursuit of questions without market relevance but with an aspect of public good. A company has little incentive to support trials evaluating whether inexpensive, off-patent drugs or whether non-pharmaceutical interventions, could replace their profitable patented drug (Baird, 2003 This is the reason why methods like yoga, psychotherapy, meditation, non-medicated non-mechanised relaxation will not find industry sponsors readily and may never be proved useful apart from anecdotal reporting.In which case to expect industry sponsorship to develop a larger therapeutic armamentarium, especially non-drug based, is wishful thinking. Moreover, non-pharmacological treatment procedures may not get desirable funding. This may not be as much of a problem in other branches of medicine as in psychiatry, wherein non-pharmacological interventions like psychotherapy still hold promise of therapeutic relief.If we do not see rigorous experimental research in psychotherapy or other non-drug modalities to the extent that we should, let us be careful before blaming the researchers for it. Where are the funds? Also, let us note that behind the great thrust towards Biological

  10. Receptor studies in biological psychiatry

    Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of endogenous psychosis have led to the development of biological studies in psychiatry. Studies on neurotransmitter receptors were reviewed in order to apply positron-emission tomograph (PET) for biological psychiatry. The dopamine (DA) hypothesis for schizophrenia was advanced on the basis of the observed effects of neuroleptics and methamphetamine, and DA(D2) receptor supersensitivity measured by PET and receptor binding in the schizophrenic brain. The clinical potencies of neuroleptics for schizophrenia were correlated with their abilities to inhibit the D2 receptor, and not other receptors. The σ receptor was expected to be a site of antipsychotic action. However, the potency of drugs action on it was not correlated with clinical efficacy. Haloperidol binds with high affinity to the σ receptor, which may mediate acute dystonia, an extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptics. Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by methamphetamine treatment were studied as an animal model of schizophrenia, and both a decrease of D2 receptor density and an increase of DA release were detected. The monoamine hypothesis for manic-depressive psychosis was advanced on the basis of the effect of reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitor and antidepressants. 3H-clonidine binding sites were increased in platelet membranes of depressive patients, 3H-imipramine binding sites were decreased. The GABAA receptor is the target site for the action of anxiolytics and antiepileptics such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have revealed the structure of receptor proteins, which are classified into two receptor families, the G-protein coupled type (D2) and the ion-channel type (GABAA). (J.P.N.)

  11. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry

    Shrivatava, Amresh


    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of ‘brain-mind and behavior’. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision a...

  12. [Practice relevant research in biological psychiatry].

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A


    The practice of psychiatry would be unthinkable without modern psychopharmacology. Drug treatment, especially of severe psychiatric disorders, is often a precondition of community participation, societal reintegration and recovery. Seen in this context it is understandable that biological psychiatry has long been primarily defined by its close interconnection with psychopharmacology and has been perceived this way by practicing physicians. In recent years, however, the concept of what is "biological" has markedly expanded and so has the outreach of this approach into the practice of psychiatry. This article discusses examples showing that biological research methods provide new impulses for individualized medicine, psychotherapy and understanding environmental risks and therefore provide the basis for a preemptive and preventive approach that will be the key to master the challenges posed by the severe burden of mental illness. PMID:26440519

  13. The Third Wave of Biological Psychiatry



    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we are witnessing at this moment the third wave of biological psychiatry. This framework conceptualizes mental disorders as brain disorders of a special kind that requires a multilevel approach ranging from genes to psychosocial mechanisms. In contrast to earlier biological psychiatry approaches the mental plays a more prominent role in the third wave. This will become apparent by discussing the recent controversy evolving around the recently published DSM-5 and the competing transdiagnostic Research Domain Criteria approach of the National Institute of Mental Health that is build on concepts of cognitive neuroscience. A look at current conceptualizations in biological psychiatry as well as at some discussions in current philosophy of mind on situated cognition, reveals that the thesis, that mental brain disorders are brain disorders has to be qualified with respect to how mental states are constituted and with respect to multilevel explanations of which factors contribute to stable patterns of psychopathological signs and symptoms.

  14. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders.

    Thibaut, Florence; Bradford, John M W; Briken, Peer; De La Barra, Flora; Häßler, Frank; Cosyns, Paul


    The primary aim of these guidelines was to evaluate the role of pharmacological agents in the treatment of adolescents with paraphilic disorders who are also sexual offenders or at-risk of sexual offending. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial treatments were also reviewed. Adolescents with paraphilic disorders specifically present a different therapeutic challenge as compared to adults. In part, the challenge relates to adolescents being in various stages of puberty and development, which may limit the use of certain pharmacological agents due to their potential side effects. In addition, most of the published treatment programmes have used cognitive behavioural interventions, family therapies and psychoeducational interventions. Psychological treatment is predicated in adolescents on the notion that sexually deviant behaviour can be controlled by the offender, and that more adaptive behaviours can be learned. The main purposes of these guidelines are to improve the quality of care and to aid physicians in their clinical decisions. These guidelines brought together different expert views and involved an extensive literature research. Each treatment recommendation was evaluated and discussed with respect to the strength of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability and feasibility. An algorithm is proposed for the treatment of paraphilic disorders in adolescent sexual offenders or those who are at risk. PMID:26595752

  15. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: Update 2010 on the treatment of acute bipolar depression

    Grunze, Heinz; Vieta, Eduard; Goodwin, Guy M;


    bipolar depression in adults. METHODS: The data used for these guidelines have been extracted from a MEDLINE and EMBASE search, from the clinical trial database, from recent proceedings of key conferences, and from various national and international treatment guidelines. Their...

  16. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: Update 2010 on the treatment of acute bipolar depression

    Grunze, Heinz; Vieta, Eduard; Goodwin, Guy M;


    OBJECTIVES: These guidelines are based on a first edition that was published in 2002, and have been edited and updated with the available scientific evidence until September 2009. Their purpose is to supply a systematic overview of all scientific evidence pertaining to the treatment of acute...... with at least limited positive evidence for efficacy in bipolar depression, several of them still experimental and backed up only by a single study. Only one medication was considered to be sufficiently studied to merit full positive evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Although major advances have been made since...... the first edition of this guideline in 2002, there are many areas which still need more intense research to optimize treatment. The majority of treatment recommendations is still based on limited data and leaves considerable areas of uncertainty....

  17. [Psychiatry].

    Guex, Patrice; Conus, Philippe; Pomini, Valentino; Kramer, Ueli; Bonsack, Charles; Eap, Chin


    The novelties in clinical psychiatry are close to somatic medicine adaptation. The clinical staging concept in psychiatry (as in cancerology) is the result of an early intervention strategy in psychotic disorders. A differentiated mode of understanding of the phases of psychiatric disorders allows a prevention oriented approach. Individualized therapeutic programmes in accordance with specific problematics favors the orientation towards focalised follow-ups, for instance CBT programmes on Internet may be proposed to patients motivated and rather autonomous. Others, on the contrary, less accessible to health care should benefit of the support of a mobile team and specific coaching to return to vocational services. Systematic follow-up of the metabolic syndrome, often induced by atypical antipsychotics, belongs to those basic adjustment processes. PMID:21400949

  18. Is mental disease just brain disease? The limits to biological psychiatry.

    McLaren, N


    As a process of rational enquiry into an empirical field, psychiatry must submit itself to the same discipline as other areas of science. Effectively, it must show that its fundamental premises are both internally and externally consistent, and that its methods of investigation satisfy prevailing criteria of scientific methodology. When psychoanalytic psychology (and hence all psychodynamic models) and behaviourism were analysed from these points of view, they were found wanting. To date, there has been little or no meta-analysis of the third great school of psychiatric theorizing, biological psychiatry. A preliminary analysis establishes sharp limits to the notion that biological psychiatry is the "wave of the future". Like psychoanalysis and behaviourism, it cannot form the basis of a general theory of psychiatry. Since it lacks an adequate theoretical framework, the inescapable conclusion is that psychiatry is nothing more than protoscience. PMID:1642619

  19. Non-mammalian models in behavioral neuroscience: consequences for biological psychiatry

    Caio eMaximino; Rhayra Xavier do Carmo Silva; Suéllen de Nazaré dos Santos da Silva; Laís do Socorro dos Santos Rodrigues; Hellen eBarbosa; Tayana Silva de Carvalho; Luana Ketlen Reis Leão; Monica Gomes Lima; Karen Renata Matos Oliveira; Anderson Manoel Herculano


    Current models in biological psychiatry focus on a handful of model species, and the majority of work relies on data generated in rodents. However, in the same sense that a comparative approach to neuroanatomy allows for the idenfication of patterns of brain organization, the inclusion of other species and an adoption of comparative viewpoints in behavioral neuroscience could also lead to increases in knowledge relevant to biological psychiatry. Specifically, this approach could help to ident...

  20. [Biological psychiatry (neuropsychiatry)--status and perspectives for for the 1990s].

    Rosenberg, R


    In recent years, research into biological aspects of psychiatric disorders has had high priority. Biological psychiatry, or neuropsychiatry, is characterised by (a) empiricist epistemology, (b) a diathesis-stress disease model, (c) neurobiological pathogenetic theories, (d) chemical or physical treatment as an essential though not necessarily sufficient measure, and (e) a patient-oriented ethical approach. A short review of some major topics is given, including standardised assessment, clinical and molecular genetics, neurotransmitter theories, neuro-imaging techniques, panic disorder, classic and novel psychopharmacological compounds, and alcohol and drug dependence. Avenues of future research endeavours are delineated, and it is concluded that in the future neuropsychiatry should play a major part in psychiatry, though closely integrated with psychological and social theory. PMID:8098866

  1. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine ... Psychiatry Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Association of ...

  2. Károly Schaffer and his school: the birth of biological psychiatry in Hungary, 1890-1940.

    Baran, Brigitta; Bitter, István; Fink, Max; Gazdag, Gábor; Shorter, Edward


    In the first third of the twentieth century, neuropathology seemed to offer the key to unlock the causes of psychiatric illness. Among the top centers devoted to the microscopic anatomy of the brain was that of Károly Schaffer in Budapest. Schaffer, a pioneer in the histopathology of Tay-Sachs-Schaffer disease, was also a charismatic teacher, bringing forth a school of investigators in psychopathology. Among them was László Meduna, who originated convulsive therapy. Despite the importance of the Schaffer school, it is almost unknown outside of Hungary, largely the result of the introduction of neurophysiological, neurochemical and molecular genetic methods that distracted attention away from histopathological contributions in psychiatry after the Second World War. The microscopic study of the brain and its diseases seemed increasingly less important. The present biographical account of Károly Schaffer and his school seeks to bring this important story in the early history of biological psychiatry to a wider audience and explain why it has since been forgotten. PMID:18078742


    Doongaji, Dinshaw R


    An overview of psychiatry during the last three decades as practised in a general teaching hospital is presented. Psychiatry as an academic subject has matured tremendously during this period. The empirical treatments of the 1950s and the 1960s which evoke nostalgic memories, have been replaced by modern methods of treatment. However, there is a need to exercise caution against the blind acceptance of new and sophisticated research findings in biological psychiatry. Inspite of the bright futu...

  4. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry ... World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association ...

  5. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry ... More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists ...

  6. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some psychiatrists choose additional training ...

  7. Utility and validity of DISC1 mouse models in biological psychiatry.

    Tomoda, T; Sumitomo, A; Jaaro-Peled, H; Sawa, A


    We have seen an era of explosive progress in translating neurobiology into etiological understanding of mental disorders for the past 10-15years. The discovery of Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene was one of the major driving forces that have contributed to the progress. The finding that DISC1 plays crucial roles in neurodevelopment and synapse regulation clearly underscored the utility and validity of DISC1-related biology in advancing our understanding of pathophysiological processes underlying psychiatric conditions. Despite recent genetic studies that failed to identify DISC1 as a risk gene for sporadic cases of schizophrenia, DISC1 mutant mice, coupled with various environmental stressors, have proven successful in satisfying face validity as models of a wide range of human psychiatric conditions. Investigating mental disorders using these models is expected to further contribute to the circuit-level understanding of the pathological mechanisms, as well as to the development of novel therapeutic strategies in the future. PMID:26768401

  8. Digital psychiatry.

    Tang, S; Helmeste, D


    The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world. PMID:15558872

  9. Biologism in Psychiatry: A Young Man’s Experience of Being Diagnosed with “Pediatric Bipolar Disorder”

    Peter Parry


    Pediatric bipolar disorder is a diagnosis that arose in the mid 1990s in the USA and has mostly remained confined to that nation. In this article a young American man (under a pseudonym) describes his experience of having the diagnosis throughout his adolescent years. His story was conveyed via correspondence and a meeting with the author, an Australian child psychiatrist. The young American’s story reveals several issues that afflict contemporary psychiatry, particularly in the USA, where so...

  10. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...

  11. [Sleep psychiatry].

    Chiba, Shigeru


    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  12. Transcultural psychiatry

    R Vikash


    Full Text Available During the last half of the century the researchers have placed a great deal of importance on brain behavior relations. This has brought upon a huge body of knowledge but unfortunately at the cost of culture - the true roots of much of our behaviour. This general disregard of cultural factors has not only led to false generalizations but has also blocked the understanding of the real forces that motivate and shape our perceptions, attitudes, and actions. This paper is therefore an attempt to highlight the trajectory of transcultural psychiatry, right from the conceptions of its idea, through flaws in methodology, assessment, treatment and to its future and its limitations.

  13. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... clinics, general and psychiatric hospitals, university medical centers, community agencies, courts and prisons, nursing homes, industry, government, ... of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of ...

  14. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... Association for Emergency Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Resources Explore More Topics Warning Signs of ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2016 American Psychiatric ...

  15. Historicizing Indian psychiatry

    Basu, Amit Ranjan


    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically...

  16. Children's Education and Mental Health in Spain during and after the Civil War: Psychiatry, Psychology and "Biological Pedagogy" at the Service of Franco's Regime

    Gomez, Amparo; Canales, Antonio


    This article analyses the child psychiatry and psychology developed during the Spanish Civil War and immediate postwar period. The aim is to demonstrate that, despite the existence of a certain degree of disciplinary continuity in relation to the pre-war period, both disciplines were placed at the service of Francoism. This meant that the…

  17. Historicizing Indian psychiatry.

    Basu, Amit Ranjan


    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

  18. Crime and Psychiatry

    Yusuf Matcheswalla


    Full Text Available Psychiatry and crime are linked in certain ways. On one hand, we have criminal offenders with serious psychopathology; and on the other hand, we have psychiatric patients who may commit criminal offences during the influence of a psychiatric disorder. The psychiatrist in practice has to come in contact with the criminal justice system at some point of time in his career. Forensic psychiatry under whose realm these issues reside is a branch yet underdeveloped in India. The present paper reviews the inter-relationship between crime and psychiatry and the factors involved therein.

  19. Annals of General Psychiatry

    Fountoulakis Konstantinos


    Abstract Our regular readers will notice that the title of our journal has changed from Annals of General Hospital Psychiatry (AGHP) to Annals of General Psychiatry (AGP) since January 1st, 2005. This was judged as necessary, in order to be able to serve better the aims of the journal. Our initial thoughts were that including the term 'General Hospital' in the journal's title would help us to launch a journal dedicated to the idea of Psychiatry as a medical specialty. But they were not justif...

  20. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... as a panic attack, frightening hallucinations, thoughts of suicide, or hearing "voices." Or they may be more ... Illness What Is Psychiatry? What Is Mental Illness? Suicide Prevention What is ECT? Ask An Expert Share ...

  1. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... APA Sites APA Publishing APA Learning Center APA Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental ... Medical Students International APA Sites APA Publishing APA Foundation APA Learning Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News ...

  2. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... Annual Meeting Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students Patients & Families Mental Health Disorders/Substance Abuse Find a Psychiatrist Patients & Families What Is Psychiatry? All Topics Resources What ...

  3. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... Meeting Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students Patients & Families Mental Health Disorders/Substance Abuse Find a Psychiatrist Patients & Families What Is Psychiatry? All Topics Resources What Is ...

  4. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... become a psychiatrist, a person must complete medical school and take a written examination for a state ... A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (completed medical school and residency) with special training in psychiatry. A ...

  5. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... and insomnia. Hypnotics – used to induce and maintain sleep. Mood stabilizers – used to treat bipolar disorder. Stimulants – ... psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some psychiatrists choose additional training in psychoanalysis ...

  6. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... must complete medical school and take a written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and ... most psychiatrists take a voluntary written and oral examination given by the American Board of Psychiatry and ...

  7. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... Releases Message from the President Reporting on Mental Health Conditions APA Blogs Media Registration - Annual Meeting Advocacy & ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents Medical Students International ...

  8. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... Releases Message from the President Reporting on Mental Health Conditions APA Blogs Advocacy & APAPAC APA Sites APA ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents Medical Students International ...

  9. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... International Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students Patients & Families Mental Health Disorders/Substance Abuse Find a Psychiatrist Patients & Families What Is Psychiatry? All Topics Resources What Is ...

  10. Psychiatry's Turbid Solution

    Richters, John E.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.


    Psychiatry?s generic concept of disorder has long served an important legitimizing function for the broad array of conditions for which individuals seek mental health treatment, regardless of their presumed causes. Wakefield?s proposal to restrict the mental disorder concept to only a subset of these conditions has given rise to concerns about the uncertain consequences of classifying others as non-disorders. In Bergner?s recent counterproposal, this concern is masked in the form of a conspic...

  11. Psychiatry and music

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna


    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry...

