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Sample records for biaxial stress

  1. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer

    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper ...

  2. The Cladding Fracture Behaviour under Biaxial Stress Conditions

    It is considered that biaxial stress is generated in the cladding of high burnup fuels under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions due to bonding between the fuel pellet and cladding and the isotropy of pellet thermal expansion. The effect of biaxiality on the fracture and deformation behaviour of the cladding has not been fully investigated even for unirradiated material, while it is well-known that the fracture behaviour strongly depends on the stress condition. Since such biaxial stress condition cannot be simulated by conventional mechanical testing techniques, a test apparatus was developed to control the axial and hoop stresses independently and evaluate the mechanical and fracture behaviour of the fuel cladding under biaxial stress conditions. This paper describes the outline of preliminary test results obtained under various biaxial stress conditions at room temperature using this apparatus. (author)

  3. Biaxial stress effects on estimating J under combined mechanical and thermal stresses

    In this paper, the applicability to bi-axial stress states of a simple approximation proposed in our previous work for quantifying the elastic-plastic J under combined primary and secondary stresses is investigated.To produce the bi-axial stress states, circumferential cracked pipes under combined pressure, axial tension (or compression) and thermal stresses are considered. The results suggest that the proposed approximation can be applied to bi-axial stress states, and is slightly more conservative for bi-axial mechanical stresses than for uni-axial ones. The degree of conservatism decreases with increasing strain hardening exponent and with increasing relative magnitude of secondary stress. - Highlights: ? A method to estimate J under combined primary and secondary stresses was proposed by the authors. ? This paper extends the proposed method to biaxial primary stress states. ? We find that the proposed approximation can be applied to bi-axial stress states. ? The proposed approximation is slightly more conservative for biaxial stresses than for uniaxial ones. ? The degree of conservatism decreases with increasing hardening exponent and relative magnitude of secondary stress.

  4. Mean stress effects in biaxial fatigue of Inconel 718

    Biaxial fatigue tests were conducted on Inconel 718 thin-walled tubular specimens to quantify the effect of mean stress. The specimens were loaded in combined tension and torsion in strain control at room temperature. Fatigue lives ranged from 3000 to 15,000 cycles depending on the mean stress. These data were correlated with a parameter based on the maximum plastic shear strain amplitude, normal strain amplitude and mean normal stress on the plane of maximum shear strain amplitude. This parameter was combined with the Coffin-Manson equation for estimating fatigue lives. Observations of the cracking behavior show that mean stress affects the rate of crack growth and distribution of cracks

  5. Application of magnetomechanical hysteresis modeling of magnetic techniques for monitoring neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress

    Research was done on the biaxial stress problem accomplished in the first half of the second year. All of the work done was preparatory to magnetic measurements. Issues addressed were: construction of a model for extracting changes in the magnetic properties of a specimen from the readings of an indirect sensor; initial development of a model for how biaxial stress alters the intrinsic magnetic properties of thespecimen; use of finite element stress analysis modeling to determine a detailed shape for the cruciform biaxial stress specimen; and construction of the biaxial stress loading apparatus

  6. The dynamics of interacting folds under biaxial compressive stresses.

    Shin, Hyunjae; Dixit, Atray C; Stone, Howard A; Abkarian, Manouk; Kim, Pilnam

    2016-04-13

    The gradual in-plane compression of a solid film bonded to a soft substrate can lead to surface wrinkling and even to the formation of a network of folds for sufficiently high strain. An understanding of how these folds initiate, propagate, and interact with each other is still lacking. In a previous study, we developed an experimental system to observe the wrinkle-to-fold transition of layered elastic materials under biaxial compressive stresses. Here we focus on the dynamic interaction of a pair of propagating folds under biaxial compression. We find experimentally that their behavior is mediated through their tips and depends on the separation of the tips and their angle of interception. When the angle is lower than 45°, the two folds either form a unique fold by the coalescence of their tips when close enough, or bend their trajectories to intersect each other and form a lenticular region in analogy with cracks. When the angle is higher then 45°, the folds simply intersect and form a T-like junction. We rationalize this behavior by conducting numerical simulations to visualize the stress field around the two tips and find that the initial geometric position of the tips primarily determines the final state of the folds. PMID:27021924

  7. Strength and deformation of sealed HTR-concrete under biaxial stresses and elevated temperatures

    Biaxial short term fracture tests at elevated temperature were performed on sealed basalt concrete specimens. These tests confirm that the strength and deformation characteristics are determined by the shared influence of the temperature as well as of the biaxial state of stress. (author)

  8. Strain Energy Effects on Texture Evolution in Thin Films: Biaxial vs. Uniaxial Stress State

    Grain growth in thin films is usually accompanied by texture evolution due to the crystallographic dependencies of surface, interface and strain energies. In this work the driving forces for grain growth for a 1 and 5 ?m thick Cu thin film on a polyimide substrate are calculated assuming biaxial and uniaxial stress. While the results for the biaxial stress state are used to explain observed textures, for the case of uniaxial stress predictions suggest new ways to control the texture of thin films

  9. Strain Energy Effects on Texture Evolution in Thin Films: Biaxial vs. Uniaxial Stress State

    Sonnweber-Ribic, P.; Dehm, G.; Gruber, P.; Arzt, E.

    2006-02-01

    Grain growth in thin films is usually accompanied by texture evolution due to the crystallographic dependencies of surface, interface and strain energies. In this work the driving forces for grain growth for a 1 and 5 ?m thick Cu thin film on a polyimide substrate are calculated assuming biaxial and uniaxial stress. While the results for the biaxial stress state are used to explain observed textures, for the case of uniaxial stress predictions suggest new ways to control the texture of thin films.

  10. Evaluation of micro fatigue crack growth under equi-biaxial stress by membranous pressure fatigue test

    For preventing nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents, NPPs are required to ensure system safety in long term safe operation under aging degradation. Now, fatigue accumulation is one of major ageing phenomena and are evaluated to ensure safety by design fatigue curve that are based on the results of uniaxial fatigue tests. On the other hand, thermal stress that occurs in piping of actual components is not uniaxial but equi-biaxial. For accurate evaluation, it is required to conform real circumstance. In this study, membranous pressure fatigue test was conducted to simulated equi-biaxial stress. Crack initiation and crack growth were examined by replica investigation. Calculation result of equivalent stress intensity factor shows crack growth under equi-biaxial stress is faster than under uniaxial stress. It is concluded that equi-biaxial fatigue behavior should be considered in the evaluation of fatigue crack initiation and crack growth. (author)

  11. Mastering the biaxial stress state in nanometric thin films on flexible substrates

    Faurie, D., E-mail: faurie@univ-paris13.fr [LSPM-CNRS, UPR3407, Université Paris 13, Villetaneuse (France); Renault, P.-O.; Le Bourhis, E. [Institut Pprime UPR3346, CNRS – Université de Poitiers, Futuroscope (France); Geandier, G. [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR7198, Université de Lorraine, Nancy Cedex (France); Goudeau, P. [Institut Pprime UPR3346, CNRS – Université de Poitiers, Futuroscope (France); Thiaudière, D. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint-Aubin, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    Biaxial stress state of thin films deposited on flexible substrate can be mastered thanks to a new biaxial device. This tensile machine allows applying in-plane loads F{sub x} and F{sub y} in the two principal directions x and y of a cruciform-shaped polymer substrate. The transmission of the deformation at film/substrate interface allows controlling the stress and strain field in the thin films. We show in this paper a few illustrations dealing with strain measurements in polycrystalline thin films deposited on flexible substrate. The potentialities of the biaxial device located at Soleil synchrotron are also discussed.

  12. Experimental study on ultimate strength and strain behavior of concrete under biaxial compressive stresses

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the ultimate strength failure mode and deformation behavior of concrete under short-term biaxial compressive stresses, as an aid to design and analyze the concrete structures subjected to multiaxial compression such as prestressed or reinforced concrete vessel structures. The experimental work on biaxial compression was carried out on the specimens of three mix proportions and different ages with 10cm x 10cm x 10cm cubic shape in a room controlled at 200C. The results are summarized as follows. (1) To minimize the surface friction between specimens and loading platens, the pads of teflon sheets coated with silicone grease were used. The coefficient of friction was measured and was 3 percent on the average. (2) The test data showed that the strength of the concrete subjected to biaxial compression increased as compared to uniaxial compressive strength, and that the biaxial strength increase was mainly dependent on the ratio of principal stresses, and it was hardly affected by mix proportions and ages. (3) The maximum increase of strength, which occurred at the stress ratio of approximately sigma2/sigma1 = 0.6, was about 27 percent higher than the uniaxial strength of concrete. (4) The ultimate strength in case of biaxial compression could be approximated by the parabolic equation. (Kako, I.)

  13. On the correct interpretation of measured force and calculation of material stress in biaxial tests.

    Nolan, D R; McGarry, J P

    2016-01-01

    Biaxial tests are commonly used to investigate the mechanical behaviour of soft biological tissues and polymers. In the current paper we uncover a fundamental problem associated with the calculation of material stress from measured force in standard biaxial tests. In addition to measured forces, localised unmeasured shear forces also occur at the clamps and the inability to quantify such forces has significant implications for the calculation of material stress from simplified force-equilibrium relationships. Unmeasured shear forces are shown to arise due to two distinct competing contributions: (1) negative shear force due to stretching of the orthogonal clamp, and (2) positive shear force as a result of material Poisson-effect. The clamp shear force is highly dependent on the specimen geometry and the clamp displacement ratio, as consequently, is the measured force-stress relationship. Additionally in this study we demonstrate that commonly accepted formulae for the estimation of material stress in the central region of a cruciform specimen are highly inaccurate. A reliable empirical correction factor for the general case of isotropic materials must be a function of specimen geometry and the biaxial clamp displacement ratio. Finally we demonstrate that a correction factor for the general case of non-linear anisotropic materials is not feasible and we suggest the use of inverse finite element analysis as a practical means of interpreting experimental data for such complex materials. PMID:26327453

  14. Biaxial nominal state of stress at the crack front

    In fracture toughness testing with CT-specimens there is an unaxial nominal stress state caused by the nominal stress psub(y) perpendicular to the crack surface. This paper investigates the question whether the fracture toughness, or generally speaking, the fracture load, is influenced by additional nominal stresses psub(x) and psub(z) in the crack surface, i.e. by a multiaxial stress state. (orig.)

  15. Numerical analysis of interacting cracks in biaxial stress field

    The stress corrosion cracks as seen for example in PWR steam generator tubing made of Inconel 600 usually produce highly irregular kinked and branched crack patterns. Crack initialization and propagation depends on stress state underlying the crack pattern. Numerical analysis (such as finite element method) of interacting kinked and branched cracks can provide accurate solutions. This paper discusses the use of general-purpose finite element code ABAQUS for evaluating stress fields at crack tips of interacting complex cracks. The results obtained showed reasonable agreement with the reference solutions and confirmed use of finite elements in such class of problems.(author)

  16. Ductility of Zircaloy canning tubes in relation to stress ratio in biaxial testing

    A biaxial-burst testing machine has been designed in which biaxial plane stress tests can be carried out on tubular material with any stress ratio in the range sigma/sub THETA/:sigma/sub z/ 4:5 to 2:1, where 2:1 implies the closed-end burst test. Unirradiated Zircaloy tubes cold worked 80 percent, recrystallized at 5750C, and characterized by a texture having a basal pole tilt angle of 33 deg were tested at room temperature with various stress ratios, namely, 4:5, 1:1, 5:4, 3:2, and 2:1. In addition, tension and open-end burst tests were carried out in conventional machines. The uniform ductility measured as uniform effective strain displays a minimum at the stress ratio 3:2. It has been found experimentally that the stress ratio for minimum uniform ductility corresponds to deformation under a plane strain loading condition, that is, the stress ratio which gives no change in the tube length

  17. Biaxial stress corrosion cracking of 316L stainless steel in MgCl2 (44%) at 154 deg C

    Stress corrosion cracking tests, under biaxial loading, of 316L austenitic stainless steel in a boiling MgCl2 (44 %) solution at 154 deg C, show that the multiaxial stress cracking criterion is different from the uniaxial criterion. The crack initiates at etch pits and does not necessarily grow perpendicular to the direction of the maximum principal stress. (authors)

  18. A new analytical model about the relationship between nominal failure stresses and porosity for foamed metals under biaxial tension

    Foamed metals have been widely used as various engineering materials, and their mechanical properties have also been drawing extensive attention. In the present paper, a new mechanical and analytical model is established for these materials with isotropic three-dimensional reticulated structure under biaxial tension, and the mathematical equation about biaxial nominal stresses is deduced for the biaxial tension at the beginning of failure of the porous body. With the relevant experiment, the relation formula is proved to be very effective. Different from the relevant theoretical system of Gibson and Ashby, the present mathematical relationship can be conveniently achieved from directly using the 'beam theory' on this mechanical and analytical model. In addition, this relationship can be further expressed as the mathematical relationship among the nominal failure 'deviatoric stress', the nominal failure 'average stress' and porosity, but the concepts of both the 'deviatoric stress' and the 'average stress' can appear just from the mathematical treatment

  19. Numerical analysis of branched cracks in bi-axial stress fields

    The stress corrosion cracks as seen for example in PWR steam generator tubing made of Inconel 600 are usually found to be of highly irregular kinked and branched shapes. Numerical analysis of kinked and branched cracks in bi-axial plane stress fields using methods such as finite or boundary element method may provide useful and cost effective solutions. However, accurate analysis of complex shaped cracks requires very fine meshes and, consequently, excessively high computational efforts. This paper discusses some possible strategies of numerical modeling of kinked and branched cracks in general bi-axial stress field using the general-purpose finite element code ABAQUS. The strategies discussed include J-integral and stress intensity factor solutions with different mesh densities. The accuracy of the numerical results obtained is compared with reference solutions from the literature. The main result of the paper is an optimal numerical strategy, which maximizes the accuracy of the result at as low computational efforts as feasible. The selected optimal strategy is expected to be used in the future simulations of large networks of inter-granular stress corrosion cracks at the grain-size scale using incomplete random tessellation.(author)

  20. Estimation of low cycle fatigue life of elbows considering bi-axial stress effect

    Elbow pipes are commonly used in the piping systems of power plants and chemical plants. The stress states at elbow part are complex and quite different from those of the straight pipes. It is well known that the fatigue lives of metals under simple push-pull conditions were successfully predicted by the Manson's universal slope method. However, it have been pointed out by the several researchers that the low cycle fatigue lives of elbows under combined cyclic bending and inner pressure could not be predicted by the Manson's universal slope method. However, the reasons for this are not made clear. In this work, the low cycle fatigue tests and the finite element analysis of elbows under cyclic bending and inner pressures were carried out. It was found that the bi-axial stress ratio, which is a ratio of hoop stress and axial stress, at elbows are quite high. Considering the bi-axial stress ratio, the revised Manson's universal slope method was proposed in this paper. It was shown that the low cycle fatigue lives of elbows under combined cyclic bending and inner pressure were predicted conservatively by the proposed method. (author)

  1. A novel biaxial specimen for inducing residual stresses in thermoset polymers and fibre composite material

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Andreasen, Jens Henrik; Jensen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A new type of specimen configuration with the purpose of introducing a well-defined biaxial residual (axisymmetric) stress field in a neat thermoset or a fibre composite material is presented. The ability to experimentally validate residual stress predictions is an increasing need for design...... engineers when they challenge the material limits in present and future thermoset and composite component. In addition to the new specimen configuration, this paper presents an analytical solution for the residual stress state in the specimen. The analytical solution assumes linear elastic and isotropic...... material behaviour. Experimental strain release measurements and the analytical solution determine the residual stress state present in the material. A demonstration on neat epoxy is conducted and residual stress predictions of high accuracy and repeatability have been achieved. The precise determination...

  2. Effective X-ray elastic constant measurement for in situ stress measurement of biaxially strained AA5754-O

    Iadicola, Mark A., E-mail: mark.iadicola@nist.gov [Metallurgy Division, 100 Bureau Drive, STOP 8553, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Gnaeupel-Herold, Thomas H., E-mail: gnaeupel@nist.gov [NIST Center for Neutron Research, 100 Bureau Drive, STOP 6102, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Accurate measurement of stresses by X-ray diffraction requires accurate X-ray elastic constants. Calibration experiments are one method to determine these for a specific material in a specific condition. In this paper, uniaxial tension experiments are used to investigate the variation of these constants after uniaxial and equal-biaxial plastic deformation for an aluminum alloy (AA5754-O) of interest to the automotive industry. These data are critical for accurate measurement of the biaxial mechanical properties of the material using a recent experimental method combining specialized sheet metal forming equipment with portable X-ray diffraction equipment. The measured effective X-ray elastic constants show some minor variation with increased plastic deformation, and this behavior was found to be consistent for both uniaxially and equal-biaxially strained samples. The use of two average values for effective X-ray elastic constants, one in the rolling direction and one transverse to the rolling direction of the sheet material, is shown to be of sufficient accuracy for the combined tests of interest. Comparison of uniaxial data measured using X-ray diffraction and standard methods show good agreement, and biaxial stress-strain results show good repeatability. Additionally, the calibration data show some non-linear behavior, which is analyzed in regards to crystallographic texture and intergranular stress effects. The non-linear behavior is found to be the result of intergranular stresses based on comparison with additional measurements using other X-ray diffraction equipment and neutron diffraction.

  3. Numerical and experimental analysis of the directional stability on crack propagation under biaxial stresses

    In this paper, the case of Single Edge Notch (SEN) specimens subject to opening/compressive loading was analyzed; The loads are applied in several ratios to evaluate the influence of the specimen geometry, and the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) K1 values on the directional stability of crack propagation. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the behaviour of the fracture propagation, when modifying the geometry of the SEN specimen and different relationships of load tension/compression are applied. Additionally, the precision of the numerical and experimental analysis is evaluated to determine its reliability when solving this type of problems. The specimens are subjected to biaxial opening/compression loading; both results (numerical and experimental) are compared in order to evaluate the condition of directional stability on crack propagation. Finally, an apparent transition point related to the length of specimens was identified, in which the behaviour of values of SIF changes for different loading ratios.

  4. Numerical and experimental analysis of the directional stability on crack propagation under biaxial stresses

    RodrIguez-MartInez, R; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME), Edificio 5. 2do Piso, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos ' Zacatenco' Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Merchan-Cruz, E A; RodrIguez-Canizo, R G; Sandoval-Pineda, J M, E-mail: rrodriguezm@ipn.m, E-mail: urrio332@hotmail.co, E-mail: guiurri@hotmail.co, E-mail: luishector56@hotmail.co, E-mail: eamerchan@gmail.co, E-mail: ricname@hotmail.co, E-mail: jsandovalp@ipn.m [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME). Unidad profesional, AZCAPOTZALCO, Av. de las Granjas No. 682, Col. Sta. Catarina Azcapotzalco, C.P. 02550, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the case of Single Edge Notch (SEN) specimens subject to opening/compressive loading was analyzed; The loads are applied in several ratios to evaluate the influence of the specimen geometry, and the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) K{sub 1} values on the directional stability of crack propagation. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the behaviour of the fracture propagation, when modifying the geometry of the SEN specimen and different relationships of load tension/compression are applied. Additionally, the precision of the numerical and experimental analysis is evaluated to determine its reliability when solving this type of problems. The specimens are subjected to biaxial opening/compression loading; both results (numerical and experimental) are compared in order to evaluate the condition of directional stability on crack propagation. Finally, an apparent transition point related to the length of specimens was identified, in which the behaviour of values of SIF changes for different loading ratios.

  5. Application of magnetomechanical hysteresis modeling to magnetic techniques for monitoring neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress

    The objective is to investigate experimentally and theoretically the effects of neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress on magnetic properties in steels, using various magnetic measurement techniques. Interaction between experiment and modeling should suggest efficient magnetic measurement procedures for determining neutron embrittlement biaxial stress. This should ultimately assist in safety monitoring of nuclear power plants and of gas and oil pipelines. In the first six months of this first year study, magnetic measurements were made on steel surveillance specimens from the Indian Point 2 and D.C. Cook 2 reactors. The specimens previously had been characterized by Charpy tests after specified neutron fluences. Measurements now included: (1) hysteresis loop measurement of coercive force, permeability and remanence, (2) Barkhausen noise amplitude; and (3) higher order nonlinear harmonic analysis of a 1 Hz magnetic excitation. Very good correlation of magnetic parameters with fluence and embrittlement was found for specimens from the Indian Point 2 reactor. The D.C. Cook 2 specimens, however showed poor correlation. Possible contributing factors to this are: (1) metallurgical differences between D.C. Cook 2 and Indian Point 2 specimens; (2) statistical variations in embrittlement parameters for individual samples away from the stated men values; and (3) conversion of the D.C. Cook 2 reactor to a low leakage core configuration in the middle of the period of surveillance. Modeling using a magnetomechanical hysteresis model has begun. The modeling will first focus on why Barkhausen noise and nonlinear harmonic amplitudes appear to be better indicators of embrittlement than the hysteresis loop parameters

  6. Effective X-ray elastic constant measurement for in situ stress measurement of biaxially strained AA5754-O

    Accurate measurement of stresses by X-ray diffraction requires accurate X-ray elastic constants. Calibration experiments are one method to determine these for a specific material in a specific condition. In this paper, uniaxial tension experiments are used to investigate the variation of these constants after uniaxial and equal-biaxial plastic deformation for an aluminum alloy (AA5754-O) of interest to the automotive industry. These data are critical for accurate measurement of the biaxial mechanical properties of the material using a recent experimental method combining specialized sheet metal forming equipment with portable X-ray diffraction equipment. The measured effective X-ray elastic constants show some minor variation with increased plastic deformation, and this behavior was found to be consistent for both uniaxially and equal-biaxially strained samples. The use of two average values for effective X-ray elastic constants, one in the rolling direction and one transverse to the rolling direction of the sheet material, is shown to be of sufficient accuracy for the combined tests of interest. Comparison of uniaxial data measured using X-ray diffraction and standard methods show good agreement, and biaxial stress–strain results show good repeatability. Additionally, the calibration data show some non-linear behavior, which is analyzed in regards to crystallographic texture and intergranular stress effects. The non-linear behavior is found to be the result of intergranular stresses based on comparison with additional measurements using other X-ray diffraction equipment and neutron diffraction.

  7. Direct Observation of the Biaxial Stress Effect on Efficiency Droop in GaN-based Light-emitting Diode under Electrical Injection

    Zheng, Jinjian; Li, Shuiqing; Chou, Chilun; Lin, Wei; Xun, Feilin; Guo, Fei; Zheng, Tongchang; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong

    2015-12-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) efficiency has attracted considerable interest because of the extended use of solid-state lighting. Owing to lack of direct measurement, identification of the reasons for efficiency droop has been restricted. A direct measurement technique is developed in this work for characterization of biaxial stress in GaN-based blue LEDs under electrical injection. The Raman shift of the GaN E2 mode evidently decreases by 4.4 cm-1 as the driving current on GaN-based LEDs increases to 700 mA. Biaxial compressive stress is released initially and biaxial tensile stress builds up as the current increases with respect to the value of stress-free GaN. First-principles calculations reveal that electron accumulation is responsible for the stress variation in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells, and then reduces the transition probability among quantum levels. This behavior is consistent with the measured current-dependent external quantum efficiency. The rule of biaxial stress-dependent efficiency is further validated by controlling the biaxial stress of GaN-based LEDs with different sapphire substrate thicknesses. This work provides a method for direct observation of the biaxial stress effect on efficiency droop in LEDs under electrical injection.

  8. Photoluminescence spectra and biaxial stress effects of yellow 1S excitons in Cu2O thin films recrystallized epitaxially between paired MgO plates

    We investigated biaxial stress effects on the yellow 1S ortho excitons in Cu2O thin films recrystallized between paired MgO plates by measuring photoluminescence spectra, X-ray diffraction and polarization microscope images. On the MgO (001) surface, we found two kinds of epitaxial growth modes of the Cu2O thin films. In such thin films, the yellow 1S ortho exciton states split into two or three levels depending on the respective epitaxial growth modes due to the different biaxial stresses owing to the lattice mismatches between Cu2O and MgO. By using effective Hamiltonians including such biaxial stress effects, we estimated the strengths of the biaxial stresses from the energy splittings of the 1S ortho excitons and confirmed the two kinds of epitaxial growth modes in our Cu2O thin films. - Highlights: • Two different oriented Cu2O thin films were epitaxially grown between paired MgO (001) plates. • The thin films were applied biaxial stresses due to lattice mismatch between Cu2O and MgO. • The lattice mismatch stresses can change yellow 1S exciton states in Cu2O thin films. • We report the biaxial stress strengths by analyzing splitting energies of the 1S ortho excitons

  9. Development and validation of an experimental procedure for studying the biaxial stress corrosion. Application to the systems: alloy-600/air and 316L/MgCl2

    One of the main preoccupation for maintaining EdF's nuclear pressurised water reactors is intergranular stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubing (alloy 600: NC 15Fe). The most affected areas (first row U-bend and roll transition zone) are in biaxial stress state. The crack propagation is often axial and sometimes circumferential. The actual life prediction criterion for these structures depends on the maximal principal stress. The purpose of this study is to determine whether it is safe to use such a criterion in a case of biaxial stress state. A procedure is proposed and experimentally validated for designing specimen in a controlled biaxial stress state when submitted to traction. Quadrants I an IV of the stress space are the only ones explored. The aim is to use these specimens in order to realize stress corrosion tests in primary water with alloy 600. The procedure involves studying the biaxial behavior of the material. This shows the effect of hardening on the shape of the yield stress surface. The hardening of alloy 600 is mainly kinematic. The yield stress surface becomes concave in the hardening stress direction and flat in the opposite direction. The geometry of the specimen stems from parameterized shape optimisation. An elasto-viscoplastic behavior law is identified for alloy 600. Use of the law for calculating the strain state of one specimen is experimentally validated. This entire procedure has been successfully validated with biaxial stress corrosion cracking tests, using 316L and MgCl2 boiling at 154 deg C. In this case it is difficult to determine a life time criterion. It is shown that the criterion of the maximal principal stress is invalid in case of a biaxial stress state. (author)

  10. Biaxial stress relaxation of semilunar heart valve leaflets during simulated collagen catabolism: Effects of collagenase concentration and equibiaxial strain state.

    Huang, Siyao; Huang, Hsiao-Ying Shadow

    2015-10-01

    Heart valve leaflet collagen turnover and remodeling are innate to physiological homeostasis; valvular interstitial cells routinely catabolize damaged collagen and affect repair. Moreover, evidence indicates that leaflets can adapt to altered physiological (e.g. pregnancy) and pathological (e.g. hypertension) mechanical load states, tuning collagen structure and composition to changes in pressure and flow. However, while valvular interstitial cell-secreted matrix metalloproteinases are considered the primary effectors of collagen catabolism, the mechanisms by which damaged collagen fibers are selectively degraded remain unclear. Growing evidence suggests that the collagen fiber strain state plays a key role, with the strain-dependent configuration of the collagen molecules either masking or presenting proteolytic sites, thereby protecting or accelerating collagen proteolysis. In this study, the effects of equibiaxial strain state on collagen catabolism were investigated in porcine aortic valve and pulmonary valve tissues. Bacterial collagenase (0.2 and 0.5 mg/mL) was utilized to simulate endogenous matrix metalloproteinases, and biaxial stress relaxation and biochemical collagen concentration served as functional and compositional measures of collagen catabolism, respectively. At a collagenase concentration of 0.5 mg/mL, increasing the equibiaxial strain imposed during stress relaxation (0%, 37.5%, and 50%) yielded significantly lower median collagen concentrations in the aortic valve (p = 0.0231) and pulmonary valve (p = 0.0183), suggesting that relatively large strain magnitudes may enhance collagen catabolism. Collagen concentration decreases were paralleled by trends of accelerated normalized stress relaxation rate with equibiaxial strain in aortic valve tissues. Collectively, these in vitro results indicate that biaxial strain state is capable of affecting the susceptibility of valvular collagens to catabolism, providing a basis for further investigation of how such phenomena may manifest at different strain magnitudes or in vivo. PMID:26405097

  11. Determination of out-of-plane biaxial stress effects on fracture toughness for shallow surface cracks in reactor pressure vessel steels

    Pressurized-thermal-shock loading in a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) produces significant positive out-of-plane stresses along the crack front for both circumferential and axial cracks. Experimental evidence, while very limited, seems to indicate that a reduction in toughness is associated with out-of-plane biaxial loading when compared with toughness values obtained under uniaxial conditions. The motivation and objectives of a testing program to determine the effects of out-of-plane biaxial loading on fracture toughness of RPV steels are presented. A cruciform bend specimen that meets specified criteria for the testing program is analyzed using three-dimensional, elastic-plastic, finite-element techniques. These analysis results provide the basis for proposed test conditions that are judged likely to produce a biaxial loading effect in the cruciform bend specimen

  12. Design of a cruciform bend specimen for determination of out-of- plane biaxial tensile stress effects on fracture toughness for shallow cracks

    Pressurized-thermal-shock loading in a reactor pressure vessel produces significant positive out-of-plane stresses along the crack front for both circumferential and axial cracks. Experimental evidence, while very limited, seems to indicate that a reduction in toughness is associated with out-of-plane biaxial loading when compared with toughness values obtained under uniaxial conditions. A testing program is described that seeks to determine the effects of out-of-plane biaxial tensile loading on fracture toughness of RPV steels. A cruciform bend specimen that meets specified criteria for the testing pregam is analyzed using three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite-element techniques. These analysis results provide the basis for proposed test conditions that are judged likely to produce a biaxial loading effect in the cruciform bend specimen

  13. Interference of wedge-shaped protrusions on the faces of a Griffith crack in biaxial stress. Final report

    Boulet, J.A.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-04-01

    An initial investigation of the influence of protrusion interference on the fracture toughness required to prevent unstable propagation of a Griffith crack in a brittle material is described. The interference is caused by relative shear displacement of the crack faces when subjected to remote biaxial stress with neither principal stress parallel to the crack. It is shown that for room temperature cracks smaller than about one centimeter in silicon carbide, or about one millimeter in silicon nitride, the presence of interference changes the fracture stress. A mathematical model based on linear elasticity solutions and including multiple interference sites at arbitrarily specified positions on the crack is presented. Computations of the change in required fracture toughness and its dependence on wedge geometry (size and vertex angle), applied stresses (orientation and magnitude), and location of the interference site are discussed. Results indicate that a single interference site has only a slight effect on required toughness. However, the influence of interference increases monotonically with the number of interference sites. The two-dimensional model described herein is not accurate when the interference sites are closely spaced.

