Irreducible complexity of iterated symmetric bimodal maps
Lampreia, J. P.; Severino, R.; J. Sousa Ramos
2004-01-01
We introduce a tree structure for the iterates of symmetric bimodal maps and identify a subset which we prove to be isomorphic to the family of unimodal maps. This subset is used as a second factor for a $\\ast $-product that we define in the space of bimodal kneading sequences. Finally, we give some properties for this product and study the *-product induced on the associated Markov shifts.
Irreducible complexity of iterated symmetric bimodal maps
J. P. Lampreia
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a tree structure for the iterates of symmetric bimodal maps and identify a subset which we prove to be isomorphic to the family of unimodal maps. This subset is used as a second factor for a ∗-product that we define in the space of bimodal kneading sequences. Finally, we give some properties for this product and study the ∗-product induced on the associated Markov shifts.
Bimodal fission in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach
Staszczak, A.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.
2006-01-01
Spontaneous-fission properties of 256Fm, 258Fm, and 260Fm isotopes are studied within the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS framework. In the particle-hole channel we take the Skyrme SkM* effective force, while in the particle-particle channel we employ the seniority pairing interaction. Three static fission paths for all investigated heavy fermium isotopes are found. The analysis of these fission modes allows to describe observed asymmetric fission of 256Fm, as well as bimodal fission of 258Fm and sym...
Possible origin of transition from symmetric to asymmetric fission
Paşca, H.; Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.
2016-09-01
The charged distributions of fragments produced in the electromagnetic-induced fission of the even-even isotopes of Rn, Ra, Th, and U are described within an improved scission-point model and compared with the available experimental data. The three-equal-peaked charge distributions are predicted for several fissioning nuclei with neutron number N = 136. The possible explanation of the transition from a symmetric fission mode to an asymmetric one around N ∼ 136 is presented. The excitation energy dependencies of the asymmetric and symmetric fission modes are anticipated.
Transition from asymmetric to symmetric fission in 45-69 MeV proton induced fission of 238U
H. Noshad
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Thin targets of 238U were bombarded with 45, 55, 65 and 69 MeV protons at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC of Tohoku University in Japan. Gamma rays emitted from the fission products were recorded and analyzed by using gamma spectroscopy. Then, the cross sections for the formation of fission products, fragment mass distributions, and total fission cross sections were measured. Special care was taken to make this measurement precisely. The experimental results show that for 238U(p, f reaction at Ep > 65 MeV, the asymmetry component in the mass distribution is eliminated, and the symmetric fission remains the dominant fission mode.
On a Symmetric, Nonlinear Birth-Death Process with Bimodal Transition Probabilities
Barbara Martinucci; Antonio Di Crescenzo
2009-01-01
We consider a bilateral birth-death process having sigmoidal-type rates. A thorough discussion on its transient behaviour is given, which includes studying symmetry properties of the transition probabilities, finding conditions leading to their bimodality, determining mean and variance of the process, and analyzing absorption problems in the presence of 1 or 2 boundaries. In particular, thanks to the symmetry properties we obtain the avoiding transition probabilities in the presence of a pair...
On a Symmetric, Nonlinear Birth-Death Process with Bimodal Transition Probabilities
Barbara Martinucci
2009-11-01
Full Text Available We consider a bilateral birth-death process having sigmoidal-type rates. A thorough discussion on its transient behaviour is given, which includes studying symmetry properties of the transition probabilities, finding conditions leading to their bimodality, determining mean and variance of the process, and analyzing absorption problems in the presence of 1 or 2 boundaries. In particular, thanks to the symmetry properties we obtain the avoiding transition probabilities in the presence of a pair of absorbing boundaries, expressed as a series.
Stefani, F; Stefani, Frank; Gerbeth, Gunter
2004-01-01
Using a mean-field dynamo model with a spherically symmetric helical turbulence parameter alpha which is dynamically quenched and disturbed by additional noise, the basic features of geomagnetic polarity reversals are shown to be generic consequences of the dynamo action in the vicinity of exceptional points of the spectrum. This simple paradigmatic model yields long periods of constant polarity which are interrupted by self-accelerating field decays leading to asymmetric polarity reversals. It shows the recently discovered bimodal field distribution, and it gives a natural explanation of the correlation between polarity persistence time and field strength. In addition, we find typical features of coherence resonance in the dependence of the persistence time on the noise.
Fusion and quasi-fission dynamics in nearly-symmetric reactions
Wang, Ning; Li, Zhuxia
2015-01-01
Some nearly-symmetric fusion reactions are systematically investigated with the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model. By introducing two-body inelastic scattering in the Fermi constraint procedure, the stability of an individual nucleus and the description of fusion cross sections at energies near the Coulomb barrier can be further improved. Simultaneously, the quasi-fission process in $^{154}$Sm+$^{160}$Gd is also investigated with the microscopic dynamics model for the first time. We find that at energies above the Bass barrier, the fusion probability is smaller than $10^{-5}$ for this reaction, and the nuclear contact-time is generally smaller than $1500$ fm/c. From the central collisions of Sm+Gd, the neutron-rich fragments such as $^{164,165}$Gd, $^{192}$W can be produced in the ImQMD simulations, which implies that the quasi-fission reaction could be an alternative way to synthesize new neutron-rich heavy nuclei.
Fusion and quasi-fission dynamics in nearly-symmetric reactions
Wang, Ning; Zhao, Kai; Li, ZhuXia
2015-11-01
Some nearly-symmetric fusion reactions are systematically investigated with the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model. By introducing two-body inelastic scattering in the Fermi constraint procedure, the stability of an individual nucleus and the description of fusion cross sections at energies near the Coulomb barrier can be further improved. Simultaneously, the quasifission process in 154Sm+160Gd is also investigated with the microscopic dynamics model for the first time. We find that at energies above the Bass barrier, the fusion probability is smaller than 10-5 for this reaction, and the nuclear contact time is generally smaller than 1500 fm/ c. From the central collisions of Sm+Gd, the neutron-rich fragments such as 164,165Gd, 192W can be produced in the ImQMD simulations, which implies that the quasi-fission reaction could be an alternative way to synthesize new neutron-rich heavy nuclei.
Transition from asymmetric to symmetric fission in 45-69 MeV proton induced fission of 238U
H. Noshad
2007-01-01
Thin targets of 238U were bombarded with 45, 55, 65 and 69 MeV protons at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University in Japan. Gamma rays emitted from the fission products were recorded and analyzed by using gamma spectroscopy. Then, the cross sections for the formation of fission products, fragment mass distributions, and total fission cross sections were measured. Special care was taken to make this measurement precisely. The experimental results show that for 238U(p...
Determination of fission yield of mass 121 and of cumulative yields of members of that decay chain have been made as part of a study of symmetric and near-symmetric fission of uranium-235 with thermal neutrons. Fast chemical separation methods have been developed that permit isolation of selected fission product elements in 3-30 s. The methods have been applied to identification and characterization of new, short-lived radionuclides in addition to their use in studies of distribution of nuclear charge in fission. The cumulative fission yield of Sn121 (27.5h) was measured to be (1.1±0.1) 10-2% as compared to the single literature value of 1.5 x 10-2%. Taking the cumulative yield of Sn121m (∼25 yr) as 0,08 x 10-2%, and making the reasonable assumption that the independent fission yield of Sb121 is negligible, we obtain a fission mass yield of (1.2±0.1) 10-2% for mass chain 121 in thermal-neutron fission of uranium-235. Identification of Cd121 was made. Its half-life and cumulative fission yield were determined to be 12.8+0.4-0.3 s and (6.4±0.5) 10-3% respectively. If the nuclear charge distribution curve is Gaussian and if a width parameter o of 0.62 as given by Wahl et al. is taken, the cumulative fission yield of Cd121 leads to a value of 48.35 for the most probable nuclear charge (Zp) for mass chain 121. This value of Zp, combined with published values for other mais chains more removed from symmetric fission, indicates in a preliminary way that the Zp function proceeds towards the point of symmetric fission by a gentle rather than an abrupt approach. Fast chemical separation techniques have been developed based on sublimation of metal chelates, precipitation and metal reduction reactions. Isolation of indium in about 30 s was accomplished by precipitation and sublimation of its acetylacetonate. With this procedure the cumulative fission yield of In121 (3.1 min) was determined to be 3.2 x 10-3%. Cadmium as an ammine complex was separated in 3 s from hydroxide
Emmorey, Karen; Borinstein, Helsa B.; Thompson, Robin; Gollan, Tamar H.
2008-01-01
Speech-sign or "bimodal" bilingualism is exceptional because distinct modalities allow for simultaneous production of two languages. We investigated the ramifications of this phenomenon for models of language production by eliciting language mixing from eleven hearing native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Instead of switching…
Alert-derivative bimodal space power and propulsion systems
Safe, reliable, low-mass bimodal space power and propulsion systems could have numerous civilian and military applications. This paper discusses potential bimodal systems that could be derived from the ALERT space fission power supply concept. These bimodal concepts have the potential for providing 5 to 10 kW of electrical power and a total impulse of 100 MN-s at an average specific impulse of 770 s. System mass is on the order of 1000 kg
Mass yields from fission induced by a span of neutron energies up to 18 MeV have been measured for Th232, U235 and U238 target nuclei. Particular attention has been given to the dependence of symmetric fission yields on energy. To study the effect of angular momentum, fission yields from the U236 compound nucleus formed by alpha-particle irradiations of Th232 were also studied over the same span of excitation energies. A standard set of Pd109, Ag111, Pd112 and Ag113 symmetric fission yields was generally measured for all irradiations. In addition, yields of Eu156, Cs136 and 2.3-d Cd115 were measured for some selected combinations of projectile, energy and target nucleus. Assays for Zr97 and sometimes also Ba139 served as fission monitors. Altogether 150 fission yields were measured for these combinations of target nucleus, projectile and incident energy. About one-third of these were checked by replicated irradiations. At highest energies for the U236 compound nucleus the symmetric fission yield from alpha-particle-induced fission is about 13% higher than for neutron-induced fission. Dips in symmetric fission yield were observed at the energy onset of third-chance fission for each target and projectile. Some indication of a small central peak in the mass distribution was observed in the yields from U236 compound nucleus fission, but not from the Th233 compound nucleus fission. Detailed mathematical methods have been developed to separate the effects of fissions preceding and following neutron emission. These methods were used to remove the effects of second- and third-chance fissions from the measured symmetric fission yields. These calculated yields for first-chance fission show no dips with energy. The calculations also show that perhaps half the difference between symmetric yields for alpha- particle-induced fission of Th232 and neutron-induced fission of U235 is attributable to angular momentum effects. Both calculated first-chance yields and measured yields
Role of the second barrier upon mass division in the spontaneous fission of the heaviest elements
In the region where theorists had earlier predicted the disappearance of the outer fission barrier or of it dropping below the ground-state, we have measured the mass and total-kinetic-energy distributions from spontaneous fission of 252No, 254No, 256[104], and 258[104]. The results, in combination with earlier measurements for 256No, 258No, and 262No, show a sharp transition from asymmetrical mass division in 256No to symmetrical ones for 258No and 262No. On-the-other-hand, all isotopes of element 104 including 260[104] appear to yield broadly symmetrical mass distributions. The total-kinetic energies around 200 MeV for the 104 isotopes indicate they fission by the low-energy mode of bimodal fission. Based on the hypothesis that the second barrier is responsible for asymmetrical mass distributions and when it disappears, for symmetrical ones, these observations for the isotopes of element 104 are in accord with 1976 calculations of the heights of the second fission barrier relative to the ground-state. Some recent calculations of static potential-energy surfaces and of barrier heights deduced from half-lives for spontaneous fission indicate the second barrier is from 0 to 2.9 MeV above the ground-state for the No and 104 isotopes. However, shape degrees-of-freedom have been limited in these calculations so that they fail to provide realistic heights for the outer fission barrier. For the few cases where higher-order asymmetrical deformations are included, this barrier height is well below the ground-state and, for these nuclides, we observe symmetric mass division only. Without more extensive calculations of potential-energy surfaces for comparison with our findings, we are unable reach a firm conclusion on the role of the second barrier upon mass division in fission
Microscopic description of complex nuclear decay: multimodal fission
Staszczak, A.; Baran, A.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.
2009-01-01
Our understanding of nuclear fission, a fundamental nuclear decay, is still incomplete due to the complexity of the process. In this paper, we describe a study of spontaneous fission using the symmetry-unrestricted nuclear density functional theory. Our results show that the observed bimodal fission can be explained in terms of pathways in multidimensional collective space corresponding to different geometries of fission products. We also predict a new phenomenon of trimodal spontaneous fissi...
Isoscaling of the Fission Fragments with Langevin Equation
WANG Kun; TIAN Wen-Dong; ZHONG Chen; ZHOU Xing-Fei; MA Yu-Gang; WEI Yi-Bin; CAI Xiang-Zhou; CHEN Jin-Gen; FANG De-Qing; GUO Wei; MA Guo-Liang; SHEN Wen-Qing
2005-01-01
@@ The Langevin equation is used to simulate the fission process of 112Sn + 112Sn and 116Sn + 116Sn. The mass distribution of the fission fragments are given by assuming the process of symmetric fission or asymmetric fission with the Gaussian probability sampling. The isoscaling behaviour has been observed from the analysis of fission fragments of both the reactions, and the isoscaling parameter α seems to be sensitive to the width of fission probability and the beam energy.
Isoscaling of the Fission Fragments with Langevin Equation
Wang, K.; Ma, Y. G.; Wei, Y. B.; Cai, X. Z.; Chen, J. G.; Fang, D Q; Guo, W; Ma, G. L.; Shen, W.Q.(Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai, 201800, China); Tian, W.D.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, X. F.
2004-01-01
Langevin equation is used to simulate the fission process of $^{112}$Sn + $^{112}$Sn and $^{116}$Sn + $^{116}$Sn. The mass distribution of the fission fragments are given by assuming the process of symmetric fission or asymmetric fission with the Gaussian probability sampling. Isoscaling behavior has been observed from the analysis of fission fragments of both reactions and the isoscaling parameter $\\alpha$ seems to be sensitive to the width of fission probability and the beam energy.
Fission modes of mercury isotopes
Warda, M; Nazarewicz, W
2012-01-01
Recent experiments on beta-delayed fission in the mercury-lead region and the discovery of asymmetric fission in $^{180}$Hg [1] have stimulated renewed interest in the mechanism of fission in heavy nuclei. Here we study fission modes and fusion valleys in $^{180}$Hg and $^{198}$Hg using the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory employing Skyrme and Gogny energy density functionals. We show that the observed transition from asymmetric fission in $^{180}$Hg towards more symmetric distribution of fission fragments in $^{198}$Hg can be explained in terms of competing fission modes of different geometries that are governed by shell effects in pre-scission configurations. The density distributions at scission configurations are studied and related to the experimentally observed mass splits.
Detecting bimodality in astronomical datasets
Ashman, Keith A.; Bird, Christina M.; Zepf, Stephen E.
1994-01-01
We discuss statistical techniques for detecting and quantifying bimodality in astronomical datasets. We concentrate on the KMM algorithm, which estimates the statistical significance of bimodality in such datasets and objectively partitions data into subpopulations. By simulating bimodal distributions with a range of properties we investigate the sensitivity of KMM to datasets with varying characteristics. Our results facilitate the planning of optimal observing strategies for systems where bimodality is suspected. Mixture-modeling algorithms similar to the KMM algorithm have been used in previous studies to partition the stellar population of the Milky Way into subsystems. We illustrate the broad applicability of KMM by analyzing published data on globular cluster metallicity distributions, velocity distributions of galaxies in clusters, and burst durations of gamma-ray sources. FORTRAN code for the KMM algorithm and directions for its use are available from the authors upon request.
Detecting bimodality in astronomical datasets
Ashman, K M; Zepf, S E; Keith M Ashman; Christina M Bird; Steven E Zepf
1994-01-01
We discuss statistical techniques for detecting and quantifying bimodality in astronomical datasets. We concentrate on the KMM algorithm, which estimates the statistical significance of bimodality in such datasets and objectively partitions data into sub-populations. By simulating bimodal distributions with a range of properties we investigate the sensitivity of KMM to datasets with varying characteristics. Our results facilitate the planning of optimal observing strategies for systems where bimodality is suspected. Mixture-modeling algorithms similar to the KMM algorithm have been used in previous studies to partition the stellar population of the Milky Way into subsystems. We illustrate the broad applicability of KMM by analysing published data on globular cluster metallicity distributions, velocity distributions of galaxies in clusters, and burst durations of gamma-ray sources. PostScript versions of the tables and figures, as well as FORTRAN code for KMM and instructions for its use, are available by anon...
With the detector system DIOGENES thermal neutron induced and spontaneous α particle associated fission and spontaneous nuclear tripartition into three fragments of similar masses has been investigated. DIOGENES is a concentric arrangement of toroidal angular position sensitive ionization chambers and proportional counters to measure the kinetic energies and relative angular distributions of the three reaction products of ternary fission. For α-particle accompanied fission some of the many possible α particle fission-fragment parameter correlations will be discussed. For nearly symmetric low-energy nuclear tripartition new upper limits are presented. Former experimental results which pretended evidence for so called true ternary fission could be explained by charged-particle associated fission with a light particle in the mass range of 13 < A < 23
The nucleon phase of binary fission
Full text: The main step of the fission process is a sharing-out of nucleons, within a 'nucleon-phase', between the valence shells of the primordial cluster of the internally-dissociated fissioning system and the valence shells of the 'A =126 nucleon core' of the nascent heavy fragment. The formation of an 'A = 82 nucleon core' in the nascent light fragment explains the asymmetric fission mode of the light actinide nuclei. The nucleon partition in the nucleon phase can be understood in the framework of chemical thermodynamics. The formation of an 'A = 126 nucleon core' in the nascent light fragment of heavier fissioning systems explains the symmetric fission mode of 258Fm and that of heavier nuclei. But the new phenomenon of 'barrier-free' fission, discovered in 258Fm (s.f.), plays in this system and all symmetrically fissioning superheavy nuclei a very important role. (author)
Delayed fission is a nuclear process that couples beta decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes beta decay or electron capture and thus populates excited states in the daughter nucleus. This review covers experimental methods for detecting and measuring delayed fission. Experimental results (ECDF activities and beta-DF activities) and theory are presented. The future prospects for study of delayed fission are discussed. 50 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
The Wolfenstein parametrization is extended to the quark masses in the deep ultraviolet, and an algorithm to derive symmetric textures which are compatible with existing data is developed. It is found that there are only five such textures
General view on the progress in nuclear fission : a review
Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Jurado, Beatriz
2016-01-01
An overview is given on some of the main advances in experimental methods, experimental results and theoretical models and ideas of the last years in the field of nuclear fission. New approaches extended the availability of fissioning systems for experimental studies of nuclear fission considerably and provided a full identification of all fission products in A and Z for the first time. In particular, the transition from symmetric to asymmetric fission around 226 Th and some unexpected struct...
Hidden systematics of fission channels
Schmidt Karl-Heinz; Jurado Beatriz
2013-01-01
It is a common procedure to describe the fission-fragment mass distributions of fissioning systems in the actinide region by a sum of at least 5 Gaussian curves, one for the symmetric component and a few additional ones, together with their complementary parts, for the asymmetric components. These components have been attributed to the influence of fragment shells, e.g. in the statistical scission-point model of Wilkins, Steinberg and Chasman. They have also been associated with valleys in th...
