Davidson, S; Shanley, L; Cowie, P; Lear, M; McGuffin, P; Quinn, J P; Barrett, P; MacKenzie, A
The Bicaudal C Homolog 1 (BICC1) gene, which encodes an RNA binding protein, has been identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) as a candidate gene associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). We explored the hypothesis that MDD associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affected the ability of cis-regulatory elements within intron 3 of the BICC1 gene to modulate the activity of the BICC1 promoter region. We initially established that the BICC1 promoter drove BICC1 mRNA expression in amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Intriguingly, we provide evidence that MDD associated polymorphisms alter the ability of the BICC1 promoter to respond to PKA signalling within amygdala neurones. Considering the known role of amygdala PKA pathways in fear learning and mood these observations suggest a possible mechanism through which allelic changes in the regulation of the BICC1 gene in amygdala neurones may contribute to mood disorders. Our findings also suggest a novel direction for the identification of novel drug targets and the design of future personalised therapeutics.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 6 October 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.62. PMID:26440730
... help prevent injuries and deaths from alcohol-impaired driving. The Problem Risk Factors BAC Effects Prevention Additional Resources How big is the problem? In 2014, 9,967 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes, accounting for nearly one-third (31%) of ...
... poorly lit spaces, and colors that seem faded. Diabetic retinopathy (pronounced: reh-ton-AH-pa-thee) occurs when ... that is likely to cause visual impairment, many treatments are available. Options may include eyeglasses, contact lenses, ...
... hearing loss is present at birth. Acquired hearing loss happens later in life — during childhood, the teen years, or in adulthood — ... for your ears to avoid a permanent hearing loss. See your doctor right away ... basis. What's Life Like for People Who Are Hearing Impaired? For ...
... Cases of Vision Impairment (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Prevalent ... Cases of Vision Impairment (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2000 U.S. Prevalent ...
... impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... in others the condition does not get better. DYSARTHRIA With dysarthria, the person has ongoing difficulty expressing ...
... Research Portfolio (IADRP) AMP-AD Detecting Cognitive Impairment Database ... Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition in which people have more memory or other thinking problems than normal for their ...
Full Text Available Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen′s E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis : Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results : The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24% had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%, but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3% children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6% children. Conclusion : Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.
Full Text Available As a leading risk factor for stroke, hypertension is also an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Midlife hypertension doubles the risk of dementia later in life and accelerates the progression of dementia, but the correlation between late-life blood pressure and cognitive impairment is still unclear. Beside blood pressure, the effect of pulse pressure, blood pressure variability and circadian rhythm of blood pressure on cognition is currently attracting more and more attention. Hypertension induces alterations in cerebrovascular structure and functions, which lead to brain lesions including cerebral atrophy, stroke, lacunar infarcts, diffuse white matter damage, microinfarct and microhemorrhage, resuling in cognitive impairment. Hypertension also impairs the metabolism and transfer of amyloid-β protein (Aβ, thus accelerates cognitive impairment. Individualized therapy, focusing on characteristics of hypertensive patients, may be a good choice for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.004
... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...
Dudley, N. J.
This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.
... and neighborhood . Step 8: Now see if your attitudes have changed. Take the Fact Checkup again.Â ... impairment also have at least one other developmental disability, such as intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, ...
... ALS or Lou Gehrig disease), cerebral palsy, myasthenia gravis, or multiple sclerosis (MS) Facial trauma Facial weakness, ... provider will likely ask about the speech impairment. Questions may include when the problem developed, whether there ...
Verriest, Arnt; Gaeremynck, Ann
This study investigates determinants of goodwill impairment decisions and their disclosure quality. Under IAS36 goodwill is subject to an annual impairment test in which the carrying amount of goodwill is not allowed to exceed the recoverable amount. However, valuing this recoverable amount is subject to substantial managerial discretion. Therefore, we predict that ownership concentration, corporate governance quality and firm performance provide incentives for managers to engage in goodwill ...
Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI.
... top Adapting the Environment Making adaptations to the environment where a child with a visual impairment lives, works, or plays ... can consult, depending on your role in the child’s life, are: Family Connect ... to the Physical Environment: Setting up a Classroom for Students with Visual ...
... to distinguish between children who are struggling to learn a new language and children with true language impairments. After studying a large group of Hispanic children who speak English as a second language, NIDCD-funded researchers have developed a dual ...