  14. Investigation of the biaxial stress of Al-doped ZnO thin films on a flexible substrate with RF magnetron sputtering

    Huang, Kuo-Ting; Chen, Hsi-Chao; Cheng, Po-Wei; Chang, Jhe-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate, using the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The residual stress of flexible electronics was investigated by a double beam shadow moiré interferometer with phase shifting interferometry (PSI). Moreover, the biaxial stress of AZO thin films can be graphically represented by using Mohr’s circle of stress. The residual stress of AZO thin films becomes more compressive with the increase in sputtering power. The maximum residual stress is ‑1115.74 MPa, and the shearing stress is 490.57 MPa at a sputtering power of 200 W. The trends of residual stress were evidenced by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and optical properties of AZO thin films. According to the evaluation results of the refractive index and the extinction coefficient, the AZO thin films have better quality when the sputtering power less than 100 W.

  15. Sequential Indentation Tests to Investigate the Influence of Confining Stress on Rock Breakage by Tunnel Boring Machine Cutter in a Biaxial State

    Liu, Jie; Cao, Ping; Han, Dongya

    2016-04-01

    The influence of confining stress on rock breakage by a tunnel boring machine cutter was investigated by conducting sequential indentation tests in a biaxial state. Combined with morphology measurements of breaking grooves and an analysis of surface and internal crack propagation between nicks, the effects of maximum confining stress and minimum stress on indentation efficiency, crack propagation and chip formation were investigated. Indentation tests and morphology measurements show that increasing a maximum confining stress will result in increased consumed energy in indentations, enlarged groove volumes and promoted indentation efficiency when the corresponding minimum confining stress is fixed. The energy consumed in indentations will increase with increase in minimum confining stress, however, because of the decreased groove volumes as the minimum confining stress increases, the efficiency will decrease. Observations of surface crack propagation show that more intensive fractures will be induced as the maximum confining stress increases, whereas the opposite occurs for an increase of minimum confining stress. An observation of the middle section, cracks and chips shows that as the maximum confining stress increases, chips tend to form in deeper parts when the minimum confining stress is fixed, whereas they tend to formed in shallower parts as the minimum confining stress increases when the maximum confining stress is fixed.

  16. Direct Observation of the Biaxial Stress Effect on Efficiency Droop in GaN-based Light-emitting Diode under Electrical Injection

    Jinjian Zheng; Shuiqing Li; Chilun Chou; Wei Lin; Feilin Xun; Fei Guo; Tongchang Zheng; Shuping Li; Junyong Kang

    2015-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) efficiency has attracted considerable interest because of the extended use of solid-state lighting. Owing to lack of direct measurement, identification of the reasons for efficiency droop has been restricted. A direct measurement technique is developed in this work for characterization of biaxial stress in GaN-based blue LEDs under electrical injection. The Raman shift of the GaN E2 mode evidently decreases by 4.4 cm−1 as the driving current on GaN-based LEDs increa...

  17. Biaxial model for bounding creep ratcheting in shells

    The concept of elastic core stress is used to derive bounds for the maximum inelastic strains in shells of revolution subjected to pressure and cyclic thermal loads in the creep regime. Solutions are obtained for primary membrane stresses of arbitrary biaxiality and thermal bending of arbitrary biaxiality. The stress regimes where previously derived uniaxial solutions can be conservatively used are defined. The new biaxial solutions provide more efficient bounds than the uniaxial solutions for the maximum strains in pressurized spheres and cylinders. (orig.)

  18. Biaxial model for bounding creep ratchetting in shells

    The concept of elastic core stress is used to derive bounds for the maximum inelastic strains in shells of revolution subjected to pressure and cyclic thermal loads in the creep regime. Solutions are obtained for primary membrane stresses of arbitrary biaxiality and thermal bending of arbitrary biaxiality. The stress regimes where previously derived uniaxial solutions can be conservatively used are defined. The new biaxial solutions provide more efficient bounds than the uniaxial solutions for the maximum strains in pressurized spheres and cylinders

  19. Biaxial fatigue of metals the present understanding

    Schijve, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Problems of fatigue under multiaxial fatigue loads have been addressed in a very large number of research publications. The present publication is primarily a survey of biaxial fatigue under constant amplitude loading on metal specimens. It starts with the physical understanding of the fatigue phenomenon under biaxial fatigue loads. Various types of proportional and non-proportional biaxial fatigue loads and biaxial stress distributions in a material are specified. Attention is paid to the fatigue limit, crack nucleation, initial micro crack growth and subsequent macro-crack in different modes of crack growth. The interference between the upper and lower surfaces of a fatigue crack is discussed. Possibilities for predictions of biaxial fatigue properties are analysed with reference to the similarity concept. The significance of the present understanding for structural design problems is considered. The book is completed with a summary of major observations.

  20. Analytical modeling of the effect of crack depth, specimen size, and biaxial stress on the fracture toughness of reactor vessel steels

    Fracture, toughness values for A533-B reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel obtained from test programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and University of Kansas (KU) are interpreted using the J-A2 analytical model. The analytical model is based on the critical stress concept and takes into consideration the constraint effect using the second parameter A2 in addition to the generally accepted first parameter J which represents the loading level. It is demonstrated that with the constraint level included in the model effects of crack depth (shallow vs deep), specimen size (small vs. large), and loading type (uniaxial vs biaxial) on the fracture toughness from the test programs can be interpreted and predicted

  1. Biaxial compression test technique

    Hansard, E. T.

    1975-01-01

    Fixture and technique have been developed for predicting behavior of stiffened skin panels under biaxial compressive loading. Tester can load test panel independently in longitudinal and transverse directions. Data can also be obtained in combined mode.

  2. Comparison of recent rubber-elasticity theories with biaxial stress-strain data: The slip-link theory of Edwards and Vilgis

    Meissner, Bohumil; Matějka, Libor

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 13 (2002), s. 3803-3809. ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/00/1311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : theory of rubber elasticity * biaxial deformations * experimental testing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2002

  3. Design optimization of cruciform specimens for biaxial fatigue loading

    Baptista, R; R. A. Claudio; Reis, L.; I. Guelho; M. Freitas; Madeira, J. F. A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to correctly assess the biaxial fatigue material properties one must experimentally test different load conditions and stress levels. With the rise of new in-plane biaxial fatigue testing machines, using smaller and more efficient electrical motors, instead of the conventional hydraulic machines, it is necessary to reduce the specimen size and to ensure that the specimen geometry is appropriated for the load capacity installed. At the present time there are no standard sp...

  4. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  5. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments

  6. A Langevin-elasticity-theory-based constitutive equation for rubberlike networks and its comparison with biaxial stress-strain data. Part I

    Meissner, Bohumil; Matějka, Libor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 16 (2003), s. 4599-4610. ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/00/1311; GA AV ČR IAA4050008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : theory of rubber elasticity * biaxial deformations * experimental testing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.340, year: 2003

  7. Biaxial dynamic testing of nuclear containment steel

    A test program has been initiated at the laboratories of the European Union Joint Research Centre of Ispra to investigate combined effects of high strain rates and biaxial stresses. The purpose is to assess the material behavior up to rupture in the special conditions which are produced during an explosion inside a nuclear metal containment. In the paper the main features of the campaign are discussed. (author). 19 refs., 4 figs

  8. Analysis and experimental validation of through-thickness cracked large-scale biaxial fracture tests

    Since 1984 TWI has been involved in an extensive series of tests investigating the effects of biaxial loading on the fracture behaviour of A533B steel. Testing conditions have ranged from the lower to upper shelf regions of the transition curve and covered a range of biaxiality ratios. In an attempt to elucidate the trends underlying the experimental results, finite element-based mechanistic models were used to analyse the effects of biaxial loading. For ductile fracture, a modified Gunson model was used and important effects on tearing behaviour were found for through thickness cracked wide plates, as observed in upper shelf tests. For cleavage fracture, both simple T-stress methods and the Anderson-Dodds and Beremin models were used. Whilst the effect of biaxiality on surface cracked plates was small, a marked effect of biaxial loading was found for the through-thickness crack. To further validate the numerical predictions for cleavage fracture, TWI have performed an additional series of lower shelf through thickness cracked biaxial wide plate fracture tests. These tests were performed using various biaxiality loading conditions varying from simple uniaxial loading, through equibiaxial loading, to a biaxiality ratio equivalent to a circumferential crack in a pressure vessel. These tests confirmed the predictions that there is a significant effect of biaxial loading on cleavage fracture of through thickness cracked plate. (orig.)

  9. Low-cycle fatigue behaviour and microstructure of copper and alpha-brass under biaxial load paths

    Henkel, S; Fischer, J; Biermann, H [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute for Materials Engineering, Gustav-Zeuner-Strasse 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Balogh, L; Ungar, T, E-mail: henkel@ww.tu-freiberg.d [Eoetvoes University, Department of General Physics, PO Box 32, 1518 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-07-01

    The low-cycle fatigue behaviour of copper and a-brass CuZn30 was investigated in uniaxial and biaxial tests. Planar biaxial fatigue tests were carried out using cruciform samples with proportional stain paths with and without phase shift between the two axes. Microcharacterisation was performed by electron microscopy as well as by high-resolution X-ray line profile analysis. The biaxial cyclic stress-strain curves show good agreement with the uniaxial ones using the von Mises equivalent strain hypothesis. The dislocation densities and microhardness values of the biaxial case, however, show significantly lower values compared to the uniaxial case at equivalent von Mises stresses.

  10. Biaxial fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel

    S. Ackermann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue behavior is an important topic in critical structural components. In the present study the biaxial-planar fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel (Transformation Induced Plasticity was studied by taking into account martensitic phase transformation and crack growth behavior. Biaxial cyclic deformation tests were carried out on a servo hydraulic biaxial tension-compression test rig using cruciform specimens. Different states of strain were studied by varying the strain ratio between the axial strain amplitudes in the range of -1 (shear loading to 1 (equibiaxial loading. The investigated loading conditions were proportional due to fixed directions of principal strains. The studied TRIP steel exhibits martensitic phase transformation from -austenite via ε-martensite into α‘- martensite which causes pronounced cyclic hardening. The α‘-martensite formation increased with increasing plastic strain amplitude. Shear loading promoted martensite formation and caused the highest α‘-martensite volume fractions at fatigue failure in comparison to uniaxial and other biaxial states of strain. Moreover, the fatigue lives of shear tests were higher than those of uniaxial and other biaxial tests. The von Mises equivalent strain hypothesis was found to be appropriate for uniaxial and biaxial fatigue, but too conservative for shear fatigue, according to literature for torsional fatigue. The COD strain amplitude which is based on crack opening displacement gave a better correlation of the investigated fatigue lives, especially those for shear loading. Different types of major cracks were observed on the sample surfaces after biaxial cyclic deformation by using electron monitoring in an electron beam universal system and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Specimens with strain ratios of 1, 0.5, -0.1 and -0.5 showed mode I major cracks (perpendicular to the axis of maximum principal strain. Major cracks after shear fatigue had partially mode II orientation (tilted 45° to the loading axes and afterwards bifurcated into two pairs of mode I cracks. Another shear test revealed a major crack of mode I orientation (parallel to the loading axes. These results are in good agreement to the literature. Micro cracks after shear fatigue were longer than those after biaxial fatigue with strain ratios of 1 and 0.5. Major and minor cracks after equibiaxial and shear loading showed crack branching and crack coalescence. The results on fatigue crack behavior support the assumption that the period of stage I (mode II crack propagation is much longer under shear loading than under other biaxial conditions due to absence of tensile stress normal to the planes of maximum shear strain under shear loading

  11. Fracture assessment of shallow-flaw cruciform beams tested under uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate with the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states. (orig.)

  12. Biaxial low-cycle fatigue failure of 316 stainless steel at elevated temperatures

    High-strain, biaxial fatigue tests between the limiting conditions of uniaxial push-pull and fully reversed pure torsional loading were repeated on two batches of AISI 316 stainless steel, one tested at 4000C, the other at 5500C. An equivalent plastic shear strain range was shown to be superior to the octahedral equivalent strain for correlating biaxial fatigue endurance data. The stable cyclic stress-strain behaviour for any biaxial state is best represented in terms of the maximum shear stress and shear strain. At 5500C dynamic strain aging has a significant effect on both plastic flow and endurance for certain strain rates. Both Stage I and Stage II cracks were identified in the biaxial tests. (author)

  13. Identification of strainrate dependent hardening sensitivity of metallic sheets under in-plane biaxial loading

    Wei LIU

    2015-01-01

    Sheet metal forming processes are widely adopted to produce panels, tubes, profiled parts in manufacturing industry. The numerical simulation of the forming processes requires accurate constitutive models of material. In many sheet metal working operations such as stamping, hydroforming, …, large strains and intermediate strain rates can be reached under biaxial strain or stress states. The objective of this work is to show the potential of the biaxial in-plane tensile test to characterize th...

  14. Biaxiality of chiral liquid crystals

    Using extended deGennes-Ginzburg-Landau free energy expansion in terms of the anisotropic part of the dielectric tensor field Qαβ(χ) a connection between the phase biaxiality and the stability of various chiral liquid crystalline phases is studied. In particular the cholesteric phase, the cubic Blue Phases and the phases characterized by an icosahedral space group symmetry are analysed in detail. Also a general question concerning the applicability of the mean-field approximation in describing the chiral phases is addressed. By an extensive study of the model over a wide range of the parameters a new class of phenomena, not present in the original deGennes-Ginzburg-Landau model, has been found. These include: a) re-entrant phase transitions between the cholesteric and the cubic blue phases and b) the existence of distinct phases of the same symmetry but of different biaxialities. The phase biaxiality serves here as an extra scalar order parameter. Furthermore, it has been shown that due to the presence of the competing bulk terms in the free energy, the stable phases may acquire a large degree of biaxiality, also in liquid crystalline materials composed of effectively uniaxial molecules. A study of icosahedral space group symmetries gives a partial answer to the question as to whether an icosahedral quasicrystalline liquid could be stabilized in liquid crystals. Although, in general, the stability of icosahedral structures could be enhanced by the extra terms in the free energy no absolutely stable icosahedral phase has been found. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Limit load assessment of centre cracked plates under biaxial loading

    Fitness-for-service of equipment and components containing defects is generally assessed using procedures such as BS 7910, API 579 and R6. There is currently little detailed advice in these procedures on the effects of biaxial and triaxial loading on fracture. This poster shows some theoretical bounding solutions of the plastic limit load for centre cracked plates under a variety of biaxial loading ratios and compares the estimates with those found by numerical methods using finite element (FE) analysis using Abacus CAE modelling software. The limit load of a structure is the maximum load that it can carry before plastic collapse occurs; this is often when the plastic zone has become large enough to spread from the crack tip to a remote boundary. For an elastic-perfectly plastic material, the irreversible deformation will continue at stresses no higher than the yield stress. The model for these limit load solutions is a bi-axially loaded plate of width 2W and height 2H, a centre crack of width 2a, acted on by remotely applied uniform stresses σ2 perpendicular to the crack and Bσ2 parallel to the crack, where B is the biaxial loading ratio, it means the ratio of the parallel to the perpendicular stress. A quarter plate of an elastic-perfectly plastic material has been modelled. The results show that an exact solution has been found for negative and low positive values of B. For B > 1, the lower bound solution is conservative for all values of a/W and B

  16. Biaxial creep of zircaloy: Texture and temperature effects

    Zircaloy is commonly used as a cladding material for nuclear fuel elements. The cladding is subject to time-varying multiaxial stresses in service and the ability to accurately predict cladding behavior is necessary to maintain fuel integrity. This work investigates the biaxial creep behavior of recrystallized zircaloy at three temperatures and with four different crystallographic textures. In addition to measuring the creep behavior, the crystallographic texture is used to independently predict the creep behavior. 48 refs

  17. Development of pressurized disc type fatigue testing system for equi-biaxial fatigue

    A testing method for investigating fatigue strength under equi-biaxial stress/strain condition was developed. In this method, the equi-biaxial stress condition was achieved by applying pressure on the surfaces of a disc-type specimen, for which the disc edge was constrained by supporting jigs. Air pressure was used to apply the cyclic loading and the failure of the specimen was determined by detecting the crack penetration of the specimen thickness. This method allows application of the cyclic equi-biaxial stress without a complex testing apparatus or a complex controlling system such as the testing system using the cruciform or tubular specimens, conventionally used for the fatigue test under the equi-biaxial stress condition. After developing the testing system, the configuration of the disc-type specimen was designed by finite element analysis so that a crack would be initiated at the center of the specimen. Then, carbon steel (SS400 in JIS) specimens were subjected to the fatigue test. The developed system was demonstrated to be able to initiate a fatigue crack at the center of the specimen and to detect the specimen failure successfully. The test results showed that the fatigue lifetime under equi-biaxial stress was longer than that under uniaxial stress for the same Von Mises equivalent strain range. (author)

  18. Biaxially oriented film on flexible polymeric substrate

    Finkikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2009-10-13

    A flexible polymer-based template having a biaxially oriented film grown on the surface of a polymeric substrate. The template having the biaxially oriented film can be used for further epitaxial growth of films of interest for applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and the like. Methods of forming such a flexible template and providing the polymeric substrate with a biaxially oriented film deposited thereon are also described.

  19. Biaxially textured articles formed by plastic deformation

    Goyal, Amit

    2001-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured article comprises the steps of providing a metal preform, coating or laminating the preform with a metal layer, deforming the layer to a sufficient degree, and rapidly recrystallizing the layer to produce a biaxial texture. A superconducting epitaxial layer may then be deposited on the biaxial texture. In some embodiments the article further comprises buffer layers, electromagnetic devices or electro-optical devices.

  20. Rolling process for producing biaxially textured substrates

    Goyal, Amit

    2004-05-25

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured article includes the steps of: rolling a metal preform while applying shear force thereto to form as-rolled biaxially textured substrate having an a rotated cube texture wherein a (100) cube face thereof is parallel to a surface of said substrate, and wherein a [100] direction thereof is at an angle of at least 30.degree. relative to the rolling direction; and depositing onto the surface of the biaxially textured substrate at least one epitaxial layer of another material to form a biaxially textured article.

  1. Fatigue of Clip connectors for offshore drilling risers under biaxial tension

    Gaur Vidit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drilling riser connectors designed by IFPEN undergo cyclic in-phase biaxial tension in their critical area. This type of loading was reproduced on steel tubular specimens loaded in cyclic tension and internal pressure. The fatigue lives were substantially reduced when the load biaxiality was increased from 0 to 0.4 and then further to 1, which was not captured by existing fatigue criteria. A deeper investigation is thus in progress. Emphasis is laid on the separate evaluation of mean stress and biaxiality effects, often treated in the same way in existing criteria. The influence of load biaxiality on the resistance of the steel to fatigue-corrosion in seawater will also be investigated.

  2. Plastic behaviour and forming limit during biaxial compressions of magnesium alloy AZ31 at room temperature

    Shimizu I.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The plastic behaviour and compressive fracture of AZ31 magnesium alloy were examined at room temperature. The uniaxial compression tests and biaxial compression tests along linear and nonlinear strain paths were carried out until fracture using a unique biaxial compression testing machine developed by author. The results revealed the evolution of plastic anisotropy in biaxial compressions, that is the strain path dependency of work hardening. The adaptability of several forming limit criteria to the compressive fracture of AZ31 alloy was discussed. It was found that the uniform estimation of compressive forming limits by uniaxial and biaxial compressions was difficult by Freudenthal criterion and Oyane criterion. The result of Tresca energy criterion suggested that the criterion based on shear stress has possibility to predict the compressive forming limits at room temperature of AZ31 alloy.

  3. Investigation of the Leak Response of a Carbon-Fiber Laminate Loaded in Biaxial Tension

    Jackson, Wade C.; Ratcliffe, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Designers of pressurized structures have been reluctant to use composite materials because of concerns over leakage. Biaxial stress states are expected to be the worst-case loading condition for allowing leakage to occur through microcracks. To investigate the leakage behavior under in-plane biaxial loading, a cruciform composite specimen was designed that would have a relatively large test section with a uniform 1:1 biaxial loading ratio. A 7.6-cm-square test section was desired for future investigations of the leakage response as a result of impact damage. Many iterations of the cruciform specimen were evaluated using finite element analysis to reduce stress concentrations and maximize the size of the uniform biaxial strain field. The final design allowed the specimen to go to relatively high biaxial strain levels without incurring damage away from the test section. The specimen was designed and manufactured using carbon/epoxy fabric with a four-ply-thick, quasi-isotropic, central test section. Initial validation and testing were performed on a specimen without impact damage. The specimen was tested to maximum biaxial strains of approximately 4500micro epsilon without apparent damage. A leak measurement system containing a pressurized cavity was clamped to the test section and used to measure the flow rate through the specimen. The leakage behavior of the specimen was investigated for pressure differences up to 172 kPa

  4. Biaxial wheel/hub test facility. Proceedings

    Fischer, G.; Grubisic, V. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The 4{sup th} meeting aims to exchange the experience and knowledge of engineers during several presentations and discussions about new developments required for a reliable, time and cost reducing validation of the wheel/hub assembly. Tremendous development of the wheel performance, described by the ratio of the rated load (kg) versus the wheel weight (kg) had taken place during the last 5000 years. Starting from the ratio of 3 for wooden 2-piece-disc-wheels in Mesopotamia it needed nearly 1000 years to increase the ratio to approx 5 at light-weight spoke wheels for fighting carriages, found in the grave of king Tutenchamon in Egypt. Modern light alloy wheels of commercial vehicles reach values up to 160 kg/kg. Additionally the comlex design of the modern systems for cars and commercial vehicles comprising wheel, brake, hub, bearing, spindle and hub carrier, including different materials and their treatment, fasteners, press-fits, require an appropriate testing procedure. The variable loading conditions, caused by operational wheel forces, brake and torque moments including heating, may result in changing tolerances and press-fits during operation and consequently in different damage mechanisms. This can be simulated in the Biaxial Wheel Test Machine, whereby corresponding load programs are necessary. An overview about all biaxial test machines in usage at the end of 1999 is shown in the introduction. The total number is 17 for cars, 7 for commercial vehicles and 1 for trains. The six presentations of this meeting were consequently concentrated on: (a) recommendations for a standardization of load programs of the German Wheel Committee, (b) the simulation of brake and torque events and (c) the possibility for a numerical stress analyses and fatigue life assessment. (orig./AKF)

  5. Biaxial strength and fracture criterion for HTGR graphites

    The strength and fracture criterion at the biaxial stress state were examined for two grades of HTGR graphites, a fine-grained isotropic IG-11 and a medium-grained semi-isotropic PGX. Two types of specimens different in size were tested. The biaxial stress state was realized using a servohydraulic testing machine in combination with an apparatus for applying internal pressure or torque force to a tubular specimen. Main results are: (1) On the basis of the statistical analysis of the data on the smaller IG-11 specimens, the maximum strain energy criterion gave the best fit to the data points both in the first and fourth quadrants of the failure surface. (2) The data on the larger specimens obtained at ORNL fell on the scatter band of the JAERI data, which indicated that no appreciable difference in the biaxial strength of IG-11 graphite was found despite the difference in the test fixture and specimen dimensions. (3) The maximum strain energy criterion was also believed to be most appropriate for PGX graphite for the first quadrant of the failure surface. (author)

  6. Biaxial strength and fracture criterion for HTGR graphites

    Eto, Motokuni; Ishiyama, Shintaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Burchell, T.D.; Yahr, G.T.

    1997-05-01

    The strength and fracture criterion at the biaxial stress state were examined for two grades of HTGR graphites, a fine-grained isotropic IG-11 and a medium-grained semi-isotropic PGX. Two types of specimens different in size were tested. The biaxial stress state was realized using a servohydraulic testing machine in combination with an apparatus for applying internal pressure or torque force to a tubular specimen. Main results are: (1) On the basis of the statistical analysis of the data on the smaller IG-11 specimens, the maximum strain energy criterion gave the best fit to the data points both in the first and fourth quadrants of the failure surface. (2) The data on the larger specimens obtained at ORNL fell on the scatter band of the JAERI data, which indicated that no appreciable difference in the biaxial strength of IG-11 graphite was found despite the difference in the test fixture and specimen dimensions. (3) The maximum strain energy criterion was also believed to be most appropriate for PGX graphite for the first quadrant of the failure surface. (author)

  7. Design of Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves using biaxial test data.

    Dabiri, Y; Paulson, K; Tyberg, J; Ronsky, J; Ali, I; Di Martino, E; Narine, K

    2015-08-01

    Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves (BAVs) do not have the serious limitations of mechanical aortic valves in terms of thrombosis. However, the lifetime of BAVs is too short, often requiring repeated surgeries. The lifetime of BAVs might be improved by using computer simulations of the structural behavior of the leaflets. The goal of this study was to develop a numerical model applicable to the optimization of durability of BAVs. The constitutive equations were derived using biaxial tensile tests. Using a Fung model, stress and strain data were computed from biaxial test data. SolidWorks was used to develop the geometry of the leaflets, and ABAQUS finite element software package was used for finite element calculations. Results showed the model is consistent with experimental observations. Reaction forces computed by the model corresponded with experimental measurements when the biaxial test was simulated. As well, the location of maximum stresses corresponded to the locations of frequent tearing of BAV leaflets. Results suggest that BAV design can be optimized with respect to durability. PMID:26737002

  8. Biaxially Stretched Polycarbonate Film For Capacitors

    Yen, Shaio-Ping S.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments on effects of biaxial stretching on crystal structures, dielectric properties, and sellected thermal and mechanical properties of biaxially stretched polycarbonate films. Highest stretch ratios produce highest degree of crystallinity, with single crystalline phase and distribution of crystallites more nearly isotropic than uniaxially oriented film. Electrical properties at high temperatures improved.

  9. The biaxial strength and fracture criteria for HTGR graphites

    Eto, Motokuni; Ishiyama, Shintaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Burchell, T.D.; Yahr, G.T.

    1996-03-01

    The strength and fracture criteria at the biaxial stress state were examined for two grades of HTGR graphites, i.e., a fine-grained isotropic IG-11 and a medium-grained semi-isotropic PGX. The biaxial stress state was realized using a servohydraulic testing machine in combination with an apparatus for applying the internal pressure or the torque force to a tubular specimen. Three kinds of specimens were tested at room temperature: (1) the larger specimens with different wall thicknesses (2 to 20 mm) to make clear the effect of wall thickness on the biaxial strength, (2) the smaller ones with wall thickness of 2 mm to obtain data for the statistical analysis, and (3) specimens tested at ORNL to examine if there is any discrepancy in the strength data which may result from the differences in the rig and specimen size. Main results are: (1) As for the failure surface no significant effect of wall thickness was observed though the number of the specimens tested was not large enough to evaluate the data statistically. (2) On the basis of the statistical analysis of the data on the smaller IG-11 specimens, the modified maximum strain energy criterion gave the best fit to the data points both in the first and fourth quadrants of the fracture surface. (3) The data obtained at ORNL fell on the scatter band of the JAERI data, which indicated that no appreciable difference in the biaxial strength of IG-11 graphite was found despite the difference in the test fixture and specimen dimensions. (4) The maximum strain energy criterion was also believed to be most appropriate for PGX graphite for the first quadrant of the failure surface. (author).

  10. The biaxial strength and fracture criteria for HTGR graphites

    The strength and fracture criteria at the biaxial stress state were examined for two grades of HTGR graphites, i.e., a fine-grained isotropic IG-11 and a medium-grained semi-isotropic PGX. The biaxial stress state was realized using a servohydraulic testing machine in combination with an apparatus for applying the internal pressure or the torque force to a tubular specimen. Three kinds of specimens were tested at room temperature: (1) the larger specimens with different wall thicknesses (2 to 20 mm) to make clear the effect of wall thickness on the biaxial strength, (2) the smaller ones with wall thickness of 2 mm to obtain data for the statistical analysis, and (3) specimens tested at ORNL to examine if there is any discrepancy in the strength data which may result from the differences in the rig and specimen size. Main results are: (1) As for the failure surface no significant effect of wall thickness was observed though the number of the specimens tested was not large enough to evaluate the data statistically. (2) On the basis of the statistical analysis of the data on the smaller IG-11 specimens, the modified maximum strain energy criterion gave the best fit to the data points both in the first and fourth quadrants of the fracture surface. (3) The data obtained at ORNL fell on the scatter band of the JAERI data, which indicated that no appreciable difference in the biaxial strength of IG-11 graphite was found despite the difference in the test fixture and specimen dimensions. (4) The maximum strain energy criterion was also believed to be most appropriate for PGX graphite for the first quadrant of the failure surface. (author)

  11. Singular values, nematic disclinations, and emergent biaxiality.

    Čopar, Simon; Dennis, Mark R; Kamien, Randall D; Žumer, Slobodan

    2013-05-01

    Both uniaxial and biaxial nematic liquid crystals are defined by orientational ordering of their building blocks. While uniaxial nematics only orient the long molecular axis, biaxial order implies local order along three axes. As the natural degree of biaxiality and the associated frame that can be extracted from the tensorial description of the nematic order vanishes in the uniaxial phase, we extend the nematic director to a full biaxial frame by making use of a singular value decomposition of the gradient of the director field instead. The degrees of freedom are unveiled in the form of quasidefects and the similarities and differences between the uniaxial and biaxial phase are analyzed by applying the algebraic rules of the quaternion group to the uniaxial phase. PMID:23767474

  12. Vacancy-mediated diffusion in biaxially strained Si

    Caliste, Damien; Rushchanskii, Konstantin Z.; Pochet, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of stress-enhanced vacancy-mediated diffusion in biaxially deformed Si (100) films as measured by the strain derivative (Q') of the activation energy. The strain dependence of Q' is demonstrated by means of a reanalysis of previously published experimental data, which both take into account the temperature dependence of and highlight the differences between tensile and compressive stress. Based on ab initio calculations, we predict that Q' in pure silicon is higher under compressive conditions due to a broken degeneracy of the split-vacancy configuration.

  13. Biaxial loading effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steel

    The preliminary phases of a program to develop and evaluate fracture methodologies for assessing crack-tip constraint effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels have been completed by the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program. Objectives were to investigate effect of biaxial loading on fracture toughness, quantify this effect through existing stress-based, dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations, or propose and verify alternate correlations. A cruciform beam specimen with 2-D, shallow, through-thickness flaw and a special loading fixture was designed and fabricated. Tests were performed using biaxial loading ratios of 0:1 (uniaxial), 0.6:1, and 1:1 (equi-biaxial). Critical fracture-toughness values were calculated for each test. Biaxial loading of 0.6:1 resulted in a reduction in the lower bound fracture toughness of ?12% as compared to that from the uniaxial tests. The biaxial loading of 1:1 yielded two subsets of toughness values; one agreed well with the uniaxial data, while one was reduced by ?43% when compared to the uniaxial data. Results were evaluated using J-Q theory and Dodds-Anderson (D-A) micromechanical scaling model. The D-A model predicted no biaxial effect, while the J-Q method gave inconclusive results. When applied to the 1:1 biaxial data, these constraint methodologies failed to predict the observed reduction in fracture toughness obtained in one experiment. A strain-based constraint methodology that considers the relationship between applied biaxial load, the plastic zone width in the crack plane, and fracture toughness was formulated and applied successfully to the data. Evaluation of this dual-parameter strain-based model led to the conclusion that it has the capability of representing fracture behavior of RPV steels in the transition region, including the effects of out-of-plane loading on fracture toughness. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 150

  14. Fracture assessment of HSST Plate 14 shallow-flaw cruciform bend specimens tested under biaxial loading conditions

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states

  15. Evaluation of constraint methodologies applied to a shallow-flaw cruciform bend specimen tested under biaxial loading conditions

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a prototypic, far-field. out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies. namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness, the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect

  16. Field-Induced Rheology in Uniaxial and Biaxial Fields

    MARTIN, JAMES E.