The fission process in which heavy nuclei fragment into three large charged panicles, in place of the usual two, has been studied in the case of thermal-neutron-induced fission of U235 and the spontaneous fission of Cf252. Solid-state detectors, a fast triple coincidence system and a three-coincident-parameter analyser were used to measure the three fission fragment energies parallel with the detection of each ternary fission event. Experimental evidence is presented supporting the existence of ternary fission by specifically excluding recoil phenomena and accidental events as contributing to the observed three-fold coincidence events. Mass-energy-angular correlations of ternary fission have been determined and are summarized as follows: The total kinetic energy release in ternary fission appears to be slightly higher (by approximately 10 MeV) than that for binary fission. In the case of the spontaneous ternary fission of Cf252, the frequency of occurrence is observed to be greater than 2.2 x 10-6 ternary fission events per binary fission event. Tripartition of Cf252 results preferentially in division into two medium mass particle (one of which has a mass number near 56) and one larger mass. In the case of thermal-neutron-induced fission of U235, the frequency of occurrence is observed to be greater than 1.2 x 10-6 ternary fission events per binary fission event. Ternary fission of U236: results in the formation of one light fragment (near mass 36) and two large fragments or, as in the case of Cf252, two medium fragments and one large one. These results indicate that axially asymmetric distortion modes are possible in the pre-scission configurations of the fissioning nucleus. A description is given of experiments designed to radiochemically detect the light fragment resulting from ternary fission. (author)
Hidden systematics of fission channels
Schmidt Karl-Heinz
2013-12-01
Full Text Available It is a common procedure to describe the fission-fragment mass distributions of fissioning systems in the actinide region by a sum of at least 5 Gaussian curves, one for the symmetric component and a few additional ones, together with their complementary parts, for the asymmetric components. These components have been attributed to the influence of fragment shells, e.g. in the statistical scission-point model of Wilkins, Steinberg and Chasman. They have also been associated with valleys in the potential-energy landscape between the outer saddle and the scission configuration in the multi-channel fission model of Brosa. When the relative yields, the widths and the mean mass-asymmetry values of these components are fitted to experimental data, the mass distributions can be very well reproduced. Moreover, these fission channels are characterised by specific values of charge polarisation, total kinetic energy and prompt-neutron yields. The present contribution investigates the systematic variation of the characteristic fission-channel properties as a function of the composition and the excitation energy of the fissioning system. The mean position of the asymmetric fission channels in the heavy fragment is almost constant in atomic number. The deformation of the nascent fragments at scission, which is the main source of excitation energy of the separated fission fragments ending up in prompt-neutron emission, is found to be a unique function of Z for the light and the heavy fragment of the asymmetric fission channels. A variation of the initial excitation energy of the fissioning system above the fission saddle is only seen in the neutron yield of the heavy fragment. The charge polarisation in the two most important asymmetric fission channels is found to be constant and to appreciably exceed the macroscopic value. The variation of the relative yields and of the positions of the fission channels as a function of the composition and excitation energy
Dynamics of bimodality in vehicular traffic flows
Mullick, Arjun; Ray, Arnab K.
2012-01-01
A model equation has been proposed to describe bimodal features in vehicular traffic flows. The dynamics of the bimodal distribution reveals the existence of a fixed point that is connected to itself by a homoclinic trajectory. The mathematical conditions associated with bimodality have been established. The critical factors necessary for both a breaking of symmetry and a transition from bimodal to unimodal behaviour, in the manner of a bifurcation, have been analysed.
The nuclear fission process is pedagogically reviewed from a macroscopic-microscopic point of view. The Droplet model is considered. The fission dynamics is discussed utilizing path integrals and semiclassical methods. (L.C.)
V.M. STRUTINSKY's semi-classical method is the most precise to determine the energy of the different states along the fission way. The double-humped fission barrier explains fission isomerism. V.M. STRUTINSKY's barrier explains the ''intermediate structure'' observed in the cross section under the threshold; it provides also the observed effect of ''vibrational resonances'' with an interpretation. Taking an asymmetry parameter in consideration, a triple-humped fission barrier seems to be essential now for the light actinides. There is still a microscopic fission barrier to be explained
A bimodal biometric identification system
Laghari, Mohammad S.; Khuwaja, Gulzar A.
2013-03-01
Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Physicals are related to the shape of the body. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. However, biometric authentication systems suffer from imprecision and difficulty in person recognition due to a number of reasons and no single biometrics is expected to effectively satisfy the requirements of all verification and/or identification applications. Bimodal biometric systems are expected to be more reliable due to the presence of two pieces of evidence and also be able to meet the severe performance requirements imposed by various applications. This paper presents a neural network based bimodal biometric identification system by using human face and handwritten signature features.
Oculomotor interference of bimodal distractors
Heeman, Jessica; Nijboer, Tanja C. W.; van der Stoep, Nathan; Theeuwes, Jan; Stigchel, Stefan Van der
2016-01-01
When executing an eye movement to a target location, the presence of an irrelevant distracting stimulus can influence the saccade metrics and latency. The present study investigated the influence of distractors of different sensory modalities (i.e. auditory, visual and audiovisual) which were presented at various distances (i.e. close or remote) from a visual target. The interfering effects of a bimodal distractor were more pronounced in the spatial domain than in the temporal domain. The res...
Schaeffer, A.
2011-02-15
A fission experiment performed at CERN on mercury nuclei produced an unexpected asymmetric reaction. The study of the potential energy surface shows that this asymmetric reaction minimized the energy consumed in the reactions but led to 2 different elements (ruthenium-100 and krypton-80) far less stable than zirconium-90 that is the element expected in a symmetric fission. (A.C.)
Recent experimental results for spontaneous fission half-lives and fission fragment mass and kinetic-energy distributions and other properties of the fragments are reviewed and compared with recent theoretical models. The experimental data lend support to the existence of the predicted deformed shells near Z = 108 and N = 162. Prospects for extending detailed studies of spontaneous fission properties to elements beyond hahnium (element 105) are considered. (orig.)
Bimodal gene expression patterns in breast cancer
Nikolsky Yuri; Bugrim Andrej; Shi Weiwei; Kirillov Eugene; Bessarabova Marina; Nikolskaya Tatiana
2010-01-01
Abstract We identified a set of genes with an unexpected bimodal distribution among breast cancer patients in multiple studies. The property of bimodality seems to be common, as these genes were found on multiple microarray platforms and in studies with different end-points and patient cohorts. Bimodal genes tend to cluster into small groups of four to six genes with synchronised expression within the group (but not between the groups), which makes them good candidates for robust conditional ...
Performance Sampling and Bimodal Duration Dependence
Jerker Denrell; Zur Shapira
2006-01-01
Performance sampling models of duration dependence in employee turnover and firm exit predict that hazard rates will initially be low, gradually rise to a maximum, and then fall. As we note in this paper, however, several empirical duration distributions have bimodal hazard rates. This paper shows that such bimodal hazard rates can be derived from existing models of performance sampling by small changes in the assumptions. In particular, bimodal hazard rates emerge if the mean or the variance...
Segre, Emilio
1950-11-22
The first attempt to discover spontaneous fission in uranium was made by [Willard] Libby, who, however, failed to detect it on account of the smallness of effect. In 1940, [K. A.] Petrzhak and [G. N.] Flerov, using more sensitive methods, discovered spontaneous fission in uranium and gave some rough estimates of the spontaneous fission decay constant of this substance. Subsequently, extensive experimental work on the subject has been performed by several investigators and will be quoted in the various sections. [N.] Bohr and [A.] Wheeler have given a theory of the effect based on the usual ideas of penetration of potential barriers. On this project spontaneous fission has been studied for the past several years in an effort to obtain a complete picture of the phenomenon. For this purpose the spontaneous fission decay constants {lambda} have been measured for separated isotopes of the heavy elements wherever possible. Moreover, the number {nu} of neutrons emitted per fission has been measured wherever feasible, and other characteristics of the spontaneous fission process have been studied. This report summarizes the spontaneous fission work done at Los Alamos up to January 1, 1945. A chronological record of the work is contained in the Los Alamos monthly reports.
Studies of exotic modes of fission in the lead region
In a series of complementary experiments at the tandem of JAEA and at the mass-separator ISOLDE (CERN), new fission phenomena in the lead region of the chart of nuclei were investigated. At ISOLDE, the low-energy fission of 194,196Po was studied via the process of beta-delayed fission of the parent 194,196At nuclei. A multi-modal fission fragment mass split was observed for 194,196Po. At JAEA the higher-energy fusion-fission studies of 198Hg, 191,193Ir were performed in reactions with protons and 7Li. In the JAEA experiment, we observed a transition from mass-symmetric to mass asymmetric fission between 189Ir and 193Ir. By studying fission in these regions, we investigate the new evolution of shell structure to regulate fission (as far as fission is concerned) of the chart of nuclides. (author)
Miniversal Deformations of Bimodal Picewise Linear Systems
Ferrer Llop, Josep; Magret Planas, Maria dels Dolors; Pacha Andújar, Juan Ramón; Peña Carrera, Marta
2010-01-01
Keywords: Bimodal piecewise linear system, miniversal deformations, reduced forms. Bimodal linear systems are those consisting of two linear systems on each side of a given hyperplane, having continuous dynamics along that hyperplane. In this work, we focus on the derivation of (orthogonal) miniversal deformations, by using reduced forms.
BSA adsorption on bimodal PEO brushes
Bosker, W.T.E.; Iakovlev, P.A.; Norde, W.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.
2005-01-01
BSA adsorption onto bimodal PEO brushes at a solid surface was measured using optical reflectometry. Bimodal brushes consist of long (N=770) and short (N=48) PEO chains and were prepared on PS surfaces, applying mixtures of PS 29-PEO48 and PS37-PEO770 block copolymers and using the Langmuir-Blodgett
BSA adsorption on bimodal PEO brushes
Bosker, WTE; Iakovlev, PA; Norde, W; Stuart, MAC
2005-01-01
BSA adsorption onto bimodal PEO brushes at a solid surface was measured using optical reflectometry. Bimodal brushes consist of long (N = 770) and short (N = 48) PEO chains and were prepared on PS surfaces, applying mixtures of PS29-PEO48 and PS37-PEO770 block copolymers and using the Langmuir-Blodg
Utilizing fission technology to enable rapid and affordable access to any point in the solar system
Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation space systems will build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost
Proton-induced fission on 241Am, 238U and 237Np at intermediate energies
Deppman, A.; Andrade-II, E.; Guimaraes, V; Karapetyan, G. S.; Balabekyan, A. R.; Demekhina, N. A.
2013-01-01
Intermediate energy data of proton-induced fission on 241Am, 238U and 237Np targets were analysed and investigated using the computational simulation code CRISP. Inelastic interactions of protons on heavy nuclei and both symmetric and asymmetric fission are regarded. The fission probabilities are obtained from the CRISP code calculations by means of the Bohr-Wheeler model. The fission cross sections, the fissility and the number of nucleons evaporated by the nuclei, before and after fission, ...
Fitting age-specific fertility rates by a skew-symmetric probability density function
Mazzuco, Stefano; Scarpa, Bruno
2011-01-01
Mixture probability density functions had recently been proposed to describe some fertility patterns characterized by a bi-modal shape. These mixture probability density functions appear to be adequate when the fertility pattern is actually bi-modal but less useful when the shape of age-specific fertility rates is unimodal. A further model is proposed based on skew-symmetric probability density functions. This model is both more parsimonious than mixture distributions and more flexible, sh...
In nuclear reactions where a compound nucleus is formed at high excitation energies, one is forced to use a statistical theory to explain the observables of the reaction. The statistical theory of fission of Weisskopf-Ewing-Newton and Ericson is applied to binary spallation of 16O, 20Ne, and 14N by protons in the proton energy range of 20 to 150 MeV, 0 to 105 MeV, and 0 to 41.9 MeV, respectively. The capture cross section of the incident proton is calculated from the reaction cross section using appropriate optical model potentials. The differential and total cross sections for binary fragmentation into near symmetric mass nuclei are calculated which are in reasonable agreement with experimental results. The kinetic energy spectrum and decay widths in the final channels are also calculated, however these have not been measured experimentally for comparison. All of these calculations are done using three different ion-ion optical potentials suggested by others. One then reformulated the statistical theory to include the second law of thermodynamics. Both theories are applied to neutron induced fission of 239Pu, 235U, 233U, 229Th, and 226Ra at several different neutron and alpha energies using the recently proposed external barrier between the saddle and the scission point. The transmission functions are calculated using a set of coupled equations in the exit channels. The computed results indicate that the model can account for the observed variation of the percentage mass yield spectra. Furthermore one calculated the most probable kinetic energy in the fission in all cases and found it to agree with the observation. The spontaneous and isomer fission half lives are calculated giving good agreement with experimental data. The kinetic energy spectrums are also computed for some representative daughter pairs. The inclusion of the second law of thermodynamics improves the agreement between theory and experiment
Energy Dependence of Plutonium Fission-Product Yields
A method is developed for interpolating between and/or extrapolating from two pre-neutron-emission first-chance mass-asymmetric fission-product yield curves. Measured 240Pu spontaneous fission and thermal-neutron-induced fission of 239Pu fission-product yields (FPY) are extrapolated to give predictions for the energy dependence of the n + 239Pu FPY for incident neutron energies from 0 to 16 MeV. After the inclusion of corrections associated with mass-symmetric fission, prompt-neutron emission, and multi-chance fission, model calculated FPY are compared to data and the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation. The ability of the model to reproduce the energy dependence of the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation suggests that plutonium fission mass distributions are not locked in near the fission barrier region, but are instead determined by the temperature and nuclear potential-energy surface at larger deformation.
Energy Dependence of Plutonium Fission-Product Yields
Lestone, J. P.
2011-12-01
A method is developed for interpolating between and/or extrapolating from two pre-neutron-emission first-chance mass-asymmetric fission-product yield curves. Measured 240Pu spontaneous fission and thermal-neutron-induced fission of 239Pu fission-product yields (FPY) are extrapolated to give predictions for the energy dependence of the n + 239Pu FPY for incident neutron energies from 0 to 16 MeV. After the inclusion of corrections associated with mass-symmetric fission, prompt-neutron emission, and multi-chance fission, model calculated FPY are compared to data and the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation. The ability of the model to reproduce the energy dependence of the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation suggests that plutonium fission mass distributions are not locked in near the fission barrier region, but are instead determined by the temperature and nuclear potential-energy surface at larger deformation.
M Balasubramaniam; K R Vijayaraghavan; C Karthikraj
2015-09-01
We present the ternary fission of 252Cf and 236U within a three-cluster model as well as in a level density approach. The competition between collinear and equatorial geometry is studied by calculating the ternary fragmentation potential as a function of the angle between the lines joining the stationary middle fragment and the two end fragments. The obtained results for the 16O accompanying ternary fission indicate that collinear configuration is preferred to equatorial configuration. Further, for all the possible third fragments, the potential energy surface (PES) is calculated corresponding to an arrangement in which the heaviest and the lightest fragments are considered at the end in a collinear configuration. The PES reveals several possible ternary modes including true ternary modes where the three fragments are of similar size. The complete mass distributions of Si and Ca which accompanied ternary fission of 236U is studied within a level density picture. The obtained results favour several possible ternary combinations.
Piasecki, W.; Froncisz, W.; Hyde, James S.
1996-05-01
A bimodal loop-gap resonator for use in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at S band is described. It consists of two identical one-loop-one-gap resonators in coaxial juxtaposition. In one mode, the currents in the two loops are parallel and in the other antiparallel. By introducing additional capacitors between the loops, the frequencies of the two modes can be made to coincide. Details are given concerning variable coupling to each mode, tuning of the resonant frequency of one mode to that of the other, and adjustment of the isolation between modes. An equivalent circuit is given and network analysis carried out both experimentally and theoretically. EPR applications are described including (a) probing of the field distributions with DPPH, (b) continuous wave (cw) EPR with a spin-label line sample, (c) cw electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR), (d) modulation of saturation, and (e) saturation-recovery (SR) EPR. Bloch induction experiments can be performed when the sample extends half way through the structure, but microwave signals induced by Mx and My components of magnetization cancel when it extends completely through. This latter situation is particularly favorable for SR, modulation of saturation, and ELDOR experiments, which depend on observing Mz indirectly using a second weak observing microwave source.
The stunning nuclear fission of the mercury nucleus
A fission experiment performed at CERN on mercury nuclei produced an unexpected asymmetric reaction. The study of the potential energy surface shows that this asymmetric reaction minimized the energy consumed in the reactions but led to 2 different elements (ruthenium-100 and krypton-80) far less stable than zirconium-90 that is the element expected in a symmetric fission. (A.C.)
A Note on Bimodal Accretion Disks
Dullemond, C.P.; Turolla, R.
1998-01-01
The existence of bimodal disks is investigated. Following a simple argument based on energetic considerations we show that stationary, bimodal accretion disk models in which a Shakura--Sunyaev disk (SSD) at large radii matches an advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF) at smaller radii are never possible using the standard slim disk approach, unless some extra energy flux is present. The same argument, however, predicts the possibility of a transition from an outer Shapiro--Lightman--Eardle...
Discovery of a new mode of nuclear fission
We measured the mass and kinetic-energy partitioning in the spontaneous fission of 258Fm, 259Md, 260Md, 258No, and 260[104]. Surprisingly, these energy distributions were skewed upward or downward from the peak in each case, except for 260[104], indicating a composite of two energy distributions. We interpret this as a new mode of fission in which there is mixture of liquid-drop-like and fragment-shell-directed symmetric fission
Benchmarking Nuclear Fission Theory
G. F. Bertsch(INT, Seattle, USA); Loveland, W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Talou, P.
2015-01-01
We suggest a small set of fission observables to be used as test cases for validation of theoretical calculations. The purpose is to provide common data to facilitate the comparison of different fission theories and models. The proposed observables are chosen from fission barriers, spontaneous fission lifetimes, fission yield characteristics, and fission isomer excitation energies.
Bloch, F.; Staub, H.
1943-08-18
Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951
Smith, M. B.; Michl, Josef
2010-01-01
Roč. 110, č. 11 (2010), s. 6891-6936. ISSN 0009-2665 Grant ostatní: Department of Energy(US) DE-FG36-08GO18017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : solar energy conversion * photovoltaics * singlet fission Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 33.033, year: 2010
Christiansen, Steen Ledet
materialisation of an ideological fission which attempts to excise certain ideological constructions, yet paradoxically casting them in a form that is recognizable and familiar. The monstrous metonomy which is used shows us glimpses of a horrid being, intended to vilify the attack on New York City. However, it is...
Rowland, Mark S.; Snyderman, Neal J.
2012-04-10
A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source.
New formulas for TKE release in nuclear fission process
New TKE formulas that will replace the previous existing ones are obtained. Recently, three types of the final deformation of fissioning nuclei were found for actinides out off which only one was observed. The final deformations of the fissioning nuclei was found to be constant and independent of the mass and temperature of the fissioning system. These hence allow to deduce a new formula for the TKE release in nuclear fission process based on the invariance of scission deformations of fissioning nuclei. They yield, TKE(sym) = 0.1173 x (Zf2/Af1/3)+7.5 MeV for the symmetric fission and TKE(asym) = 0.1217 x (Zf2/Af1/3)+3.5 MeV for the asymmetric fission. Details for the new formulas and their comparison with the experimental data are given. (author)
Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket Analysis Developments
Belair, Michael; Lavelle, Thomas; Saimento, Charles; Juhasz, Albert; Stewart, Mark
2014-01-01
Nuclear thermal propulsion has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars and beyond. One concept of operations for these missions utilizes the nuclear reactor to generate electrical power during coast phases, known as bimodal operation. This presentation focuses on the systems modeling and analysis efforts for a NERVA derived concept. The NERVA bimodal operation derives the thermal energy from the core tie tube elements. Recent analysis has shown potential temperature distributions in the tie tube elements that may limit the thermodynamic efficiency of the closed Brayton cycle used to generate electricity with the current design. The results of this analysis are discussed as well as the potential implications to a bimodal NERVA type reactor.
Fission investigations and evaluation activities at IRMM
The IRMM has a longstanding tradition in the field of neutron induced fission physics studies. It is especially well equipped with world-class facilities as the high resolution neutron time-of-flight spectrometer GELINA and the 7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator for the quasi-monoenergetic neutron production. During the past decade several neutron induced fission reactions have been studied in the energy range from eV up to 6 MeV and spontaneous fission. The isotopes under investigation were 235,238 U(n,f), 239 Pu(n,f), 237 Np(n,f), 252 Cf(SF) and 233 Pa(n,f). For all isotopes but 233 Pa, the fission fragment mass-yield and total kinetic energy distributions were measured. 233 Pa was only investigated for the fission cross-section. The results have been described within the multi-modal fission model. The three most dominant fission modes, the two asymmetric standard I (S1) and standard II (S2) as well as the the symmetric superlong mode were used for all the isotopes but 252 Cf. For this isotope at least one other fission mode had to be taken into account, the so--called standard III (S3) mode. Since the theoretical interpretation of experimental results was rather successful also an attempt was made to improve the evaluation of the respective fission cross-section as well as their neutron multiplicities and spectra. Here, the statistical model for fission cross-section evaluation was extended by including the multi-modality concept for fission. Based on the underlying model, separate outer fission barriers have been considered for each mode, while the inner barriers and isomeric wells are assumed to be the same. The self-consistent calculations of the fission cross-section as well as total, capture, elastic and inelastic cross-sections were in good agreement with the experimental data and evaluated nuclear data libraries. As a side product, also fission fragment mass yield distributions have been deduced at incident neutron energies hitherto unaccessible. Very
Symmetrization of Facade Layouts
Jiang, Haiyong
2016-02-26
We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.