Spears, Catherine E.; Weber, Robert E.
Neurological impairment as discussed includes a range of disabilities referred to as neurological impairment: minimal brain dysfunction/damage, developmental disability, perceptual handicap, learning disability, hyperkinetic behavioral syndrome, and others. Defined are causes of neurological impairment and methods of diagnosis. Symptoms…
Consciousness is essential to normal human life. In epileptic seizures consciousness is often transiently lost making it impossible for the individual to experience or respond. This has huge consequences for safety, productivity, emotional health and quality of life. To prevent impaired consciousness in epilepsy it is necessary to understand the mechanisms leading to brain dysfunction during seizures. Normally the “consciousness system”—a specialized set of cortical-subcortical structures—mai...
Cordeiro, Nuno; Henriques, Sara
INTRODUCTION: Cryotherapy application over a joint causes a nerve conduction velocity decrease and proprioceptive changes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine if cryotherapy impairs proprioception acuity. METHODS: Proprioception was assessed by joint position sense (JPS), measured with an isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3, in twenty one females on experimental group, before 15 minutes cryotherapy (T0) and immediately after (T1). A control group (n=20) performed also the JPS...
Thompson, Lisa; Kaufman, Lawrence M
This article discusses the causes of childhood blindness and how the primary care provider may begin the appropriate steps toward diagnosing and managing the visually impaired child. Community resources (see Box 3) and low-vision programs in schools should be used so that parents do not need to reinvent strategies to raise a blind child. Worldwide, childhood blindness, which places is a tremendous burden on families and communities of the third world, is mostly preventable with improved hygiene, diet, and immunization. PMID:12713115
Pavlović Dragan M.
Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy.
Kamhi, Alan G; Clark, Mary Kristen
The acquisition of language is one of the most important achievements in young children, in part because most children appear to acquire language with little effort. Some children are not so fortunate, however. There is a large group of children who also have difficulty learning language, but do not have obvious neurological, cognitive, sensory, emotional, or environmental deficits. Clinicians often refer to these children as language disordered or language impaired. Researchers tend to refer to these children as specific language impaired (SLI). Children with SLI have intrigued researchers for many years because there is no obvious reason for their language learning difficulties. SLI has been found to be an enduring condition that begins in early childhood and often persists into adolescence and adulthood. The language problems of children with SLI are not limited to spoken language; they also affect reading and writing and thus much of academic learning. Knowledge of the characteristics of SLI should aid physicians, pediatricians, and early childhood specialists to identify these children during the preschool years and ensure that they receive appropriate services. With high-quality language intervention and literacy instruction, most children with SLI should be able to perform and function adequately in school and beyond. PMID:23622167
Müller, Susen; Behnen, Martina; Bieber, Katja; Möller, Sonja; Hellberg, Lars; Witte, Mareike; Hänsel, Martin; Zillikens, Detlef; Solbach, Werner; Laskay, Tamás; Ludwig, Ralf J
Host defense against pathogens relies on neutrophil activation. Inadequate neutrophil activation is often associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. Neutrophils also constitute a significant portion of infiltrating cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, for example, psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. Fumarates improve the latter diseases, which so far has been attributed to the effects on lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Here, we focused on the effects of dimethylfumarate (DMF) on neutrophils. In vitro, DMF inhibited neutrophil activation, including changes in surface marker expression, reactive oxygen species production, formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, and migration. Phagocytic ability and autoantibody-induced, neutrophil-dependent tissue injury ex vivo was also impaired by DMF. Regarding the mode of action, DMF modulates-in a stimulus-dependent manner-neutrophil activation using the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathways. For in vivo validation, mouse models of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies to type VII collagen, were employed. In the presence of DMF, blistering induced by injection of anti-type VII collagen antibodies into mice was significantly impaired. DMF treatment of mice with clinically already-manifested epidermolysis bullosa acquisita led to disease improvement. Collectively, we demonstrate a profound inhibitory activity of DMF on neutrophil functions. These findings encourage wider use of DMF in patients with neutrophil-mediated diseases. PMID:26763431
Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof
We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…
Osso, LA; Chan, JR
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Neuroinflammation is being increasingly recognized as a potential mediator of cognitive impairments in various neurological conditions. Habbas et al. demonstrate that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha signals through astrocytes to alter synaptic transmission and impair cognition in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.