  12. Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry

    Singh Ajai


    Full Text Available The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d how are mind and brain related; (e what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f bioethics and the four principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, and justice; (g the four concepts of disease, illness, sickness, and disorder; how confusion is confounded by these concepts but clarity is imperative if we want to make sense out of them; and how psychiatry is an interim medical discipline. The second part called The Issues deals with: (a the concepts of nature and nurture; the biological and the psychosocial; and psychiatric disease and brain pathophysiology; (b biology, Freud and the reinvention of psychiatry; (c critics of psychiatry, mind-body problem and paradigm shifts in psychiatry; (d the biological, the psychoanalytic, the psychosocial and the cognitive; (e the issues of clarity, reductionism, and integration; (f what are the fool-proof criteria, which are false leads, and what is the need for questioning assumptions in psychiatry. The third part is called Psychiatric Disorder, Psychiatric Ethics, and Psychiatry Connected Disciplines. It includes topics like (a psychiatric disorder, mental health, and mental phenomena; (b issues in psychiatric ethics; (c social psychiatry, liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry. The fourth part is called Antipsychiatry, Blunting Creativity, etc. It includes topics like (a antipsychiatry revisited; (b basic arguments of antipsychiatry, Szasz, etc.; (c psychiatric classification and value judgment; (d conformity, labeling, and blunting creativity. The fifth part is called The Role of Philosophy

  13. Limitations of the biopsychosocial model in psychiatry

    Benning TB


    Full Text Available Tony B Benning Maple Ridge Mental Health Centre, Maple Ridge, BC, Canada Abstract: A commitment to an integrative, non-reductionist clinical and theoretical perspective in medicine that honors the importance of all relevant domains of knowledge, not just “the biological,” is clearly evident in Engel’s original writings on the biopsychosocial model. And though this model’s influence on modern psychiatry (in clinical as well as educational settings has been significant, a growing body of recent literature is critical of it - charging it with lacking philosophical coherence, insensitivity to patients’ subjective experience, being unfaithful to the general systems theory that Engel claimed it be rooted in, and engendering an undisciplined eclecticism that provides no safeguards against either the dominance or the under-representation of any one of the three domains of bio, psycho, or social. Keywords: critique of biopsychosocial psychiatry, integrative psychiatry, George Engel

  14. Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong; Kim, Seog Ju


    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist ...

  15. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; WASSERMAN, DANUTA; Gaag, Rutger Jan van der


    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approache...

  16. Consensus paper of the WFSBP Task Force on Biological Markers: Criteria for biomarkers and endophenotypes of schizophrenia part I: Neurophysiology.

    Thibaut, Florence; Boutros, Nash N; Jarema, Marek; Oranje, Bob; Hasan, Alkomiet; Daskalakis, Zafiris Jeffrey; Wichniak, Adam; Schmitt, Andrea; Riederer, Peter; Falkai, Peter


    The neurophysiological components that have been proposed as biomarkers or as endophenotypes for schizophrenia can be measured through electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), polysomnography (PSG), registration of event-related potentials (ERPs), assessment of smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) and antisaccade paradigms. Most of them demonstrate deficits in schizophrenia, show at least moderate stability over time and do not depend on clinical status, which means that they fulfil the criteria as valid endophenotypes for genetic studies. Deficits in cortical inhibition and plasticity measured using non-invasive brain stimulation techniques seem promising markers of outcome and prognosis. However the utility of these markers as biomarkers for predicting conversion to psychosis, response to treatments, or for tracking disease progression needs to be further studied. PMID:26213111

  17. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))


    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  18. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... Illness What Is Psychiatry? What Is Mental Illness? Suicide Prevention What is ECT? Ask An Expert Share Your Story Become an APA Member Learn More Explore APA Psychiatrists Residents & Medical Students Patients & Families About APA Newsroom News Releases Psychiatric ...

  19. What Is Psychiatry?

    Full Text Available ... News Releases Message from the President Reporting on Mental Health Conditions APA Blogs Media Registration - Annual Meeting Advocacy & ... Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents Medical Students International ...

  20. [Sophrology and psychiatry].

    Diehr, Jan


    A relatively new discipline in the field of human sciences, sophrology seeks, through a physical as well as mental approach, to awaken awareness while energising the patient's resources and capacities. In psychiatry, it favours the development of body awareness and the positive activation of the mental structures, for the greater wellbeing of the patient. PMID:27615699

  1. Psychiatry and music.

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna


    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy. PMID:24891698

  2. What psychiatry means to us

    J.K. Trivedi


    Full Text Available Psychiatry has come up as one of the most dynamic branches of medicine in recent years. There are a lot of controversies regarding concepts, nosology, definitions and treatments in psychiatry, all of which are presently under a strict scanner. Differences are so many that even the meaning of psychiatry varies amongst individual psychiatrists. For us, it is an art to practice psychiatry and give the patient what he needs. Still, it should be practiced with great caution and utmost sincerity towards the patient, based on scientific knowledge and not to be guided by individual conceptions alone. Ethics in psychiatry forms an integral part of its basic concept and meaning, and a tight balance should be maintained between professional advancement and patient benefit. In recent years, the scope of psychiatry has enlarged considerably, with wide ranging influences from Sociology, Anthropology and Philosophy on the one hand, and Neurology and Medicine on the other.

  3. Meditation and Psychiatry

    McGee, Michael


    How might meditation promote wellness and healing from psychiatric illness? How might it contribute to the practice of psychiatry? This review of the literature attempts to answer these questions. Meditation is the consciously willed practice of two actions, attending and abstaining, that all people spontaneously perform to a greater or lesser degree. Psychological health may correlate in part with the degree to which we naturally perform these actions. This review analyzes the nature of medi...

  4. Mumbai Psychiatry: Current Obstacles

    Sanjay V Bagadia


    Full Text Available Mumbai, like any other Metro city, has its own share of contentious issues influencing psychiatric management. These could be old ongoing issues like myths about medications, electroconvulsive therapy and counselling, or newer ones like our stand on homosexuality and crime related to psychosocial factors. A range of these issues is considered in this paper along with some possible solutions. Getting due credit and status for psychiatry as a medical branch is also a challenge we need to address.

  5. Identifying Phronotypes in Psychiatry

    F. AndrewKozel


    Full Text Available Refinements in the methods of diagnosis for psychiatric disorders are critically needed. These new methods should be based on objectively measured brain characteristics that provide clinically useful information. Studying the brain with respect to psychiatric disorders, however, faces numerous challenges. Utilizing techniques learned in other areas of medicine to deal with symptoms that lead to complex disorders can provide insight into improving diagnostic models in psychiatry. Specifically, many areas of medicine use objective measures of an organ’s function or characteristic to guide clinical management of particular subjective complaints. In psychiatry, an objectively measured brain characteristic that provides clinically useful information is proposed to be that person’s “phronotype.” Important requirements to developing phronotypes are discussed. Identifying phronotypes in psychiatry will require a specific investigative approach that must be grounded in rigorous scientific methodology. Successfully developing such markers will have a profound impact on clinical care, clinical research, basic science research, and most importantly the lives of those suffering from these illnesses.

  6. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    Bracken, Pat


    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  7. [Karl Jaspers and the challenges of social psychiatry].

    Jäger, Markus; Lang, Fabian U; Becker, Thomas


    Karl Jaspers, in his book "General Psychopathology", argued for methodological pluralism rather than theoretical dogmatism. He formulated a methodological order of psychopathology with a distinction between "explanation" (objective psychopathology) and "understanding" (subjective psychopathology, psychopathology of meaning). The latter approach focused on patients' subjective experience and biographical issues. Karl Jaspers emphasised social factors in the genesis and course of mental disorders. Following a multiperspective concept, from Jaspers' viewpoint social psychiatry should consider itself of equal importance with biological and psychotherapeutic psychiatry. Therefore, uncritical generalization of one of these perspectives should be avoided. Personalized psychiatry, apart from searching biological markers to tailor treatment should identify psychosocial factors and subjective meaning. Concepts of recovery should not ignore biological foundations in mental disorders. PMID:24858436


    Vishal Patill


    Full Text Available Psychiatry in Ayurveda integrates mind, body and soul. The mind-body connection is very important in Ayurveda. Physical imbalances can disturb mental state while mental illness leads to disruption of body functions. In Ayurveda many reference of Manas and treatment of manovikara was available which would be easy to understand and rewarding in the field of treatment, by describing the definition of Manas, its functions, qualities, concept of Manas, classification of mental disorders, treatment of mental illness prevention of mental illnesses, method of examination of mental illness and other important aspects.




    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  10. SPECT in psychiatry

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D2 and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  11. [Between neurology and psychiatry].

    Levine, Joseph; Toser, Doron; Zeev, Kaplan


    In this review we will discuss the broad spectrum of possible relationships between the fields of neurology and psychiatry alongside weighing the pros and cons of each alternative relationship. This is in the hope that such discussions will allow an informed decision regarding the construction of future relations between these two areas. The possible connections between the areas are discussed in light of possible relationships that exist between the two groups in the mathematical world with reference to the proposed solutions to the psychophysical mind-body problem. PMID:25095609

  12. Psychiatry in Korea.

    Park, Jong-Il; Oh, Keun-Young; Chung, Young-Chul


    This paper reports the current status of Korean psychiatry. In 2011, there were 3005 psychiatrists and 75,000 psychiatric beds. There were 84 psychiatric residency-training hospitals in 2011, which produced about 150 psychiatry board-certified doctors annually. As for academic activity, there is the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, a main association for neuropsychiatry, and 21 other research societies. Psychiatric residency is a 4-year training program, with different objectives for each grade. The Korean health system accepts National Health Insurance. When severely mentally ill patients register as having a mental disorder, they pay only 10% of their total medical costs. Private clinics usually see patients with less severe conditions such as anxiety, mood and eating disorders; general and university hospitals and special mental hospitals often deal with severe conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. One great concern is an increasing trend to depend upon pharmacotherapy and neglect the role of psychotherapy. Additionally, conflicts among medical sectors are becoming fierce as other doctors request abolition of the current law that restricts them from prescribing anti-depressants for more than 60 days. The average hospitalization period of all mental care institutions was 166 days in 2010, substantially longer compared with developed countries. To win the heart of the general public, cutting edge research to improve the quality of treatment for mental diseases, reformation of psychiatric residency training programs, public campaigns to increase awareness of mental health value, and timely reflection on policy decisions should be pursued persistently. PMID:23466121

  13. Ethische Herausforderungen der Psychiatrie

    Helmchen H


    Full Text Available Gegenwärtig ungelöste und zukünftige ethische Probleme der Psychiatrie werden durch Fortschritte in den Neurowissenschaften und durch den Wandel des soziokulturellen Kontextes der Psychiatrie bestimmt. Diese Rahmenbedingungen werden durch Hinweise auf die sozialen Folgen verdeutlicht, die sich aus der antipsychiatrischen Bewegung, wirtschaftlichen Krisen und dem demographischen Wandel ebenso wie auch aus der Strenge wissenschaftlicher Methodik oder dem zunehmenden genetischen Wissen für die psychiatrische Versorgung und Forschung ergeben. In solchem Kontext werden ethische Probleme erörtert, die sich zwischen Medizin und Gesellschaft (individuelles Wohl versus Allgemeinwohl oder innerhalb der Medizin (Wohl versus Wille des Patienten oder zwischen Individuum und Institution (Unabhängigkeit ärztlichen Denkens und Sponsoring entwickeln. Beispiele gegenwärtig ungelöster ethischer Probleme werden in der Forschung mit nicht einwilligungsfähigen Patienten, bei placebokontrollierten klinischen Prüfungen und bei industriegesponsorter Forschung gesehen. Zukünftige ethische Herausforderungen werden sich aus dem wachsenden genetischen Wissen, z. B. in der genetischen Voraussage von Risiken (Vermarktung genetischer Tests, pharmakogenetische Individualisierung der Therapie, präsymptomatische Diagnostik, Vertraulichkeit genetischer Daten, aus der pharmakologischen sowie neurotechnischen Veränderung von Hirnfunktionen (Enhancement, Anti-Aging, Aktivierung von Neuroplastizität und Implantation von neuronalem Gewebe oder Mikroelektronik, und nicht zuletzt an den Grenzen zwischen Krankheit und Gesundheit, zwischen Medizin und Wellness ergeben.

  14. Triglycerides as a biological marker of repeated re-hospitalization resulting from deliberate self-harm in acute psychiatry patients: a prospective observational study

    Roaldset, John Olav; Linaker, Olav Morten; Bjørkly, Stål


    Background: Biological factors have been associated with deliberate self-harm (DSH) but have not been integrated with clinical factors in routine risk assessments. This study aimed to examine the incremental validity of lipid levels and platelet serotonin when combined with psychosocial factors in risk assessments for repeated admissions due to DSH. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 196 acutely admitted patients, results of blood tests performed upon admission and the MI...

  15. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel


    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed. PMID:26755987

  16. Dimensional Approach in Psychiatry

    Osman Ozdemir


    Full Text Available In psychiatry there is a traditional categorical conception stating that several disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have distinct etiologies. On the other hand, dimensional approach claims that these entities are actually the same disorder reflecting different clinical aspects of same mental disorder in the course of time. ICD and DSM classifications are based on separate categories of different mental disorders. Howewer, it is quite difficult to consider a mental disorder as a discrete entity that has absolute boundaries from other disorders. There are patients manifesting symptoms of two or more categories but do not fulfill all diagnostic criteria for any mental disorder. Dimensional approach handles the psychopathology as a continuing process and establish the patients to the different ongoing points. According to this view, in fact, multiple diagnosis reflect dimensions of the same disease.

  17. MRI in psychiatry

    Mulert, Christoph [UKE, Hamburg (Germany). Psychiatry Neuroimaging Branch; Shenton, Martha E. (ed.) [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry and Radiology


    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  18. Maurycy Urstein: forgotten Polish contributor to German psychiatry

    Marcinowski, Filip


    Full Text Available Polish psychiatrist Maurycy Urstein (1872–1940 is nowadays almost forgotten. He is not mentioned in the history of Polish psychiatry which only partially may be explained by the fact that his most essential works were published in German language. His scientific oeuvre contains dozens of publications, including four monographs on catatonia. Urstein was an ardent advocate of the autointoxication theory of psychiatric disorders, fierce opponent of psychoanalysis and enthusiast of the use of biological methods of treatment in psychiatry. Both some eccentric views and specific personality probably equally contributed to his almost complete isolation among psychiatrists in the interwar Poland.

  19. The Task before Psychiatry Today Redux: STSPIR*.

    Singh, Ajai R


    stories.SCIENCE: Shrugging ambivalence and disagreement and searching for commonalities in psychiatric phenomena;An idiographic orientation which stresses individuality cannot, and should not, preclude the nomothetic or norm laying thrust that is the crux of scientific progress.The major contribution of science has been to recognize such commonalities so they can be researched, categorized and used for human welfare.It is a mistake to stress individuality so much that commonalities are obliterated.While the purpose and approach of psychiatry, as of all medicine, has to be humane and caring, therapeutic advancements and aetiologic understandings are going to result only from a scientific methodology.Just caring is not enough, if you have not mastered the methods of care, which only science can supply.PSYCHOTHERAPY: Psychiatrists continuing to do psychotherapy:Psychotherapy must be clearly defined, its parameters and methods firmly delineated, its proof of effectiveness convincingly demonstrated by evidence based and controlled trials;Psychotherapy research suffers from neglect by the mainstream at present, because of the ascendancy of biological psychiatry;It suffers resource constraints as major sponsors like pharma not interested;Needs funding from some sincere researcher organisations and altruistic sponsors, as also professional societies and governments;Psychotherapy research will have to provide enough irrefutable evidence that it works, with replicable studies that prove it across geographical areas;It will not do for psychiatrists to hand over psychotherapy to clinical psychologists and others.INTEGRATE APPROACHES: Welcoming biological breakthroughs, while supplying psychosocial insights:Experimental breakthroughs, both in aetiology and therapeutics, will come mainly from biology, but the insights and leads can hopefully come from many other fields, especially the psychosocial and philosophical;The biological and the psychological are not exclusive but

  20. Nursing interventions in inpatient psychiatry

    Frauenfelder, F.; Muller-Staub, M.; Needham, I.; Achterberg, T. van


    The successful application of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) in inpatient psychiatry depends on whether the classification adequately describes nursing care in this setting. The present study aimed to identify nursing interventions mentioned in journal articles on psychiatric inpatie

  1. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    Tomita, Hiroaki


    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  2. History of psychiatry in India

    Nizamie, S.Haque; Goyal, Nishant


    History is a screen through which the past lightens the present and the present brightens the future. Psychiatry by virtue of its ability to deal with human thoughts and emotions and provide a pathway for healthy minds provides an important platform towards being a mentally sound human being and largely the society. This review takes a sneak peek into the foundations of modern psychiatry in India. The description is largely based on the time frame, which provides a better understanding of the...


    Žarkovic Palijan, Tija; Mužinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja


    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many vi...

