Russo, Michael T.; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Sunal, Dennis W.
All citizens will make bioethics decisions as a result of today's biotechnology revolution. The decisions made require citizens to find possible acceptable solutions to dilemmas that have become public issues. In this activity, students practice making decisions in ethical dilemmas after evaluating the influences of their own ethical beliefs and…
Ortiz Llueca, Eduardo
This paper shows the insufficiency of a bioethics which would intend to derive its proposals from Utilitarianism, identifying some inadequacies in the ethics of John Stuart Mill, e.g., the difficulties of the utilitarian commitment with instrumentalism, the deficiency of an utilitarian moral psychology and the naiveté of the forensic dimension of the utilitarian submission. PMID:23745819
Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond
Modern bioethics was born in the West and thus reflects, not surprisingly, the traditions of Western moral philosophy and political and social theory. When the work of bioethics was confined to the West, this background of socio-political theory and moral tradition posed few problems, but as bioethics has moved into other cultures - inside and outside of the Western world - it has become an agent of moral imperialism. We describe the moral imperialism of bioethics, discuss its dangers, and su...
Making difficult healthcare decisions is often helped by consultation with a bioethics committee. This article reviews the main bioethics principles, when it is appropriate and how to call a bioethics consult, ethical concerns, and members of the consult team. Bioethics resources are included.
Pauls, Merril; Hutchinson, Roger C.
“PROTESTANT” IS A TERM APPLIED TO MANY DIFFERENT Christian denominations, with a wide range of beliefs, who trace their common origin to the Reformation of the 16th century. Protestant ideas have profoundly influenced modern bioethics, and most Protestants would see mainstream bioethics as compatible with their personal beliefs. This makes it difficult to define a uniquely Protestant approach to bioethics. In this article we provide an overview of common Protestant beliefs and highlight conce...
The state of bioethics in Ukraine, as well as in the world has been analyzed in this article. The author offers a model of integrative pedagogical bioethics and substantiates the necessity of the organization of the bioethics education and confirms the topicality of adoption of the new specialty – educatorbioethicist. The author defines the structure and method of the educational process and the new curriculum «Integrative Bioethics» for preparing educator-bioethicist specialist.
Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl
principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw, the...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....
In this article, postmodernism is presented as posing a challenge to the role of philosophy within bioethics. It is argued that any attempt to develop a postmodern bioethics must respond to arguments concerning power, relational responsibility, and violence. Contemporary work on the topic of relational autonomy and naturalized bioethics is interpreted as engaging with the postmodern challenge. This article proposes that the role of philosophy in bioethics should be not to provide moral guidance but rather to adopt a critical approach to the possible consequences of privileging any position or understanding over others. PMID:25719353
This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical
Opel, Douglas J; Olson, Maren E
Ethics education based upon everyday ethical dilemmas can help trainees place themselves within the situation and encourage them to reflect on their role and responsibility in reaching its resolution.• Three elements can help augment the bioethics teaching experience: (a) identifying the ethical dilemma, (b) employing methods of ethical analysis, and(c) having knowledge of additional bioethics resources.An increasing number of bioethics resources are available to clinicians, including clinical ethics consultation (CEC) and print and Web-based resources. PMID:22855929
Pauls, Merril; Hutchinson, Roger C
"Protestant" is a term applied to many different Christian denominations, with a wide range of beliefs, who trace their common origin to the Reformation of the 16th century. Protestant ideas have profoundly influenced modern bioethics, and most Protestants would see mainstream bioethics as compatible with their personal beliefs. This makes it difficult to define a uniquely Protestant approach to bioethics. In this article we provide an overview of common Protestant beliefs and highlight concepts that have emerged from Protestant denominations that are particularly relevant to bioethics. These include the sovereignty of God, the value of autonomy and the idea of medicine as a calling as well as a profession. Most Canadian physicians will find that they share certain values and beliefs with the majority of their Protestant patients. Physicians should be particularly sensitive to their Protestant patients' beliefs when dealing with end-of-life issues, concerns about consent and refusal of care, and beginning-of-life issues such as abortion, genetic testing and the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Physicians should also recognize that members of certain Protestant groups and denominations may have unique wishes concerning treatment. Understanding how to elicit these wishes and respond appropriately will allow physicians to enhance patient care and minimize conflict. PMID:11868645
Hoskins, Betty B.; Shannon, Thomas A.
Discusses the importance of developing bioethics programs for undergraduate students. Two aspects are considered: (1) current areas of concern and sources of bibliographic information; and (2) problems encountered in undergraduate projects. A list of references is provided. (HM)
Explores a hermeneutical perspective of modern medicine. The author suggests that good medical decision making requires interpretation, and bioethics will be well served by incorporating this interpretive element. (LZ)
Luka Tomašević, PhD, ScD
Full Text Available Every creature is good and subject to the principle of solidarity that everyone has been blessed and gifted with life by God. Therefore, we cannot have one without the other, and no man exists without an animal.Over the last several decades, our world has been confronted with many ethical problems and ethics is being more and more sought after in spheres of human conduct and profession. Man has acquired enormous power over the world and over life itself, but he has also, willingly or not, become more responsible for 'the threats' against his very life, as well as against the life of other creatures. Within this context a discussion on biocentrism has ensued, which should replace Christian biblical anthropocentrism. At any rate, man has encountered a challenge to expand his moral sphere because nature needs his protection, whereas he no longer needs to protect himself from nature. It is exactly this point that poses a paradox: only man can give protection to nature and the whole of life within it. Having crossed all limits, he has to establish them yet again. Once again, he has to search for these limits within himself, which is exactly what original Christianity demands: to act according to one's pure belief (St. Peter. The aim of this work lies in trying to answer the questions of how to preserve life and healthy environment, how to achieve harmony between the development and modern ideas and trends as well as to establish the right relationship between man and his environment. The author primarily points out to the rising of pastoral medicine in Catholic theology, whose emergence was caused by the development of medical science and which gradually transforms into today's bioethics that is acknowledged by the theology. He then proceeds to discuss the disharmony between man and nature, about the rising of the 'animal rights' movement, and finally, about the beginnings of scientific and global bioethics which has developed in USA and which has
Kieffer, George H.
Examined is the issue concerning teaching bioethics. Differing points of view are discussed. The author concludes that moral and ethical reasoning should be incorporated into the public school curriculum, using morally laden issues that have grown out of advances in biological knowledge and biomedical technology. (CS)
Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman
-order examinations, what might be called a political philosophical approach. The authors argue that although first-order examination plays an important role in teasing out different moral points of view, in contemporary democratic societies, few, if any, bioethical questions can be resolved satisfactorily by means...
Jonsen, Albert R.
Urban bioethics can draw on elements of city life and view them under the moral perspective of social responsibility of creating the personal, cultural, social, and economic environment in which persons can be responsible personally as they interpret actions on themselves and creatively respond to them in an ongoing community of agents.
The purpose of this presentation is to discuss some concepts related to bioethics and ageing, specifically with regard to health and disease. Considerations on medical practice are made by referring to Kant and Heidelberg school of thought. Perception of time in the elderly and issues such as euthanasia and death are mentioned.
Full Text Available The article explores two questions: what is feminist bioethics, and how different it is from standard bioethics. Development of feminist bioethics, it is argued, began as a response to standard bioethics, challenging its background values, and philosophical perspectives. The most important contribution of feminist bioethics has been its re-examination of the basic conceptual underpinnings of mainstream bioethics, including the concepts of “universality”, “autonomy”, and “trust”. Particularly important for feminists has been the concept of autonomy. They challenge the old liberal notion of autonomy that treats individuals as separate social units and argue that autonomy is established through relations. Relational autonomy assumes that identities and values are developed through relationships with others and that the choices one makes are shaped by specific social and historical contexts. Neither relational autonomy, nor feminist bioethics, however, represents a single, unified perspective. There are, actually, as many feminist bioethics as there are feminisms-liberal, cultural, radical, postmodern etc. Their different ontological, epistemological and political underpinnings shape their respective approaches to bioethical issues at hand. Still what they all have in common is interest in social justice-feminists explore mainstream bioethics and reproductive technologies in order to establish whether they support or impede gender and overall social justice and equality. Feminist bioethics thus brings a significant improvement to standard bioethics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41004: Bioethical Aspects: Morally Acceptable Within the Biotechnologically and Socially Possible i br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation
McKneally, Martin F.; Peter A Singer
BIOETHICS IS NOW TAUGHT IN EVERY CANADIAN MEDICAL SCHOOL. Canada needs a cadre of teachers who can help clinicians learn bioethics. Our purpose is to encourage clinician teachers to accept this important responsibility and to provide practical advice about teaching bioethics to clinicians as an integral part of good clinical medicine. We use 5 questions to focus the discussion: Why should I teach? What should I teach? How should I teach? How should I evaluate? How should I learn?
Dietz, Elizabeth A
Transgender people and issues have come to the forefront of public consciousness over the last year. Caitlyn Jenner' very public transition, heightened media coverage of the murders of transgender women of color, and the panicked passage of North Carolina's "bathroom bill" (House Bill 2), mean that conversations about transgender health and well-being are no longer happening only within small communities. The idea that transgender issues are bioethical issues is not new, but I think that increased public awareness of transgender people and the ways that their health is affected by systems that bioethics already engages with offers an opportunity for scholarship that works to improve transgender health in meaningful ways. PMID:27417871
Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.
Herreros, Benjamín; Moreno-Milán, Beatriz; Pacho-Jiménez, Eloy; Real de Asua, Diego; Roa-Castellanos, Ricardo Andrés; Valentia, Emanuele
In this article some of the most relevant terms in clinical bioethics are defined. The terms were chosen based on three criteria: impact on the most important problems in clinical bioethics, difficulty in understanding, and need to clarify their meaning. For a better understanding, the terms were grouped into 5 areas: general concepts (conflict of values, deliberation, conflict of interest, conscientious objection); justice (justice, distributive justice, models of justice, triage); clinical matters (information, competency, capability, informed consent, mature minor, coercion, secrecy, privacy, confidentiality, professional secrecy); end of life (prior instructions, limitation of therapeutic efforts, professional obstinacy, futility, palliative care, palliative sedation, principle of double effect, euthanasia, assisted suicide, persistent vegetative state, minimally conscious state, locked-in syndrome, brain death), and beginning of life (assisted reproduction, genetic counseling, preimplantation genetic diagnosis). PMID:26506495
Li, Hongwen; Cong, Yali
Bioethics began to emerge in the late 1980s in China, which was borrowed and introduced from western countries. But the Chinese bioethics has a different model from western bioethics in its philosophical basis and culture environment which have been influenced by Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Academic researchers of bioethics, policy makers and the public have different opinions to the bioethical issues. Though sharing some similarities with those of western bioethics, the Chinese bioethics has certain different and urgent topics, such as health inequality in health care reform, physician-patient relationship, and different model of the informed consent. PMID:19492719
Pastor, Luis Miguel
In this article we analyze how the idea of virtue as an important element of human ethical action is slowly being lost. There are proposals both in ethics and in bioethics to rehabilitate virtue and to consider it as a very important element of human morality. In particular, in the health sector the rehabilitation of virtue, would imply greater focus on the ethical character of professionals and personal improvement rather than on training for the resolution of ethical cases. Such guidance would also improve the health professional-patient relationship with an increase not only in the technical quality but also in human dimension of health sciences. However, this orientation or tendency in bioethics suffers from a deficit in reasoning due to lack of a complete theory of human action that covers the good and also norms. The second part of the article looks at the relation between of virtue and personalistic bioethics. Virtue is considered as an important element of human action and is integrated with the good and norms. After analyzing and distinguishing between what is today considered personalistic bioethics and the contributions of personalism to bioethics, the paper concludes that the integration of virtue in personalistic bioethics is not only possible but desirable to overcome the ethical minimalism that has resulted from modern day principlism driven bioethics. PMID:23745818
de Vries, R
Bioethics traffics in matters moral. As such, bioethics frequently bumps up against religion, offering an ideal arena to examine how the sacred and the secular encounter each other in modern medicine. In this essay I consider two places where bioethics and religion intersect: 1) the response of bioethics to the universal problem of suffering, and 2) the professional proselytizing or “missionizing work” that bioethics does in order to make a place for itself among the professions of the life s...
This paper is concerned with the process by which bioethics decisions are made as well as the actual decisions that are reached. The process commonly is one of ``shared decision-making,`` that is, decisionmaking at several levels, beginning with the government and ending with the individual. After the government has defined a scope of permissible activity, the research or health care institution may further limit what activities are permitted. Finally, the individual patient, or, if the patient is incompetent, the patient`s legal representative decides whether or not to participate in the activity. Because bioethics in general, and bioethics related to genetics in particular, evolves through this process of decisionmaking at several levels, this paper briefly traces the process, to see how it works in several areas of bioethics, in order to provide a perspective on the way in which ethical decisions related to genetics are or will be made.
This paper is concerned with the process by which bioethics decisions are made as well as the actual decisions that are reached. The process commonly is one of shared decision-making,'' that is, decisionmaking at several levels, beginning with the government and ending with the individual. After the government has defined a scope of permissible activity, the research or health care institution may further limit what activities are permitted. Finally, the individual patient, or, if the patient is incompetent, the patient's legal representative decides whether or not to participate in the activity. Because bioethics in general, and bioethics related to genetics in particular, evolves through this process of decisionmaking at several levels, this paper briefly traces the process, to see how it works in several areas of bioethics, in order to provide a perspective on the way in which ethical decisions related to genetics are or will be made.
Ogundiran Temidayo O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa.
Sharp, Richard R; Scott, Angela L; Landy, David C; Kicklighter, Laura A
Growing ties to private industry have prompted many to question the impartiality of academic bioethicists who receive financial support from for-profit corporations in exchange for ethics-related services and research. To the extent that corporate sponsors may view bioethics as little more than a way to strengthen public relations or avoid potential controversy, close ties to industry may pose serious threats to professional independence. New sources of support from private industry may also divert bioethicists from pursuing topics of greater social importance, such as the needs of medically underserved communities. To inform ongoing debates about the financing of bioethics and its transparency to those concerned about potential sources of bias, we examined funding disclosures appearing in original research reports in major bioethics journals. Reviewing research published over a 15-year period, we found little evidence that for-profit corporations are influencing bioethics research directly. Instead, we found evidence that a great number of organizations, both public and private, support bioethics research. These findings suggest that worries about the cooption of bioethics research by a few interested stakeholders are greatly overstated and undersupported by available data. PMID:18802867
Alexander Georgievich Yushchenko
Full Text Available The essential theses of evolutional theology are set forth here, which assume biological evolution to be either a technology of the Creator or His own evolution towards understanding His own intentions and attributes. The paradigm of evolutional Christianity is reviwed along with the position and the role of humans in the psychophysical megasynthesis of the Universe and the attibutes of religious and scientifically-atheistic world-view. Biological evolution is interpreted as an ascending row of divine embodiments in biological organisms culminated in the most cephalized living forms: human being (terrestrial form and higher dolphins (water form. The establishment of communication between these living forms is considered a necessary stage of integration of Noospheric consciousness. It is suggested to use the ethics of the Creator’s attitude to human beings, as a basis of bio-ethical attitude of humans to animals, especially to higher ones possessing advanced intellect and soul.
Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.
Allograft shortage is a formidable obstacle in organ transplantation. Xenotransplantation, the interspecies transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs, or ex vivo interspecies exchange between cells, tissues, and organs is a frequently suggested alternative to this allograft shortage. As xenotransplantation steadily improves into a viable allotransplantation alternative, several bioethical considerations coalesce. Such considerations include the Helsinki declaration's guarantee of patients' rights to privacy; political red tape that may select for undermined socioeconomic groups as the first recipients of xenografts; industry incentives in xenotransplantation investments; conflicts of interest when a clinician supervises a patient as a research subject; the psychosocial impact of transplantation on the xenograft recipient, and the rights of animals. This review illuminates these issues through a conglomeration of expert opinion and relevant experimental studies. PMID:16574873
Barman, Charles R.; Rusch, John J.
Discusses the rationale for and development of an undergraduate bioethics course. Based on experiences with the course, general suggestions are offered to instructors planning to add bioethics to existing curricula. (MA)
Explains the importance of integrating bioethics into the science curriculum for student learning. Introduces a workshop designed for middle and high school science teachers teaching bioethics, its application to case studies, and how teachers can fit bioethics into their classroom. (YDS)
José Manuel Bertolín Guillén
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Numerous opinions and medico-legal controversies have arisen up to the date from community treatment orders in Western countries, but underlying bioethical questions have not been specifically studied. The aim of this work is to contribute to further clarify the bioethical conflicts arising from community treatment orders. Methods: The bioethical deliberation of the author is principally based on what can be considered the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm. These principles, as first described by Beauchamp and Childress in 1979, will be applied in this work to the actual situation of involuntary outpatient treatment. Results: The author's deliberation considers that community treatment orders are consistent first with the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm of practical reason, respecting its four general categories of basic principles. It also respects the principles of the medical ethics of virtue, subsumed in the personalism of ontological matrix, in the same way as its ethos affects the intrinsic purpose which is the dignity of the person; and with the consequentialist utilitarianism because it seeks the proportionality of the common good. A community treatment order prescription must ultimately be based on a bioethical exercise of responsibility by the clinician, judiciously weighing up the classic principal prima facie duties which must necessarily be translated into a real duty referring to a specific patient and context. Conclusions: Community treatment orders are seen as a method of therapeutic intervention with a bioethical basis resistant to criticism.