Gajdobranski Đorđe; Micić Ivan; Mitković Milorad B.; Mladenović Desimir; Milankov Miroslav
Introduction Establishing continuity of long bones in cases of impaired bone healing and pseudo-arthrosis is one of the most complex problems in orthopedics. Impaired bone healing The problem of impaired fracture healing is not new. As in other areas of human life, the roots of modern treatment of impaired bone healing lie in ancient medicine. A relatively high percentage of impaired bone healing, as well as unsatisfactory results of standard therapies of impaired bone healing and pseudoarthr...
Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei
While cognitive impairment is a major symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is commonly overlooked. This may be explained by the fact that it is difficult to evaluate cognitive function in patients with MS using screening batteries for the detection of dementia such as the mini-mental state examination. Further more, cognitive impairment in MS typically involves domain-specific deficits such as imparement of sustained attention and information processing speed rather than global cognitive decline. Cognitive impairment may influence the daily living and social lines of affected patients. This review discusses the characteristics of cognitive impairment, appropreate tests to evaluate its symptoms, and the current status of clinical trials for the treatment of MS. PMID:27056855
Shinohara, Moeko; Yamada, Masahito
Elderly people are more likely than young people to develop cognitive impairments associated with medication use. One of the reasons for this is that renal and liver functions are often impaired in elderly people. Dementia and delirium (an acute confused state) are known to be associated with drug toxicity. Anticholinergic medications are common causes of both acute and chronic cognitive impairment. Psychoactive drugs, antidepressants and anticonvulsants can cause dementia and delirium. In addition, non-psychoactive drugs such as histamine H2 receptor antagonists, corticosteroids, NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), and cardiac medications, may cause acute or chronic cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending agent are essential for the prevention of drug-induced dementia and delirium. PMID:27056860
Full Text Available The study of mobility is a growth area in the social sciences. The car system (automobility has had as one of its consequences reduced opportunities for mobility impaired people to walk in their local environment. Immobility has resulted for many people with disabilities. Despite the promotion of physical activity by public health guidance local environments are often hazardous for mobility impaired people. In particular, there is a problem with cars parking on pavements and pavement cycling.
Full Text Available Emotional impairment is the common complication of Parkinson's disease (PD. Depression, anxiety and apathy affect the quality of life and the prognosis of PD patients. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of emotional impairment in PD patients suggest abnormalities involving mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic pathways, but the specific mechanism needs further study. In this review we discuss the clinical manifestation, possible pathological mechanism, diagnosis and treatment in PD patients.
Full Text Available To date, there is no consensus on how to assess functional impairment in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and this lack of consensus is reflected in the clinical practice. Since the criterion used in the literature is very vague, clinicians are still left without much guidance in this area. Thus, the main goal of this study was to examine how functional impairment in individuals with MCI has been assessed in the literature. An electronic database search strategy was developed in consultation with an experienced librarian. Four databases (CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, and MEDLINE were searched from 2000 to May 2014 to provide a comprehensive coverage of the literature. The literature search yielded 14 tools that assessed functional impairment in MCI. Among those, nine tools were performance-based measures in which participants were observed while executing a task in a simulated environment using real life material. In terms of questionnaires (either informant- or self-reports, five tools were found. Different functional domains have been assessed in each tool. According to this review, the characteristics of the instruments used in the literature to assess functional impairment in individuals with MCI vary greatly. Nonetheless, results of this study allow clinicians to make better-informed decisions when choosing a functional assessment for this population.
Full Text Available Although the semantic memory impairment has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease, little is known about semantic memory in the preclinical phase of the disease (Mild Cognitive Impairment. The purpose of this study was to document the nature of semantic breakdown using a battery of tests assessing different aspects of conceptual knowledge: knowledge about common objects, famous people and famous public events. Results indicate that all domains of semantic memory were impaired in MCI individuals but knowledge about famous people and famous events was affected to a greater extent than knowledge about objects. This pattern of results suggests that conceptual entities with distinctive and unique properties may be more prone to semantic breakdown in MCI. In summary, results of this study support the view that genuine semantic deficits are present in MCI. It could be useful to investigate the etiological outcome of patients failing or succeeding at such tests.