  4. The molecular turn in psychiatry: a philosophical analysis.

    Rudnick, Abraham


    Biological psychiatry has been dominated by a psychopharmacologically-driven neurotransmitter dysfunction paradigm. The objective of this paper is to explore a reductionist assumption underlying this paradigm, and to suggest an improvement on it. The methods used are conceptual analysis with a comparative approach, particularly using illustrations from the history of both biological psychiatry and molecular biology. The results are that complete reduction to physicochemical explanations is not fruitful, at least in the initial stages of research in the medical and life sciences, and that an appropriate (non-reducible) integrative principle--addressing a property of the whole system under study--is required for each domain of research. This is illustrated in Pauling's use of a topological integrative principle for the discovery of the functioning of proteins and in Watson and Crick's use of the notion of a genetic code as an integrative principle for the discovery of the structure of genes. The neurotransmitter dysfunction paradigm addresses single molecules and their neural pathways, yet their interactions within the CNS as a whole seem most pertinent to mental disorders such as schizophrenia. The lack within biological psychiatry of an integrative principle addressing a property of the CNS as a whole may be responsible for the empirical failure of orthomolecular psychiatry, as well as for the central role that serendipity has played in the study of mental disorders, which is dominated by the neurotransmitter paradigm. The conclusion is that research in biological psychiatry may benefit from using, at least initially, some integrative principle(s) addressing a property of the CNS as a whole, such as connectionism or a hierarchical notion. PMID:12187435

  5. Cyclical swings: The bête noire of psychiatry.

    Decker, Hannah S


    Progress in psychiatry in the West has been retarded by the proclivity of the discipline to swing violently between 2 approaches to viewing mental illness; that is, emphasizing-to the exclusion of the other-the material-somatic vs the psychical-experiential avenues to knowledge. Each time a shift occurs, the leaders of the new dominant approach emotionally denounce the principles and ideas that came before. We can examine this phenomenon historically by looking at Romantic psychiatry, mid-/late-19th century empirical psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern biological psychiatry. Looking at the 2 approaches in treatment today, the gold standard of patient care involves combining empirical/psychological care in 1 person (the psychiatrist) or shared between 2 clinicians working intimately with each other (psychiatrist with psychologist or social worker.) Yet as regards psychiatrists, they are discouraged from paying full attention to the psychological side by the way managed care and third-party payment have combined to remunerate them. Finally, how do we account for the intense swings and denunciations in psychiatry? The author speculates on possible explanations but leaves the question open for her readers. PMID:26844651

  6. Comments on "cyclical swings" by Professor Hannah Decker: The underappreciated "solid center" of psychiatry.

    Pies, Ronald W


    The history of psychiatry is characterized by some deep ideological and conceptual divisions, as adumbrated in Professor Hannah Decker's essay. However, the schism between "biological" and "psychosocial" models of mental illness and its treatment represents extreme positions among some psychiatrists-not the model propounded by academic psychiatry or its affiliated professional organizations. Indeed, the "biopsycho-social model" (BPSM) developed by Dr. George L. Engel has been, and remains, the foundational model for academic psychiatry, notwithstanding malign market forces that have undermined the BPSM's use in clinical practice. The BPSM is integrally related to "centralizing" and integrative trends in American psychiatry that may be traced to Franz Alexander, Karl Jaspers, and Engel himself, among others. This "Alexandrian-Jaspersian-Engelian" tradition is explored in relation to Professor Decker's "cyclical swing" model of psychiatry's history. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844653

  7. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.


    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link:

  8. Nuclear medicine in psychiatry

    In the same way that the symptoms between different diseases in psychiatry overlap, functional brain research frequently shows the same pattern of changes across diagnostic borders; on the other hand, many the other tests, e.g. psychological tests, present the same problem as mentioned above; therefore: The psychiatrist seldom applies to an NM specialist to obtain a diagnosis; instead, a nuclear medicine report will rather confirm, or less frequently exclude, the psychiatrist's diagnosis. Ideally, psychiatric patients should be rescanned after the treatment, and changes in perfusion and/or metabolism discussed between psychiatrist and NM specialist. As shown above, there are few practical applications of nuclear medicine due to low specificity and low spatial resolution, although in the aspect of functional imaging it is still superior to CT/MRI, even in their functional modalities. On the other hand, its investigational potential is still growing, as there is no imaging technique in sight which could replace metabolic and receptor studies, and also because the scope of functional imaging in psychiatric diseases is spreading from its traditional applications, like dementia or depression, towards many poorly investigated fields e.g. hypnosis, suicidal behaviour or sleep disorders. (author)

  9. Psychiatry and movies.

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava


    As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions. PMID:19556954

  10. State of psychiatry in Denmark.

    Bauer, Jeanett; Okkels, Niels; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl


    Danish psychiatry has gone through profound changes over the past two to three decades, reducing inpatient-based treatment and increasing outpatient treatment markedly. The number of patients treated has almost doubled, and the diagnostic profile has broadened, now including a substantial number of common mental disorders, in particular depression and anxiety. Furthermore, 'new' diagnostic groups are represented in the treatment statistics with steeply increasing incidences, e.g. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders, especially in the outpatient part of the statistics. Over the same 30 years, the number of available beds has been reduced by 60-70%; however, as the length of stay of inpatients has been reduced markedly, the departments are still able to treat a high number of patients. The financial budgeting of psychiatry is not increasing equivalently to the somatic specialities, handicapping development in psychiatry. Action has been taken to increase research activity in psychiatry. This is facilitated by an increasing interest among medical students and young graduate physicians attracted by the neuropsychiatric paradigm, rapidly implemented in Danish psychiatry. PMID:22950767

  11. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network

    March, John S.; Silva, Susan G.; Compton, Scott; Anthony, Ginger; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Krishnan, Ranga


    Objective: The current generation of clinical trials in pediatric psychiatry often fails to maximize clinical utility for practicing clinicians, thereby diluting its impact. Method: To attain maximum clinical relevance and acceptability, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) will transport to pediatric psychiatry the practical…

  12. Ethics in psychiatry: a framework



    Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, ...

  13. State of psychiatry in Denmark

    Bauer, Jeanett Østerby; Okkels, Niels; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl


    statistics. Over the same 30 years, the number of available beds has been reduced by 60-70%; however, as the length of stay of inpatients has been reduced markedly, the departments are still able to treat a high number of patients. The financial budgeting of psychiatry is not increasing equivalently to the...

  14. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor


    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology. PMID:27117799

  15. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan


    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent. PMID:26880078

  16. Antioxidant Vitamins and Their Use in Psychiatry

    Betul Mazlum


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress can be defined as imbalance between prooxidant molecules produced during body metabolism and members of antioxidant system for favor of former. Oxidative stress, which is included in the pathogenesis of cancer, aging, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, is also considered for pathogenetic mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Due to important role of antioxidant vitamins in antioxidant defense mechanisms, vitamin supplementation therapies are considered in addition to conventional treatment choices for psychiatric disorders. This paper will attempt to review the biochemical, molecular and genetic data on biological processes related to vitamins A, C and E. Besides, the circumstances under which the antioxidant vitamin supplementation could be used in psychiatry and the factors that should be taken into consideration during these therapies will be discussed.

  17. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry".

    Szasz, Thomas


    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry. PMID:16759353

  18. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    Szasz Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  19. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.

    Cleghorn, R A


    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  20. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry



    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remark...

  1. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    Szasz Thomas


    Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of m...

  2. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    Homayoun Amini; Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa; Saeed Shoar; Hosein Kaviani; Mehdi Samimi-Ardestani; Amir Shabani; Sara Esmaeili; Yasaman Moghaddam


    Objective We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics. Method In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences) were asked to participate an...

  3. Classifications in child and adolescent psychiatry

    Squillante , Maria-Vittoria


    The diagnostic approach is essential to medicine. It is one of the binding terms of the doctor-patient relationship. In child psychiatry, the questioning concerning diagnosis and its theoretical background is coupled with the specific nature of the subject being studied. In France infant and juvenile psychiatry is a relatively recent discipline. The following paper discusses the development of child and adolescent psychiatry, taking into account the historical point of view.

  4. Advances and perspectives in mental health: is psychiatry being stigmatized?

    Montenegro, R


    The specialty of Psychiatry and the interdisciplinary work performed by psychiatrists in conjunction with other scientific and humanistic disciplines is being affected by some facts which lead to its stigmatization. There are both internal and external risks that are affecting the profession. Among the internal ones we may mention the different diagnostic criteria used by psychiatrists and the differences between treatments--as there is a wide variety of treatment options. Besides, the practice of psychiatry may differ enormously, according to the perspective--biological, psychological, social, cultural, and so on--of each psychiatrist. The internal inconsistencies give rise to some of the external risks psychiatry and psychiatrists have to face: patients' discontent or even mistrust, the intrusion of other professions in the field of psychiatry and the negative image psychiatry has among the public. Just as it occurred in many other places before, the passing of a new mental health law in Argentina has proved to be an occasion for deep debate. The passing of this law has caused big controversy, especially among professional associations, private mental health services, NGOs which represent users and their families, trade unions which represent health workers, political and economic decision makers, etc. In Argentina, the debate of ideas has always been rich. Even when political parties were forbidden, there were discussions taking place among groups which supported psychoanalytic and psychodynamic approaches. There are many who demonize the developments made in the field of psychiatry and they also campaign against such developments. They catch the public's attention and they convince legislators, thus spreading the idea that psychiatry may be dangerous. As a consequence, for example, the new law gives similar status to psychiatrists and psychologists when it states that the decision to confine a patient into hospital "should be signed by two professionals, one of

  5. SPECT in psychiatry

    In the last fifteen years different attempts have been undertaken to understand the biological basis of major psychiatric disorders. One important tool to determine patterns of brain dysfunction is single emission computed tomography (SPECT). Whereas SPECT investigations are already a valuable diagnostic instrument for the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT) there have not been consistent findings that can be referred to as specific for any other particular psychiatric diagnostic entity. Nevertheless, SPECT studies have been able to demonstrate evidence of brain dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in which other methods showed no clear abnormality of brain function. Our manuscript reviews the data which are currently available in the literature and stresses the need for further studies, especially for prediction and monitoring psychiatric treatment modalities. (orig.)

  6. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    Homayoun Amini


    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics.Method: In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences were asked to participate anonymously in the study on the first and the last 3-days of their psychiatry clerkship. From 346 invited 4th-5th year medical students, 225 (65% completed anonymous self-report questionnaires before and after a 4-week psychiatry clerkship.Results: Positive response to choose psychiatry as a career was seen in 13.3 % and 18.3 % before and after psychiatry rotation, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant; about one-quarter of the students were turned on to psychiatry and 25% were discouraged during the clerkship. Individual pair wise comparisons revealed significant improvements only in two out of 13 measured aspects of psychiatry. Seventeen out of 38 (47.7% students who identified psychiatry as the career of choice or strong possibility reported that one of their family members or close friends’ mental illness had an impact on their choice. Those students who considered psychiatry as the strong possibility claimed that they are more interested in humanities (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.49, and playing a musical instrument (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.57.Conclusion: It may be concluded that exposure to psychiatry clerkship could influence medical students’ opinion about psychiatry positively, or negatively. Personal characteristics and individual interests of students may play an important role in choosing psychiatry as their future

  7. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry


    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  8. Psychiatry Residency Training around the World

    Zisook, Sidney; Balon, Richard; Bjorksten, Karin S.; Everall, Ian; Dunn, Laura; Ganadjian, Krauz; Jin, Hua; Parikh, Sagar; Sciolla, Andres; Sidhartha, Tanuj; Yoo, Tai


    Objective: The authors compare and contrast psychiatry residency training in the United States to that in Canada and selected countries in South America, Europe, and Asia. Method: Nine individuals who are intimately familiar with psychiatry residency training in the United States (primarily chairs, training directors, associate training directors,…

  9. The Holy Grail of Psychiatry

    Nemeroff, Charles B.


    Editor’s Note: “Holy Grail” is a well-known metaphor for the eternal spiritual pursuit for truth and wisdom. It suggests that in order for us to find what no one has found, we must search where few have looked. In 2013, a group led by Helen Mayberg published a groundbreaking paper that sought an answer to one of the most discussed conundrums in psychiatry and neuroscience: Can specific patterns of brain activity indicate how a depressed person will respond to treatment with medication or psyc...

  10. Movies in education of psychiatry residents.

    Jukić, Vlado; Brecić, Petrana; Savić, Aleksandar


    Movies are a complex entity representing simultaneously an art form, a powerful industry, and a social phenomenon. The movie industry has always shown keen interest in physicians and medicine in general, and psychiatry in particular has often been in the spotlight. While there can be positive aspects of interaction of the movies and the psychiatry, stigmatization and negative public perception are also the results we often have to consider. Movies exploit psychiatric topics, at the same time portrayal of mental conditions, psychiatrists, and psychiatry on big screen could be used in different kinds of education in psychiatry. We present our initial experience with introducing movies in education of psychiatry residents in Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce. PMID:20562770

  11. What Psychiatry Means to Me

    Helen Herrman


    Full Text Available Moving in early career from public health physician to psychiatrist gives me a public health view of psychiatry and an interest in pursuing the goals of widening access to community-based services for people with mental disorders and promoting mental health in communities. Training in social medicine in the UK and psychiatry in Australia lead to studies of homelessness in people living with psychotic disorders, the health of family caregivers, assessing quality of life and mental health promotion. Work with the World Health Organization (WHO in the Western Pacific Region and the World Psychiatric Association (WPA worldwide has given me opportunities to work with psychiatrists, mental health workers, service users and others in governments and non-government organisations implementing the recommendations of the World Health Report 2001 in countries with limited resources. My work as WPA Secretary for Publications seeks to improve information exchange in countries irrespective of their wealth. This is an exciting time to be working in a global village with technical capacity to reach into its furthest corners. Psychiatrists supported by WPA can help ensure that vulnerable people and communities and people living with mental disorders are well served in this new environment and no longer left out and left behind.

  12. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    Thornton, Tim


    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  13. The future of psychiatry as clinical neuroscience.

    Reynolds, Charles F; Lewis, David A; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F; Kupfer, David J


    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics.The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry's mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management. PMID:19318776


    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko


    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental healt and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and proffesional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should bui...

  15. The views of medical students about psychiatry clerkship education

    Varkal, Mihriban Dalkıran; Yüksek, Erhan; Demirel, Ömer Faruk; Çağlar, Nuran; Eliüşük, Nihan; Gökdoğan, Pınar; Özmansur, Elif Nurdan; Emül, Murat


    Objectives: Psychiatry education in medical schools seems to be given little attention and has not been fully integrated into curriculum. In this study our purpose was to get feedback about all phases of psychiatry clerkship from medical students, who completed psychiatry clerkship. Methods: A 31 item questionnaire investigating the views of medical students about psychiatry clerkship and a socio-demographic survey were given to the medical students, who completed psychiatry clerkship and...

  16. A Marxist approach to psychology and psychiatry.

    Nahem, J


    Marxism considers psychology and psychiatry to be young and complex sciences which are powerfully affected by the nature of society. Marxism contributes to these sciences by applying dialectical and historical materialism to their study and development. The Marxist critique of psychology and psychiatry under capitalism identifies the immense harmful effect on them of capitalist class ideology in a number of areas: anti-working class theories, racism, national chauvinism, sexism, theories of fixed evil human nature, and false or one-sided theories. Socialism is held to provide a healthy environment for individual psychological development and to utilize psychology and psychiatry for scientific and humane ends. PMID:7076375

  17. Mind-body and the future of psychiatry.

    Wallace, E R


    Philosophical perspectives are deeply relevant to psychiatric theorization, investigation, and practice. There is no better instance of this than the perennially vexing mind-body problem. This essay eschews reductionist, dualist, and identity-theory attempts to resolve this problem, and offers an ontology--"monistic dual-aspect interactionism"--for the biopsychosocial model. The profound clinical, scientific, and moral consequences of positions on the mind-body relation are examined. I prescribe a radically biological cure for psychiatry's--and all medicine's--chronic dogmatism and fragmentation. PMID:2187043


    Rubin, Romina; Jauregui, Ricardo


    The changes associated with aging influence the clinical presentation and treatment approach of psychiatric illness. Several psychiatric disorders are common in old age as depression or set of diseases with cognitive impairment requiring geriatric knowledge. In many countries psychiatry of the elderly are called psychogeriatric. Regardless of the name objective of this article is to convey that the psychiatrist who treats patients over 65 years with multiple disorders, with frailty social problems and polypharmacy should have some tools in addition to the thorough understanding of psychiatric illness itself. Teamwork, meet physiological changes of aging and how these affect the response to drugs, atypical presentation of illness and keep in mind the importance of psychosocial and environmental issues both in presentation and in addressing and monitoring of disease. PMID:26650408

  19. Reflections on psychiatry and international mental health

    Helen Herrman


    Achieving adequate support for mental health in any country requires a unified approach. Strong links between psychiatrists, community leaders and patients and families that are based on negotiation and respect, are vital for progress. When strong partnerships exist, they can contribute to community understanding and advancement of psychiatry. This is the first step towards scaling up good quality care for those living with mental illnesses, preventing illnesses in those at risk, and promoting mental health through work with other community sectors. Partnerships are needed to support education and research in psychiatry, and improvements in quality of care wherever psychiatry is practiced, including primary health and community mental health services, hospitals and private practice. There are important roles for psychiatry in building the strength of organisations that champion the advocacy and support roles of service users and family carers, and encouraging partnerships for mental health promotion in the community.

  20. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    Linden, David E; Fallgatter, Andreas J.


    This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct asses...

  1. Power, change, and 'the culture of psychiatry'

    Rahimi, Sadeq


    It is not uncommon to encounter 'the culture of psychiatry' used as a descriptive or even explanatory concept in discussions of psychiatric practices and services, specifically in research addressing cultural aspects of psychiatry. Drawing on data from research on the role of culture in psychiatric services in the Boston area, this paper critically examines the attribution of a 'culture' to psychiatry, which is prevalent not simply in mainstream psychiatric literature, but also in certain lines of cultural psychiatry, specifically those dedicated to political and anti-racist activism. It is argued that the use of such terminology could be misleading as it implicitly attributes a sense of coherence and agency to what may best be described as a set of related discourses and sociopolitical practices. It is further suggested that, given the implications of using such terminology as 'culture' in our discussions of psychiatry as a social institution, a scientific discourse, or a clinical practice, it would be more fruitful to address the analytic concepts of power, meaning, and the sociopolitical functions of psychiatry instead. PMID:25159045

  2. Formal Training in Women's Issues in Psychiatry: A Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    Gold, Liza H.; Epstein, Steven A.


    Objective: The authors describe the availability of formal residency training opportunities in women's issues in psychiatry and explore the potential relationships between the availability of training and characteristics of residency programs. Method: The authors surveyed psychiatry residency training directors to identify program characteristics…

  3. Administrative issues in child and adult psychiatry training programs.

    Westman, J C


    Child psychiatry training programs have encountered a number of administrative problems resulting from efforts to recognize, without isolating or submerging, the unique aspects of child psychiatry within existing departments of psychiatry. This paper questions the validity of the concept of general psychiatry, which may be responsible for many of these administrative dilemmas. The thesis is advanced that adult and child psychiatry actually represent distinct fields of practice, however, training programs for each should be integrated within departments of psychiatry through both adult and child divisional administrative lines. PMID:688803

  4. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko


    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry. PMID:20562738

  5. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M


    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients. PMID:18371580

  6. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging


    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  7. Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi


    Full Text Available Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisions, including its structure, frequency and duration etc. The structure and content of workplace based assesments should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs. Workplace based assesment should be used for formative and summative assessments. Several formative assessment methods have been developed for use in the workplace such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-cex, evidence based journal club assesment and case based discussion, multi source feedback etc. This review discusses the need of workplace based assesments in psychiatry graduate education and introduces some of the work place based assesment methods.