Bimodality and negative heat capacity in multifragmentation
This contribution addresses the question of the possible link between multifragmentation and the liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Bi-modality seems to be a robust signal of this link in the sense that theoretical calculations indicate that it is preserved even if a sizeable fraction of the available energy has not been shared among all the degrees of freedom. The corresponding measured properties are coherent with what is expected in a liquid-gas phase transition picture. Moreover, bi-modality and negative heat capacity are observed for the same set of events. (authors)
Co-speech gesture in bimodal bilinguals
Casey, Shannon; Emmorey, Karen
2008-01-01
The effects of knowledge of sign language on co-speech gesture were investigated by comparing the spontaneous gestures of bimodal bilinguals (native users of American Sign Language and English; n = 13) and non-signing native English speakers (n = 12). Each participant viewed and re-told the Canary Row cartoon to a non-signer whom they did not know. Nine of the thirteen bimodal bilinguals produced at least one ASL sign, which we hypothesise resulted from a failure to inhibit ASL. Compared with...
Periodicity in bimodal atomic force microscopy
Lai, Chia-Yun; Santos, Sergio, E-mail: santos-en@yahoo.com; Chiesa, Matteo [Laboratory for Energy and NanoScience (LENS), Institute Center for Future Energy (iFES), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barcons, Victor [Departament de Disseny i Programació de Sistemes Electrònics, UPC - Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Bases, 61, 08242 Manresa (Barcelona) (Spain)
2015-07-28
Periodicity is fundamental for quantification and the application of conservation principles of many important systems. Here, we discuss periodicity in the context of bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM). The relationship between the excited frequencies is shown to affect and control both experimental observables and the main expressions quantified via these observables, i.e., virial and energy transfer expressions, which form the basis of the bimodal AFM theory. The presence of a fundamental frequency further simplifies the theory and leads to close form solutions. Predictions are verified via numerical integration of the equation of motion and experimentally on a mica surface.
Periodicity in bimodal atomic force microscopy
Periodicity is fundamental for quantification and the application of conservation principles of many important systems. Here, we discuss periodicity in the context of bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM). The relationship between the excited frequencies is shown to affect and control both experimental observables and the main expressions quantified via these observables, i.e., virial and energy transfer expressions, which form the basis of the bimodal AFM theory. The presence of a fundamental frequency further simplifies the theory and leads to close form solutions. Predictions are verified via numerical integration of the equation of motion and experimentally on a mica surface
Bimodal condensation silicone elastomers as dielectric elastomers
Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
unimodal refers to that there is one polymer only in the system. As an alternative to unimodal networks there are the bimodal networks where two polymers with significantly different molecular weights are mixed with one crosslinker. [2]Silicone rubber can be divided into condensation type and addition type...... according to the curing reaction. The advantages of condensation silicones compared to addition are the relatively low cost, the curing rate largely being independent of temperature, the excellent adhesion, and the catalyst being nontoxic. [3]In this work, a series of bimodal condensation silicone...
The contrasting fission potential-energy structure of actinides and mercury isotopes
Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Möller, Peter; Sierk, Arnold J.
2012-01-01
Fission-fragment mass distributions are asymmetric in fission of typical actinide nuclei for nucleon number $A$ in the range $228 \\lnsim A \\lnsim 258$ and proton number $Z$ in the range $90\\lnsim Z \\lnsim 100$. For somewhat lighter systems it has been observed that fission mass distributions are usually symmetric. However, a recent experiment showed that fission of $^{180}$Hg following electron capture on $^{180}$Tl is asymmetric. We calculate potential-energy surfaces for a typical actinide ...
Neutron emission as a probe of fusion-fission and quasi-fission dynamics
Pre- and post scission neutron yeilds have been measured as a function of projectile mass, compound nucleus fissility, and fission mass-split and total kinetic energy (TKE) for 27 fusion-fission and quasi-fission reactions induced by beams of 16,18O, 40Ar and 64Ni. A new method of interpretation of experimental pre-scission neutron multiplicities ν-pre and mean kinetic energies εν allows the extraction of fission time scales with much less uncertainty than previously, all fusion-fission results being consistent with a dynamical time scale of (35±15) x 10-21s for symmetric fission. All reactions show that ν-pre falls quite rapidly with increasing mass-asymmetry; evidence is presented that for fusion-fission reactions this is partly due to a reduction of the dynamical fission time scale with mass-asymmetry. For quasi-fission, the data indicate that the pre-scission multiplicity and mean neutron kinetic energy are very sensitive to the final mass-asymmetry, but that the time scale is virtually independent of mass-asymmetry. It is concluded that for fusion-fission there is no dependence of ν-pre on TKE, whilst for 64Ni-induced quasi-fission reactions, a strong increase of ν-pre with decreasing TKE is observed, probably largely caused by neutron emission during the acceleration time of the fission fragments in these fast reactions. Interpretation of post-scission multiplicities in terms of fragment excitation energies leads to deduced time scales consistent with those determined from the pre-scission data. 54 refs., 17 tabs., 25 figs
Symmetrical extensions of graphs
We study symmetrical extensions of graphs, with special emphasis on symmetrical and Aut0(Λd)-symmetrical extensions of d-dimensional grids Λd by finite graphs. These topics are of interest in group theory and graph theory and possibly also in crystallography and some branches of physics. We prove the existence of a connected locally finite graph admitting infinitely many symmetrical extensions by a fixed finite graph. On the other hand, we prove that the number of symmetrical and Aut0(Λd)-symmetrical extensions of the d-dimensional grid Λd by a finite graph is finite in several interesting cases. Moreover, for every positive integer d we construct all Aut0(Λd)-symmetrical extensions of the d-dimensional grid Λd by two-vertex graphs
Deaf Children's Bimodal Bilingualism and Education
Swanwick, Ruth
2016-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the research into deaf children's bilingualism and bilingual education through a synthesis of studies published over the last 15 years. This review brings together the linguistic and pedagogical work on bimodal bilingualism to inform educational practice. The first section of the review provides a synthesis of…
Controllability of Continuous Bimodal Linear Systems
Josep Ferrer; Juan R. Pacha; Marta Peña
2013-01-01
We consider bimodal linear systems consisting of two linear dynamics acting on each side of a given hyperplane, assuming continuity along the separating hyperplane. We prove that the study of controllability can be reduced to the unobservable case, and for these ones we obtain a simple explicit characterization of controllability for dimensions 2 and 3, as well as some partial criteria for higher dimensions.
Bimodal Networks as Candidates for Electroactive Polymers
Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela;
An alternative network formulation method was adopted in order to obtain a different type of silicone based elastomeric systems - the so-called bimodal networks - using two vinyl-terminated polydimethyl siloxanes (PDMS) of different molecular weight, a labelled crosslinker (3 or 4-functional), and...
Bimodal mesoporous silica with bottleneck pores.
Reber, M J; Brühwiler, D
2015-11-01
Bimodal mesoporous silica consisting of two sets of well-defined mesopores is synthesized by a partial pseudomorphic transformation of an ordered mesoporous starting material (SBA-15 type). The introduction of a second set of smaller mesopores (MCM-41 type) establishes a pore system with bottlenecks that restricts the access to the core of the bimodal mesoporous silica particles. The particle size and shape of the starting material are retained, but micropores present in the starting material disappear during the transformation, leading to a true bimodal mesoporous product. A varying degree of transformation allows the adjustment of the pore volume contribution of the two mesopore domains. Information on the accessibility of the mesopores is obtained by the adsorption of fluorescence-labeled poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy. This information is correlated with nitrogen sorption data to provide insights regarding the spatial distribution of the two mesopore domains. The bimodal mesoporous materials are excellent model systems for the investigation of cavitation effects in nitrogen desorption isotherms. PMID:26399172
New fission valley for 258Fm and nuclei beyond
Experimental results on the fission properties of nuclei close to 264Fm show sudden and large changes with a change of only one or two neutrons or protons. The nucleus 258Fm, for instance, undergoes symmetric fission with a half-life of about 0.4 ms and a kinetic energy peaked at about 235 MeV whereas 256Fm undergoes asymmetric fission with a half-life of about 3 h and a kinetic energy peaked at about 200 MeV. Qualitatively, these sudden changes hve been postulated to be due to the emergence of fragment shells in symmetric fission products close to 132Sn. A quantitative calculation that shows where high-kinetic-energy symmetric fission occurs and why it is associated with a sudden and large decrease in fission half-lives. The study is based on calculations of potential-energy surfaces in the macroscopic-microscopic model and a semi-empirical model for the nuclear inertia. The implications of the new fission valley on the stability of the heaviest elements is discussed. 33 refs., 12 figs
Asymmetry of fission fragment mass distribution for Po and Ir isotopes
Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.
2016-03-01
Using the improved scission-point model, the mass distributions are calculated for induced fission of several Po and Ir isotopes. The calculated mass distributions and mean total kinetic energies of fission fragments are compared with the existing experimental data. The revealed coexistence of both symmetric and asymmetric modes in the β -delayed fission of At,196194 is in agreement with the experimental observations. The change of the shape of mass distribution with increasing A of fissioning AIr nucleus from asymmetric for 185Ir to symmetric for 193Ir is found.
Symmetric, coherent, Choquet capacities
Kadane, Joseph B.; Wasserman, Larry
1996-01-01
Choquet capacities are a generalization of probability measures that arise in robustness, decision theory and game theory. Many capacities that arise in robustness are symmetric or can be transformed into symmetric capacities. We characterize the extreme points of the set of upper distribution functions corresponding to coherent, symmetric Choquet capacities on [0, 1]. We also show that the set of 2-alternating capacities is a simplex and we give a Choquet representation of this set.
Al-Adili A.; Fabry I.; Borcea R.; Zeynalov S.; Kornilov N.; Hambsch F.-J.; Oberstedt S.
2010-01-01
Fission Research at JRC-IRMM has a longstanding tradition. The present paper is discussing recent investigations of fission fragment properties of 238 U(n,f), 234 U(n,f), prompt neutron emission in fission of 252 Cf(SF) as well as the prompt fission neutron spectrum of 235 U(n,f) and is presenting the most important results.
Synthesis and Characterization of Bimodal Mesoporous Silica
ZHANG Xiaofang; GUO Cuili; WANG Xiaoli; WU Yuanyuan
2012-01-01
Mesoporous silica with controllable bimodal pore size distribution was synthesized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as chemical template for small mesopores and silica gel as physical template for large mesopores.The structure of synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements.The experimental results show that bimodal mesoporous silica consists of small mesopores of about 3 nm and large mesopores of about 45 nm.The small mesopores which were formed on the external surface and pore walls of the silica gel had similar characters with those of MCM-41,while large mesopores were inherited from parent silica gel material.The pore size distribution of the synthesized silica can be adjusted by changing the relative content of TEOS and silica gel or the feeding sequence of silica gel and NH4OH.
Refining Bimodal Microstructure of Materials with MSTRUCT
Matěj, Z.; Kadlecová, A.; Janeček, M.; Matějová, L. (Lenka); Dopita, M.; Kužel, R.
2014-01-01
The possibilities of modelling the diffraction profiles from bimodal microstructure in computer program MSTRUCT are demonstrated on two examples. A special Double Component profile effect can be utilized for such problems. At first it was applied to an analysis of a mixture of two nanocrystalline anatase powders with different crystallite sizes and the relative ratio of both components was determined from X-ray diffraction data. In the second case study, diffraction peaks from a pure polycry...
Li, Jing; Xu, Lu; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Hongyu; Lu, Fangzheng; Li, Sanming
2016-01-01
The present paper innovatively reports bimodal nanoporous silica synthesized using biomimetic method (B-BNS) with synthesized polymer (C16-L-serine) as template. Formation mechanism of B-BNS was deeply studied and exploration of its application as carrier of poorly water-soluble drug ibuprofen (IBU) was conducted. The bimodal nanopores and curved mesoscopic channels of B-BNS were achieved due to the dynamic self-assembly of C16-L-serine induced by silane coupling agent (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES) and silica source (tetraethoxysilane, TEOS). Characterization results confirmed the successful synthesis of B-BNS, and particularly, nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement demonstrated that B-BNS was meso-meso porous silica material. In application, B-BNS loaded IBU with high drug loading content due to its enlarged nanopores. After being loaded, IBU presented amorphous phase because nanoporous space and curved mesoscopic channels of B-BNS prevented the crystallization of IBU. In vitro release result revealed that B-BNS controlled IBU release with two release phases based on bimodal nanopores and improved dissolution in simulated gastric fluid due to crystalline conversion of IBU. It is convincible that biomimetic method provides novel theory and insight for synthesizing bimodal nanoporous silica, and unique functionalities of B-BNS as drug carrier can undoubtedly promote the application of bimodal nanoporous silica and development of pharmaceutical science. PMID:26478410
Symmetric cryptographic protocols
Ramkumar, Mahalingam
2014-01-01
This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees. • Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols • Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks • Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases
Fusion-fission dynamics in superheavy mass region
In heavy nucleus collision experiments, the fusion-fission cross section is derived from counting mass-symmetric fission events. However, a discrepancy exists between the experimental and theoretical estimations of the fusion cross section. We attempt to clarify the origin of the discrepancy and remove it by performing a dynamical calculation. The trajectory calculation has been performed in three-dimensional coordinate space with the Langevin equation. (author)
The effective energy released in and following the fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 by thermal neutrons, and of U-238 by fission spectrum neutrons, is discussed. The recommended values are: U-235 ... 192.9 ± 0.5 MeV/fission; U-238 ... 193.9 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-239 ... 198.5 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-241 ... 200.3 ± 0.8 MeV/fission. These values include all contributions except from antineutrinos and very long-lived fission products. The detailed contributions are discussed, and inconsistencies in the experimental data are pointed out. In Appendix A, the contribution to the total useful energy release in a reactor from reactions other than fission are discussed briefly, and in Appendix B there is a discussion of the variations in effective energy from fission with incident neutron energy. (author)
Photo-fission of 232Th and 238U at intermediate energies
Deppman, A.(Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil); Andrade-II, E.; Guimaraes, V.; Demekhina, N. A.; Karapetyan, G. S.
2013-01-01
In this work we present an analysis of the yields of fission fragments induced by bremsstrahlung photons with endpoint energies of 50 and 3500 MeV on 232Th and 238U targets using the simulation code CRISP. A multimodal fission option was added to this code and an extension of the calculation to the properties of the fission products is presented. By dividing the fissioning nuclei according to their fissionability, an approach is introduced which accounts for the contribution of symmetric and ...
Optimization of phase contrast in bimodal amplitude modulation AFM
Mehrnoosh Damircheli; Amir F. Payam; Ricardo Garcia
2015-01-01
Bimodal force microscopy has expanded the capabilities of atomic force microscopy (AFM) by providing high spatial resolution images, compositional contrast and quantitative mapping of material properties without compromising the data acquisition speed. In the first bimodal AFM configuration, an amplitude feedback loop keeps constant the amplitude of the first mode while the observables of the second mode have not feedback restrictions (bimodal AM). Here we study the conditions to enhance the ...
Bidirectional grapheme-phoneme activation in a bimodal detection task
Dijkstra, Ton; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Schreuder, Robert
1993-01-01
A divided attention paradigm was used to investigate whether graphemes and phonemes can mutually activate or inhibit each other during bimodal processing. In 3 experiments, Dutch subjects reacted to visual and auditory targets in single-channel or bimodal stimuli. In some bimodal conditions, the visual and auditory targets were nominally identical or redundant (e.g., visual A and auditory /a/); in others they were not (e.g., visual U and auditory /a/). Temporal aspects of cross-modal activati...
Reactive Sintering of Bimodal WC-Co Hardmetals
Marek Tarraste; Kristjan Juhani; Jüri Pirso; Mart Viljus
2015-01-01
Bimodal WC-Co hardmetals were produced using novel technology - reactive sintering. Milled and activated tungsten and graphite powders were mixed with commercial coarse grained WC-Co powder and then sintered. The microstructure of produced materials was free of defects and consisted of evenly distributed coarse and fine tungsten carbide grains in cobalt binder. The microstructure, hardness and fracture toughness of reactive sintered bimodal WC-Co hardmetals is exhibited. Developed bimodal har...
Structural Stability of Planar Bimodal Linear Systems
Josep Ferrer
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Structural stability ensures that the qualitative behavior of a system is preserved under small perturbations. We study it for planar bimodal linear dynamical systems, that is, systems consisting of two linear dynamics acting on each side of a given hyperplane and assuming continuity along the separating hyperplane. We describe which one of these systems is structurally stable when (real spiral does not appear and when it does we give necessary and sufficient conditions concerning finite periodic orbits and saddle connections. In particular, we study the finite periodic orbits and the homoclinic orbits in the saddle/spiral case.
Noncommutative Bessel symmetric functions
Novelli, Jean-Christophe; Thibon, Jean-Yves
2006-01-01
The consideration of tensor products of 0-Hecke algebra modules leads to natural analogs of the Bessel J-functions in the algebra of noncommutative symmetric functions. This provides a simple explanation of various combinatorial properties of Bessel functions.
A symmetrical rail accelerator
Igenbergs, E. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Raumfahrttechnik, Richard-Wagner-Strasse 18, 8000 Muenchen 2 (DE))
1991-01-01
This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator.
Fission fragment mass distribution in the 13C+182W and 176Yb reactions
Ramachandran K.; Hinde D.J.; Dasgupta M.; Williams E.; Wakhle A.; Luong D. H.; Evers M.; Carter I. P.; Das S.
2013-01-01
Shell effects can play a prominent role in fission fragment mass distributions. For lighter systems in the region of A~180-200, mass distributions were generally expected to be symmetric. However, a recent experiment showed that fission of 180Hg following electron capture of 180Tl leads to an asymmetric mass split. Recent calculations by various groups indicate that the mechanism of asymmetric fission could be very different in this mass region compared to the actinide region. To investigate ...
Protactinium neutron-induced fission up to 200 MeV
The theoretical evaluation of 230-233Pa(n,F) cross sections is based on direct data, 230-234Pa fission probabilities and ratios of fission probabilities in first-chance and emissive fission domains, surrogate for neutron-induced fission. First chance fission cross sections trends of Pa are based on consistent description of 232Th(n,F), 232Th(n,2n) and 238U(n,F), 238U(n,xn) data, supported by the ratio surrogate data by Burke et al., 2006, for the 237U(n,F) reaction. Ratio surrogate data on fission probabilities of 232Th(6Li,4He)234Pa and 232Th(6Li,d)236U by Nayak et al., 2008, support the predicted 233Pa(n,F) cross section at En=11.5-16.5 MeV. The predicted trends of 230-232Pa(n,F) cross section up to En=20 MeV, are consistent with fissile properties of Pa nuclides, extracted by 232Th(p,F) (Isaev et al., 2008) and 232Th(p,3n) (Morgenstern et al., 2008) data analysis. The excitation energy and nucleon composition dependence of the transition from asymmetric to symmetric scission for fission observables of Pa nuclei is defined by analysis of p-induced fission of 232Th at Ep=1-200 MeV. Predominantly symmetric fission in 232Th(p,F) at En(p)=200 MeV as revealed by experimental branching ratios (Dujvestijn et al., 1999) is reproduced. Steep transition from asymmetric to symmetric fission with increase of nucleon incident energy is due to fission of neutron-deficient Pa (A≤229) nuclei. A structure of the potential energy surface (a drop of symmetric and asymmetric fission barriers difference (Ef(SYM) - Ef(ASYM)) from about 3.5 MeV to 1 MeV) of N-deficient Pa nuclides (A≤226) and available phase space at outer fission saddles, are shown to be responsible for the sharp increase with En(p) of the symmetric fission component contribution for 232Th(p,F) and 230-233Pa(n,F) reactions. That is a strong evidence of emissive fission nature of moderately excited Pa nuclides, reliably quantified only up to En(p) about 20(30) MeV. Predicted fission cross section of 232Pa
Protactinium neutron-induced fission up to 200 MeV
Maslov V.
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The theoretical evaluation of 230-233Pa(n,F cross sections is based on direct data, 230-234Pa fission probabilities and ratios of fission probabilities in first-chance and emissive fission domains, surrogate for neutroninduced fission. First chance fission cross sections trends of Pa are based on consistent description of 232Th(n,F, 232Th(n,2n and 238U(n,F, 238U(n,xn data, supported by the ratio surrogate data by Burke et al., 2006, for the 237U(n,F reaction. Ratio surrogate data on fission probabilities of 232Th(6 Li,4 He234Pa and 232 Th(6 Li,d236U by Nayak et al., 2008, support the predicted 233Pa(n, F cross section at En=11.5-16.5 MeV. The predicted trends of 230-232Pa(n, F cross section up to En=20 MeV, are consistent with fissilities of Pa nuclides, extracted by 232Th(p,F (Isaev et al., 2008 and 232Th(p,3n (Morgenstern et al., 2008 data analysis. The excitation energy and nucleon composition dependence of the transition from asymmetric to symmetric scission for fission observables of Pa nuclei is defined by analysis of p-induced fission of 232Th at Ep=1-200 MeV. Predominantly symmetric fission in 232Th(p,F at En( p=200 MeV as revealed by experimental branching ratios (Dujvestijn et al., 1999 is reproduced. Steep transition from asymmetric to symmetric fission with increase of nucleon incident energy is due to fission of neutron-deficient Pa (A≤229 nuclei. A structure of the potential energy surface (a drop of f f symmetric and asymmetric fission barriers difierence (EfSYM - EfASYM from ~3.5 MeV to ~1 MeV of N-deficient Pa nuclides (A≤226 and available phase space at outer fission saddles, are shown to be responsible for the sharp increase with En( p of the symmetric fission component contribution for 232Th(p,F and 230-233 Pa(n, F reactions. That is a strong evidence of emissive fission nature of moderately excited Pa nuclides, reliably quantified only up to En( p~20(30 MeV. Predicted fission cross section of 232Pa(n,F coincides with
Al-Adili A.