Lipworth, Wendy; Axler, Renata
In recent years, it has become almost axiomatic that biomedical research and clinical practice should be 'innovative'-that is, that they should be always evolving and directed towards the production, translation and implementation of new technologies and practices. While this drive towards innovation in biomedicine might be beneficial, it also raises serious moral, legal, economic and sociopolitical questions that require further scrutiny. In this article, we argue that biomedical innovation needs to be accompanied by a dedicated 'bioethics of innovation' that attends systematically to the goals, process and outcomes of biomedical innovation as objects of critical inquiry. Using the example of personalised or precision medicine, we then suggest a preliminary framework for a bioethics of innovation, based on the research policy initiative of 'Responsible Innovation'. We invite and encourage critiques of this framework and hope that this will provoke a challenging and enriching new bioethical discourse. PMID:27015740
Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce
In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…
Nunes, Rui; Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina
"Education for Values and Bioethics" is a project which aims to help the student to build his/her personal ethics. It was addressed to ninth grade students (mean age 14) who frequented public education in all schools of the City of Porto, Portugal-EU in 2010-2013 (N-1164). This research and action project intended to promote the acquisition of knowledge in the following areas: interpersonal relationships, human rights, responsible sexuality, health, environment and sustainable development, preservation of public property, culture, financial education, social innovation and ethical education for work. The students were asked to answer to a knowledge questionnaire on bioethics. To assess the values it was used Leonard Gordon's Survey of Personal Values and Survey of Interpersonal Values. The results of this study show that the project contributes to an increase of knowledge in the area of bioethics. Also the students enrolled in the program showed a development with regards the acquisition of the basic values of pluralistic societies. It is also suggested that this general knowledge on bioethics could be especially helpful to students that want a career in health sciences. PMID:25694860
Derse, A. R.; Krogull, S. R.
Ethical analysis is crucial to decision making in biomedicine and health care, necessitating both rapid access to diffusely disseminated sources of information pertinent to bioethics and promotion of analysis in the field of bioethics through a resource for information analysis. We developed the Bioethics Discussion Forum, an Internet-based information analysis resource, in order to supplement the Bioethics Online Service with an interactive information medium to meet the demand for such an i...
Manchola-Castillo, Camilo; Garrafa, Volnei
Recently, bioethics and international relations have gotten closer to one an other, probably as a result of the motivation of bioethics to intervene in global affairs. However, this relationship has only been on the practical level.This study's objective, through a literature review, is to highlight the huge potential that the epistemologies of both areas have to build a more fruitful dialogue. 18 articles relating both areas were retrieved from databases Scopus, Web of Science, Bireme and PubMed. The articles were then grouped in three categories of analysis: bioethics and global health; international organizations and bioethics; and international relations and bioethics. This study concludes that an epistemological approaching between these areas is desirable and proposes the establishment of two new areas of study: international relations in health and international relations from the South, drawing upon the conceptual basis developed by Latin-American bioethics. PMID:27599082
Bioethics deals with the ethical problems arising from the developments in life sciences and biotechnologies. Western autonomy-based philosophical framework has dominated the approach of mainstream Bioethics. Yet, many of the assumptions implicit in the Western framework that makes claim to universal validity may not be shared by non-western cultures. Moral pluralism poses a challenge to a common bioethics. Pluralism is understood as a descriptive term, which refers to the existence of differ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been debate on whether a global or unified field of bioethics exists. If bioethics is a unified global field, or at the very least a closely shared way of thinking, then we should expect bioethicists to behave the same way in their academic activities anywhere in the world. This paper investigates whether there is a 'global bioethics' in the sense of a unified academic community. Methods To address this question, we study the web-linking patterns of bioethics institutions, the citation patterns of bioethics papers and the buying patterns of bioethics books. Results All three analyses indicate that there are geographical and institutional differences in the academic behavior of bioethicists and bioethics institutions. Conclusion These exploratory studies support the position that there is no unified global field of bioethics. This is a problem if the only reason is parochialism. But these regional differences are probably of less concern if one notices that bioethics comes in many not always mutually understandable dialects.
In this article, I consider in what sense bioethics is philosophical. Philosophy includes both analysis and synthesis. Analysis focuses on central concepts in a domain, for example, informed consent, death, medical futility, and health. It is argued that analysis should avoid oversimplification. The synthesis or synoptic dimension prompts people to explain how their views have logical assumptions and implications. In addition to the conceptual elements are the evaluative and empirical dimensions. Among its functions, philosophy can be a form of prophylaxis--helping people avoid some commonly accepted questionable theories. Generally, recent philosophy has steered away from algorithms and deductivist approaches to ethical justification. In bioethics, philosophy works in partnership with a range of other disciplines, including pediatrics and neurology. PMID:26358430
Salzano, Francisco M.
In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group’s biological and cultural history; however, in their ur...
Kevles, D J
The principles of bioethics have been historically contingent, a product of social values, circumstances, and experience. During the early twentieth century, they rested on a doctor-knows-best autonomy that permitted physicians to perform research on human subjects with a minimum degree, if any, of informed consent. The eugenics movement of the period embraced an implicit bioethics by presuming to sterilize individuals for the sake of a larger social benefit, a practice and doctrine that helped lead to the Nazi medical experiments and death camps. After World War II, the promulgation of the Nuremberg Code failed to halt eugenic sterilization and risky human experimentation without informed consent either in civilian or military venues. However, beginning in the 1960s, these practices came under mounting critical scrutiny, partly because of the increasing attention given to individual rights. By now, it is widely understood that concern for individual rights rather than an appeal to some national good belongs at the heart of bioethics. PMID:11936137
Murray, Kevin J.
Describes the implementation of a bioethics laboratory exercise that incorporates a variety of instructional strategies. In the activity, General Biology students consider relevant and interesting topics of bioethical importance and prepare classroom presentations on the different viewpoints normally attendant to ethical topics. Includes an…
Pearce, Roger S.
Developing critical thinking is a perceived weakness in current education. Analysis and reasoning are core skills in bioethics making bioethics a useful vehicle to address this weakness. Assessment is widely considered to be the most influential factor on learning (Brown and Glasner, 1999) and this piece describes how analysis and reasoning in…
Roberto E. Cuenca
Introduction: In the area of the environment, it has been perceived the Bioethics like an interdisciplinary in the construction of a critical thought that should conclude in an environmental knowledge with ethics and in a position epistemologist where the existential values and axiological are reaffirmed, to conclude analyzing the courses of the environmental education. Objectives: To demonstrate how the Bioethics claims ...
Ivanković, Viktor; Savić, Lovro
This article provides a critical evaluation of the central components of Integrative Bioethics, a project aiming at a bioethical framework reconceptualization. Its proponents claim that this new system of thought has developed a better bioethical methodology than mainstream Western bioethics, a claim that we criticize here. We deal especially with the buzz words of Integrative Bioethics - pluriperspectivism, integrativity, orientational knowledge, as well as with its underlying theory of moral truth. The first part of the paper looks at what the claims of a superior methodology consist in. The second reveals pluriperspectivism and integrativity to be underdeveloped, hazy terms, but which seem to be underpinned by two theses - the incommensurability and the inclusiveness theses. These theses we critically scrutinize. We then consider strategies the project's proponents might apply to curb these theses in order to acquire minimal consistency for their framework. This part of the article also deals with the conception of moral truth that drives the theory, a position equally burdened with inconsistencies. In the last part of the article, we observe the concept of orientational knowledge, and develop two interpretations of its possible meaning. We claim that, following the first interpretation, Integrative Bioethics is completely descriptive, in which case it is informative and important, but hardly bioethics; if it is normative, following the second interpretation, it is bioethics as we already know it, but merely clad in rhetorical embellishments. We conclude that there is nothing new about this project, and that its inconsistencies are reason enough for its abandonment. PMID:26644388
Full Text Available Nowadays, the narrative approach in Bioethics is more and more considered and used. In our paper we would like to explain why – when we need to take a decision – it is essential and crucial that the patient tells his own history; we also indicate the main consequences that this approach has with reference to the choices at the bed of the patient. Selected Papers of the Congress “Narrative Based Medicine and Communication in Clinical Practice” · Cagliari, Italy · April 14th, 2014 Guest Editors: Massimiliano Zonza, Vassilios Fanos, Gian Paolo Donzelli
Salzano, Francisco M
In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group's biological and cultural history; however, in their urge to assure rights, social researchers, bioethics commissions, non-governmental organizations, and community leaders are, in many cases, crossing the limits of good sense. DNA is sometimes interpreted as synonymous to demoniac, and there is a frequent behaviour that I could only describe using a neologism: geneticophobia. There is an irrational attitude against genetic studies aiming to unravel the biological history of a given people and to classify any genome population study as "racist". This behaviour should be opposed; science and the scientific study of humankind are the only way we have to reach the socially adequate objective of the maximum of happiness to the largest number of persons. PMID:25575494
Singleton, Rivers, Jr.; Brock, D. Heyward
Outlines an interdisciplinary workshop in bioethics for secondary teachers taught by a team consisting of a scientist, a philosopher, and a literary critic. Discusses definitions, topics, reading selections, problems, and value. (DC)
Capron, Alexander Morgan
The reasons for offering a course in bioethics to law students and some approaches to take in addressing controversial issues are examined. The use of hypothetical vs. real cases, emphasis on clinical problems, and overall course objectives are discussed. (MSE)
Chávez Aguilar, Pamela
Bioethics must have an intercultural perspective. This is based on three facts: The principles and values around which reflection is made are related to world views and traditions, human beings are cultural beings, and current societies are considerably diverse. Based on this, bioethics will seek an adequate balance between ethical universalism and contextualism. This is a fundamental step for unconditional respect for human dignity and mutual recognition, dialogue, correlation and complementarity among diverse cultures. PMID:23338647
Chan, See-Ching; 陳詩正.
Bioethics has been central to living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which mandates a high recipient benefit and an acceptably low donor risk. The double equipoise imposes the contextual features of this already technically complex treatment. This research aimed at looking into key bioethical issues of LDLT in the light of the contemporary practice standards. In adult LDLT, in order to provide a partial graft of adequate size, donor right hepatectomy is often required. This procedure...
Full Text Available In their search for answers to the relevant theoretical questions on importing knowledge in practical ethics, the authors take an instrumental approach to metaphor. This figure of language allows one to compare language and linguistic variants to bioethics and knowledge. As defined by the dictionary, an 'idiom' is the official language of a nation, a 'dialect' is a regional variant of an idiom, and an 'idiolect' is an individual variant of a dialect. The bioethical idiom is thus seen as a linguistic set constituting a 'bioethical nation'. Since it is situated above particular dialects, it exercises more than a regulatory role over the discipline. In this article, in order to focus on the process of transmission of knowledge in bioethics, the authors chose Diego Gracia's work as a paradigmatic reference to the question on the transculturation of dialects and the relations in bioethics which are considered 'peripheral' or 'central'. Although this researcher found the key question pointing to the core of the problem of importing dialects, he is still searching for a proper answer to the cultural/bioethical context/contradiction
History's judgment on the success of bioethics will not depend solely on the conceptual creativity and innovation in the field at the level of ethical and political theory, but this intellectual work is not insignificant. One important new development is what I shall refer to as the relational turn in bioethics. This development represents a renewed emphasis on the ideographic approach, which interprets the meaning of right and wrong in human actions as they are inscribed in social and cultural practices and in structures of lived meaning and interdependence; in an ideographic approach, the task of bioethics is to bring practice into theory, not the other way around. The relational turn in bioethics may profoundly affect the critical questions that the field asks and the ethical guidance it offers society, politics, and policy. The relational turn provides a way of correcting the excessive atomism of many individualistic perspectives that have been, and continue to be, influential in bioethics. Nonetheless, I would argue that most of the work reflecting the relational turn remains distinctively liberal in its respect for the ethical significance of the human individual. It moves away from individualism, but not from the value of individuality.In this review essay, I shall focus on how the relational turn has manifested itself in work on core concepts in bioethics, especially liberty and autonomy. Following a general review, I conclude with a brief consideration of two important recent books in this area: Jennifer Nedelsky's Law's Relations and Rachel Haliburton's Autonomy and the Situated Self. PMID:26847836
Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.
Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J
A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons. PMID:26481200
Brody, B A
Empirical research can aid ethical reflection in bioethics by identifying issues, by seeing how they are currently resolved, and by assessing the consequences of these current resolutions. This potential can be misused when the ethical issues in question are fundamentally non-consequentialist or when they are consequentialist but the empirical research fails to address the important consequences. An example of the former problem is some recent studies about bad consequences resulting from commercialized living kidney donor programs. These consequences could be avoided, but the crucial non-consequentialist ethical issues about exploitation and commercialization would still remain. Examples of the latter problem are provided by recent studies of the allocation of ICU beds and of physician deception, where important consequences were not adequately studied. PMID:8259528
Stramondo, Joseph A
The deeply entrenched, sometimes heated conflict between the disability movement and the profession of bioethics is well known and well documented. Critiques of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion are probably the most salient and most sophisticated of disability studies scholars' engagements with bioethics, but there are many other topics over which disability activists and scholars have encountered the field of bioethics in an adversarial way, including health care rationing, growth-attenuation interventions, assisted reproduction technology, and physician-assisted suicide. The tension between the analyses of the disabilities studies scholars and mainstream bioethics is not merely a conflict between two insular political groups, however; it is, rather, also an encounter between those who have experienced disability and those who have not. This paper explores that idea. I maintain that it is a mistake to think of this conflict as arising just from a difference in ideology or political commitments because it represents a much deeper difference-one rooted in variations in how human beings perceive and reason about moral problems. These are what I will refer to as variations of moral psychology. The lived experiences of disability produce variations in moral psychology that are at the heart of the moral conflict between the disability movement and mainstream bioethics. I will illustrate this point by exploring how the disability movement and mainstream bioethics come into conflict when perceiving and analyzing the moral problem of physician-assisted suicide via the lens of the principle of respect for autonomy. To reconcile its contemporary and historical conflict with the disability movement, the field of bioethics must engage with and fully consider the two groups' differences in moral perception and reasoning, not just the explicit moral and political arguments of the disability movement. PMID:27150415
Chemical and Engineering News, 1974
The functioning of the Kennedy Institute, which aims at dealing with ethical and social questions raised by advances in biosciences and medicine, is described. Three major projects now underway are briefly discussed: a core reference library in bioethics, an Encyclopedia of Bioethics, and a bioethics information retrieval system. (DT)
Full Text Available Development of biopharmaceuticals is a challenging issue in bioethics. Unlike conventional, small molecular weight drugs, biopharmaceuticals are proteins derived from DNA technology and hybrid techniques with complex three dimensional structures. Immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals should always be tested in clinical settings due to low predictive value of preclinical animal models. However, non-human primates (NHP and transgenic mice could be used to address certain aspects of immunogenicity. Substantial efforts have been made to reduce NHP use in biopharmaceutical drug development, e.g. study design improvements and changes in regulatory policy. In addition, several expert groups are active in this field (e.g. NC3Rs, BioSafe, and Biopharmaceutical Technical Group. Despite that, there is an increasing trend of use of NHP in preclinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals, especially regarding monoclonal antibodies. Other potential bioethical issues related biopharmaceutical drug development are their cost/effectiveness ratio, clinical safety assessment, production of biosimilars, and comparison of their efficacy with placebo in countries without intention to market. Identification of the human genome has opened many new bioethical issues. Development of biopharmaceuticals is an important bioethical issue for several reasons. It connects all aspects of contemporary bioethics: biomedicine (e.g. clinical trials in vulnerable subjects, animal welfare and the most recent advances in biotechnology. In particular, biopharmaceutical drug development is a challenging issue regarding treatment of rare diseases.
Full Text Available Our contribution discusses the possibilities and limits of using video games for apprehending and reflecting on the moral actions of their players. We briefly present the results of an extended study that introduces the conceptual idea of a Serious Moral Game (SMG. Then, we outline its possible application in the domain of bioethics for training medical professionals such that they can deal better with moral problems in medical practice. We briefly sketch major components of a SMG Bioethics. The contribution should demonstrate how such an instrument may improve psychological competences that are needed for dealing with various ethical questions within healthcare. The contribution is an intermediate step of a project that aims at actually creating a SMG for training in moral competences that are needed for putting bioethics in practice.