  8. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  9. History and current condition of Russian psychiatry.

    Krasnov, Valery N; Gurovich, Isaak


    Russian psychiatry has a dramatic history, and until now has been at a transitional stage of development. It is facing problems not only common in world psychiatry, but also specific to eastern Europe, in particular Russia. Starting from the beginning of the 1990s, considerable changes have occurred in psychiatry, especially after 1992 when the law on psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision was adopted. It became the ideological and legislative basis for reforms. However, there are definite obstacles to structural reforms in psychiatry. They are unfavourable technical conditions in many psychiatric clinics, hypercentralization of psychiatric services, shortage of clinical psychologists and social workers in psychiatry, some difficulties in cooperation between psychiatric and general medical institutions. Economic difficulties in the transition period of Russia's social development prevent the overcoming of these problems. They are being actively discussed and some of them are being gradually solved, e.g. the organization of team work in mental health services, the increasing number of specialists on social work, and the involvement of non-government organizations in psychosocial rehabilitation. PMID:22950772

  10. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry.

    Krener, P


    Although psychiatry has one of the highest proportions of women entering its residency programs, women have not assumed a proportionate amount of academic or research leadership positions in the field. This literature review identifies three general groups of models that explain disparities between men's and women's careers, but these do not fully account for observed differences in psychiatric practice and academic progression of women in psychiatry. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry are not only affected by individual traits and choices, but also by economic factors. Theories based on organizational discrimination, and systems and market factors are also reviewed. No single explanatory model accounts for disparities between the careers of men and those of women. Because psychiatric practice patterns may be broadly distributed across labor sectors, more diverse career patterns are possible in psychiatry than in more constrained and traditional fields. Research on gender differences in psychiatry careers must consider not only the individual work style and choice, but also the position of individuals within the organization and the position of those organizations across the labor market. PMID:24435498

  11. Neurology referrals to a liaison psychiatry service.

    Fitzgerald, P


    The objective of the present study was to assess the activity of the Liaison Psychiatry service of Cork University Hospital in relation to all in-patient neurology referrals over a 12-month period. Of 1685 neurology admissions, 106 (6%) were referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. 91 referrals (86%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV, the commonest being major depression (24%) and somatoform disorder (23%). Patients with multiple sclerosis or epilepsy comprised nearly half of all referrals (48 cases; 45%). Approximately 20% of M.S. in-patients (21 cases) were referred for psychiatric assessment, with the corresponding figure in epilepsy being 25% (18 cases). Although only 106 (6%) neurology in-patients were referred to liaison psychiatry, psychiatric diagnoses were documented in 327 (20%) discharge forms, presumably reflecting previous diagnosis. The above findings indicate that psychiatric illness is common among neurology inpatients screened by liaison psychiatry yet referral rates are relatively low in terms of the overall number of neurology in-patients. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 86% of referrals indicating high concordance between neurologists and liaison psychiatry regarding the presence of a psychiatric disorder.

  12. [Where is going philosophy of psychiatry ?].

    Basso, Elisabetta


    This contribution provides a critical outline of the current trends in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry" by following their developments in the last decade. The first part of the paper focuses on the evolution of this field from a strictly conceptual approach to a perspective more attentive to the social, practical, and clinical dimension of psychiatry. The second part of the paper points out that the need of a mutual commitment of philosophy and psychiatry is perceived according to different ways by the countries involved in this research area. The paper deals especially with the case of France, where the enthusiasm for the "new philosophy of psychiatry" has not had the same impact on the philosophical scene as in the English speaking countries. In conclusion, the paper shows that the field of philosophy of psychiatry stands as a fertile ground for new forms of interaction between the analytic, and the continental philosophical traditions. This interaction takes place, more particularly, as regards such topics as normativity, language, and interpretation. PMID:27550463

  13. On human self-domestication, psychiatry, and eugenics

    Brüne Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract The hypothesis that anatomically modern homo sapiens could have undergone changes akin to those observed in domesticated animals has been contemplated in the biological sciences for at least 150 years. The idea had already plagued philosophers such as Rousseau, who considered the civilisation of man as going against human nature, and eventually "sparked over" to the medical sciences in the late 19th and early 20th century. At that time, human "self-domestication" appealed to psychiatry, because it served as a causal explanation for the alleged degeneration of the "erbgut" (genetic material of entire populations and the presumed increase of mental disorders. Consequently, Social Darwinists emphasised preventing procreation by people of "lower genetic value" and positively selecting favourable traits in others. Both tendencies culminated in euthanasia and breeding programs ("Lebensborn" during the Nazi regime in Germany. Whether or not domestication actually plays a role in some anatomical changes since the late Pleistocene period is, from a biological standpoint, contentious, and the currently resurrected debate depends, in part, on the definitional criteria applied. However, the example of human self-domestication may illustrate that scientific ideas, especially when dealing with human biology, are prone to misuse, particularly if "is" is confused with "ought", i.e., if moral principles are deduced from biological facts. Although such naturalistic fallacies appear to be banned, modern genetics may, at least in theory, pose similar ethical problems to medicine, including psychiatry. In times during which studies into the genetics of psychiatric disorders are scientifically more valued than studies into environmental causation of disorders (which is currently the case, the prospects of genetic therapy may be tempting to alter the human genome in patients, probably at costs that no-one can foresee. In the case of "self-domestication", it

  14. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    David E Linden


    Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.

  15. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    Benjamin, Sheldon


    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas. PMID:23859089

  16. Challenges in conducting psychiatry studies in India

    Saifuddin Kharawala


    Full Text Available A large number of psychiatry studies are conducted in India. Psychiatry studies are complex and present unique challenges in the Indian setting. Ethical issues pertaining to the risk of worsening of illness, use of placebo and validity of informed consents are commonly faced. Site selection can be difficult due to the relative paucity of ICH-GCP (International Conference on Harmonisation - Good Clinical Practice trained psychiatry investigators in India. Recruitment can be challenging due to issues such as strict eligibility criteria, (lack of availability of caregiver, illness-related considerations, etc. Assessment of the consent capacity of patients is not simple, while structured assessments are not commonly employed. As the illness fluctuates, the consent capacity may change, thus requiring continued assessment of consent capacity. Study patients run the risk of worsening of illness and suicide due to exposure to inactive treatments; this risk is counterbalanced by use of appropriate study designs, as well as the indirect psychotherapeutic support received. Psychiatry studies are associated with a high placebo response. This necessitates conduct of placebo-controlled studies despite the attendant difficulties. Also, the high placebo response is often the cause of failed trials. Rating scales are essential for assessment of drug response. Some rating instruments as well as some rater training procedures may not be suitable for the Indian setting. Technological advancements may increase the procedural complexity but improve the quality of ratings. Psychiatry studies present monitors and auditors with unique scenarios too. Utilization of psychiatry specific training and expertise is recommended to ensure successful conduct of these studies in India.

  17. [Evaluating the current status of anthropologic psychiatry].

    Schmidt-Degenhard, M


    Phenomenological psychiatry examines the variety of psychiatric diseases as regular modifications of human feeling tone experience and behaviour, which can be derived approximately from the nature of man as defined philosophically, Interdisciplinary self-conception of phenomenological psychiatry as a science calls for a constant critical dialogue with the philosophy of man and other disciplines of the humanities. The point of departure of phenomenological psychiatry is the mental or affective illness of the individual patient, with which the psychiatrist is acquainted, and reflects in interpersonal encounters in such a way that individual case studies are of central importance in this area of studies. From a methodological point of view two approaches are to be differentiated within the field of research in phenomenological psychiatry: 1. The phenomenological approach is concerned with the analysis of specific patterns of disturbance of the transcendental organisation of psychotic subjectivity. 2. The interpretative approaches are again divided into the so called "Daseinsanalyse" as a hermeneutic access to the inner biography and "Weltanschauung" of the psychiatric patient as well as the attempts of understanding the meaning of psychotic forms of experience. In this context a survey of the current fields of research of phenomenological psychiatry is given which aims at a deeper understanding of the situation of psychiatric patients and which claims to have a strong relevance for therapy. The relevance of such a phenomenological approach for current psychiatry lies in a broadening and sophistication of our experience in clinic and practice. Its main interest lies in the concentration on the patient as an individual and on the existential dimension of forms of mental and emotional diseases. PMID:9445840

  18. [The role of psychiatry in the Brazilian psychiatric reform].

    Serpa Junior, Octavio Domont de


    Psychiatry emerged just over two hundred years ago as a special branch of medicine offering institutional care for the insane, since it encompassed the fields of medicine, natural history (biology) and philosophy (humanities). It appeared at a time marked by the transition with the exclusion apparatus of the marginalized people of the Old Regime and by epistemic pluralism. In this article, the contribution that psychiatry can make today - just over two centuries and some important conceptual and institutional rearrangements later - is discussed. It is well established in the academic world and socially legitimized, albeit at another moment of transition, in which new paradigms of care are established placing importance on the contextual and intersubjective situation of psychic distress. Redefining Pinelian intuition using contemporary vocabulary regarding the epistemological and ethical challenge of an area of knowledge and practice of care the scope of which is psychic distress, the thesis will be proposed that it is also necessary to articulate the planes of body, experience and narrative in an ongoing dialogue. PMID:22124908

  19. De pendel, de kloof en de kliniek.Leendert Bouman (1869-1936) en de ‘psychologische wending’ in de Nederlandse psychiatrie

    Timo Bolt


    The pendulum, the gap, and the clinic. Leendert Bouman (1869-1936) and the ‘psychological turn’ in Dutch psychiatry In recent historical literature, the Dutch psychiatrist Leendert Bouman (1869-1936) is named ‘the godfather of psychological psychiatry’. He is regarded as one of the exponents of a shift or ‘pendulum’ movement from a biological-materialistic to a psychological, phenomenological orientation in the Dutch psychiatry of the Interbellum. As a professor of the orthodox calvinist V...

  20. Holistic-medical foundations of American psychiatry: a bicentennial.

    Lipowski, Z J


    American psychiatry has reached its bicentennial. Holistic-medical foundations have been its hallmark, inspiration, and source of preeminence. Incorporated by psychobiology, the American school, they enabled the growth of psychiatry as a medical specialty and scientific discipline and stimulated unparalleled growth of general hospital psychiatry, psychiatric research and teaching, and psychosomatic medicine and liaison psychiatry. Holistic conceptions, a product of a democratic system and the liberal mind, continue to provide the best framework for psychiatry and an antidote to dogma and fanaticism. PMID:7020433

  1. Diversifying Residents' Outpatient Psychiatry Experience: A Contemporary Model for Academic Outpatient Psychiatry Clinics

    Huh, John; Goebert, Deborah A


    A diversified, outpatient experience is an important part of psychiatric training, yet challenging to attain. We describe a multiple, subspecialty psychiatry clinic model for 3rd year psychiatry residents. Evaluation findings based on its initial implementation indicated improved resident supervision, better therapeutic alliance and an overall increase in satisfaction. This model facilitates resident exposure to diverse patients and treatment modalities as well as faculty development of exper...

  2. Cognitive Science and Psychiatry: An Overview

    Dan J Stein


    ABSTRACT Cognitive science is a multidisciplinary field, comprising cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, and anthropology. In recent years, cognitive science has become a predominant paradigm in studies of the mind. This paper reviews work at the emerging interface between cognitive science and psychiatry. It is argued that cognitive science has significant potential as an integrative framework for theorizing and researching psychiatric disorders and...

  3. Psychopathology as the basic science of psychiatry.

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew R


    We argue that psychopathology, as the discipline that assesses and makes sense of abnormal human subjectivity, should be at the heart of psychiatry. It should be a basic educational prerequisite in the curriculum for mental health professionals and a key element of the shared intellectual identity of clinicians and researchers in this field. PMID:25179621

  4. Indian Psychiatry and classification of psychiatric disorders

    Jacob, K.S.


    The contribution of Indian psychiatry to classification of mental disorders has been limited and restricted to acute and transient psychosis and to possession disorders. There is a need for leadership in research in order to match diagnosis and management strategies to the Indian context and culture.

  5. Primary care psychiatry: the case for action.

    Shepherd, M.


    Since the introduction of the National Health Service a number of epidemiological enquiries have established the importance of mental disorders in the field of primary care. Examples are provided from the work of the General Practice Research Unit at the Institute of Psychiatry in London. The results furnish a rational basis for collaborative action between research workers, general practitioners and policy makers.

  6. Educational Supervision Appropriate for Psychiatry Trainee's Needs

    Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane


    Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…

  7. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen


    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  8. The Endurance of Uncertainty: Antisociality and Ontological Anarchy in British Psychiatry, 1950–2010

    Pickersgill, Martyn


    Argument Research into the biological markers of pathology has long been a feature of British psychiatry. Such somatic indicators and associated features of mental disorder often intertwine with discourse on psychological and behavioral correlates and causes of mental ill-health. Disorders of sociality – particularly psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder – are important instances where the search for markers of pathology has a long history; research in this area has played an import...

  9. Biologic

    Kauffman, L H


    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  10. Cultural psychiatry. Theoretical, clinical, and research issues.

    Lewis-Fernández, R; Kleinman, A


    As a discipline, cultural psychiatry has matured considerably in recent years and the ongoing quality of its theoretical, clinical, and research development holds great promise. The contemporary emphasis on culture as process permits a deeper analysis of the complexities of sociosomatics--the translation of meanings and social relations into bodily experience--and, thus, of the social course of illness. We also are learning a great deal more about cultural processes that affect therapy, including ethnopharmacologic and culturally valid family interventions that are directly relevant to patient care and mental health policy. And an important set of studies is examining the trauma experienced by refugees and immigrants. But at the same time many disquieting findings still point to the limited impact of cultural psychiatry on knowledge creation and clinical application in psychiatry. The failure of the cultural validation of DSM-IV is only the most dismaying. The persistent misdiagnosis of minority patients and the continued presence of racial bias in some treatment recommendations are also disheartening, as is the seeming contempt of many mainstream psychiatrists for culturally defined syndromes and folk healing systems. Widespread inattention to ethnic issues in medical ethics is another source of dismay. It is for these reasons that the culture of psychiatry itself becomes as important as the culture of patients as a topic for research and intervention. Most of the world still suffers from a terrible lack of basic mental health services, including life-saving medications and hospital beds. In the face of these limitations, and because of the increasing multicultural and pluralistic reality of contemporary life, the growing interpretive bridges linking indigenous systems of illness classification and healing to Western nosologies and therapeutic modalities become even more essential and the reluctance of mainstream clinicians to explore folk healing methods more

  11. A Prescription for "Deprescribing" in Psychiatry.

    Gupta, Swapnil; Cahill, John Daniel


    The term "deprescribing," initially coined in geriatric medicine, describes a process of pharmacologic regimen optimization through reduction or cessation of medications for which benefits no longer outweigh risks. Burgeoning rates of polypharmacy, growing appreciation of long-term adverse effects, and a focus on patient-centered practice present specific indications for deprescribing in psychiatry. A strong therapeutic alliance, appropriate timing, and consideration of the meaning of medication for the patient must accompany the following established elements: review of all medications, identification of medications that could be ceased or reduced, collaborative planning of the deprescribing regimen, and provision of review and support to the patient and caregivers. The authors discuss how deprescribing might be adapted for and implemented in psychiatry, identify potential barriers, and make recommendations for future directions. PMID:26975524

  12. Psychiatry 2050: from younger psychiatrists' perspective

    Hassan TM


    Full Text Available Tariq Mahmood Hassan, Wasif Habib, Mir Nadeem Mazhar, Tariq Munshi Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, CanadaThere have been various opinion pieces on predicting the future of psychiatry and addressing its different domains. This editorial addresses the topic from the vantage point of neuroscientific inquiry. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM 5 however continues with the tradition of its predecessor (DSM 4 text revision [TR], addressing most diagnoses with descriptive phenomenology as opposed to attempting to change diagnoses based on causative phenomenology or response to treatment. Advances in genomics and imaging, with time, will hopefully help shape psychiatric diagnoses and classifications with a primary basis on morphology. This may in turn help improve the recruitment of academic psychiatrists to the field. In doing so, the profession will gain respect amongst its peers in other disciplines of medicine and cement its future.

  13. [Malaise in psychiatry and its history].

    Chebili, S


    The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry. This is an unusual situation that is specific to our time. Indeed, this monism has succeeded to an epistemological dualism that has existed throughout the history of psychiatry. In this article, we'll try to draw a history of dualism in psychiatry. Firstly, with Pinel, we find a tension between a metaphysical philosophical pole and a physiological one. Pinel's philosophy has something to do with Condillac's ideology as Pinel applies the analytical method to mental diseases. Under Cabanis's influence, the author of the famous Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, this ideology is under pressure with physiologism. As a materialist, he gives an essential part to the brain that distributes pieces of information throughout the body because he thinks that mind influences body. Secondly, dualism lies between the doctrine of localizations defended by Gall and the theory of degeneration elaborated by Magnan. Gall, in Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, seeks to know how bumps or hollows that are found on the skull are shaped. Gall is for the theory of delocalizations. He is the counterpart of Magnan who wrote a work about Les Dégénérés, that takes its part in the physiological trend with the famous theory of degeneration. For him, degeneration means the imperfect state of a subject whose cerebral functions are in a noticeably imperfect state. Thirdly, with Henry Ey, dualism starts to be less important. Indeed, he tends a monist

  14. Indian psychiatry, research and Asian countries.

    Trivedi, J K; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Saha, Rahul


    Asia has some of the largest conglomerations of human populations and also the fastest growing economies of the world. About 23% of the world's population lives in the South Asian region, and one-fifth of psychiatrically ill patients in the world live in this part of the world. Despite vast cultural, religious, geographical, and political diversities, the factors influencing mental health remain the same throughout this wide region, as highlighted at the recently concluded Asian summit, where the slogan, 'One vision, one identity, one community,' was launched. Thus, the need to strengthen regional cooperation in the field of mental health has always been felt. This article highlights facts about influence of Indian Psychiatry research as well as of some Asian countries in the world psychiatry and vice versa. PMID:21836718

  15. The philosophies of psychiatry: empirical perspectives.

    Ralston, Alan S G


    The past two decades have seen a surge in cross-disciplinary work in philosophy and psychiatry. Much of this work is necessarily abstract whilst those working in the area are aware of the necessity of relating the theoretical and conceptual work to the vagaries of day-to-day practice. But given the diverse methods and aims of philosophy and psychiatry, crossing the 'communication gap' between the two disciplines is easier said than done. In this article different methods of bridging this gap are presented and commented upon. A number of research studies are reviewed with an eye to the potential they display to develop interdisciplinary theory. An empirical approach to philosophy of practice with special attention to ordinary language use is proposed as a fruitful may forward. PMID:22752587

  16. [Philosophy against psychiatry, right up against it].