    1999-10-22

    Steady and oscillatory shear 3-D simulations of electro- and magnetorheology in uniaxial and biaxial fields are presented, and compared to the predictions of the chain model. These large scale simulations are three dimensional, and include the effect of Brownian motion. In the absence of thermal fluctuations, the expected shear thinning viscosity is observed in steady shear, and a striped phase is seen to rapidly form in a uniaxial field, with a shear slip zone in each sheet. However, as the influence of Brownian motion increases, the fluid stress decreases, especially at lower Mason numbers, and the striped phase eventually disappears, even when the fluid stress is still high. In a biaxial field, an opposite trend is seen, where Brownian motion decreases the stress most significantly at higher Mason numbers. to account for the uniaxial steady shear data they propose a microscopic chain model of the role played by thermal fluctuations on the rheology of ER and MR fluids that delineates the regimes where an applied field can impact the fluid viscosity, and gives an analytical prediction for the thermal effect. In oscillatory shear, a striped phase again appears in uniaxial field, at strain amplitudes greater than {approx} 0.15, and the presence of a shear slip zone creates strong stress nonlinearities at low strain amplitudes. In a biaxial field, a shear slip zone is not created, and so the stress nonlinearities develop only at expected strain amplitudes. The nonlinear dynamics of these systems is shown to be in good agreement with the Kinetic Chain Model.

  17. Engineering piezoresistivity using biaxially strained silicon

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Richter, Jacob; Brandbyge, Mads; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Hansen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the shear piezocoefficient of p-type silicon with grown-in biaxial strain using a 66 k·p method. We find a significant increase in the value of the shear piezocoefficient for compressive grown-in biaxial strain, while tensile strain decreases the piezocoefficient. The dependence of the...... piezocoefficient on temperature and dopant density is altered qualitatively for strained silicon. In particular, we find that a vanishing temperature coefficient may result for silicon with grown-in biaxial tensile strain. These results suggest that strained silicon may be used to engineer the iezoresistivity to...

  18. Out-of-plane biaxial loading effects on shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) steels

    A testing program is being conducted to determine the effects of tensile out-of-plane biaxial loading on the fracture toughness of shallow flaws in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) shells. A cruciform bend-type test specimen was developed to generate shallow-flaw toughness data under uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions. Limited data obtained to date indicate that biaxial loading can produce a significant reduction in shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the transition temperature region of A533 B steel. These data are being used to evaluate both stress-based and strain-based fracture correlation methodologies. Fracture methodologies based on the in-plane stress fields could not predict the reduction in fracture toughness observed in the biaxial tests. An alternative toughness correlation based on the width of the plastic zone in the plane of the crack propagation was shown to perform acceptably. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs

  19. Shape recovery characteristics of biaxially prestrained Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy

    Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy has already been used practically for steel pipe joints. In most of the applications including the steel pipe joints, it is possible to estimate the reduction of diameter from the experimental data of the shape recovery after uniaxial stretching of the alloy materials. However, studies on shape recovery effects after biaxial stretching are important for the extensive applications of the alloy. In this study, we investigated the shape recovery strain after uniaxial and biaxial stretching and the microstructures of the alloy in order to see the effects of uniaxial and biaxial prestrain on the stress-induced martensitic transformation. Amounts of shape recovery strain in the biaxially prestrained specimens are smaller than those in the uniaxially prestrained specimens. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that reverse transformations of stress-induced martensitic ?-phase are prevented by slip bands formed at the same time in the biaxially prestrained specimens, but not in the uniaxially prestrained specimens. The technological data and interpretations presented in this study should be useful in forming design guidelines for promoting the extensive applications of Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy

  20. Graphene flakes under controlled biaxial deformation

    Androulidakis, Charalampos; Koukaras, Emmanuel N.; Parthenios, John; Kalosakas, George; Papagelis, Konstantinos; Galiotis, Costas

    2015-12-01

    Thin membranes, such as monolayer graphene of monoatomic thickness, are bound to exhibit lateral buckling under uniaxial tensile loading that impairs its mechanical behaviour. In this work, we have developed an experimental device to subject 2D materials to controlled equibiaxial strain on supported beams that can be flexed up or down to subject the material to either compression or tension, respectively. Using strain gauges in tandem with Raman spectroscopy measurements, we monitor the G and 2D phonon properties of graphene under biaxial strain and thus extract important information about the uptake of stress under these conditions. The experimental shift over strain for the G and 2D Raman peaks were found to be in the range of 62.3??5?cm1/%, and 148.2??6?cm1/%, respectively, for monolayer but also bilayer graphenes. The corresponding Grneisen parameters for the G and 2D peaks were found to be between 1.97??0.15 and 2.86??0.12, respectively. These values agree reasonably well with those obtained from small-strain bubble-type experiments. The results presented are also backed up by classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and excellent agreement of ?-E2g shifts with strains and the Grneisen parameter was observed.

  1. Design optimization of cruciform specimens for biaxial fatigue loading

    R. Baptista

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to correctly assess the biaxial fatigue material properties one must experimentally test different load conditions and stress levels. With the rise of new in-plane biaxial fatigue testing machines, using smaller and more efficient electrical motors, instead of the conventional hydraulic machines, it is necessary to reduce the specimen size and to ensure that the specimen geometry is appropriated for the load capacity installed. At the present time there are no standard specimen’s geometries and the indications on literature how to design an efficient test specimen are insufficient. The main goal of this paper is to present the methodology on how to obtain an optimal cruciform specimen geometry, with thickness reduction in the gauge area, appropriated for fatigue crack initiation, as a function of the base material sheet thickness used to build the specimen. The geometry is optimized for maximum stress using several parameters, ensuring that in the gauge area the stress is uniform and maximum with two limit phase shift loading conditions. Therefore the fatigue damage will always initiate on the center of the specimen, avoiding failure outside this region. Using the Renard Series of preferred numbers for the base material sheet thickness as a reference, the reaming geometry parameters are optimized using a derivative-free methodology, called direct multi search (DMS method. The final optimal geometry as a function of the base material sheet thickness is proposed, as a guide line for cruciform specimens design, and as a possible contribution for a future standard on in-plane biaxial fatigue tests.

  2. Biaxial phases in mineral liquid crystals

    Vroege, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    A review is given of liquid crystals formed in colloidal dispersions, in particular those consisting of mineral particles. Starting with the historical development and early theory, the characteristic properties related to the colloidal nature of this type of liquid crystals are discussed. The possibility to find biaxial nematic and smectic phases is described for mixtures of rods and plates and recent examples are given of biaxial liquid crystal phases of mineral particles with inherent biax...

  3. Crack under biaxial loading: Two-parameter description and prediction of crack growth direction

    Seitl, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, APR (2014), s. 44-49. ISSN 0213-3725 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AT012 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Concrete * T-stress * cracks growth prediction * numerical calculation * biaxial loading Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  4. STRAIN-CONTROLLED BIAXIAL TENSION OF NATURAL RUBBER: NEW EXPERIMENTAL DATA

    Pancheri, Francesco Q.

    2014-03-01

    We present a new experimental method and provide data showing the response of 40A natural rubber in uniaxial, pure shear, and biaxial tension. Real-time biaxial strain control allows for independent and automatic variation of the velocity of extension and retraction of each actuator to maintain the preselected deformation rate within the gage area of the specimen. Wealso focus on the Valanis-Landel hypothesis that is used to verify and validate the consistency of the data.Weuse a threeterm Ogden model to derive stress-stretch relations to validate the experimental data. The material model parameters are determined using the primary loading path in uniaxial and equibiaxial tension. Excellent agreement is found when the model is used to predict the response in biaxial tension for different maximum in-plane stretches. The application of the Valanis-Landel hypothesis also results in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  5. Growth of inclined fatigue cracks using the biaxial CJP model

    G. Laboviciute

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The CJP model of crack tip stresses is a modified version of the Williams crack tip stress field which takes account of simplified stress distributions that arise from the presence of a zone of plastic deformation associated with the crack flanks and crack tip, and that act on the elastic field responsible for driving crack growth. The elastic stress field responsible for crack growth is therefore controlled by the applied loading and by the induced boundary stresses at the interface with the plastic zone. This meso-scale model of crack tip stresses leads to a modified set of crack tip stress intensity factors that include the resultant influence of plastic wake-induced crack tip shielding, and which therefore have the potential to help resolve some longstanding controversies associated with plasticity-induced closure. A full-field approach has now been developed for stress using photoelasticity and also for displacement using digital image correlation. This paper considers the characterisation of crack growth rate data with the biaxial CJP model, using compact tension specimens that contain inclined cracks at the notch tip with initial angles of 30°, 45° and 60° to the horizontal axis. Significant experimental difficulties are experienced in growing cracks in a biaxial field under uniaxial tensile loading, as the natural tendency of the crack is to turn so that it becomes perpendicular to the maximum principal stress direction. However, crack angle is not an issue in the CJP model which calculates the stress field parallel with, and perpendicular to, the crack plane. These stress components can be rotated into directions comparable with the usual KI and KII directions and used to calculate stress intensity parameters that should be directly comparable with the standard stress intensity formulations. Another difficulty arises, however, in finding published expressions for KI and KII for CT specimens with curved or kinked cracks. The CJP model has been successful in achieving a sensible rationalisation of crack growth rate data for the specimens considered in this work, although some observations are not easily explained. Nonetheless, considering the complexity of characterising crack growth rates for cracks with an initial orientation of 30°, 45° or 60° to the horizontal and which subsequently change angle during growth, the results found so far indicate that there is value in further pursuing the CJP approach. The paper introduces future research directions for the CJP model.

  6. Topology Optimization of Stressed Capacitive RF MEMS Switches

    Philippine, Mandy A.; Sigmund, Ole; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Kenny, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Geometry design can improve a capacitive radio-frequency microelectromechanical system switch's reliability by reducing the impacts of intrinsic biaxial stresses and stress gradients on the switch's membrane. Intrinsic biaxial stresses cause stress stiffening, whereas stress gradients cause out-o...

  7. Biaxial extension of knitted steel fibre fabrics

    Vanclooster, K.; Eshghyar, A.; Lomov, S. V.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper knitted steel fibre fabrics will be tested in biaxial extension. An in-house developed biaxial extension machine is used to apply a variety of strain conditions, which allows investigating the coupling between the wale and course direction of the fabrics and the degree of anisotropy in the fabric. Prior to testing a pretension level, to compensate the slack nature of the fabric, is determined by using a laser-measuring device. The strain inside the fabric is measured using a CCD camera technique. The results show the non-linear behaviour of the fabric and the coupling between the wale and the course direction. This will lead to a test protocol that can be used to evaluate the biaxial response of different types of knitted fabrics.

  8. Bulk and surface biaxiality in nematic liquid crystals

    Biscari, Paolo; Napoli, Gaetano; Turzi, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Nematic liquid crystals possess three different phases: isotropic, uniaxial, and biaxial. The ground state of most nematics is either isotropic or uniaxial, depending on the external temperature. Nevertheless, biaxial domains have been frequently identified, especially close to defects or external surfaces. In this paper we show that any spatially-varying director pattern may be a source of biaxiality. We prove that biaxiality arises naturally whenever the symmetric tensor $\\Sb=(\\grad \

  9. Biaxial Fatigue Testing of Thin Films

    A new experimental setup, which allows for testing in an equi-biaxial loading condition, has been developed and applied to investigate the fatigue behaviour of thin films. A load controlled cycling, performed at room temperature on flat specimens, reproduces the strain amplitude and mean strain in the film corresponding to a thermal cycling in a given temperature range. The setup is based on the ring-on-ring test, which has been successfully used in biaxial fracture testing of glass and ceramics, and includes an optical in-situ failure detection system. The method is validated for specimens consisting in a gold film deposited on a polymer substrate

  10. Evaluating the time and temperature dependent biaxial strength of Gore-Select {sup registered} series 57 proton exchange membrane using a pressure loaded blister test

    Grohs, Jacob R.; Dillard, David A.; Case, Scott W. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0219 (United States); Li, Yongqiang; Lai, Yeh-Hung; Gittleman, Craig S. [Electrochemical Energy Research Lab, GM R and D, General Motors Corporation, 10 Carriage Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472-0603 (United States); Ellis, Michael W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0238 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Temperature and humidity fluctuations in operating fuel cells impose significant biaxial stresses in the constrained proton exchange membranes (PEMs) of a fuel cell stack. The strength of the PEM, and its ability to withstand cyclic environment-induced stresses, plays an important role in membrane integrity and consequently, fuel cell durability. In this study, a pressure loaded blister test is used to characterize the biaxial strength of Gore-Select {sup registered} series 57 over a range of times and temperatures. Hencky's classical solution for a pressurized circular membrane is used to estimate biaxial strength values from burst pressure measurements. A hereditary integral is employed to construct the linear viscoelastic analog to Hencky's linear elastic exact solution. Biaxial strength master curves are constructed using traditional time-temperature superposition principle techniques and the associated temperature shift factors show good agreement with shift factors obtained from constitutive (stress relaxation) and fracture (knife slit) tests of the material. (author)

  11. Anisotropic yield surfaces in bi-axial cyclic plasticity

    Some aspects of the behaviour of yield surfaces and work-hardening surfaces occurring in biaxial cyclic plasticity have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental work consisted of subjecting thin-walled tubular steel specimens to cyclic plastic torsion in the presence of sustained axial loads of various magnitudes. The experimental results show that considerable anisotropy is induced when the cyclic shear strains are dominant. Although the true shapes of yield and work-hardening surfaces can be very complex, a mathematical model is presented which includes both anisotropy and Bauschinger effects. The model is able to qualitatively predict the deformation patterns during a cycle of applied plastic shear strain for a range of sustained axial stresses and also indicate the material response to changes in axial stress. (orig.)

  12. Biaxial Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Aluminum Alloy 5083-H116 Under Ambient Laboratory and Saltwater Environments

    Perel, V. Y.; Misak, H. E.; Mall, S.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-04-01

    Crack growth of aluminum alloy 5083 was investigated when subjected to the in-plane biaxial tension-tension fatigue with stress ratio of 0.5 under ambient laboratory and saltwater environments. Cruciform specimens with a center hole, containing a notch and precrack at 45 to the specimen's arms, were tested in a biaxial fatigue test machine. Two biaxiality ratios, ? = 1 and ? = 1.5, were studied. For ? = 1, crack propagated along a straight line collinearly with the precrack, while for ? = 1.5 case, the crack path was curved and non-collinear with the precrack. Uniaxial fatigue tests were also conducted. Crack growth rates were faster under the biaxiality fatigue in comparison to uniaxial fatigue at a given crack driving force (? K I or ? G) in both environments. Further, an increase in biaxiality ratio increased the crack growth rate, i.e., faster for ? = 1.5 case than ? = 1 case. Both biaxial fatigue and saltwater environment showed detrimental effects on the fatigue crack growth resistance of 5083, and its combination is highly detrimental when compared to uniaxial fatigue.

  13. Towards the biaxial nematic phase via specific intermolecular interactions

    The work described in this thesis has been focussed on the search of an elusive liquid crystal phase, known as the biaxial nematic phase. Indeed, despite nearly thirty years of intense research, no-one has been able to characterise unambiguously a biaxial nematic phase in a low-molar-mass thermotropic system. Our research is based on the concept of molecular biaxiality as distinct from shape biaxiality. Thus, we are seeking to design palladium complexes where specific intermolecular interactions could exist. Therefore, a few original synthetic strategies were developed to tackle the challenge of discovering the biaxial nematic phase

  14. Biaxial torus around nematic point defects.

    Kralj, S; Virga, E G; Zumer, S

    1999-08-01

    We study the biaxial structure of both line and point defects in a nematic liquid crystal confined within a capillary tube whose lateral boundary enforces homeotropic anchoring. According to Landau-de Gennes theory the local order in the material is described by a second-order tensor Q, which encompasses both uniaxial and biaxial states. Our study is both analytical and numerical. We show that the core of a line defect with topological charge M=1 is uniaxial in the axial direction. At the lateral boundary, the uniaxial ordering along the radial direction is reached in two qualitatively different ways, depending on the sign of the order parameter on the axis. The point defects with charge M=+/-1 exhibit a uniaxial ring in the plane orthogonal to the cylinder axis. This ring is in turn surrounded by a torus on which the degree of biaxiality attains its maximum. The typical lengths that characterize the structure of these defects depend both on the cylinder radius and the biaxial correlation length. It seems that the core of the point defect does not depend on the far nematic director field in the bulk limit. PMID:11969973

  15. Structural stability and theoretical strength of Cu crystal under equal biaxial loading

    Jian-Min Zhang; Zhong-Liang Lin; Yan Zhang; Vincent Ji

    2010-02-01

    Cu has been used extensively to replace Al as interconnects in ULSI and MEMS devices. However, because of the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between the Cu film and the Si substrate, large biaxial stresses will be generated in the Cu film. Thus, the Cu film becomes unstable and even changes its morphologies which affects the device manufacturing yield and ultimate reliability. The structural stability and theoretical strength of Cu crystal under equal biaxial loading have been investigated by combining the MAEAM with Milstein-modified Born stability criteria. The results indicate that, under sufficient tension, there exists a stress-free BCC phase which is unstable and slips spontaneously to a stress-free metastable BCT phase by consuming internal energy. The stable region ranges from −15.131 GPa to 2.803 GPa in the theoretical strength or from −5.801% to 4.972% in the strain respectively.

  16. Ferroelectricity in low-symmetry biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    Order parameters and phenomenological theory for both high- and low-symmetry biaxial nematic phases are presented and it is predicted that the chiral low-symmetry biaxial phase must be ferroelectric. This conclusion is based on general symmetry arguments and on the results of the Landau-de Gennes theory. The microscopic mechanism of the ferroelectric ordering in this chiral biaxial phase is illustrated using a simple molecular model based on dispersion interactions between biaxial molecules of low symmetry. Similar to the chiral smectic C* phase, the ferroelectricity in the chiral biaxial nematic phase is improper, i.e., polarization is not a primary order parameter and is not determined by dipolar interactions. Ferroelectric ordering in biaxial nematics may be found, in principle, in materials composed of chiral analogues of the tetrapod molecules which are known to exhibit biaxial phases. (fast track communication)

  17. Mechanical characterisation of porcine rectus sheath under uniaxial and biaxial tension.

    Lyons, Mathew

    2014-06-03

    Incisional hernia development is a significant complication after laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is known to initiate the extrusion of intestines through the abdominal wall, but there is limited data on the mechanics of IAP generation and the structural properties of rectus sheath. This paper presents an explanation of the mechanics of IAP development, a study of the uniaxial and biaxial tensile properties of porcine rectus sheath, and a simple computational investigation of the tissue. Analysis using Laplace׳s law showed a circumferential stress in the abdominal wall of approx. 1.1MPa due to an IAP of 11kPa, commonly seen during coughing. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were conducted on samples of porcine rectus sheath to characterise the stress-stretch responses of the tissue. Under uniaxial tension, fibre direction samples failed on average at a stress of 4.5MPa at a stretch of 1.07 while cross-fibre samples failed at a stress of 1.6MPa under a stretch of 1.29. Under equi-biaxial tension, failure occurred at 1.6MPa with the fibre direction stretching to only 1.02 while the cross-fibre direction stretched to 1.13. Uniaxial and biaxial stress-stretch plots are presented allowing detailed modelling of the tissue either in silico or in a surrogate material. An FeBio computational model of the tissue is presented using a combination of an Ogden and an exponential power law model to represent the matrix and fibres respectively. The structural properties of porcine rectus sheath have been characterised and add to the small set of human data in the literature with which it may be possible to develop methods to reduce the incidence of incisional hernia development.

  18. Performance testing of the Doorstopper biaxial strain cell

    Stickney, R.G.; Senseny, P.E.; Hansen, F.D. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (USA))

    1983-11-01

    A laboratory testing program was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Doorstopper'' biaxial strain cell. This work was conducted in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project's in situ stress measurement program to be carried out within the reference repository horizon. Performance tests were designed to (1) select an adhesive suitable for installation of the Doorstopper, (2) evaluate the component parts of the Doorstopper, and (3) test the performance of the Doorstopper and selected adhesive. Test conditions were selected to simulate those expected at the reference repository horizon during overcoring (temperatures ranging from 40{degree}C to 65{degree}C with a humidity of up to 100 percent). 10 refs.

  19. Tunable uniaxial vs biaxial in-plane strain using compliant substrates

    Yin, Haizhou; Peterson, R. L.; Hobart, K. D.; Shieh, S. R.; Duffy, T. S.; Sturm, J. C.

    2005-08-01

    In this letter, the relaxation of strained rectangular islands on compliant substrates is used to achieve semiconductor thin films with either uniaxial stress or uniaxial strain in the plane of the film over an area of tens of microns. The work is demonstrated using silicon and silicon-germanium alloy single-crystal thin films, with uniaxial strain values approaching 1%. The biaxially strained SiGe or SiGe /Si films on borophosphorosilicate glass (BPSG) were fabricated by a wafer bonding and layer transfer process. When the viscosity of BPSG drops at high temperatures for short times, films patterned in a rectangular shape can move laterally to relieve stress only in one in-plane direction. Thus one can tailor the strain from biaxial to uniaxial in the thin films.

  20. Biaxial testing of nanoscale films on compliant substrates: Fatigue and fracture

    Alaca, B. Erdem; Selby, John C.; Saif, M. T. A.; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2002-08-01

    Two problems of technological importance for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microelectronics industry are addressed: fatigue of thin films and nanoscale film cracking. A device is described that can (1) conduct biaxial fatigue tests on thin films and (2) be utilized to study fracture patterns in nanoscale coatings under biaxial stress state. Thin-film specimens, in the form of circular membranes, are exposed to cyclic pressures between two fixed pressure limits. Corresponding pressure and specimen deflection are measured. Experimental results, including hysteresis loops spanning deflections of 15-50 ?m are presented for 4.6-?m-thick polyimide films. Furthermore, the evolution of crack patterns in a 150-nm-thick Al film deposited on a polyimide substrate is studied. Critical mode I stress intensity factor for Al is extracted from experimental results.

  1. Miniature load cell instrumentation for finite deformation biaxial testing of elastomers

    Arenz, R. J.; Landel, R. F.; Tsuge, K.

    1974-01-01

    Accuracy of biaxial test equipment to examine the nonlinear mechanical behavior of thin sheet specimens of elastomeric materials has been hampered by lack of precise determination of the force distribution along the sides of the specimen. It has been necessary to use an effective width established by approximate means to obtain the stress from the overall force applied along the edges. To avoid this experimental difficulty, individual miniature proof-ring load cells utilizing semiconductor strain gages have been developed and applied to the support hooks for the thin sheet specimens. Typical results are shown for time-dependent stress distributions for all degrees of biaxiality. An accurate evaluation of the effective specimen width is now possible.

  2. Study of short cracks under biaxial fatigue

    Lopez-Crespo, P.; Moreno, B.; A. Lopez-Moreno; A. Garcia-Gonzalez; Zapatero, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a methodology for evaluating crack initiation under biaxial conditions is presented. The methodology consists of evaluating the crack length automatically with digital processing of highmagnification images of the crack. The methodology was applied to study five different strain conditions on a low carbon ferritic-pearlitic steel specimen with tubular shape. A hole of 150 μm diameter was drilled to enforce the crack to initiate at a particular spot. Different combina...

  3. Biaxial crystal-based optical tweezers

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Andrew P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    We suggest an optical tweezer setup based on an optically biaxial crystal. To control movements of opaque particles, we use shifts. The results of experimental studies are reported which are concerned with this laser tweezer setup. We demonstrate a movement of microparticles of toner using a sing...... singular-optical trap, rotation of particles due to orbital angular momentum of the field, and converging or diverging of two different traps when changing transmission plane of polariser at the input of our polarisation interferometer....

  4. Derivation of the Bi-axial Bending, Compression and Shear Strengths of Timber Beams:

    Put, T. A. C. M.

    2012-01-01

    The derivation is given of the combined bi-axial bending, compression and shear strength of timber beams. As for other materials the elasticfull plastic limit design approach applies, which is known to precisely explain and predict uniaxial bending strength behaviour. The derivation is based on choosing the location of the neutral line. This provides the stress distribution in the beam cross section in the ultimate state for that case, making it possible to calculate the associated ultima...

  5. Derivation of the Bi-axial Bending, Compression and Shear Strengths of Timber Beams

    Put, T. A. C. M.

    2012-01-01

    The derivation is given of the combined bi-axial bending, compression and shear strength of timber beams. As for other materials the elastic–full plastic limit design approach applies, which is known to precisely explain and predict uniaxial bending strength behaviour. The derivation is based on choosing the location of the neutral line. This provides the stress distribution in the beam cross section in the ultimate state for that case, making it possible to calculate the associated ultimate ...

  6. Bulk and surface biaxiality in nematic liquid crystals.

    Biscari, Paolo; Napoli, Gaetano; Turzi, Stefano

    2006-09-01

    Nematic liquid crystals possess three different phases: isotropic, uniaxial, and biaxial. The ground state of most nematics is either isotropic or uniaxial, depending on the external temperature. Nevertheless, biaxial domains have been frequently identified, especially close to defects or external surfaces. In this paper we show that any spatially varying director pattern may be a source of biaxiality. We prove that biaxiality arises naturally whenever the symmetric tensor S=(Vn)(Vn)T possesses two distinct nonzero eigenvalues. The eigenvalue difference may be used as a measure of the expected biaxiality. Furthermore, the corresponding eigenvectors indicate the directions in which the order tensor Q is induced to break the uniaxial symmetry about the director n. We apply our general considerations to some examples. In particular we show that, when we enforce homeotropic anchoring on a curved surface, the order tensor becomes biaxial along the principal directions of the surface. The effect is triggered by the difference in surface principal curvatures. PMID:17025655

  7. Method for making biaxially textured articles by plastic deformation

    Goyal, Amit

    2002-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured article comprises the steps of providing a metal preform, coating or laminating the preform with a metal layer, deforming the layer to a sufficient degree, and rapidly recrystallizing the layer to produce a biaxial texture. A superconducting epitaxial layer may then be deposited on the biaxial texture. In some embodiments the article further comprises buffer layers, electromagnetic devices or electro-optical devices.

  8. Effect of biaxial loading on the fracture behaviour of a ferritic steel component

    The effect of biaxial loading on the ductile tearing behaviour of a through-wall crack in a ferritic steel structure under contained yield is of particular interest to the structural integrity argument for reactor pressure vessels. This results from the fact that there are many instances in practice, (for example a crack in a circumferential weld), where a significant applied stress is present in the direction parallel to the crack as well as in the perpendicular direction. Two large plate ductile tearing tests have been performed on centre through-crack specimens (75 mm by 2 m by 2 m) manufactured from a ferritic steel. The first test specimen was loaded in uniaxial tension and the second test specimen was loaded bi-axially. This paper presents experimental details and results of the two wide plate tests and describes the analysis work being undertaken which is required to interpret the experiments satisfactorily. Preliminary results of this analysis work are presented. The following main conclusions may be drawn from the work contained in this report: 1) The initiation applied stress, evaluated by the ACPD method, for the biaxial specimen, GNSR/1.OB, was approximately 20% higher than that for the uniaxial specimen, GNSR/1.OU indicating an effective benefit of biaxial loading. 2) The maximum applied stresses were similar in the two tests with that for the biaxial test being slightly higher than that for the uniaxial test; 106.7 MPa in GNSR/1.OU for 5.3 mm of tearing and 108.7 MPa in GNSR/1.OB for 3.2 mm of tearing. 3) All the R6 results conservatively under-predicted the applied load for the amounts of ductile tearing obtained in the tests (i.e. 3.5 mm and 5.3 mm in GNSR/1.OU and 3.2 mm and 1.3 mm in GNSR/1.OB). 4) For the GNSR/1.OU bottom crack tip and both crack tips in GNSR/1.OB, it would seem likely that the conservatism would still apply even if the cracks had been grown up to instability. However, for the GNSR/1.OU top crack tip, it is likely that the R6 results would be non-conservative for crack extensions of a few millimetres more than was obtained at that crack tip in the test. 5) Preliminary elastic-plastic finite element analyses carried out for the test plate designs have shown that the effect of the biaxial loading is to reduce the J-Integral values from the uniaxially loaded case of GNSR/1.OU

  9. Damage and failure behavior of metal matrix composites under biaxial loads

    Kirkpatrick, Steven Wayne

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are being considered for increased use in structures that require the ductility and damage tolerance of the metal matrix and the enhanced strength and creep resistance at elevated temperatures of high performance fibers. Particularly promising for advanced aerospace engines and airframes are SiC fiber/titanium matrix composites (TMCs). A large program was undertaken in the Air Force to characterize the deformation and failure behaviors of TMCs and to develop computational models that can be used for component design. The effort reported here focused on a SiC SCS-6/Timetal 21S composite under biaxial loading conditions. Biaxial loading conditions are important because multiaxial stresses have been shown to influence the strength and ductility of engineering materials and, in general, structural components are subjected to multiaxial loads. The TMC material response, including stress-strain curves and failure surfaces, was measured using a combination of off-axis uniaxial tension and compression tests and biaxial cruciform tests. The off-axis tests produce combinations of in-plane tension, compression, and shear stresses, the mix of which are controlled by the relative angle between the fiber and specimen axes. The biaxial cruciform tests allowed independent control over the tensile or compressive loads in the fiber and transverse directions. The results of these characterization tests were used to develop a microstructural constitutive model and failure criteria. The basis of the micromechanical constitutive model is a representative unit volume of the MMC with a periodic array of fibers. The representative unit volume is divided into a fiber and three matrix cells for which the microstructural equilibrium and compatibility equations can be analyzed. The resulting constitutive model and associated failure criteria can be used to predict the material behavior under general loading conditions.