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Fission Research at JRC-IRMM has a longstanding tradition. The present paper is discussing recent investigations of fission fragment properties of 238 U(n,f, 234 U(n,f, prompt neutron emission in fission of 252 Cf(SF as well as the prompt fission neutron spectrum of 235 U(n,f and is presenting the most important results.
Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W
2005-01-01
Complex fission phenomena can be studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle-point) nuclear shapes, may be obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in cold fission phenomena can be explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined. Predictions of two alpha accompanied fission are experimentally confirmed.
Pomorski, Krzysztof; Ivanyuk, Fedir A
2016-01-01
The fission-fragments mass-yield of 236U is obtained by an approximate solution of the eigenvalue problem of the collective Hamiltonian that describes the dynamics of the fission process whose degrees of freedom are: the fission (elongation), the neck and the mass-asymmetry mode. The macroscopic-microscopic method is used to evaluate the potential energy surface. The macroscopic energy part is calculated using the liquid drop model and the microscopic corrections are obtained using the Woods-Saxon single-particle levels. The four dimensional modified Cassini ovals shape parametrization is used to describe the shape of the fissioning nucleus. The mass tensor is taken within the cranking-type approximation. The final fragment mass distribution is obtained by weighting the adiabatic density distribution in the collective space with the neck-dependent fission probability. The neck degree of freedom is found to play a significant role in determining that final fragment mass distribution.
Jing Wang
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Motivation: Identifying genes with bimodal expression patterns from large-scale expression profiling data is an important analytical task. Model-based clustering is popular for this purpose. That technique commonly uses the Bayesian information criterion (BIC for model selection. In practice, however, BIC appears to be overly sensitive and may lead to the identification of bimodally expressed genes that are unreliable or not clinically useful. We propose using a novel criterion, the bimodality index, not only to identify but also to rank meaningful and reliable bimodal patterns. The bimodality index can be computed using either a mixture model-based algorithm or Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques.Results: We carried out simulation studies and applied the method to real data from a cancer gene expression profiling study. Our findings suggest that BIC behaves like a lax cutoff based on the bimodality index, and that the bimodality index provides an objective measure to identify and rank meaningful and reliable bimodal patterns from large-scale gene expression datasets. R code to compute the bimodality index is included in the ClassDiscovery package of the Object-Oriented Microarray and Proteomic Analysis (OOMPA suite available at the web site http://bioinformatics.mdanderson.org/Software/OOMPA.
Transfer learning for bimodal biometrics recognition
Dan, Zhiping; Sun, Shuifa; Chen, Yanfei; Gan, Haitao
2013-10-01
Biometrics recognition aims to identify and predict new personal identities based on their existing knowledge. As the use of multiple biometric traits of the individual may enables more information to be used for recognition, it has been proved that multi-biometrics can produce higher accuracy than single biometrics. However, a common problem with traditional machine learning is that the training and test data should be in the same feature space, and have the same underlying distribution. If the distributions and features are different between training and future data, the model performance often drops. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for face recognition on bimodal biometrics. The training and test samples of bimodal biometric images are composed of the visible light face images and the infrared face images. Our algorithm transfers the knowledge across feature spaces, relaxing the assumption of same feature space as well as same underlying distribution by automatically learning a mapping between two different but somewhat similar face images. According to the experiments in the face images, the results show that the accuracy of face recognition has been greatly improved by the proposed method compared with the other previous methods. It demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our method.
A note on bimodal singularities and mirror symmetry
Mase, Makiko; UEDA, Kazushi
2014-01-01
We discuss the relation between transposition mirror symmetry of Berlund and H\\"ubsch for bimodal singularities and polar duality of Batyrev for associated toric K3 hypersurfaces. We also show that homological mirror symmetry for singularities implies the geometric construction of Coxeter-Dynkin diagrams of bimodal singularities by Ebeling and Ploog.
Energetic Argument for Bimodal Black Hole Accretion discs
林一清; 卢炬甫; 顾为民
2002-01-01
Based on simple energetic considerations, we show that two crucial ingredients of bimodal black hole accretiondiscs, namely the sonic point and the transition radius, can be determined from the disc constant parameters.Thus, we can further justify the model of bimodal discs containing thermal instability triggered transition.
The Bimodal Bilingual Brain: Effects of Sign Language Experience
Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen
2009-01-01
Bimodal bilinguals are hearing individuals who know both a signed and a spoken language. Effects of bimodal bilingualism on behavior and brain organization are reviewed, and an fMRI investigation of the recognition of facial expressions by ASL-English bilinguals is reported. The fMRI results reveal separate effects of sign language and spoken…
Differentiable Families of Planar Bimodal Linear Control Systems
Josep Ferrer; M. Dolors Magret; Marta Peña
2014-01-01
We consider bimodal linear control systems consisting of two subsystems acting on each side of a given hyperplane, assuming continuity along it. For a differentiable family of planar bimodal linear control systems, we obtain its stratification diagram and, if controllability holds for each value of the parameters, we construct a differentiable family of feedbacks which stabilizes both subsystems for each value of the parameters.
Fission neutron statistical emission
The statistical model approach FINESSE (FIssion NEutronS' Statistical Emission) for the description of fission neutron multiplicities, energy spectra and angular distributions is described. Based on an extended Weisskopf ansatz and on a realistic temperature distribution it provides a fragment mass number dependent description of fission neutron data. Model parameters (optical potential, n/γ competition) were fixed on the basis of the 252Cf(sf) (nuclear data standard). Combined with a phenomenological fission model for predicting relevant fragment data as function of asymmetry. FINESSE can be applied to any fission reaction of actinides in the Th-Cf region without further parameter adjustment. Results are presented for 252Cf(sf) and neutron induced fission of 235U, 239Pu, 232Th. Effects of multiple-chance fission are discussed for 232Th(n,xnf) reacation. (author). 46 refs, 11 figs
Bimodal stimulation: benefits for music perception and sound quality.
Sucher, Catherine M; McDermott, Hugh J
2009-01-01
With recent expansions in cochlear implantation candidacy criteria, increasing numbers of implantees can exploit their remaining hearing by using bimodal stimulation (combining electrical stimulation via the implant with acoustic stimulation via hearing aids). This study examined the effect of bimodal stimulation on music perception and perceived sound quality. The perception of music and sound quality by nine post-lingually deafened adult implantees was examined in three conditions: implant alone, hearing aid alone and bimodal stimulation. On average, bimodal stimulation provided the best results for music perception and perceived sound quality when compared with results obtained with electrical stimulation alone. Thus, for implantees with usable acoustic hearing, bimodal stimulation may be advantageous when listening to music and other non-speech sounds. PMID:19230032
Optimization of phase contrast in bimodal amplitude modulation AFM
Mehrnoosh Damircheli
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Bimodal force microscopy has expanded the capabilities of atomic force microscopy (AFM by providing high spatial resolution images, compositional contrast and quantitative mapping of material properties without compromising the data acquisition speed. In the first bimodal AFM configuration, an amplitude feedback loop keeps constant the amplitude of the first mode while the observables of the second mode have not feedback restrictions (bimodal AM. Here we study the conditions to enhance the compositional contrast in bimodal AM while imaging heterogeneous materials. The contrast has a maximum by decreasing the amplitude of the second mode. We demonstrate that the roles of the excited modes are asymmetric. The operational range of bimodal AM is maximized when the second mode is free to follow changes in the force. We also study the contrast in trimodal AFM by analyzing the kinetic energy ratios. The phase contrast improves by decreasing the energy of second mode relative to those of the first and third modes.
Counting with symmetric functions
Mendes, Anthony
2015-01-01
This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics. It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions. Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions. Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4. The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enu...
Symmetric Tensor Decomposition
Brachat, Jerome; Comon, Pierre; Mourrain, Bernard;
2010-01-01
We present an algorithm for decomposing a symmetric tensor, of dimension n and order d, as a sum of rank-1 symmetric tensors, extending the algorithm of Sylvester devised in 1886 for binary forms. We recall the correspondence between the decomposition of a homogeneous polynomial in n variables of...... polynomial equations of small degree in non-generic cases. We propose a new algorithm for symmetric tensor decomposition, based on this characterization and on linear algebra computations with Hankel matrices. The impact of this contribution is two-fold. First it permits an efficient computation of the...... decomposition of any tensor of sub-generic rank, as opposed to widely used iterative algorithms with unproved global convergence (e.g. Alternate Least Squares or gradient descents). Second, it gives tools for understanding uniqueness conditions and for detecting the rank....
N>=2 symmetric superpolynomials
Alarie-Vézina, L; Mathieu, P
2015-01-01
The theory of symmetric functions has been extended to the case where each variable is paired with an anticommuting one. The resulting expressions, dubbed superpolynomials, provide the natural N=1 supersymmetric version of the classical bases of symmetric functions. Here we consider the case where two independent anticommuting variables are attached to each ordinary variable. The N=2 super-version of the monomial, elementary, homogeneous symmetric functions, as well as the power sums, are then constructed systematically (using an exterior-differential formalism for the multiplicative bases), these functions being now indexed by a novel type of superpartitions. Moreover, the scalar product of power sums turns out to have a natural N=2 generalization which preserves the duality between the monomial and homogeneous bases. All these results are then generalized to an arbitrary value of N. Finally, for N=2, the scalar product and the homogenous functions are shown to have a one-parameter deformation, a result that...
Multiparty Symmetric Sum Types
Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei
2010-01-01
determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes with the......This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...
Progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma
Gharpuray Mohan
1990-01-01
Full Text Available Four patients had symmetrically distributed hyperkeratotic plaques on the trunk and extremities; The lesions in all of them had appeared during infancy, and after a brief period of progression, had remained static, All of them had no family history of similar skin lesions. They responded well to topical applications of 6% salicylic acid in 50% propylene glycol. Unusual features in these cases of progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma were the sparing of palms and soles, involvement of the trunk and absence of erythema.
Experimental survey of the potential energy surfaces associated with fission
Progress in the experimental determination of the properties of the potential energy surface associated with fission is reviewed. The importance of nuclear symmetry effects on the calculation of fission widths is demonstrated. Evidence is presented for the fragmentation of the mass-asymmetric second barrier in the thorium region and the axial asymmetric first barrier in the californium region. Detailed analyses of experimental data suggest the presence of two parallel second barriers; the normal mass-asymmetric, axial-symmetric barrier and a slightly higher mass-symmetric, axial-asymmetric barrier. Experimental barrier parameters are determined systematically and compared with calculations from various theoretical models. Techniques for expanding fission probability measurements to higher energies are discussed. (author)
Bimodal and multimodal plant biomass particle mixtures
Dooley, James H.
2013-07-09
An industrial feedstock of plant biomass particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein the particles are individually characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L, wherein the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces, and wherein the particles in the feedstock are collectively characterized by having a bimodal or multimodal size distribution.
Bimodal condensation silicone elastomers as dielectric elastomers
Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
, the top and bottom surfaces of the elastomer (7:3) prepared at 23oC and 50% humidity were tested by water contact angle and optical microscope. The results show the bimodal condensation elastomer possesses structural heterogeneity, which may lead to favourable properties for DE applications....... elastomers were prepared by mixing different mass ratios (9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6) between long polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chains and short PDMS chains. The resulting elastomers were investigated with respect to their rheology, dielectric properties, tensile strength, electrical breakdown, as well as.......Moreover, a series of elastomers with the same mass ratio (7:3) between long and short PDMS chains were made at different humidity (90%, 70%, 50%, 30%, 10%) at 23oC. The dielectric and mechincal properties of the resulting elastomers were shown to depend strongly on the atmospheric humidity level.In addition...
Sex identification in female crayfish is bimodal
Aquiloni, Laura; Massolo, Alessandro; Gherardi, Francesca
2009-01-01
Sex identification has been studied in several species of crustacean decapods but only seldom was the role of multimodality investigated in a systematic fashion. Here, we analyse the effect of single/combined chemical and visual stimuli on the ability of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii to identify the sex of a conspecific during mating interactions. Our results show that crayfish respond to the offered stimuli depending on their sex. While males rely on olfaction alone for sex identification, females require the combination of olfaction and vision to do so. In the latter, chemical and visual stimuli act as non-redundant signal components that possibly enhance the female ability to discriminate potential mates in the crowded social context experienced during mating period. This is one of the few clear examples in invertebrates of non-redundancy in a bimodal communication system.
Emergence of bimodality in controlling complex networks
Jia, Tao; Csóka, Endre; Pósfai, Márton; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabási, Albert-László
2015-01-01
Our ability to control complex systems is a fundamental challenge of contemporary science. Recently introduced tools to identify the driver nodes, nodes through which we can achieve full control, predict the existence of multiple control configurations, prompting us to classify each node in a network based on their role in control. Accordingly a node is critical, intermittent or redundant if it acts as a driver node in all, some or none of the control configurations. Here we develop an analytical framework to identify the category of each node, leading to the discovery of two distinct control modes in complex systems: centralized vs distributed control. We predict the control mode for an arbitrary network and show that one can alter it through small structural perturbations. The uncovered bimodality has implications from network security to organizational research and offers new insights into the dynamics and control of complex systems.
Bimodality in binary Au + Au collisions from 60 to 100 MeV/u
Pichon, M.; Tamain, B.; Bougault, R. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3-CNRS, ISMRA, 14 (France)] [and others
2003-03-01
The deexcitation of quasi-projectiles (QP) released in binary Au on Au collisions as been studied from 60 to 100 MeV/u. Bimodality between two different decay patterns has been observed for intermediate violence collisions. The main experimental result is that the system jumps from one mode to the other on a narrow range of energy deposit and/or impact parameter. The sorting of the events (according to the violence of the collision) has been provided by the perpendicular energy of the light charged particles emitted on the quasi-target side. Such a sorting prevents spurious autocorrelation effects between the sorting variable and the observed mechanism. The two modes of the QP decay correspond on the one side to residue or fission fragments production, and on the other side to the multifragmentation channel. A detailed study has been performed in order to try to establish the origin of the observed bimodality in disentangling dynamical or geometrical effects from bulk matter properties linked with a liquid-gas type phase transition. The whole set of data is coherent with a dominant role of the deposited excitation energy as it is expected from theoretical arguments.(lattice gas model) in the framework of a liquid-gas phase transition picture. (authors)
Bimodality in binary Au + Au collisions from 60 to 100 MeV/u
The deexcitation of quasi-projectiles (QP) released in binary Au on Au collisions as been studied from 60 to 100 MeV/u. Bimodality between two different decay patterns has been observed for intermediate violence collisions. The main experimental result is that the system jumps from one mode to the other on a narrow range of energy deposit and/or impact parameter. The sorting of the events (according to the violence of the collision) has been provided by the perpendicular energy of the light charged particles emitted on the quasi-target side. Such a sorting prevents spurious autocorrelation effects between the sorting variable and the observed mechanism. The two modes of the QP decay correspond on the one side to residue or fission fragments production, and on the other side to the multifragmentation channel. A detailed study has been performed in order to try to establish the origin of the observed bimodality in disentangling dynamical or geometrical effects from bulk matter properties linked with a liquid-gas type phase transition. The whole set of data is coherent with a dominant role of the deposited excitation energy as it is expected from theoretical arguments.(lattice gas model) in the framework of a liquid-gas phase transition picture. (authors)
Multiparty Symmetric Sum Types
Lasse Nielsen
2010-11-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs. Processes using the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient implementation of a prototypical tool for CPGs which automatically translates the original CPG specifications from a representation called the Process Matrix to symmetric sum types, type checks programs and executes them.
Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted
Roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodal gene expression.
Liu, Peijiang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Huang, Lifang; Zhou, Tianshou
2015-06-01
Some gene regulatory systems can exhibit bimodal distributions of mRNA or protein although the deterministic counterparts are monostable. This noise-induced bimodality is an interesting phenomenon and has important biological implications, but it is unclear how different sources of expression noise (each source creates so-called factorial noise that is defined as a component of the total noise) contribute separately to this stochastic bimodality. Here we consider a minimal model of gene regulation, which is monostable in the deterministic case. Although simple, this system contains factorial noise of two main kinds: promoter noise due to switching between gene states and transcriptional (or translational) noise due to synthesis and degradation of mRNA (or protein). To better trace the roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodality, we also analyze two limit models, continuous and adiabatic approximations, apart from the exact model. We show that in the case of slow gene switching, the continuous model where only promoter noise is considered can exhibit bimodality; in the case of fast switching, the adiabatic model where only transcriptional or translational noise is considered can also exhibit bimodality but the exact model cannot; and in other cases, both promoter noise and transcriptional or translational noise can cooperatively induce bimodality. Since slow gene switching and large protein copy numbers are characteristics of eukaryotic cells, whereas fast gene switching and small protein copy numbers are characteristics of prokaryotic cells, we infer that eukaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced mainly by promoter noise, whereas prokaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced primarily by transcriptional or translational noise. PMID:26172735
Poenaru, Dorin N.; Gherghescu, Radu A.; Greiner, Walter
2005-01-01
Complex fission phenomena are studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle point) nuclear shapes are obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in binary cold fission of Th and U isotopes is explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are ou...
Conformal vector fields in symmetric and conformal symmetric spaces
Ramesh Sharma
1989-03-01
Full Text Available Consequences of the existence of conformal vector fields in (locally symmetric and conformal symmetric spaces, have been obtained. An attempt has been made for a physical interpretation of the consequences in the framework of general relativity.
Effects of nuclear orientation on fusion and fission in the reaction using 238U target nucleus
Hirose K.; Hofmann S.; Ohtsuki T.; Nagame Y.; Nishinaka I.; Mitsuoka S.; Ikezoe H.; Nishio K.
2011-01-01
Fission fragment mass distributions in the reaction of 30Si+238U were measured around the Coulomb barrier. At the above-barrier energies, the mass distribution showed a Gaussian shape. At the subbarrier energies, triple-humped distribution was observed, which consists of symmetric fission and asymmetric fission peaked at AL/AH ≈ 90/178. The asymmetric fission should be attributed to quasifission from the results of the measured evaporation residue (ER) cross-sections for 30Si+238U. Th...
Evolution of fission-fragment mass distributions in the neutron-deficient lead region
Ghys, Lars; Andreyev, A.N.; Huyse, Mark; Van Duppen, Piet; Sels, Simon; Andel, B.; Antalic, S; Barzakh, A; Capponi, L.; Cocolios, Thomas Elias; Derkx, X.; De Witte, Hilde; J. Elseviers; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.
2014-01-01
Low-energy β-delayed fission of 194,196At and 200,202Fr was studied in detail at the mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. The fission-fragment mass distributions of daughter nuclei 194,196Po and 202Rn indicate a triple-humped structure, marking the transition between asymmetric fission of 178,180Hg and symmetric fission in the light Ra-Rn nuclei. Comparison with the macroscopic-microscopic finite-range liquid-drop model and the self-consistent approach employing the Gogny D1S energy den...
Cold events in thermal-neutron-induced fission of heavy nuclei
An interpretation of the cold fission events in thermal-neutron-induced fission of heavy nuclei is given. The descent from the saddle point is considered as a dynamical process with reversible coupling between collective and intrinsic degrees of freedom. The distribution function for the collective variables is expressed as a product of two terms: the adiabatical and the dynamical factors. A simple model for symmetric fission to study the mass distribution is presented. As example, the calculations are performed for the nucleus 264Fm. Gross features of the cold fission are discussed as well as the dependence of the theoretical mass distribution on the parameters of the model. (orig.)