    Demazeux, Steeves


    Since the early 1990s, there has been a tremendous new interest at the international level for researches at the crossroad between philosophy and psychiatry. This interest has been supported and quite stimulated by the foundation of a dedicated association, as well as by the establishment of a journal and the promotion of a new collection. My aim in this paper is to trace the origins of the so-called "new philosophy of psychiatry" field and to reconstruct its global intellectual dynamics during the past two decades. I try to identify, through the big diversity of the individual contributions, its dominant theoretical orientations but also what may appear as some of its philosophical blind spots. PMID:27550457

  17. [On the cultural history of psychiatry].

    Schott, H


    About 1800, psychiatry was established as a medical discipline with special institutions (madhouses). Therefore, historiography of psychiatry focuses generally on the last 200 years. This contribution will also illustrate aspects of medical and cultural history, which nowadays are mostly supposed to be less important: the premodern concept of melancholy and hypochondria between humoral pathology, demonology, and psychology; the assessment of psychiatric illness as a "creative malady," even complementary to genius; the dialectics of psychiatric therapies between suppression and emancipation, which is especially prominent in the early nineteenth century in regard to "moral treatment" ( psychische Kur in German), a topic stressed vigorously by the "antipsychiatry" movement around 1970; the denunciation of patients and sections of the population by eugenics ( Rassenhygiene in German) and racism (especially toward the Jews) by psychiatrists. Finally, the miraculous mechanisms of mass hysteria of "normal" individuals are questioned. PMID:15340714

  18. Communication interculturelle en psychiatrie: enjeux linguistiques

    Molina, María Eugenia


    Intercultural communication in hospitals has already been the object of many inter-disciplinary studies. In the present article, my analysis will focus on two aspects: first, intercultural communication in psychiatry, and secondly, their linguistic consequences. I am interested in an approach of the «intercultural» notion that strives to identify knowledge and understanding. This is a similar approach in psychiatric consultation during which decoding the subjects’ implications and negotiation...

  19. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry

    Alan De Sousa; Avinash De Sousa


    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice.

  20. Genetics of complex traits in psychiatry

    Gelernter, Joel


    Virtually all psychiatric traits are genetically complex. This article discusses the genetics of complex traits in psychiatry. The complexity is accounted for by numerous factors, including multiple risk alleles, epistasis, and epigenetic effects, such as methylation. Risk alleles can individually be common or rare, and can include, for example, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNV) that are transmitted or are new mutations, and other kinds of variation. Many d...

  1. Women in academic psychiatry in Canada.

    Penfold, P S


    A comparison of numbers of women psychiatrists with faculty appointments and women residents in Departments of Psychiatry in Canada in 1975 and 1985 showed that the average percentage of women faculty has increased from 11.4% to 14.3% and of women residents from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments appeared to be oblivious to the special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy between the numbers of faculty and residents. Only two departments were actively recruiting women faculty. The study also demonstrated a continued concentration of women in the lower ranks. Barriers to recruiting women faculty include lack of academic role models, job advertising not specifically designed to attract women candidates, rigid requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to male corridors of power, pervasive underlying doubts about women's abilities and competence based on cultural stereotypes, female socialization which does not lend itself readily to roles of authority, assertiveness and leadership, and the role strain that ensues when women psychiatrists try to combine career, marriage and motherhood. If women psychiatrists are to fill some of the positions in Departments of Psychiatry, which will fall vacant over the next decade, much more attention must be paid to eliminating or diminishing the multiple obstacles for women who chose a career in academic psychiatry. PMID:3690482

  2. In India, Psychiatry Has Come a Long Way

    Rajesh Parikh


    Full Text Available This Presidential Address of the Bombay Psychiatry Society covers the state of psychiatry in India in 1997. It posits that with the advent of newer brain imaging technologies in India such as computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computerised tomography and brain electrical activity mapping, an era of evidence-based psychiatry in India has arrived. The Address cautions against the dehumanising potential of excessive reliance on technology. The need for a greater emphasis on psychiatry during undergraduate medical education is discussed along with the need to destigmatise psychiatric disorders. Finally, the need to encourage quality research in psychiatric disorders is stressed.

  3. Training in Tobacco Treatments in Psychiatry: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.


    Objective: Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and is a leading cause of death and disability. This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States. Method: The authors recruited training directors to complete a survey of their…

  4. Electrophysiological measures of cognition in biological psychiatry: some cautionary notes.

    Barceló, F; Gale, A


    Research into the electrophysiological correlates of mental illness is currently expanding, largely because of the availability of relatively inexpensive and powerful computers. However, improvements in technology do not always lead to enhanced methodological procedures; thus, there are concerns over the proper interpretation of the results of these investigations. Our argument is that electroencephalographic (EEG) research into psychopathology of psychiatric diseases should adopt a cognitivist model of mental dysfunction rather than a neurologist model of brain disease. Cognitive science has significant potential as an integrative framework for theorizing and researching psychiatric disorders and their treatment. Models of human cognitive functioning have rather special and unique features; these will make their impact upon the nature of both the analysis and interpretation of EEG data. The adoption of a sound model of brain function has implications for the methods to be used at different successive stages of the research process. We address a number of methodological requirements pertaining to: the recording and analysis of EEG signals, the laboratory context, the nature of the tasks, and the attribution of obtained effects. However, there are grounds for great caution. Even if the mapping of electrical changes in brain activity leads to a good approximation of the temporal and spatial dynamics of higher brain function, exploitation of such information presupposes a deeper understanding of both human cognition and the physiological basis of the EEG than is often displayed in the literature. To demonstrate this fundamental point, we draw a number of comparisons between traditional neurological approaches to brain assessment and contemporary cognitive psychophysiology. PMID:9522268

  5. EPA guidance on improving the image of psychiatry.

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M; Möller, H-J; Maier, W; Gaebel, W; Falkai, P


    This paper explores causes, explanations and consequences of the negative image of psychiatry and develops recommendations for improvement. It is primarily based on a WPA guidance paper on how to combat the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and a Medline search on related publications since 2010. Furthermore, focussing on potential causes and explanations, the authors performed a selective literature search regarding additional image-related issues such as mental health literacy and diagnostic and treatment issues. Underestimation of psychiatry results from both unjustified prejudices of the general public, mass media and healthcare professionals and psychiatry's own unfavourable coping with external and internal concerns. Issues related to unjustified devaluation of psychiatry include overestimation of coercion, associative stigma, lack of public knowledge, need to simplify complex mental issues, problem of the continuum between normality and psychopathology, competition with medical and non-medical disciplines and psychopharmacological treatment. Issues related to psychiatry's own contribution to being underestimated include lack of a clear professional identity, lack of biomarkers supporting clinical diagnoses, limited consensus about best treatment options, lack of collaboration with other medical disciplines and low recruitment rates among medical students. Recommendations are proposed for creating and representing a positive self-concept with different components. The negative image of psychiatry is not only due to unfavourable communication with the media, but is basically a problem of self-conceptualization. Much can be improved. However, psychiatry will remain a profession with an exceptional position among the medical disciplines, which should be seen as its specific strength. PMID:26874959

  6. Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons

    Segraves, Robert Taylor


    Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

  7. Research in child and adolescent psychiatry in India

    Shastri, Priyavadan Chandrakant; Shastri, Jay P.; Shastri, Dimple


    The primary source for this annotation on child and adolescent psychiatry is Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Articles covering various dimensions of child and adolescent mental health were searched from its electronic data base to discuss relevant articles. Literature was mainly in the form of original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, orations and presidential address.

  8. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda


    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  9. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina


    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  10. [Child and adolescent psychiatry its problems and foresight].

    Yamazaki, Kosuke


    Accompanying the fall in birth rate, problems pertaining to the child's mind such as school in attendance, bullying, violence in the school, intrafamilial violence, eating disorders, substance abuse, and child abuse have rocketed and diversified, in addition to affecting increasingly lower age groups. The importance of child and adolescent psychiatry has never been more profound, but our country, without a chair in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the medical school framework, and lacking recognition of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a clinical department has undoubtedly become an underdeveloped country in terms of child and adolescent psychiatric care. The medical schools have been in the process of review and reorganization these past few years. The range of mental science is wide, and despite being a major discipline constituting one of the two arms of medical science together with somatic medicine, it is regarded as a minor existence in our country. This is the time to re-establish mental science, with areas such as child and adolescent psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, social psychiatry, and crime psychiatry placed on an equal footing with general psychiatry. Turning our eyes on the world, the children are being robbed of their mental health as refugees, through child labor, starvation, and civil war. The demand of this age is true symbiosis, surpassing differences in race, religion, language, and culture, which is probably the indispensable element in the quest for a happy future for the children of this age. PMID:12607920

  11. Evaluation of Professional Role Competency during Psychiatry Residency

    Grujich, Nikola N.; Razmy, Ajmal; Zaretsky, Ari; Styra, Rima G.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev


    Objective: The authors sought to determine psychiatry residents' perceptions on the current method of evaluating professional role competency and the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) as an assessment tool. Method: Authors disseminated a structured, anonymous survey to 128 University of Toronto psychiatry residents, evaluating the current mode of…

  12. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    Rait, Douglas Samuel


    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  13. Academic psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Ban, Thomas A


    In the second half of the 19th century new drugs introduced by the pharmaceutical industry helped lead to the establishment of academic departments in psychiatry. Causal treatment of cerebral pellagra by nicotinic acid and cerebral syphilis by penicillin in the first half of the 20th century led to major changes in the diagnostic distribution of psychiatric patients. In the second half of the 20th century with the introduction of a rapidly growing number of psychotropic drugs, pharmacotherapy became the primary form of treatment in mental illness. Psychiatrists today perceive neuropharmacology as one of the basic sciences of psychiatry and psychopharmacology as the bridge between the mode of action and the clinical indications of psychotropic drugs. Pharmacotherapy with psychotropic drugs focused attention on the differential responsiveness to the same drug within the same diagnostic category. Yet, instead of re-evaluating psychiatric nosology and conducting research in psychopathology, a statistical methodology was adopted for the demonstration of therapeutic effectiveness in pharmacologically heterogeneous populations. Employment of consensus-based classifications and psychiatric rating scales in the clinical development of psychotropic drugs led to semi-finished products, which are prescribed indiscriminately. Replacement of single-center clinical trials by multi-center centrally coordinated clinical investigations led to the control of education in pharmacotherapy by the pharmaceutical industry. To separate education from marketing, the identification of the treatment-responsive forms of illness and the delineation of the therapeutic profile of psychotropic drugs are proposed with the employment of a new methodology, the "Composite Diagnostic Evaluation System." It is postulated that development of a pharmacologically valid psychiatric nosology with the employment of a "nosologic matrix" would provide the pharmaceutical industry with the necessary feedback to

  14. Evolutionary Psychiatry and Nosology: Prospects and Limitations

    Luc Faucher


    Full Text Available In this paper, I explain why evolutionary psychiatry is not where the next revolution in psychiatry will come from. I will proceed as follows. Firstly, I will review some of the problems commonly attributed to current nosologies, more specifically to the DSM. One of these problems is the lack of a clear and consensual definition of mental disorder; I will then examine specific attempts to spell out such a definition that use the evolutionary framework. One definition that deserves particular attention (for a number of reasons that I will mention later, is one put forward by Jerome Wakefield. Despite my sympathy for his position, I must indicate a few reasons why I think his attempt might not be able to resolve the problems related to current nosologies. I suggest that it might be wiser for an evolutionary psychiatrist to adopt the more integrative framework of “treatable conditions” (Cosmides and Tooby, 1999. As it is thought that an evolutionary approach can contribute to transforming the way we look at mental disorders, I will provide the reader with a brief sketch of the basic tenets of evolutionary psychology. The picture of the architecture of the human mind that emerges from evolutionary psychology is thought by some to be the crucial backdrop to identifying specific mental disorders and distinguishing them from normal conditions. I will also provide two examples of how evolutionary thinking is supposed to change our thinking about some disorders. Using the case of depression, I will then show what kind of problems evolutionary explanations of particular psychopathologies encounter. In conclusion, I will evaluate where evolutionary thinking leaves us in regard to what I identify as the main problems of our current nosologies. I’ll then argue that the prospects of evolutionary psychiatry are not good.

  15. [Psychiatry in Quebec. Then and now].

    Lalonde, Pierre


    This text narrates the evolution, since the 1960s, of different events that marked the history of psychiatry in the French-Canadian province of Quebec. From his personal experience, the author discusses. The evolution of the Départment de psychiatric de l'Université de Montréal fro where were issued more than 1000 psychiatrists who shaped clinical practice and research developments worthy of mention throughout the years. The evolution of diagnostic noselogy from the DSM-ii, very influenced by psychoanalysis, to the DSM-5 that is more atheortical, but that is still not based on objective data, which remains a challenge to the etiology of mental illness. The psychiatric drugs that we have learned to prescribe in the past 50 years in a more rational way thanks to a better understanding of their action mechanisms. In reality, there has been no discovery of new drug categories; rather it is the way we prescribe medication that evolved. The great adventure of the first textbook of Quebec psychiatry, which was first published in 1980, and is forthcoming in its 4th edition in 2015 in an improved and expanded format. The forthcoming version takes into consideration the developments in psychiatry. The creation of the Young Adults Clinic in 1988, providing treatment and rehabilitation to young adults in the early stages of schizophrenia, as well as psychoeducational support and information to heir family members. Through the years, this clinic had a considerable acknowledgement in Quebec and other French-speaking nations. PMID:26559212

  16. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.)

  17. Hand Held Computing for Psychiatry Residents

    Kennedy, Robert S.


    Residents in Psychiatry are required to keep a continuous log of patient contacts as they progress through their four years of training. These logs are reviewed on a regular basis by the Training Director to insure that the trainees have had a wide variety of patient contacts. Traditionally, the resident logs have been paper based or on cards. These are completed manually and submitted on a regular basis to be reviewed. This is a awkward process for the trainee as well as a lengthy review pro...

  18. A Neural Systems-Based Neurobiology and Neuropsychiatry Course: Integrating Biology, Psychodynamics, and Psychology in the Psychiatric Curriculum

    Lacy, Timothy; Hughes, John D.


    Objective: Psychotherapy and biological psychiatry remain divided in psychiatry residency curricula. Behavioral neurobiology and neuropsychiatry provide a systems-level framework that allows teachers to integrate biology, psychodynamics, and psychology. Method: The authors detail the underlying assumptions and outline of a neural systems-based…

  19. Blueprint for an Indian Nobel Laureate in Psychiatry

    Ajai R Singh


    General qualities for a Nobel: The need to be really bright is a given; what is necessary is to be sufficiently crazy about a research topic to make it an obsession; be ready to forgo many creature comforts for long stretches of time; and after all this, be ready to accept that the Nobel may never happen, yet continue to do a type of research solely because it is intrinsically worth doing.Nobel in Physiology or Medicine: Here, the key is to do fundamental/basic research to answer persistent, nagging, unanswered questions of medicine which others neglect because they are discomforting. Or, find treatments that change the whole manner a disease has been hitherto treated.Nobel in Psychiatry: There are many Nobels waiting to be won, provided: (a The branch becomes more precise; (b Science, quantitative study and biology remain its bedrock; and (c There is an almost obsessive preoccupation with unravelling the mysteries of the brain. One has to choose wisely where to put in efforts, e.g., fields like fundamental research into the causes of psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorders. Or their definitive treatments. Or, work at the cellular or molecular level of the neuron and brain; or, the glandular or genetic level of the systems connected with psychiatric disorders; or, in brain radio imaging. If other, or allied, fields are chosen, to work with finding quantitative data and attempt to pinpoint their precise biological correlates.Indian Nobel in Medicine: There is first the need to give up the colonial mindset that everything trend-setting in science comes only from the West. As also, for Departmental Heads, to protect and nurture those with research excellence rather than the mediocre and the sycophants. For governments, to set up an autonomous Research Excellence Council to expressly and exclusively cater to promoting research excellence, with a sizeable fund to put this into practice.All these four points are summarised as four

  20. Some origins of cross-cultural psychiatry.

    Raimundo Oda, Ana Maria G; Banzato, Claudio Eduardo M; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo


    The interface between insanity, race and culture was a challenging subject for some of the most influential nineteenth-century alienists. Our paper reviews some of the theoretical and clinical investigations of comparative psychiatry of this period. The idea that insanity was supposedly rare among 'primitive' people, e.g., Africans, American Natives and some Eastern populations, was repeatedly defended by prominent alienists. Associated with this notion, many authors believed that insanity tends to become more prevalent as civilization evolves. According to them, civilization had an unfavourable effect on insanity rates because it demanded a much higher degree of organization and mental production. Moreover, a greater degree of mental excitation would explain why insanity occurs more frequently in Europe than in the East, Africa or South America. Eventually, at the end of the nineteenth century, the coalition of cross-cultural and neuropsychiatry produced a notion that the brain of the 'native' is more simple and crude than that of the civilized, and more vulnerable to the evil effects of civilized life. In conclusion, some ethnocentric bias and racial stereotypes still pervasive in contemporary psychiatry are identified and traced back to their historical origins. PMID:16013118

  1. What kind of science for psychiatry?

    Laurence J Kirmayer


    Full Text Available Psychiatry has invested its hopes in neuroscience as a path to understanding mental disorders and developing more effective treatments and ultimately cures. Recently, the U.S. NIMH has elaborated this vision through a new framework for mental health research, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC. This framework aims to orient mental health research toward the discovery of underlying neurobiological and biobehavioral mechanisms of mental disorders that will eventually lead to definitive treatments. In this article we consider the rationale of the RDoC and what it reveals about implicit models of mental disorders. As an overall framework for understanding mental disorders, RDoC is impoverished and conceptually flawed. These limitations are not accidental but stem from disciplinary commitments and interests that are at odds with the larger concerns of psychiatry. A multilevel, ecosocial approach to biobhavioral systems is needed both to guide relevant neuroscience research and insure the inclusion of social processes that may be fundamental contributors to psychopathology and recovery.