  10. Biaxial thermal creep of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C

    The biaxial thermal creep behavior of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C was investigated. Biaxial stresses were generated using the pressurized tube technique. The detailed creep deformation and fracture mechanism have been studied. Creep curves for both alloys showed that tertiary creep accounts for a greater portion of the materials’ life, while secondary creep only accounts for a small portion. Fractographic examinations of the two alloys indicated that nucleation, growth, and coalescence of creep voids are the dominant micro-mechanisms for creep fracture. At 850 °C, alloy 230 has better creep resistance than alloy 617. When subjected to the biaxial stress state, the creep rupture life of the two alloys was considerably reduced when compared to the results obtained by uniaxial tensile creep tests. The Monkman–Grant relation proves to be a promising method for estimating the long-term creep life for alloy 617, whereas alloy 230 does not follow the relation. This might be associated with the significant changes in the microstructure of alloy 230 at high temperatures

  11. Investigation of in-plane biaxial low cycle fatigued austenitic stainless steel AISI 321. I. Mechanical testing on the planar biaxial load machine

    During fatigue loading of structural materials such as stainless steel, changes in the microstructure which affect the mechanical and physical properties occur. Experimental simulation of the loading conditions that induce the changes can be performed by mechanical loading, usually in the form of uniaxial tension-compression cycling. However, real machines and structures are subjected to more complex multiaxial stresses. Fatigue and fracture under multiaxial stresses are one of the most important current topics aimed at ensuring improved reliability of industrial components. The first step towards better understanding of this problem is to subject the materials to biaxial loading. The material examined was low austenitic stainless steel AISI 321 H. A set of the four samples of cruciform geometry was subjected to the biaxial tension-compression fatigue cycling with the frequency of 0.5 Hz at the applied load of 10-17 kN. The samples are intended for the neutron diffraction measurements of the residual stresses and the mechanical characterizations on a dedicated stress-diffractometer

  12. Effect of biaxial loading on the fracture behaviour of a ferritic steel component

    The effect of biaxial loading on the ductile behaviour of a through-wall crack in a ferritic steel structure under contained yield is of particular interest to the structural integrity argument for reactor pressure vessels. This results from the fact that there are many instances in practice (for example a crack in a circumferential weld), where a significant applied stress is present in the direction parallel to the crack as well as in the perpendicular direction. Two large plate ductile tearing tests have been performed on centre through-crack specimens (75mm by 2m by 2m) manufactured from a ferritic steel. The first test specimen was loaded in uniaxial tension and the second test specimen was loaded biaxially. This paper presents experimental details and results of the two plate tests and describes the analysis work undertaken to interpret the experiments satisfactorily. ((orig.))

  13. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Goval, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-06-07

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  14. Structures having enhanced biaxial texture and method of fabricating same

    A biaxially textured article includes a rolled and annealed, biaxially textured substrate of a metal having a face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, or hexagonal close-packed crystalline structure; and an epitaxial superconductor or other device epitaxially deposited thereon. 11 figs

  15. Characterization Of Biaxial Strain Of Poly(L-Lactide) Tubes

    Lvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Agersted, Karsten; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    ) biaxial strain process, the mechanical properties of biaxial strained tubes can be further improved. This study investigated these properties in relation to their morphology and crystal orientation. Both processes yield the same mechanical strength and modulus, yet exhibit different crystal orientation...

  16. Biaxial Flexural Strength and Estimation of Size on the Strength Properties of FRP Composites

    M. N. Saraf

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced plastics (FRP are widely used as structural materials. For designing structural components, a designer is provided with data based on unidirectional testing. But in real structural applications the component is subjected to multiaxial stress throughout the material. Hence a multiaxial test is a better gauge of the behaviour of FRP components in service. In the present paper a ring-on-ring method was adopted which produces biaxial flexural stress on the FRP specimen. Wubull's statistical weakest link theory was applied to standardize the complexity and to assess the reliability of the results.

  17. Biaxial mechanical tests in zircaloy-4

    The texture of the zircaloy-4 tubes used as cladding in nuclear fuel elements determines anisotropy of the mechanical properties. As a consequence, the uniaxial tests to determine the mechanical behaviour of the tubes are incomplete. Furthermore, the cladding in use is subject to creep with a state of biaxial tensions. For this reason it is also important to determine the biaxial mechanical properties. The creep tests were performed by internal pressure for a state of axial to circumferential tensions of 0.5. Among the experimental procedures are described: preparation of the test specimens, pressurizing equipment, and the implementation of a device that permits a permanent register of the deformation. For the non-irradiated Atucha type zircaloy-4 sheaths, experimental curves of circumferential deformation versus time were obtained, in tests at constant pressure and for different values of temperature and pressure. An empirical function was determined to adjust the experimental values for the speed of the circumferential deformation in terms of the initial tension applied, temperature and deformation, and the change of the corresponding parameters in accordance to the range of the tensions. Also the activation energy for creep was determined. (M.E.L.)

  18. Experimental studies of yield phenomena in biaxially loaded metals

    Realistic materials properties input represents one of the major limitations in computer stress analysis in the plastic range. Lack of data on the response of many structural materials to multiaxial loading requires modeling plastic behavior. Such models can at best predict the response of a limited class of materials for a limited range of loading. A summary of biaxial plasticity experiments on metals is presented to provide a testing ground for such models and to serve as a reference guide for materials that may be of practical interest. Most of the work has been done on materials assumed to exhibit time-and-pressure-independent plastic flow. Special attention is focused on initial and subsequent yield conditions and stress-strain relations. Some specific examples of material behavior that does not fall within the assumptions of classical plasticity theories are discussed. These include time-dependence as evidenced in creep, cyclic loading and strain-rate effects, pressure dependence, large strain behavior, microstructural changes and failure laws. 15 figures, 277 references

  19. Biaxial testing for nuclear grade graphite by ball on three balls assessment

    Nuclear grade (high-purity) graphite for fuel element and moderator material in Advanced Gas Cooling Reactors (AGR) displays large scatter in strength and a non-linear stress-strain response from the damage accumulation. These responses can be characterized as quasi-brittle behaviour. Current assessments of fracture in core graphite components are based on the linear elastic approximation and thus represent a major assumption. The quasi-brittle behaviour gives challenge to assess the real nuclear graphite component. The selected test method would help to bridge the gap between microscale to macro-scale in real reactor component. The small scale tests presented here can contribute some statistical data to manifests the failure in real component. The evaluation and choice of different solution design of biaxial test will be discussed in this paper. The ball on-three ball test method was used for assessment test follows by numerous of analytical method. The results shown that biaxial strength of the EY9 grade graphite depends on the method used for evaluation. Some of the analytical methods use to calculate biaxial strength were found not to be valid and therefore should not be used to assess the mechanical properties of nuclear graphite. (author)

  20. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture toughness

    A program to develop and evaluate fracture methodologies for the assessment of crack-tip constraint effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels has been initiated in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program. Crack-tip constraint is an issue that significantly impacts fracture mechanics technologies employed in safety assessment procedures for commercially licensed nuclear RPVs. The focus of studies described herein is on the evaluation of two stressed-based methodologies for quantifying crack-tip constraint (i.e., J-Q theory and a micromechanical scaling model based on critical stressed volumes) through applications to experimental and fractographic data. Data were utilized from single-edge notch bend (SENB) specimens and HSST-developed cruciform beam specimens that were tested in HSST shallow-crack and biaxial testing programs. Results from applications indicate that both the J-Q methodology and the micromechanical scaling model can be used successfully to interpret experimental data from the shallow- and deep-crack SENB specimen tests. When applied to the uniaxially and biaxially loaded cruciform specimens, the two methodologies showed some promising features, but also raised several questions concerning the interpretation of constraint conditions in the specimen based on near-tip stress fields. Fractographic data taken from the fracture surfaces of the SENB and cruciform specimens are used to assess the relevance of stress-based fracture characterizations to conditions at cleavage initiation sites. Unresolved issues identified from these analyses require resolution as part of a validation process for biaxial loading applications. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 142

  1. Study of short cracks under biaxial fatigue

    P. Lopez-Crespo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology for evaluating crack initiation under biaxial conditions is presented. The methodology consists of evaluating the crack length automatically with digital processing of highmagnification images of the crack. The methodology was applied to study five different strain conditions on a low carbon ferritic-pearlitic steel specimen with tubular shape. A hole of 150 μm diameter was drilled to enforce the crack to initiate at a particular spot. Different combinations of axial and torsional strains were analysed during the initiation stage of the crack. The setup employed allowed detection of the crack to within 6 μm from the edge of the hole on average and monitoring of the crack during early stages. Fatigue crack propagation curves clearly showed oscillations due to microstructure. It was also observed that these oscillations decreased as the torsional component of the strain was increased.

  2. Stretching silicon: A uniaxial and biaxial strain generation process and the resulting mobility enhancement in silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs

    Peterson, Rebecca Lorenz

    Strained silicon is of technological interest for its ability to increase charge carrier mobilities in MOSFETs and thereby improve circuit performance without requiring device scaling. At high vertical electric fields, biaxial tensile strain enhances electron mobility while uniaxial compressive strain enhances hole mobility, for example. In the present work, a process is developed to integrate upon a single wafer, for the first time, uniaxially-strained, biaxially-strained and unstrained silicon islands. The ultra-thin ( crystal direction. The strain generation method works by lateral expansion of a silicon/silicon germanium bi-layer island on a viscous borophosphorosilicate glass (BPSG) layer during high temperature (> 700C) anneal. By manipulating the island geometry from squares to narrow rectangles, biaxial and uniaxial silicon strains are achieved. Numerical simulations of the lateral expansion process for islands of various aspect ratios identify process windows and island geometry requirements for maximum uniaxial strain. The modeled and measured strain results agree well. An undesired buckling process can roughen the film surface during anneals; the buckling and lateral expansion processes compete to determine the final state of the film. The amplitude of buckling can be reduced and its time scale lengthened by thinning the compliant BPSG layer. Differences in 1-D and 2-D buckling on uniaxially- and biaxially-stressed SiGe islands, respectively, are measured, and by comparison to models, attributed to the different magnitudes of 1-D and 2-D stress present in the films. Fully-depleted strained-SOI MOSFETs are fabricated using this strain generation process. By adding a silicon nitride barrier layer below the BPSG, device performance is greatly improved. Biaxial tensile strain of 0.38-0.52% enhances electron and hole mobilities by 30-55%. Comparable uniaxial tension parallel to a or channel improves electron mobilities by up to 72% and hole mobilities by up to 54%.

  3. 52Cr Spinor Condensate: A Biaxial or Uniaxial Spin Nematic

    We show that the newly discovered 52Cr Bose condensate in zero magnetic field can be a spin nematic of the following kind: a 'maximum' polar state, a 'colinear' polar state, or a biaxial nematic ferromagnetic state. We also present the phase diagram with a magnetic field in the interaction subspace containing the chromium condensate. It contains many uniaxial and biaxial spin nematic phases, which often but not always break time reversal symmetry, and can exist with or without spontaneous magnetization

  4. Three-Dimensional Static and Dynamic Analysis of a Composite Cruciform Structure Subjected to Biaxial Loading: A Discontinuum Approach

    Navarro-Zafra, J.; Curiel-Sosa, J. L.; Serna Moreno, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    A three-dimensional structural integrity analysis using the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is considered for simulating the crack behaviour of a chopped fibre-glass-reinforced polyester (CGRP) cruciform specimen subjected to a quasi-static tensile biaxial loading. This is the first time this problem is accomplished for computing the stress intensity factors (SIFs) produced in the biaxially loaded area of the cruciform specimen. A static crack analysis for the calculation of the mixed-mode SIFs is carried out. SIFs are calculated for infinite plates under biaxial loading as well as for the CGRP cruciform specimens in order to review the possible edge effects. A ratio relating the side of the central zone of the cruciform and the crack length is proposed. Additionally, the initiation and evolution of a three-dimensional crack are successfully simulated. Specific challenges such as the 3D crack initiation, based on a principal stress criterion, and its front propagation, in perpendicular to the principal stress direction, are conveniently addressed. No initial crack location is pre-defined and an unique crack is developed. Finally, computational outputs are compared with theoretical and experimental results validating the analysis.

  5. Biaxial alignment in sputter deposited thin films

    Biaxially aligned thin films have not only a preferential crystallographic out-of-plane orientation, but also have an alignment along a certain reference direction parallel to the substrate plane. This type of film has been obtained by unbalanced reactive magnetron sputter deposition on both amorphous glass and randomly textured polycrystalline substrates tilted with respect to the incoming material flux. First, we focus on the development of microstructure and crystallographic out-of-plane orientation. The results are summarized in an extended structure zone model. Based on experimental results, a mechanism for the in-plane alignment is proposed which shows that an in-plane alignment can only be obtained when an overgrowth mechanism drives the microstructural evolution of the thin film. The quality of the in-plane alignment can be evaluated from X-ray diffraction pole figures. The influence of several deposition parameters (target-substrate distance, target-substrate angle, deposition pressure, and substrate bias) on the degree of in-plane alignment is discussed. The influence of these parameters can be traced to the influence of two main properties, i.e. the mobility of the adatoms at the growing surface and the angular spread of the incoming material flux. Finally, since impurities are hard to exclude during deposition, their influence on the microstructure, the preferential out-of-plane orientation, and the in-plane alignment is reported

  6. Valence band structure and density of states effective mass model of biaxial tensile strained silicon based on k · p theory

    After constructing a stress and strain model, the valence bands of in-plane biaxial tensile strained Si is calculated by k · p method. In the paper we calculate the accurate anisotropy valance bands and the splitting energy between light and heavy hole bands. The results show that the valance bands are highly distorted, and the anisotropy is more obvious. To obtain the density of states (DOS) effective mass, which is a very important parameter for device modeling, a DOS effective mass model of biaxial tensile strained Si is constructed based on the valance band calculation. This model can be directly used in the device model of metal—oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). It also a provides valuable reference for biaxial tensile strained silicon MOSFET design. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  7. Stress state in perforated plates

    The method is described of photoelastic measurement of stress concentration factors (s.c.f) in plates perforated by a square, triangular and diagonal grid of circular holes and loaded by uniaxial or biaxial tensile stress. A loading equipment which was developed and its modifications are described. Stress concentration factors found are compared with theoretical and experimental results given in references. (author)

  8. Measurement and material modeling of biaxial work-hardening behavior for pure titanium sheet

    Sumita, Takeshi; Kuwabara, Toshihiko

    2013-12-01

    Biaxial tensile tests of a commercial pure titanium sheet (JIS ♯1) were performed using a servo-controlled multiaxial tube expansion testing machine developed by one of the authors [Kuwabara, T. and Sugawara, F., Multiaxial tube expansion test method for measurement of sheet metal deformation behavior under biaxial tension for a large strain range, Int. J. Plasticity, 45 (2013), 103-118]. Tubular specimens with an inner diameter of 54 mm were fabricated by roller bending and TIG welding the as-received test material with a thickness of 0.5 mm. Several linear stress paths in the first quadrant of the stress space were applied to the tubular specimens to measure the contours of plastic work and the directions of the plastic strain rates for an equivalent plastic strain range of 0.05 ≤ ɛ0p ≤ 0.30. It was found that the shapes of the work contours significantly changed with an increase in ɛ0p and that the Yld2000-2d yield function could reproduce the differential work hardening behavior of the test material by changing the material parameters and the exponent as functions of ɛ0p.

  9. Depletion-induced biaxial nematic states of boardlike particles

    With the aim of investigating the stability conditions of biaxial nematic liquid crystals, we study the effect of adding a non-adsorbing ideal depletant on the phase behavior of colloidal hard boardlike particles. We take into account the presence of the depletant by introducing an effective depletion attraction between a pair of boardlike particles. At fixed depletant fugacity, the stable liquid-crystal phase is determined through a mean-field theory with restricted orientations. Interestingly, we predict that for slightly elongated boardlike particles a critical depletant density exists, where the system undergoes a direct transition from an isotropic liquid to a biaxial nematic phase. As a consequence, by tuning the depletant density, an easy experimental control parameter, one can stabilize states of high biaxial nematic order even when these states are unstable for pure systems of boardlike particles. (paper)

  10. Polycrystalline ferroelectric or multiferroic oxide articles on biaxially textured substrates and methods for making same

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2015-03-31

    A polycrystalline ferroelectric and/or multiferroic oxide article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface; at least one biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the substrate; and a biaxially textured ferroelectric or multiferroic oxide layer supported by the buffer layer. Methods for making polycrystalline ferroelectric and/or multiferroic oxide articles are also disclosed.

  11. Method for forming biaxially textured articles by powder metallurgy

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured alloy article comprises the steps of preparing a mixture comprising Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacting the mixture, followed by heat treating and rapidly recrystallizing to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  12. Residual stresses of water-jet peened austenitic stainless steel

    The specimen material was austenitic stainless steel, SUS316L. The residual stress was induced by water-jet peening. The residual stress was measured using the 311 diffraction with conventional X-rays. The measured residual stress showed the equi-biaxial stress state. To investigate thermal stability of the residual stress, the specimen was aged thermally at 773K in air to 1000h. The residual stress kept the equi-biaxial stress state against the thermal aging. Lattice plane dependency of the residual stress induced by water-jet peening was evaluated using hard synchrotron X-rays. The residual stress measured by the soft lattice plane showed the equi-biaxial stress state, but the residual stress measured by the hard lattice plane did not. In addition, the distributions of the residual stress in the depth direction were measured using a strain scanning method with hard synchrotron X-rays and neutrons. (author)

  13. Bi-axial fracture strength characteristic of an ultra-thin flash memory chip

    Recently, ultra-thin chips with thicknesses of under 35 µm have emerged as an option for thinner, high performance electronic devices. For reliable electronic devices and high throughput packaging processes, the mechanical properties of ultra-thin chips need to be accurately understood. In this study, the fracture strength of an ultra-thin flash memory chip was measured using a ball-on-ring (BOR) test. To evaluate and validate the bi-axial strength in the BOR test, a finite element analysis was performed. It was compared with the analytical solution based on Hertzian contact theory. Flash memory chip specimens with different thicknesses were prepared and their bi-axial strengths were tested with respect to various wafer thinning process parameters such as grinding speed and polishing time. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the residual stress generated during the wafer thinning process. The surface roughness of the silicon wafer was measured using an atomic force microscope under various wafer thinning conditions. From the study, the fracture strength characteristics of the ultra-thin chip could be established as a function of the wafer thinning parameters. (paper)

  14. Fatigue life prediction of magnetorheological elastomers subjected to dynamic equi-biaxial cyclic loading

    Prediction of fatigue life is of great significance in ensuring that dynamically loaded rubber components exhibit safety and reliability in service. In this text, the dynamic equi-biaxial fatigue behaviour of magnetorheological elastomer (MREs) using a bubble inflation method is described. Wöhler (S–N) curves for both isotropic and anisotropic MREs were produced by subjecting the compounds to cycling over a range of stress amplitudes (σa) between 0.75 MPa and 1.4 MPa. Changes in physical properties, including variation in stress–strain relations and complex modulus (E*) during the fatigue process were analysed. It was found that the complex modulus of MRE samples decreased throughout the entire fatigue test and failure took place at a limiting value of approximately 1.228MPa ± 4.38% for isotropic MREs and 1.295 ± 10.33% for anisotropic MREs. It was also determined that a dynamic stored energy criterion can be used as a plausible predictor in determining the fatigue life of MREs. - Highlights: • The first Wöhler curves for MREs subjected to equi-biaxial loading were presented. • Anisotropic MREs exhibited higher fatigue resistance than isotropic MREs. • There is a limiting value of complex modulus (E*) at which fatigue failure will occur. • The dynamic stored energy criterion can be used as a fatigue life predictor

  15. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ritchie, Andrew Ewen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low-vo...

  16. Anomalously temperature-independent birefringence in biaxial optical crystals

    Temperature-independent birefringence in a biaxial crystal was predicted theoretically and observed experimentally for the first time. The width of the plot against temperature (the range corresponding to the temperature independence of the birefringence) at a fundamental radiation wavelength of 632.8 nm in a KTP crystal 5.9 mm long was more than 1600C. (letters to the editor)

  17. Computational analysis of fluid flow within a device for applying biaxial strain to cultured cells.

    Lee, Jason; Baker, Aaron B

    2015-05-01

    In vitro systems for applying mechanical strain to cultured cells are commonly used to investigate cellular mechanotransduction pathways in a variety of cell types. These systems often apply mechanical forces to a flexible membrane on which cells are cultured. A consequence of the motion of the membrane in these systems is the generation of flow and the unintended application of shear stress to the cells. We recently described a flexible system for applying mechanical strain to cultured cells, which uses a linear motor to drive a piston array to create biaxial strain within multiwell culture plates. To better understand the fluidic stresses generated by this system and other systems of this type, we created a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the flow during the mechanical loading cycle. Alterations in the frequency or maximal strain magnitude led to a linear increase in the average fluid velocity within the well and a nonlinear increase in the shear stress at the culture surface over the ranges tested (0.5-2.0 Hz and 1-10% maximal strain). For all cases, the applied shear stresses were relatively low and on the order of millipascal with a dynamic waveform having a primary and secondary peak in the shear stress over a single mechanical strain cycle. These findings should be considered when interpreting experimental results using these devices, particularly in the case when the cell type used is sensitive to low magnitude, oscillatory shear stresses. PMID:25611013

  18. Experimental investigation of the biaxial flexural strength of 8YSZ thin film ceramic substrates as electrolytes

    Cheng, Ming

    Thin ceramic substrates are widely used in engineering applications in modern industry. For example, they are used as molecular filters in fuel cells and solid oxide electrolyzers for oxygen generation. Development of high-reliability substrate materials inevitably requires the accurate characterization of their mechanical properties. The loading conditions in service on the ceramic substrates, such as the solid oxide electrolytes with a thickness of much less than 2 mm, often involve multiaxial bending instead of simple tension or bending. In this dissertation, the ASTM standard piston-on-3-ball experimental technique at ambient temperature is employed to investigate the quasi-static biaxial flexural strength of pure 8YSZ and Al2O3 or 3YSZ doped 8YSZ ceramic substrates. Furthermore, this piston-on-3-ball experimental technique is developed into a dynamic piston-on-3-ball technique at ambient temperature and a quasi-static piston-on-3-ball technique at elevated temperatures. Stress distribution functions in the tensile surface of a specimen under piston-on-3-ball loading condition are formulated and used to develop statistical models, which are proven to be in the form of a Weibull distribution function, to describe the biaxial flexural strength behavior of ceramic substrates under piston-on-3-ball loading condition. Analytical modeling was conducted on the dynamic piston-on-3-ball loading configuration. This analytical model can be used to guide the experimental design and judge the validity of experimental results. A new material constitutive model is developed to give a good description of the dynamic strength behavior of ceramic materials under constant stress-rate loading. Quasi-static experiments under piston-on-3-ball loading are conducted at both ambient temperature and elevated temperatures, while dynamic experiments are conducted at ambient temperature. Experimental results, as well as observations from SEM microstructure images and values of fracture toughness measured using a newly developed Vickers micro-indentation toughness technique, lead to a conclusion that no obvious overall improvement to the SYSZ ceramic substrates in the biaxial flexural strength can be observed by adding Al2O 3 additive with amount up to 3 mol% or 3YSZ additive with amount up to 30 wt%.

  19. Processing-structure-property relationships in uni- and biaxially stretched binary and ternary blends

    Zhou, Xixian

    Processing-structure-property relationships in uni and biaxially stretched PVDF/PMMA binary blends and PEN/PEI/PEEK ternary blends were investigated using a variety of characterization techniques that probe the structure at different levels. PVDF is a fast crystallizing polymer. It can form amorphous blends with PMMA which is fairly easy to process in their rubbery region. At the stretching temperature up to Tg + 10 15spC, the blends with PVDF fraction more than 55 exhibit yielding due to the presence of the crystalline superstructure yet stress crystallizable films. The yielding and associated neck formation gradually disappear for the blends containing less than 55 wt%. The thickness uniformity and surface smoothness of the produced films are improved in these films upon stretching particularly when the influence of stress hardening is present. This causes self leveling in the films. At the lower stretch ratios (ca. lambdasbMD\\ ? 3x), 55/45 blend shows no crystallinity and crystalline orientation. Beyond this point, very highly oriented crystalline domains emerge. This is as a result of dilution effect at such compositions where the entanglement density of the PVDF chains is reduced thereby increasing efficiency of orientation that resembles crystallization from dilute solutions except in this case the solvent is the PMMA phase. Stretching converts the crystalline phase from alpha to beta in 85/15 and 70/30 wt% blends, while in 55/15 blend the crystalline regions are exclusively in beta form. A combination of four point diagrams with "lozenge" shape appears in SAXS patterns. A structure model has been proposed based on the three-phase morphology and SAXS theory. In this study, we concentrated on the biaxial stretching behavior of PEN rich and PEI rich crystallizable PEN/PEI/PEEK ternary blends. The main objective was to increase the glass transition temperature of the blends containing large fraction of PEN while maintaining strain induced crystallizability. This was not possible with PEN/PEI blends containing more than 30sp% PEI. Addition of small amount (10-30%) of highly crystallizable PEEK were found to maintain strain crystallizabilities even in blends containing large fraction of PEI. Structural hierarchy developed in biaxially stretched blends was investigated. In PEN rich blends (containing 10% PEEK), low temperature highly oriented alpha modification PEN crystalline regions were found. In the blends containing large fraction of PEI, PEEK was found to crystallize upon stretching while PEN remained amorphous. These studies indicated that crystallizability of PEN that is lost by the addition of PEI beyond 33% can be recovered with the addition of PEEK. This allows one to produce uniform films with high glass transition temperature.

  20. The fine structure of the vortex-beams in the biaxial and biaxially-induced birefringent media caused by the conical diffraction

    Fadeyeva, Tatyana; Anischenko, Pavel; Volyar, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We consider the paraxial propagation of nondiffracting singular beams inside natural biaxial and biaxially-induced birefringent media in vicinity of one of the optical axes in terms of eigenmode vortex-beams, whose angular momentum does not change upon propagation. We have predicted a series of new optical effects in the natural biaxial crystals such as the stable propagation of vector singular beams bearing the coupled optical vortices with fractional topological charges, the conversion of the zero-order Bessel beam with a uniformly distributed linear polarization into the radially-, azimuthally- and spirally-polarized beams and the conversion of the space-variant linear polarization in the combined beam with coupled vortices. We have revealed that the field structure of the vortex-beams in the biaxially-induced crystals resembles that in the natural biaxial crystals and form the vector structure inherent in the conical diffraction. However, the mode beams in this case do not change the propagation direction...

  1. Effectiveness of the modified fatigue criteria for biaxial loading of notched specimen in high-cycle region

    Major, Štěpán; Hubálovský, Š.; Kocour, Vladimír; Valach, Jaroslav

    Vol. 732. Zürich : Trans Tech Publications, 2015 - (Polach, P.), s. 63-70 ISBN 978-3-03835-413-0. ISSN 1660-9336. [EAN 2014. Conference on experimental stress analysis. /52./. Mariánské Lázně (CZ), 02.06.2014-05.06.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : notched specimen * multiaxial criteria * biaxial loading * fatigue life * bending-torsion loading * high-cycle loading Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://www. scientific .net/AMM.732.63

  2. Influences of the biaxial strain and c-screw dislocation on the clustering in InGaN alloys

    Lei, Huaping; Chen, Jun; Ruterana, Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Using the molecular dynamics simulation based on Stillinger-Weber potentials, the roles of lattice mismatch and threading dislocations (c-screw type) on phase segregation in InGaN alloys have been explored. The thermodynamic stability and structural deformation of the InGaN alloys with In-rich clusters are analyzed when biaxial stress and c-screw dislocations act on the systems. The results show that the formation of In-rich clusters is suppressed in the case of lattice mismatch, whereas it takes place in the presence of c-screw dislocations independent of the strain condition of InGaN alloys.

  3. Strain Measurement System Developed for Biaxially Loaded Cruciform Specimens

    Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    A new extensometer system developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field measures test area strains along two orthogonal axes in flat cruciform specimens. This system incorporates standard axial contact extensometers to provide a cost-effective high-precision instrument. The device was validated for use by extensive testing of a stainless steel specimen, with specimen temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1100 F. In-plane loading conditions included several static biaxial load ratios, plus cyclic loadings of various waveform shapes, frequencies, magnitudes, and durations. The extensometer system measurements were compared with strain gauge data at room temperature and with calculated strain values for elevated-temperature measurements. All testing was performed in house in Glenn's Benchmark Test Facility in-plane biaxial load frame.

  4. Biaxial fatigue properties of thin-walled composite tubes

    Krempl, E.; Elzey, D. M.; Ayar, T.; Loewy, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    A testing method for obtaining fatigue and fracture data under biaxial loading and for negative R-ratios is described. Thin-walled tubes of 1-in. outer nominal diameter with a tapered grip section were tested in an Axial-Torsion Servohydraulic Testing Machine with a 463 Data Control Processor at frequencies below 10 Hz up to the 1-million cycle range. Room temperature, uniaxial constant amplitude fatigue data for high temperature cure graphite-epoxy material are presented at R = -0.4 for a (+, - 5 deg) fiber orientation. The fatigue curve is almost horizontal. Tests on (+, - 5 deg) 'SP-328' resulted in failures which predominantly originated in the grip section. Presently, a new specimen design is being tested intended to eliminate cracking in the grip section. Biaxial in-phase loading of (0/+, - 45) tubes of Fiberite graphite-epoxy resulted in much steeper fatigue curves than observed under uniaxial loading.

  5. Interaction diagrams of short columns under biaxial bending

    The use of design curves for uniaxial bending is favoured by engineers, be case of their numerous advantage over available numerical methods. For short columns subjected to biaxial bending, the engineers are forced to use approximate numerical methods accepted by the codes of practice. An attempt is made in this paper to expand a new technique developed by Najmi, (1986) and by Najami and Tay em (1993) for the design of such columns together with reliable design. charts which are paramount for efficient design By using the transformation sections at the ultimate load, the handling of the problem is then done through flexural formulae, which are more manageable than the equivalent equilibrium equations. Design curves for a typical cross section subject to different eccentricities are presented. The curves were purposely designed to render the uniaxial bending case as a special case of biaxial bending. (author). 8 refs., 10 figs

  6. Optimization of biaxial tensile specimen shape from numerical investigations

    Zidane, Ibrahim; Zhang, Cunsheng; Guines, Dominique; Leotoing, Lionel; Ragneau, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In innovative industrial processes such as hydroforming or incremental forming, strain rates up to 500s-1 can be reached. As a result, experimental setups allowing to obtain large deformations from static to intermediate strain rate levels have to be developed to predict the formability limits of sheet metal materials. The proposed experimental device is a servo-hydraulic testing machine provided with four independent dynamic actuators allowing biaxial tensile tests on cruciform specimen. The...

  7. High temperature low cycle biaxial fatigue of two steels

    Biaxial low cycle fatigue tests at various temperatures and strain rates were performed on 1% Cr-Mo-V steel and AISI 316 stainless steel under combined torsional and axial loads. A correlation for fatigue strength has been derived, and it is also shown that if the Gough ellipse quadrant criterion is rephrased in terms of strain amplitudes, it may be used as a safe design rule for ductile metals in both the low and high cycle fatigue regimes. (author)

  8. Identification of material parameters using bi-axial machine

    Flores, Paulo; de Montleau, P.; Mathonet, V.; Moureaux, P. (collab.); Habraken, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Experimental testing equipment is built in order to identify material parameters of complex phenomenological constitutive laws. This equipment consists in a bi-axial test machine able to perform plane strain and simple shear tests separately or simultaneously and a Miyauchi simple shear test device; an optical extensometer is used to identify the strain field. The article focus on the validation of the results of this new equipment by comparing with results obtained by standard machines and/o...