Intermediate energy nuclear fission
Nuclear fission has been investigated with the double-kinetic-energy method using silicon surface barrier detectors. Fragment energy correlation measurements have been made for U, Th and Bi with bremsstrahlung of 600 MeV maximum energy. Distributions of kinetic energy as a function of fragment mass are presented. The results are compared with earlier photofission data and in the case of bismuth, with calculations based on the liquid drop model. The binary fission process in U, Yb, Tb, Ce, La, Sb, Ag and Y induced by 600 MeV protons has been investigated yielding fission cross sections, fragment kinetic energies, angular correlations and mass distributions. Fission-spallation competition calculations are used to deduce values of macroscopic fission barrier heights and nuclear level density parameter values at deformations corresponding to the saddle point shapes. We find macroscopic fission barriers lower than those predicted by macroscopic theories. No indication is found of the Businaro Gallone limit expected to occur somewhere in the mass range A = 100 to A = 140. For Ce and La asymmetric mass distributions similar to those in the actinide region are found. A method is described for the analysis of angular correlations between complementary fission products. The description is mainly concerned with fission induced by medium-energy protons but is applicable also to other projectiles and energies. It is shown that the momentum and excitation energy distributions of cascade residuals leading to fission can be extracted. (Author)
Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 241Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)
A new approach to barrier-top fission dynamics
Bertsch, G F
2015-01-01
We proposed a calculational framework for describing induced fission that avoids the Bohr-Wheeler assumption of well-defined fission channels. The building blocks of our approach are configurations that form a discrete, orthogonal basis and can be characterized by both energy and shape. The dynamics is to be determined by interaction matrix elements between the states rather than by a Hill-Wheeler construction of a collective coordinate. Within our approach, several simple limits can be seen: diffusion; quantized conductance; and ordinary decay through channels. The specific proposal for the discrete basis is to use the $K^\\pi$ quantum numbers of the axially symmetric Hartree-Fock approximation to generate the configurations. Fission paths would be determined by hopping from configuration to configuration via the residual interaction. We show as an example the configurations needed to describe a fictitious fission decay $^{32}{\\rm S} \\rightarrow ^{16}{\\rm O} + ^{16}{\\rm O}$. We also examine the geometry of th...
Thermal fission rates with temperature dependent fission barriers
Zhu, Yi; Pei, Junchen
2016-01-01
The fission processes of thermal excited nuclei are conventionally studied by statistical models which rely on inputs of phenomenological level densities and potential barriers. Therefore the microscopic descriptions of spontaneous fission and induced fission are very desirable for a unified understanding of various fission processes. We propose to study the fission rates, at both low and high temperatures, with microscopically calculated temperature-dependent fission barriers and collective ...
Unimodular bimode gravity and the coherent scalar-graviton field as galaxy dark matter
Pirogov, Yu F
2011-01-01
The explicit violation of general relativity is adopted as an origin of dark matter and dark energy of the gravitational nature. The violation of the local scale invariance alone, with the residual unimodular invariance/relativity, is considered as a paradigm. Besides the four-volume preserving deformation mode -- the transverse-tensor graviton -- the metric comprises a compression mode -- the scalar graviton, or the {\\em systolon}. The unimodular invariant metric theory of the bimode gravity is worked out. Due to a non-dynamical scalar density -- the dark {\\em modulus} -- the theory is general covariant. To substantially reduce the primordial ambiguity of the effective Lagrangian a dynamical global symmetry -- the {\\em compression} one -- is superimposed at the classical level, with the subsequent spontaneous breaking of the symmetry displayed. The static spherically symmetric field configuration in the empty, but possibly for the origin, space is studied. A three-parameter solution describing a new static s...
Dynamics of fission and heavy ion reactions
Recent advances in a unified macroscopic-microscopic description of large-amplitude collective nuclear motion such as occurs in fission and heavy ion reactions are discussed. With the goal of finding observable quantities that depend upon the magnitude and mechanism of nuclear dissipation, one-body dissipation and two-body viscosity within the framework of a generalized Fokker-Planck equation for the time dependence of the distribution function in phase space of collective coordinates and momenta are considered. Proceeding in two separate directions, the generalized Hamilton equations of motion for the first moments of the distribution function with a new shape parametrization and other technical innovations are first solved. This yields the mean translational fission-fragment kinetic energy and mass of a third fragment that sometimes forms between the two end fragments, as well as the energy required for fusion in symmetric heavy-ion reactions and the mass transfer and capture cross section in asymmetric heavy-ion reactions. In a second direction, we specialize to an inverted-oscillator fission barrier and use Kramers' stationary solution to calculate the mean time from the saddle point to scission for a heavy-ion-induced fission reaction for which experimental information is becoming available. 25 references
Multi-Parameter Investigations of Fast Fission Fragments
A number of investigators have noted the peculiar dependence of kinetic energy on the mass of the fragments. This dependence differs considerably for the fission of nuclei by thermal neutrons, neutrons with an energy of 14 MeV and a-particles. It may be that this is a result of the difference not only in excitation energy, but also in the moment introduced by the particle causing fission. It is obviously difficult to deny the part played by nuclear shells in the formation of fragments according to mass, and in this connection the study of the kinetic energy of fragments as a function of their mass is of great interest, as are the corresponding investigations of the widths of distribution of the kinetic energy. Particular attention is given to the characteristics of symmetrical fission of U235 , and it is found that when tails appear in the apparatus spectra of the fission fragments, there occur in the symmetrical mass-region pulses with a most probable total energy of ∼ 120 MeV. Actual symmetrical fission events correspond to a total mean energy of ∼ 155 MeV. The kinetic energy of paired fragments was measured using two surface-barrier silicon counters. The impulses are analysed for amplitude by a two-dimensional 128 x 128 channel ánalyser with a memory on ferrite. The neutron source used was the BR-5 fast neutron reactor, the mean energy of the fast neutron spectrum being ∼250 keV. Layers ofjfissile isotopes with a thickness of 20-30 μg/cm2 were used. The fission of Ù235 by thermal neutrons gave an experimental curve for the mass yield with a 250:1 ratio between peak and vailey. Comparison of the characteristics of the fragments (kinetic energy and mass distribution) showed no noticeable difference in the fission of U235 by thermal and fast neutrons. The total kinetic energy of the fragments in the symmetrical fission of U235 by thermal and fast neutrons proved to be identical, equalling ∼155 MeV, which agrees, within the limits of experimental error
Homogenous finitary symmetric groups
Otto. H. Kegel
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We characterize strictly diagonal type of embeddings of finitary symmetric groups in terms of cardinality and the characteristic. Namely, we prove the following. Let kappa be an infinite cardinal. If G=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupG i , where G i =FSym(kappan i , (H=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupH i , where H i =Alt(kappan i , is a group of strictly diagonal type and xi=(p 1 ,p 2 ,ldots is an infinite sequence of primes, then G is isomorphic to the homogenous finitary symmetric group FSym(kappa(xi (H is isomorphic to the homogenous alternating group Alt(kappa(xi , where n 0 =1,n i =p 1 p 2 ldotsp i .
Symmetric Synchronous Collaborative Navigation
Gerosa, Luca; Giordani, Alessandra; Ronchetti, Marco
2004-01-01
Synchronous collaborative navigation is a form of social navigation where users virtually share a web browser. In this paper, we present a symmetric, proxy-based architecture where each user can take the lead and guide others in visiting web sites, without the need for a special browser or other software. We show how we have applied this scheme to a problem-solving-oriented e-learning system.
Gomez-Marin, A.; Sancho, J. M.
2004-01-01
In this paper we present a model of a symmetric Brownian motor (SBM) which changes the sign of its velocity when the temperature gradient is inverted. The velocity, external work and efficiency are studied as a function of the temperatures of the baths and other relevant parameters. The motor shows a current reversal when another parameter (a phase shift) is varied. Analytical predictions and results from numerical simulations are performed and agree very well. Generic properties of this type...
Symmetric Extended Ockham Algebras
T.S. Blyth; Jie Fang
2003-01-01
The variety eO of extended Ockham algebras consists of those algealgebra with an additional endomorphism k such that the unary operations f and k commute. Here, we consider the cO-algebras which have a property of symmetry. We show that there are thirty two non-isomorphic subdirectly irreducible symmetric extended MS-algebras and give a complete description of them.2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 06D15, 06D30
09031 Executive Summary -- Symmetric Cryptography
Handschuh, Helena; Lucks, Stefan; Preneel, Bart; Rogaway, Phillip
2009-01-01
Research in Symmetric Cryptography is quickly evolving. The seminar was the second of its kind, the first one took place in 2007. We observe a steadily increasing interest in Symmetric Cryptography, as well as a growing practical demand for symmetric algorithms and protocols. The seminar was very successful in discussing recent results and sharing new ideas. Furthermore, it inspired the participants to consider how Symmetric Cryptography has evolved in the past, and h...
Galaxy bimodality versus stellar mass and environment
Baldry, I; Bower, R; Glazebrook, K; Nichol, R; Bamford, S; Budavari, T
2006-01-01
We analyse a z<0.1 galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey focusing on the variation of the galaxy colour bimodality with stellar mass and projected neighbour density Sigma, and on measurements of the galaxy stellar mass functions. The characteristic mass increases with environmental density from about 10^10.6 Msun to 10^10.9 Msun (Kroupa IMF, H_0=70) for Sigma in the range 0.1--10 per Mpc^2. The galaxy population naturally divides into a red and blue sequence with the locus of the sequences in colour-mass and colour-concentration index not varying strongly with environment. The fraction of galaxies on the red sequence is determined in bins of 0.2 in log Sigma and log mass (12 x 13 bins). The red fraction f_r generally increases continuously in both Sigma and mass such that there is a unified relation: f_r = F(Sigma,mass). Two simple functions are proposed which provide good fits to the data. These data are compared with analogous quantities in semi-analytical models based on the Millennium N-body ...
Earth storable bimodal engine, phase 1
1973-01-01
An in-depth study of an Earth Storable Bimodal (ESB) Engine using earth storable propellants N2O/N2H4 and operating in either a monopropellant or bipropellant mode was conducted. Detailed studies were completed for both a hot-gas, regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and a ducted hot-gas, film cooled thrust chamber. Hydrazine decomposition products were used for cooling in either configuration. The various arrangements and configurations of hydrazine reactors, secondary injectors, chambers and gimbal methods were considered. The two basic materials selected for the major components were columbium alloys and L-605. The secondary injector types considered were previously demonstrated by JPL and consisted of a liquid-on-gas triplet, a liquid-on-gas doublet, and a liquid-on-gas coaxial injector. Various design tradeoffs were made with different reactor types located at: the secondary injector station, the thrust chamber throat, and the nozzle/extension interface. Associated thermal, structural, and mass analyses were completed.
Olatunji K. A
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Various security challenges such as Boko Haram, theft, kidnapping, ISIL, abduction, and so on have been on a high rise as one of the major menace facing our society today. In order to overcome these challenges there is need for identification of the culprits to bring them to book. Uni-modal biometric is not enough to combat these security challenges because of its shortcomings which include- spoof attach, noise in the sensed data, inter class variation and so on. Combining two or more biometric features (bi-modal has been proved to provide better performance than uni-modal biometric approach for authentication and verification. This paper presents some literature on biometrics systems that can be employed in achieving a better accuracy in authentication and verification of biometric features. Different kind of fusion strategies to combine these characteristics, different available classifiers and fusion methodologies to achieve greater and accurate recognition performance were also discussed. It is hopeful that researchers in the area of biometrics will find this work very useful.
Audiovisual bimodal mutual compensation of Chinese
无
2001-01-01
The perception of human languages is inherently a multi-modalprocess, in which audio information can be compensated by visual information to improve the recognition performance. Such a phenomenon in English, German, Spanish and so on has been researched, but in Chinese it has not been reported yet. In our experiment, 14 syllables (/ba, bi, bian, biao, bin, de, di, dian, duo, dong, gai, gan, gen, gu/), extracted from Chinese audiovisual bimodal speech database CAVSR-1.0, were pronounced by 10 subjects. The audio-only stimuli, audiovisual stimuli, and visual-only stimuli were recognized by 20 observers. The audio-only stimuli and audiovisual stimuli both were presented under 5 conditions: no noise, SNR 0 dB, -8 dB, -12 dB, and -16 dB. The experimental result is studied and the following conclusions for Chinese speech are reached. Human beings can recognize visual-only stimuli rather well. The place of articulation determines the visual distinction. In noisy environment, audio information can remarkably be compensated by visual information and as a result the recognition performance is greatly improved.
Audiovisual bimodal mutual compensation of Chinese
ZHOU; Zhi
2001-01-01
［1］Richard, P., Schumeyer, Kenneth E. B., The effect of visual information on word initial consonant perception of dysarthric speech, in Proc. ICSLP'96 October 3-6 1996, Philadephia, Pennsylvania, USA.［2］Goff, B. L., Marigny, T. G., Benoit, C., Read my lips...and my jaw! How intelligible are the components of a speaker's face? Eurospeech'95, 4th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Madrid, September 1995.［3］McGurk, H., MacDonald, J. Hearing lips and seeing voices, Nature, 1976, 264: 746.［4］Duran A. F., Mcgurk effect in Spanish and German listeners: Influences of visual cues in the perception of Spanish and German confliction audio-visual stimuli, Eurospeech'95. 4th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Madrid, September 1995.［5］Luettin, J., Visual speech and speaker recognition, Ph.D thesis, University of Sheffield, 1997.［6］Xu Yanjun, Du Limin, Chinese audiovisual bimodal speech database CAVSR1.0, Chinese Journal of Acoustics, to appear.［7］Zhang Jialu, Speech corpora and language input/output methods' evaluation, Chinese Applied Acoustics, 1994, 13(3): 5.
Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems
Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.
2014-03-01
Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.
Emelianov, I; Hernandes-Lopez, A; Torrence, M; Watts, N
2010-01-01
Studying host-based divergence naturally maintained by a balance between selection and gene flow can provide valuable insights into genetic underpinnings of host adaptation and ecological speciation in parasites. Selection-gene flow balance is often postulated in sympatric host races, but direct experimental evidence is scarce. In this study, we present such evidence obtained in host races of Aphidius ervi, an important hymenopteran agent of biological control of aphids in agriculture, using ...
INTEGRATING NEPHELOMETER RESPONSE CORRECTIONS FOR BIMODAL SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS
Correction factors are calculated for obtaining true scattering extinction coefficients from integrating nephelometer measurements. The corrections are based on the bimodal representation of ambient aerosol size distributions, and take account of the effects of angular truncation...
Reactive Sintering of Bimodal WC-Co Hardmetals
Marek Tarraste
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Bimodal WC-Co hardmetals were produced using novel technology - reactive sintering. Milled and activated tungsten and graphite powders were mixed with commercial coarse grained WC-Co powder and then sintered. The microstructure of produced materials was free of defects and consisted of evenly distributed coarse and fine tungsten carbide grains in cobalt binder. The microstructure, hardness and fracture toughness of reactive sintered bimodal WC-Co hardmetals is exhibited. Developed bimodal hardmetal has perspective for demanding wear applications for its increased combined hardness and toughness. Compared to coarse material there is only slight decrease in fracture toughness (K1c is 14.7 for coarse grained and 14.4 for bimodal, hardness is increased from 1290 to 1350 HV units.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7511
Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery
Gao, Lin; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen
2011-08-01
The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation ft= ktn was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties.
Bimodal magmatism produced by progressively inhibited crustal assimilation.
Meade, F C; Troll, V R; Ellam, R M; Freda, C; Font, L; Donaldson, C H; Klonowska, I
2014-01-01
The origin of bimodal (mafic-felsic) rock suites is a fundamental question in volcanology. Here we use major and trace elements, high-resolution Sr, Nd and Pb isotope analyses, experimental petrology and thermodynamic modelling to investigate bimodal magmatism at the iconic Carlingford Igneous Centre, Ireland. We show that early microgranites are the result of extensive assimilation of trace element-enriched partial melts of local metasiltstones into mafic parent magmas. Melting experiments reveal the crust is very fusible, but thermodynamic modelling indicates repeated heating events rapidly lower its melt-production capacity. Granite generation ceased once enriched partial melts could no longer form and subsequent magmatism incorporated less fertile restite compositions only, producing mafic intrusions and a pronounced compositional gap. Considering the frequency of bimodal magma suites in the North Atlantic Igneous Province, and the ubiquity of suitable crustal compositions, we propose 'progressively inhibited crustal assimilation' (PICA) as a major cause of bimodality in continental volcanism. PMID:24947142
A review of recent experimental results on negative-muon-induced fission, both of 238U and 232Th, is given. Some conclusions drawn by the author are concerned with muonic atoms of fission fragments and muonic atoms of the shape isomer of 238U. (author)
Colburn, Richard P.
1985-01-01
A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.
Mathew, K. J.; Marti, K.; Marty, B.
2002-01-01
Fission Xe components due to Pu-244 decay in the early history of Mars have been identified in nakhlites; as in the case of ALH84001 and Chassigny the fission gas was assimilated into indigenous solar-type Xe. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Thermal fission rates with temperature dependent fission barriers
Zhu, Yi
2016-01-01
\\item[Background] The fission processes of thermal excited nuclei are conventionally studied by statistical models which rely on inputs of phenomenological level densities and potential barriers. Therefore the microscopic descriptions of spontaneous fission and induced fission are very desirable for a unified understanding of various fission processes. \\item[Purpose] We propose to study the fission rates, at both low and high temperatures, with microscopically calculated temperature-dependent fission barriers and mass parameters. \\item[Methods] The fission barriers are calculated by the finite-temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS method. The mass parameters are calculated by the temperature-dependent cranking approximation. The thermal fission rates can be obtained by the imaginary free energy approach at all temperatures, in which fission barriers are naturally temperature dependent. The fission at low temperatures can be described mainly as a barrier-tunneling process. While the fission at high temperatures ...
On the controllability of bimodal piecewise linear systems
Çamlıbel, Mehmet Kanat; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Schumacher, J.M.
2004-01-01
This paper studies controllability of bimodal systems that consist of two linear dynamics on each side of a given hyperplane. We show that the controllability properties of these systems can be inferred from those of linear systems for which the inputs are constrained in a certain way. Inspired by the earlier work on constrained controllability of linear systems, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for a bimodal piecewise linear system to be controllable.
Right unimodal and bimodal singularities in positive characteristic
Nguyen, Hong Duc
2015-01-01
The problem of classification of real and complex singularities was initiated by Arnol'd in the sixties who classified simple, unimodal and bimodal w.r.t. right equivalence. The classification of right simple singularities in positive characteristic was achieved by Greuel and the author in 2014. In the present paper we classify right unimodal and bimodal singularities in positive characteristic by giving explicit normal forms. Moreover we completely determine all possible adjacencies of simpl...
Learning bimodal structure in audio-visual data
Monaci, Gianluca; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Sommer, Friederich T.
2009-01-01
A novel model is presented to learn bimodally informative structures from audio-visual signals. The signal is represented as a sparse sum of audio- visual kernels. Each kernel is a bimodal function consisting of synchronous snippets of an audio waveform and a spatio-temporal visual basis function. To represent an audio-visual signal, the kernels can be positioned independently and arbitrarily in space and time. The proposed algorithm uses unsupervised learning to form dicti...
Calculation of fission reactions within the MM-RNR model
In the past fission-fragment properties and cross-sections for 235,238U(n, f), 237Np(n, f), 239Pu(n, f) and 252Cf(SF) have been investigated. The interpretation of the experimental data in the frame of the multi-modal random neck-rupture (MM-RNR) model has been incorporated into the most recent evaluation exercise on neutron-induced fission cross-section and prompt-neutron emission data in the actinide region of the chart of nuclides. The three most dominant fission modes were considered, the two asymmetric standard I (S1) and standard II (S2) modes and the symmetric superlong (SL) mode, namely. Except for 252Cf, de-convoluted modal fission cross-sections as well as prompt neutron multiplicity and spectra have been calculated in the energy range from 0.01 MeV to 5.5 MeV in excellent agreement with experimental data. In addition, the obtained fission-mode branching ratios allow the calculation of fission-fragment yield and energy distributions where no experimental data exist. Most recently the first ever-direct measurement of the neutron-induced fission cross-section of 233Pa has been performed at IRMM. The subsequent evaluation suggests a radical revision of today's evaluated data files. (author)
The 252Cf spontaneous prompt fission neutron spectrum at 0 degree and 180 degree relative to the motion direction of corresponding fission fragments was measured. High angular resolution for fragment measurements and high energy resolution for neutron measurements were obtained using multi-parameter TOF spectrometer. The results showed that there is a symmetric distribution of 'forward' and 'backward' for low energy in C.M.S. neutrons, which was an evidence of nonequilibrium neutrons existed in fission process
This conference is dedicated to the last achievements in experimental and theoretical aspects of the nuclear fission process. The topics include: mass, charge and energy distribution, dynamical aspect of the fission process, nuclear data evaluation, quasi-fission and fission lifetime in super heavy elements, fission fragment spectroscopy, cross-section and fission barrier, and neutron and gamma emission. This document gathers the program of the conference and the slides of the presentations
Symmetrization of binary random variables
Kagan, Abram; Mallows, Colin L.; Shepp, Larry A.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Vardi, Yehuda
1999-01-01
A random variable [math] is called an independent symmetrizer of a given random variable [math] if (a) it is independent of [math] and (b) the distribution of [math] is symmetric about [math] . In cases where the distribution of [math] is symmetric about its mean, it is easy to see that the constant random variable [math] is a minimum-variance independent symmetrizer. Taking [math] to have the same distribution as [math] clearly produces a symmetric sum, but it may not be of minimum variance....