'Bioethics still has important work to do in helping to secure status equality for LGBT people' writes Timothy F. Murphy in a recent Bioethics editorial. The focus of his piece, however, is much narrower than human rights, medical care for LGBT people, or ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Rather, he is primarily concerned with sexuality and gender identity, and the medical intersections thereof (i.e. DSM diagnosis; access to SrS or ARTs). It is the objective of this response to provide an alternate account of bioethics from a Queer perspective. I will situate Queer bioethics within Queer studies, and offer three 'lessons' that bioethics can derive from this perspective. These are not definitive rules for Queer bioethics, since it is a field which fundamentally opposes categorizations, favoring pastiche over principles. These lessons are exploratory examples, which both complement and contradict LGBT bioethics. My latter two lessons - on environmental bioethics and disability - overlap with some of Murphy's concerns, as well as other conceptions of LGBT bioethics. However, the first lesson takes an antithetical stance to Murphy's primary focus by resisting all forms of heteroconformity and disavowing reproduction as consonant with Queer objectives and theory. The first lesson, which doubles as a primer in Queer theory, does heavy philosophical lifting for the remainder of the essay. This response to Timothy F. Murphy, whose work is certainly a legacy in bioethics, reveals the multiplicity of discourses in LGBT/Queer studies, many of which are advantageous - even essential - to other disciplines like bioethics. PMID:26833492
Fleischman, A R
The prognosis is not good for an infant whose entire intestine has been destroyed by necrotizing enterocolitis. An infant bioethics committee is asked to advise whether the parents should be offered the option of total parenteral intravenous nutrition, with its ultimately fatal complications, for their child. Committee members agree that the option of intravenous feeding should be offered, and that it is morally acceptable for the parents to refuse it. Fleischman reviews the issues that an infant bioethics committee must consider when it is asked to help decide what treatment options will be discussed with the family of a seriously ill neonate. PMID:2108103
The paper highlights the poignancy with which problems and issues surface as the fields of special education and bioethics (the combination of ethics and the life sciences) intersect, and touches upon professionals' responsibility for protection of the persons in their care. (Author/SBH)
Willmott, Christopher J. R.; Wellens, Jane
There is growing awareness of the need to equip students to think through the ethical implications of developments in biology. We describe an exercise in which students work in teams to produce websites about current controversial issues within the subject. Participants report a significant improvement in their knowledge of bioethics and…
Gallegos, Tom; Mrgudic, Kate
Sees health care decision making posing variety of complex issues for individuals, families, and providers. Describes Health Decisions Community Council (HDCC), community-based bioethics committee established to offer noninstitutional forum for discussion of health care dilemmas. Notes that social work skills and values for autonomy and…
Markowitz, Dina G.; DuPre, Michael J.; Holt, Susan; Chen, Shaw-Ree; Wischnowski, Michael
This article discusses "Family Secrets," a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum module that focuses on the bioethical implications of genetic testing. In high school biology classrooms throughout New York State, students are using "Family Secrets" to learn about DNA testing; Huntington's disease (HD); and the ethical, legal, and social…
March, B. E.
Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)
Shapiro, Robyn S.
Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…
In recent years legal intervention in bioethical matters has increased notably following various paths: court decisions, parliamentary acts, codes of conduct and solemn declarations (i.e. European Bioethics Convention, 1997, or the UNESCO Genome Declaration, 1997). Body and liberty, as a question of fundamental legal rights, are constitutionalized along two paths. The former is vertical (a text created at central level is open to ratification and domestic implementation to finally become the rule in concrete cases). The latter is, above all, horizontal. It is characterized by the existence at world level of a number of centres and institutions, with the judiciary and judge-made law playing a major role. The most important new rights and freedoms in bioethics have been recognized in this ever-changing and troubled environment. The horizontal way has the great advantage of considering the differences as a resource and not as a limit. In the case law on bioethics a sort of jurisprudential model seems to be at work, that goes some way toward a judge-made law at a universal level. Cases such as Cruzan, Bland and Massimo held the fundamental concept of self-determination with surprising similarity. But we don't know if one of them has influenced the others, always supposing that the judges were aware of them. Today's first duty is to raise the consciousness of judges as to how common their problems are and how often their rulings are similar to each other's. PMID:12058772
Purdy, L M
Feminist criticism of health care and of bioethics has become increasingly rich and sophisticated in the last years of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, this body of work remains quite marginalized. I believe that there are (at least) two reasons for this. First, many people are still confused about feminism. Second, many people are unconvinced that significant sexism still exists and are therefore unreceptive to arguments that it should be remedied if there is no larger benefit. In this essay I argue for a thin, "core" conception of feminism that is easy to understand and difficult to reject. Core feminism would render debate within feminism more fruitful, clear the way for appropriate recognition of differences among women and their circumstances, provide intellectually compelling reasons for current non-feminists to adopt a feminist outlook, and facilitate mutually beneficial cooperation between feminism and other progressive social movements. This conception of feminism also makes it clear that feminism is part of a larger egalitarian moral and political agenda, and adopting it would help bioethics focus on the most urgent moral priorities. In addition, integrating core feminism into bioethics would open a gateway to the more speculative parts of feminist work where a wealth of creative thinking is occurring. Engaging with this feminist work would challenge and strengthen mainstream approaches: it should also motivate mainstream bioethicists to explore other currently marginalized parts of bioethics. PMID:11561992
Douglas-Steele, D; Hundert, E M
Many physicians have found that the traditional approach to bioethics fails to account for important aspects of their moral experience in practice. New approaches to bioethics theory are challenging the traditional application of universal moral principles based in liberal moral theory. At the same time, a shift in both the goals and methods of bioethics education has accompanied its "coming of age" in the medical school curriculum. Taken together, these changes challenge both bioethics educators and theorists to come closer to the details and nuances of real clinical encounters. The emerging trend emphasizes the importance of context in bioethics education and in the moral theory and research undergirding it. This article introduces one research approach examining the practical life contexts of medical students' ethical experiences and learning. It calls for increased attention to research and theory in bioethics that more adequately accounts for the ways different contexts produce significant changes in meaning and understanding in medical encounters. PMID:8767639
Kahn, Peter A
Bioethics in America positions itself as a totalizing discipline, capable of providing guidance to any individual within the boundaries of a health or medical setting. Yet the religiously observant or those driven by spiritual values have not universally accepted decisions made by "secular" bioethics, and as a result, religious bioethical thinkers and adherents have developed frameworks and rich counter-narratives used to fend off encroachment by policies perceived as threatening. This article uses brain death in Jewish law, the case of Jahi McMath, and vaccination refusal to observe how the religious system of ethics is presently excluded from bioethics and its implications. PMID:26525211
Full Text Available Problem statement: Bioethics is the philosophical study of the ethical controversies about humans and his environment. Bioethicists are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, philosophy, theology and climate change. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of using bioethics resources as teaching tool in the teaching of climate change at tertiary level. Approach: This is done through assessing the extent of bioethics knowledge acquired in the learning process and how bioethics principles affect respondents thinking and opinions. The research employs a qualitative analysis of the data that is collected through pre-and post-tests and from feedback solicited through discussions with respondents. Some 100 university undergraduate students participated in this study. Results: The findings reveal that through the use of bioethics resources in teaching climate change, respondents' showed increased comprehension of bioethics knowledge and greater appreciation of its principles. Conclusion: Therefore the study concludes that the use of bioethics resources can accentuate the importance of bioethics principles in the understanding and in the provision of ethical framework in dealing with climate changes issues and mitigation initiatives. This research finding can be a useful source of information for scholars and researchers developing teaching strategies using bioethics resources.
UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO’s broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, la...
José Roque Junges
Full Text Available The right to health is being more and more affected by the Biopower new configurations, no more only determined by the State, as in Foucault's analyses, but mainly by the symbolic power of the market. The biotechnological enterprises stir up increasing claims for consuming in health. These products are techno-semiotic agencies of the subjectivity in health, rendering their use as a right. In this situation it is important to return to the Right to Health comprehension of the International Conventions and the Alma-Ata Conference, proving the interdependence between Human Rights in general and the Right to Health in particular, mainly aiming at the social determinants of health that define more basic rights. The Human Rights perspective permits the proposal of a public health bioethics, different from the clinical bioethics, more appropriate for considering the collective implications of the right to Health, not reduced to a mere consumption of technologies.
Bioethics was born not only as an aftermath of medical technological advance but also from underlying philosophical conceptions about man, that determine scientific research. Analyzing occidental ethics, Heidegger showed that animalism was the only human dimension considered and thereby the domain of measurable objectiveness. He postulated that the essence of human existence as being-in-the-world is ethical and revealed through an original consciousness. Unlike moral conscience, original conscience calls to authenticity, to hear his constitutive nihilism as a "Being-referred-to-death". The founding ground of bioethics may be to listen to this primary being-guilty prior to the derived guilts, e.g. faults, deficiencies and shortcomings of specific daily actions. PMID:22286741
This article, which introduces the special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," begins by offering an overview of the analytical scope of the issue. Specifically, the first half of this essay raises critical questions central to the concept of a space-related queer bioethics, such as: How do we appreciate and understand the special needs of queer parties given the constraints of location, space, and geography? The second half of this article describes each feature article in the issue, as well as the subsequent special sections on the ethics of reading literal, health-related maps ("Cartographies") and scrutinizing the history of this journal as concerns LGBT health ("Mapping the Journal of Homosexuality"). PMID:26643032
UNESCO's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO's broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, lawyers and philosophers among its membership. Nevertheless, several potential stakeholders-academic scientists and ethicists, government policy-makers and NGO representatives-felt they had not been sufficiently consulted or even represented during the Declaration's development. Better communications and understanding within and between national, regional and international layers of governance would help to avoid a recurrence of this problem in future negotiations. PMID:22724045
In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.
Full Text Available Before examining the specific problems of emergency medicine, the article identifies the cardinal points for orientation in bioethics, in the conviction that the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject allow the reader to make more conscious and suitable choices. The questions of moral relativism and the consequences of the biomedical revolution are addressed in detail in order to support the argument for a new ethical base for healthcare in general and for emergency medicine.
Roberto E. Cuenca
Full Text Available Introduction: In the area of the environment, it has been perceived the Bioethics like an interdisciplinary in the construction of a critical thought that should conclude in an environmental knowledge with ethics and in a position epistemologist where the existential values and axiological are reaffirmed, to conclude analyzing the courses of the environmental education. Objectives: To demonstrate how the Bioethics claims the values of the humanism and to outline the Environmental Education as an action opportunity and generation of actions in the sustainable development of the communities of our region. Methodology: By means of bibliographical revision, a rehearsal was elaborated about the relationship of the Bioethics with the Environmental Education, as for the aspects of the atmosphere, the socioeconomic development and the environmental pedagogy. Results: They were carried out descriptions about the Holistic concept in the environment; conceptualization on Environmental Ethics; conceptualization about the Sustainable Development, the Globalization and the Sustainability; and conceptualization about the Environmental Education and the Bioethics. Conclusions: Of the carried out analysis we have a first epilogue that drives to assume the responsibility for our to work in the world and being able to understand that our quality of life reaches its fullness, when we transcend from our individual conscience toward a form of conscience able to not feel as own alone our necessity but, that of all other human being and in all other way of life. And a second epilogue in outlining strategies of an Environmental Education, different to the traditional ones, like an evolution toward the Education for the Sustainability, on the as continuing the development at the same time that it is protected, it preserves and they conserve the systems of vital support of the planet.
Todorović Zoran; Protić Dragana
Development of biopharmaceuticals is a challenging issue in bioethics. Unlike conventional, small molecular weight drugs, biopharmaceuticals are proteins derived from DNA technology and hybrid techniques with complex three dimensional structures. Immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals should always be tested in clinical settings due to low predictive value of preclinical animal models. However, non-human primates (NHP) and transgenic mice could be used to address certain aspects of immuno...
Edgar Abarca López
Full Text Available This paper presents a case report of thanatophoric displasia diagnosed in the prenatal period using ultrasound standards. The course of the case pregnancy, birth process, and postnatal period is described. This report invites bioethical analysis using its principles, appealing to human dignity, diversity and otherness, particularly in the mother-child dyad and their family. An early diagnosis allows parental support as they face the course of this condition and its potentially fatal outcome.
Edgar Abarca López; Alejandra Rodríguez Torres; Donovan Casas Patiño; Esteban Espíndola Benítez
This paper presents a case report of thanatophoric displasia diagnosed in the prenatal period using ultrasound standards. The course of the case pregnancy, birth process, and postnatal period is described. This report invites bioethical analysis using its principles, appealing to human dignity, diversity and otherness, particularly in the mother-child dyad and their family. An early diagnosis allows parental support as they face the course of this condition and its potentially fatal outcome.
Martínez-Carbonell López, Alfonso
In the dense theological thought of Joseph Ratzinger before his election as pope, we find fundamental contributions to contemporary bioethics. Starting from the assumption of the close relationship between faith and science he incorporates a necessary theological dimension in the bioethical dialogue that illuminates and clarifies the answers to the real questions raised in bioethical actions. On the one hand, there is the question of the origin of man that is understood as God's creation as opposed to a purely biological origin to which a modern pseudoscientific stance wants to confine it. On the other hand, there is the question about man's identity, which is understood as the image of God, from which stems the inviolable dignity and sacredness of human life, overcoming scientistic materialism. Finally, we find the question of how to treat the ″other″, even the embryo, as a result of its lofty dignity, analyzing the ethical and legal consequences that exude from their nature and are summarized in the duty to protect and respect the other which the law should protect against the abuse of those who are stronger. PMID:25329412
Arras, J D
This paper represents the first installment of a larger project devoted to the relevance of pragmatism for bioethics. One self-consciously pragmatist move would be to return to the classical pragmatist canon of Peirce, James and Dewey in search of substantive doctrines or methodological approaches that might be applied to current bioethical controversies. Another pragmatist (or neopragmatist) move would be to subject the regnant principlist paradigm to Richard Rorty's subversive assaults on foundationalism in epistemology and ethics. A third pragmatist method, dubbed "freestanding pragmatism" by its proponents, embraces a "pragmatist" approach to practical reasoning without discernable moorings either to the classical canon or to Rorty's neopragmatism. This third pragmatist approach to method in practical ethics is the subject of this article. I begin with an examination of freestanding pragmatism in the theory of judicial decision making. I argue that this version of legal pragmatism--so described on account of its commitments to contextualism, instrumentalism, eclecticism, and freedom from grand theory--bears a striking resemblance to much self-described pragmatist work in bioethics today. I further argue that if this is what we mean by "pragmatism," then in a certain sense "we are all pragmatists now." PMID:11437273
This paper begins by acknowledging the interest taken by various international organisations in genetic enhancement and sport, including the US President's Council on Bioethics (July, 2002) and the World Anti-Doping Agency (March, 2002). It is noticed how sporting organisations have been particularly concerned to emphasize the 'threat' of genetics to sport, whereas other institutions have recognised the broader bioethical issues arising from this prospect, which do not readily reject the use of genetic technology in sport. Sports are identified as necessarily 'human' and 'moral' practices, the exploration of which can reveal greater insight into the intuitive fears about genetic modification. It is argued that anti-doping testing measures and sanctions unacceptably persecute the athlete. While there are substantial reasons to be concerned about the use of genetic modification in sport, the desire for policy ought not diminish the need for ethical research; nor ought such research embody the similar guise of traditional 'anti' doping strategies. Rather, the approach to genetics in sport must be informed more by broader social policies in bioethics and recognition of the greater goods arising from genetic technology. PMID:16285154
Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria
This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm. PMID:22033813
Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy
This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…
Diaz, Jose Luis
Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…
...-mail: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at http://www.bioethics.gov.... The meeting will also be webcast at http://www.bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order....bioethics.gov . The Commission welcomes input from anyone wishing to provide public comment on any...
...: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at http://www.bioethics.gov... available. The meeting will also be webcast at http://www.bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order....bioethics.gov . The Commission welcomes input from anyone wishing to provide public comment on any...