  9. High magnification crack-tip field characterisation under biaxial conditions

    Moreno, B.(Universidad de Los Andes, Bogota, Colombia); Lopez-Crespo, P; Zapatero, J.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a novel methodology for characterising fatigue cracks under biaxial conditions. The methodology uses high magnification Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique for measuring displacement and strain crack-tip fields. By applying micro-speckle pattern on the metal surface it is possible to achieve high magnification for DIC technique. The speckles were created by electro-spray technique. The validity of this novel technique is demonstrated by direct comparison with stan...

  10. Equivalent approaches to alignment tensor dynamics in biaxial liquid crystals

    Close, Alexander R D

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of liquid crystal flows, the Qian & Sheng (QS) model for Q-tensor dynamics is compared to the Volovik & Kats (VK) theory of biaxial nematics by using Hamilton's variational principle. Under the assumption of rotational dynamics for the Q-tensor, the two approaches are shown to be equivalent in their conservative limit. Also, after presenting a micropolar variant of the VK model, Rayleigh dissipation is included in the treatment.

  11. Inhomogeneous configurations of magnetization of ferromagnetic films with biaxial anisotropy

    The system of the Landau-Lifshitz equations and magnetostatic equations for a ferromagnetic film with biaxial anisotropy and a Q-factor smaller than unity is reduced to a single scalar equation for the magnetostatic potential. Such a procedure is possible if the magnetization modulation scale in the sample considerably exceeds the characteristic magnetic length. The solutions to this equation describing inhomogeneous periodic magnetic configurations are obtained. The energy analysis of these configurations is carried out

  12. Modelization of ratcheting in biaxial experiments

    A new unified viscoplastic constitutive equation has been developed in order to interpret ratcheting experiments on mechanical structures of fast reactors. The model is based essentially on a generalized Armstrong Frederick equation for the kinematic variable; the coefficients of the dynamic recovery term in this equation is a function of both instantaneous and accumulated inelastic strain which is allowed to vary in an appropriate manner in order to reproduce the experimental ratcheting rate. The validity of the model is verified by comparing predictions with experimental results for austenitic stainless steel (17-12 SPH) tubular specimens subjected to cyclic torsional loading under constant tensile stress at 6000C

  13. Directional Differences in the Biaxial Material Properties of Fascia Lata and the Implications for Fascia Function

    Eng, Carolyn M.; Pancheri, Francesco Q.; Lieberman , Daniel E.; Biewener, Andrew Austin; Dorfmann, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Fascia is a highly organized collagenous tissue that is ubiquitous in the body, but whose function is not well understood. Because fascia has a sheet-like structure attaching to muscles and bones at multiple sites, it is exposed to different states of multi- or biaxial strain. In order to measure how biaxial strain affects fascia material behavior, planar biaxial tests with strain control were performed on longitudinal and transversely oriented samples of goat fascia lata (FL). Cruciform samp...

  14. Biaxial Behavior of Ultra-High Performance Concrete and Untreated UHPC Waffle Slab Bridge Deck Design and Testing

    D'Alessandro, Kacie Caple

    Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) was evaluated as a potential material for future bridge deck designs. Material characterization tests took place to identify potential challenges in mixing, placing, and curing UHPC. Biaxial testing was performed to evaluate behavior of UHPC in combined tension and compression stress states. A UHPC bridge deck was designed to perform similarly to a conventional concrete bridge deck, and a single unit bridge deck section was tested to evaluate the design methods used for untreated UHPC. Material tests identified challenges with placing UHPC. A specified compressive strength was determined for structural design using untreated UHPC, which was identified as a cost-effective alternative to steam treated UHPC. UHPC was tested in biaxial tension-compression stress states. A biaxial test method was developed for UHPC to directly apply tension and compression. The influence of both curing method and fiber orientation were evaluated. The failure envelope developed for untreated UHPC with random fiber orientation was suggested as a conservative estimate for future analysis of UHPC. Digital image correlation was also evaluated as a means to estimate surface strains of UHPC, and recommendations are provided to improve consistency in future tests using DIC methods. A preliminary bridge deck design was completed for untreated UHPC and using established material models. Prestressing steel was used as primary reinforcement in the transverse direction. Preliminary testing was used to evaluate three different placement scenarios, and results showed that fiber settling was a potential placement problem resulting in reduced tensile strength. The UHPC bridge deck was redesigned to incorporate preliminary test results, and two single unit bridge deck sections were tested to evaluate the incorporated design methods for both upside down and right-side up placement techniques. Test results showed that the applied design methods would be conservative for either placement method.

  15. Deformation and strain hardening behavior of powder metallurgical TRIP steel under quasi-static biaxial-planar loading

    Kulawinski, D., E-mail: dirk.kulawinski@iwt.tu-freiberg.de [Institute of Materials Engineering, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Street 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Ackermann, S. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Street 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Seupel, A. [Institute of Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Lampadiusstraße 4, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Lippmann, T.; Henkel, S. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Street 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Kuna, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Lampadiusstraße 4, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Weidner, A.; Biermann, H. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Street 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2015-08-26

    The present paper investigates a metastable austenitic stainless steel under different biaxial-planar load paths by using a cruciform specimen geometry. The material behavior was described by stress–strain curves and initial yield surface. Furthermore, the hardening behavior was determined by load sequence tests. To investigate the influence of the stress state on the martensite formation a ferrite sensor as well as electron backscatter diffraction measurements were used. Two cruciform specimen geometries were utilized and compared for the considered load cases. The stress state within the cruciform specimens was evaluated by an elastic unloading procedure with subsequent calculation of the stress components. Isotropic initial yielding and non-isotropic hardening were found. A recommendation for the use of the cruciform specimen geometry with respect to the load case is given.

  16. Global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under combined biaxial forces and cross-thickness bending

    Lower bound limit load solutions for surface cracks in plates under combined end force, cross-thickness bending moment and tensile/compressive membrane stress parallel to the crack are derived based on the von Mises yield criterion. From these solutions, particular limit loads for plates with extended surface cracks and through-thickness cracks or uncracked plates under the same loading conditions are obtained. The limit load solutions for surface cracks in plates under combined tension and bending due to Lei and Fox can be reproduced from the solutions in this paper by setting the stress parallel to the crack plane to zero. - Highlights: • Lower bound global limit load solution for rectangular surface cracks in plates. • Combined biaxial stress/force and cross-thickness bending moment. • Solutions based on lower bound limit load theorem and von Mises yield criterion. • Solutions valid for proportional/non-proportional loading

  17. Fracture capacity of girth welded pipelines with 3D surface cracks subjected to biaxial loading conditions

    Offshore pipelines installed by reeling method are subjected to large plastic strains. When the steel pipes are joined by girth welding, both surface and embedded cracks are inevitably initiated in welding zone. The pipe lines should have adequate resistance against both crack extension by tearing and unstable fracture during installation as well as during operation. However, common flaw assessment procedures, e.g. BS 7910:2005 , are not explicitly developed for such situations with large plastic strains. The main objective of the current paper is to find a way to assess fracture capability of a practical pipeline subject to large plastic deformation. In our study, the evolution of crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) of the pipeline with semi-eliptical surface crack in weld girth is investigated under biaxial loading conditions (uniaxial tensile and internal pressure) using three dimensional elastic–plastic finite element analysis. The effects of crack depth, ratio of semi-major axis to semi-minor axis and internal pressure are examined. The results show that at moderate levels of global strain, the variation of CTOD with global strain can be well approximated by a simple linear relationship under tensile loading as well as biaxial loading conditions. Comparing the fracture assessment for the welded pipe made by BS 7910:2005 with that made by our current study, it is found that the assessment from BS7910:2005 is over conservative. A CTOD-estimation method for strain -based fracture is suggested for the pipelines when the global strain is 3%. - Highlights: ► 3D FE stress analysis of girth welded pipelines with surface cracks is conducted. ► Both material and geometrical non-linearities are considering in estimating CTOD. ► Existing conservative models result in high rejection rate of welded pipes.

  18. STRESS

    Suchitra D. Patankar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Every person experience stress. Stress is the term which has become part of everybody’s life. It occur automatically in every human being but its level may be mild, moderate or high. During stress several physical and emotional changes takes place. It affect on cognitive functioning also. It can produce chronic physiological and psychological disorders. The present paper throws light on nature of stress, reactions to stress, effects of stress, stress management and techniques that are useful for stress reduction.

  19. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-03-11

    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  20. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    Kaloni, T. P.; Cheng, Y. C.; Schwingenschlgl, U.

    2013-03-01

    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si-Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  1. High magnification crack-tip field characterisation under biaxial conditions

    B. Moreno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel methodology for characterising fatigue cracks under biaxial conditions. The methodology uses high magnification Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique for measuring displacement and strain crack-tip fields. By applying micro-speckle pattern on the metal surface it is possible to achieve high magnification for DIC technique. The speckles were created by electro-spray technique. The validity of this novel technique is demonstrated by direct comparison with standard extensometer measurements, under tension-compression and torsion conditions. In order to image the correct region, the notch effect on the fatigue life was also evaluated.

  2. Uniaxial and Biaxial Spin Nematic Phases Induced by Quantum Fluctuations

    It is shown that zero point quantum fluctuations completely lift the accidental continuous degeneracy that is found in mean field analysis of quantum spin nematic phases of hyperfine spin-2 cold atoms. The result is two distinct ground states which have higher symmetries: a uniaxial spin nematic and a biaxial spin nematic with dihedral symmetry Dih4. There is a novel first-order quantum phase transition between the two phases as atomic scattering lengths are varied. We find that the ground state of 87Rb atoms should be a uniaxial spin nematic. We note that the energy barrier between the phases could be observable in dynamical experiments

  3. A soft ellipsoid potential for biaxial molecules : Modeling and computer simulation

    Saha, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    A soft ellipsoid contact potential model for a pair of biaxial ellipsoidal molecules is proposed which considers the configuration dependent energy anisotropy explicitly along with their geometrical aspects. We performed Molecular Dynamics simulation study to generate both biaxial smectic and nematic phases using this new potential.

  4. Initial results of the influence of biaxial loading on fracture toughness

    A testing program to examine the influence of biaxial loads on the fracture toughness of shallow-flaw specimens under conditions prototypic of a reactor pressure vessel was begun. Existing data suggest that shallow-flaw specimens under biaxial loading will exhibit a toughness reduction compared to comparable uniaxial specimens. Quantification of this toughness reduction is the main goal of the biaxial fracture toughness program. A cruciform specimen with a two-dimensional shallow through-thickness flaw under a biaxial load ratio of 0.6:1 was used for biaxial fracture toughness testing. The critical fracture load for each specimen was approximately the same, but the uniaxial specimen withstood substantially more deformation at failure than did the biaxial specimens. Three-dimensional, elastic-plastic, finite-element posttest analyses were necessary to estimate fracture toughness. In all cases, agreement between the measured and computed load vs deformation responses was excellent. Toughness values for the cruciform specimens were compared with data from previously tested, deep- and shallow-crack specimens. Results from these tests indicate that the shallow-crack toughness increase is partially, but not totally, removed by the application of biaxial loading. However, additional data are required to solidify these conclusions. A proposed test matrix for additional uniaxial and biaxial testing is described. This report has been designated HSST Report No. 138

  5. The influence of uniaxial prestrain on biaxial r-values in 7075-O aluminium alloy

    Biaxial test methods have been used to determine, not only yield behaviour under biaxial conditions, but also the strain response. This paper examines the influence of uniaxial prestrain upon the biaxial r-value by extending the disc compression test procedure proposed by Barlat et al. The extension involved the use of digital image measurements of in-plane strains. The material examined was a 7075-O condition aluminium alloy. The results of the experimental programme indicated that the biaxial r-value is unaffected by uniaxial prestrain. When using the disc compression test, the mode of deformation and therefore the biaxial r-value were found to be very sensitive to the prevailing friction conditions.

  6. Implementation of a Biaxial Resonant Fatigue Test Method on a Large Wind Turbine Blade

    Snowberg, D.; Dana, S.; Hughes, S.; Berling, P.

    2014-09-01

    A biaxial resonant test method was utilized to simultaneously fatigue test a wind turbine blade in the flap and edge (lead-lag) direction. Biaxial resonant blade fatigue testing is an accelerated life test method utilizing oscillating masses on the blade; each mass is independently oscillated at the respective flap and edge blade resonant frequency. The flap and edge resonant frequency were not controlled, nor were they constant for this demonstrated test method. This biaxial resonant test method presented surmountable challenges in test setup simulation, control and data processing. Biaxial resonant testing has the potential to complete test projects faster than single-axis testing. The load modulation during a biaxial resonant test may necessitate periodic load application above targets or higher applied test cycles.

  7. Competition between capillarity, layering and biaxiality in a confined liquid crystal.

    Varga, S; Martinez-Ratón, Y; Velasco, E

    2010-05-01

    The effect of confinement on the phase behaviour and structure of fluids made of biaxial hard particles (cuboids) is examined theoretically by means of Onsager second-order virial theory in the limit where the long particle axes are frozen in a mutually parallel configuration. Confinement is induced by two parallel planar hard walls (slit-pore geometry), with particle long axes perpendicular to the walls (perfect homeotropic anchoring). In bulk, a continuous nematic-to-smectic transition takes place, while shape anisotropy in the (rectangular) particle cross-section induces biaxial ordering. As a consequence, four bulk phases, uniaxial and biaxial nematic and smectic phases, can be stabilised as the cross-sectional aspect ratio is varied. On confining the fluid, the nematic-to-smectic transition is suppressed, and either uniaxial or biaxial phases, separated by a continuous transition, can be present. Smectic ordering develops continuously from the walls for increasing particle concentration (in agreement with the supression of nematic-smectic second-order transition at confinement), but first-order layering transitions, involving structures with n and n + 1 layers, arise in the confined fluid at high concentration. Competition between layering and uniaxial-biaxial ordering leads to three different types of layering transitions, at which the two coexisting structures can be both uniaxial, one uniaxial and another biaxial, or both biaxial. Also, the interplay between molecular biaxiality and wall interactions is very subtle: while the hard wall disfavours the formation of the biaxial phase, biaxiality is against the layering transitions, as we have shown by comparing the confined phase behaviour of cylinders and cuboids. The predictive power of Onsager theory is checked and confirmed by performing some calculations based on fundamental-measure theory. PMID:20521078

  8. Multi-cracking in uniaxial and biaxial fatigue of 304L stainless steel

    When a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated mechanical stress, it may be damaged after a number of cycles by several cracks initiation and propagation of a main crack. This is the phenomenon of fatigue damage. The thesis deals specifically with possible damage to some components of nuclear plants due to thermal fatigue. Unlike conventional mechanical fatigue damage where a main crack breaks the part, the thermal fatigue damage usually results in the appearance of a surface crack network. Two aspects are discussed in the thesis. The first is the experimental study of fatigue multiple cracking stage also called multi-cracking. Two mechanical test campaigns with multi-cracking detection by digital image correlation were conducted. These campaigns involve uniaxial and equi-biaxial mechanical loads in tension/compression without mean stress. This work allows to monitor and to observe the evolution of different networks of cracks through mechanical solicitations. The second is the numerical simulation of the phenomenon of fatigue damage. Several types of model are used (stochastic, probabilistic, cohesive finite elements). The experimental results have led to identify a multiple crack initiation law in fatigue which is faced with the numerical results. This comparison shows the relevance of the use of an analytical probabilistic model to find statistical results on the density of cracks that can be initiated with thermal and mechanical fatigue loadings. (author)

  9. Simulation of Complex Cracking in Plain Weave C/SiC Composite under Biaxial Loading

    Cheng, Ron-Bin; Hsu, Su-Yuen

    2012-01-01

    Finite element analysis is performed on a mesh, based on computed geometry of a plain weave C/SiC composite with assumed internal stacking, to reveal the pattern of internal damage due to biaxial normal cyclic loading. The simulation encompasses intertow matrix cracking, matrix cracking inside the tows, and separation at the tow-intertow matrix and tow-tow interfaces. All these dissipative behaviors are represented by traction-separation cohesive laws. Not aimed at quantitatively predicting the overall stress-strain relation, the simulation, however, does not take the actual process of fiber debonding into account. The fiber tows are represented by a simple rule-of-mixture model where the reinforcing phase is a hypothetical one-dimensional material. Numerical results indicate that for the plain weave C/SiC composite, 1) matrix-crack initiation sites are primarily determined by large intertow matrix voids and interlayer tow-tow contacts, 2) the pattern of internal damage strongly depends on the loading path and initial stress, 3) compressive loading inflicts virtually no damage evolution. KEY WORDS: ceramic matrix composite, plain weave, cohesive model, brittle failure, smeared crack model, progressive damage, meso-mechanical analysis, finite element.

  10. Different stress techniques and their efficiency on triple-gate SOI n-MOSFETs

    Bhler, R. T.; Agopian, P. G. D.; Collaert, N.; Simoen, E.; Claeys, C.; Martino, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Three techniques to implement mechanical stress in n-channel Multiple Gate MOSFETs (MuGFETs) are investigated through 3D simulations and transconductance measurements. They are: uniaxial stress, biaxial stress and biaxial + uniaxial stress. Four different fin dimensions are evaluated: a narrow and a wide transistor, combined with a short or a long device. It is shown that the stress distribution and the device performance exhibit a dependence on the fin dimensions. For uniaxially strained devices, the dimensions are important as the bending of the silicon required to induce stress in the channel depends on its size. However, for biaxially strained devices the plane of etching in the silicon fin is important, determining the degradation of the stress components. The combination of the two types of stress results in an improvement of some stress components and an overall improvement in the maximum transconductance.

  11. Powder-in-tube and thick-film methods of fabricating high temperature superconductors having enhanced biaxial texture

    Goyal, Amit; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-11-11

    A method for forming an electronically active biaxially textured article includes the steps of providing a substrate having a single crystal metal or metal alloy surface, deforming the substrate to form an elongated substrate surface having biaxial texture and depositing an epitaxial electronically active layer on the biaxially textured surface. The method can include at least one annealing step after the deforming step to produce the biaxially textured substrate surface. The invention can be used to form improved biaxially textured articles, such as superconducting wire and tape articles having improved J.sub.c values.

  12. Determination of principal stresses by Barkhausen effect

    Root-mean-square stresses of Barkhausen noise (BN) and amplitudes of the first three harmonics of the BN stress envelope have been studied in the course of tests of plane crosslike steel St.3 and steel 20 specimens for biaxial tension. Techniques are suggested for determining principal stresses by the magnetic noise method with the help of constant BN parameters on the principal stress plane

  13. Buckling of a stiff thin film on a compliant substrate under anisotropic biaxial prestrain

    Ou, ZhiCheng; Yao, XiaoHu; Zhang, XiaoQing; Fan, XueJun

    2016-02-01

    The structure of stretchable electronics is based on the buckling of a thin film on a compliant substrate. Under anisotropic biaxial prestrains, this structure may buckle into several patterns, including cylindrical, checkerboard, and undulating patterns. The displacement and energy of each pattern are deduced analytically. By comparing their minimum potential energies, the critical buckling condition of each pattern is determined. After secondary bifurcation, the checkerboard pattern occurs just above the critical prestrains, but the undulating pattern dominates other regions. The buckling amplitude and wavenumber of the undulating pattern are shown under biaxial prestrains. Even if the structure is under equi-biaxial prestrains, it may buckle into an asymmetric undulating pattern.

  14. Thermotropic Uniaxial and Biaxial Nematic and Smectic Phases in Bent-Core Mesogens

    Two azo substituted achiral bent-core mesogens have been synthesized. Optical polarizing microscopy and synchrotron X-ray scattering studies of both compounds reveal the existence of the thermotropic uniaxial and biaxial nematic and three smectic phases at different temperatures in these single component small molecule systems. The transition from the uniaxial to biaxial nematic phase is confirmed to be second order. The transitions from the biaxial nematic to the underlying smectic phase and between the smectic phases have barely discernible heat capacity signatures and thus are also second order.

  15. A biaxial test for rheological and formability identification

    Ragneau E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate constitutive laws and formability limits of materials are essential for a numerical optimization of sheet forming processes. The main objective of this work is to develop a new experimental device able to give for a unique specimen a good prediction of rheological parameters and formability under conditions (low and intermediate strain rates close to the ones met in processes. The proposed device is a servo-hydraulic testing machine provided with four independent dynamic actuators allowing biaxial tensile tests on a dedicated specimen. By localizing necking in the central zone of the specimen, the strain path in this zone is controlled by the speed ratio between the two axes and the whole forming limit curve can be covered. Such a specimen is proposed throngh a numerical and experimental validation procedure. Finally, an experimental forming limit curve for the aluminium alloy AA5086 is determined thanks to a rigorous procedure for detecting the onset of necking in the specimen.

  16. On the electron mobility enhancement in biaxially strained Si MOSFETs

    Driussi, F.; Esseni, D.; Selmi, L.; Hellström, P.-E.; Malm, G.; Ha˚llstedt, J.; Östling, M.; Grasby, T. J.; Leadley, D. R.; Mescot, X.

    2008-04-01

    This paper reports a detailed experimental and simulation study of the electron mobility enhancement induced by the biaxial strain in (0 0 1) silicon MOSFETs. To this purpose, ad hoc test structures have been fabricated on strained Si films grown on different SiGe virtual substrates and the effective mobility of the electrons has been extracted. To interpret the experimental results, we performed simulations using numerical solutions of Schroedinger-Poisson equations to calculate the charge and the momentum relaxation time approximation to calculate the mobility. The mobility enhancement with respect to the unstrained Si device has been analyzed as a function of the Ge content of SiGe substrates and of the operation temperature.

  17. Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth

    Findikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2007-10-30

    A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

  18. A resonant biaxial Helmholtz coil employing a fractal capacitor bank

    Martin, James E.

    2013-09-01

    The design and construction of a series resonant biaxial Helmholtz coil for the production of magnetic fields as large as 500 G in the range of 100-2500 Hz is described. Important aspects of ac coil design are discussed, including: minimizing power losses due to the expected Joule heating, self-induced eddy currents, and skin resistance; controlling the stray capacitance; maximizing field homogeneity; and keeping peak voltages at acceptable levels. The design and construction of a computer-controlled, optically isolated fractal capacitor bank is then treated, and various aspects of capacitor selection and characterization were discussed. The system performance is demonstrated, including stability and the possibility of field component dephasing with typical magnetic samples.

  19. Collective behaviour and spacing of necks in ductile plates subjected to dynamic biaxial loading

    Zaera, R.; Rodríguez-Martínez, J. A.; Vadillo, G.; Fernández-Sáez, J.; Molinari, A.

    2015-12-01

    Diffuse or localized dynamic necking of a sheet metal is a major issue in high speed forming processes, leading to unacceptable thinning and even failure if fully developed, and in the dynamic behaviour of metallic structural elements of small thickness used for energy absorption purposes. This process is frequently related to the collective development of localization bands resulting in a necking pattern which depends on the sheet properties and on the loading conditions. This work investigates the spacing between necking bands in sheets made of a thermoviscoplastic metal and submitted to dynamic biaxial loading. For that task a linear perturbation technique, derived within a 2D framework which specifically accounts for stress triaxiality effects upon strain localization, has been developed. Using this methodology, a dominant instability mode can be identified, whose wavelength is related to the necking-band spacing. Likewise, fully 3D finite element simulations have been performed in order to verify and complement the outcomes of the aforementioned theoretical approach. The effects of loading conditions (loading path and loading rate), and thermal coupling on the stability of the deformation process and on the distance between necking bands are examined. We have shown that the neck spacing increases with the ratio of strains and decreases with the loading rate and the temperature rise.

  20. Suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructures for enhancing biaxial tensile strain

    Ishida, Satomi; Kako, Satoshi; Oda, Katsuya; Ido, Tatemi; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    We fabricate a suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructure to biaxially enhance residual tensile strain using a germanium epilayer directly grown on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. Such a suspended germanium system with enhanced biaxial tensile strain will be a promising platform for incorporating optical cavities toward the realization of germanium lasers. We demonstrate systematic control over biaxial tensile strain and photoluminescence peaks by changing structural geometry. The photoluminescence peaks corresponding to the direct recombination between the conduction Γ valley and two strain-induced separated valence bands have been clearly assigned. A maximum biaxial strain of 0.8% has been achieved, which is almost half of that required to transform germanium into a direct band-gap semiconductor.

  1. Superplastic deformation of an Al-Li-Cu-Zr alloy under uniaxial and biaxial tension

    This paper reports that the superplasticity of an Al-Li-Cu-Zr alloy has been studied under uniaxial tension and biaxial bulging conditions using hydrostatic pressure. An optimum tensile elongation of 850% at a strain rate of 3/10-4/sec was obtained at 758 K. The maximum true thickness stain was 1.22 for a biaxially deformed specimen under the same conditions. It was shown that strain rate dependent flow hardening was related to necking refile. It was observed that cavity growth during superplastic deformation depended on the type of loading. Under biaxial bulging conditions, the cavities grew by forming cavity fissure networks along the grain boundaries. It was found that, by the superimposition of hydrostatic pressure, cavitation was retarded and the superplastic ductility was increased in both tensile and biaxial deformation

  2. DYNAMIC STRAIN MAPPING AND REAL-TIME DAMAGE STATE ESTIMATION UNDER BIAXIAL RANDOM FATIGUE LOADING

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DYNAMIC STRAIN MAPPING AND REAL-TIME DAMAGE STATE ESTIMATION UNDER BIAXIAL RANDOM FATIGUE LOADING SUBHASISH MOHANTY*, ADITI CHATTOPADHYAY, JOHN N. RAJADAS, AND...

  3. On the sensitivity of directions which support Voigt wave propagation in infiltrated biaxial dielectric materials

    Mackay, Tom G

    2013-01-01

    Voigt wave propagation (VWP) was considered in a porous biaxial dielectric material which was infiltrated with a material of refractive index $n_a$. The infiltrated material was regarded as a homogenized composite material in the long-wavelength regime and its constitutive parameters were estimated using the extended Bruggeman homogenization formalism. In our numerical studies, the directions which support VWP were found to vary by as much as $300^\\circ$ per RIU as the refractive index $n_a$ was varied. The sensitivities achieved were acutely dependent upon the refractive index $n_a$ and the degrees of anisotropy and dissipation of the porous biaxial material. The orientations, shapes and sizes of the particles which constitute the infiltrating material and the porous biaxial material exerted only a secondary influence on the maximum sensitivities achieved. Also, for the parameter ranges considered, the degree of porosity of the biaxial material had little effect on the maximum sensitivities achieved. These n...

  4. Maier-Saupe model for a mixture of uniaxial and biaxial molecules

    Nascimento, E. S.; Henriques, E. F.; Vieira, A. P.; Salinas, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce shape variations in a liquid-crystalline system by considering an elementary Maier-Saupe lattice model for a mixture of uniaxial and biaxial molecules. Shape variables are treated in the annealed (thermalized) limit. We analyze the thermodynamic properties of this system in terms of temperature T , concentration c of intrinsically biaxial molecules, and a parameter Δ associated with the degree of biaxiality of the molecules. At the mean-field level, we use standard techniques of statistical mechanics to draw global phase diagrams, which are shown to display a rich structure, including uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases, a reentrant ordered region, and many distinct multicritical points. Also, we use the formalism to write an expansion of the free energy in order to make contact with the Landau-de Gennes theory of nematic phase transitions.

  5. Effects of pre-annealing on the uni- and bi-axial stretching behavior of poly(ethylene naphthalate) films

    Effect of pre-annealing on stress and birefringence behavior of poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) films during stretching and relaxation processes was investigated. Amorphous and non-oriented PEN films were pre-annealed under the conditions of different temperatures and periods. The pre-annealed films were stretched uniaxially or equi-biaxially and then relaxed at fixed length. It was found that pre-annealing did not cause any notable change for the initial behavior of refractive indices variation, whereas the behaviors after necking were significantly affected. Through the comparison between in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence and the analysis of wide-angle x-ray diffraction patterns of drawn films of both stretching modes, it was confirmed that the orientation of naphthalene ring in the film plane was enhanced by pre-annealing

  6. Description of the flow behaviour of a high strength austenitic steel under biaxial loading by a constitutive equation

    Uniaxial and biaxial tension-torsion tests were carried out on a high strength austenitic steel at room temperature in the strain rate range from 10-5 to 102 s-1. This material shows a strong dependence of strength on strain rate. The yield loci of the combined tests are described by ellipses. The size and the shape of these ellipses are functions of strain and strain rate. The quasi-static and dynamic tension and tension-torsion behaviour of the austenitic steel is described by Perzyna's constitutive equation. There is good agreement between measured and calculated results if a yield criterion as a function of strain and strain rate, and a formula which contains the dependence of flow stress on strain rate based on thermal activation, are included. (orig.)

  7. Stress

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  8. Cyclic plasticity of an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel under biaxial non proportional loading

    Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels are supplied since about 30 years only, so they are yet not well-known. Their behaviour in cyclic plasticity was studied under uniaxial loading but not under multiaxial loading, whereas only a thorough knowledge of the phenomena influencing the mechanical behaviour of a material enables to simulate and predict accurately its behaviour in a structure. This work aims to study and model the behaviour of a duplex stainless steel under cyclic biaxial loading. A three step method was adopted. A set of tension-torsion tests on tubular specimen was first defined. We studied the equivalence between loading directions, and then the influence of loading path and loading history on the stress response of the material. Results showed that duplex stainless steel shows an extra-hardening under non proportional loading and that its behaviour depends on previous loading. Then, in order to analyse the results obtained during this first experimental stage, the yield surface was measured at different times during cyclic loading of the same kind. A very small plastic strain offset (2*10-5) was used in order not to disturb the yield surface measured. The alteration of isotropic and kinematic hardening variables were deduced from these measures. Finally, three phenomenological constitutive laws were identified with the experimental set. We focused our interest on the simulation of stabilized stress levels and on the simulation of the cyclic hardening/softening behaviour. The comparison between experimental and numerical results enabled the testing of the relevance of these models. (authors)

  9. Prediction of crack growth direction by Strain Energy Sih's Theory on specimens SEN under tension-compression biaxial loading employing Genetic Algorithms

    Rodriguez-MartInez R; Lugo-Gonzalez E; Urriolagoitia-Calderon G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa G; Hernandez-Gomez L H; Romero-Angeles B; Torres-San Miguel Ch, E-mail: rrodriguezm@ipn.mx, E-mail: urrio332@hotmail.com, E-mail: guiurri@hotmail.com, E-mail: luishector56@hotmail.com, E-mail: romerobeatriz98@hotmail.com, E-mail: napor@hotmail.com [INSTITUTO POLITECNICO NACIONAL Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME), Edificio 5. 2do Piso, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos ' Zacatenco' Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-07-19

    Crack growth direction has been studied in many ways. Particularly Sih's strain energy theory predicts that a fracture under a three-dimensional state of stress spreads in direction of the minimum strain energy density. In this work a study for angle of fracture growth was made, considering a biaxial stress state at the crack tip on SEN specimens. The stress state applied on a tension-compression SEN specimen is biaxial one on crack tip, as it can observed in figure 1. A solution method proposed to obtain a mathematical model considering genetic algorithms, which have demonstrated great capacity for the solution of many engineering problems. From the model given by Sih one can deduce the density of strain energy stored for unit of volume at the crack tip as dW = [1/2E({sigma}{sup 2}{sub x} + {sigma}{sup 2}{sub y}) - {nu}/E({sigma}{sub x}{sigma}{sub y})]dV (1). From equation (1) a mathematical deduction to solve in terms of {theta} of this case was developed employing Genetic Algorithms, where {theta} is a crack propagation direction in plane x-y. Steel and aluminium mechanical properties to modelled specimens were employed, because they are two of materials but used in engineering design. Obtained results show stable zones of fracture propagation but only in a range of applied loading.