Full Text Available This article deals with different types of language impairment from the perspective of generative grammar. The paper focuses on syntactic deficiencies observed in aphasic and SLI (specific language impairment patients. We show that the observed ungrammatical structures do not appear in a random fashion but can be predicted by that theory of universal sentence structure which posits a strict hierarchy of its constituent parts. The article shows that while the hierarchically lower elements remain unaffected, the higher positions in the hierarchy show various degrees of syntactic impairment. The paper supports the implementation of recent developments in the field of generative grammar with the intention of encouraging further theoretical, experimental and therapeutic research in the field.
Young, Richard A
Strayer et al.'s conclusion that their "cognitive distraction scale" for auditory-vocal tasks indicates "significant impairments to driving" is not supported by their data. Additional analysis demonstrates that slower brake reaction times during auditory-vocal tasks were fully compensated for by longer following distances to the lead car. Naturalistic driving data demonstrate that cellular conversation decreases crash risk, the opposite of the article's assumption. Hence, the scale's internal and external validities for indicating driving impairment are highly questionable. PMID:26534851
Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…
Deaton, Ann Virginia
Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…
van Gaalen, Judith; de Swart, Bert J. M.; Oostveen, Judith; Knuijt, Simone; van de Warrenburg, Bart P. C.; Kremer, Berry (H. ) P. H.
Background: Several studies have suggested that language impairment can be observed in patients with cerebellar pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate language performance in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: We assessed speech and language in 29 SCA6 patients
Full Text Available Cognitive impairment can emerge in the earliest phases of multiple sclerosis. It strongly impacts different aspects of Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients' lives, like employment, social relationships and the overall quality of life; thus, its on-time recognition and treatment is mandatory. This paper discusses issues, diagnostic methods and treatment options for cognitive dysfunctions in MS. This paper is a descriptive review of the related studies in the recent 10 years, performing a keyword search in the main databases4T. Cognitive impairment mostly involves aspects of information processing, memory and executive functioning in MS. Neuropsychological tests like MACFIMS and BRB-N are recommended for its assessment. Still, there is no fully efficient treatment for cognitive impairment. Researchers have shown some positive effects, using disease-modifying therapies and cognitive rehabilitation. Depression, pain, fatigue and other factors influencing cognitive functions must be paid attention to4T. Recognizing cognitive impairment as a major symptom for MS, makes studying this subject one of the priorities in dealing with the disease. Therefore, a consecutive research for identification and management of this part of quality of life in MS patients is obligatory4T.4T
Eterović, Marija; Kozarić-Kovačić, Dragica
Delusions are often recognized as key to the concept of psychosis. What is delusion is one of the basic questions of psychopathology. The common denominator of definitions of delusions is the divergence between the strong conviction in the delusional belief and superior evidences to the contrary which are continually ignored. An implicit, sustainably unspoken assumption is that the person with delusional belief has cognitive capacities to process the (counter-)arguments relevant to their delusion. However, individual's cognitive capacities are not being emphasized when delusions are evaluated. Moreover, the impact of cognitive decline on formation of delusions is neglected, both in theory and practice. We elaborate that cognitive deficits may facilitate, oppose, or mimic delusions. We focus on the last, which can lead to diagnosing as delusion what could be explained by cognitive decline and better called pseudo-delusion. The risk is significant when cognition is impaired, as in demented people; an issue which has not yet been debated. True delusions are incompatible with person's cognitive capacities, i.e., if we take into account person's cognitive status, we still cannot understand how the person holds the strange belief with an extraordinary conviction. Pseudo-delusions would be beliefs, thoughts or judgments that at first seem delusional (they are false, subculturally atypical beliefs that are strongly maintained in the face of counterargument), but lose the essence of delusions after we take cognitive impairment into account. Pseudo-delusions could actually be explained or understood by person's cognitive impairments, they "fit into" them. The reported reality-based contents of delusions in the elderly, poor response to antipsychotics and lack of association with early or family history of psychiatric disorders could in part be accounted for by the bias of misdiagnosing the cognitive impairment as the delusion. Not recognizing that the cognitive impairment
A. Yu. Emelin
Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases belong to a group of the major causes of cognitive impairments, in the elderly in particular. The paper presents current ideas on the etiology and pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairments (VCI. The etiological factors of VCI may be divided into genetic, sociodemographic, and common risk factors for vascular and other diseases. The pathogenesis of VCI is multifactorial; cognitive function decrement results from brain damage due to cerebral circulatory disorders. Damage to the deep white matter portions and basal ganglions plays a leading role in the development of cognitive deficit in cerebral circulatory insufficiency, disrupting the connections between the frontal lobes and subcortical structures (a dissociation phenomenon. Regulatory functions are impaired; instability of volitional attention develops; the speed of thinking processes and the performance of professional and everyday skills are suffered, mnestic functions being impaired to a lesser extent. Impairments in other higher cortical functions, such as speech, gnosis, praxis, thinking, generally occur in the later stages of cognitive deficit. The comprehensive approach to examining patients with cognitive dysfunctions, which encompasses physical examination with a mandatory evaluation of neurological symptoms, neuropsychological testing, laboratory studies, instrumental diagnostic methods, and structural and functional neuroimaging techniques, are most justified now. VCI therapy is a challenging task requiring the specific features of different types of cognitive deficit to be analyzed, by providing a rationale for the choice of medications. Therapeutic effectiveness may be enhanced by rational combined multimodal therapy, by keeping in mind a variety of factors for the pathogenesis of VCI.