Keskin-Samanci, Nilay; Özer-Keskin, Melike; Arslan, Orhan
This study has led to the development of the "Bioethical Values Inventory" that can be used to reveal secondary school students' ethical values in decisions that they make during ethical debates regarding the application of biological sciences. An original inventory development model was used, consisting of four steps and involving…
Solomon, Mildred Z; Vannier, David; Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Miller, Jacqueline S; Paget, Katherine F
A belief that high school students have the cognitive ability to analyze and assess moral choices and should be encouraged to do so but have rarely been helped to do so was the motivation for developing Exploring Bioethics, a six-module curriculum and teacher guide for grades nine through twelve on ethical issues in the life sciences. A multidisciplinary team of bioethicists, science educators, curriculum designers, scientists, and high school biology teachers worked together on the curriculum under a contract between the National Institutes of Health and Education Development Center, a nonprofit research and development organization with a long history of innovation in science education. At the NIH, the Department of Bioethics within the Clinical Center and the Office of Science Education within the Office of the Director guided the project.Our overarching goal for Exploring Bioethics was to introduce students to bioethics as a field of inquiry and to enable them to develop ethical reasoning skills so they could move beyond "gut reactions" to more nuanced positions. PMID:26786036
Lerner, Barron H; Caplan, Arthur L
Bioethics has become a common course of study in medical schools, other health professional schools, and graduate and undergraduate programs. An analysis of past ethical scandals, as well as the bioethics apparatus that emerged in response to them, is often central to the discussion of bioethical questions. This historical perspective on bioethics is invaluable and demonstrates how, for example, the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was inherently racist and how other experiments exploited mentally disabled and other disadvantaged persons. However, such instruction can resemble so-called Whig history, in which a supposedly more enlightened mindset is seen as having replaced the "bad old days" of physicians behaving immorally. Bioethical discourse-both in the classroom and in practice-should be accompanied by efforts to historicize but not minimize past ethical transgressions. That is, bioethics needs to emphasize why and how such events occurred rather than merely condemning them with an air of moral superiority. Such instruction can reveal the complicated historical circumstances that led physician-researchers (some of whom were actually quite progressive in their thinking) to embark on projects that seem so unethical in hindsight. Such an approach is not meant to exonerate past transgressions but rather to explain them. In this manner, students and practitioners of bioethics can better appreciate how modern health professionals may be susceptible to the same types of pressures, misguided thinking, and conflicts of interest that sometimes led their predecessors astray. PMID:27089070
Popular fiction responds to, and may exacerbate, public anxieties in ways that more highbrow literary texts may not. Robin Cook's 1977 novel Coma exemplifies the ways in which medical thrillers participate in the public discourse about health care. Written shortly after the medical establishment promoted "irreversible coma," or brain death, as a new definition of dying, and at a time when the debate over the removal of Karen Ann Quinlan from life support was the subject of popular attention, Coma crystallized public fears over the uses of medical technology. While Cook hoped that Coma would encourage public participation in health-care decision-making, the book may have fueled public concerns about medicine in ways that he did not anticipate. The public engagement that accompanied the rise of bioethics and that led to increased transparency and patient autonomy in medical decision-making had its birth, in part, in the distrust and paranoia reflected in the medical thriller. Because fiction can shape public perceptions of health-care dilemmas and may affect decision-making on bioethical issues, bioethicists need to pay attention to popular fictional accounts of medicine. PMID:20639610
Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya
Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways. PMID:26602421
Bioethics as a cultural phenomenon is nowadays presented as a paradigmatic locus of reflection, critical analysis, inquiries and debates about ethical problems and moral dilemmas provoked by scientific researches in the field of Biotechnology, with its innovations and applications. Humanity, since the middle of X X Th Century, lives under uncertainty and fear. Bioethics responds to the need of a ethical reflection which follows such inquiries and technological applications. One of the subjects of Bioethics is the biosafety, which deals with biohazards. In this process, there is a privileged place many questions such as technological evaluation, risk management and, in a special way, the precautionary principle. This study focus on these questions
Iudin, B G
Professor Yu.M. Lopukhin has made the most important contribution to the development of bioethics in this country based on his extensive experience in research, education and organization pertaining to different biomedical disciplines and high-tech medicine. The main works of Yu.M. Lopukhin on major bioethical problems of special importance for present-day Russia are analysed including ethical expertise of biomedical research and their legal aspects including tissue and organ transplantation, the use of embrionic stem cells, etc. The importance of international collaboration in the field of bioethics is emphasized. PMID:20000106
Fayemi, Ademola K
It is nearly two decades now since the publication of Godfrey Tangwa's article, 'Bioethics: African Perspective', without a critical review. His article is important because sequel to its publication in Bioethics, the idea of 'African bioethics' started gaining some attention in the international bioethics literature. This paper breaks this relative silence by critically examining Tangwa's claim on the existence of African bioethics. Employing conceptual and critical methods, this paper argues that Tangwa's account of African bioethics has some conceptual, methodic and substantive difficulties, which altogether do not justify the idea of African bioethics, at least for now. Contra Tangwa, this article establishes that while African bioethics remains a future possibility, it is more cogent that current efforts in the name of 'African bioethics' be primarily re-intensified towards 'Healthcare ethics in Africa'. PMID:25912979
The Holocaust arose, in part, because of a profound and pervasive breakdown of medical professional ethics. This history is complex and powerfully instructive. The value judgments and moral actions of the Nazi doctors can inform current debate and practices and also prevent the use of inaccurate analogies in current bioethical debates. Under the auspices of the International Center for Health, Law and Ethics at Haifa University, we are in the process of publishing a casebook on bioethical topics, using personal cases from the Third Reich and the Holocaust. The casebook will provide a platform for deep reflection and discourse on historical ethical issues and their relevance for today. This teaching tool can also inspire healthcare professionals and students to practice with greater compassion, knowledge, tolerance, respect and justice on behalf of their patients. PMID:23781761
College and University, 1985
Examples are given of points hospitals must consider when adopting and implementing infant bioethics committees, including committee functions (educational, policy development, and consultative), structure, membership, jurisdiction, recordkeeping, and legal issues. (MSE)
Bergel, Salvador Darío
Argentine has a new Civil and Commercial Code that will enter into force in August. This Code contains a series of rules relating to bioethics that have served to illustrate a brief comment on its contents. PMID:26665351
Zhanna V. Chashina
Full Text Available Introduction: the article discusses significance of use of new technologies in the learning process for realisation of goals of cognitive and affective domain of knowledge. The paper explores the methods of development of educational knowledge, which is achieved by information, reproductive and research means. Based on example of bioethics the paper demonstrates the use of visuals technology (charts, graphs, tables, illustrations, specification, etc., which performs the following tasks: memorising, analysis and synthesis, comparison and differentiation, categorisation and classification, identification of relationships between facts, and for the revision of the material studied, acquisition of the new knowledge, memo risation of educational material. Materials and Methods: on the basis of the dialectical approach the object of research is new technologies in the learning process, in particular the study of bioethics. By using methods of observation, survey, analysis and synthesis in the educational process the authors prove the efficiency of such technologies as the use of visualisation (diagrams, illustrations, problem-based learning (issues, tasks and situations and research tasks (case study method. Results: visual method complements the learning process. It allows a deeper understanding of the subject. This method deals with feelings, emotions and consciousness of students. It encourages creativity. In addition this method of material presentation allows reducing the amount of material of an ordinary lecture. It is underscored that in the study of bioethics it is recommended to use a technology of a problem-based learning, which is able to implement the intellectual activity of students by means of questions¸ case-studies, tasks and situations. The most vivid form of such technology is a case method. The basis for the emergence of technology of problembased learning is a certain contradiction between knowledge and practice. This method can
Turina, Iva Sorta-Bilajac; Brkljacić, Morana; Grgas-Bile, Cecilija; Gajski, Domagoj; Racz, Aleksandar; Cengić, Tomislav
In the context of modern scientific and technological developments in biomedicine and health care, and the potential consequences of their application on humans and the environment, Potter's global bioethics concept resurfaces. By actualizing Potter's original thoughts on individual bioethical issues, the universality of two of his books, which today represent the backbone of the world bioethical literature, "Bioethics--Bridge to the Future" and "Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy", is emphasized. Potter's global bioethics today can legitimately be viewed as a bridge between clinical personalized ethics on the one hand and ethics of public health on the other. PMID:27017727
Pastor, Luis Miguel
For years there are different types of criticism about principialist bioethics. One alternative that has been proposed is to introduce empirical evidence within the bioethical discourse to make it less formal, less theoretical and closer to reality. In this paper we analyze first in synthetic form diverse alternative proposals to make an empirical bioethics. Some of them are strongly naturalistic while others aim to provide empirical data only for correct or improve bioethical work. Most of them are not shown in favor of maintaining a complete separation between facts and values, between what is and what ought to be. With different nuances these proposals of moderate naturalism make ethical judgments depend normative social opinion resulting into a certain social naturalism. Against these proposals we think to make a bioethics in that relates the empirical facts with ethical duties, we must rediscover empirical reality of human action. Only from it and, in particular, from the activity of discernment that makes practical reason, when judged on the object of his action, it is possible to integrate the mere descriptive facts with ethical judgments of character prescriptive. In conclusion we think that it is not possible to perform bioethics a mode of empirical science, as this would be contrary to natural reason, leading to a sort of scientific reductionism. At the same time we believe that empirical data are important in the development of bioethics and to enhance and improve the innate ability of human reason to discern good. From this discernment could develop a bioethics from the perspective of ethical agents themselves, avoiding the extremes of an excessive normative rationalism, accepting empirical data and not falling into a simple pragmatism. PMID:24206254
Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy
This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students’ general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important decision-making skills. Learning bioethics through scientific argumentation gives students opportunities to express their ideas, formulate educated opinions and value others’ viewpoints. Research has shown that science teachers’ expectations of student success and knowledge directly influence student achievement and confidence levels. Our study analyzes pre-course and post-course surveys completed by students enrolled in a university level bioethics course ( n = 111) and by faculty in the College of Biology and Agriculture faculty ( n = 34) based on their perceptions of student confidence. Additionally, student data were collected from classroom observations and interviews. Data analysis showed a disconnect between faculty and students perceptions of confidence for both knowledge and the use of science argumentation. Student reports of their confidence levels regarding various bioethical issues were higher than faculty reports. A further disconnect showed up between students’ preferred learning styles and the general faculty’s common teaching methods; students learned more by practicing scientific argumentation than listening to traditional lectures. Students who completed a bioethics course that included practice in scientific argumentation, significantly increased their confidence levels. This study suggests that professors’ expectations and teaching styles influence student confidence levels in both knowledge and scientific argumentation.
Full Text Available Abstract In Poland there are only Regional Bioethical Committees. Unlike most EU countries Poland has no coordinating centre on bioethics for human research. However, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has established a Bioethics Appeals Committee. The functioning of the Bioethical Committees in Poland is regulated in detail by the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of 1999. All regulations comply with important guidelines such as: the Helsinki Declaration, The Rules of Good Clinical Practice, EU Directives and legal regulations binding in Poland, mainly the Act of the Medical Doctor Profession and the Dentist Profession, as well as the Act of Pharmaceutical Law. In the framework of the Human Biomonitoring Programme, the application for bioethical evaluation will be submitted to the Bioethical Committee at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz. The data protection legislation in Poland according to the Act of the Protection of Personal Data of 29th of August 1997 with latest amendments fulfils EU regulations. The Act also contains detailed provisions regarding the duties of the Inspector General for Data Protection. The paper presents data on the activities of the Bureau of the Inspector General for Personal Data Protection in 2005, 2006 and 2007.
Williams, Arthur Robin
Last year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. As a result, healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine's most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics' distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) An intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics' early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) Structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics' relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider. PMID:26424211
Goldim, José Roberto
Van Rensselaer Potter is usually credited with coining the term bioethics and with founding this field. However, the rediscovery of the article "Bioethics: A Panorama of the Human Being's Ethical Relations with Animals and Plants," published in 1927 by Fritz Jahr in the German magazine Kosmos, necessitates a revision of this history of the foundation of bioethics. While Potter made significant contributions to this field, the importance of Jahr to the founding of bioethics should be recognized. PMID:19684372
..., DC 20005. Telephone: (202) 233-3960. Email: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at http://www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory....bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the President...
Pearce, Roger S.
The article describes a compulsory bioethics module delivered to [approximately] 120 biology students in their final year. The main intended learning outcome is that students should be able to analyse and reason about bioethical issues. Interactive lectures explain and illustrate bioethics. Underlying principles and example issues are used to…
...., Suite C-100, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: 202-233-3960. Email: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the....bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the President...
... 20005. Telephone: (202) 233-3960. Email: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act....bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the President...
Engelhardt, H Tristram
In the face of the moral pluralism that results from the death of God and the abandonment of a God's eye perspective in secular philosophy, bioethics arose in a context that renders it essentially incapable of giving answers to substantive moral questions, such as concerning the permissibility of abortion, human embryonic stem cell research, euthanasia, etc. Indeed, it is only when bioethics understands its own limitations and those of secular moral philosophy in general can it better appreciate those tasks that it can actually usefully perform in both the clinical and academic setting. It is the task of this paper to understand and reevaluate bioethics by understanding these limits. Academic bioethicists can analyze ideas, concepts, and claims necessary to understanding the moral questions raised in health care, assessing the arguments related to these issues, and provide an understanding of the different moral perspectives on bioethical issues. In the clinical setting, bioethicists can provide legal advice, serve as experts on IRBs, mediating disputes, facilitating decision-making and risk management, and clarifying normative issues. However, understanding this is only possible when one understands the history, genesis, and foundations of bioethics and its inability to provide a resolution to postmodern moral pluralism. PMID:21724971
The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect. PMID:23912730
Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Erices, Alejandro; Santos, Manuel J
Stem cells have drawn extraordinary attention from scientists and the general public due to their potential to generate effective therapies for incurable diseases. At the same time, the production of embryonic stem cells involves a serious ethical issue concerning the destruction of human embryos. Although adult stem cells and induced pluripotential cells do not pose this ethical objection, there are other bioethical challenges common to all types of stem cells related particularly to the clinical use of stem cells. Their clinical use should be based on clinical trials, and in special situations, medical innovation, both of which have particular ethical dimensions. The media has raised unfounded expectations in patients and the public about the real clinical benefits of stem cells. At the same time, the number of unregulated clinics is increasing around the world, making direct offers through Internet of unproven stem cell therapies that attract desperate patients that have not found solutions in standard medicine. This is what is called stem cells tourism. This article reviews this situation, its consequences and the need for international cooperation to establish effective regulations to prevent the exploitation of patients and to endanger the prestige of legitimate stem cell research. PMID:24448860
Fagundes, Maria José Delgado; Soares, Magnely Gomes Alves; Diniz, Nilza Maria; Pires, Jansen Ribeiro; Garrafa, Volnei
This study investigates how advertising campaigns for drugs influence drug prescription practices among physicians from a point of view of "protection ethics" and of "intervention bioethics". It also analyzes information quality in advertisements for prescription drugs before and after the ANVISA (National Agency for Sanitary Protection) RDC 102/200 Resolution wich regulates drugs advertising as well as discusses the regulating role of the state in this area. A first approach was to interview 50 physicians in Brasília/DF (25 general physicians and 25 surgeons) in order to examine how they perceive the effects of advertisement on their professional activities. A second approach was to study 10 publicity pieces, five from before and five from after the RDC Resolution. The results showed that: a) 98% of phsicians are visited by sales representatives on a regular basis; b) 86% of physicians receive gifts during these visits; c) 68% beleive that advertising strongly influences prescription practices; d) 14% related prescription practices to the receival of rewards; e) 68% beleive that information contained in advertisements is unreliable; f) before the RDC Resolution, 28% of advertisements had adequate information content (counter-indications, indications precautions, warnings, and adverse reactions); after the RDC Resolution, that number grew to 79%. PMID:17680073
Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Marcus, Ioan
Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research. PMID:26767499
This article analyses, from a bioethics journal editor's perspective, the threats to academic freedom and freedom of expression that academic bioethicists and academic bioethics journals are subjected to by political activists applying pressure from outside of the academy. I defend bioethicists' academic freedom to reach and defend conclusions many find offensive and 'wrong'. However, I also support the view that academics arguing controversial matters such as, for instance, the moral legitimacy of infanticide should take clear responsibility for the views they defend and should not try to hide behind analytical philosophers' rationales such as wanting to test an argument for the sake of testing an argument. This article proposes that bioethics journals establish higher-quality requirements and more stringent mechanisms of peer review than usual for iconoclastic articles. PMID:23637435
Tawalare, Kiran A; Nanote, Kalpana D; Gawai, Vijay U; Gotmare, Ashish Y
Ethics deal with the set of principles of right conduct. The four basic principles of bioethics - autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice are known as "principlism". Though these four principles are influenced by the western world; in the medical field they are adapted as universal ethics. Originally, Ayurveda, the Indian medical system, has strongly advocated ethical code of conduct for physicians, but does not get its due recognition till this date. Proposed article aims to compare universally accepted basic tenets of bioethics and ancient Ayurvedic ethics. For this purpose classical texts of Ayurveda and literature regarding principlism was collected and analyzed thoroughly. It was found that the essence of ethics is very well-defined and described in the fundamental texts of Ayurveda in the form of Sadvritta, Chatushpada, Yogya, Vaidyavritti and Aachara Rasayana. Hence, Ayurveda should be considered as a trailblazer in establishing the basic tenets of bioethics. PMID:26195897
Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J
Current ethics and good clinical practice guidelines address various aspects of pharmaceutical research and development, but do not comprehensively address the bioethical responsibilities of sponsors. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company developed and implemented a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research to guide ethical decisions. (See our companion article that describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique of its usefulness and limitations.) This paper presents the actual framework that serves as a company resource for employee education and bioethics deliberations. The framework consists of four basic ethical principles and 13 essential elements for ethical human biomedical research and resides within the context of our company's mission, vision and values. For each component of the framework, we provide a high-level overview followed by a detailed description with cross-references to relevant well regarded guidance documents. The principles and guidance described should be familiar to those acquainted with research ethics. Therefore the novelty of the framework lies not in the foundational concepts presented as much as the attempt to specify and compile a sponsor's bioethical responsibilities to multiple stakeholders into one resource. When such a framework is employed, it can serve as a bioethical foundation to inform decisions and actions throughout clinical planning, trial design, study implementation and closeout, as well as to inform company positions on bioethical issues. The framework is, therefore, a useful tool for translating ethical aspirations into action - to help ensure pharmaceutical human biomedical research is conducted in a manner that aligns with consensus ethics principles, as well as a sponsor's core values. PMID:26325585
Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond
The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (2011) and Bracanovic (2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969
This article by one of the Editors of Bioethics, published in the 25th anniversary issue of the journal, describes some of the revolutionary changes academic publishing has undergone during the last decades. Many humanities journals went from typically small print-runs, counting by the hundreds, to on-line availability in thousands of university libraries worldwide. Article up-take by our subscribers can be measured efficiently. The implications of this and other changes to academic publishing are discussed. Important ethical challenges need to be addressed in areas such as the enforcement of plagiarism-related policies, the so-called 'impact factor' and its impact on academic integrity, and the question of whether on-line only publishing can currently guarantee the integrity of academic publishing histories. PMID:21175707
Bryant, John; la Velle, Linda Baggott
Points out the importance of awareness among biologists and biology teachers of the ethical and social implications of their work. Describes the bioethics module established at the University of Exeter mainly targeting students majoring in biology and science education. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/YDS)
Turrens, Julio F.