  10. Prediction of crack growth direction by Strain Energy Sih's Theory on specimens SEN under tension-compression biaxial loading employing Genetic Algorithms

    Crack growth direction has been studied in many ways. Particularly Sih's strain energy theory predicts that a fracture under a three-dimensional state of stress spreads in direction of the minimum strain energy density. In this work a study for angle of fracture growth was made, considering a biaxial stress state at the crack tip on SEN specimens. The stress state applied on a tension-compression SEN specimen is biaxial one on crack tip, as it can observed in figure 1. A solution method proposed to obtain a mathematical model considering genetic algorithms, which have demonstrated great capacity for the solution of many engineering problems. From the model given by Sih one can deduce the density of strain energy stored for unit of volume at the crack tip as dW = [1/2E(?2x + ?2y) - ?/E(?x?y)]dV (1). From equation (1) a mathematical deduction to solve in terms of ? of this case was developed employing Genetic Algorithms, where ? is a crack propagation direction in plane x-y. Steel and aluminium mechanical properties to modelled specimens were employed, because they are two of materials but used in engineering design. Obtained results show stable zones of fracture propagation but only in a range of applied loading.

  11. Combined synchrotron X-rays and image correlation analyses of biaxially deformed W/Cu nanocomposite thin films on Kapton

    Djaziri, Soundes; Renault, Pierre-Olivier; Hild, François; Le Bourhis, Eric; Goudeau, Philippe; Thiaudière, Dominique; Faurie, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In-situ biaxial tensile tests within the elastic domain were conducted with W/Cu nanocomposite thin films deposited on a polyimide cruciform substrate thanks to a biaxial testing machine developed on the DiffAbs beamline at SOLEIL synchrotron. The mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite was characterized at the micro-scale and the macro-scale using simultaneously synchrotron X-ray diffraction and digital image correlation techniques. Strain analyses for equi-biaxial and non equi-bia...

  12. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimetry using a biaxial potassium titanyl phosphate crystal.

    Craven-Jones, Julia; Way, Brandyn M; Kudenov, Michael W; Mercier, Jeffrey A

    2013-05-15

    Channeled spectropolarimeters measure the polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high-order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of these instruments is the thermal variability of the retarders, which necessitates frequent system recalibration. Past work has addressed this issue by implementing an athermalized retarder produced from two uniaxial crystals. However, reducing the complexity of an athermalized retarder is advantageous for minimizing size and weight requirements. In this Letter, a technique for producing a thermally stable channeled spectropolarimeter using biaxial retarders is presented. This technique preserves a constant phase over an appreciable temperature range. Proof-of-concept results from a KTP-based athermal partial channeled spectropolarimeter are presented from 500 to 750 nm for temperature changes up to 26°C. Spectropolarimetric reconstructions produced from this system vary by retarder experiences a 13°C increase in temperature above 21°C ambient, <=5.2% for a 20°C increase, and <=6.7% for a 26°C increase. PMID:23938901

  13. Equi-biaxial tension tests on magneto-rheological elastomers

    Schubert, Gerlind; Harrison, Philip

    2016-01-01

    A bespoke test rig has been designed to facilitate testing of magneto-rheological (MR) elastomers (MREs) under equi-biaxial tension using a standard universal test machine. Tests were performed up to 10% strain on both isotropic and anisotropic MREs with and without the application of an external magnetic field. Assumptions regarding the material’s response were used to analyse stress–strain results in the two stretching directions. The assumptions have been verified previously by uniaxial tension tests and by simulations of the magnetic flux distribution performed using a commercial multi-physics finite element software. The MR effect, which is defined as the increase in tangent modulus at a given strain, has been studied versus engineering strain. The latter was measured optically in the experiments using a digital image correlation system. Relative MR effects up to 74% were found when the particle alignment of anisotropic MREs was oriented parallel to an applied magnetic induction of just 67.5 mT.

  14. Preparation of biaxially oriented TlCu-1234 thin films

    Khan, N A; Tateai, F; Kojima, T; Ishida, K; Terada, N; Ihara, H

    1999-01-01

    The single phase of TlCu-1234 superconductor thin films is prepared for the first time by the amorphous phase epitaxy (APE) method, which is thallium treatment of sputtered amorphous phase at 900 degrees C for 1 h. The amorphous $9 phase is prepared by sputtering from the stoichiometric target composition CuBa/sub 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 12-y/. The films on the SrTiO/sub 3/ substrate are aligned biaxially after the thallium treatment. Highly reproducible $9 TlCu-1234 films are prepared by this method. The XRD reflected a predominant single phase with the c-axis lattice constant of 18.74 AA. This lattice constant value is in between that of Cu-1234 (17.99 AA) and Tl-1234 (19.11 AA) . The $9 pole figure measurements of (103) reflection of the films showed a-axis-oriented crystals with Delta phi =0.8 degrees . The composition of the films after energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements is Tl/sub 0.8/Cu/sub 0.2/Ba/sub $9 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O /sub 12-y/. From the resistivity measurements, the T/sub c/ is 113 K...

  15. A new bi-axial cantilever beam design for biomechanics force measurements.

    Lin, Huai-Ti; Trimmer, Barry A

    2012-08-31

    The demand for measuring forces exerted by animals during locomotion has increased dramatically as biomechanists strive to understand and implement biomechanical control strategies. In particular, multi-axial force transducers are often required to capture animal limb coordination patterns. Most existing force transducers employ strain gages arranged in a Wheatstone bridge on a cantilever beam. Bi-axial measurements require duplicating this arrangement in the transverse direction. In this paper, we reveal a method to embed a Wheatstone bridge inside another to allow bi-axial measurements without additional strain gages or additional second beams. This hybrid configuration resolves two force components from a single bridge circuit and simplifies fabrication for the simultaneous assessment of normal and transverse loads. This design can be implemented with two-dimensional fabrication techniques and can even be used to modify a common full bridge cantilever force transducer. As a demonstration of the new design, we built a simple beam which achieved bi-axial sensing capability that outperformed a conventional half-bridge-per-axis bi-axial strain gage design. We have used this design to measure the ground reaction forces of a crawling caterpillar and a caterpillar-mimicking soft robot. The simplicity and increased sensitivity of this method could facilitate bi-axial force measurements for experimental biologists. PMID:22776687

  16. Failure analysis based on microvoid growth for sheet metal during uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests

    Highlights: ► Cruciform specimen designed and biaxial tensile test carried out. ► Stereo Correlation Image technique is used for 3D full-filed measurements. ► SEM fractography analysis is used to explain the fracture mechanism. ► Constitutive modeling of the necking phenomenon was developed using GTN model. - Abstract: The aim of the presented investigations is to perform an analysis of fracture and instability during simple and complex load testing by addressing the influence of ductile damage evolution in necking processes. In this context, an improved experimental methodology was developed and successfully used to evaluate localization of deformation during uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests. The biaxial tensile tests are carried out using cruciform specimen loaded using a biaxial testing machine. In this experimental investigation, Stereo-Image Correlation technique has is used to produce the heterogeneous deformations map within the specimen surface. Scanning electron microscope is used to evaluate the fracture mechanism and the micro-voids growth. A finite element model of uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests are developed, where a ductile damage model Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) is used to describe material deformation involving damage evolution. Comparison between the experimental and the simulation results show the accuracy of the finite element model to predict the instability phenomenon. The advanced measurement techniques contribute to understand better the ductile fracture mechanism

  17. Device and method of optically orienting biaxial crystals for sample preparation

    Thomas, Timothy; Rossman, George R.; Sandstrom, Mark

    2014-09-01

    An optical instrument we refer to as the "biaxial orientation device" has been developed for finding the optical plane, acute bisectrix, and obtuse bisectrix in biaxial crystals by means of optically aligning conoscopically formed melatopes and measuring the angular coordinates of the melatopes, where the angular values allow for determination of the optical plane containing the optical axes using a vector algebra approach. After determination of the optical plane, the instrument allows for the sample to be aligned in the acute bisectrix or obtuse bisectrix orientations and to be transferred to a simple mechanical component for subsequent grinding and polishing, while preserving the orientation of the polished faces relative to the optical plane, acute bisectrix, and obtuse bisectrix during the grinding and polishing process. Biaxial crystalline material samples prepared in the manner are suitable for accurate spectroscopic absorption measurements in the acute bisectrix and obtuse bisectrix directions as well as perpendicular to the optical plane.

  18. The elusive thermotropic biaxial nematic phase in rigid bent-core molecules

    Bharat R Acharya; Andrew Primak; Theo J Dingemans; Edward T Samulski; Satyendra Kumar

    2003-08-01

    The biaxial nematic liquid crystalline phase was predicted several decades ago. Several vigorous attempts to find it in various systems resulted in mis-identifications. The results of X-ray diffraction and optical texture studies of the phases exhibited by rigid bent-core molecules derived from 2,5-bis-(-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole reveal that the biaxial nematic phase is formed by three compounds of this type. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the nematic phase of these compounds has the achiral symmetry D2h, in which the overall long axes of the molecules are oriented parallel to each other to define the major axis of the biaxial phase. The apex of the bent-cores defines the minor axis of this phase along which the planes containing the bent-cores of neighboring molecules are oriented parallel to each other.

  19. Temperature dependence of refractive indices near uniaxial-biaxial nematic phase transition

    The uniaxial discotic (ND) and calamitic (NC) nematic phases are characterized by an order parameter which is a second-rank, symmetric, traceless tensor with two different eigenvalues and three in the biaxial nematic (NB) phase. The optical dielectric tensor may be chosen as the microscopic order parameter. The optical characterization of these uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases requires the measurements of two and three refractive indices, respectively. These optical parameters were determined near the reentrant isotropic (IRE)-ND-NB-NC-isotropic (I) phase transitions in a lyotropic mixture of potassium laurate, decanol and D2O. The dynamic of micellar configuration of the uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases is discussed as a consequence of our refractive index data

  20. Stress.

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself. PMID:18846841

  1. Solutions of the second elasticplastic fracture mechanics parameter in test specimens under biaxial loading

    Extensive finite elements analyses have been conducted to obtain solutions of the A-term, which is the second parameter in a three-term elasticplastic asymptotic expansion, for test specimens under biaxial loading. Three mode I plane-strain test specimens, i.e. single edge cracked plate (SECP), center cracked plate (CCP) and double edge cracked plate (DECP) were studied. The crack geometries analyzed include shallow to deep cracks, and the biaxial loading ratios analyzed are 0.5 and 1.0. Solutions of A-term were obtained for materials following the RambergOsgood power law with hardening exponent of n = 3, 4, 5, 7 and 10. Remote tension loading was applied which covers from small-scale to large-scale yielding. Based on the finite element results, effects of biaxial loading on crack tip constraint were discussed. Empirical equations to predict the A-term under small-scale yielding to fully-plastic condition were developed using estimation methods developed earlier. Based on the relationships between A and other commonly-used second fracture parameter Q and A2, the present solutions can be used to calculate parameters Q and A2 as well. The results presented in the paper are suitable to determine the second elasticplastic fracture parameters for test specimens for a wide range of crack geometries, material strain hardening behaviors under biaxial loading conditions. -- Highlights: Elasticplastic finite element analyses were conducted to obtain A-term for three test specimens under biaxial loading. Solutions cover wide range of crack depth, material nonlinearity and from small scale yielding to large scale yielding. It is demonstrated that biaxial loading has significant effect on crack tip constraint. Three estimation methods were used to obtain empirical equations of A for engineering applications. Solutions of A can be easily converted to get Q and A2 solutions

  2. Preliminary results from biaxial shallow-flaw fracture toughness tests on reactor pressure vessel steel

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) operating life can be limited by radiation-induced embrittlement and in this regard a loading condition of particular interest is postulated pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS). The calculated fracture initiation resistance of an RPV is based on the ASME KIc fracture toughness curve, which was developed using specimens with negligible out-of-plane strain (i.e., plane-strain conditions). For the shallow flaws of interest in the PTS analysis and for uniaxial loading, the fracture toughness appears to be considerably greater than KIc. However, PTS loads produce both a significant crack-opening load and a significant positive out-of-plane load along the crack front for both circumferential and axial flaws. Experimental evidence is scarce but seems to indicate that, for conditions prototypic of an RPV, a reduction in fracture toughness takes place associated with out-of-plane biaxial loading when compared with uniaxial loading conditions in shallow-flaw specimens. Additional experimental fracture toughness data under biaxial loading are necessary to evaluate the effect of biaxial loads in an RPV under PTS conditions. The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting an exploratory, ''proof-of-principle'' series of out-of-plane, biaxial-bending, fracture-toughness tests using specimens with shallow flaws. Cruciform specimens with an approximate cross section of 100 x 100 mm (4 x 4 in.) and with a straight-through, two-dimensional, shallow flaw, are being loaded in bending across two perpendicular planes for biaxial loading. This paper presents the initial test results under uniaxial and biaxial loading and compares the test results with HSST shallow-crack data

  3. Constitutive equation for cyclic plasticity considering memorization of back stress

    One of the difficult problems in the study of the constitutive equation for cyclic plasticity is the prediction of ratchetting behavior that is induced by the superposition of a cyclic secondary load to a constant primary load in a biaxial case, or by the mean stress in a uniaxial case. This paper shows the constitutive equation in which the memorization of the back stress is considered for ratchetting behavior, especially for biaxial ratchetting behavior. To verify the applicability of the constitutive equation to ratchetting behavior, a biaxial ratchetting test was carried out using SUS304 stainless steel at room temperature. As a result, it was found that the simulations based on the constitutive equation have good agreement with the tests. (author)

  4. The fabrication and high temperature stability of biaxially textured Ni tape by ion beam structure modification method

    For the conventional rolling assisted biaxially textured metallic substrate (RABiTS) process, a large degree of cold rolling deformation and a subsequent high temperature annealing procedure are required to obtain adequately biaxially textured Ni tape. Recently, we have reported a newly developed process, named as ion beam structure modification (ISM), for fabricating biaxially textured Ni tape by use of low energy argon ion beam bombardment. In this paper, the biaxial texture of ISM processed Ni tape and its thermal stability at high temperatures are investigated. Results show that Ni tape processed under optimum ISM conditions, the (2 0 0) rocking curve FWHM is less than 5.7 deg. , and the (1 1 1) phi-scan FWHM is less than 7.5 deg. . High temperature annealing does not impair the biaxial-texture already developed in ISM processed Ni foils, although ISMs should not be regarded as a complete equilibrium process

  5. Behavior of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to combined punching shear and biaxial tension

    This investigation was a continuing study of peripheral (punching) shear strength of precracked, biaxially tensioned, orthogonally reinforced concrete slabs. This research was motivated by the need to determie the strength of a reinforced concrete containment vessel wall when subjected to combined internal pressure and punching shear loads normal to the wall. The study served to determine the effect of three major variables (shear span, size of loaded area, and reinforcing steel ratio) on punching shear strength of slabs that were precracked in biaxial tension and then held at one of the two tension levels (0 or 0.8f/sub y/) during shear load application

  6. Scratch resistance anisotropy in biaxially oriented polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    Using a diamond-tipped stylus, scratch tests were conducted on biaxially oriented polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) films in the two draw directions, i.e., the machine-direction (MD) and the transverse-direction (TD) along which the draw ratios are different. Atomic force microscopy study of those scratches revealed a significant anisotropy in the scratch resistance between the MD and TD for both of the polymer films. We confirmed that the scratch resistance of polymer strands is closely related to the draw ratios, which determine the mechanical strength and optical clarity of biaxially oriented polymer films

  7. Polarization features of acoustic spectra in uniaxial and biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    The results of investigation of uniaxial and biaxial nematic liquid crystals dynamics with molecules of the various forms are presented. These condensed matters possess internal spatial anisotropy and for their adequate description introduction of additional dynamic quantities is necessary. They are vectors of spatial anisotropy and conformational degrees of freedom. Investigation of dynamics of the given condensed matters is based on Hamiltonian formalism in which framework the nonlinear dynamic equations for uniaxial and biaxial nematic liquid crystals are derived. Spectra of collective excitations are obtained and their polarization features are investigated.

  8. Low-frequency green functions asymptotics in uniaxial and biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    Uniaxial and biaxial nematic liquid crystals are examples of the complicated condensed matters possessing an internal microstructure shown on macroscopic level in the form of a number of the physical phenomena and processes. In this work the dynamic behavior of the studied condensed matters in alternative external field is investigated. On the basis of the nonlinear dynamic equations with sources for uniaxial and biaxial nematics the general analytical expressions of low-frequency Green functions asymptotics are obtained and the analysis of their features in the region of small wave vectors and frequencies is carried out.

  9. Analysis of Pre-tension Level upon Biaxial Behaviour of Fused Systems

    Donata ZUBAUSKIENE; Strazdiene, Eugenija; Virginijus URBELIS

    2015-01-01

    The effect of uniaxial pre-tension level upon the regularities of fused two-layer systems biaxial behaviour is analysed in this research work. Initial pre-tension of 0.0 %, 0.4 %, 0.8 %, 1.2 %, 1.7 % and 2.1 % was applied in longitudinal and transverse directions separately. Cotton fabric (100 %) of plain weave was used as a base material for the investigated systems. Biaxial punching was performed with three types of interlinings: woven, nonwoven and knitted, which differed not only in surfa...

  10. Characteristics of residual stresses of water jet peened stainless steel

    The material of the specimen was austenitic stainless steel, SUS316L. The residual stresses in the specimen was introduced by a water jet peening (WJP). The change in the residual stress with thermal aging at 773K was measured by an X-ray stress measurement. The WJP residual stresses were an equi-biaxial stress state, and the compressive residual stress did not decrease against the thermal aging. To investigate dependence of the residual stress on a lattice plane, the WJP residual stresses were measured using hard synchrotron X-rays. (author)

  11. Biaxial creep deformation behavior of Fe–14Cr–15Ni–Ti modified austenitic stainless steel fuel cladding tube for sodium cooled fast reactor

    Mathew, M.D., E-mail: mathew@igcar.gov.in [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravi, S.; Vijayanand, V.D.; Latha, S. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dasgupta, Arup [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Laha, K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Significant amounts of creep strain is observed in the axial and hoop directions. • Hoop strain is much higher than the axial strain. • Steady state hoop rate is lower than steady state axial rate. • Steady state hoop rate is comparable with creep rate evaluated from uniaxial tests. • Alloy D9 exhibits anisotropy in creep deformation. - Abstract: Twenty percent cold worked Fe–14Cr–15Ni–Ti modified austenitic stainless steel is used as the cladding tube material for the fuel pins of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor in India. Biaxial creep properties of the tubes have been studied at 973 K by carrying out creep tests by internally pressurizing the tubes. Hoop and axial components of creep strain were measured and found to be significantly different. For a given gas pressure, steady state hoop rate was higher than the axial rate. Steady state hoop and axial creep rates followed Norton's power law with the same stress exponent n = 7. Steady state hoop rates determined from biaxial creep tests agreed with the steady state creep rates determined from uniaxial creep tests. For a thin walled closed tube under internal pressure, significant axial deformation along with hoop deformation is indicative of anisotropic deformation of the material.

  12. Biaxial creep deformation behavior of Fe–14Cr–15Ni–Ti modified austenitic stainless steel fuel cladding tube for sodium cooled fast reactor

    Highlights: • Significant amounts of creep strain is observed in the axial and hoop directions. • Hoop strain is much higher than the axial strain. • Steady state hoop rate is lower than steady state axial rate. • Steady state hoop rate is comparable with creep rate evaluated from uniaxial tests. • Alloy D9 exhibits anisotropy in creep deformation. - Abstract: Twenty percent cold worked Fe–14Cr–15Ni–Ti modified austenitic stainless steel is used as the cladding tube material for the fuel pins of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor in India. Biaxial creep properties of the tubes have been studied at 973 K by carrying out creep tests by internally pressurizing the tubes. Hoop and axial components of creep strain were measured and found to be significantly different. For a given gas pressure, steady state hoop rate was higher than the axial rate. Steady state hoop and axial creep rates followed Norton's power law with the same stress exponent n = 7. Steady state hoop rates determined from biaxial creep tests agreed with the steady state creep rates determined from uniaxial creep tests. For a thin walled closed tube under internal pressure, significant axial deformation along with hoop deformation is indicative of anisotropic deformation of the material

  13. Experimental investigation on rectangular reinforced concrete beam subjected to bi-axial shear and torsion

    Chayanon Hansapinyo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental investigation on the failure mechanism and ultimate capacity of rectangular reinforced concrete beam under combined action of bi-axial shear accompanied with torsion through the test of four reinforced concrete members. The simple experimental set-up for a simply-supported beam under one point loading is introduced in this study by applying eccentric load to the tilted beam. This requires only one hydraulic jack to produce the complicated bi-axial shear and torsional loading. The main parameter is the magnitude of torsion induced to specimens which is relatively represented by the torsion-to-shear ratio. In addition, the influence of torsion on ultimate capacity of reinforced concrete with different ratio of two shears is investigated. From the experimental results, it is found that the increase in the magnitude of torsion about 69 percent drastically decreases bi-axial shear capacity as much as 12 to 39 percent according to the ratio of bi-axial shears. The experimental results are compared with the capacities calculated by the available interaction formula between uni-axial shear and torsion in the current design codes. The comparison indicates that the current design codes give quite conservative values of ultimate capacity.

  14. Creation of biaxial body center cubic tungsten nanorods under dynamic shadowing effect

    Using a dynamic oblique angle deposition in a flipping rotation mode where the flux incident angle continuously changes during the magnetron sputter deposition, we demonstrated that a stable, biaxial (110)[11¯0] body center cubic (alpha-phase) tungsten nanorod film can be grown on amorphous substrates. In contrast, we showed that only a fiber-textured, metastable A15 (beta-phase) tungsten nanorod film was obtained using the conventional rotation mode where the oblique incident flux angle was fixed with the substrate rotating around the surface normal. Different flipping rotation speeds were performed to study the effect of dynamic shadowing on texture axis angular dispersion. The sample grown at 0.3 rotations per minute was observed to have the minimum out-of-plane and in-plane orientation dispersions characterized by the reflection high energy electron diffraction surface pole figure technique. The biaxial texture selection under the flipping rotation mode is explained qualitatively. - Highlights: • Stable alpha-phase biaxial W nanorods were produced with dynamic flipping rotation. • Metastable beta-phase W nanorods were grown by stationary oblique angle deposition. • Biaxial stable W nanorods could be used as a buffer layer for semiconductors

  15. 2D nonlocal versus 3D bifurcation studies for biaxially loaded plates

    Benallal, A.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    The main objective of this work is to analyse how a two-dimensional second gradient plasticity model is able to reproduce the three-dimensional bifurcation behaviour for a biaxially loaded flat plate. While it is found that the simple model used here is able to capture them qualitatively for the ...

  16. Post-buckling capacity of bi-axially loaded rectangular steel plates

    Jnsson, Jeppe; Bondum, T. H.

    Results from a detailed numerical investigation of the post-buckling behaviour of rectangular simply supported steel plates subjected to biaxial in-plane loading are presented. The Steel plates are loaded through forced edge displacements. The effects of initial imperfections, aspect ratio, plate...

  17. On the isotropic-biaxial phase transition in nematic liquid crystals

    Gaeta, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    We apply a recently developed technique to determine adapted coordinates for the sixth degree Landau-deGennes potential, in which the potential is specially simple, to analyze the possibility of a direct transition between the fully symmetric state and a biaxial phase in nematic liquid crystals. {Our results confirm, with simpler computations, results by Allender and Longa.

  18. Creation of biaxial body center cubic tungsten nanorods under dynamic shadowing effect

    Chen, Liang, E-mail: chenl9@rpi.edu; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wang, Gwo-Ching

    2013-07-31

    Using a dynamic oblique angle deposition in a flipping rotation mode where the flux incident angle continuously changes during the magnetron sputter deposition, we demonstrated that a stable, biaxial (110)[11{sup }0] body center cubic (alpha-phase) tungsten nanorod film can be grown on amorphous substrates. In contrast, we showed that only a fiber-textured, metastable A15 (beta-phase) tungsten nanorod film was obtained using the conventional rotation mode where the oblique incident flux angle was fixed with the substrate rotating around the surface normal. Different flipping rotation speeds were performed to study the effect of dynamic shadowing on texture axis angular dispersion. The sample grown at 0.3 rotations per minute was observed to have the minimum out-of-plane and in-plane orientation dispersions characterized by the reflection high energy electron diffraction surface pole figure technique. The biaxial texture selection under the flipping rotation mode is explained qualitatively. - Highlights: Stable alpha-phase biaxial W nanorods were produced with dynamic flipping rotation. Metastable beta-phase W nanorods were grown by stationary oblique angle deposition. Biaxial stable W nanorods could be used as a buffer layer for semiconductors.

  19. In situ biaxial rotation at low-temperatures in high magnetic fields

    We report the design, construction, and characterization of a biaxial sample rotation stage for use in a cryogenic system for orientation-dependent studies of anisotropic electronic transport phenomena at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. Our apparatus allows for continuous rotation of a sample about two axes, both independently and simultaneously

  20. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture-toughness

    Uniaxial tests of single-edged notched bend (SENB) specimens with both deep- and shallow-flaws have shown elevated fracture-toughness for the shallow flaws. The elevation in fracture-toughness for shallow flaws has been shown to be the result of reduced constraint at the crack-tip. Biaxial loading has the potential to increase constraint at the crack-tip and thereby reduce some of the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation. Biaxial fracture-toughness tests have shown that the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation is reduced but not eliminated by biaxial loading. Dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations have been proposed to reflect the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture-toughness. Test results from the uniaxial and biaxial tests were analyzed using the dual-parameter technology. Discrepancies between analysis results and cleavage initiation site data from fractographic examinations indicate that the analysis models are in need of further refinement. Addition of a precleavage, ductile-tearing element to the analysis model has the potential to resolve the noted discrepancies

  1. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture-toughness

    Uniaxial tests of single-edged notched bend (SENB) specimens with both deep and shallow-flaws have shown elevated fracture-toughness for the shallow flaws. The elevation in fracture-toughness for shallow flaws has been shown to be the result of reduced constraint at the crack-tip. Biaxial loading has the potential to increase constraint at the crack-tip and thereby reduce some of the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation. Biaxial fracture-toughness tests have shown that the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation is reduced but not eliminated by biaxial loading. Dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations have been proposed to reflect the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture-toughness. Test results from the uniaxial and biaxial tests were analyzed using the dual-parameter technology. Discrepancies between analysis results and cleavage initiation site data from fractographic examinations indicate that the analysis models are in need of further refinement. Addition of a precleavage, ductile-tearing element to the analysis model has the potential to resolve the noted discrepancies

  2. Biaxial flexural strength of Turkom-Cera core compared to two other all-ceramic systems

    Bandar Mohammed Abdullah Al-Makramani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995 were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872. RESULTS: The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.8±87.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.4±28.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.7±12.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (P<0.001. There was statistically significant difference between the three core ceramics (P<0.05. Turkom-Cera showed the highest biaxial flexural strength, followed by In-Ceram and Vitadur-N. CONCLUSIONS: Turkom-Cera core had significantly higher flexural strength than In-Ceram and Vitadur-N ceramic core materials.

  3. Reduction of initial stress stiffening by topology optimization

    Philippine, M. A.; Sigmund, Ole; Rebeiz, G. M.; Kenny, T. W.

    Topology optimization is a rigorous method of obtaining non-intuitive designs. We use it to obtain a capacitive RF switch that stiffens little in response to an increase of the in-plane biaxial stresses that typically develop during MEMS fabrication. The actuation voltage is closely related to th...

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of biaxial structure in thin hybrid nematic film based upon spatially anisotropic pair potential

    Hybrid nematic films have been studied by Monte Carlo simulations using a lattice spin model, in which the pair potential is spatially anisotropic and dependent on elastic constants of liquid crystals. We confirm in the thin hybrid nematic film the existence of a biaxially nonbent structure and the structure transition from the biaxial to the bent-director structure, which is similar to the result obtained using the LebwohlLasher model. However, the step-like director's profile, characteristic for the biaxial structure, is spatially asymmetric in the film because the pair potential leads to K1 ? K3. We estimate the upper cell thickness to be 69 spin layers, in which the biaxial structure can be found. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  5. The influence of the stress state on Ksub(Ic)

    To get a first impression of the influence of stress states of higher multi-axiality than plane strain on Ksub(c) a specimen has been created, in which a bi-axial nominal stress state arises by uniaxial tension. This is attained by tension superimposed by transverse bending stress. The stress distribution without crack was analysed by photoelasticity as well as by finite element method. The results were identical. The stress distribution in the fracture (crack) plane was somewhat inhomogeneous, of course. But the ratio of the stress parallel to the tension axis to that perpendicular to it was max. 1:0.3 with a mean value 1:0.15. Specimens of this type were machined from a rolled sheet of the steel 22 NiMoCr 37, with specimen thickness of about 50 mm. For comparison single-edge notched specimens of the same cross section were prepared from the same material. Fatigue cracks were made following ASTM Recommendations. The fracture mechanics tests were carried out at a temperature of -1000C. Although valid Ksub(Ic)-values following the rigorous intention of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (ASTM Recommendations) were not obtained, the differences between the results of the two types of specimens and stress states were significant. The Ksub(Q)-values of the bi-axial stressed specimen were about 25% lower than that of the single-edge notched specimen. The deviation of the load-displacement trace from the linear elastic behavior was greater for the single-edge notched specimens than for the bi-axial stressed specimens. The consequences of these results for the assessment of flaws in pressure vessels are evident considering that bi-axial nominal stress states occur in pressure vessels

  6. Room temperature growth of biaxially aligned yttria-stabilized zirconia films on glass substrates by pulsed-laser deposition

    Room temperature deposition of biaxially textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films on amorphous glass substrates was successfully achieved by conventional pulsed-laser deposition. The influence of the surrounding gases, their pressure and the deposition time on the structure of the films was studied. A columnar growth process was revealed based on the experimental results. The grown biaxial texture appears as a kind of substrate independence, which makes it possible to fabricate in-plane aligned YSZ films on various substrates

  7. Structure Design and Stepping Characteristics Analysis of the Biaxial Piezoelectric Actuated Stage Using a Thin-Disc Piezoelectric Actuator

    Shann-Chyi Mou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel thin-disc piezoelectric actuator, 4-9-9-14 piezoelectric actuator, is used to construct and drive the micro/nanometer level biaxial piezoelectric actuated stage. The 4-9-9-14 piezoelectric actuator offers a better balanced capability of forward rotation and reverse rotation than the conventional edge-driving piezoelectric actuator. The biaxial piezoelectric actuated stage structure comprises a base, a V-shaped guide rail, an optical scale measurement system, a preload a...