Morris, Jill K.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Honea, Robyn A.; Burns, Jeffrey M.
Insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes are associated with cognitive decline and increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Relatively few studies have assessed the impact of metabolic dysfunction on conversion to AD in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and it is unclear whether glycemic status is associated with clinically-relevant measures of cognitive decline and brain structure in MCI. This study used the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to examine the relation...
Stephan, Blossom CM; Matthews, Fiona E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Dufouil, Carole; Brayne, Carol
Identifying the causes of dementia is important in the search for effective preventative and treatment strategies. The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as prodromal dementia, has been useful but remains controversial since in population-based studies it appears to be a limited predictor of progression to dementia. Recognising the relative contribution of neurodegenerative and vascular causes, as well as their interrelationship, may enhance predictive accuracy. The concept of vascul...
Hua Zhou; Zhong Zhao
Vascular cognitive impairment(VCI) encompasses the entire range of cognitive deficits associated with cerebrovascular disease(CVD), from mild deficits with little or no functional impairment, such as vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia(VCIND), to full-blown vascular dementia(VaD). Accurate diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment is important but may be difficult. In this review we report advances in VCI in the following areas: etiology, subtypes, neuropsychology, biomarkers, neuroimaging, and diagnostic criteria.
Moon, Jae Hoon
Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment h...
Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis;
Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL, the...
Frame, Melissa J.
A study found the gestural activity of 15 adolescents with visual impairments differed from that of 15 adolescents with sight. Subjects with visual impairments used more adapters (especially finger-to-hand gestures) and fewer conversational gestures. Differences in gestural activity by degree of visual impairment and grade in school were also…
Boros, Alexander, Ed.
The articles in this special issue explore the connections between the dual disabilities of alcohol abuse and physical impairment, and reflect progress made in exploring the causes and treatments of alcohol abuse among the physically impaired. Selected articles include: "Results of a Model Intervention Program for Physically Impaired Persons"…
Leonard, Laurence B.
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those ...
Malnutrition, either under- or overnutrition, is a common condition among neurologically impaired children. Energy needs are difficult to define in this heterogeneous population, and there is a lack of information on what normal growth should be in these children. Non-nutritional factors may influence growth, but nutritional factors such as insufficient caloric intake, excessive nutrient losses and abnormal energy metabolism also contribute to growth failure. Malnutrition is associated with s...
Day, Jeremy J.; Sweatt, J. David
Epigenetic mechanisms integrate signals from diverse intracellular transduction cascades and in turn regulate genetic readout. Accumulating evidence has revealed that these mechanisms are critical components of ongoing physiology and function in the adult nervous system, and are essential for many cognitive processes, including learning and memory. Moreover, a number of psychiatric disorders and syndromes that involve cognitive impairments are associated with altered epigenetic function. In t...
Engel de Abreu, Pascale
Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...
Genderen, Maria Michielde van
Inherited retinal disorders and posterior visual pathway abnormalities are important causes of visual impairment in children. Visual electrophysiology often is indispensable in diagnosing these conditions. This thesis shows the wide range of use of pediatric electro-ophthalmology, and demonstrates its value in establishing diagnoses and predicting the course of a disease, with consequences for the rehabilitation process. The electrophysiological results also contribute to the understanding of...