Undergraduate students in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at the University of South Alabama, Mobile, are required to take a course entitled "Issues in Biomedical Sciences," designed to increase students' awareness about bioethical questions and issues concerning research integrity. This paper describes the main features of this course and…
Mullet, Etienne; Sorum, Paul C.; Teysseire, Nathalie; Nann, Stephanie; Martinez, Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales; Ahmed, Ramadan; Kamble, Shanmukh; Olivari, Cecilia; Sastre, Maria Teresa Munoz
We present, in a synthetic way, some of the main findings from five studies that were conducted in the field of empirical bioethics, using the Functional Measurement framework. These studies were about (a) the rationing of rare treatments, (b) adolescents' abortions, (c) end-of-life decision-making regarding damaged neonates, (d) end-of-life…
Pyrrho, Monique; do Prado, Mauro Machado; Cordón, Jorge; Garrafa, Volnei
The Brazilian Dentistry Code of Ethics (DCE), Resolution CFO-71 from May 2006, is an instrument created to guide dentists' behavior in relation to the ethical aspects of professional practice. The purpose of the study is to analyze the above mentioned code comparing the deontological and bioethical focuses. In order to do so, an interpretative analysis of the code and of twelve selected texts was made. Six of the texts were about bioethics and six on deontology, and the analysis was made through the methodological classification of the context units, textual paragraphs and items from the code in the following categories: the referentials of bioethical principlism--autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice -, technical aspects and moral virtues related to the profession. Together the four principles represented 22.9%, 39.8% and 54.2% of the content of the DCE, of the deontological texts and of the bioethical texts respectively. In the DCE, 42% of the items referred to virtues, 40.2% were associated to technical aspects and just 22.9% referred to principles. The virtues related to the professionals and the technical aspects together amounted to 70.1% of the code. Instead of focusing on the patient as the subject of the process of oral health care, the DCE focuses on the professional, and it is predominantly turned to legalistic and corporate aspects. PMID:19851604
In this first Bioethical Issues column the author outlines some of the distinctions and congruities between ethics and law, and between bioethics and medical law. The evidence for connections is obvious and wide-ranging, appearing within health and medical education, the academic literature, statute and case law, professional guidelines and the activities of professional associations, the history of legal practice and philosophical inquiry, and the emergence of human rights theory and applications. The interpenetration of morals and law is examined first by briefly tracing the development of natural law and legal positivism. These links are then developed through a number of examples which are the subjects of both bioethical and legal interest: decision-making capacity, what constitutes good medical practice in the advance care planning context, sex selection, embryo experimentation and posthumous conception. These topics illustrate some of the explicit and some of the less obvious ways in which moral considerations and medical law interact, and suggest that biolaw can involve inconsistencies and even obfuscation which, while difficult to avoid in plural societies, are appropriate areas for examination. In the final section the author argues that bioethics and medical law share some important logical features, including a prescriptivist, principled structure, which is subject to the related requirements of specification and universalisability. Again, medico-legal illustrations are used to support this proposal, which also constitutes a suitable topic for critique. Future columns will provide the opportunity for those who care about the issues of bioethics and medical law to share their thoughts and those of their colleagues. PMID:18365517
Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun
The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a ...
This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings...
Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun
The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach. PMID:23864994
Lora Jean Brake
At first glance the twenty-first century arena of biotechnology and bioethics seems worlds away from the practical concerns of the first century outlook of the New Testament book of James. A closer look, however, reveals that the issues that James addresses have applications to challenges in bioethics. This article will give an overview of James and examine James’ teaching on wealth, poverty, and generosity and its import for the issue of global stewardship in bioethics. Stewardship concerns...
Despite the fact that bioethics is, basically, an interdisciplinary scientific field, it is deeply intertwined with less objectivistic, yet important, threads of morality and religion. From the beginning, in the United States, the language of bioethics has been shaped by theologians and people who do not neglect the religious approaches of particular scientific issues. This paper examines the possibility of using religious and nonreligious terminologies in the bioethical discourse, paying clo...
Powell, Tia; Foglia, Mary Beth
Our goal in producing this special issue is to encourage our colleagues to incorporate topics related to LGBT populations into bioethics curricula and scholarship. Bioethics has only rarely examined the ways in which law and medicine have defined, regulated, and often oppressed sexual minorities. This is an error on the part of bioethics. Medicine and law have served in the past as society's enforcement arm toward sexual minorities, in ways that robbed many people of their dignity. We feel that bioethics has an obligation to discuss that history and to help us as a society take responsibility for it. We can address only a small number of topics in this special issue of the Hastings Center Report, and we selected topics we believe will stimulate discourse. Andrew Solomon offers an elegant overview of the challenges that bioethics faces in articulating a solid basis for LGBT rights. Timothy F. Murphy asks whether bioethics still faces issues related to lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, given the deletion of homosexuality as a disease and the progress toward same-sex marriage. Jamie Lindemann Nelson's essay addresses the search for identity for transgender persons and the role of science in that search. Two articles, those by Brendan S. Abel and by Jack Drescher and Jack Pula, take up the complex issue of medical treatment for children who reject their assigned birth gender. Celia B. Fisher and Brian Mustanski address the special challenges of engaging LGBT youth in research, balancing the need for better information about this vulnerable group against the existing restrictions on research involving children. Tia Powell and Edward Stein consider the merits of legal bans on psychotherapies intended to change sexual orientation, particularly in the light of current research on orientation. Mary Beth Foglia and Karen I. Fredricksen-Goldsen highlight health disparities and resilience among LGBT older adults and then discuss the role of nonconscious bias in perpetuating
This article examines the emergence and consolidation of bioethics as a discipline from a sociological perspective. This reconstruction helps us to understand on the one hand what is meant by bioethics and what its practices and areas of inquiry are, and on the other to identify various concepts and expert opinions about what the field of study for bioethics should be, opinions which lead in practice to different applications of the discipline in health sciences. This becomes relevant for epistemological discussions about the discipline and for consolidating a sociology of bioethics in the context of Ibero-America. PMID:26625913
... an advisory panel of the nation's leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and... biomedicine and related areas of science and technology. The Bioethics Commission seeks to identify...
...'s leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Commission advised the President on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science...
... medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Commission advises the President on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology....
...'s leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The Commission advises the President on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science...
The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of 2005 purports to articulate universal norms for bioethics. However, this document has met with mixed reviews. Some deny that the elaboration of universal bioethics norms is needed; some deny that UNESCO has the expertise or authority to articulate such norms; some regard the content of the UNESCO document as too vague or general to be useful; and some regard the document as a cog in the effort of like-minded cosmopolitans to codify their particular moral intuitions in international law. This issue examines the potential merits and pitfalls of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. PMID:19387002
Pragmatism has been understood by bioethicists as yet another rival in the "methods wars," as yet another theory of moral deliberation. This has led to criticism of pragmatic bioethics as both theoretically and practically inadequate. Pragmatists' responses to these objections have focused mainly on misunderstandings of pragmatism's epistemology. These responses are insufficient. Pragmatism's commitment to radical empiricism gives it theoretical resources unappreciated by critics and defenders alike. Radical empiricism, unlike its more traditional ancestors, undercuts the gaps between theory and practice, and subjective and objective accounts of experience, and in so doing provides the metaphysical and epistemological basis for a thoroughgoing empirical naturalism in ethics. Pragmatism's strength as an approach to moral problems thus emerges as a result of a much wider array of resources than contemporary interpreters have acknowledged, which makes it a richer, deeper framework for understanding moral deliberation in general and bioethical decision making in particular. PMID:23878348
In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether “eugenics talk”, in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most...
Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N.; Collins, Laura J.
Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development an...
Author in this paper refers to ethical and bioethical issues and implications characteristic within female elite gymnastics. Female gymnastics is not the only sport, whose ethics can be called into question, but it is specific, because the female elite gymnasts are mostly under aged girls, and they are faced with both, demanding sport and pressure from parents and coaches. Contemporary athletes are often called modern gladiators. Acute injuries, chronic diseases and various psychosomatic diso...
Ahmadi Nasab Emran, Shahram
In Bioethics and Secular Humanism: The Search for a Common Morality, Tristram Engelhardt examines various possibilities of finding common ground for moral discourse among people from different traditions and concludes their futility. In this paper I will argue that many of the assumptions on which Engelhardt bases his conclusion about the impossibility of a content-full secular bioethics are problematic. By starting with the notion of moral strangers, there is no possibility, by definition, for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers. It means that there is circularity in starting the inquiry with a definition of moral strangers, which implies that they do not share enough moral background or commitment to an authority to allow for reaching a moral agreement, and concluding that content-full morality is impossible among moral strangers. I argue that assuming traditions as solid and immutable structures that insulate people across their boundaries is problematic. Another questionable assumption in Engelhardt's work is the idea that religious and philosophical traditions provide content-full moralities. As the cardinal assumption in Engelhardt's review of the various alternatives for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers, I analyze his foundationalist account of moral reasoning and knowledge and indicate the possibility of other ways of moral knowledge, besides the foundationalist one. Then, I examine Engelhardt's view concerning the futility of attempts at justifying a content-full secular bioethics, and indicate how the assumptions have shaped Engelhardt's critique of the alternatives for the possibility of content-full secular bioethics. PMID:26715286
The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. PMID:23538204
The family is the exemplar community of Chinese society. This essay explores how Chinese communitarian norms, expressed in thick commitments to the authority and autonomy of the family, are central to contemporary Chinese bioethics. In particular, it focuses on the issue of surrogate decision making to illustrate the Confucian family-grounded communitarian bioethics. The essay first describes the way in which the family, in Chinese bioethics, functions as a whole to provide consent for significant medical and surgical interventions when a patient has lost decision-making capacity. It is argued that the practice of not having an established order for surrogate decision makers (e.g., spouse, children, and then parents), as it is done in the United States, reflects the acknowledgment that the family as a social reality cannot be reduced to a stereotype of the appropriate order of default decision makers. This description of the family as being in authority to make surrogate decisions for an incompetent family member is enriched by an elaboration of the differences among the concepts of patient autonomy, family autonomy, and moral autonomy. The Chinese model, as well as the Confucian communitarian life of families, engages a family autonomy that is supported by a Confucian understanding of moral autonomy, rather than individual autonomy. Finally, the issue of possible conflicts between patient and family interests in relation to a patient's past wishes in the Chinese model is addressed in light of the role of the physician. PMID:21858670
Guyer, Ruth Levy; Dillon, Mary Lou; Anderson, Linda; Szobota, Lola
Discusses the use of bioethics and bioethical dilemmas in different subject areas at the high school level by focusing on the case of Baby K. Includes the story of Baby K, classroom activities for U.S. history, 10th and 11th grade ethics, and anatomy and physiology. (CMK)
Solberg, Mary M.
Teaching bioethics might be likened to a rollercoaster ride of twists, turns, and dips that invite teachers and students to experience something of their own edges of fear and comfort. Here the author provides readers with a glimpse into her distinctive approach to teaching bioethics that encourages students to move beyond boundaries of personal…
Notes that life-saving advances in medicine have created difficult ethical and legal dilemmas for health care professionals. Presents beginning knowledge base for bioethical practice, especially in hospital neonatal units. Outlines key elements of bioethical decision making and examines potential social work role from clinical and organizational…
Precollegiate education has paid little attention to the bioethical underpinning of recent innovations. Without a deliberate commitment to bioethical education, confusion and divisiveness regarding genetic testing are likely to challenge harmony in families and further polarize the already fragmented society. This article presents the following…
Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings, based on Bauman’s and Beauchamp’s theories; investigation of the toolsthat human rights offer so as to solve intercultural conflicts in bioethics. It was concluded that intercultural bioethics must incorporate to its prescriptive and descriptive tasks norms and institutions of human rights that ensure the participation and social integration of the individuals from communities that are in cultural conflict. Such measure will act as instrumentsfor the solution of intercultural conflicts.
The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy. PMID:25655982
Marin, Ana; Bouffard, Chantal
At a time in which the ethical awareness towards socio-cultural diversity is a necessity, it seems of paramount importance to explore what is meant by bioethics. Without being exhaustive, this paper suggests to scrutinize the key defnitions of bioethics, considering their evolution over time as well as their convergence with anthropology. Starting with its global and its restricted definitions, this article examines certain differences or definitional imprecisions in the light of the concepts used by bioethicists and anthropologists in their conception of bioethics. While this exercise shows the pertinence of the conceptual tools proposed by anthropology to facilitate the cultural diversity's integration into bioethics, it ultimately challenges an anthropological approach that has been unable to mainstream this knowledge into the definition of bioethics. PMID:26911078
O'Mathúna Dónal P
Full Text Available Abstract Background The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Discussion Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans. A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Summary Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi
This philosophical inquiry examines the nature of the technology of genetic predisposition testing and its relation to patients as whole persons. The bioethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy and justice are judged insufficient to resolve issues associated with use. A new principle of 'sustained being', drawn from philosophical propositions of Pellegrino, is suggested. The new principle is suited to an evolving practice and is compatible with consequentialist, deontological and relational ethics theories. The notion of 'taking care' is related to nursing in genetic health care to form a standard of conduct and a moral imperative to 'safeguard being'. PMID:12762460
Full Text Available En Occident, on semble généralement persuadé que ce qui y est appelé la bioéthique peut s’exporter mondialement. En fait les excellentes études qui ont été consacrées aux indiens Hopi montrent que notre bioéthique y serait totalement incompréhensible. Et l’enquête faite chez les Hopis donnerait des résultats très semblables dans d’autres sociétés dites « traditionnelles », dénomination qui signale l’autre aspect du problème. L’Occident, qui prétend étendre la bioéthique, en plus de ce qu’il appelle le droit, la démocratie et d’autres valeurs qui sont en fait une façon d’afficher sa supériorité et sa stratégie de conquête, cet Occident dissimule derrière son discours civilisateur la réalité d’une pensée sauvage qui se perçoit fort bien lorsque le prêche bioéthique dissimule mal les interdits des sacralités primitives.The Western world seems generally convinced that what is labelled as bioethics can be exported throughout the world. In fact the excellent research devoted to Hopi indians shows that our bioethics would be there totally impossible for them to understand. And the study carried out among the Hopis would produce very similar results in other so-called « traditional » societies. When the West claims the extension of bioethics in addition to law, democracy and other values, this may in fact be analyzed as a way of displaying its superiority and its strategy of conquest. It conceals behind its civilizing discourse the reality of a savage mind which is clearly perceptible, for its bioethical sermonising barely hides the taboos of its primitive sacrednesses .
In recent years there has been a wealth of literature arguing the need for empirical and interdisciplinary approaches to bioethics, based on the premise that an empirically informed ethical analysis is more grounded, contextually sensitive and therefore more relevant to clinical practice than an 'abstract' philosophical analysis. Bioethics has (arguably) always been an interdisciplinary field, and the rise of 'empirical' (bio)ethics need not be seen as an attempt to give a new name to the longstanding practice of interdisciplinary collaboration, but can perhaps best be understood as a substantive attempt to engage with the nature of that interdisciplinarity and to articulate the relationship between the many different disciplines (some of them empirical) that contribute to the field. It can also be described as an endeavour to explain how different disciplinary approaches can be integrated to effectively answer normative questions in bioethics, and fundamental to that endeavour is the need to think about how a robust methodology can be articulated that successfully marries apparently divergent epistemological and metaethical perspectives with method. This paper proposes 'Reflexive Bioethics' (RB) as a methodology for interdisciplinary and empirical bioethics, which utilizes a method of 'Reflexive Balancing' (RBL). RBL has been developed in response to criticisms of various forms of reflective equilibrium, and is built upon a pragmatic characterization of Bioethics and a 'quasi-moral foundationalism', which allows RBL to avoid some of the difficulties associated with RE and yet retain the flexible egalitarianism that makes it intuitively appealing to many. PMID:23444909
Hiemke Katharina Schmidt
Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.
Hubbard, William J; Dashti, Nassrin
The aged patient stands at the nexus of significant biomedical and bioethical issues in transplantation. This in itself can be seen as a microcosm of an imminent global tempest, stemming from expanding numbers and longer lives of the aged population. As a candidate for receiving organ and tissue transplants, the geriatric patient is challenging because they present unique physiology for medical management. As organ and tissue donors, the aged are perceived of as providing "marginal" organs, which drives the fear that the graft will fail before the recipient. Such difficulties lead inexorably to several unique bioethical considerations for transplantation with this population. The thorny conundrums for society hinge on fairness versus discrimination based on age, played out under the enormous and probably intractable problem of severe donor organ shortages. Fortunately, recent findings offer some rather unexpected new and favorable prospects. Notably, aged donors can provide organs with good, lifesaving function, even though there are nonetheless age-related compromises present. On the other side of the coin, there is less doubt that recipients can have their lives extended with high quality through transplantation. Here they benefit from some (counterintuitively) positive attributes for aging, such as reduced immune function, making immunosuppression less rigorous. Finally, the pressure of organ and tissue shortages plus the lifting of bans on embryonic stem cell research have portents for an explosive alternative to transplantation of adult organs. Stem cells also lend credibility to prospects for realizing regenerative medicine, assuming ethical and religious concerns can be satisfied. PMID:22396872
María Natalia Zavadivker
Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate to what extent the resulting empirical data from various experiments in Moral Psychology (some behavioral, others based on evidence from neuroimaging and in patients with brain lesions associated with moral competence areas , can contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes (cognitive and emotional underlying to our moral practical judgments, helping us to understand the mechanisms that influence our assessment of moral dilemmas in general and bioethics in particular. Various experiments are discussed (and the theoretical models that are supported that reveal aspects such as the role of disgust or repugnance in the production of moral judgments, the competitive or cooperative role of emotions and cognitions in impersonal and personal moral dilemmas -and between the above mentioned, easy and difficult-, the neurophysiological bases of deontologist and consequentialist, the value attributed to the intent and the results of action, etc. The relevance of these experiments are analyzed to understand the evaluative and deliberative processes concerning various bioethical dilemmas, for which appeals to examples of conflict situations involved and our emotional resources (that activate immediate assessment and our higher cortical areas interact (cognitive processes responsible for slower deliberative and reflexive.