  2. Replication Validity of Initial Association Studies: A Comparison between Psychiatry, Neurology and Four Somatic Diseases

    Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Button, Katherine; Boraud, Thomas; Munafo, Marcus; Gonon, François


    between biological psychiatry, neurology and somatic diseases suggest that there is room for improvement, at least in some subdomains. PMID:27336301

  3. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.


    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  4. How new is the new philosophy of psychiatry?

    Denys Damiaan


    Full Text Available Abstract In their recent paper, Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton evaluate seven volumes of the Oxford University Press series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry,” an international book series begun in 2003 focusing on the emerging interdisciplinary field at the interface of philosophy and psychiatry. According to Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton, the series represents a clear indication that the interdisciplinary field of philosophy of psychiatry has been flourishing lately. Philosophers and psychiatrists face a “new philosophy of psychiatry”. However, the optimism which the “new” philosophy of psychiatry celebrates is precisely the exiling of philosophy from the foundations of psychiatry. The 150 year old belief that psychopathology cannot do without philosophical reflection has virtually disappeared from common psychiatric education and daily clinical practice. Though the discipline of psychiatry is particularly suited to contributions from philosophy, the impact of philosophy on psychiatry nowadays remains limited. With some exceptions, philosophical papers are embedded in a philosophical context inscrutable to ordinary psychiatrists. Much current philosophical work is perceived by psychiatrists as negativistic. I would encourage the field of psychiatry to incorporate once again basic philosophical attitudes which render possible true dialogue with philosophy and enrich both disciplines. The views developed here should not discredit the value and importance of Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton’s paper and the excellent series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry.” As Jaspers said “Everybody inclined to disregard philosophy will be overwhelmed by philosophy in an unperceived way”.

  5. [Interdisciplinarity and psychiatry: is it time not to know?].

    de Menezes, Mardônio Parente; Yasui, Silvio


    This article deals with interdisciplinarity as well as psychiatric and psychosocial care. Throughout the text, a historical account of the constitution and the crisis of scientific knowledge is presented and organized into disciplines. The theoretical difficulty of conceptualizing interdisciplinarity is analyzed and, in the concluding remarks, psychiatry and its relationship to psychosocial care is discussed. The argument is that, because of its history, psychiatry has singularities that differentiate it from other medical specialties and these singularities could initially cause psychiatry to go in the opposite direction in relation to interdisciplinarity. The conclusion is that because of their inherent characteristics psychosocial care services are privileged places for psychiatric training with interdisciplinary characteristics. PMID:23752547

  6. Polish psychiatry in the wake of social changes.

    Herczyńska, Grazyna


    The aim of this paper is to present some characteristic facts concerning the history of psychiatry in Poland. Those facts have been selected as to illustrate the two obvious but not often expressed theses: 1. the history of psychiatry in Poland has been closely linked with the mainstream of Western thought, social and philosophical ideas of the time; 2. development of psychiatry and psychiatric care depend on the political history of the country. The background factor that greatly influenced that development was the partition of Poland between Russia, Prussia and Austria, which lasted well over one hundred years. PMID:19112380

  7. Graphology in German psychiatry (1870-1930).

    Schäfer, Armin


    This article discusses both the use of graphology in German psychiatry (1870-1930) and the use of handwriting in psychiatric experiments. The examination of handwriting was part of an ensemble of diagnostic tools. Although disorders of handwriting seemed to indicate psychic diseases, graphology did not seem the right method to produce valid observations. Nevertheless, psychiatrists began to incorporate the process of writing into research and diagnosis and to make the process of handwriting an experimental field. Emil Kraepelin invented an apparatus - the so-called Writing-Scale - with which he could measure the dynamics of writing in various dimensions and, in particular, the pressure of movements. The experiments produced a huge amount of data, but the psychiatrists were unable to interpret them in a comprehensible way. Although psychiatrists failed to grasp the psychopathology in handwriting, they discovered a systemic behaviour of the organism controlled by feedback. PMID:27160214

  8. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry.

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D


    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda. PMID:26333032

  9. [Medical students and psychiatry. A survey of students' opinion].

    Giberti, F; Corsini, G; Rovida, S


    In the last years research on the didactics of Psychiatry and opinions of medical students on Psychiatry has gained great interest. The authors think that this research could be useful for the improvement of didactics, for better understanding the meanings of professional choice, the identity of psychiatrist and their relationship with colleagues in other medical field. The goal of this research work was a preliminary survey of Genoese University Medical Student's opinions about psychiatry didactics, and choice of specialization. A questionnaire was submitted to all the students who passed Clinical Psychiatry examination in the period from November 1987 to December 1988. The students were divided in two randomized groups: the first group of students (224) was submitted to the questionnaire immediately after Clinical Psychiatry examination; while to the second group of students (66) the questionnaire was mailed. The aim of the questions was to assess the student's opinions on psychiatry, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, the career they wanted to take up, and the difficulties of studying psychiatry: 69% of the students of the first group and 42% of the students of the second group answered the questionnaire. Female students answered that they preferred psychiatric specialization more than their male colleagues did, but the difference has no statistical importance. In most cases, the students who answered that they have taken into account psychiatry as a choice of specialisation, are more interested in medical specialties (primary care, etc.) than in surgical specialties. Most of the medical students declare some emotional troubles (anxiety, sleeplessness, problem in social relations).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7934737

  10. Innovative methods in teaching psychiatry to medical students

    Antonio Lobo; Concepción de-la Cámara; Ricardo Campos; Tirso Ventura; Carlos Marco; Antonio Campayo; Federico Dourdil; Mari Fé Barcones; Pedro Saz


    Background and Objectives: To test the conjecture that the innovative method to teach psychosomatic psychiatry previously reported will be confirmed as beneficial in the training of medical students in the field of general psychiatry. Methods: The emphasis in this course is placed on the discussion of clinical cases, bed-side clinical teaching, and a research-oriented part. The “Innovative Teaching Plan” (ITP) is intended to train student-leaders to guide small groups (SG) of students. The re...

  11. Towards Community - Reflections on Community Psychiatry, Culture and Alterity

    Ana Neto; Teresa Maia; Pilar Santos Pinto


    Introduction: The constant transformation of  communities  and  its relationship  with mental illness has been studied and debated for the past decades, although it is still not clear how it has been incorporated in clinical practice.Aims: The authors propose to review the relevance to Psychiatry, especially Community Psychiatry, of understanding  communities as well as the methodologies and conceptual frameworks that allow that approach.Methods: Selected and critical review of the literature...

  12. Changing Medical Students’ Attitudes to Psychiatry through Newer Teaching Techniques*

    Ajita Nayak


    The significance of mental health in the entire health scenario has increased. However, the representation of psychiatry in the current MBBS curriculum for undergraduate students in India still remains much less than desirable. Further, stigmatising attitudes lessen these future doctors′ ability to detect and manage patients with psychological problems despite adequate knowledge about psychiatry. Students believe that psychiatrically ill patients are unpredictable and can be dangerous to othe...

  13. [Use of informatics technology in psychiatry].

    Margariti, M; Papadimitriou, G N


    Computer technology dominates our daily lives and has become an integral professional tool in medical practice and by extension, in psychiatry as well. The widespread use of internet technology has taken place with unprecedented speed in the history of human civilization, spreading in a few decades to all countries of the world, offering novel possibilities for transmitting information, and leading to the globalization of knowledge. However, the speed with which computer technology is becoming a part of our lives is accompanied by difficulties in integration. The continued evolution of applications often leads to the impression that to be modern and efficient we have to run continuously after developments, dedicating time and effort that we cannot often afford. At the same time, its widespread use alters the needs of our patients, and our efficiency is constantly judged in a globalized environment which, while offering new possibilities, also has new demands. The initial impression that computer technology is simply a tool that can facilitate the work of those who are willing and able to use it has been replaced by the perception that the practice of medicine, in both clinical and academic level, requires sufficient knowledge of modern technology and the development of relevant skills for ongoing training and following innovative applications. The result of this assumption is the introduction of technology courses in the curricula of medical schools in the country. This article offers a brief description of the uses of information technology in psychiatry. In particular, e-mail is one of the most popular Internet services and there is internationally an increasing pressure from the public to be able to contact their doctor by e-mail. Furthermore, almost all psychiatric journals now have a digital electronic edition, thus increasing the volume of articles published, the ease of accessing the required information, and ultimately the reduction of the time it takes a

  14. Brain SPECT in psychiatry: Delusion or reality?

    Aim: The need for functional information is becoming increasingly evident for proper therapeutic approaches to the treatment and follow up of psychiatric diseases. While data on this subject already exists, there is a general lack of consensus about the use of brain SPECT in this domain and also a considerable negative prejudice due to a number of factors including poor quality imaging and unrealistic expectations. Based on a large group of brain SPECT-s performed over the past 3 years we attempted to sort and refine the indications for SPECT in psychiatry. Materials and Methods: High resolution brain SPECT was performed with triple head gamma camera, super-high resolution fan beam collimator and Tc-HMPAO. A comprehensive semiquantitative color, 3D surface as well as multi-thresholded volume display was routinely used and supplemented by automatic realignment in case of longitudinal follow-up. Results: 470 brain SPECT-s done on 432 patients were all referred by psychiatrists or neuro-psychiatrists for a wide spectrum of psychiatric diseases and ranged in age from 7 to 88 years. The most common primary reasons for referral were : attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); anxiety; obsessive-compulsive disease, depression (refractory, chronic, bipolar ), impulse control problems; oppositional defiance, post traumatic brain injury; seizures, learning difficulties, pervasive development disorders, memory loss and differential of dementia. Among common denominators were long duration of the disease, unresponsiveness to treatment, worsening of clinical status, and presence of multiple conditions at the same time. The multiparametric display used enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the brain volume which included the hemispheric surfaces; the basal ganglia (striatum) and the thalamus, several components of the limbic and paralimbic systems: anterior and posterior cingulate and their respective subdivisions, insula-s and their subdivisions, apical and mesial

  15. Frequency of anemia in chronic psychiatry patients

    Korkmaz S


    Full Text Available Sevda Korkmaz,1 Sevler Yildiz,1 Tuba Korucu,1 Burcu Gundogan,1 Zehra Emine Sunbul,1 Hasan Korkmaz,2 Murad Atmaca1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey Purpose: Anemia could cause psychiatric symptoms such as cognitive function disorders and depression or could deteriorate an existing psychiatric condition when it is untreated. The objective of this study is to scrutinize the frequency of anemia in chronic psychiatric patients and the clinical and sociodemographic factors that could affect this frequency.Methods: All inpatients in our clinic who satisfied the study criteria and received treatment between April 2014 and April 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic data for 378 patients included in the study and hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit values observed during their admission to the hospital were recorded in the forms. Male patients with an Hb level of <13 g/dL and nonpregnant female patients with an Hb level of <12 g/dL were considered as anemic.Findings: Axis 1 diagnoses demonstrated that 172 patients had depressive disorder, 51 patients had bipolar disorder, 54 patients had psychotic disorder, 33 patients had conversion disorder, 19 patients had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 25 patients had generalized anxiety disorder, and 24 patients had other psychiatric conditions. It was also determined that 25.4% of the patients suffered from anemia. Thirty-five percent of females and 10% of males were considered as anemic. The frequency of anemia was the highest among psychotic disorder patients (35%, followed by generalized anxiety disorder patients (32%, and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (26%. Anemia was diagnosed in 22% of depressive disorder patients, 25% of bipolar disorder patients, and 24% of conversion disorder patients.Results: The prevalence of anemia among chronic psychiatry patients is more frequent than the general population

  16. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    Healey, Dan


    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice. PMID:24128434

  17. [The potential use of ayahuasca in psychiatry].

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Andrassy, Gabor; Kovacs, Attila


    Ayahuasca is a decoctum made of admixture plants containing dimethyltryptamine and harmine. For millennia it has been used as a central element of spiritual, religious, initiation, and other - foremost healing - rituals, originally by the indigenous groups of the Amazon basin and later by the mestizo populations of the region. During the last two decades the brew has raised increased scientific and lay interest about its healing potentials within the framework of Western therapeutic settings. The typical ayahuasca effects consist of strong somatic reactions, vivid visions, relived personal memories, cathartic emotions, and insightful, introspective experiences when the emerging mental contents take different context and get deeper perspectives. The ayahuasca-experience can be exhausting necessitating the presence of an experienced leader for helping participants to pass difficult phases and for maximizing therapeutic benefits. No health damaging adverse effect has been confirmed thus far as result of its well-structured, institutionalized use. The scientific investigation of ayahuasca is hindered by legal issues, methodical problems, and sociocultural preconceptions. The present review outlines the therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca use in psychiatry with its psychobiological and spiritual background. PMID:27390204

  18. [The situation of emergency psychiatry in Germany].

    Pajonk, F-G B


    The impact of psychiatric emergencies for the care of patients in preclinical emergency medicine, in emergency departments and in psychiatric hospitals has been underestimated for a long time. There is still insufficient knowledge and a need for further research. There are, however, sufficient reasons to assume that annually approximately 500,000 patients with a psychiatric emergency receive treatment from a preclinical emergency physician and another 1.5 million in emergency departments in Germany. Further, approximately 500,000 patients are admitted to psychiatric hospitals as an emergency. The most frequent reasons are intoxication, agitation, aggressiveness and suicidal ideation, posing a threat of self-harm to the patient or to other persons and evoking other life-threatening conditions. Emergency psychiatry also plays a role in collective injuries, such as mass disasters, catastrophes and rampage situations. There is some evidence that the number of psychiatric emergencies is increasing. Reasons are, among others, changes in the services provided for inpatient and outpatient treatment, a reduction in stabilizing psychosocial factors and a general increase in the utilization of emergency healthcare services. PMID:26099496

  19. Godsdienst en psychiatrie: reacties op een geval van doodslag in godsdienstwaanzin

    Belzen, J.A.


    Religion and psychiatry: responses to a case of manslaughter in religious mania

    After having touched upon some modalities of the relationship between religion and psychiatry, a paradox is pointed out in a psychiatry segregated by denomination as was the case in the Netherlands: this type of psychiatry was stated to be different because of its religiou...

  20. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)


    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [{sup 3}H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with {sup 11}C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [{sup 11}C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high

  1. Haematological toxicity of drugs used in psychiatry.

    Flanagan, Robert J; Dunk, Louisa


    Almost all classes of psychotropic agents have been reported to cause blood dyscrasias. Mechanisms include direct toxic effects upon the bone marrow, the formation of antibodies against haematopoietic precursors or involve peripheral destruction of cells. Agranulocytosis is probably the most important drug-related blood dyscrasia. The mortality from drug-induced agranulocytosis is 5-10% in Western countries. The manifestations of agranulocytosis are secondary to infection. Aggressive treatment with intravenous broad-spectrum antimicrobials and bone marrow stimulants may be required. Of drugs encountered in psychiatry, antipsychotics including clozapine (risk of agranulocytosis approximately 0.8%, predominantly in the first year of treatment) and phenothiazines (chlorpromazine agranulocytosis risk approximately 0.13%), and antiepileptics (notably carbamazepine, neutropenia risk approximately 0.5%) are the most common causes of drug-related neutropenia/agranulocytosis. Drugs known to cause neutropenia should not be used concomitantly with other drugs known to cause this problem. High temperature and other indicators of possible infection should be looked for routinely during treatment. Clozapine is well known as a drug that can cause blood dyscrasias, but olanzapine and other atypicals may also cause similar problems. In addition to genetic factors, there are likely to be dose-related and immunological components to these phenomena. Important lessons have been learnt from the haematological monitoring that is necessary with clozapine and the monitoring has been very successful in preventing deaths related to clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Continuing research into the mechanisms of drug-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis may serve to further enhance the safe use not only of clozapine, but also of other agents. PMID:18098216

  2. Conceptualizing the forensic psychiatry report as performative narrative.

    Griffith, Ezra E H; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Baranoski, Madelon


    Forensic psychiatry has evolved into a recognized specialty. Two core competencies, often overlooked but commonplace in forensic psychiatry, are the constructing of forensic reports and the presenting of oral testimony. This article concerns the written forensic report and conceptualizes it as performative writing. We first review the development of the forensic report's structure over the past 30 years or so and then apply constructs from other disciplines as we propose a process for creating narrative forensic reports. Such writing is grounded in the discipline of psychiatry, relies on ethics-based principles of respect for persons and truth-telling, and uses language to tell a story that persuades the legal audience. We examine the impact of voice, pitfalls to avoid, and the concepts of witnessing and labeling, as we describe the process of formulating the narrative through the voice of the forensic expert. PMID:20305072

  3. [Problem based learning (PBL)--possible adaptation in psychiatry (debate)].