Jing Wang; Sijin Wen; Fraser Symmans, W; Lajos Pusztai; Coombes, Kevin R.
2009-01-01
Motivation: Identifying genes with bimodal expression patterns from large-scale expression profiling data is an important analytical task. Model-based clustering is popular for this purpose. That technique commonly uses the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) for model selection. In practice, however, BIC appears to be overly sensitive and may lead to the identification of bimodally expressed genes that are unreliable or not clinically useful. We propose using a novel criterion, the bimodali...
Effects of nuclear orientation on fusion and fission in the reaction using 238U target nucleus
Hirose K.
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Fission fragment mass distributions in the reaction of 30Si+238U were measured around the Coulomb barrier. At the above-barrier energies, the mass distribution showed a Gaussian shape. At the subbarrier energies, triple-humped distribution was observed, which consists of symmetric fission and asymmetric fission peaked at AL/AH ≈ 90/178. The asymmetric fission should be attributed to quasifission from the results of the measured evaporation residue (ER cross-sections for 30Si+238U. The cross-section for 263Sg at the abovebarrier energy agree with the statistical model calculation which assumes that the measured fission cross-section originates from fusion-fission, whereas the one for 264 Sg measured at the sub-barrier energy is smaller than the calculation, which suggests the presence of quasifission.
Cassou-Nogues, Ph.; Erez, B.; Taylor, M. J.
2004-01-01
We establish comparison results between the Hasse-Witt invariants w_t(E) of a symmetric bundle E over a scheme and the invariants of one of its twists E_{\\alpha}. For general twists we describe the difference between w_t(E) and w_t(E_{\\alpha}) up to terms of degree 3. Next we consider a special kind of twist, which has been studied by A. Fr\\"ohlich. This arises from twisting by a cocycle obtained from an orthogonal representation. We show how to explicitly describe the twist for representatio...
Shell Effects in Nuclear Fission
The important part played by shell effects in nuclear fission has been reliably established experimentally and forms the basis of the theory of asymmetry of fission and other properties of fission fragments. However, from the theoretical point of view there are certain difficulties in understanding these effects, since at the moment of scission the fragments axe considerably deformed. When the shell effects are calculated in succession, the energy of the fissioning nucleus before scission may be presented in the form of the sum of the energies of the spherical fragments taking shell effects into account, the Coulomb interaction energy of the fragments and their deformation energy. The deformation energy of the fragments should be calculated not using the elasticity values of the fragments according to the drop model, but, for very low deformations, the single particle elasticity values taking into account the magic effects, with a gradual transition to the drop values for deformations at which the levels of neighbouring shells intersect. The single-particle elasticity values can be obtained from the experimental data on the Coulomb excitation of the nuclei. In Vandenbosch's calculations of fragment deformation, the elasticity of the fragments was based on the condition of coincidence between the deformation energy of the fragments and the experimental values for their excitation energy. However, in this case the elasticity was assumed to be constant at all deformations, and for this reason, although the elasticity values found in Vandenbosch do show magic'effects, they differ considerably in magnitude from the experimental elasticity values (see above).. The calculations of Vandenbosch also failed to take into account the magic effects for non-deformed fragments that lead to a reduction in the energy of the magic nucleus. Therefore, according to these calculations fission should be symmetrical, since the elasticity and consequently also the deformation energy (at
Symmetrization for redundant channels
Tulplue, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
A plurality of redundant channels in a system each contain a global image of all the configuration data bases in each of the channels in the system. Each global image is updated periodically from each of the other channels via cross channel data links. The global images of the local configuration data bases in each channel are separately symmetrized using a voting process to generate a system signal configuration data base which is not written into by any other routine and is available for indicating the status of the system within each channel. Equalization may be imposed on a suspect signal and a number of chances for that signal to heal itself are provided before excluding it from future votes. Reconfiguration is accomplished upon detecting a channel which is deemed invalid. A reset function is provided which permits an externally generated reset signal to permit a previously excluded channel to be reincluded within the system. The updating of global images and/or the symmetrization process may be accomplished at substantially the same time within a synchronized time frame common to all channels.
Fission Fragments Discriminator
Nuclear fission reaction between Uranium-235 nucleus and thermal neutron caused the high energy fission fragments with uncertainly direction. The particle direction discrimination was determined. The 2.5 x 3.0 mm2 polyethylene gratings with 1-6 mm thickness were used. The grating was placed between uranium screen that fabricated from ammonium-diurinate compound and polycarbonate nuclear track film recorder irradiated by neutron from Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) facility. The nuclear track density was inversely with grating thickness. It's only fission fragments normal to uranium screen pass through film recorder when grating thickness was 4-6 mm
Bimodality in heavy ions collisions: systematic and comparisons
During the last few years, bi-modality in heavy ions collisions has been observed for different systems, on large energy scale (from 35 MeV/u up to 1 GeV/u). In this thesis, the bimodal behaviour of the largest fragment distribution (Zmax) is studied for different INDRA data sets. For peripheral collisions (Au+Au from 60 to 150 MeV/u, Xe+Sn 80-100 MeV/u), the influence of sorting and selections on bi-modality is tested. Then, two different approaches based on models are considered. In the first one (ELIE), bi-modality would reflect mainly the collision geometry and the Fermi motion of the nucleon. In the second one (SMM), bi-modality would reflect a phase transition of nuclear matter. The data are in favour of the second model. Zmax can then be considered as an order parameter of the transition. A re-weighting procedure producing a flat excitation energy distribution is used to achieve comparisons between various bombarding energies and theoretical predictions based on a canonical approach. A latent heat of the transition is extracted. For central collisions (Ni+Ni from 32 to 74 MeV/u and Xe+Sn from 25 to 50 MeV/u) single source events are isolated by a Discriminant Factor Analysis. Bi-modality is then looked for, in cumulating the different incident energies and in applying the re-weighting procedure of the corresponding excitation energy as done for peripheral collisions. The bi-modality behaviour is less manifest for central collisions than for peripheral ones. The possible reasons of this difference are discussed. (author)
Localization ability with bimodal hearing aids and bilateral cochlear implants
Seeber, Bernhard U.; Baumann, Uwe; Fastl, Hugo
2004-09-01
After successful cochlear implantation in one ear, some patients continue to use a hearing aid at the contralateral ear. They report an improved reception of speech, especially in noise, as well as a better perception of music when the hearing aid and cochlear implant are used in this bimodal combination. Some individuals in this bimodal patient group also report the impression of an improved localization ability. Similar experiences are reported by the group of bilateral cochlear implantees. In this study, a survey of 11 bimodally and 4 bilaterally equipped cochlear implant users was carried out to assess localization ability. Individuals in the bimodal implant group were all provided with the same type of hearing aid in the opposite ear, and subjects in the bilateral implant group used cochlear implants of the same manufacturer on each ear. Subjects adjusted the spot of a computer-controlled laser-pointer to the perceived direction of sound incidence in the frontal horizontal plane by rotating a trackball. Two subjects of the bimodal group who had substantial residual hearing showed localization ability in the bimodal configuration, whereas using each single device only the subject with better residual hearing was able to discriminate the side of sound origin. Five other subjects with more pronounced hearing loss displayed an ability for side discrimination through the use of bimodal aids, while four of them were already able to discriminate the side with a single device. Of the bilateral cochlear implant group one subject showed localization accuracy close to that of normal hearing subjects. This subject was also able to discriminate the side of sound origin using the first implanted device alone. The other three bilaterally equipped subjects showed limited localization ability using both devices. Among them one subject demonstrated a side-discrimination ability using only the first implanted device.
Detecting internally symmetric protein structures
Basner Jodi
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many functional proteins have a symmetric structure. Most of these are multimeric complexes, which are made of non-symmetric monomers arranged in a symmetric manner. However, there are also a large number of proteins that have a symmetric structure in the monomeric state. These internally symmetric proteins are interesting objects from the point of view of their folding, function, and evolution. Most algorithms that detect the internally symmetric proteins depend on finding repeating units of similar structure and do not use the symmetry information. Results We describe a new method, called SymD, for detecting symmetric protein structures. The SymD procedure works by comparing the structure to its own copy after the copy is circularly permuted by all possible number of residues. The procedure is relatively insensitive to symmetry-breaking insertions and deletions and amplifies positive signals from symmetry. It finds 70% to 80% of the TIM barrel fold domains in the ASTRAL 40 domain database and 100% of the beta-propellers as symmetric. More globally, 10% to 15% of the proteins in the ASTRAL 40 domain database may be considered symmetric according to this procedure depending on the precise cutoff value used to measure the degree of perfection of the symmetry. Symmetrical proteins occur in all structural classes and can have a closed, circular structure, a cylindrical barrel-like structure, or an open, helical structure. Conclusions SymD is a sensitive procedure for detecting internally symmetric protein structures. Using this procedure, we estimate that 10% to 15% of the known protein domains may be considered symmetric. We also report an initial, overall view of the types of symmetries and symmetric folds that occur in the protein domain structure universe.
Exciton Correlations in Intramolecular Singlet Fission.
Sanders, Samuel N; Kumarasamy, Elango; Pun, Andrew B; Appavoo, Kannatassen; Steigerwald, Michael L; Campos, Luis M; Sfeir, Matthew Y
2016-06-15
We have synthesized a series of asymmetric pentacene-tetracene heterodimers with a variable-length conjugated bridge that undergo fast and efficient intramolecular singlet fission (iSF). These compounds have distinct singlet and triplet energies, which allow us to study the spatial dynamics of excitons during the iSF process, including the significant role of exciton correlations in promoting triplet pair generation and recombination. We demonstrate that the primary photoexcitations in conjugated dimers are delocalized singlets that enable fast and efficient iSF. However, in these asymmetric dimers, the singlet becomes more localized on the lower energy unit as the length of the bridge is increased, slowing down iSF relative to analogous symmetric dimers. We resolve the recombination kinetics of the inequivalent triplets produced via iSF, and find that they primarily decay via concerted processes. By identifying different decay channels, including delayed fluorescence via triplet-triplet annihilation, we can separate transient species corresponding to both correlated triplet pairs and uncorrelated triplets. Recombination of the triplet pair proceeds rapidly despite our experimental and theoretical demonstration that individual triplets are highly localized and unable to be transported across the conjugated linker. In this class of compounds, the rate of formation and yield of uncorrelated triplets increases with bridge length. Overall, these constrained, asymmetric systems provide a unique platform to isolate and study transient species essential for singlet fission, which are otherwise difficult to observe in symmetric dimers or condensed phases. PMID:27183040
Fission fragment rocket concept
A new propulsion scheme is outlined which may permit interstellar missions for spacecraft. This scheme is based on the idea of allowing fission fragments to escape from the core of a nuclear reactor. (orig.)
Fission Systems for Mars Exploration
Houts, Michael G.; Kim, T.; Dorney, D. J.; Swint, Marion Shayne
2012-01-01
Fission systems are used extensively on earth, and 34 such systems have flown in space. The energy density of fission is over 10 million times that of chemical reactions, giving fission the potential to eliminate energy density constraints for many space missions. Potential safety and operational concerns with fission systems are well understood, and strategies exist for affordably developing such systems. By enabling a power-rich environment and highly efficient propulsion, fission systems could enable affordable, sustainable exploration of Mars.
Fission fragment mass distribution in the 13C+182W and 176Yb reactions
Fission fragment mass distributions have been measured for many systems and found to be asymmetric in the fission of nuclei with nucleon number A in the range 228-258 and proton number Z in the range 90-100. For lighter systems, it has been observed that fission fragment mass distributions are usually symmetric. At high excitation energies the shell effects are expected to vanish and the nuclei are expected to behave like a charged liquid drop; hence, only symmetric fission is expected for all the nuclei. Even after much experimental and theoretical work in this field, the rate of damping of shell effects with excitation energy is not well known. This abstract reports our measurements with 13C beams on 182W and 176Yb targets
A survey of the present state of fission theory is attempted. The basic requirements of a theory of a physical process are outlined and against this background the state of fission theory is summarized, with special emphasis on developments in the past few years. An attempt is made to bring out the most important outstanding problems to be settled by future experiments and theory. (author)
The response of photovoltaic cells to heavy ions and fission products have been tested on beam. Their main advantages are their extremely low price, their low sensitivity to energetic light ions with respect to fission products, and the possibility to cut and fit them together to any shape without dead zone. The time output signals of a charge sensitive preamplifier connected to these cells allows fast coincidences. A resolution of 12ns (F.W.H.M.) have been measured between two cells
Symmetric Waveguide Orthomode Junctions
Wollack, E. J.; Grammer, W.
2003-01-01
Imaging applications at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths demand precise characterization of the amplitude, spectrum, and polarization of the electromagnetic radiation. The use of a waveguide orthomode transducer (OMT) can help achieve these goals by increasing spectral coverage and sensitivity while reducing exit aperture size, optical spill, instrumental polarization offsets, and lending itself to integration in focal plane arrays. For these reasons, four-old symmetric OMTs are favored over a traditional quasi-optical wire grid for focal plane imaging arrays from a systems perspective. The design, fabrication, and test of OMTs realized with conventional split-block techniques for millimeter wave-bands are described. The design provides a return loss is -20 dB over a full waveguide band (40% bandwidth), and the cross-polarization and isolation are greater than -40 dB for tolerances readily achievable in practice. Prototype examples realized in WR10.0 and WR3.7 wavebands will be considered in detail.
The Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) is the newest and largest reversed field pinch presently in operation. It incorporates a number of design features that set it apart from other pinches, including the use of the conducting shell as both a vacuum vessel and single-turn toroidal field coil. Specially insulated voltage gaps are exposed to the plasma. Magnetic field errors at these gaps as well as at the various diagnostic and pumping ports are minimized through a variety of techniques. The physics goals of MST include study of the effect of large plasma size on confinement and the investigation, in detail, of RFP turbulence, dynamo and transport. Details of the design and initial operation of the device are presented
Prokhorova, E. V.; Bogachev, A. A.; Itkis, M. G.; Itkis, I. M.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Pashkevich, V. V.; Rusanov, A. Ya.
2008-04-01
Mass-energy distributions (MEDs) and capture-fission cross sections have been measured in the reaction 48Ca + 208Pb → 256No at the energies E=206-242 MeV using a double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer CORSET. It has been observed that MED of the fragments consists of two parts, namely, the classical fusion-fission process corresponding to the symmetric fission of 256No and quasi-fission "shoulders" corresponding to the light fragment masses ˜60-90 u and complimentary heavy fragment masses. The quasi-fission "shoulders" have a higher total kinetic energy (TKE) as compared with that expected for the classical fission. A mathematical formalism was employed for the MEDs fragment decomposition into fusion-fission and quasi-fission components. In the fusion-fission process a high-energy Super-Short mode has been discovered for the masses M=130-135 u and the TKE of ≈233 MeV.
Mass-energy distributions (MEDs) and capture-fission cross sections have been measured in the reaction 48Ca + 208Pb →256No at the energies Elab=206-242 MeV using a double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer CORSET. It has been observed that MED of the fragments consists of two parts, namely, the classical fusion-fission process corresponding to the symmetric fission of 256No and quasi-fission 'shoulders' corresponding to the light fragment masses ∼60-90 u and complimentary heavy fragment masses. The quasi-fission 'shoulders' have a higher total kinetic energy (TKE) as compared with that expected for the classical fission. A mathematical formalism was employed for the MEDs fragment decomposition into fusion-fission and quasi-fission components. In the fusion-fission process a high-energy Super-Short mode has been discovered for the masses MH=130-135 u and the TKE of ∼233 MeV
During irradiation of water reactor fuel rods, gaseous fission products are produced in the fuel and are slowly released to various voipd volumes in the fuel rods. The released fission gases degrade the initial fill gas thermal conductivity and thus change the thermal response of the fuel rods. Moreover, fuel rod internal pressure is increased so that the cladding mechanical response is affected. The fission gas release subcode FGASRL is intended for use in analytical codes which predict water reactor fuel pin behavior. The development effort was directed primarily at improving code predictions of the gas release model used in FRAP-S3 which overpredicts release of fuels irradiated at relatively low operating temperatures and therefore small gas release fractions. The fission gas release subcode (FGASRL) presented in the report describes a two-step gas release process: (a) fission gas release from fuel grains to the grain boundaries, and (b) fission gas release from the grain boundaries to internal free volume of the fuel pin
Evaluation of mass distribution data from 252Cf spontaneous fission
The mass distribution data of 252Cf spontaneous fission were evaluated based on 7 sets of available experimental data. The measured data were corrected for the standards and γ intensity used by using the new evaluated ones. The errors were made necessary adjusting. The evaluated experimental data were fitted with spline function without any restriction and with symmetric restriction. These two sets of fit data were recommended as reference data of the mass distribution of 252Cf spontaneous fission. The errors of the recommended data were considerably reduced comparing with the measured ones. The light and heavy peaks are not completely symmetric. Also there are fine structures on the right side of the light peak at A=109-111 and left side of the heavy peak at A=137-139. These should be paid attention and studied further. (author)
傅育熙
1998-01-01
An alternative presentation of the π－calculus is given.This version of the π-calculus is symmetric in the sense that communications are symmetric and there is no difference between input and output prefixes.The point of the symmetric π-calculus is that it has no abstract names.The set of closed names is therefore homogeneous.The π－calculus can be fully embedded into the symmetric π-calculus.The symmetry changes the emphasis of the communication mechanism of the π-calculus and opens up possibility for further variations.
Giuseppe Dattoli
1996-05-01
Full Text Available q analog of bessel functions, symmetric under the interchange of q and q^ −1 are introduced. The definition is based on the generating function realized as product of symmetric q-exponential functions with appropriate arguments. Symmetric q-Bessel function are shown to satisfy various identities as well as second-order q-differential equations, which in the limit q → 1 reproduce those obeyed by the usual cylindrical Bessel functions. A brief discussion on the possible algebraic setting for symmetric q-Bessel functions is also provided.
Proton-induced fission of heavy nuclei at intermediate energies
Deppman, A; Guimaraes, V; Karapetyan, G S; Balabekyan, A R; Demekhina, N A
2013-01-01
The intermediate energy proton-induced fission of 241Am, 238$U and 237$Np is studied. The inelastic interactions of protons and heavy nuclei are described by a CRISP model, in which the reaction proceeds in two steps. The first one corresponds fast cascade, where a series of individual particle-particle collisions occurs within the nucleus. It leaves a highly excited cascade residual nucleus, assumed to be in thermal equilibrium. Subsequently, in the second step the excited nucleus releases its energy by evaporation of neutrons and light charged particles as well. Both the symmetric and asymmetric fission are regarded, and the fission probabilities are obtained from CRISP code calculations, by means of statistical weighting factors. The fission cross sections, the fissility of the fissioning nuclei, and the number of nucleons lost by the target - before and after fission - are calculated and compared to experiments for 660 MeV protons incident on 241Am, 238$U and 237$Np. Some of the model predictions are in f...
Visualisation and characterisation of heterogeneous bimodal PDMS networks
Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Fleury, Clemence;
2014-01-01
The existence of short-chain domains in heterogeneous bimodal PDMS networks has been confirmed visually, for the first time, through confocal fluorescence microscopy. The networks were prepared using a controlled reaction scheme where short PDMS chains were reacted below the gelation point into...... bimodal networks with short-chain domains within a long-chain network. The average sizes of the short-chain domains were found to vary from 2.1 to 5.7 mm depending on the short-chain content. The visualised network structure could be correlated thereafter to the elastic properties, which were determined...... by rheology. All heterogeneous bimodal networks displayed significantly lower moduli than mono-modal PDMS elastomers prepared from the long polymer chains. Low-loss moduli as well as low-sol fractions indicate that low-elastic moduli can be obtained without compromising the network's structure...
Role of Bimodal RDX in LOVA Gun Propellant Combustion
M. M. Joshi
1998-07-01
Full Text Available Present investigation reports the results of systematic studies on the use of bimodal RDX in low-vulnerability ammunition (LOVA gun propellants. Several formulations based on bimodal RDX as oxidiser, cellulose acetate as binder, and diocty1 phthalate or triacetin as plasticizer were processed with different proportions of 5 micrometer and 20 micrometer particle size of RDX samples in the range 100:0 to 60:40 ratios. The effect of varying the proportion of fine RDX of the two particle sizes on propellant burning behaviour was found to be quite significant. The study concluded that by using bimodal RDX, it is possible to modify burning behaviour without sacrificing low-vulnerability aspects of LOVA propellants.