Jones, S F; Kessel, A S
Biomedicine is a global enterprise constructed upon the belief in the universality of scientific truths. However, despite huge scientific advances over recent decades it has not been able to formulate a specific and universal definition of death: In fact, in its attempt to redefine death, the concept of death appears to have become immersed in ever increasing vagueness and ambiguity. Even more worrisome is that bioethics, in the form of principlism, is also endeavouring to become a global enterprise by claiming neutrality. It appears that the discourse within both disciplines have similarly manipulated the boundaries of death to include the "dying". This paper argues that the redefinition of death debate in biomedicine reveals a concept of personhood which is profoundly western in origin and which is in accordance to the concept adhered to within principlism. Biomedicine and bioethics do not appear to acknowledge the limitations of their own world view and hence lack an understanding of their applicability and appropriateness in diverse social and cultural contexts; a situation which adds credence to claims as to the hegemonic and imperialistic nature of all such global enterprises. PMID:11214385
Mizuno, Toshinari; Slingsby, Brian Taylor
Religious traditions can play a significant role in the shaping of bioethical thought. In Japan, traditional Buddhist and Shinto thought continue to influence contemporary bioethical perspectives. To better define this relationship, this paper examines the correlation between Japanese bioethical perspectives and Buddhist and Shinto thought. An in-depth discussion explores how Buddhist and Shinto scholars have used fundamental concepts with each religious tradition to agree and disagree with the disclosure of an incurable disease to a patient, brain death, and brain-dead organ transplantation. PMID:17269549
Bloom, Arthur; Constan, Phyllis
A bioethics unit aimed at taking biology out of the laboratory and classroom and into the world. An experience in which students not only begin to understand reasons for making decisions, but also understand how values change. (Author/EB)
Yang, Wan-Ping; Chen, Ching-Huey; Chao, Co-Shi Chantal; Lai, Wei-Shu
To understand the gaps between current bioethics education and the requirements of practicing nurses, a semistructured questionnaire was used to invite the directors of nursing departments at all 82 teaching hospitals in Taiwan to participate in this survey. The response rate was 64.6%. Through content analysis we obtained information about previous bioethical training, required themes and content, recommended teaching strategies, and difficulties with education and its application. The results suggest that Taiwanese nursing personnel need to be instilled with both self-cultivation of morality and mental cultivation to acquire nursing virtues and the right attitudes toward bioethical issues. Good communication skills to prevent damage to the harmonious relationships between patients, their families and medical team members, policies that support the provision of systematic formal knowledge of ethics, small group training, and clarification of values were also shown to be important in bioethics education. PMID:20610584
... advisory panel of the nation's leaders in medicine, science, ethics, religion, law, and engineering. The... related areas of science and technology. The Bioethics Commission seeks to identify and promote...
Loike, John D.; Rush, Brittany S.; Schweber, Adam; Fischbach, Ruth L.
Columbia University offers two innovative undergraduate science-based bioethics courses for student majoring in biosciences and pre–health studies. The goals of these courses are to introduce future scientists and healthcare professionals to the ethical questions they will confront in their professional lives, thus enabling them to strategically address these bioethical dilemmas. These courses incorporate innovative pedagogical methods, case studies, and class discussions to stimulate the stu...
Marina Alekseevna Nikulina
In article the conceptual analysis of a phenomenon of subjectivity in the space of a modern bioethical reflection is given, the main transformations of subjectivity, adherent by a post-nonclassical paradigm and development of biotechnological activities are determined. Social and sociological loading of a concept "subjectivity" is connected with judgment of incorporated moral components. Proving the need of ethical parameterization of subjectivity for a bioethical discourse, the author opens ...
Pandya, Radhika H; Shukla, Radha; Gor, Alpa P; Ganguly, Barna
The principles of bioethics have been identified as important requirements for training basic medical doctors. Till now, various modalities have been used for teaching bioethics, such as lectures, followed by a small case-based discussion, case vignettes or debates among students. For effective teaching-learning of bioethics, it is necessary to integrate theory and practice rather than merely teach theoretical constructs without helping the students translate those constructs into practice. Classroom teaching can focus on the theoretical knowledge of professional relationships, patient-doctor relationships, issues at the beginning and end of life, reproductive technologies, etc. However, a better learning environment can be created through an experiencebased approach to complement lectures and facilitate successful teaching. Engaging students in reflective dialogue with their peers would allow them to refine their ideas with respect to learning ethics. It can help in the development both of the cognitive and affective domains of the teaching of bioethics. Real-life narratives by the interns, when used as case or situation analysis models for a particular ethical issue, can enhance other students' insight and give them a moral boost. Doing this can change the classroom atmosphere, enhance motivation, improve the students' aptitude and improve their attitude towards learning bioethics. Involving the students in this manner can prove to be a sustainable way of achieving the goal of deep reflective learning of bioethics and can serve as a new technique for maintaining the interest of students as well as teachers. PMID:27474694
The paper explores the backward and forward linkage between HCL and bioethics. Indeed, the relationship between the two is so close that it can be considered one of symbiosis. This is particularly the case when an account is taken of how HCL and bioethics positively benefitted from each other in diverse ways during their development into their present status as discrete disciplines. In the first place, the aftermath of the Second World War, such as the Nuremberg trial and unprecedented medical experiment scandals in the 1960s/70s fuelled the increasing participation of lay scholars in exploring and critiquing medical ethics which culminated in the emergence ofbioethics.2 This in turn facilitated the evolution of HCL as a discipline, since academic lawyers involved in early bioethical discourse developed interest in exploring the interface between law and bioethics at the same time that society was waking up to the ethical implications of medical advances. As HCL emerged as a discrete discipline, it consolidated the status of bioethics as a field of inquiry by projecting the relevance of the latter in adjudication of novel cases with significant slippery moral undertones. Thus, the chicken and egg paradox finds a perfect reflection in the emergence of health care law and bioethics in England and Wales. PMID:24946511
If we want to take firm the importance of universal principles in Bioethics, but at the same time we want to take seriously the importance of cultural diversity and pluralism, it is necessary to adopt a multifaceted approach. In the article I argue that a possible way out is a sort of hermeneutic approach, in order to reduce the ambivalence that stems from the dual recognition of cultural diversity and universal value of human rights. Through this approach conflicting principles and traditions can be harmonized within a common framework, at least to some extent. Such an approach, in my perspective, can be implemented as a strategy of interpretation, which can hold together different conceptions and common principles. PMID:26860625
Fitzpatrick, Scott J; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C; Zoloth, Laurie; Tollefsen, Christopher; Tsomo, Karma Lekshe; Jensen, Michael P; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Sarma, Deepak
The prevention and relief of suffering has long been a core medical concern. But while this is a laudable goal, some question whether medicine can, or should, aim for a world without pain, sadness, anxiety, despair or uncertainty. To explore these issues, we invited experts from six of the world's major faith traditions to address the following question. Is there value in suffering? And is something lost in the prevention and/or relief of suffering? While each of the perspectives provided maintains that suffering should be alleviated and that medicine's proper role is to prevent and relieve suffering by ethical means, it is also apparent that questions regarding the meaning and value of suffering are beyond the realm of medicine. These perspectives suggest that medicine and bioethics have much to gain from respectful consideration of religious discourse surrounding suffering. PMID:25680422
The Hastings Center was founded in 1969 to study ethical problems in medicine and biology. The Center arose from a confluence of three social currents: the increased public scrutiny of medicine and its practices, the concern about the moral problems being generated by technological developments, and the desire of one of its founders (Callahan) to make use of his philosophical training in a more applied way. The early years of the Center were devoted to raising money, developing an early agenda of issues, and identifying a cadre of people around the country interested in the issues. Various stresses and strains in the Center and the field are identified, and some final reflections are offered on the nature and value of the contributions made by bioethics as an academic field. PMID:22198414
Jeanne Ting Chowning
Full Text Available Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001 between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001 in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student
Bryan, Charles S
Problems posed by HIV/AIDS differ from those of past epidemics by virtue of unique properties of the causative agent, dramatic societal changes of the late 20th century, and the transition of medical practice from a professional ethic to a technology-dependent business ethic. HIV/AIDS struck during the coming-of-age of molecular biology and also of bioethics, and the epidemic stimulated the growth of both disciplines. The number of articles published about AIDS and ethics (as identified by a MEDLINE search) peaked in 1990, just before the peak incidence of AIDS in the United States. The character of ethical dialogue has now shifted from familiar moral quandaries such as civil liberty versus public welfare to concerns about vaccine trials and public policy toward the developing world. Physicians and other health care workers who were involved from the onset endured something of an emotional roller coaster. Their compassion-based work ethic was to a large extent replaced by a competence-based work ethic after the introduction in 1996 of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The abundant recent literature on "professionalism" in medicine makes scant mention of AIDS/HIV. The disruptive effect of AIDS/HIV on society would have been substantially greater had relevant technology such as the ability to isolate retroviruses and potent therapy against tuberculosis not been in place. This sobering consideration, along with such recent events as the use of bioterrorism against civilian populations, suggests new relevance for Potter's definition of "bioethics" as a science of survival in which the biology of ecosystems must be taken into account. PMID:15971565
Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N; Collins, Laura J
Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (pstrategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001) in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student motivation and engagement with science content, while promoting reasoning
Full Text Available Problem statement: With the advent of globalization and information and communication technology (ICT, web-facilitated learning strategy has taken an important role in the learning and teaching process. This paper examines how bioethics principles on human dignity and human rights can be learned through web-facilitated learning strategies among tertiary level International Relations students. Bioethics is an emerging field that concerns states and inter-state relations. It is about thinking globally about ethics and about our moral judgment about life, the environment and other species. The objective of this study is to provide an assessment on how graduate students of International Relations use web-based tools to gather information about global bioethics principles. Approach: The research data is collected through feedbacks solicited from some 40 post-graduate students of International Relations on (i self-assessment on the learning acquired regarding the bioethics principles using web resources and (ii through a set of pre- and post-tests to test the knowledge acquired on the subject matter. Results: The findings reveal that through the use of web-facilitated learning strategy respondents showed increased comprehension and receptiveness towards bioethics principles on human dignity and human rights. Conclusion: Therefore the study concludes that the use of web-facilitated learning strategy can emphasize the importance of bioethics principles in understanding the ethical framework in dealing with human dignity and human rights. The research findings may provide useful information for scholars and researchers developing teaching strategies using bioethics resources.
Cohen, Cynthia B
National bioethics commissions have struggled to develop ethically warranted methods for conducting their deliberations. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission in its report on stem cell research adopted an approach to public deliberation indebted to Rawls in that it sought common ground consistent with shared values and beliefs at the foundation of a well-ordered democracy. In contrast, although the research cloning and stem cell reports of the President's Council on Bioethics reveal that it broached two different methods of public deliberation--balancing goods and following an overarching moral principle--it adopted neither. Thereupon its primer mover, Leon Kass, influenced particularly by the approach of Leo Strauss, sought to develop a method of public deliberation guided by tradition and practical wisdom. When this failed, the Council fell back on a method that took account of shared fundamental values of a free democracy--a method remarkable akin to that employed by the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Respect for diverse reasonable conceptions of the good in a democratic polity requires national bioethics commissions to seek and incorporate that which is valuable in opposing positions. PMID:16250108
Harmon, Shawn H E
Complex social and ethical problems are often most effectively solved by engaging them at the messy and uncomfortable intersections of disciplines and practices, a notion that grounds the InVisible Difference project, which seeks to extend thinking and alter practice around the making, status, ownership, and value of work by contemporary dance choreographers by examining choreographic work through the lenses of law, bioethics, dance scholarship, and the practice of dance by differently-abled dancers. This article offers a critical thesis on how bioethics has come to occupy a marginal and marginalizing role in questions about the differently-abled body. In doing so, it has rendered the disabled community largely invisible to and in bioethics. It then defends the claim that bioethics - as a social undertaking pursued collaboratively by individuals from different disciplines - must take much better notice of the body and the embodied individual if it is to better achieve its ends, which include constructing a moral and just society. Finally, this article considers how the arts, and specifically dance (and here dance by differently-abled dancers), provides us with rich evidence about the body and our ability to respond positively to normally 'othered' bodies. It concludes that greater attention to empirical evidence like that being generated in InVisible Difference will help to expand the reach and significance of bioethics, and thereby its relevance to (and consciousness of) important questions about the status of bodies and bodily differences, which must be considered as central to its ambitions. PMID:25476013
Premkumar, Ashish; Gates, Elena
Within the realm of bioethics, the construction of pregnancy classically has focused on principle-based ethics, essentially separating maternal and fetal interests. Respect for maternal autonomy becomes distinct from an obligation of fetal beneficence, placing practitioners in complicated ethical situations when the goals of pregnant women may be at odds with the best health interests of the fetus as defined by both professional groups and society in general. As a result, clinical care is framed by an ethical "maternal-fetal conflict," with important downstream legal and policy consequences for the well-being of pregnant women. Developments in the social sciences highlight the value of attending to the biosocial realm that a pregnant woman inhabits rather than relating to her and to her fetus as discrete entities. By understanding the needs, concerns, and context within which a woman lives, clinicians can practice an ethics of accompaniment. With a focus on an ethics of accompaniment, assumptions about the maternal moral responsibility to fetal health made by practitioners and society in general can directly affect not only clinical care, but also the way policy surrounding reproductive health is constructed and implemented. PMID:27400011
Full Text Available This paper examines the question of ethical expertise and does so in the context of bioethics or, more accurately, applied ethics and the ethical governance of the life sciences. This analysis builds on a perspective set out in a previous paper and develops it further such that it relates to democratic processes. I argue that the academic practice of applied ethics exhibits a particular logic, way of thinking or eidos. Drawing on work in the history of science I present the logic of this practice as underpinned by a particular set of values or ethos. This can be contrasted with what Bernstein calls the democratic ethos as well as that of everyday moral agents. Using the framework of expertise developed by Collins and Evan’s—which differentiates between ubiquitous, contributory, and interactional expertise—I suggest that (bioethicists should modulate their expertise depending on the particular nature of the fora—academic, public, and policy-making—they are speaking in.
María Elisa Quinteros
Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the oral pathologies with greater burden of disease in the Chilean population. Fluoridation of drinking water has been used as a caries prevention strategy. However, its application as a public policy has been questioned since its implementation. The aim of this article is to analyze whether fluoridation of drinking water is a justified measure in reducing the incidence and prevalence of caries from the perspective of bioethics, taking into account the current evidence on its effectiveness. The arguments reviewed are based on the belief that water fluoridation is effective and, in general terms, ethically acceptable. A recent systematic review concludes that there is not enough evidence to support fluoridation as a public policy. There is a gap of knowledge that ought to be closed so that public health authorities can assess the significance of the intervention and make a democratic decision on its continuation or suspension based on scientific evidence. This decision should be informed and disseminated within the community.
Schultz, Michael; Bar-Sela, Gil
What are the ethical responsibilities of the medical staff (doctors, nurses, social workers, and chaplains) regarding the preservation of meaningful life for their patients who are approaching the end of life (EOL)? In particular, what is the staff's ethical responsibility to initiate a conversation with their patient regarding palliative care? By subjecting traditional Jewish teachings to an ethical analysis and then exploring the underlying universal principles, we will suggest a general ethical duty to inform patients of the different care options, especially in a manner that preserves hope. The principle that we can derive from Jewish bioethics teaches that the medical staff has a responsibility to help our patients live in a way that is consistent with how they understand their task or responsibility in life. For some patients, the best way to preserve a meaningful life in which they can fulfill their sense of purpose in the time that remains is to focus on palliation. For this reason, although palliative and supportive care are provided from the time of diagnosis, it is critical we make sure our patients realize that they have the opportunity to make a decision between either pursuing additional active treatments or choosing to focus primarily on palliative therapies to maximize quality of life. The Jewish tradition and our experience in spiritual care suggest the importance of helping patients preserve hope while, simultaneously, honestly acknowledging their situation. Staff members can play a vital role in helping patients make the most of this new period of their lives. PMID:23089233
Medical ethics has traditionally been oriented towards the clinical setting. Since the middle of the last century, however, various circumstances (associated mainly, though not exclusively, with rapid advances in technology and knowledge) have considerably broadened both the field of enquiry and the scope of this discipline. This is due partly to the overlap between medical ethics and bioethics, which in recent decades has acquired its own identity and concerns a multitude of ethical aspects in the biomedical field. Clinical ethics taps into the vast wealth of deontology, so that it has no need for additional criteria or principles, or for the definition of new values: rather, it recognizes the need to apply existing criteria, principles and values to contingent circumstances and contexts. A special role is reserved for ethics committees and, above all, for clinical ethics consultants, although in some countries the former are concerned mainly with authorisations for clinical trials. Clinical ethics consultants, however, may have a more incisive influence in clinical decisions: the special requisites and skills they need have been defined and discussed in various documents which are mentioned briefly in the present article. The presence of these consultants does not exonerate clinical physicians from their responsibilities or from liability for their decisions, in the formation of which they must refer constantly to codes of professional ethics. PMID:24424236
Kotalik, Jaro; Martin, Gerry
Contemporary bioethics recognizes the importance of the culture in shaping ethical issues, yet in practice, a process for ethical analysis and decision making is rarely adjusted to the culture and ethnicity of involved parties. This is of a particular concern in a health care system that is caring for a growing Aboriginal population. We raise the possibility of constructing a bioethics grounded in traditional Aboriginal knowledge. As an example of an element of traditional knowledge that contains strong ethical guidance, we present the story of the Gifts of the Seven Grandfathers. We note a resemblance of this Ojibway teaching to virtue ethics in European traditions, but we suggest that there are also important differences in how these two traditions are currently presented. We hope that further engagement with a variety of indigenous moral teachings and traditions could improve health care involving Aboriginal patients and communities, and enrich the discipline of bioethics. PMID:27111368
It is increasingly common for universities to provide cross-curricular education in bioethics as part of contemporary attempts to produce 'global citizens.' In this article I examine three perspectives drawn from research into pedagogy that has been conducted from the perspective of cognitive anthropology and consider its relevance to bioethics education. I focus on: two metaphors of learning, participation and acquisition, identified by Sfard; the psychological notion of moral development; and the distinction between socialization and enculturation. Two of these perspectives have been particularly fruitful in understanding the processes of teaching and learning in a variety of domains. The third perspective has been developed in relation to the formal ethical education of medical students. I examine their relevance for 'non-professional' bioethics education suggesting that if we take seriously the idea that it is part of 'educating for citizenship' then the distinction between 'ethics' and 'politics' is blurred as such programmes aim at the development of student's political subjectivity. PMID:25344014
Maria de Jesús Sánchez Bouza
Full Text Available Bioethical aspects related with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients with AIDS are present in the Cuban strategy to fight the epidemic. Through the revision of the essentials and principles of Bioethics, we analyze the problems that doctors face when treating these patients and aspects related with education for health in the case of this disease. It also outlines the association between these principles and the disposition, manifested or not, of theses patients to be part of some researches. This infection should be the target of permanent analysis by the Bioethics due to the constant challenges that it represent for medical staff and for society, either for the prevention, treatment and care, or for other kids of actions. Cuba has exceptional results in this field.