    Adamowski, Tomasz; Frydecka, Dorota; Kiejna, Andrzej


    Teaching psychiatry concerns mainly education of students studying medicine and clinical psychology, but it also concerns professional training the people specializing in psychiatry and in other fields of medicine. Since the requirements that medical professionals are obliged to meet are ever higher, it is essential to provide highest possible quality of teaching and to do so to use the best possible teaching models. One of the modern educational models is Problem Based Learning (PBL). Barrows' and Dreyfus' research as well as development of andragogy had major impact on the introduction of this model of teaching. There are favourable experiences of using PBL in teaching psychiatry reported, especially in the field of psychosomatics. Problem Based Learning gradually becomes a part of modern curricula in Western Europe. For this reason it is worth keeping in mind PBL's principles and knowingly apply them into practice, all the more the reported educational effects of using this method are very promising. PMID:17598426

  4. A Survey of the Interactions between Psychiatry Residency Programs and the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Varley, Christopher K.; Jibson, Michael D.; McCarthy, Mary; Benjamin, Sheldon


    OBJECTIVE: The authors report a survey of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training (AADPRT) on interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and psychiatry residency programs. METHODS: American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training membership was anonymously surveyed by e-mail and by paper…

  5. Big data are coming to psychiatry: a general introduction.

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Bauer, Michael


    Big data are coming to the study of bipolar disorder and all of psychiatry. Data are coming from providers and payers (including EMR, imaging, insurance claims and pharmacy data), from omics (genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data), and from patients and non-providers (data from smart phone and Internet activities, sensors and monitoring tools). Analysis of the big data will provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration, descriptive observation, hypothesis generation, and prediction, and the results of big data studies will be incorporated into clinical practice. Technical challenges remain in the quality, analysis and management of big data. This paper discusses some of the fundamental opportunities and challenges of big data for psychiatry. PMID:26440506

  6. Psychiatry in 21 st century: The road ahead

    Sayantanava Mitra


    Full Text Available In spite of becoming more humane in its approach with improvements in understanding of mental illnesses over last century, psychiatry still has a long way to go. At this point in time, on one hand the world faces issues like terrorism, wars and global warming; while on the other it is witnessing economic and gender empowerment like never before. With technology providing us with immense opportunities to advance care for the mentally ill, we are closer than ever to finding the holy-grail of psychiatry, and overcoming daunting challenges.

  7. Psychiatry in the East African colonies: a background to confinement.

    Mahone, S


    This article is concerned with the discipline of psychiatry in colonial East Africa as it emerged out of the crime and disorder problem to become an intellectually significant 'East African School' of psychiatry. The process of lunacy certification, in particular, provides a snapshot of the medical and political tensions that existed among the medical establishment, the prison system and the colonial courts, all of whom sought to define collective African behaviour. This historical article utilises archaic terminology, such as 'lunatic' or 'lunacy', as these categories were in use at the time. PMID:16943144

  8. Commentary: the place of performative writing in forensic psychiatry.

    Griffith, Ezra E H; Baranoski, Madelon V


    In this issue of the Journal, Robert Simon has explored the subject of the place that writing should occupy in the professional life of forensic psychiatrists. We have taken the platform so elegantly constructed by this erudite and prolific author and used it to discuss the quotidian and concrete task of writing the customary forensic psychiatry report. We look to other disciplines for mechanisms to analyze the written forensic report: concepts of voice, portraiture, and narrative. We ultimately conclude that preparing these reports is a complex undertaking and that writing with clarity, precision, and artistry in forensic psychiatry should be viewed as a core competency. PMID:17389341

  9. Neurociência e psiquiatria Neuroscience and psychiatry

    Frederico G. Graeff


    Full Text Available Ao longo da história da psiquiatria, observa-se uma oscilação entre uma perspectiva biológica e outra mentalista. A perspectiva biológica enfatiza explicações calcadas no sistema nervoso central e intervenções psicofarmacológicas. Por outro lado, a perspectiva mentalista prioriza a experiência subjetiva e intervenções através da psicoterapia. Embora o embate entre estas duas perspectivas esteja longe de ser resolvido, o presente trabalho defende uma posição intermediária, privilegiando um equilíbrio entre estas duas perspectivas. Ao longo do artigo, apresenta-se o pensamento de autores dualistas, que propõem uma interação entre mente e cérebro, assim como de autores monistas, que consideram o cérebro como gerador dos processos mentais. Discute-se, também, a crítica que o conhecimento de natureza subjetiva, produzido pela psicanálise, vem sofrendo por parte de alguns neurocientistas. Finalmente, considera-se o conceito de "complementaridade", elaborado pelos físicos quânticos Heisenberg e Bohr, como uma possível forma de solucionar o impasse epistemológico entre psicanálise e neurociência.Throughout its history, Psychiatry shows a clear oscillation between biological and mentalistic perspectives. The biological perspective emphasizes explanations based on the central nervous system and psychopharmacological interventions. On the other hand, the mentalistic perspective highlights subjective experience and interventions based on psychotherapy. Although this difference of opinion is far from being solved, the present work stands for a balance between these two perspectives. The paper presents the dualistic and monist point of views regarding the brain-mind debate. It also discusses the criticisms put forward by some neuroscientists on the subjective knowledge produced by Psychoanalysis. Finally, it is suggested that the "complementarity" concept developed by the quantum physicists Heisenberg and Bohr might help to

  10. Consulting Psychiatry within an Integrated Primary Care Model

    Schreiter, Elizabeth A. Zeidler; Pandhi, Nancy; Fondow, Meghan D. M.; Thomas, Chantelle; Vonk, Jantina; Reardon, Claudia L; Serrano, Neftali


    After implementation of an integrated consulting psychiatry model and psychology services within primary care at a federally qualified health center, patients have increased access to needed mental health services, and primary care clinicians receive the support and collaboration needed to meet the psychiatric needs of the population.

  11. Psychiatry Trainees' Training and Experience in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Eyal, Roy; O'Connor, Mary J.


    Background/Objective: Alcohol is a teratogen. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) affect about 1% of live births, causing severe impairment. Individuals affected by FASDs are overrepresented in psychiatric settings. This study reports on the education and experience of psychiatry trainees in approaching FASDs. Method: Data were collected from…

  12. Implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy in a Psychiatry Residency Training Program

    Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Haller, Ellen


    Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression is a brief, well researched treatment for acute major depression. This article describes the implementation of IPT as an evidence-based treatment for depression in a psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors tracked the implementation process over 5 years as interpersonal…

  13. Primary Supervision: Massachusetts General Hospital's child and adolescent psychiatry seminar

    Jellinek, Michael S.


    In this article, the author describes "Primary Supervision", a seminar he has led for approximately 20 years, which is designed for the entire class of nine first-year residents in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry training at Massachusetts General Hospital. The seminar meets for 1 hour each week throughout the first year. Through 900 hours of…

  14. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K.

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.


    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  15. Postgraduate training in psychiatry in India with focus on mumbai.

    Patel, Ramesh R


    The present article traces the formation of the Indian Psychiatric Society and the progress of post-graduate training in psychiatry in India in general and Mumbai in particular. It covers the standard of psychiatric education, the goals and recommendations for improvisation of residency programmes, and the future of post-graduate psychiatric training. PMID:25838723

  16. Emergency Psychiatry and the Family: The Decision to Admit.

    Perlmutter, Richard A.


    Awareness of interpersonal forces upon mental health clinicians is crucial to allow mature balancing of the many factors involved in the decision-making process. An integration of family and systems thinking into the practice of emergency psychiatry can enhance comfort and effectiveness in many difficult crisis situations. (Author/BL)

  17. Values-Based Practice: A New Partner to Evidence-Based Practice and A First for Psychiatry?

    K.W.M. Fulford


    Full Text Available Values-based practice, although a skills -based approach to working with complex and conflicting values, is at the practical cutting edge of a new interdisciplinary field involving philosophy and psychiatry. To many, it came as a considerable surprise that the new field of philosophy of psychiatry should have emerged when it did, in the 1990s, heralded as this decade had been as the "decade of the brain" (Fulford et al ., 2003. There has been important work in the philosophy of psychiatry at earlier periods, of course, not least in the foundational work of Karl Jaspers (Jaspers, 1913. But the widespread expectation had been that with the development of the new neurosciences, the need for philosophy in psychiatry would diminish rather than increase (Fulford et al ., 2006. As Singh (2007 has put it "While the experimental breakthroughs, both in etiology and therapeutics, will come mainly from biology, the insights and leads can hopefully come from many other fields, especially the psychosocial and philosophical. It is in some such synergy that these two supposedly antagonistic branches must engage themselves, to complement and nurture rather than confront and dismember." So, nothing could be further from the truth than the idea that philosophy and neuroscience run counter to each other! Indeed, as the American neuroscientist and psychiatrist Nancy Andreasen (Andreasen, 2001 has argued, developments in the neurosciences, far from reducing the need for rigorous philosophical work in psychiatry, actually drive many of the deepest problems of traditional philosophy to the very top of our agenda-such problems include the nature of personal identity, the problem of free will, and the problem of the relationship between mind and brain itself. When it comes to values, in particular, there are many reasons why work on the philosophy of values, and its practical counterpart in values-based practice, should have been pushed to the top of our agenda. Some of

  18. Is Mandatory Prospective Trial Registration Working to Prevent Publication of Unregistered Trials and Selective Outcome Reporting? An Observational Study of Five Psychiatry Journals That Mandate Prospective Clinical Trial Registration.

    Amelia Scott

    Full Text Available To address the bias occurring in the medical literature associated with selective outcome reporting, in 2005, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE introduced mandatory trial registration guidelines and member journals required prospective registration of trials prior to patient enrolment as a condition of publication. No research has examined whether these guidelines are impacting psychiatry publications. Our objectives were to determine the extent to which articles published in psychiatry journals adhering to ICMJE guidelines were correctly prospectively registered, whether there was evidence of selective outcome reporting and changes to participant numbers, and whether there was a relationship between registration status and source of funding.Any clinical trial (as defined by ICMJE published between 1 January 2009 and 31 July 2013 in the top five psychiatry journals adhering to ICMJE guidelines (The American Journal of Psychiatry, Archives of General Psychiatry/JAMA Psychiatry, Biological Psychiatry, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry and conducted after July 2005 (or 2007 for two journals was included. For each identified trial, where possible we extracted trial registration information, changes to POMs between publication and registry to assess selective outcome reporting, changes to participant numbers, and funding type.Out of 3305 articles, 181 studies were identified as clinical trials requiring registration: 21 (11.6% were deemed unregistered, 61 (33.7% were retrospectively registered, 37 (20.4% had unclear POMs either in the article or the registry and 2 (1.1% were registered in an inaccessible trial registry. Only 60 (33.1% studies were prospectively registered with clearly defined POMs; 17 of these 60 (28.3% showed evidence of selective outcome reporting and 16 (26.7% demonstrated a change in participant numbers of 20% or more; only 26 (14

  19. Psychotherapy and its Role in Psychiatric Practice: A Position Paper. I. Psychiatry as a Psychobiological Discipline.

    Shapiro, Yakov; John, Nicholas; Scott, Rowan; Tomy, Nadia


    Economic, political, and ideological landscapes have impacted the practice of psychiatry throughout its evolution as a medical discipline. Despite enormous scientific advances over the course of the past century, many psychiatrists continue to operate with a split Cartesian picture of mind versus brain and entrenched ideological positions ranging from biological "chemical imbalance" to rigidly followed manualized psychotherapy approaches, both of which frequently result in fractured clinical care. With the impact of systemic economic and political pressures in Canada and the United States, the attention to the doctor-patient relationship has taken a back seat to high-volume practices, computerized assessment tools, and the focus on evidence-based treatments for behaviorally defined syndromes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders that often come at the expense of the patient's experience of his or her illness. We spend much time teaching the next generation of psychiatrists what to prescribe versus how to prescribe; what manualized treatments to administer versus questioning why our patients engage in dysfunctional patterns of thinking, feeling, and relating to others, and what impact these patterns may have on their interaction with us in the here-and-now of the treatment setting. In this paper, we propose an integrative psychobiological model, in which biological interventions carry personal meanings, and relational transactions in the treatment setting are a form of learning that results in lasting physiological changes in the brain. Psychiatry needs to reconnect with its roots as a science of attachment and meaning, in which attention to the objective, subjective, and relational domains of the patient-provider experience is equally foundational for any successful treatment outcome. PMID:27123801

  20. Child and adolescent psychiatry and family status

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Levin, Eline; Høyer, Mette;


    BACKGROUND: Much attention has been given to parental separation as a possible risk factor for adverse child development; however, little information is available regarding the family status of children referred to psychiatric facilities. AIMS: To assess the association between psychiatric illness...... children are at increased risk of not living with both biological parents independent of age of the child....

  1. The Differential Impact of Clerk Interest and Participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clerkship Rotation upon Psychiatry and Pediatrics Residency Matches

    Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.


    Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…

  2. The Abduction of Disorder in Psychiatry

    Richters, John E.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.


    The evolutionary cornerstone of J. C. Wakefield's (1999) harmful dysfunction thesis is a faulty assumption of comparability between mental and biological processes that overlooks the unique plasticity and openness of the brain?s functioning design. This omission leads Wakefield to an idealized concept of natural mental functions, illusory interpretations of mental disorders as harmful dysfunctions, and exaggerated claims for the validity of his explanatory and stipulative proposals. The autho...

  3. Gender differences in the practice patterns of forensic psychiatry experts.

    Price, Marilyn; Recupero, Patricia R; Strong, David R; Gutheil, Thomas G


    In the past 25 years, the number of female forensic psychiatrists has increased dramatically. To assess whether there are gender differences in the practice patterns of forensic psychiatry experts, members of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law were surveyed during an annual business meeting. Women in the sample were shown to perform fewer categories of evaluation than men. Women were less likely than men to do criminal work, civil commitment/involuntary medication evaluations, and testamentary capacity evaluations, but there was no significant difference in the percentage of those performing some personal injury/disability/fitness for duty, custody, sexual harassment, or malpractice evaluations. Gender was not a significant factor in determining hourly rate. When subjects were asked to comment on whether they thought that gender was a factor in the selection of a forensic expert, 80 percent of the women, but only 41 percent of the men, believed that gender was a consideration. PMID:15515912

  4. [Ambiguity in Eric Kandel's neuroscientific basis of psychiatry].

    Glas, G


    The philosophical principles underlying the work of Eric Kandel are investigated on the basis of his innovative paper entitled 'A new intellectual framework for psychiatry' (Kandel 1998). A careful analysis of the concepts involved reveals some ambiguity in Kandel's proposition in the mind-body debate. On the one hand Kandel uses formulations that are compatible with (classical) psychophysical identity theories; on the other hand he expresses views that actually have more in common with non-eliminative physicalism (or epiphenomenalism). In addition, he weakens his position by using misleading metaphors an analogies. This can lead to what is known as the 'mereological fallacy'. The final part of the article examines what this ambiguity tells us about Kandel's views on psychotherapy and the social justification for psychiatry. Kandel's approach can lead to a pointless narrowing down of the psychiatrist's normative role and to an over-restrictive attitude to psychotherapy. PMID:17151995

  5. [What place is there for psychotherapy in public psychiatry?].

    Kramer, U; Ambresin, G; de Roten, Y; Fassassi, S; Hedjal, A; Herrera, F; Kolly, S; Pomini, V; Preisig, M; Despland, J-N


    The question of the place of psychotherapy in psychiatric public care is posed in this article. We will address this question first by presenting two clinical and research programmes which were implemented in a clinical psychiatric unit, section Karl Jaspers (Service of General Psychiatry) of the Department of Psychiatry CHUV, in Lausanne with the collaboration of the University Institute of Psychotherapy. The first one puts forward psychodynamic psychotherapy of depressed inpatients; the clinical programme and the research questions on efficacy of this treatment are discussed. The second focuses on the early treatment of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder, in particular in its research question on the effect of the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship in this process. We conclude by underlining the convergences of the two programmes. PMID:20963958

  6. Commentary on "Conceptions of modern psychiatry": from attachment to intersubjectivity.

    Allen, Jon G


    I am honored and humbled by the invitation to comment on the wisdom of a true giant in the history of psychiatry, Harry Stack Sullivan. Resonating with the prescience of his thought as any contemporary reader would, I am astonished by its pertinence to current concerns. Four domains of resonance strike me: the role of neurobiology in psychiatry, the social origins of mind in attachment relationships, the contribution of self-hate to suicide and, perhaps most important for clinicians, the intersubjective process of diagnostic understanding and treatment. As an expression of admiration for the timelessness of Sullivan's essay and appreciation for all we have learned from him, my comments merely explicate how some of his thoughts are playing out in contemporary theory and research. PMID:22397539

  7. A Thorn in the Flesh? Forensic Inpatients in General Psychiatry

    Møllerhøj, Jette; Stølan, Liv Os; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette


    provide sufficient mental health care. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Nationwide training and teaching as well as knowledge exchange between specialized forensic psychiatry and general psychiatry are recommended. Further exploration is needed on patient perspectives and on avenues to increase efficiency and......, bottlenecks, poor information exchange, lack of knowledge and competences, complex psychopathology, and a vague and therefore uncomfortable task of nursing leads to a focus on criminal offenses rather than mental disorders and an increased risk of brutalization and stigmatization in nursing practices. Members...... of staff identify the care of mentally disordered offenders in general psychiatric units as either "a parking space" or a very difficult or frightening course, where staff members tend to behave like pleasers in order to avoid risks of conflict or physical violence. Either way, it seems hard to...

  8. [Definition of mental illness and discoursive strategies in psychiatry].

    Hartman, J


    Defining mental illness was presented in the article both as a matter of medical knowledge and a political issue. This latter aspect cannot be successfully dealt with by psychiatry itself, since it is a branch of medicine, nevertheless bioethics offers here its competences and possibilities. The presentation of some elements of traditional strategies in defining mental illness introduces a draft of such a project of the definition procedure, which reinforces the constantly threatened (by the decrease of sovereignity) social and legal status of psychiatry, and--on the other hand--enables us to support the evidently handicapped status of psychiatric patients. This solitary definition strategy, which support both psychiatric circles and patients, assumes that a popular modern tendency to deny the very reality of the mental illness is to be avoided. The definition of mental illness proposed in the article is pragmatic in character and is based on a definition of mental illness as a kind of spiritual disorder. PMID:10816967

  9. [Dynamic paradigm in psychopathology: "chaos theory", from physics to psychiatry].