A hypothesis for the color bimodality of Jupiter Trojans
Wong, Ian
2016-01-01
One of the most enigmatic and hitherto unexplained properties of Jupiter Trojans is their bimodal color distribution. This bimodality is indicative of two sub-populations within the Trojans, which have distinct size distributions. In this paper, we present a simple, plausible hypothesis for the origin and evolution of the two Trojan color sub-populations. In the framework of dynamical instability models of early Solar System evolution, which suggest a common primordial progenitor population for both Trojans and Kuiper belt objects, we use observational constraints to assert that the color bimodalities evident in both minor body populations developed within the primordial population prior to the onset of instability. We show that, beginning with an initial composition of rock and ices, location-dependent volatile loss through sublimation in this primordial population could have led to sharp changes in the surface composition with heliocentric distance. We propose that the depletion or retention of H$_{2}$S ice...
A survey is given of the present state of knowledge of the spectrum, angular distribution and number of prompt fission neutrons, as functions of incident neutron energy and individual fragment mass, for low-energy fission. The energy spectrum of prompt neutrons has been found to be of the same form (nearly Maxwellian) for many different types of fission. It has been shown that this type of spectrum is to be expected on the basis of evaporation from moving fragments, and theoretical predictions of the spectrum agree very accurately with experimental data. Some data are now available on the variation of the neutron spectrum with fragment mass and angle of emission. Only recently has it become possible to take accurate data on the angular distribution of the neutrons. It appears that the neutrons have the angular distribution to be expected if emitted almost isotropically from the moving fragments, with a possibility that some small fraction are not emitted in this way, but directly from the fissioning nuclide. Much work has been done on the variation of fission neutron number v with incident neutron energy for neutron-induced fission. The neutron number increases roughly linearly with energy, with a slope of about 0.15 n/MeV. There is now evidence that this slope changes somewhat with energy. This change must be associated with other changes in the-fission process. The most interesting recent discovery concerning fission neutrons is the strong dependence of neutron number on individual fragment mass. The data are being rapidly improved by means of the newer techniques of determining fragment mass yields from velocity and pulse-height data, and of determining neutron yields from cumulative mass yields. There is evidence of similar dependence of neutron yield on fragment mass in a number of cases. It has been suggested that this property is directly connected with the deformability of the fragments, and in particular with the near-spherical shapes of magic
Non-axial deformation in the fission of heavy and superheavy nuclei
The potential energy during the fission is calculated for 16 even-even nuclei in the range of the actinides, for 20 fragment mass ratios at the fission point of the compound nucleus U236 and for eight hypothetic, superheavy, β-stabile even-even nuclei in the surroundings of the magic proton number Z = 14 and the magic neutron number N = 126. There were no use of the acception of rotational symmetric shape. The shell effects were investigated with a semi-empirical method whose results reach for rotational-symmetric shape the results of the Strutinsky-method. (orig./WL)
Observation of bimodality in nanocrystalline cobalt - ferri - chromites
Modi, K. B.; Saija, K. G.; Zankat, K. B.; Kathad, C. R.; Shah, S. J.; Lakhani, V. K.; Vasoya, N. H.; Pathak, T. K.
2015-06-01
In this communication we present detail analysis of particle size distribution curves, differential size distribution and cumulative undersize distribution, recorded for nano particles of spinel ferrite system, CoCrxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 1.1 and 2.0), synthesized by chemical co-precipitation technique. It is found that the distribution is bimodal as well as not mono disperse. Observed bimodality has been explained in the light of Ostwald ripening. Various parameters have been determined and the role of Cr3+ - substitution in governing signature of distribution patterns has been discussed.
Scheme for Generation of Entanglement among Bimodal Cavities
SONG Xin-Guo; FENG Xun-Li
2004-01-01
@@ We present a scheme for generation of an entangled state in many spatially separated bimodal cavity modes via cavity quantum electrodynamics. A V-type three-level atom, initially prepared in a coherent superposition of its excited states, successively passes through both the bimodal cavities. If the atom is measured in its ground state after leaving the last cavity, an entangled state of many cavity modes can be generated. The conditions to generate the maximally entangled state with unity probability are worked out.
Nuclear fission dynamics within a generalized Langevin approach
Within the generalized (non-Markovian) multidimensional Langevin approach, the time and energy characteristics of symmetric fission of highly excited heavy nuclei are studied. In two-dimensional space of the collective deformation parameters, it is considered a nuclear descent from the top of the fission barrier to the scission point. The distributions of descent times and total kinetic energy of fission fragments are calculated as functions of memory time, measuring the relative size of memory effects in the collective dynamics. We found that the peculiarities of the non-Markovian dynamics at fairly large values of the memory time are reflected in the saturation of the mean time of motion from the saddle to scission with the growth of the strength of memory effects in the system.
Symmetric Differentiation on Time Scales
da Cruz, Artur M. C. Brito; Martins, Natalia; Delfim F. M. Torres
2012-01-01
We define a symmetric derivative on an arbitrary nonempty closed subset of the real numbers and derive some of its properties. It is shown that real-valued functions defined on time scales that are neither delta nor nabla differentiable can be symmetric differentiable.
Excitation energy dependence of fission in the mercury region
McDonnell, J D; Sheikh, J A; Staszczak, A; Warda, M
2014-01-01
Background: Recent experiments on beta-delayed fission reported an asymmetric mass yield in the neutron-deficient nucleus 180Hg. Earlier experiments in the mass region A=190-200 close to the beta-stability line, using the (p,f) and (\\alpha,f) reactions, observed a more symmetric distribution of fission fragments. While the beta-delayed fission of 180Hg can be associated with relatively low excitation energy, this is not the case for light-ion reactions, which result in warm compound nuclei. Purpose: To elucidate the roles of proton and neutron numbers and excitation energy in determining symmetric and asymmetric fission yields, we compute and analyze the isentropic potential energy surfaces of 174,180,198Hg and 196,210Po. Methods: We use the finite-temperature superfluid nuclear density functional theory, for excitation energies up to E*=30MeV and zero angular momentum. For our theoretical framework, we consider the Skyrme energy density functional SkM* and a density-dependent pairing interaction. Results: Fo...
Fission Yields of Some Isotopes in the Fission of Th232 by Reactor Neutrons
The fission yields of the longer-lived isotopes produced in the fission of Th232 are not very well known; existing data show rather large discrepancies and/or uncertainties. Since we feel that at least some of these discrepancies arise from difficulties in measuring the absolute activities of the fission products, we measured the fission yield of 10 selected isotopes whose decay schemes are well understood. The thorium foils were irradiated in a position at the edge of the core of the SAPHIR swimming pool reactor. Following irradiation, the thorium was dissolved after addition of appropriate carriers. The fission products of interest were determined by conventional radiochemical methods that had to be modified slightly to ensure good decontamination from the abundantly formed Pa233 . The chemical yields were determined by gravimetric methods. Counting was done preferentially on a γ-spectrometer that had been calibrated at 11 different energies by standards either obtained from the IAEA or prepared by 4πβ-counting. In the case of Sr90, Ru106 and Ce144 a β-proportional counter was used that had been calibrated for these isotopes. In addition to the sought elements, Mo99 was isolated from each foil to serve as an internal monitor for the number of fissions taking place. The experiment thus gave the ratio of the yield of the sought element to the yield of Mo99. This ratio ''R'' was obtained for Sr90, Ru103, Ru106, Ag111, Pd112, I131, Cs137, Ba140, Ba141, Ce141 and Ce144, Results indicate the existence of a third peak in the yield mass curve in the region of symmetric fission. Yields of fission products relative to the Mo99 yields are given, and the absolute yields calculated by assuming y Mo99 = 2.78%. This number was derived from the work of Iyer et al., and was obtained by normalizing the area under the yield mass curve to 200%. (author)
Axially symmetric rotating traversable wormholes
Kuhfittig, P K F
2003-01-01
This paper generalizes the static and spherically symmetric traversable wormhole geometry to a rotating axially symmetric one with a time-dependent angular velocity by means of an exact solution. It was found that the violation of the weak energy condition, although unavoidable, is considerably less severe than in the static spherically symmetric case. The radial tidal constraint is more easily met due to the rotation. Similar improvements are seen in one of the lateral tidal constraints. The magnitude of the angular velocity may have little effect on the weak energy condition violation for an axially symmetric wormhole. For a spherically symmetric one, however, the violation becomes less severe with increasing angular velocity. The time rate of change of the angular velocity, on the other hand, was found to have no effect at all. Finally, the angular velocity must depend only on the radial coordinate, confirming an earlier result.
Osborne, Andrew G
2016-01-01
Under the right conditions, self sustaining fission waves can form in fertile nuclear materials. These waves result from the transport and absorption of neutrons and the resulting production of fissile isotopes. When these fission, additional neutrons are produced and the chain reaction propagates until it is poisoned by the buildup of fission products. It is typically assumed that fission waves are soliton-like and self stabilizing. However, we show that in uranium, coupling of the neutron field to the 239U->239Np->239Pu decay chain can lead to a Hopf bifurcation. The fission reaction then ramps up and down, along with the wave velocity. The critical driver for the instability is a delay, caused by the half-life of 239U, between the time evolution of the neutron field and the production of 239Pu. This allows the 239Pu to accumulate and burn out in a self limiting oscillation that is characteristic of a Hopf bifurcation. Time dependent results are obtained using a numerical implementation of a reduced order r...
Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes
Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced
Analytic description of the fusion and fission processes through compact quasi-molecular shapes
Recent studies have shown that the characteristics of the entrance and exit channels through compact quasi-molecular shapes are compatible with the experimental data on fusion, fission and cluster radioactivity when the deformation energy is determined within a generalized liquid drop model. Analytic expressions allowing to calculate rapidly the main characteristics of this deformation path through necked shapes with quasi-spherical ends are presented now; namely formulas for the fusion and fission barrier heights, the fusion barrier radius, the symmetric fission barriers and the proximity energy. (author)
Current position on fission product behavior
The following phenomena are treated and modeled: fission product release from fuel, both in-vessel and ex-vessel; fission product deposition in the primary system, fission product deposition in the containment, and fission product revolatization
Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels
Guerit, Francois Marie Louis Paul; Chalupper, Josef; Santurette, Sébastien;
responsible for the large variability of individual bimodal benefit. Therefore, knowledge about the location of the electrode array is an important prerequisite for optimum fitting. Theoretically, the electrode location can be determined from CT-scans. However, these are often not available in audiological...
Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels
Guérit, François; Chalupper, Josef; Santurette, Sébastien;
2013-01-01
responsible for the large variability of individual bimodal benefit. Therefore, knowledge about the location of the electrode array is an important prerequisite for optimum fitting. Theoretically, the electrode location can be determined from CT-scans. However, these are often not available in audiological...
Bimodal Bilingual Language Development of Hearing Children of Deaf Parents
Hofmann, Kristin; Chilla, Solveig
2015-01-01
Adopting a bimodal bilingual language acquisition model, this qualitative case study is the first in Germany to investigate the spoken and sign language development of hearing children of deaf adults (codas). The spoken language competence of six codas within the age range of 3;10 to 6;4 is assessed by a series of standardised tests (SETK 3-5,…
Disturbance Decoupling for Continuous Piecewise Linear Bimodal Systems
Everts, A.R.F.; Camlibel, M.K.
2014-01-01
In this paper we tackle the disturbance decoupling problem for continuous bimodal piecewise linear systems. After establishing necessary and sufficient geometric conditions for such a system to be disturbance decoupled, we study state feed- back and dynamic feedback controllers, both mode-dependent
Investigating Interaural Frequency-Place Mismatches via Bimodal Vowel Integration
Guérit, François; Santurette, Sébastien; Chalupper, Josef;
2014-01-01
For patients having residual hearing in one ear and a cochlear implant (CI) in the opposite ear, interaural place-pitch mismatches might be partly responsible for the large variability in individual benefit. Behavioral pitch-matching between the two ears has been suggested as a way to individuali...... difficulties in bimodal fusion of the two formants....
Bimodal Hearing and Speech Perception with a Competing Talker
Pyschny, Verena; Landwehr, Markus; Hahn, Moritz; Walger, Martin; von Wedel, Hasso; Meister, Hartmut
2011-01-01
Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of bimodal stimulation upon hearing ability for speech recognition in the presence of a single competing talker. Method: Speech recognition was measured in 3 listening conditions: hearing aid (HA) alone, cochlear implant (CI) alone, and both devices together (CI + HA). To examine…
Measuring oxygen uptake in fishes with bimodal respiration.
Lefevre, S; Bayley, M; McKenzie, D J
2016-01-01
Respirometry is a robust method for measurement of oxygen uptake as a proxy for metabolic rate in fishes, and how species with bimodal respiration might meet their demands from water v. air has interested researchers for over a century. The challenges of measuring oxygen uptake from both water and air, preferably simultaneously, have been addressed in a variety of ways, which are briefly reviewed. These methods are not well-suited for the long-term measurements necessary to be certain of obtaining undisturbed patterns of respiratory partitioning, for example, to estimate traits such as standard metabolic rate. Such measurements require automated intermittent-closed respirometry that, for bimodal fishes, has only recently been developed. This paper describes two approaches in enough detail to be replicated by the interested researcher. These methods are for static respirometry. Measuring oxygen uptake by bimodal fishes during exercise poses specific challenges, which are described to aid the reader in designing experiments. The respiratory physiology and behaviour of air-breathing fishes is very complex and can easily be influenced by experimental conditions, and some general considerations are listed to facilitate the design of experiments. Air breathing is believed to have evolved in response to aquatic hypoxia and, probably, associated hypercapnia. The review ends by considering what realistic hypercapnia is, how hypercapnic tropical waters can become and how this might influence bimodal animals' gas exchange. PMID:26358224
SEP BIMOD variable conductance heat pipes acceptance and characterization tests
Hemminger, J. A.
1981-08-01
A series of six heat pipes, similar in design to those flown on the Comunications Technology Satellite Hermes, for use in a prototype Solar Electric Propulsion BIMOD thrust module are evaluated. The results of acceptance and characterization tests performed on the heat pipe subassemble are reported. The performance of all the heat pipes met, or exceeded, design specifications.
Does bimodal stimulus presentation increase ERP components usable in BCIs?
Thurlings, M.E.; Brouwer, A.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Blankertz, B.; Werkhoven, P.J.
2012-01-01
Event-related potential (ERP)-based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) employ differences in brain responses to attended and ignored stimuli. Typically, visual stimuli are used. Tactile stimuli have recently been suggested as a gaze-independent alternative. Bimodal stimuli could evoke additional brain
Photon and proton induced fission on heavy nuclei at intermediate energies
Andrade-II, E.; Karapetyan, G.S.; Deppman, A.; Guimaraes, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Balabekyan, A.R. [Yerevan State University, Alex Manoogian 1, Yerevan (Armenia); Demekhina, N.A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanyan Brothers 2, Yerevan (Armenia); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (LNR), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2014-07-01
We present an analysis of fission induced by intermediate energy protons or photons on actinides. The 660 MeV proton induced reactions are on {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}U, and {sup 237}Np targets and the Bremsstrahlung-photons with end-point energies at 50 MeV and 3500 MeV are on {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U targets. The study was performed by means of the Monte Carlo simulation code CRISP. A multimodal fission extension was added to the code within an approach which accounts for the contribution of symmetric and asymmetric fission. This procedure allowed the investigation of fission cross sections, fissility, number of evaporated nucleons and fission-fragment charge distributions. The comparison with experimental data show a good agreement between calculations and experiments. (author)
Photon and proton induced fission on heavy nuclei at intermediate energies
Andrade-II E.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We present an analysis of fission induced by intermediate energy protons or photons on actinides. The 660 MeV proton induced reactions are on 241Am, 238U, and 237Np targets and the Bremmstrahlung-photons with end-point energies at 50 MeV and 3500 MeV are on 232Th and 238U targets. The study was performed by means of the Monte Carlo simulation code CRISP. A multimodal fission extension was added to the code within an approach which accounts for the contribution of symmetric and asymmetric fission. This procedure allowed the investigation of fission cross sections, fissility, number of evaporated nucleons and fission-fragment charge distributions. The comparison with experimental data show a good agreement between calculations and experiments.
Comparison of Yields of neutron rich nuclei in Proton and Photon induced $^{238}$U fission
Khan, F A; Basu, D N; Farooq, M; Chakrabarti, Alok
2016-01-01
A comparative study of fission of actinides specially $^{238}$U, by proton and bremsstrahlung photon is performed. Relative mass distribution of $^{238}$U fission fragments have been explored theoretically for both proton and photon induced fission. The integrated yield along with charge distribution of the products are calculated to find out the neutron richness in comparison to the nuclei produced by r-process in nucleosynthesis. Some r-process nuclei in intermediate mass range for symmetric fission mode are found to be produced almost two order of magnitude more for proton induced fission than photofission, although rest of the neutron rich nuclei in the asymmetric mode are produced in comparable proportion for both the processes.
Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution
Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)
Photon and proton induced fission on heavy nuclei at intermediate energies
We present an analysis of fission induced by intermediate energy protons or photons on actinides. The 660 MeV proton induced reactions are on 241Am, 238U, and 237Np targets and the Bremsstrahlung-photons with end-point energies at 50 MeV and 3500 MeV are on 232Th and 238U targets. The study was performed by means of the Monte Carlo simulation code CRISP. A multimodal fission extension was added to the code within an approach which accounts for the contribution of symmetric and asymmetric fission. This procedure allowed the investigation of fission cross sections, fissility, number of evaporated nucleons and fission-fragment charge distributions. The comparison with experimental data show a good agreement between calculations and experiments. (author)
Fission modelling with FIFRELIN
Litaize, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Berge, Léonie
2015-12-01
The nuclear fission process gives rise to the formation of fission fragments and emission of particles (n,γ , e-) . The particle emission from fragments can be prompt and delayed. We present here the methods used in the FIFRELIN code, which simulates the prompt component of the de-excitation process. The methods are based on phenomenological models associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic ingredients. Input data can be provided by experiment as well as by theory. The fission fragment de-excitation can be performed within Weisskopf (uncoupled neutron and gamma emission) or a Hauser-Feshbach (coupled neutron/gamma emission) statistical theory. We usually consider five free parameters that cannot be provided by theory or experiments in order to describe the initial distributions required by the code. In a first step this set of parameters is chosen to reproduce a very limited set of target observables. In a second step we can increase the statistics to predict all other fission observables such as prompt neutron, gamma and conversion electron spectra but also their distributions as a function of any kind of parameters such as, for instance, the neutron, gamma and electron number distributions, the average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of fission fragment mass, charge or kinetic energy, and so on. Several results related to different fissioning systems are presented in this work. The goal in the next decade will be i) to replace some macroscopic ingredients or phenomenological models by microscopic calculations when available and reliable, ii) to be a support for experimentalists in the design of detection systems or in the prediction of necessary beam time or count rates with associated statistics when measuring fragments and emitted particle in coincidence iii) extend the model to be able to run a calculation when no experimental input data are available, iv) account for multiple chance fission and gamma emission before fission, v) account for the
Fission modelling with FIFRELIN
Litaize, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Berge, Leonie [CEA, DEN, DER, SPRC, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)
2015-12-15
The nuclear fission process gives rise to the formation of fission fragments and emission of particles (n,γ, e{sup -}). The particle emission from fragments can be prompt and delayed. We present here the methods used in the FIFRELIN code, which simulates the prompt component of the de-excitation process. The methods are based on phenomenological models associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic ingredients. Input data can be provided by experiment as well as by theory. The fission fragment de-excitation can be performed within Weisskopf (uncoupled neutron and gamma emission) or a Hauser-Feshbach (coupled neutron/gamma emission) statistical theory. We usually consider five free parameters that cannot be provided by theory or experiments in order to describe the initial distributions required by the code. In a first step this set of parameters is chosen to reproduce a very limited set of target observables. In a second step we can increase the statistics to predict all other fission observables such as prompt neutron, gamma and conversion electron spectra but also their distributions as a function of any kind of parameters such as, for instance, the neutron, gamma and electron number distributions, the average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of fission fragment mass, charge or kinetic energy, and so on. Several results related to different fissioning systems are presented in this work. The goal in the next decade will be i) to replace some macroscopic ingredients or phenomenological models by microscopic calculations when available and reliable, ii) to be a support for experimentalists in the design of detection systems or in the prediction of necessary beam time or count rates with associated statistics when measuring fragments and emitted particle in coincidence iii) extend the model to be able to run a calculation when no experimental input data are available, iv) account for multiple chance fission and gamma emission before fission, v) account for
Fission modelling with FIFRELIN
The nuclear fission process gives rise to the formation of fission fragments and emission of particles (n,γ, e-). The particle emission from fragments can be prompt and delayed. We present here the methods used in the FIFRELIN code, which simulates the prompt component of the de-excitation process. The methods are based on phenomenological models associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic ingredients. Input data can be provided by experiment as well as by theory. The fission fragment de-excitation can be performed within Weisskopf (uncoupled neutron and gamma emission) or a Hauser-Feshbach (coupled neutron/gamma emission) statistical theory. We usually consider five free parameters that cannot be provided by theory or experiments in order to describe the initial distributions required by the code. In a first step this set of parameters is chosen to reproduce a very limited set of target observables. In a second step we can increase the statistics to predict all other fission observables such as prompt neutron, gamma and conversion electron spectra but also their distributions as a function of any kind of parameters such as, for instance, the neutron, gamma and electron number distributions, the average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of fission fragment mass, charge or kinetic energy, and so on. Several results related to different fissioning systems are presented in this work. The goal in the next decade will be i) to replace some macroscopic ingredients or phenomenological models by microscopic calculations when available and reliable, ii) to be a support for experimentalists in the design of detection systems or in the prediction of necessary beam time or count rates with associated statistics when measuring fragments and emitted particle in coincidence iii) extend the model to be able to run a calculation when no experimental input data are available, iv) account for multiple chance fission and gamma emission before fission, v) account for the
Characteristics of Coulomb fission
Oberacker, Volker; Greiner, Walter; Kruse, Hans; Pinkston, William T.