Cosgrove, Jeremy; Alty, Jane Elizabeth; Jamieson, Stuart
Cognitive impairment is a significant non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Longitudinal cohort studies have demonstrated that approximately 50% of those with PD develop dementia after 10 years, increasing to over 80% after 20 years. Deficits in cognition can be identified at the time of PD diagnosis in some patients and this mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) has been studied extensively over the last decade. Although PD-MCI is a risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease dementia there is evidence to suggest that PD-MCI might consist of distinct subtypes with different pathophysiologies and prognoses. The major pathological correlate of Parkinson's disease dementia is Lewy body deposition in the limbic system and neocortex although Alzheimer's related pathology is also an important contributor. Pathological damage causes alteration to neurotransmitter systems within the brain, producing behavioural change. Management of cognitive impairment in PD requires a multidisciplinary approach and accurate communication with patients and relatives is essential. PMID:25814509
Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.
It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.
Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf
Resonance is the phenomenon of one person unconsciously mirroring the motor actions as basis of emotional expressions of another person. This shared representation serves as a basis for sharing physiological and emotional states of others and is an important component of empathy. Contagious laughing and contagious yawning are examples of resonance. In the interpersonal contact with individuals with schizophrenia we can often experience impaired empathic resonance. The aim of this study is to determine differences in empathic resonance-in terms of contagion by yawning and laughing-in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the context of psychopathology and social functioning. We presented video sequences of yawning, laughing or neutral faces to 43 schizophrenia outpatients and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were video-taped during the stimulation and rated regarding contagion by yawning and laughing. In addition, we assessed self-rated empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the schizophrenia group resp. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the control group), social dysfunction (Social Dysfunction Index) and executive functions (Stroop, Fluency). Individuals with schizophrenia showed lower contagion rates for yawning and laughing. Self-rated empathic concern showed no group difference and did not correlate with contagion. Low rate of contagion by laughing correlated with the schizophrenia negative syndrome and with social dysfunction. We conclude that impaired resonance is a handicap for individuals with schizophrenia in social life. Blunted observable resonance does not necessarily reflect reduced subjective empathic concern. PMID:19377866
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. 416.921 Section 416.921 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... Disability § 416.921 What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. (a) Non-severe impairment(s)....
A database related to the activities of the Liverpool vision assessment team was used to identify all children with vision impairment aged 0-16 years, resident in Liverpool, UK, on 1 April 1995. Prevalence rates were calculated for all children with vision impairment, and separately for two groups: those with uncomplicated vision impairment, and those with additional pathology. Visual tract pathologies were tabulated and compared. Associated handicapping conditions were defined and the extent...
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the neurological developmental disorder mainly affecting motor abilities. Considering the high rate of associated impairments even the definition of CP is revised and changed. Visual impairment is one of the most common associated impairment. Unfortunately, it is often unrecognized and considered to be a normal consequence of motor problems. Sense of sight is most important for early child development, motivation, learning through imitation. It is, therefore, indispensa...
Tuttle, Dean W.
A literature review regarding family adjustment to a visually impaired family member considered the stages of denial, withdrawal, acceptance, depression, reaffirmation, coping, mobilization, and self-acceptance. (CB)
Full Text Available Impairment and revaluation are terms closely related to one another, with subtle differences. Revaluation and impairment both require the company to evaluate the assets for their fair value, and then take appropriate action in updating the accounting books. The major difference between the two is that a revaluation can be made upwards (to increase the value of the asset to market value or downwards (to ecrease the value. An impairment, on the other hand, only refers to one of the two, a fall in the market value which is then written down. The purpose of the paper is to establish what are the differences between revaluation and impairment of assets.
Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne
Evacuation characteristics for blind and visually impaired people are presented in the current study. The study was carried out in 2011 and engaged 40 participants in the age from 10 to 69 years. The participants had impairments for all of the four Danish categories for visual impairments (A......-bodied adults. It was found that people with visual impairments were able to uphold a higher walking speed descending stairs than able-bodied adults for increasing person density. The initial walking speed on horizontal planes is lower than the value suggested by the N&M-model. The horizontal mean free walking...
Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. There is significantly elevated risk of cognitive decline and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Dementia may develop insidiously several years after manifestation of Parkinson motor symptoms (dementia associated with Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia) or in close temporal relationship (within one year) after onset of motor symptoms (Dementia with Lewy bodies). There are clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic similarities between these two conditions. Men are more frequently affected than women. Risk factor or indicators are advanced age at disease onset, disease duration, rigidity, akinesia and posture and gait impairment and falls as opposed to tremor dominance, and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, apathy, hallucinosis, delirium). Dementia is treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil), memantine, and adjustment of the pharmacological regimen of parkinsonian motor symptoms. Concomitant autonomic nervous system symptoms and neuropsychiatric complications warrant early clinical awareness and are accessible to pharmacological therapy. PMID:26609664
Kramer, J H; Knee, K; Delis, D C
Although verbal memory deficits are frequently reported in reading disabled children, the specific mechanisms underlying these impairments have yet to be clearly defined. The present study used the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) to assess verbal learning in 57 dyslexic children and 114 controls matched for gender, age, and WISC-R Vocabulary score. Three areas of verbal memory were investigated: Recall and recognition, use of learning strategies, and interference effects. The dyslexic group learned the list items more slowly, recalled fewer words on the last learning trial and the delayed trials, and performed less well on the recognition condition. Dyslexics and controls displayed similar vulnerability to interference, but group differences were evident in serial position effects. Taken together, our data suggest that dyslexics have less efficient rehearsal and encoding mechanisms, resulting in deficient encoding of new information, but normal retention and retrieval. PMID:14590570
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Waters identified as impaired as well as their associated causes of impairment from all approved Clean Water Act 303(d) lists submitted by the states. Includes all...
Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz
Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…
Suggests resources for school librarians who need materials for visually impaired or blind students. Highlights include the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; Louis Database of Accessible Materials for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired; Braille books; large print books, audio books; assistive technology; and…
Krahe, Jane M.
The Pegasus Project offered nine gifted hearing impaired students (11-15 years old) a summer enrichment experience with hearing peers. Courses included computer programming, literature, fine arts, physical and biological sciences, math enrichment, and sign language. All hearing impaired students also attended a special class on issues for the…
van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Balkom, Hans
Background: Language impairment is often associated with behaviour problems. However, detailed relations between different types of language impairment and specific behaviour problems in children have yet to be demonstrated. The present study attempted to do just this with an eye to the implications to identify foci for early intervention.…
Emerson, Shirley; Markos, Patricia A.
Although the problem of impaired professionals has been with us for as long as professionals have been so designated, this article considers potential harm to clients and the profession's obligation to monitor its members and provide appropriate rehabilitation. Definitions of distress and professional impairment are discussed, as are the…
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.
Moon, Jae Hoon
Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278
Bliwise, Donald L.; And Others
Associations between depression and impaired respiration in sleep are frequently noted clinically. This relationship was documented psychometrically with the Geriatric Depression Scale, a self-report measure of nonsomatic depressive symptoms. Mean values and effect size suggest that impaired respiration in sleep was associated with only relatively…
Peiffer, Ann M; Friedman, Jennifer T; Rosen, Glenn D; Fitch, R Holly
Previous research with adult animal models links the presence of cortical neuromigrational anomalies (i.e., microgyria similar to that found in brains of dyslexics) with rapid auditory processing (RAP) impairments. RAP impairments are in turn found in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and also in individuals with dyslexia. Gap detection, a simple measure of auditory temporal acuity, appears to be impaired in children with SLI but not in dyslexic adults, even though both groups exhibit impaired processing on more complex, rapid auditory tasks. In the current study, juvenile rats with bilateral microgyria, but not their adult counterparts, exhibited impaired detection of short duration silent gaps in white noise when compared to age-matched sham littermates. Results lend further support to: (1) an association between neuromigrational anomalies and RAP impairments; and (2) the validity of an animal model of RAP impairments associated with language disturbances in humans. Current results also support the view that auditory processing disturbances associated with cortical malformations may be evident early in development at a relatively "low" level (e.g., simple gap detection), but may require "higher-order" auditory discrimination tasks (e.g., tone sequences, phonemic discriminations) to be elicited later in life. PMID:15351496
Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura;
: An analysis was conducted on baseline data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly study, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients aged 65 or older. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains (a...
Beshir, A.; Nuijts, R.; Malhotra, R.; Kuipers, F.