  8. Room temperature growth of biaxially aligned yttria-stabilized zirconia films on glass substrates by pulsed-laser deposition

    Li Peng; Mazumder, J

    2003-01-01

    Room temperature deposition of biaxially textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films on amorphous glass substrates was successfully achieved by conventional pulsed-laser deposition. The influence of the surrounding gases, their pressure and the deposition time on the structure of the films was studied. A columnar growth process was revealed based on the experimental results. The grown biaxial texture appears as a kind of substrate independence, which makes it possible to fabricate in-plane aligned YSZ films on various substrates.

  9. Comparison of recent rubber elasticity theories with biaxial stress-strain data

    Meissner, Bohumil; Matějka, Libor

    Cracow : Rzeszów University of Technology, 2000. s. L-1. ISBN 83-86697-13-X. [Polymer Networks Group Meeting: Polymer Networks 2000, Formation-Structure-Properties /15./. 17.07.2000-21.07.2000, Cracow] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/00/1311 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  10. Cyclic plasticity of an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel under biaxial non proportional loading; Plasticite cyclique d'un acier inoxydable austeno-ferritique sous chargement biaxial non-proportionnel

    Aubin, V

    2001-11-15

    Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels are supplied since about 30 years only, so they are yet not well-known. Their behaviour in cyclic plasticity was studied under uniaxial loading but not under multiaxial loading, whereas only a thorough knowledge of the phenomena influencing the mechanical behaviour of a material enables to simulate and predict accurately its behaviour in a structure. This work aims to study and model the behaviour of a duplex stainless steel under cyclic biaxial loading. A three step method was adopted. A set of tension-torsion tests on tubular specimen was first defined. We studied the equivalence between loading directions, and then the influence of loading path and loading history on the stress response of the material. Results showed that duplex stainless steel shows an extra-hardening under non proportional loading and that its behaviour depends on previous loading. Then, in order to analyse the results obtained during this first experimental stage, the yield surface was measured at different times during cyclic loading of the same kind. A very small plastic strain offset (2*10{sup -5}) was used in order not to disturb the yield surface measured. The alteration of isotropic and kinematic hardening variables were deduced from these measures. Finally, three phenomenological constitutive laws were identified with the experimental set. We focused our interest on the simulation of stabilized stress levels and on the simulation of the cyclic hardening/softening behaviour. The comparison between experimental and numerical results enabled the testing of the relevance of these models. (authors)

  11. The nuts and bolts of supersymmetric gauge theories on biaxially squashed three-spheres

    Martelli, Dario

    2011-01-01

    We present the gravity dual to a class of three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories on a biaxially squashed three-sphere, with a non-trivial background gauge field. This is described by a 1/2 BPS Euclidean solution of four-dimensional N=2 gauged supergravity, consisting of a Taub-NUT-AdS metric with a non-trivial instanton for the graviphoton field. The holographic free energy of this solution agrees precisely with the large N limit of the free energy obtained from the localized partition function of a class of Chern-Simons quiver gauge theories. We also discuss a different supersymmetric solution, whose boundary is a biaxially squashed Lens space S^3/Z_2 with a topologically non-trivial background gauge field. This metric is of Eguchi-Hanson-AdS type, although it is not Einstein, and has a single unit of gauge field flux through the S^2 cycle.

  12. Torsional and biaxial (tension-torsion) fatigue damage mechanisms in Waspaloy at room temperature

    Jayaraman, N.; Ditmars, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Strain controlled torsional and biaxial (tension-torsion) low cycle fatigue behavior of Waspaloy was studied at room temperature as a function of heat treatment. Biaxial tests were conducted under proportional and nonproportional cyclic conditions. The deformation behavior under these different cyclic conditions was evaluated by slip trace analysis. For this, a Schmidt-type factor was defined for multiaxial loading conditions, and it was shown that when the slip deformation is predominant, nonproportional cycles are more damaging than proportional or pure axial or torsional cycles. This was attributed to the fact that under nonproportional cyclic conditions, deformation was through multiple slip, as opposed to single slip for other loading conditions, which gave rise to increased hardening. The total life for a given test condition was found to be independent of heat treatment. This was interpreted as being due to the differences in the cycles to initiation and propagation of cracks.

  13. Non-linear Response of Two-way Asymmetric Multistorey Building Under Biaxial Excitation

    Nishant K. Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seismic analysis is generally performed by creating a structural model which is excited with forces in two orthogonal directions separately i.e. they are subjected to uniaxial excitation. But an actual earthquake will have its effect in both the directions simultaneously. Limited research has been carried out on effect of such biaxial excitation. This paper deals with the non-linear performance of multi-storey buildings under biaxial excitation using various time-histories. The angle of incidence of earthquake forces will be varying between 0 to 360 degrees. Three building plans, with eccentricity along each of x and z directions in plan and a third with eccentricity in both the orthogonal direction, have been studied.Time history analysis has been carried out using SAP2000 after validating a preliminary model with experimental results available in reference literature.

  14. Stability of Biaxial Nematic Phase for Systems with Variable Molecular Shape Anisotropy

    Longa, L; Longa, Lech; Wydro, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We study the influence of fluctuations in molecular shape on the stability of the biaxial nematic phase by generalizing the mean field model of Mulder and Ruijgrok [Physica A {\\bf 113}, 145 (1982)]. We limit ourselves to the case when the molecular shape anisotropy, represented by the alignment tensor, is a random variable of an annealed type. A prototype of such behavior can be found in lyotropic systems - a mixture of potassium laurate, 1-decanol, and $D_2O$, where distribution of the micellar shape adjusts to actual equilibrium conditions. Further examples of materials with the biaxial nematic phase, where molecular shape is subject to fluctuations, are thermotropic materials composed of flexible trimeric- or tetrapod-like molecular units. Our calculations show that the Gaussian equilibrium distribution of the variables describing molecular shape (dispersion force) anisotropy gives rise to new classes of the phase diagrams, absent in the original model. Depending on properties of the shape fluctuations, th...

  15. Tunable biaxial in-plane compressive strain in a Si nanomembrane transferred on a polyimide film

    Kim, Munho; Mi, Hongyi; Cho, Minkyu; Seo, Jung-Hun; Ma, Zhenqiang, E-mail: mazq@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of WisconsinMadison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zhou, Weidong [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States); Gong, Shaoqin [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of WisconsinMadison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-05-25

    A method of creating tunable and programmable biaxial compressive strain in silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) transferred onto a Kapton{sup } HN polyimide film has been demonstrated. The programmable biaxial compressive strain (up to 0.54%) was generated utilizing a unique thermal property exhibited by the Kapton HN film, namely, it shrinks from its original size when exposed to elevated temperatures. The correlation between the strain and the annealing temperature was carefully investigated using Raman spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction. It was found that various amounts of compressive strains can be obtained by controlling the thermal annealing temperatures. In addition, a numerical model was used to evaluate the strain distribution in the Si NM. This technique provides a viable approach to forming in-plane compressive strain in NMs and offers a practical platform for further studies in strain engineering.

  16. Mechanical properties of stanene under uniaxial and biaxial loading: A molecular dynamics study

    Stanene, a graphene like two dimensional honeycomb structure of tin has attractive features in electronics application. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using modified embedded atom method potential to investigate mechanical properties of stanene. We studied the effect of temperature and strain rate on mechanical properties of α-stanene for both uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions. Our study suggests that with the increasing temperature, both the fracture strength and strain of the stanene decrease. Uniaxial loading in zigzag direction shows higher fracture strength and strain compared to the armchair direction, while no noticeable variation in the mechanical properties is observed for biaxial loading. We also found at a higher loading rate, material exhibits higher fracture strength and strain. These results will aid further investigation of stanene as a potential nano-electronics substitute

  17. The gravity dual of supersymmetric gauge theories on a biaxially squashed three-sphere

    We present the gravity dual to a class of three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories on a biaxially squashed three-sphere, with a non-trivial background gauge field. This is described by a 1/2 BPS Euclidean solution of four-dimensional N=2 gauged supergravity, consisting of a Taub–NUT–AdS metric with a non-trivial instanton for the graviphoton field. The holographic free energy of this solution agrees precisely with the large N limit of the free energy obtained from the localized partition function of a class of Chern–Simons quiver gauge theories. We also discuss a different supersymmetric solution, whose boundary is a biaxially squashed Lens space S3/Z2 with a topologically non-trivial background gauge field. This metric is of Eguchi–Hanson–AdS type, although it is not Einstein, and has a single unit of gauge field flux through the S2 cycle.

  18. Hyperfine fields in ZnO studied under uni- and biaxial pressure

    Przewodnik, R.; Kessler, P., E-mail: kessler@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Vianden, R. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The II-VI semiconductor ZnO has many potential applications in optoelectronic and sensor devices. When used as a transparent conducting contact it is often grown epitaxially onto a different substrate with the consequence that the layers are biaxially strained due to lattice mismatch. Similarly, impurity-implanted layers can lead to the development of local strain fields. Strain usually changes the electronic properties of layers and/ or implanted crystal regions. Detailed knowledge about local strain and its influence on the crystal fields is therefore helpful in predicting changes in crystal properties. The perturbed angular correlation technique was applied to study the electric field gradient (EFG) at the site of implanted In dopants in ZnO under uniaxial and biaxial strain. The observed linear change of the EFG with pressure and a change in symmetry due to compression perpendicular to the c-axis could be well reproduced by theoretical calculations using the point charge model.

  19. Hyperfine fields in ZnO studied under uni- and biaxial pressure

    Przewodnik, R.; Kessler, P.; Vianden, R.

    2013-05-01

    The II-VI semiconductor ZnO has many potential applications in optoelectronic and sensor devices. When used as a transparent conducting contact it is often grown epitaxially onto a different substrate with the consequence that the layers are biaxially strained due to lattice mismatch. Similarly, impurity-implanted layers can lead to the development of local strain fields. Strain usually changes the electronic properties of layers and/ or implanted crystal regions. Detailed knowledge about local strain and its influence on the crystal fields is therefore helpful in predicting changes in crystal properties. The perturbed angular correlation technique was applied to study the electric field gradient (EFG) at the site of implanted In dopants in ZnO under uniaxial and biaxial strain. The observed linear change of the EFG with pressure and a change in symmetry due to compression perpendicular to the c-axis could be well reproduced by theoretical calculations using the point charge model.

  20. Insertion Testing of Polyethylene Glycol Microneedle Array into Cultured Human Skin with Biaxial Tension

    Takano, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hiroto; Miyano, Takaya; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki

    Aiming at the practical use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microneedles for transdermal drug delivery system (DDS), a testing apparatus for their insertion into cultured human skin has been developed. To simulate the variety of conditions of human skin, biaxial tension can be applied to the cultured human skin. An adopted testing scheme to apply and control the biaxial tension is similar to the deep-draw forming technique. An attention was also paid to the short-time setup of small, thin and wet cultured skin. One dimensional array with four needles was inserted and influence of tension was discussed. It was found that tension, deflection of skin during insertion and original curvature of skin are the important parameters for microneedles array design.

  1. Synthesis and vibrating properties ZnSe/Ge bi-axial heterostructural nanowires

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Chunrui; Liu, Jian; Cai, Junshen; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystalline ZnSe/Ge bi-axial heterostructural nanowires were grown via a simple one-step thermal evaporation of mixed ZnSe and Ge powders. The heterostructure nanowires have uniform diameter of 200 nm and their length ranges are from several tens to several hundreds of micrometers. Both the zinc-blende ZnSe and diamond-like cubic Ge sub-nanowires in the heterostructures are single crystalline, and grow along the [1 1 1] direction. The sub-nanowires of ZnSe and Ge, with ideal interfaces along the growth orientation, have diameters of 120 and 80 nm, respectively. The experimental evidence suggests that the bi-axial nanowires are formed via a co-growth mechanism. The vibrating property of the nanowire was investigated by Raman spectroscopy at room-temperature.

  2. The Generation of Biaxial Optical Anisotropies in Polyimide Films by an Uniaxial Stretch Method

    King, Jinn?Shing; Whang, Wha?Tzong; Lee, Wen?Chin; Chang, Li?Ming

    2006-05-01

    A new biaxial-retardation film prepared from the uniaxial-stretched polyimide (PI) film was developed for compensating the viewing angle of liquid-crystal displays. A new aliphatic PI showing high transparence and low glass-transition temperature was firstly prepared for the biaxial-retardation film purpose. Both retardations in x-y and x-z planes of PI films were highly increased after stretching them uniaxially at 260 C. Good uniformity of birefringence in well-stretched PI films was observed visually with two crossed polarizers. The birefringence variations of nx-ny (difference of refractive indexes between x- and y-axes) and nx-nz during the stretching process were highly affected by PI structure.

  3. Tunable biaxial in-plane compressive strain in a Si nanomembrane transferred on a polyimide film

    Kim, Munho; Mi, Hongyi; Cho, Minkyu; Seo, Jung-Hun; Zhou, Weidong; Gong, Shaoqin; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2015-05-01

    A method of creating tunable and programmable biaxial compressive strain in silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) transferred onto a Kapton HN polyimide film has been demonstrated. The programmable biaxial compressive strain (up to 0.54%) was generated utilizing a unique thermal property exhibited by the Kapton HN film, namely, it shrinks from its original size when exposed to elevated temperatures. The correlation between the strain and the annealing temperature was carefully investigated using Raman spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction. It was found that various amounts of compressive strains can be obtained by controlling the thermal annealing temperatures. In addition, a numerical model was used to evaluate the strain distribution in the Si NM. This technique provides a viable approach to forming in-plane compressive strain in NMs and offers a practical platform for further studies in strain engineering.

  4. Tunable biaxial in-plane compressive strain in a Si nanomembrane transferred on a polyimide film

    A method of creating tunable and programmable biaxial compressive strain in silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) transferred onto a Kapton HN polyimide film has been demonstrated. The programmable biaxial compressive strain (up to 0.54%) was generated utilizing a unique thermal property exhibited by the Kapton HN film, namely, it shrinks from its original size when exposed to elevated temperatures. The correlation between the strain and the annealing temperature was carefully investigated using Raman spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction. It was found that various amounts of compressive strains can be obtained by controlling the thermal annealing temperatures. In addition, a numerical model was used to evaluate the strain distribution in the Si NM. This technique provides a viable approach to forming in-plane compressive strain in NMs and offers a practical platform for further studies in strain engineering

  5. Effect of damage during installation on the mechanical behaviour of a biaxial woven polyester geogrid

    Paula, António Miguel; Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Lopes, Maria de Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the assessment of the effect of damage during installation (DDI) on the short-term mechanical behaviour and on the soil-geosynthetics interface strength of a biaxial woven polyester ge-ogrid. This material has been subjected to field damage tests, using two different soils and two compaction energies. To characterize the effect of the damage induced in the mechanical behaviour of geosynthetics, ten-sile tests (short-term behaviour), were carried out, accordin...

  6. A twist-bend nematic to an intercalated, anticlinic, biaxial phase transition in liquid crystal bimesogens.

    Mandle, Richard J; Goodby, John W

    2016-02-01

    In this article we describe for bimesogens the first observed transition from a "heliconical" twist-bend nematic liquid crystal to a novel biaxial, anticlinic, intercalated lamellar phase. The phase behaviour and structures of both polymorphs is similar to that of polymers, confirming that bimesogens can act as model systems for main chain liquid crystal polymers, and in principle are separate soft-matter branches of self-organising systems. PMID:26626825

  7. Dynamic fragmentation of a brittle plate under biaxial loading: strength or toughness controlled?

    Levy, S.; Molinari, J. F.; Radovitzky, Raul

    2011-01-01

    The fragmentation of a brittle plate subjected to dynamic biaxial loading is investigated via numerical simulations. The aim is to extend our understanding of the dynamic processes affecting fragment size distributions. A scalable computational framework based on a hybrid cohesive zone model description of fracture and a discontinuous Galerkin formulation is employed. This enables large-scale simulations and, thus, the consideration of rich distributions of defects, as well as an accurate acc...

  8. Microstructure changes in poly(ethylene terephthalate) in thick specimens under complex biaxial loading

    Marco, Yann; Chevalier, Luc

    2008-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation into the strain-induced crystalline microstructure, under biaxial elongation in Polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The aim of our study is to achieve both mechanical tests representative from the blow-moulding process, and micro- structural measurements. We therefore examine how the microstructure of a polymer subjected to a complex strain field evolves in terms of its crystalline ratio, its molecular orientation and the size of its crystallites. PET in...

  9. Confocal fluorescence microscope with dual-axis architecture and biaxial postobjective scanning

    Wang, Thomas D.; Contag, Christopher H; Mandella, Michael J.; Chan, Ning Y.; Kino, Gordon S.

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel confocal microscope that has dual-axis architecture and biaxial postobjective scanning for the collection of fluorescence images from biological specimens. This design uses two low-numerical-aperture lenses to achieve high axial resolution and long working distance, and the scanning mirror located distal to the lenses rotates along the orthogonal axes to produce arc-surface images over a large field of view (FOV). With fiber optic coupling, this microscope can potentially b...

  10. Novel biaxial tensile test for studying aortic failure phenomena at a microscopic level

    Sugita Shukei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An aortic aneurysm is a local dilation of the aorta, which tends to expand and often results in a fatal rupture. Although larger aneurysms have a greater risk of rupture, some small aneurysms also rupture. Since the mechanism of aortic rupture is not well understood, clarification of the microstructure influencing the failure to rupture is important. Since aortic tissues are stretched biaxially in vivo, we developed a technique to microscopically observe the failure of an aortic rupture during biaxial stretch. Methods A thinly sliced porcine thoracic aortic specimen was adhered to a circular frame and pushed onto a cylinder with a smaller diameter to stretch the specimen biaxially. To induce failure to rupture at the center, the specimen was thinned at the center of the hole as follows: the specimen was frozen while being compressed with metal plates having holes, which were 3 mm in diameter at their centers; the specimen was then sliced at 50-μm intervals and thawed. Results The ratio of the thickness at the center to the peripheral area was 99.5% for uncompressed specimens. The ratio decreased with an increase in the compression ratio εc and was 47.3% for specimens with εc = 40%. All specimens could be stretched until failure to rupture. The probability for crack initiation within the cylinder was εc εc >30%, respectively. Among specimens ruptured within the cylinder, 93% of those obtained from the mid-media showed crack initiation at the thin center area. Conclusions Aortic tissues were successfully stretched biaxially until failure, and their crack initiation points were successfully observed under a microscope. This could be a very useful and powerful method for clarifying the mechanism of aortic rupture. We are planning to use this technique for a detailed investigation of events occurring at the point of failure when the crack initiates in the aortic aneurysm wall.

  11. Chaos synchronization in bi-axial magnets modeled by Bloch equation

    In this paper, we show that the bi-axial magnetic material modelled by Bloch equation admits chaotic solutions for a certain set of numerical values assigned to the system of parameters and initial conditions. Using the unidirectional linear and nonlinear feedback schemes, we demonstrate that two such systems can be synchronized together. The chaotic synchronization is discussed in the context of complete synchronization which means that the difference of the states of two relevant systems converge to zero. (author)

  12. Biaxial flexural strength of Turkom-Cera core compared to two other all-ceramic systems

    Bandar Mohammed Abdullah, Al-Makramani; Abdul Aziz Abdul, Razak; Mohamed Ibrahim, Abu-Hassan.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures. OBJECTIVES: The aim of thi [...] s study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995) were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M) Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia)], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Sckingen, Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany) and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Sckingen, Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany), which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872. RESULTS: The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.887.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.428.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.712.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA ) at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (P

  13. Critical points and symmetries of a free energy function for biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    Chillingworth, David

    2014-01-01

    We describe a general model for the free energy function for a homogeneous medium of mutually interacting molecules, based on the formalism for a biaxial nematic liquid crystal set out by Katriel {\\em et al.} (1986) in an influential paper in {\\em Liquid Crystals} {\\bf 1} and subsequently called the KKLS formalism. The free energy is expressed as the sum of an entropy term and an interaction (Hamiltonian) term. Using the language of group representation theory we identify the order parameters...

  14. Effect of Crystal Rotation on Limit Strains of Textured Materials Under Equi-Biaxial Tension

    K.C. Chan

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical procedure has been proposed to predict limit strains of textured sheets under equi-biaxial tension by means of the MK model and taking into account of crystal rotation. Limit strains have been predicted for three common crystallographic orientations and an annealed aluminium sheet. The effect of crystal rotation on limit strains was shown to be significant. However, no general trend of the effect has been observed. It is argued that the effect is quite complicated a...

  15. Raman spectroscopy of graphene and bilayer under biaxial strain: bubbles and balloons

    Zabel, Jakob; Nair, Rahul R; Ott, Anna; Georgiou, Thanasis; Geim, Andre K.; Novoselov, Kostya S.; CASIRAGHI, cinzia

    2012-01-01

    In this letter we use graphene bubbles to study the Raman spectrum of graphene under biaxial (e.g. isotropic) strain. Our Gruneisen parameters are in excellent agreement with the theoretical values. Discrepancy in the previously reported values is attributed to the interaction of graphene with the substrate. Bilayer balloons (intentionally pressurized membranes) have been used to avoid the effect of the substrate and to study the dependence of strain on the inter-layer interactions.

  16. Biaxial strain effect of spin dependent tunneling in MgO magnetic tunnel junctions

    Sahadevan, Ajeesh M.; Tiwari, Ravi K.; Kalon, Gopinadhan; Charanjit S. Bhatia; Saeys, Mark; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of strain on magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) induced by a diamond like carbon (DLC) film. The junction resistance as well as the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) reduces with the DLC film. Non-equilibrium Green's function quantum transport calculations show that the application of biaxial strain increases the conductance for both the parallel and anti-parallel configurations. However, the conductance for the minority channel and for the anti-parallel configuration is signifi...

  17. Positive effect of biaxial stretching on the mechanical behavior of PLA-Talc nanocomposites

    Ouchiar, Saadia; Stoclet, Grégory; Cabaret, Cyrille; Gloaguen, Vincent; Lefebvre, Jean-Marc; UMET-Engineering polymer science Team; UMET / Ecomeris Collaboration; UMET / LCSN Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Poly (Lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable polyester issued from renewable resources, appears as a good candidate for the replacement of petrochemical-based materials due to its good combination of physical properties. However main drawbacks of PLA are its brittle behavior and its low thermal stability. One way to outclass these lacks consists in adding nanofillers into PLA. It is also recognized that the mechanical and barrier properties can be improved by biaxial drawing process. Consequently, this study deals with the enhancing effect of biaxial stretching on mechanical properties of Talc based PLA nanocomposites. The Talc content was varied between 0 to 30 wt%. This high level of talc results in a decrease in material cost, in addition to the enhancement of various physical properties. A main result is that neat PLA, which initially exhibit a brittle behavior upon uniaxial stretching at room temperature, become ductile after being biaxially stretched under appropriate conditions. More surprising is that the same behavior is observed for the filled samples. The origin of these enhancing properties will be also discussed.

  18. Fabrication and reliable implementation of an ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) biaxial bending actuator

    Lee, Gil-Yong; Choi, Jung-Oh; Kim, Myeungseon; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2011-10-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are one of the most popular types of electro-active polymer actuator, due to their low electric driving potential, large deformation range, and light weight. IPMCs have been used as actuators or sensors in many areas of biomedical and robotic engineering. In this research, IPMCs were studied as a biaxial bending actuator capable of smart and flexible motion. We designed and fabricated this bending actuator and implemented it to have a reliable actuating motion using a systematic approach. The resulting device was bar shaped with a square cross section and had four insulated electrodes on its surface. By applying different voltages to these four electrodes, a biaxial bending motion can be induced. To construct this actuator, several fabrication processes were considered. We modified the Nafion stacking method, and established a complete sequence of actuator fabrication processes. Using these processes, we were able to fabricate an IPMC biaxial bending actuator with both high actuating force and high flexibility. Several experiments were conducted to investigate and verify the performance of the actuator. The IPMC actuator system was modeled from experimentally measured data, and using this actuator model, a closed-loop proportional integral (PI) controller was designed. Reference position tracking performances of open-loop and closed-loop systems were compared. Finally, circular motion tracking performances of the actuator tip were tested under different rotation frequencies and radii of a reference trajectory circle.

  19. Biaxial texture development in the ion beam assisted deposition of magnesium oxide

    Low-energy ion-beam irradiation (<1 keV) during the concurrent deposition of cubic oxide materials results in the growth of crystallographically textured thin films. A model system, magnesium oxide (MgO), has been successfully used as a biaxially textured template film for the heteroepitaxial deposition of many materials with texture dependent properties like high temperature superconductors, tunable microwave materials, and ferroelectrics. Here, we present data on the initial nucleation of biaxial crystallographic texture in this model system using an in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) substrate combined with in situ reflected high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Correlation of mass uptake with the RHEED images of the growing surface shows that the development of crystallographic biaxial texture in this material system occurs suddenly as the initially polycrystalline MgO films reaches a critical film thickness of 2 nm. This texture continues to improve during subsequent growth. A simple model shows that the effect is not due simply to coverage effects. We use a combination of in situ RHEED and ex situ transmission electron microscopy to further elucidate the mechanism of this sudden texture formation. We present a physical model to describe this behavior and explain the role of ion-to-atom arrival ratio and underlying nucleation surface on texture development.

  20. Biaxial Texture Evolution in MgO Films Fabricated Using Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition

    Xue, Yan; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Zhao, Rui-Peng; Zhang, Fei; Lu, Yu-Ming; Cai, Chuan-Bing; Xiong, Jie; Tao, Bo-Wan

    2016-04-01

    The growth of multifunctional thin films on flexible substrates is important technologically, because flexible electronics require such a platform. In this study, we examined the evolution of biaxial texture in MgO films prepared using ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) on a Hastelloy substrate. Texture and microstructure developments were characterized through in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction monitoring, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy, which demonstrated that biaxial texture was developed during the nucleation stage (~2.2 nm). The best biaxial texture was obtained with a thickness of approximately 12 nm. As MgO continued to grow, the influence of surface energy was reduced, and film growth was driven by the attempt to minimize volume free-energy density. Thus the MgO grains were subsequently rotated at the (002) direction toward the ion beam. In addition, an approach was developed for accelerating in-plane texture evolution by pre-depositing an amorphous MgO layer before IBAD.

  1. Strain uniformity in biaxial specimens is highly sensitive to attachment details.

    Eilaghi, Armin; Flanagan, John G; Brodland, G Wayne; Ethier, C Ross

    2009-09-01

    Biaxial testing has been used widely to characterize the mechanical properties of soft tissues and other flexible materials, but fundamental issues related to specimen design and attachment have remained. Finite element models and experiments were used to investigate how specimen geometry and attachment details affect uniformity of the strain field inside the attachment points. The computational studies confirm that increasing the number of attachment points increases the size of the area that experiences sensibly uniform strain (defined here as the central sample region where the ratio of principal strains E(11)/E(22)talc-sprinkled rubber specimens loaded using wire "rakes." Points on a grid having 12 x 12 bays were tracked, and a detailed strain map was constructed. A finite element model based on the actual geometry of an experiment having an off-pattern rake tine gave strain patterns that matched to within 4.4%. Finally, simulations using nonequibiaxial strains indicated that the strain field uniformity was more sensitive to sample attachment details for the nonequibiaxial case as compared to the equibiaxial case. Specimen design and attachment were found to significantly affect the uniformity of the strain field produced in biaxial tests. Practical guidelines were offered for design and mounting of biaxial test specimens. The issues addressed here are particularly relevant as specimens become smaller in size. PMID:19725692

  2. 3D shape identification of parallelepiped flaw by means of biaxial MFLT using neural network

    In this paper, we attempt to evaluate the three-dimensional shape of a parallelepiped flaw and identify its location, i.e. the horizontal position and the located surface, by means of biaxial Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing (MFLT), employing a Neural Network (NN). The specimen is a magnetic material (SS400) subjected to a magnetic field, and the magnetic flux in the specimen leaks near the flaw. We measure the biaxial Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL), i.e, the tangential and the normal components of the MFL, along a line parallel to the specimen's surface. We then approximate the measured biaxial MFL distributions by means of elementary functions with a small number of coefficients. The approximation coefficients are extracted as Characteristic Quantities (CQs) of the MFL distribution. The horizontal position of the flaw along the measurement line is characterized by some of these CQs. NN is used to infer the cross section of the flaw, i.e, the width, depth, and located surface of the CQs. By repeating a similar process along several measurement lines parallel to the specimen's surface, we can identify the three-dimensional shape of the flaw, including its location. The NN, trained with several known flaws, was found to be able to evaluate the three-dimensional shape and location of a parallelepiped flaw with a high level of accuracy. (author)

  3. Effect of biaxial strain and composition on vacancy mediated diffusion in random binary alloys: A first principles study of the SiGe system

    Ramanarayanan, Panchapakesan; Cho, Kyeongjae; Clemens, Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic study using the density functional theory (within the local density approximation) of the effects of biaxial strain and composition on the self-diffusion of Si and Ge in SiGe alloys diffusing by a vacancy mechanism. The biaxial strain dependence of the vacancy formation energy was reconfirmed with previous calculations. The effect of biaxial strain on the interaction potential energy between a substitutional Ge atom and a vacancy was calculated. These ca...

  4. Stress management

    Prof.Univ. Dr. Paul Marinescu

    2012-01-01

    ? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?? stress management ??? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????? (HRM), ?? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???????????, ???? ???????? ??????????, ????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????, ????????? stress ????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? / ???? ??????????. ???????????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? HR ?? ??? ??????????, ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????...