The abstinence approach to sex education remains influential despite its demonstrated ineffectiveness. One bill forbids the "promotion" of "gateway sexual activity," while requiring outright condemnation of "non-abstinence," defined so loosely as to plausibly include handholding. Bioethics seldom (if ever) contributes to sex-ed debates, yet exploring the pivotal role of medical discourse reveals the need for bioethical intervention. Sex-ed debates revolve around a theory of human flourishing based on heteronormative temporality, a developmental teleology ensuring the transmission of various supposed social goods through heterosexual marriage (Halberstam, 2005). Heteronormative temporality also constitutes a moralized discourse in which the values of health and presumed certainties of medicine serve to justify conservative religious dictates that otherwise would appear controversial as the basis for public policy. Overall, this analysis explores how moralized medical discourses compound existing injustices, while suggesting bioethics' potential contributions to moral and political analysis of sex-ed policies. PMID:23468394
Mendelevich Vladimir D
Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange, euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts.
Bioethics in a globalized world is meeting a number of challenges - fundamentalism in its different forms, and a focus on economic growth neglecting issues such as equity and sustainability, being prominent among them. How well are we as bioethicists equipped to make meaningful contributions in these times? The paper identifies a number of restraints and proceeds to probe potential resources such as the capability approach, care ethics, cosmopolitanism, and pragmatism. These elements serve to outline a perspective that focuses on the preconditions for flourishing human relationships as a way to address bioethical challenges in a globalized world. PMID:21929701
Hart, Curtis W
This article outlines the method utilized by physicians and major figures in the founding of Clinical Pastoral Education, Helen Flanders Dunbar, in her work of 1943, Psychosomatic Diagnosis, and relates it to the currently evolving approach in bioethics known as clinical pragmatism. It assesses Dewey's influence on both Dunbar in psychosomatic medicine and clinical pragmatism in bioethics, and illustrates the breadth of influence of the school of philosophical thought known as pragmatism with which Dewey's name and those of William James and Charles Sanders Pierce are most often identified. PMID:12385140
Alvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto
The presence of a transsexual pregnant male in the mass media has made people reassess if transsexuals should have access to assisted reproduction. The bioethical discussion should focus on the future child best interests. This article describes the story of this transsexual man, legally married to a woman in the state of Oregon in the United States. A brief overview of transsexuality and the specific characteristics of this case, with special considerations towards fertility in transsexual people is included. We suggest reflections on what constitutes motherhood and fatherhood and bioethical considerations brought forth by this groundbreaking event. PMID:19518023
Goodwin Frederick K
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the scientific and ethical basis for clinical innovation in psychopharmacology. Methods We conducted a literature review, utilizing MEDLINE search and bibliographic cross-referencing, and historical evidence regarding the discovery and development of new medications in psychiatry. Clinical innovation was defined as use of treatments in a clinical setting which have not been well-proven in a research setting. Results Empirical data regarding the impact of clinical innovation in psychopharmacology are lacking. A conceptual and historical assessment of this topic highlights the ethical and scientific importance of clinical innovation. Ethically, it touches a borderline that, in our judgment, is not adequately framed in contemporary mainstream bioethics. Currently, research is viewed as not at all benefiting the patients who participate in it, while clinical care is viewed as being solely for the benefit of patients. Clinical innovation straddles these two worlds, uncomfortably at times. While many argue that clinical innovation should either be avoided or folded into research projects, we argue that clinical innovation is necessary for progress in psychopharmacology research, and that it can prosper best when guided by the following ethical principles: 1. The treatment should be based on a viable hypothesis. 2. Whenever possible, one's clinical observations should be reported so they can be evaluated by the scientific community. 3. One should be willing to report unexpected observations of drug effects. 4. A high standard of informed consent should be maintained. Again, this proposal goes against the standard view among bioethicists that research and clinical care are categorically opposed activities, as made clear by the either-or dichotomy of the Belmont Report on bioethics. This approach has so polarized our profession into clinicians versus researchers, that many clinicians will not apply new knowledge produced by
Burgos Velasco, Juan Manuel
This article analyses the position of two secularized theories on the role of religious beliefs in bioethical reasoning. The excluding laicism of Sádaba rejects the rationality of religious fact and extend a general suspicion about the bioethical reasoning of believer. Contrary, the open position of Habermas-Rawls considers reasonable religions as one of the typical comprehensive views of liberal State, encourage secularized citizens to value his contributions and urge to secular and, then, neutral, State not to impose to all citizens a secularized cosmo-vision. Only the second perspective put the bases for a fruitful and calm dialogue in the bioethical area. PMID:18402228
... not more than 13 members who are drawn from the fields of bioethics, science, medicine, technology, engineering, law, philosophy, theology, or other areas of the humanities or social sciences. The Commission... science and technology. The Commission seeks to identify and promote policies and practices that...
... of science and technology. The Commission shall pursue its work with the goal of identifying and... members, who will be drawn from fields of bioethics, science, medicine, technology, engineering, law, philosophy, theology, and other areas of the humanities or social sciences. Commission members shall...
Loike, John D.; Rush, Brittany S.; Schweber, Adam; Fischbach, Ruth L.
Columbia University offers two innovative undergraduate science-based bioethics courses for student majoring in biosciences and pre-health studies. The goals of these courses are to introduce future scientists and healthcare professionals to the ethical questions they will confront in their professional lives, thus enabling them to strategically…
Hendrix, Jon R.; And Others
Results from a human genetics/bioethics needs assessment questionnaire (N = 124 out of 300) mailed to Indiana health teachers are reported. Genetic topics and human genetic diseases/defects included in health science instruction are listed in two tables. Responses to 16 science/society statements (and statements themselves) are also reported. (SK)
Goodwin, Mark; Kramer, Cas; Cashmore, Annette
Bioethics is an increasingly important part of the biosciences curriculum at school and in higher education, but few science teachers have much experience of teaching the subject in an engaging or interactive manner. This article sets out a session that allows students to practise the skills of ethical thinking and ethical debate in a relevant…
Hendrix, Jon R.
Data from questionnaires sent to every college and university in the United States ascertained that 26 percent of the 223 responding major institutions offered a bioethics course, most frequently presented by the biology department to medical students and taught most frequently by professors of ethics and philosophy background. Questionnaire and…
Asada, Yukiko; Tsuzuki, Miho; Akiyama, Shiro; Macer, Nobuko Y.; Macer, Darryl R. J.
Summarizes the results of an International Bioethics Education Survey conducted in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Compares knowledge and teaching of 15 selected topics with particular emphasis on the teaching of social, ethical, and environmental issues of in vitro fertilization, prenatal diagnosis, biotechnology, nuclear power, pesticides,…
Full Text Available Context: The orthodontists usually have to manage patient′s expectations and treatment plans at the same time. Consequently, the civil responsibility and the bioethics involved on orthodontic routine are matters of relevance. Therefore, the importance of adequate conducts is addressed in this research. Aim: The present aim is to analyze the tendency of the courts judging the orthodontists′ responsibility and to observe the bioethical aspects on the current jurisprudence. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 108 lawsuits related to the orthodontist′s civil responsibility, dated from 2003 to 2009. The qualitative data were obtained by the Bardin′s method for detailed reading. The quantitative collection was performed by observing statistical distribution of the following variables: (1 reason of the complaint against the orthodontist, (2 type of obligation designated to the professional, (3 presence of expert′s examination, and (4 jury decision. The correlations between the jury decision and the other variables were verified by applying the Chi-square test. Results: The main reason of the complaints against the orthodontist was the personal dissatisfaction (32%. Subjective and objective obligations had pair incidence (26% and 27%, respectively. The experts′ examination was present in 63, 89%, of the cases, and the jury decision acquitted 57, 78%, of the orthodontists. The passages involving bioethical principles supported properly the qualitative approach. Conclusion: The orthodontists show deviations from the correct daily attitudes. In order to avoid further conflicts, more attention must be given to the principles of bioethics.
Lora Jean Brake
Full Text Available At first glance the twenty-first century arena of biotechnology and bioethics seems worlds away from the practical concerns of the first century outlook of the New Testament book of James. A closer look, however, reveals that the issues that James addresses have applications to challenges in bioethics. This article will give an overview of James and examine James’ teaching on wealth, poverty, and generosity and its import for the issue of global stewardship in bioethics. Stewardship concerns both a Christian’s care and management of time, talents, and treasures. Faithful use of the resources God has given demonstrates the fruitful faith that James writes of in his epistle. The idea of global stewardship, though “stewardship” is grounded in a distinctly Christian ethic, reflects an emerging discussion in bioethics regarding the need to address the inequities present between the money and time spent on biotechnology in some of the world in proportion to the money spent on meeting the basic healthcare needs of the poor of the entire world. This New Testament epistle gives clear indications of how the Christian is to view wealth and how the Christian is to respond to poverty. James, though a comparatively small book, sends a crucial message across the years that should greatly impact how Christians view stewardship in terms of global healthcare needs.
H. Tristram Engelhardt
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2012v11n1p13 Given intractable secular moral pluralism, the force and significance of the four principles (autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress must be critically re-considered. This essay examines the history of the articulation of these four principles of bioethics, showing why initially there was an illusion of a common morality that led many to hold that the principles could give guidance across cultures. But there is no one sense of the content or the theoretical justification of these principles. In addition, a wide range of secular moral and bioethical choices has been demoralized into lifestyle choices; the force of the secular moral point of view has also been deflated, thus compounding moral pluralism. It is the political generation of the principles that provides a common morality in the sense of an established morality. The principles are best understood as embedded not in a common morality, sensu stricto, but in that morality that is established at law and public policy in a particular polity. Although moral pluralism is substantive and intractable at the level of moral content, in a particular polity a particular morality and a particular bioethics can be established, regarding which health care ethics consultants can be experts. Public morality and bioethics are at their roots a political reality.
In the last two decades, there have been numerous calls for a culturally sensitive bioethics. At the same time, bioethicists have become increasingly involved in empirical research, which is a sign of dissatisfaction with the analytic methods of traditional bioethics. In this article, I will argue that although these developments have broadened and enriched the field of bioethics, they can easily be construed to be an endorsement of ethical relativism, especially by those not well grounded in academic moral philosophy. I maintain that bioethicists must resist the temptation of moving too quickly from cultural relativism to ethical relativism and from empirical findings to normative conclusions. Indeed, anyone who reasons in this way is guilty of the naturalistic fallacy. I conclude by saying that properly conceptualized, empirical research and sensitivity to cultural diversity should give rise to objective rational discourse and criticism and not indiscriminate tolerance of every possible moral practice. Bioethics must remain a normative discipline that is characterized by rigorous argumentation. PMID:23908754
Downie, Don; Snart, Fern
The paper reviews bioethical positions regarding the "human-ness" of severely handicapped students, notes that the quality of life for many severely handicapped persons is directly threatened by the utilitarian position which questions the personhood of individuals with limited IQ, and asserts that the deontological postition is more aligned with…
Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J
Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research. PMID:26325424
Summary This article charts the history of bioethics in Britain through the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy. From the late 1970s, Kennedy claimed that external oversight, which he termed ‘bioethics’, was needed to make medicine accountable to patients and the public. I believe these arguments provide a window onto the historical factors that generated the demand for bioethics, and help us determine why it became influential in recent decades. I detail how Kennedy's argument resonated with the Conservative enthusiasm for audit and consumer choice in the 1980s. Contrary to traditional portrayals of bioethics as a critique of medicine, I also show that Kennedy promised it would benefit doctors by improving decision making and maintaining public confidence. This analysis reframes bioethics as an important constituent of the ‘audit society’: fulfilling the neo-liberal demand for oversight and the medical demand for legitimacy.
Eduardo Rafael Medina Márquez; Luis Alberto Sánchez–Alfaro
Introduction: Dentistry has been presenting the changes that involve not only the discipline, but also the decision–making at both the professional–patient relationship and research processes. Given these new challenges, the bioethics foundation (theory and practice) plays a major role and promotes integral formation. Objective: To identify the knowledge possessed by the graduate students of the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Cartagena about principles and foundations of bioethics...
Paola, F; Barten, S S
In order to determine whether there is a significant difference between the medical literature and the surgical literature in terms of their bioethics content, we conducted a computerized search of the MEDLINE database. The journals searched were selected from the 'Medicine' and 'Surgery' sections of the 'Brandon-Hill List', and the search was limited to 1992 issues of these journals. Three hundred and seven bioethics bibliographic records (out of a total of 11,239 articles indexed) were retr...
Recent decades have seen a shift in the management and discussion of biomedicine. Issues once considered by doctors and scientists are now handled by a diverse array of participants, including philosophers, lawyers, theologians and lay representatives. This new approach, known as ‘bioethics', has become the norm in regulatory committees and public debate. In this article, I argue that bioethics emerged as a valued enterprise in Britain during the 1980s because it fulfilled, and linked, the concerns of several groups. My analysis centres on the moral philosopher Mary Warnock, who chaired a government inquiry into human fertilization and embryology between 1982 and 1984, and became a strong advocate of bioethics. I detail how Warnock's promotion of bioethics tallied with the Conservative government's desire for increased surveillance of hitherto autonomous professions – while fulfilling her own belief that philosophers should engage in public affairs. And I also show that Warnock simultaneously promoted bioethics to doctors and scientists as an essential safeguard against declining political and public trust. This stance, I argue, framed bioethics as a vital intermediary between politics, the public, and biomedicine, and explains the growth and endurance of what the Guardian identified as an ethics industry. PMID:22563348
Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I.
Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normative...
Full Text Available Abstract The anthology, Feminist Bioethics, edited by Jackie Leach Scully, Laurel E. Baldwin-Ragaven, and Petya Fitzpatrick, examines how feminist bioethics theoretically and methodologically challenges mainstream bioethics, and whether these approaches are useful for exploring difference in other contexts. It offers critical conceptual analyses of "autonomy", "universality", and "trust", and covers topics such as testing for hereditary cancer, prenatal selection for sexual orientation, midwifery, public health, disability, Indigenous research reform in Australia, and China's one child policy.
Magalhães, Susana; Araújo, Joana; Carvalho, Ana Sofia
Since the focus of Bioethics is the bridge between Humanities and the Life Sciences and bearing in mind that this bridge is often difficult to build, those who believe that this dialogue is important in our days should promote it through Education. By educating in Bioethics it is possible to improve the participation of the citizens in debates on the ethical issues raised by new technologies and scientific research. It is our conviction that literary texts are laboratories of ethical judgment, where the ethical questions concerning specific scientific/ technological issues are addressed in an imaginary world. Therefore our purpose is to present a framework for ethical deliberation through the use of literature. Fiction allows us to "practise" ethical decision making, by focusing on the particular cases of the characters of the story and by checking how the principles/theories working in the background apply to the narrated cases. PMID:21528799
Stoddard, Hugh A; Labrecque, Cory A; Schonfeld, Toby
Educators in bioethics have struggled to find valid and reliable assessments that transcend the "reproduction of knowledge" to target more important skill sets. This manuscript reports on the process of developing and grading a minimal-competence comprehensive examination in a bioethics master's degree program. We describe educational theory and practice for the creation and deployment of scoring rubrics for high-stakes performance assessments that reduce scoring inconsistencies. The rubric development process can also benefit the program by building consensus among stakeholders regarding program goals and student outcomes. We describe the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy as a mechanism for rubric design and provide an example of how we applied that taxonomy to define pass/fail cut scores. Details about domains of assessment and writing descriptors of performance are also presented. Despite the laborious work required to create a scoring rubric, we found the effort to be worthwhile for our program. PMID:26957455
Barkhordarian, Andre; Demerjian, Gary; Jan, Allison; Sama, Nateli; Nguyen, Mia; Du, Angela; Chiappelli, Francesco
Modern health care in the field of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing is grounded in fundamental philosophy and epistemology of translational science. Recently in the U.S major national initiatives have been implemented in the hope of closing the gaps that sometimes exist between the two fundamental components of translational science, the translational research and translational effectiveness. Subsequent to these initiatives, many improvements have been made; however, important bioethical issue...
Aging attracted keen interest in research, health, education as well as cross-sectors approaches. We researched what has been produced by the National Bioethics/Ethics Councils in the form of opinions or other documents, relating to aging and elderly people. In the websi-tes of the 28 EU councils and 12 other countries, we identified 4 documents relating to aging and 8 opinions, which we analyse. The Councils have proposed to draw the attention and reflection of public opinion ...
Daniel Badulescu; Alina Badulescu
Abstract Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, ent...