Traffic grooming allows efficient utilization of network capacity by aggregating several independent traffic streams into a wavelength. In addition, survivability and impairment-awareness (i.e., taking into account the effect of physical impairments) are two important issues that have gained a lot o
Andersen, Kjeld; Nybo, Hanne; Gaist, David;
regression analysis was applied to adjust for a number of known and suspected factors known or suspected of being associated with cognition and mortality (e.g. sociodemographic factors, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and physical abilities), and yielded hazard ratios (95% confidence......Cognitive impairment has been associated with increased mortality. Most studies, however, have only included small numbers, if at all, of the very old. In a large nationwide survey of all Danes born in 1905 and still alive in 1998, where the baseline examination was conducted, we examined the...... impact of cognitive impairment on mortality over a 2-year period. No cognitive impairment was defined as a score of 24-30 points on the Mini Mental State Examination, mild cognitive impairment was defined as a score of 18-23 points, and severe impairment was defined as a score of 0-17 points. Cox...
Andersson, A-M; Jørgensen, N; Frydelund-Larsen, L; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E
To investigate whether an impaired Leydig cell function is present in severely oligospermic men, serum testosterone (T), LH, estradiol (E(2)), and SHBG levels in 357 idiopathic infertile men were compared with levels in 318 proven fertile men. In addition, the T/LH ratio, E(2)/T ratio, and...... fertile levels.Thus, the group of infertile men showed significant signs of impaired Leydig cell function in parallel to their impaired spermatogenesis. The association of decreased spermatogenesis and impaired Leydig cell function might reflect a disturbed paracrine communication between the seminiferous...... epithelium and the Leydig cells, triggered by distorted function of the seminiferous epithelium. On the other hand, the parallel impairment of spermatogenesis and Leydig cells may reflect a congenital dysfunction of both compartments caused by a testicular dysgenesis during fetal/infant development....
Stachel, Nicole; Jacobsen-Bauer, Andrea; Skopp, Gisela
Methoxydiphenidine (MXP) was first reported in 1989 as a dissociative anesthetic but did not enter the market for pharmaceuticals. The substance re-appeared in 2013 as a new psychoactive substance. A case of driving under the influence of MXP is reported. The concentration of MXP has been determined from a serum sample (57 ng/mL) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry following liquid-liquid extraction. In addition, amphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and its major metabolite were present in concentrations of 111, 28, and 3 ng/mL, respectively. The subject presented with amnesia, out-of-body experiences, bizarre behavior, and decreased motor abilities. At present, information on human toxicity of MXP is not available. MXP is comparable in structure as well as in action at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to phencyclidine or ketamine. Therefore, it is likely that MXP exerts similar severe psychotropic action in man. However, there is no information on the duration and intensity of MXP's impairing effects, the interpretation of a particular concentration in the blood or serum, and its detectability in routine drug screenings. Confirmation analysis may be confined to cases where the police has specific intelligence that points to MXP use. PMID:26482953
Emamifar, Amir; Bjoerndal, Kristine; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory disease that affects 1% of the population. The auditory system may be involved during the course of disease; however the association of RA and hearing impairment has not been clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review......, hearing test, audiometry, auditory dysfunction and rheumatoid arthritis. CONCLUSION: Based on our review it can be postulated that patients with RA are at higher risk of hearing impairment compared to healthy subjects in their course of the disease. The hearing impairment in RA seems to be a...
National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...
National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...
National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...
Ries, J. G.; Baguio, M.
To a visually impaired person celestial objects or concepts of space exploration are likely to be more abstract than to other people, but they encounter news about the universe through their daily life. A partnership between Texas Space Grant Consortium, The University of Texas at Austin, and the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired provided the opportunity to assist visually impaired students increase their understanding of astronomy and space science. The activities helped visually impaired students activity engage in inquiry-based, hands-on astronomy activities. The experiences provided during the educator workshops, adapted instructional classroom activities, and tactile learning aids will be shared in the hopes that others may be able to incorporate these lessons into their regular teaching activities.
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures affective decision making and has revealed decision making impairments across a wide range of eating disorders. This study aimed to investigate affective decision making in severely obese individuals.
Full Text Available Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval. They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more poorly in the detection of downward pitch changes, they did not differ from non-tone language speakers in their perception of upward pitch changes or in their perception of subtle time changes. Moreover, this impairment cannot be attributed to low musical aptitude since the impairment remains unchanged when individual differences in musical pitch-based processing is taken into account. Thus, the impairment appears highly specific and may reflect the influence of statistical regularities of tone languages.