    Pezard, L; Nandrino, J L


    For the last thirty years, progress in the field of physics, known as "Chaos theory"--or more precisely: non-linear dynamical systems theory--has increased our understanding of complex systems dynamics. This framework's formalism is general enough to be applied in other domains, such as biology or psychology, where complex systems are the rule rather than the exception. Our goal is to show here that this framework can become a valuable tool in scientific fields such as neuroscience and psychiatry where objects possess natural time dependency (i.e. dynamical properties) and non-linear characteristics. The application of non-linear dynamics concepts on these topics is more precise than a loose metaphor and can throw a new light on mental functioning and dysfunctioning. A class of neural networks (recurrent neural networks) constitutes an example of the implementation of the dynamical system concept and provides models of cognitive processes (15). The state of activity of the network is represented in its state space and the time evolution of this state is a trajectory in this space. After a period of time those networks settle on an equilibrium (a kind of attractor). The strength of connections between neurons define the number and relations between those attractors. The attractors of the network are usually interpreted as "mental representations". When an initial condition is imposed to the network, the evolution towards an attractor is considered as a model of information processing (27). This information processing is not defined in a symbolic manner but is a result of the interaction between distributed elements. Several properties of dynamical models can be used to define a way where the symbolic properties emerge from physical and dynamical properties (28) and thus they can be candidates for the definition of the emergence of mental properties on the basis of neuronal dynamics (42). Nevertheless, mental properties can also be considered as the result of an

  10. ["I do the right thing only against payment": A critique of pay for performance in psychiatry].

    Maio, G


    This paper takes a critical look at pay for performance (P4P) as a model for introducing new incentives in psychiatry. This model is to be seen as a tool of commercialism, and such a restructuring of psychiatry represents a wide-reaching political maneuver which actively introduces economical parameters into the field and will have a great impact on psychiatry. P4P starts with the false premise that medicine has to be structured like industry. This premise is false because psychiatry has to do with relationships to patients, and not with the production of a product. Therefore, it is essential to reflect critically upon the premises and consequences of P4P for psychiatry. Only this critical reflection can help psychiatry to keep its identity as a humane service for suffering people. PMID:26429196

  11. The neurology-psychiatry divide: a thought experiment

    Reilly, Thomas


    Diseases of the brain are generally classified as either neurological or psychiatric. However, these two groups of illnesses cannot be readily separated on the basis of pathophysiology or symptomatology. It is difficult to rationally explain to someone with no prior frame of reference why we have the split between neurological and psychiatric illness. This demonstrates that the division is untenable, which has implications for training in both psychiatry and neurology.

  12. Maurycy Urstein: forgotten Polish contributor to German psychiatry

    Marcinowski, Filip


    Polish psychiatrist Maurycy Urstein (1872–1940) is nowadays almost forgotten. He is not mentioned in the history of Polish psychiatry which only partially may be explained by the fact that his most essential works were published in German language. His scientific oeuvre contains dozens of publications, including four monographs on catatonia. Urstein was an ardent advocate of the autointoxication theory of psychiatric disorders, fierce opponent of psychoanalysis and enthusiast of the use of bi...

  13. Psychiatry Training in Canadian Family Medicine Residency Programs

    Kates, Nick; Toews, John; Leichner, Pierre


    Family physicians may spend up to 50% of their time diagnosing and managing mental disorders and emotional problems, but this is not always reflected in the training they receive. This study of the teaching of psychiatry in the 16 family medicine residency programs in Canada showed that although the majority of program directors are reasonably satisfied with the current training, they see room for improvement—particularly in finding psychiatrists with a better understanding of family practice...

  14. Happiness and health in psychiatry: what are their implications?

    Leonardo Machado


    Full Text Available Background Happiness is a lasting state and is associated with the absence of negative emotions, the presence of positive emotions, life satisfaction, social engagement and objectives in life. Researchers have demonstrated the benefits of happiness in many aspects of life, but few studies have been conducted within psychiatry.Objectives To develop a critical literature review of studies on happiness and health in order to bring some further and useful information to psychiatry updating the article “Happiness: a review” published in 2007 in Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica.Methods Computational searching was undertaken of digital data basis (PubMed and SciELO using the keywords “happiness” and “health”. One hundred twenty-seven papers published between 2004 and 2014 were found, but only 76 had the keywords in the title or abstract and with this were selected.Results Personality traits, such as self-direction; being married; being involved in physical and leisure activities; higher educational backgrounds and intelligence quotient; religiosity, volunteering and altruism; good physical and mental health; were positively related to happiness.Discussion Analysis of the concept of happiness and its associated emotions may be more complex than describing the symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Despite this, the study of happiness brings several positive implications for psychiatry.

  15. The Troubled History of Psychiatry's Quest for Specificity.

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N


    Over the course of the nineteenth century, medical disciplines replaced holistic conceptions of body and mind with specific diagnoses that were unrelated to the qualities and circumstances of the individuals who harbored them. Despite periodic attempts from the late nineteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries to implement diagnostic systems based on the principle of specificity, psychiatric diagnoses remained undifferentiated, overlapping, and capacious. The need for medical legitimacy, compatibility with a biomedical model, and conditions that third parties would reimburse led psychiatry to replace the psychodynamically oriented DSM-I and DSM-II with the radically empiricist DSM-III in 1980. This manual emphasized explicit measurement, symptom-based entities, and homogeneous categories that were compatible with the specific disorders embraced in the rest of medicine. Yet the diagnostic system that the DSM-III launched was incongruent with the underlying nature of the continuous, fluid, and intersecting conditions with which psychiatry deals. The widespread institutionalization of the specific diagnostic system in psychiatric practice, however, prevented any thoroughgoing revisions when the DSM-5 was published in 2013. The result is an impasse between psychiatry's classificatory system and the need for scientific progress in understanding the causes of and treatments for mental disorders. PMID:27127255

  16. Impact of clerkship in the attitudes toward psychiatry among Portuguese medical students

    Almeida José C; Xavier Miguel


    Abstract Background Given the shortage of human resources and the launching of a new Mental Health Plan, recruitment of psychiatrists is currently a major concern in Portugal, as well as in several other countries. Medical students' attitude toward psychiatry has been pointed as a predictor of recruitment. This study aims to evaluate the medical students' perception of psychiatry before and after a clerkship, and the impact on their intention to pursue psychiatry as a future specialty option....

  17. Effect of changing journal clubs from traditional method to evidence-based method on psychiatry residents

    Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh; Faridhoseini,Farhad; Ali SAGHEBI; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid; Moharari, Fatemeh


    Farhad Faridhosseini,1 Ali Saghebi,2 Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan,3 Fatemeh Moharari,2 Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam3 1Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, 2Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, 3Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mahhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Introduction: Journal club is a valuable educational tool in the medical field. This method follows different goals. This study aims to investigate the effect on psy...

  18. The naturalization of psychiatry in Indonesia and its interaction with indigenous therapeutics

    Nathan Porath


    Psychiatry developed as a modern branch of medical knowledge in Western societies and arrived in Southeast Asia in the late nineteenth century. Dutch colonialism brought psychiatry and psychology to the Dutch East Indies as part of the development of European therapeutics in that part of the empire. During the twentieth century, psychiatry was naturalized in Indonesia (and other Southeast Asian countries) and integrated into the national health care system. In the post-independence period, mo...

  19. Persian Translation of Perception of Psychiatry Survey Questionnaire and Evaluation of its Psychometric Properties

    Valentin Artounian; Behnam Shariati; Homayoun Amini; Alireza Salimi; Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa


    Objective: Test the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Perception of Psychiatry Survey questionnaire , which is being used in a large multi-site international study, of which we were part. This instrument was designed to measure the attitudes of medical educators to psychiatry.Methods: We used World Health Organization guideline as the methodological model for Persian translation. The Persian version of Perception of Psychiatry Survey questionnaire was administered to a con...

  20. Working towards a new psychiatry - neuroscience, technology and the DSM-5

    Alam Sabina; Patel Jigisha; Giordano James


    Abstract This Editorial introduces the thematic series on 'Toward a New Psychiatry: Philosophical and Ethical Issues in Classification, Diagnosis and Care'

  1. Genetics in psychiatry: common variant association studies

    Buxbaum Joseph D


    Full Text Available Abstract Many psychiatric conditions and traits are associated with significant heritability. Genetic risk for psychiatric conditions encompass rare variants, identified due to major effect, as well as common variants, the latter analyzed by association analyses. We review guidelines for common variant association analyses, undertaking after assessing evidence of heritability. We highlight the importance of: suitably large sample sizes; an experimental design that controls for ancestry; careful data cleaning; correction for multiple testing; small P values for positive findings; assessment of effect size for positive findings; and, inclusion of an independent replication sample. We also note the importance of a critical discussion of any prior findings, biological follow-up where possible, and a means of accessing the raw data.

  2. Impact of clerkship in the attitudes toward psychiatry among Portuguese medical students

    Almeida José C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the shortage of human resources and the launching of a new Mental Health Plan, recruitment of psychiatrists is currently a major concern in Portugal, as well as in several other countries. Medical students' attitude toward psychiatry has been pointed as a predictor of recruitment. This study aims to evaluate the medical students' perception of psychiatry before and after a clerkship, and the impact on their intention to pursue psychiatry as a future specialty option. Methods Two self-report questionnaires were administered to all 6th year students in a medical school in Lisbon, before and after a 4-weeks full-time psychiatric clerkship, in order to evaluate attitudes toward psychiatry and intention to follow psychiatry in the future. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon and Chi-square tests. Results 153 students (60.8% female filled in both questionnaires (no dropouts. After the clerkship, there was a significant improvement regarding the overall merits of psychiatry, efficacy, role definition and functioning of psychiatrists, use of legal powers to hospitalize patients and specific medical school factors. There was also a significant increase of students decided or considering the possibility to take a residency in psychiatry. However, perceptions of low prestige and negative pressure from family and peers regarding a future choice of psychiatry remained unchanged in about one-third of the students. Conclusions The results indicate clearly that the clerkship had a favorable overall impact on the student attitude towards psychiatry, as well as in the number of students considering a future career in psychiatry. Attitudes toward psychiatry seems a promising outcome indicator of the clerkship's quality, but further research is needed in order to assess its reliability as a sound predictor of recruitment.

  3. Human dermal fibroblasts in psychiatry research.

    Kálmán, S; Garbett, K A; Janka, Z; Mirnics, K


    In order to decipher the disease etiology, progression and treatment of multifactorial human brain diseases we utilize a host of different experimental models. Recently, patient-derived human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cultures have re-emerged as promising in vitro functional system for examining various cellular, molecular, metabolic and (patho)physiological states and traits of psychiatric disorders. HDF studies serve as a powerful complement to postmortem and animal studies, and often appear to be informative about the altered homeostasis in neural tissue. Studies of HDFs from patients with schizophrenia (SZ), depression, bipolar disorder (BD), autism, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and other psychiatric disorders have significantly advanced our understanding of these devastating diseases. These reports unequivocally prove that signal transduction, redox homeostasis, circadian rhythms and gene*environment (G*E) interactions are all amenable for assessment by the HDF model. Furthermore, the reported findings suggest that this underutilized patient biomaterial, combined with modern molecular biology techniques, may have both diagnostic and prognostic value, including prediction of response to therapeutic agents. PMID:26855193

  4. Musings: What child and adolescent psychiatry means to me

    L. Eugene Arnold


    Full Text Available I have been a grandfather for only 12 years, but for 37 years I have lived a grandparent's dream: people pay me to tell them how to raise their children. This is only one of the many rewards child and adolescent psychiatry has offered me. Table 1 lists some more of them.Probably the greatest satisfaction in child psychiatry is the wide selection of options for specialization: psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, family therapy, parent guidance, custody and visitation advice, epidemiology, disorder specialization, research, consultation, public education and best of all, the chance to integrate it all and play at being a comprehensive physician. The myriad challenges provoke learning and continued development that keep one young at heart and mind. Sometimes I think I should pay to practice child psychiatry.It should be obvious by now to even the casual reader that I enjoy the privilege of being a child and adolescent psychiatrist and that enjoyment manifests in a playful attitude. That playful attitude includes not taking myself too seriously. In fact, I'm proud of my humility! It was earned at the expense of repeated humbling experiences in two ways:Confronting tragic situations that I could not help, where all my education, training, experience and brilliant diagnostic insight seemed useless; and Witnessing real heroism by some parents who struggle with sick children's difficult problems without complaining and with indefatigable hope. They outshine any professional pretensions of mine. By showing me my limitations and forcing me to compare myself to patients and parents (and occasional colleagues of superior moral caliber, child psychiatry has made a better, more honest person of me and for this I'm grateful.On the other hand, there is the mind-blowing exhilaration of watching a child improve after some prescription, potion or psychotherapeutic intervention and being allowed to believe that I had something to

  5. Social Skills: Adolf Meyer’s Revision of Clinical Skill for the New Psychiatry of the Twentieth Century

    Lamb, Susan


    Adolf Meyer (1866–1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the twentieth century. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine’s traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the ‘New Psychiatry’, a clinical discipline that embodied social and scientific ideals shared with other ‘new’ progressive reform movements in the United States. This revision conformed to his concept of psychobiology – his biological theory of mind and mental disorders – and accorded with his definition of scientific medicine as a unity of clinical–pathological methods and therapeutics. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, neuron theory and American pragmatist philosophy, Meyer concluded that subjective experience and social behaviour were functions of human biology. In addition to the time-honoured techniques devised to exploit the material data of the diseased body – observing and recording in the clinic, dissecting in the morgue and conducting histological experiments in the laboratory – he insisted that psychiatrists must also be skilled at wielding social interaction and interpersonal relationships as investigative and therapeutic tools in order to conceptualise, collect, analyse and apply the ephemeral data of ‘social adaptation’. An examination of his clinical practices and teaching at Johns Hopkins between 1913 and 1917 shows how particular historical and intellectual contexts shaped Meyer’s conceptualisation of social behaviour as a biological function and, subsequently, his new vision of clinical skill for twentieth-century psychiatry. PMID:26090738

  6. Clinical Skills Verification in General Psychiatry: Recommendations of the ABPN Task Force on Rater Training

    Jibson, Michael D.; Broquet, Karen E.; Anzia, Joan Meyer; Beresin, Eugene V.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Kaye, David; Rao, Nyapati Raghu; Rostain, Anthony Leon; Sexson, Sandra B.; Summers, Richard F.


    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) announced in 2007 that general psychiatry training programs must conduct Clinical Skills Verification (CSV), consisting of observed clinical interviews and case presentations during residency, as one requirement to establish graduates' eligibility to sit for the written certification…

  7. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge and Neuropsychiatric Skills Into Psychiatry: The Way Forward.

    Schildkrout, Barbara; Benjamin, Sheldon; Lauterbach, Margo D


    Increasing the integration of neuroscience knowledge and neuropsychiatric skills into general psychiatric practice would facilitate expanded approaches to diagnosis, formulation, and treatment while positioning practitioners to utilize findings from emerging brain research. There is growing consensus that the field of psychiatry would benefit from more familiarity with neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Yet there remain numerous factors impeding the integration of these domains of knowledge into general psychiatry.The authors make recommendations to move the field forward, focusing on the need for advocacy by psychiatry and medical organizations and changes in psychiatry education at all levels. For individual psychiatrists, the recommendations target obstacles to attaining expanded neuroscience and neuropsychiatry education and barriers stemming from widely held, often unspoken beliefs. For the system of psychiatric care, recommendations address the conceptual and physical separation of psychiatry from medicine, overemphasis on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and on psychopharmacology, and different systems in medicine and psychiatry for handling reimbursement and patient records. For psychiatry residency training, recommendations focus on expanding neuroscience/neuropsychiatry faculty and integrating neuroscience education throughout the curriculum.Psychiatry traditionally concerns itself with helping individuals construct meaningful life narratives. Brain function is one of the fundamental determinants of individuality. It is now possible for psychiatrists to integrate knowledge of neuroscience into understanding the whole person by asking, What person has this brain? How does this brain make this person unique? How does this brain make this disorder unique? What treatment will help this disorder in this person with this brain? PMID:26630604

  8. Telemedicine for Peer-to-Peer Psychiatry Learning between U.K. and Somaliland Medical Students

    Keynejad, Roxanne; Ali, Faisal R.; Finlayson, Alexander E. T.; Handuleh, Jibriil; Adam, Gudon; Bowen, Jordan S. T.; Leather, Andrew; Little, Simon J.; Whitwell, Susannah


    Objective: The proportion of U.K. medical students applying for psychiatry training continues to decline, whereas, in Somaliland, there are no public-sector psychiatrists. This pilot study assessed the usefulness and feasibility of online, instant messenger, peer-to-peer exchange for psychiatry education between cultures. Method: Twenty medical…

  9. Training Researchers in Cultural Psychiatry: The McGill-CIHR Strategic Training Program

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Rousseau, Cecile; Corin, Ellen; Groleau, Danielle


    Objectives: The authors aim to summarize the pedagogical approaches and curriculum used in the training of researchers in cultural psychiatry at the Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry at McGill University. Method: We reviewed available published and unpublished reports on the history and development of the McGill cultural psychiatry…

  10. AACAP 2005 Research Forum: Speeding the Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice in Pediatric Psychiatry

    March, John S.; Szatmari, Peter; Bukstein, Oscar; Chrisman, Allan; Kondo, Douglas; Hamilton, John D.; Kremer, Charlotte M. E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.


    Objectives: At the 2005 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), the Academy's Workgroup on Research conducted a Research Forum entitled "Increasing Research Literacy Through the Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in Pediatric Psychiatry." Method: Forum participants focused on speeding the adoption…