Th e beginning of the 21 century imposes the need of synchronising the practical and the academic approach in the interpretation of bioethical problems and the implications of their solving. Some of the goals of the Declaration are the education of health-care professionals, the creation the infrastructure necessary for biomedical research and the education of the scientists involved in it, and the foundation of ethical committees. Th e Declaration provides with a legal and political guidelin...
Camila Maria Pereira Rates; Larriny Maciel Silva; Lívia Moura Pereira; Juliana Dias Reis Pessalacia
Objective. Identifying the contribution of using films in the process of teaching-learning in bioethics and verifying the facilities and difficulties in using this teaching resource. Methodology. A qualitative study analyzed from the Bardin referential. Semi-structured interviews were carried out, recorded, and transcribed in full. For definition of the sample was used the criteria of repetition. In total, participated in the study 21 students of Nursing and Biochemistry, members of a Center ...
Kalokairinou, Eleni M.
Contrary to the usual claim that Bioethics is a contemporary discipline, I argue that its origins can be traced back to the Ancient Greek philosophers-healers. In classical antiquity philosophy was almost inseparable from medicine not only in the sense that philosophers like Empedocles, Plato and Aristotle contributed to its development, but also in that later philosophers conceived of moral principles and rules in order to prevent the physicians’ malpractice and the patients’ harassment. Fro...
Background In the more and more globalized world, the experience of moral pluralism (often related to, or based upon, religious pluralism) has become a common issue which ethical importance is undeniable. Potential conflicts between patients' and therapeutic teams' moral views and between moral beliefs of the particular member of this team are being resolved in the light of bioethical theories, among which principlism remains the mainstream approach to biomedical ethics. The question arises, ...
Faria, Miguel A.
In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns w...
O'Keefe, Meaghan; Perrault, Sarah; Halpern, Jodi; Ikemoto, Lisa; Yarborough, Mark
Metaphors used to describe new technologies mediate public understanding of the innovations. Analyzing the linguistic, rhetorical, and affective aspects of these metaphors opens the range of issues available for bioethical scrutiny and increases public accountability. This article shows how such a multidisciplinary approach can be useful by looking at a set of texts about one issue, the use of a newly developed technique for genetic modification, CRISPRcas9. PMID:26632354
Many Christian scholars, if not all of them, consider Genesis to be foundational texts of the Bible and the spring for all the other doctrines of the Scripture. Therefore, I'm considering the attempt to search and find arguments for cell therapy ethical issues in the fundamental text of Genesis as a challenging and educative task. Moreover, this could be the first step in analyzing the relationships between Christian religions and bioethics, in terms of finding reasonable decisions for ethica...
Segura Castillo Mario
Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo pretendo presentar concepciones a cerca del abordaje de la bioética, desde las teorías del caos y del pensamiento complejo. La bioética es un modo de estar en el dominio del consenso, de coordinaciones de sentires, que requiere de una gran plasticidad, desde lo humano, comprometido con su historia y las futuras generaciones. Además, concibo la aprendiencia como un proceso bioético de vida, en la convivencia, en ese lenguajear perpetúo, que permite la aceptación del otro y la otra. En ese sentido, todos los seres, que crecemos en el lenguaje, somos capaces de aprender y de reconocer nuestros propios errores, como los que hemos cometido con la naturaleza, en todas sus formas. Por lo tanto, una idea personal de la bioética es aprehender los sentires y los pensamientos, con compromiso, en el devenir sostenible de la Tierra.Abstract:In this essay I try to present conceptions which deal with bioethics, from the chaos theories and complex thinking. Bioethics is a mode of being dominated by consensus, the coordination of feelings, which require great flexibility from the human, committed to its history and future generations. Furthermore, I conceive learning as a bioethical process of life, within coexistence, in this perpetual language which permits the acceptation of the other. In this sense, all beings, we who grow up with language, are capable of learning and recognizing our own mistakes, and those which we have committed in nature, and in all forms. Therefore, a personal idea of bioethics is to seize feelings and thoughts, with commitment, in order for earth’s sustainability to come about.
Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair
While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in...
The preceding article in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal presents the argument that "moral fundamentalism," the position that international bioethics rests on "basic" or "fundamental" moral prinicples that are universally accepted in all eras and cultures, collapses under a variety of multicultural and postmodern critiques. The present article looks to the contractarian tradition of Hobbes and Locke -- as reinterpreted by David Gauthier, Robert Nozick, and John Rawls -- for an alternative justification for international bioethics. Drawing on the central themes of this tradition, it is argued that international bioethics can be rationally reconstructed as a negotiated moral order that respects culturally and individually defined areas of nonnegotiability. Further, the theory of a negotiated moral order is consistent with traditional ideals about human rights, is flexible enough to absorb the genuine insights of multiculturalism and postmodernism, and yet is strong enough to justify transcultural and transtemporal moral judgments, including the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg. This theory also is consistent with the history of the ethics of human subjects experimentation and offers insights into current controversies such as the controversy over changing the consent rule for experiments in emergency medicine and the controversy over exempting certain clinical trials of inexpensive treatments for preventing the perinatal transmission of AIDS from the ethical standards of the sponsoring country. PMID:11656933
Walker, Rebecca L; Morrissey, Clair
While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003 and 2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275
Magdalena (Leentie C. de Lange
Full Text Available Recent technological advancements in Bioethics have been rapid and incremental, leaving little time for Christian ethicists to reflect or develop a coherent methodological approach. To assess the situation in the Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA, a bioethical questionnaire was developed and administered during the synod in 2009. Three practical questions served as point of departure, viz. which bioethical issues confronted ministers in their work environment, which value judgement trends are evident when counselling members of their congregations and what theoretical frameworks or resources do they call upon when reflecting on these difficult situations? The survey consisted of 19 questions with several subquestions that sought demographic information to determine the population and information about bioethical issues confronting them, methodological strategies they apply and how they think they can contribute to the resolution of any such bioethical dilemmas. The results were tabulated and it was concluded that recent advancements in biotechnology cannot be ignored or dealt with in a piecemeal fashion any longer, either by the RCSA or its ministers. The need for clarity and analysis of the principles underlying those theories that guide or should guide their decision-making and pastoral care in dealing with bioethical dilemmas was emphasised. The findings highlighted the need for appropriate courses in Bioethics to be taught during initial theological training, as well as the need to keep the debate alive by offering workshops, seminars and short courses for practicing ministers to enhance awareness and allay fears and uncertainties in this very dynamic and morally challenging field of human and scientific endeavour.
Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions
Berger, Zackary; Cahan, Rabbi Joshua
In contemporary bioethics, the autonomy of the patient has assumed considerable importance. Progressing from a more limited notion of informed consent, shared decision making calls upon patients to voice the desires and preferences of their authentic self, engaging in choice among alternatives as a way to exercise deeply held values. One influential opinion in Jewish bioethics holds that Jewish law, in contradistinction to secular bioethics, limits the patient's exercise of autonomy only in those instances in which treatment choices are sensitive to preferences. Here, we analyze a discussion in the Mishna, a foundational text of rabbinic Judaism, regarding patient autonomy in the setting of religiously mandated fasting, and commentaries in the Babylonian and Palestinian Talmuds, finding both a more expansive notion of such autonomy and a potential metaphysical grounding for it in the importance of patient self-knowledge. PMID:27357582
Barkhordarian, Andre; Demerjian, Gary; Jan, Allison; Sama, Nateli; Nguyen, Mia; Du, Angela; Chiappelli, Francesco
Modern health care in the field of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing is grounded in fundamental philosophy and epistemology of translational science. Recently in the U.S major national initiatives have been implemented in the hope of closing the gaps that sometimes exist between the two fundamental components of translational science, the translational research and translational effectiveness. Subsequent to these initiatives, many improvements have been made; however, important bioethical issues and limitations do still exist that need to be addressed. One such issue is the stakeholder engagement and its assessment and validation. Federal, state and local organizations such as PCORI and AHRQ concur that the key to a better understanding of the relationship between translational research and translational effectiveness is the assessment of the extent to which stakeholders are actively engaged in the translational process of healthcare. The stakeholder engagement analysis identifies who the stakeholders are, maps their contribution and involvement, evaluates their priorities and opinions, and accesses their current knowledge base. This analysis however requires conceptualization and validation from the bioethics standpoint. Here, we examine the bioethical dilemma of stakeholder engagement analysis in the context of the person-environment fit (PE-fit) theoretical model. This model is an approach to quantifying stakeholder engagement analysis for the design of patient-targeted interventions. In our previous studies of Alzheimer patients, we have developed, validated and used a simple instrument based on the PE-fit model that can be adapted and utilized in a much less studied pathology as a clinical model that has a wide range of symptoms and manifestations, the temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the jaw joint endowed with sensory and motor innervations that project from within the central nervous system and its dysfunction can
In this paper it will be argued that Beauchamp and Childress' principle-based approach to bioethics has strongly pragmatic features. Drawing on the writings of William James, I first develop an understanding of methodological pragmatism as a method of justification. On the basis of Beauchamp's and Childress' most recent proposals concerning moral justification in the fifth edition of their Principles of Biomedical Ethics (2001), I then discuss different aspects that the principle-based approach and methodological pragmatism have in common. PMID:14972762
Culture and class remain contested terrains in policy narratives about the right of the urban poor to access health and social services delivery systems under welfare reform. An urban bioethics agenda is needed to address these dilemmas that have arisen in the context of PRWORA and had an impact on access to health and social services in the urban environment.2;18 Such efforts, however, must address the intellectual framing of the urban poor, as well as the public policies that inscribe deter...
Full Text Available The ethics in economy is not only a corrector, but also must be initiator if we want to achieve essence of our existence - the human being as “Homo ethicus”, as well as, which is more important for mankind - to achieve a human being as “Homo homine ethica ethicus est”. This remark points on two things. First: we came to the stage where we become aware about the fact that our economies are dehumanized. The second: that’s the reason why we must return to ethics and pull out from it that universal values which will make the managers of natural recourses more ethically awarded, so they will be able to start managing production without endangering bio potentials anymore. Previous remark lead us to conclusion that, no matter if the idiom “business ethics” is oxymoron or not, the present ethics is more a list of rules of conduction or, more precisely, etiquette. This clearly points that this kind of ethics of economy and in economy is not adoptive to the imperative of Bioethics: Don’t misuse recourses if you want to feed yourself and those for which you create the existence! This is so because always when we talk about ethics and ethicizing of those which managing the base of existence, de facto, are discussions about choosing the appropriate model of capitalism. The problem of these “discussions” is that we almost always forget to explain: is the chosen model of capitalization of society applicable considering the local specifics and needs of community? Therefore, the imperative of Bioethics, in this context, is to teach the ethics how to think about bio resource and bio heritage, even if we stop talk of some kinds of ethics and ethicizing of economies and of those which managing with it, because if we reconsider the reactions of the population, it is clear that they are seek of talking about it. But also, it’s recognizable the fact that they who talks just show that the essential thinking about Bioethics is absent and that the
Santos, Ana Carolina Clemente Dos; Amorim Neto, Thomaz Pereira de; Goes, Andrea Carla de Souza
The speed with which science generates results in modern society requires reflection on the limits of scientific progress. This is the foundation of Brave New World, a book published by Aldous Huxley in 1932 that portrays a future technological society along the lines of Fordism. This article establishes a relationship between our current technocratic society and that described by Huxley, discussing the viability of the technical and biological aspects of the manipulations narrated in the book in light of current knowledge. Some bioethical considerations with respect to the procedures 'invented' by the author - and which are already or could be developed in modern society - will also be addressed. PMID:23739805
H. Tristram Engelhardt
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2012v11n1p13 Given intractable secular moral pluralism, the force and significance of the four principles (autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice) of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress must be critically re-considered. This essay examines the history of the articulation of these four principles of bioethics, showing why initially there was an illusion of a common morality that led many to hold that the principles could give guidance across cultu...
Colucci, Massimiliano; Aprile, Anna; Pegoraro, Renzo
Sometimes medical errors should not be disclosed. We report a case of semen samples exchange, during a homologous artificial insemination procedure, where a bioethics consultation was required. The bioethics consultation addressed ethical and legal elements in play, supporting non-disclosure to some of the subjects involved. Through a proper methodology, gathering factual and juridical elements, a consultant can show when a moral dilemma between values and rights-privacy versus fatherhood, in our case-is unsubstantial, in a given context, because of the groundlessness of the value or the right itself. However, being the error elicited by organizational factors, a broader ethical pronouncement was needed. Under such circumstances, ethical evaluation should engage in a sort of 'ethical-based root-cause analysis', linking ethical principles to quality aims and showing the opportunity to integrate ethical methodology in healthcare management. From this perspective, errors may become an incentive to promote high-quality organizations, attending to the central value of person even through the organizational process. PMID:26276448
Full Text Available In an environment which is ethically and from a human rights point of view overly sensitive and in which interculturism is becoming more and more a norm, pastoral care practitioners need to be committed to providing services that are ethical, intercultural and respecting of patients’ rights. This article demonstrates how application of the Symphonology Bioethical Theory (SBT as the framework for practice in pastoral care and counselling can help Pastoral Care Practitioners (PCP to be ethical while upholding patients’ human rights, and it can also help to bridge the intercultural chasm while simultaneously explaining the rationale for the practice. Symphonology is a context-driven, ethical decision- making model guiding holistic interaction between patients and PCPs. The Symphonological decision-making matrix is based on a practitioner-patient agreement for pastoral care that emphasizes patient preferences, pastoral psychological and theological knowledge, the pastoral care content and the context of the situation. The goal of the PCP is to ethically incarnate the divine presence and thus to bring about hope and emancipation to the patient using the bioethical standards of autonomy, freedom, objectivity, self-assertion, benevolence and fidelity.
Newland, Shelby E
In terms of health care access, bioethics has an important role to inform and shape policy issues and develop interdisciplinary ideas and interventions. The rising price of prescription drugs presents one of the most looming barriers to health care access in the world today. Including both theoretical and practical features of the pharmaceutical industry's behavior is necessary to find ethical solutions towards increasing access. Bioethics can evaluate global justice by weighing human rights theory and future innovation at the macro level, and by addressing market forces and responsibilities at the micro level. Inherent structural features of pharmaceuticals, such as its reliance on research and development, cause the industry to employ pricing strategies that seem counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom, but that result in producing a just allocation as defined by market forces. Parallel trade and drug exportation/reimportation threaten the saliency of the industry's differential pricing scheme; a case-study of a single "Euro-price" within the European Union illustrates how this will actually create harm to the most needy member states. This complex situation requires solutions weighing arguments from human rights theory with those from economic theory to arrive at the most globally just allocation of prescription drugs in the global marketplace, as well as to ensure future innovation and scientific progress. Bioethicists as well as economists need to partake urgently in this discourse for the betterment of the global injustices in the international prescription drug market. PMID:17146900
Full Text Available Thorough genetic testing gives possibility's diagnosis of genetic diseases or identity individuals, who genetic predisposed for disease outbreak Aims: To present/identify the ethical and religious issues, which arise from the application of genetic testing in humans. Furthermore, the principles from the European and Greek legislation regarding genetic testing will be discussed. Materials & Methods: A literature review based on both review and research literature, conducted during the period of (1993-2010, derived from MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ΙΑΤΡΟΤΕΚ databases using as key words: Bioethics, genetic testing, bioethics, access, genetic information, orthodox ethics, Legislation. Results: Genetic testing for disease prevention is of primary importance. The main ethical concerns however, are related to the dissemination/ disclosure and use of this information from insurance companies, healthcare authorities, scientists, forensic departments/services and employers. Similarly, the orthodox religion accepts the use of genetic testing for the prevention and treatment of diseases as long as there is no break of confidentiality. Finally, considering the legal issues, it is apparent that genetic information is regarded as personal information and as such it is protected from the national (Greek and international law. Conclusions: It is necessary to ensure that the public authorities protect the rights of their citizens regarding genetic testing and all insurance companies, employers, schools etc. should not be allowed to have access to genetic information. Such an approach will ensure that social discrimination, obstructions or other inequalities between people on the basis of genetic information is avoided.
Manuel J Santos
Full Text Available The new discoveries, the extraordinary dynamism in human stem cell (SC research, and the great expectations of the benefits in clinical treatment of many diseases are on the edge of unparalleled advances in both: 1 the understanding of basic mechanisms of cell differentiation and development and 2 the translation from basic research to new clinical therapies. Human stem cells are obtained from different sources, such as embryo, fetal, and adult tissues, in vitro induction (iPS cells or transdifferentiation. The evidence that these cells are pluripotent (or multipotent, meaning they have the ability to differentiate into all body tissues or tissues of the same lineage, raises the possibility that they could regenerate diseased or damaged tissue in diseases that until now have had no effective treatments. Human stem cell research and therapy raise important bioethical considerations because of the human nature of these cells and their peculiar characteristics. Here we discuss the bioethical aspects of basic human SC research and the conditions necessary for the translation of basic preclinical research into clinical use of SC.
Civilian and common law judges differ substantially in their approach to the resolution of issues concerning bioethics and health sciences. Whereas the civilian judge will first take into account the legislative source, his common law counterpart will most probably first look at judicial precedents for guidance. In both systems, however, the legislative drafting technique differs substantially and has a direct impact on judicial interpretation of the law. Both systems also differ in the way that judicial decisions are drafted and rendered. In the common law tradition, judges draft their own opinion, leaving the possibility of dissent which, in turn, helps to better illustrate contentious issues and may have an influence on social awareness of difficult problems. Finally, in bioethics, legislation should be preferred if only for a question of social legitimacy, since decisions are then taken by elected representatives. However, this type of legislation should be subject to periodical review to better adapt its rules to the evolution of science and society. PMID:17902324