2006-01-01
Within an extended semiquantal theory we perform large-sized coupled-channel calculations involving 260 collective levels for Coulomb fission of 238U. Differential Coulomb fission cross sections are studied as a function of bombarding energy and impact parameter for several projectiles. In the Xe + U case, total cross sections are also given. We find a strong dependence on projectile charge number, PCF(180°)∼(Zp)6 in the region 50≤Zp≤92 for a fixed ratio E/ECoul, which might...
The bimodality of the Luzon Strait deep water
WU Qingsong; ZHAO Jianru; ZHANG Junbiao; SHI Weiyong; LIU Chunqiu
2014-01-01
Combined conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts and Argo profiles, 3 086 historical hydrocasts were used to quantify the water column characteristics in the northern South China Sea (SCS) and its adjacent waters. Based on a two-dimensional“gravest empirical mode”(GEM), a gravitational potential (, a verti-cally integrated variable) was used as proxy for the vertical temperature profiles TG(p,).integrated from 8 MPa to the surface shows a close relationship with the temperature, except in the deep layer greater than 15 MPa, which was caused by the bimodal deep water in the region. The GEM temperature profiles successfully revealed the bimodality of the Luzon Strait deep water, that disparate hydrophic vertical profiles can pro-duce distinct specific volume anomaly (į) in the SCS and the western Philippine Sea (WPS), but failed in the Luzon Strait, where different temperature profiles may produce a sameį. A significant temperature diver-gence between the SCS water and the WPS water confirmed that the bimodal structure is strong. The deep-water bifurcation starts at about 15 MPa, and gets stronger with increasing depth . As the only deep channel connecting the bimodal-structure waters, water column characteristics in the Luzon Strait is in between, but much closer to the SCS water because of its better connectivity with the SCS. A bimodal temperature structure below 15 MPa reveals that there was a persistent baroclinic pressure gradient driving flow through the Luzon Strait. A volume flux predicted through the Bashi Channel with the hydraulic theory yields a value of 5.62×106 m3/s using all available profiles upstream and downstream of the overflow region, and 4.03×106 and 2.70×106 m3/s by exclusively using the profiles collected during spring and summer, respectively. No volume flux was calculated during autumn and winter because profiles are only available for the upstream of the Bashi Channel during the corresponding period.
MINIMIZATION PROBLEM FOR SYMMETRIC ORTHOGONAL ANTI-SYMMETRIC MATRICES
Yuan Lei; Anping Liao; Lei Zhang
2007-01-01
By applying the generalized singular value decomposition and the canonical correlation decomposition simultaneously, we derive an analytical expression of the optimal approximate solution (X), which is both a least-squares symmetric orthogonal anti-symmetric solution of the matrix equation ATXA ＝ B and a best approximation to a given matrix X*.Moreover, a numerical algorithm for finding this optimal approximate solution is described in detail, and a numerical example is presented to show the validity of our algorithm.
Fission dynamics of hot nuclei
Santanu Pal; Jhilam Sadhukhan
2014-04-01
Experimental evidence accumulated during the last two decades indicates that the fission of excited heavy nuclei involves a dissipative dynamical process. We shall briefly review the relevant dynamical model, namely the Langevin equations for fission. Statistical model predictions using the Kramers’ fission width will also be discussed.
Discoveries of isotopes by fission
M Thoennessen
2015-09-01
Of the about 3000 isotopes presently known, about 20% have been discovered in fission. The history of fission as it relates to the discovery of isotopes as well as the various reaction mechanisms leading to isotope discoveries involving fission are presented.
Microscopic Description of Induced Fission
Schunck, N
2013-01-01
Selected aspects of the description of neutron-induced fission in 240Pu in the framework of the nuclear energy density functional theory at finite temperature are presented. In particular, we discuss aspects pertaining to the choice of thermodynamic state variables, the evolution of fission barriers as function of the incident neutron energy, and the temperatures of the fission fragments.
Status of fission yield measurements
Fission yield measurement and yield compilation activities in the major laboratories of the world are reviewed. In addition to a general review of the effort of each laboratory, a brief summary of yield measurement activities by fissioning nuclide is presented. A new fast reactor fission yield measurement program being conducted in the US is described
A new approach to barrier-top fission dynamics
Bertsch G.F.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We proposed a calculational framework for describing induced fission that avoids the Bohr-Wheeler assumption of well-defined fission channels. The building blocks of our approach are configurations that form a discrete, orthogonal basis and can be characterized by both energy and shape. The dynamics is to be determined by interaction matrix elements between the states rather than by a Hill-Wheeler construction of a collective coordinate. Within our approach, several simple limits can be seen: diffusion; quantized conductance; and ordinary decay through channels. The specific proposal for the discrete basis is to use the Kπ quantum numbers of the axially symmetric Hartree-Fock approximation to generate the configurations. Fission paths would be determined by hopping from configuration to configuration via the residual interaction. We show as an example the configurations needed to describe a fictitious fission decay 32S → 16 O + 16 O. We also examine the geometry of the path for fission of 236U, measuring distances by the number of jumps needed to go to a new Kπ partition.
A new approach to barrier-top fission dynamics
Bertsch, G. F.; Mehlhaff, J. M.
2016-06-01
We proposed a calculational framework for describing induced fission that avoids the Bohr-Wheeler assumption of well-defined fission channels. The building blocks of our approach are configurations that form a discrete, orthogonal basis and can be characterized by both energy and shape. The dynamics is to be determined by interaction matrix elements between the states rather than by a Hill-Wheeler construction of a collective coordinate. Within our approach, several simple limits can be seen: diffusion; quantized conductance; and ordinary decay through channels. The specific proposal for the discrete basis is to use the Kπ quantum numbers of the axially symmetric Hartree-Fock approximation to generate the configurations. Fission paths would be determined by hopping from configuration to configuration via the residual interaction. We show as an example the configurations needed to describe a fictitious fission decay 32S → 16 O + 16 O. We also examine the geometry of the path for fission of 236U, measuring distances by the number of jumps needed to go to a new Kπ partition.
Spontaneous Fission Barriers Based on a Generalized Liquid Drop Model
Guo, Shu-Qing; Bao, Xiao-Jun; Li, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Fei
2014-05-01
The barrier against the spontaneous fission has been determined within the Generalized Liquid Drop Model (GLDM) including the mass and charge asymmetry, and the proximity energy. The shell correction of the spherical parent nucleus is calculated by using the Strutinsky method, and the empirical shape-dependent shell correction is employed during the deformation process. A quasi-molecular shape sequence has been defined to describe the whole process from one-body shape to two-body shape system, and a two-touching-ellipsoid is adopted when the superdeformed one-body system reaches the rupture point. On these bases the spontaneous fission barriers are systematically studied for nuclei from 230Th to 249Cm for different possible exiting channels with the different mass and charge asymmetries. The double, and triple bumps are found in the fission potential energy in this region, which roughly agree with the experimental results. It is found that at around Sn-like fragment the outer fission barriers are lower, while the partner of the Sn-like fragment is in the range near 108Ru where the ground-state mass is lowered by allowing axially symmetric shapes. The preferable fission channels are distinctly pronounced, which should be corresponding to the fragment mass distributions.
A library is described of data for 584 isotopes of fission products, including decay constants, branching ratios (both burn-up and decay), the type of emitted radiation, relative and absolute yields, capture cross sections for thermal neutrons, and resonance integrals. When a detailed decay scheme is not known, the mean energies of beta particles and neutrino and gamma radiations are given. In the ZVJE SKODA system the library is named BIBFP and is stored on film No 49 of the NE 803 B computer. It is used in calculating the inventory of fission products in fuel elements (and also determining absorption cross sections for burn-up calculations, gamma ray sources, heat generation) and in solving radioactivity transport problems in the primary circuit. It may also be used in the spectrometric method for burn-up determination of fuel elements. The library comprises the latest literary data available. It serves as the basis for library BIBGRFP storing group constants of fission products with independent yields of isotopes from fission. This, in turn, forms the basis for the BIBDN library collecting data on the precursors of delayed neutron emitters. (author)
Symmetric $q$-deformed KP hierarch
Tian, Kelei; He, Jingsong; Su, Yucai
2014-01-01
Based on the analytic property of the symmetric $q$-exponent $e_q(x)$, a new symmetric $q$-deformed Kadomtsev-Petviashvili ($q$-KP) hierarchy associated with the symmetric $q$-derivative operator $\\partial_q$ is constructed. Furthermore, the symmetric $q$-CKP hierarchy and symmetric $q$-BKP hierarchy are defined. Here we also investigate the additional symmetries of the symmetric $q$-KP hierarchy.
概率可靠多播协议Bimodal Multicast的IOA形式规范%Formal specification of the Bimodal Multicast in IOA
郭敬林; 刘西洋; 陈平
2003-01-01
介绍并讨论了Bimodal Multicast的应用特征和规范形式描述方法,给出了一个基于I/O自动机的描述方案,内容包括Bimodal Multicast中消息的表达,状态和动作的定义,并重点讨论了Bimodal Multicast的最近最先语义的描述方法.
Fission yields in the thermal neutron fission of plutonium-239
Fission yields for 27 mass numbers were determined in the thermal neutron fission of 239Pu using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry and radiochemical method. The results obtained using gamma ray spectrometry and from the investigations on the fission yield of 99Mo using radiochemical method were reported earlier. These data along with fission yields for 19 mass numbers determined using radiochemical method formed a part of Ph.D. thesis. The data given here are a compilation of all the results and are presented considering the neutron temperature correction to 239Pu fission cross-section which is used for calculating the total number of fissions in these studies. A comparison is made of the resulting fission yield values with the latest experimentally determined values and those given in two recent compilations. (author)
Spherically symmetric cosmology: resource paper
Coley, A. A.; Lim, W. C.; De Leon, G.
2008-01-01
We use the 1+3 frame formalism to write down the evolution equations for spherically symmetric models as a well-posed system of first order PDEs in two variables, suitable for numerical and qualitative analysis.
Symmetrical dialogue in investor relations
Harold Hassink; Laury Bollen; Meinderd de Vries
2008-01-01
Purpose – Previous research shows that symmetrical dialogue between companies and their investors through e-mail does not match the quality of the asymmetrically provided information on investor relations websites. This paper seeks to further examine the quality of symmetrical dialogue and especially whether sender identity affects the corporate e-mail handling performance. Design/methodology/approach – A “mystery sender” approach is used to test whether companies answer similar e-mails from ...
Symmetric Gini Covariance and Correlation
Sang, Yongli; Dang, Xin; Sang, Hailin
2016-01-01
Standard Gini covariance and Gini correlation play important roles in measuring the dependence of random variables with heavy tails. However, the asymmetry brings a substantial difficulty in interpretation. In this paper, we propose a symmetric Gini-type covariance and a symmetric Gini correlation ($\\rho_g$) based on the joint rank function. The proposed correlation $\\rho_g$ is more robust than the Pearson correlation but less robust than the Kendall's $\\tau$ correlation. We establish the rel...
Generation of symmetric exponential sums
Sergeyev, Yaroslav D.
2011-01-01
In this paper, a new method for generation of infinite series of symmetric identities written for exponential sums in real numbers is proposed. Such systems have numerous applications in theory of numbers, chaos theory, algorithmic complexity, dynamic systems, etc. Properties of generated identities are studied. Relations of the introduced method for generation of symmetric exponential sums to the Morse-Hedlund sequence and to the theory of magic squares are established.
Symmetric Composite Laminate Stress Analysis
Wang, T.; Smolinski, K. F.; Gellin, S.
1985-01-01
It is demonstrated that COSMIC/NASTRAN may be used to analyze plate and shell structures made of symmetric composite laminates. Although general composite laminates cannot be analyzed using NASTRAN, the theoretical development presented herein indicates that the integrated constitutive laws of a symmetric composite laminate resemble those of a homogeneous anisotropic plate, which can be analyzed using NASTRAN. A detailed analysis procedure is presented, as well as an illustrative example.
Effective quantum number for axially symmetric problems
Trunov, N. N.
2014-01-01
We generalize the universal effective quantum number introduced earlier for centrally symmetric problems. The proposed number determines the semiclassical quantization condition for axially symmetric potentials.
Resolving particle size modality in bi-modal iron oxide nanoparticle suspensions
Particle size modality in bi-modal iron oxide suspensions was resolved by exploiting complex ac-susceptibility (ACS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and photon cross-correlation spectroscopy. To explain dynamic magnetic response of bi-modal suspensions, the Debye model was expanded to a linear superposition form allowing for the contribution of both particle fractions. This modified and adopted model is able to resolve the bi-modal particle size distributions. The SAXS curves of mono- and bi-modal suspensions were fitted well using a Monte Carlo simulation scheme, allowing the detection of bi-modal particle size distributions with high precision
Dynamical features of nuclear fission
Santanu Pal
2015-08-01
It is now established that the transition-state theory of nuclear fission due to Bohr and Wheeler underestimates several observables in heavy-ion-induced fusion–fission reactions. Dissipative dynamical models employing either the Langevin equation or equivalently the Fokker–Planck equation have been developed for fission of heavy nuclei at high excitations (T ∼1 MeV or higher). Here, we first present the physical picture underlying the dissipative fission dynamics. We mainly concentrate upon the Kramers’ prescription for including dissipation in fission dynamics. We discuss, in some detail, the results of a statistical model analysis of the pre-scission neutron multiplicity data from the reactions 19F+194,196,198Pt using Kramers’ fission width. We also discuss the multi-dimensional Langevin equation in the context of kinetic energy and mass distribution of the fission fragments.
CN Bimodality at Low Metallicity: The Globular Cluster M53
Martell, Sarah L; Briley, Michael M
2007-01-01
We present low resolution UV-blue spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the globular cluster M53 ([Fe/H]=-1.84), obtained to study primordial abundance variations and deep mixing via the CN and CH absorption bands. The metallicity of M53 makes it an attractive target: a bimodal distribution of 3883 angstrom CN bandstrength is common in moderate- and high-metallicity globular clusters ([Fe/H] > -1.6) but unusual in those of lower metallicity ([Fe/H] < -2.0). We find that M53 is an intermediate case, and has a broad but not strongly bimodal distribution of CN bandstrength, with CN and CH bandstrengths anticorrelated in the less-evolved stars. Like many other globular clusters, M53 also exhibits a general decline in CH bandstrength and [C/Fe] abundance with rising luminosity on the red giant branch.
Rapid intensification and the bimodal distribution of tropical cyclone intensity
Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K.; Sobel, Adam H.; Camargo, Suzana J.
2016-02-01
The severity of a tropical cyclone (TC) is often summarized by its lifetime maximum intensity (LMI), and the climatological LMI distribution is a fundamental feature of the climate system. The distinctive bimodality of the LMI distribution means that major storms (LMI >96 kt) are not very rare compared with less intense storms. Rapid intensification (RI) is the dramatic strengthening of a TC in a short time, and is notoriously difficult to forecast or simulate. Here we show that the bimodality of the LMI distribution reflects two types of storms: those that undergo RI during their lifetime (RI storms) and those that do not (non-RI storms). The vast majority (79%) of major storms are RI storms. Few non-RI storms (6%) become major storms. While the importance of RI has been recognized in weather forecasting, our results demonstrate that RI also plays a crucial role in the TC climatology.
Bimodal Bidding in Experimental All-Pay Auctions
Christiane Ernst; Christian Thöni
2013-01-01
We report results from experimental first-price, sealed-bid, all-pay auctions for a good with a common and known value. We observe bidding strategies in groups of two and three bidders and under two extreme information conditions. As predicted by the Nash equilibrium, subjects use mixed strategies. In contrast to the prediction under standard assumptions, bids are drawn from a bimodal distribution: very high and very low bids are much more frequent than intermediate bids. Standard risk prefer...
Phase diagram of epidemic spreading - unimodal vs. bimodal probability distributions
Lancic, Alen; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Sikic, Mile; Stefancic, Hrvoje
2009-01-01
The disease spreading on complex networks is studied in SIR model. Simulations on empirical complex networks reveal two specific regimes of disease spreading: local containment and epidemic outbreak. The variables measuring the extent of disease spreading are in general characterized by a bimodal probability distribution. Phase diagrams of disease spreading for empirical complex networks are introduced. A theoretical model of disease spreading on m-ary tree is investigated both analytically a...
Development of a virtual campus based on bimodal education
Yábar, J. M.; Añaños, Elena
2002-01-01
A bimodal education model is a flexible model which harmoniously combines the possibilities for teaching offered by Information Society Technologies (IST), such as interactive classrooms, videoconference, and the virtual campus, with traditional educational activities such as lectures and certain types of practical training. The main goal was to provide university students and teachers in formal and continuing education with telematic tools based on new information technologies within the fra...
Mobile Education: Towards Affective Bi-modal Interaction for Adaptivity
Efthymios Alepis
2009-04-01
Full Text Available One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making theory.
Fluoride-assisted synthesis of bimodal microporous SSZ-13 zeolite.
Zhu, Xiaochun; Kosinov, Nikolay; Hofmann, Jan P; Mezari, Brahim; Qian, Qingyun; Rohling, Roderigh; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Hensen, Emiel J M
2016-02-21
The presence of small amount of fluoride in alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of SSZ-13 zeolite yields bimodal microporous particles with substantially improved performance in the methanol-to-olefins (MTO) reaction. Hydrocarbon uptake measurements and fluorescence microspectroscopy of spent catalysts demonstrate enhanced diffusion through micropores at the grain boundaries of nanocrystals running through the zeolite particles. Fluoride-assisted SSZ-13 synthesis is a cheap and scalable approach to optimize the performance of MTO zeolite catalysts. PMID:26810114
Transconductance bimodal effect of PDSOI submicron H-gate MOSFETs
Mei Bo; Bi Jinshun; Bu Jianhui; Han Zhengsheng
2013-01-01
A bimodal effect of transconductance was observed in narrow channel PDSOI sub-micron H-gate PMOSFETs,which was accompanied with the degeneration of device performance.This paper presents a study of the transconductance bimodal effect based on the manufacturing process and electrical properties of those devices.It is shown that this effect is caused by a diffusion of donor impurities from the N+ region of body contact to the P+ poly gate at the neck of the H-gate,which would change the work function differences of the polysilicon gate and substrate.This means that the threshold voltage of the device is different in the width direction,which means that there are parasitic transistors paralleled with the main transistor at the neck of the H-gate.The subsequent devices were fabricated with layout optimization,and it is demonstrated that the bimodal transconductance can be eliminated by mask modification with N+ implantation more than 0.2μm away from a poly gate.
Frequency-dependent loudness balancing in bimodal cochlear implant users.
Veugen, Lidwien C E; Chalupper, Josef; Snik, Ad F M; van Opstal, A John; Mens, Lucas H M
2016-08-01
Conclusion In users of a cochlear implant (CI) and a hearing aid (HA) in contralateral ears, frequency-dependent loudness balancing between devices did, on average, not lead to improved speech understanding as compared to broadband balancing. However, nine out of 15 bimodal subjects showed significantly better speech understanding with either one of the fittings. Objectives Sub-optimal fittings and mismatches in loudness are possible explanations for the large individual differences seen in listeners using bimodal stimulation. Methods HA gain was adjusted for soft and loud input sounds in three frequency bands (0-548, 548-1000, and >1000 Hz) to match loudness with the CI. This procedure was compared to a simple broadband balancing procedure that reflected current clinical practice. In a three-visit cross-over design with 4 weeks between sessions, speech understanding was tested in quiet and in noise and questionnaires were administered to assess benefit in real world. Results Both procedures resulted in comparable HA gains. For speech in noise, a marginal bimodal benefit of 0.3 ± 4 dB was found, with large differences between subjects and spatial configurations. Speech understanding in quiet and in noise did not differ between the two loudness balancing procedures. PMID:26986743