  5. Study of the effect of an equi-biaxial loading on the fatigue lifetime of austenitic stainless steel

    Fatigue lifetime assessment is essential in the design of structures. Under-estimated predictions may result in unnecessary in service inspections. Conversely, over-estimated predictions may have serious consequences on the integrity of structures.In some nuclear power plant components, the fatigue loading may be equi-biaxial because of thermal fatigue. So the potential impact of multiaxial loading on the fatigue life of components is a major concern. Meanwhile, few experimental data are available on austenitic stainless steels. It is essential to improve the fatigue assessment methodologies to take into account the potential equi-biaxial fatigue damage. Hence this requires obtaining experimental data on the considered material with a strain tensor in equi-biaxial tension. The aim of this study is to present the experimental and numerical results obtained with a device 'FABIME2' developed in the LISN in collaboration with EDF and AREVA. The association of the experimental results, obtained on the new experimental fatigue device FABIME2, with the numerical analyses obtained by FEM simulation with Cast3M code, has enabled to define the aggravating effect of the equi-biaxial fatigue loading. However, this effect is covered by the Design fatigue curve defined from the nuclear industry. For the crack propagation, a first simplified approach enables to study the kinetic behavior of crack propagation in equi-biaxial fatigue. (author)

  6. Large-scale experimental investigation of the effect of biaxial loading on the deformation capacity of pipes with defects

    Ostby, Erling [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: erling.ostby@sintef.no; Hellesvik, Asle O. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents results from large-scale four-point bending tests of 12'' X65 seamless pipes with circumferential defects subjected to different levels of internal pressure. The aim of the tests has been to investigate the effect of biaxial loading on the strain capacity of the pipes. The results from the tests show a significant effect of the biaxial loading. For cases without internal pressure, the pipes fail due to local buckling on the compression side of the pipe. Upon application of internal pressure the failure mode shifts to fracture from the defect on the tension side. The failure bending strain levels for these cases were 1.5-2.25%, whereas the local buckling occurred at strain levels in the range of 3.5-4%. The main reason for this appears to be that the biaxial loading increases the crack driving force for a given applied strain level. No significant effect of the biaxial loading on the ductile tearing resistance was observed. The results are of great importance for fracture assessment of pressurised pipelines loaded into the plastic region, as the biaxial loading effect observed is not accounted for in current fracture assessment procedures.

  7. Ductile Tearing of Thin Aluminum Plates Under Blast Loading. Predictions with Fully Coupled Models and Biaxial Material Response Characterization

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gullerud, Arne S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haulenbeek, Kimberly K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The work presented in this report concerns the response and failure of thin 2024- T3 aluminum alloy circular plates to a blast load produced by the detonation of a nearby spherical charge. The plates were fully clamped around the circumference and the explosive charge was located centrally with respect to the plate. The principal objective was to conduct a numerical model validation study by comparing the results of predictions to experimental measurements of plate deformation and failure for charges with masses in the vicinity of the threshold between no tearing and tearing of the plates. Stereo digital image correlation data was acquired for all tests to measure the deflection and strains in the plates. The size of the virtual strain gage in the measurements, however, was relatively large, so the strain measurements have to be interpreted accordingly as lower bounds of the actual strains in the plate and of the severity of the strain gradients. A fully coupled interaction model between the blast and the deflection of the structure was considered. The results of the validation exercise indicated that the model predicted the deflection of the plates reasonably accurately as well as the distribution of strain on the plate. The estimation of the threshold charge based on a critical value of equivalent plastic strain measured in a bulge test, however, was not accurate. This in spite of efforts to determine the failure strain of the aluminum sheet under biaxial stress conditions. Further work is needed to be able to predict plate tearing with some degree of confidence. Given the current technology, at least one test under the actual blast conditions where the plate tears is needed to calibrate the value of equivalent plastic strain when failure occurs in the numerical model. Once that has been determined, the question of the explosive mass value at the threshold could be addressed with more confidence.

  8. Biaxial Texture Evolution of Nanostructured Films under Dynamic Shadowing Effect and Applications

    Chen, Liang

    Texture formation and evolution in polycrystalline films are quite complicated, and they still remain as challenging subjects. Oblique angle deposition is an effective way to control the texture due to the shadowing effect introduced by oblique incident flux. A new dynamic oblique angle sputter deposition technique, called flipping rotation, was developed. In this rotation mode, the substrate is arranged to rotate continuously at a fixed speed around an axis lying within and parallel to the substrate. The incident flux is always perpendicular to the rotational axis and the flux incident angle relative to the substrate normal changes continuously. To study the texture formation and evolution of Mo and W films grown by DC magnetron sputter depositions, three film categories were prepared: (1) normal incidence deposition without the shadowing effect, (2) stationary oblique angle deposition at various fixed flux incident angles with static shadowing effect, and (3) convention rotation and flipping rotation deposition with dynamic shadowing effect. Under the normal incidence deposition, ultrathin (2.5 nm) to thin (100 nm) Mo films have been deposited on SO2 membranes on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. These samples can be directly compared with the films grown on glass or native oxide covered Si substrates. The result of a fiber texture with the [110] out-of-plane direction implies that the growth has gone through a recrystallization process that selects the minimum surface energy plane parallel to the substrate. This is in contrast to the conventional understanding of the selection of out-of-plane orientation, which is the fastest growth direction [100] at room temperature based on the low Mo homologous temperature (room temperature/melting temperature) of ~0.1. Under stationary oblique angle deposition, Mo thin films in the range of 175 nm to 1300 nm were observed to undergo a dramatic change in crystal texture orientation from a (110)[110] biaxial texture that has the minimum energy plane (110) parallel to the substrate surface at low oblique angle deposition (0speed in the flipping rotation, the biaxial textures can have various morphologies, such as vertical, S-shape, or C-shape nanocolumns, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The possible growth mechanisms in the formation of various morphologies due to different degrees of shadowing effect were suggested. This is in contrast with the films grown by conventional rotation, which usually have fiber textures with different out-of-plane orientation, [111] for Mo, or even a different phase, A15 for W. The biaxial Mo(110) and W(110) thin films were used as buffer layers to grow semiconductor films of GaN for the LED applications and CdTe for the thin film photovoltaic applications. Detailed X-ray pole figure analyses show the heteroepitaxial growth of GaN/Mo, GaN/W, and CdTe/Mo. A prototype biaxial CdTe film based Schottky junction solar cell on biaxial Mo film has been fabricated and characterized. Although the open circuit voltage is small for the prototype device, the chance for successful improvements is high. The promising optical and electrical properties of these epitaxial films may offer a potential alternative strategy for the growth of high quality functional semiconductors on amorphous substrates using biaxial metal buffer layers. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  9. Biaxial high cycle fatigue: experimental investigation and two-scale damage model

    This research thesis first describes the multi-axial fatigue phenomenon in the cases of mechanical and complex loadings, discusses multi-axial fatigue criteria, and presents the approach of fatigue by incremental damage mechanics. Then, it reports an experimental investigation of fatigue crack initiation under biaxial polycyclic fatigue in 304L austenitic stainless steel and in titanium alloy. The author presents a probabilistic two-scale damage model, and then reports the assessment of multi-axial fatigue life by means of this model

  10. X-ray study of phase transition involving ordered biaxial phases

    X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the following transitions involving ordered biaxial phases of TBBA: solid-smectic Bsub(c), smectic Bsub(c)-smectic VI, smectic VI-phase VII, phase VII-solid. A dependence on the thermal history of the sample was observed at the solid-smectic Bsub(c) phase transition, in agreement with recent DSC data. A phase coexistence was observed at the smectic VI-phase VII and at the solid-smectic Bsub(c) phase transitions. An hysteresis effect was observed at the smectic VI-phase VII phase transition

  11. Biaxial creep deformation of Zircaloy-4 in the high alpha phase temperature range

    The ballooning response of Zircaloy-4 fuel tubes during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident may be calculated from a knowledge of the thermal environment of the rods and the creep deformation characteristics of the cladding. In support of such calculations biaxial creep studies have been performed on fuel tubes supplied by Westinghouse, Wolverine and Sandvik of temperatures in the alpha phase range. This paper presents the results of an investigation of their respective creep behaviour which has resulted in the formulation of equations for use in LOCA fuel ballooning codes. (author)

  12. Biaxially stretchable supercapacitors based on the buckled hybrid fiber electrode array

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Weiya; Zhang, Qiang; Luan, Pingshan; Cai, Le; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Qingxia; Zhou, Wenbin; Xiao, Zhuojian; Gu, Xiaogang; Chen, Huiliang; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Shiqi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2015-07-01

    In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times.In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of the twist-first hybrid fiber, TEM images of SWCNT/PEDOT hybrid bundles, Raman spectra and FTIR spectra of the hybrid electrodes, CVs of the pristine, bended and wound supercapacitor, transmittance spectra of the pristine and stretched supercapacitor, demo video of the supercapacitor. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03027g

  13. SPICE compatible analytical electron mobility model for biaxial strained-Si-MOSFETs

    This paper describes an analytical model for bulk electron mobility in strained-Si layers as a function of strain. Phonon scattering, columbic scattering and surface roughness scattering are included to analyze the full mobility model. Analytical explicit calculations of all of the parameters to accurately estimate the electron mobility have been made. The results predict an increase in the electron mobility with the application of biaxial strain as also predicted from the basic theory of strain physics of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices. The results have also been compared with numerically reported results and show good agreement. (semiconductor devices)

  14. Failure analyses of filament-wound graphite/epoxy cylinders under biaxial loading

    This paper discusses macroscopic and microscopic failure behavior of filament-wound (90/+/-20)/sub s/ graphite/epoxy thin-wall cylinders subjected to biaxial loading. Experimental results, elastic constants, and strengths are compared with analytical predictions. The Tsai-Wu failure criterion gave reasonable agreement between theoretical and experimental results. Specimens machined from failed cylinders were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Interply and intraply cracking were observed. These microscopic failure mechanisms are not accounted for in any failure criterion available in the literature. 6 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  15. Biaxially aligned MgO - buffer layers on metallic substrates for the deposition of YBCO - thin films

    The crucial problem of YBCO - thin films on metallic substrates is to reach a sufficient critical current density considerably above a million A/cm2. Simply c - axes oriented growth during deposition is not sufficient, an additional orientation of the crystals in the plane parallel to the substrate is indispensable. Other groups demonstrated the possibility to deposit a biaxially aligned YSZ buffer - layer on polycrystalline Hastelloy substrates by Ion - Beam - Assisted - Deposition (IBAD). The practicability of these buffer layers to deposit biaxially aligned YBCO was established by X - ray pole figures and measurement of the critical current density. Here, a new sputtering procedure to deposit biaxially aligned buffer layers without an ion - beam gun will be presented. First results of the practicability of this deposition procedure and the achieved quality of the buffer layers will be discussed. (orig.)

  16. A Nanomembrane-Based Bandgap-Tunable Germanium Microdisk Using Lithographically-Customizable Biaxial Strain for Silicon-Compatible Optoelectronics

    Sukhdeo, David S; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L; Saraswat, Krishna C

    2014-01-01

    Strain engineering has proven to be vital for germanium-based photonics, in particular light emission. However, applying a large permanent biaxial strain to germanium has been a challenge. We present a simple, CMOS-compatible technique to conveniently induce a large, spatially homogenous strain in microdisks patterned within ultrathin germanium nanomembranes. Our technique works by concentrating and amplifying a pre-existing small strain into the microdisk region. Biaxial strains as large as 1.11% are observed by Raman spectroscopy and are further confirmed by photoluminescence measurements, which show enhanced and redshifted light emission from the strained microdisks. Our technique allows the amount of biaxial strain to be customized lithographically, allowing the bandgaps of different microdisks to be independently tuned in a single mask process. Our theoretical calculations show that this platform can deliver substantial performance improvements, including a >200x reduction in the lasing threshold, to bia...

  17. Electronic and optical properties of kesterite Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} under in-plane biaxial strains: First-principles calculations

    Li, Chun-Ran [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Li, Yong-Feng, E-mail: liyongfeng@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yao, Bin, E-mail: binyao@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yang, Gang [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding, Zhan-Hui [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Deng, Rui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888 Dongnanhu Road, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2013-11-08

    The electronic structures and optical properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) under in-plane biaxial strain were systematically investigated using first-principles calculations based on generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functional method, respectively. It is found that the fundamental bandgap at the ? point decreases linearly with increasing tensile biaxial strain perpendicular to c-axis. However, a bandgap maximum occurs as the compressive biaxial strain is 1.5%. Further increase of compressive strain decreases the bandgap. In addition, the optical properties of CZTS under biaxial strain are also calculated, and the variation trend of optical bandgap with biaxial strain is consistent with the fundamental bandgap.

  18. Life estimation of low-cycle fatigue of pipe elbows. Proposed criteria of low-cycle fatigue life under the multi-axial stress field

    Pipe elbows were important parts frequently used in the pipelines of nuclear power, thermal power and chemical plants, and their integrity needed to be assured under seismic loads and thermal stresses considering local wall thinning or complex stress distribution due to special configuration different from straight pipe. This article investigated in details elastic-plastic stress-strain state of pipe elbow using finite element analysis and clarified there existed high bi-axial stress field at side inner surface of pipe elbow axial cracks initiated. Bi-axial stress factor was around 0.6 for sound elbow and up to 0.95 for local wall thinning at crown. Fracture strain of 1.15 was reduced to around 0.15 for bi-axial stress factor from 0.6 to 0.9. Normalized fatigue life for bi-axial stress field (0.6 - 0.8) was largely reduced to around 15, 19 and 10% of fatigue life of uni-axial state dependent on material strength level. Proposed revised universal slopes taking account of multi-axial stress factor could explain qualitatively effects of strain range, internal pressure and ratchet strain (pre-strain) on low-cycle fatigue life of pipe elbow. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Electronic and optical properties in ZnO:Ga thin films induced by substrate stress

    Hwang, Younghun; Ahn, Heejin; Kang, Manil; Um, Youngho; Park, Hyoyeol

    2015-12-01

    The effects of biaxial stress in ZnO:Ga thin films on different substrates, e.g., sapphire(0001), quartz, Si(001), and glass have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and electrical transport and ellipsometric measurements. A strong dependence of orientation, crystallite size, transport, and electronic properties upon the substrate-induced stress has been found. The structural properties indicate that a tensile stress exists in epitaxial ZnO:Ga films grown on sapphire, Si, and quartz, while a compressive stress appears in films grown on glass. The resistivity of the films decreased with increasing biaxial stress, which is inversely proportional to the product of the carrier concentration and Hall mobility. The refractive index n was found to decrease with increasing biaxial stress, while the optical band gap E0 increased with stress. These behaviors are attributed to lattice contraction and the increase in the carrier concentration that is induced by the stress. Our experimental data suggest that the mechanism of substrate-induced stress is important for understanding the properties of ZnO:Ga thin films and for the fabrication of devices which use these materials.

  20. Stresses in sulfuric acid anodized coatings on aluminum

    Alwitt, R. S.; Xu, J.; Mcclung, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Stresses in porous anodic alumina coatings have been measured for specimens stabilized in air at different temperatures and humidities. In ambient atmosphere the stress is tensile after anodic oxidation and is compressive after sealing. Exposure to dry atmosphere causes the stress to change to strongly tensile, up to 110 MPa. The stress increase is proportional to the loss of water from the coating. These changes are reversible with changes in humidity. Similar reversible effects occur upon moderate temperature changes. The biaxial modulus of the coating is about 100 GPa.

  1. Investigation of the Residual Stress State in an Epoxy Based Specimen

    Baran, Ismet; Jakobsen, Johnny; Andreasen, Jens Henrik; Akkerman, Remko

    observations. In the present work, the formation of the residual stresses/strains are captured from experimental measurements and numerical models. An epoxy/steel based sample configuration is considered which creates an in-plane biaxial stress state during curing of the resin. A hole drilling process with a......Abstract. Process induced residual stresses may play an important role under service loading conditions for fiber reinforced composite. They may initiate premature cracks and alter the internal stress level. Therefore, the developed numerical models have to be validated with the experimental...... material models, i.e. cure kinetics, elastic modulus, CTE, chemical shrinkage, etc. together with the drilling process using the finite element method. The measured and predicted in-plane residual strain states are compared for the epoxy/metal biaxial stress specimen....

  2. Biaxial fatigue tests and crack paths for AISI 304L stainless steel

    V. Chaves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AISI 304L stainless steel specimens have been tested in fatigue. The tests were axial, torsional and in-phase biaxial, all of them under load control and R=-1. The S-N curves were built following the ASTM E739 standard and the method of maximum likelihood proposed by Bettinelli. The fatigue limits of the biaxial tests were represented in axes σ-τ. The elliptical quadrant, appropriate for ductile materials, and the elliptical arc, appropriate for fragile materials, were included in the graph. The experimental values were better fitted with an elliptical quadrant, despite the ratio between the pure torsion and tension fatigue limits, τFL/σFL, is 0.91, close to 1, which is a typical value for fragile materials. The crack direction along the surface has been analyzed by using a microscope, with especial attention to the crack initiation zones. The crack direction during the Stage I has been compared with theoretical models.

  3. Dynamic buckling of columns by biaxial moments and uniform end torque

    Leung, A. Y. T.

    2010-05-01

    A new concept of uniform torque is proposed for the dynamic torsional buckling analysis. A dynamic biaxial moments and torque buckling theory is presented for analysis in structural dynamics. Second-order effects of the axial force, biaxial moments and torque are considered. The consistent natural boundary moments and forces are derived to ensure the symmetry of the dynamic stiffness matrix in fulfilling the requirement of the reciprocal theorem and conservation of energy. The exact dynamic stiffness matrix is obtained using power series expansion. The derivatives of the analytical dynamic stiffness matrix with respect to different loading and geometric parameters are derived explicitly for sensitivity and continuation analyses. Generally distributed axial force can be analyzed without difficulty. It is pointed out that non-uniform sections may not be handled by power series due to the convergent problem. Global pictures for all kinds of linear dynamic buckling are given for the first time. The methodology is based on finite element formulation and therefore it can easily be extended to analyze structural frames.

  4. Biaxial-Type Concentrated Solar Tracking System with a Fresnel Lens for Solar-Thermal Applications

    Tsung Chieh Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromechanical, biaxial-type concentrated solar tracking system was designed for solar-thermal applications. In our tracking system, the sunlight was concentrated by the microstructure of Fresnel lens to the heating head of the Stirling engine and two solar cells were installed to provide the power for tracking system operation. In order to obtain the maximum sun power, the tracking system traces the sun with the altitude-azimuth biaxial tracing method and accurately maintains the sun’s radiation perpendicular to the plane of the heating head. The results indicated that the position of heating head is an important factor for power collection. If the sunlight can be concentrated to completely cover the heating head with small heat loss, we can obtain the maximum temperature of the heating head of the Stirling engine. Therefore, the temperature of heating head can be higher than 1000 °C in our experiment on a sunny day. Moreover, the results also revealed that the temperature decrease of the heating head is less than the power decrease of solar irradiation because of the latent heat of copper and the small heat loss from the heating head.

  5. Validity of the bi-axial dependence concept: a test in the US general population.

    Hasin, D S; Muthuen, B; Wisnicki, K S; Grant, B

    1994-05-01

    According to the "bi-axial" concept of alcohol dependence, the Alcohol Dependence Syndrome (ADS) constitutes an axis or dimension of alcohol difficulties, while other alcohol-related problems (social, legal, etc.) constitute one or more separate dimensions. The validity of the bi-axial distinction was investigated in a stratified probability sample of 3212 US current drinkers who were interviewed in their households. Indicators of the Alcohol Dependence Syndrome and potentially distinct alcohol-related problems were covered in a structured interview administered by carefully trained interviewers. This interview provided extensive coverage of drinking patterns and problems. Aspects of the ADS covered included narrowing, salience, tolerance, withdrawal, withdrawal relief/avoidance and compulsion/control. Other alcohol problems included difficulties with work, health, the law, general social difficulties and problems in marriage/home life. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to determine whether a single factor (dimension) or two or more factors fit the data best. Using all methods, we found that one general factor explained the structure of the data better than a two-factor model or other models for males, females, blacks and whites. Thus, the utility of this approach to distinguishing between types of alcohol problems was challenged, raising some questions about abuse/dependence distinctions in various nomenclatures. PMID:8044123

  6. Can singly charged oxygen vacancies induce ferromagnetism in biaxial strained ZnO?

    Gai, Yanqin; Jiang, Jiaping; Wu, Yuxi; Tang, Gang

    2016-04-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the singly charged oxygen vacancy ({{V}{{O}}}+) in undoped ZnO under biaxial strains are investigated by density functional theory calculations. A net magnetic moment (MM) of 0.561 μB is obtained for {{V}{{O}}}+ in ZnO under no strains, but the magnetic interaction between them is antiferromagnetic. The formation energy of V O and {{V}{{O}}}+, the MM induced by {{V}{{O}}}+, as well as the coupling type and strength between {{V}{{O}}}+{{s}} vary with the application of biaxial strains. Compressive strains can enhance the concentrations of V O and {{V}{{O}}}+, enlarge the MM, and strengthen the antiferromagnetic interactions between them at lower V O concentrations. However, at higher V O concentrations, the coupling varies from sizable antiferromagnetic to negligible weak ferromagnetic, and then becomes paramagnetic with the increase of compression. Antiferromagnetic results are further confirmed by the local density approximation with Hubbard U (LDA + U) calculations.

  7. Electrical Transport in SrTiO3 Under Biaxial Strain

    Kajdos, Adam; Jalan, Bharat; Allen, James; Stemmer, Susanne

    2012-02-01

    Mobility engineering with strain is widely used for conventional semiconductors, but has only recently been proposed for complex oxides such as SrTiO3. The conduction band structure of SrTiO3 is complicated with multiple degenerate bands derived from the Ti 3d orbitals. Strain is thus expected to have a significant effect by lifting this degeneracy and altering the occupancy and curvature of the bands. Indeed, a 300% increase in the electron mobility with values exceeding 128,000 cm^2/Vs at 1.8 K was demonstrated in MBE-grown SrTiO3 films subjected to uniaxial compressive strain [1]. For heterostructure engineering, the effect of biaxial strain is relevant. Here, the electron mobilities in SrTiO3 subjected to biaxial strain are investigated through growth of coherent films on lattice-mismatched substrates. Lightly-doped (high-mobility) strained SrTiO3 films below the critical thickness are insulating because of significant surface depletion, which increases with decreasing temperature due to the high dielectric constant of SrTiO3. We show that highly-doped, low-mobility capping layers address this problem, but require a multilayer model to analyze the Hall data in terms of the mobility in the lightly doped layer. [1] B. Jalan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 132102 (2011)

  8. Upregulation of matrix synthesis in chondrocyte-seeded agarose following sustained bi-axial cyclic loading

    Belinda Pingguan-Murphy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The promotion of extracellular matrix synthesis by chondrocytes is a requisite part of an effective cartilage tissue engineering strategy. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of bi-axial cyclic mechanical loading on cell proliferation and the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytes in threedimensional cultures. METHOD: A strain comprising 10% direct compression and 1% compressive shear was applied to bovine chondrocytes seeded in an agarose gel during two 12-hour conditioning periods separated by a 12-hour resting period. RESULTS: The bi-axial-loaded chondrocytes demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis compared with samples exposed to uni-axial or no loading over the same period (p<0.05. The use of a free-swelling recovery period prior to the loading regime resulted in additional glycosaminoglycan production and a significant increase in DNA content (p<0.05, indicating cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the use of a bi-axial loading regime results in increased matrix production compared with uni-axial loading.

  9. Analysis of Pre-tension Level upon Biaxial Behaviour of Fused Systems

    Donata ZUBAUSKIENE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of uniaxial pre-tension level upon the regularities of fused two-layer systems biaxial behaviour is analysed in this research work. Initial pre-tension of 0.0 %, 0.4 %, 0.8 %, 1.2 %, 1.7 % and 2.1 % was applied in longitudinal and transverse directions separately. Cotton fabric (100 % of plain weave was used as a base material for the investigated systems. Biaxial punching was performed with three types of interlinings: woven, nonwoven and knitted, which differed not only in surface density, but in the density of adhesive layer, i. e. 52 and 76 dots/cm2. The samples of fused systems were punched from the side of the base cotton fabric in order to maintain the same friction force between the punch and the specimen. The results of the investigations have shown that not only punching strength Pmax, N, and punching height Hmax, mm, differ with the increase of pre-tension level in longitudinal and transverse directions, but also different number of punching force peaks is characteristic for the investigated two-layer systems, which is related to the structure of applied interlining.

  10. Experimental investigation on transformation, reorientation and plasticity of Ni47Ti44Nb9 SMA under biaxial thermal-mechanical loading

    Chen, Xiang; Peng, Xianghe; Chen, Bin; Han, Jia; Zeng, Zhongmin; Hu, Ning

    2015-07-01

    The constitutive behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA) Ni47Ti44Nb9 specimens subjected to different thermal-mechanical loading histories was investigated experimentally. This involved the application of strain by different proportional or non-proportional paths in the biaxial ɛ-γ plane at -60 °C (Ms + 30 °C), the interaction between stress-induced martensitic transformation, reorientation and plastic deformation, temperature-induced reverse martensitic transformation and strain recovery. The results show that the equivalent stress-strain curves, as well as the pure shear and pure tensile curves, depend strongly on the thermal-mechanical loading history. For specimens deformed previously to the same equivalent strains by different paths, the equivalent recovery strains after unloading are similar, as are the spans between the reverse transformation start and final temperatures. The activated martensite variants depend strongly on loading history. The recovery of the axial strain component and that of the shear strain component due to reverse transformation occur synchronously and develop along the shortest path in the ɛ-γ plane. The results may provide some new and useful information on the effects of transformation, plasticity and loading paths for further studies and applications of such materials.

  11. Active-flux based motion sensorless vector control of biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA)

    Coroban-Schramel, Vasile; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel; Blaabjerg, Frede

    This paper proposes a novel, active-flux based, motion-sensorless vector control structure for biaxial excitation generator for automobiles (BEGA) for wide speed range operation. BEGA is a hybrid excited synchronous machine having permanent magnets on q-axis and a dc excitation on daxis. Using th...... electrical degrees in less than 2 ms test time....

  12. Active-flux based motion sensorless vector control of biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA)

    Coroban-Schramel, Vasile; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel; Blaabjerg, Frede

    This paper proposes a novel, active-flux based, motion-sensorless vector control structure for biaxial excitation generator for automobiles (BEGA) for wide speed range operation. BEGA is a hybrid excited synchronous machine having permanent magnets on q-axis and a dc excitation on daxis. Using the...

  13. DIC-aided biaxial fatigue tests of a 304L steel

    Poncelet, M.; Barbier, G.; Raka, B.; Courtin, S.; Desmorat, R.; Le-Roux, J. C.; Vincent, L.

    2010-06-01

    Several biaxial fatigue tests are conducted up to 106 cycles at room temperature in the context of a collaboration LMT-Cachan / EDF / AREVA / SNECMA / CEA. Malteses cross specimens of 304L steel, designed to initiate crack in the bulk, are loaded by a triaxial testing machine. A Digital Image Correlation technique is used to measure strain during loading and detect crack initiation early. A special optical assembly and a stroboscopic sampling method are set up in this purpose. Several types of loadings are performed: equibiaxial with a loading ratio R = 0.1, equibiaxial with loading ratio R = -1, pseudo uniaxial (cyclic loading at R= 0.1 in one direction and constant loading in the other). First results are commented.

  14. Electronic structure and optical properties of CuAlO2 under biaxial strain

    An ab initio calculation has been carried out to investigate the biaxial strain ( - 10.71% 2. All the elastic constants (c11, c12, c13, c33) except c44 decrease (increase) during tensile (compressive) strain. The band gap is found to decrease in the presence of tensile as well as compressive strain. The relative decrease of the band gap is asymmetric with respect to the sign of the strain. Significant differences between the parallel and perpendicular components of the dielectric constant and the optical properties have been observed due to anisotropic crystal structure. It is further noticed that these properties are easily tunable by strain. Importantly, the collective oscillation of the valence electrons has been identified for light polarized perpendicular to the c-axis. From calculations, it is clear that the tensile strain can enhance the hole mobility as well as the transparency of CuAlO2. (paper)

  15. Biaxial wall element tests of reinforced and prestressed concrete containments with inward radial load on penetrations

    This work indicates that under internal overpressurization or other accident conditions, highly localized strains in the steel liner plate can result in liner tearing and subsequent containment leakage. In the prestressed concrete design, liner plate cracks occurred at the ends of anchorage angles. Inward movement of the penetration caused the liner plate to try to tear the anchorage from the concrete. Maximum liner distortion occurred at the junction of the liner with the ends of the anchorage angles. In the reinforced concrete design, the liner plate did not crack as a result of biaxial and inward load on the penetration. Dimples formed in the liner at multiple locations where studs anchored the liner to the concrete. (orig./HP)

  16. A high-sensitivity biaxial resonant accelerometer with two-stage microleverage mechanisms

    Ding, Hong; Zhao, Jiuxuan; Ju, Bing-Feng; Xie, Jin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a design and experimental evaluation of a micro-electro-mechanical system biaxial resonant accelerometer with two-stage microleverage mechanisms. The device incorporates two pairs of double-ended tuning fork resonators coupled to a single proof mass. The two-stage microleverage mechanisms possess a higher amplification factor than single-stage microleverage mechanisms, so that the proposed accelerometer has a high level of sensitivity. In addition, a low level of cross-axis sensitivity is realized because of the decoupling beams. The accelerometer is theoretically analyzed and then simulated in the system level by the finite element method. The device is fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The experimental results demonstrate that the average differential sensitivity of the resonant accelerometer is 275 Hz g?1 at a resonant frequency of 290?kHz under a polarization voltage of 5?V. The measured cross-axis sensitivity is lower than 3.4%.

  17. Development of a synchrotron biaxial tensile device for in situ characterization of thin films mechanical response

    Geandier, G. [Departement PMM, Institut Pprime, UPR 3346 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers-ENSMA, SP2MI, Teleport 2, Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, BP 30179-86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); LPMTM, UPR 9001 CNRS, Universite Paris-Nord, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Thiaudiere, D.; Bouaffad, A. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Randriamazaoro, R. N.; Chiron, R.; Castelnau, O.; Faurie, D. [LPMTM, UPR 9001 CNRS, Universite Paris-Nord, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Djaziri, S.; Lamongie, B.; Diot, Y.; Le Bourhis, E.; Renault, P. O.; Goudeau, P. [Departement PMM, Institut Pprime, UPR 3346 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers-ENSMA, SP2MI, Teleport 2, Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, BP 30179-86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Hild, F. [LMT Cachan, 61 Avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France)

    2010-10-15

    We have developed on the DIFFABS-SOLEIL beamline a biaxial tensile machine working in the synchrotron environment for in situ diffraction characterization of thin polycrystalline films mechanical response. The machine has been designed to test compliant substrates coated by the studied films under controlled, applied strain field. Technological challenges comprise the sample design including fixation of the substrate ends, the related generation of a uniform strain field in the studied (central) volume, and the operations from the beamline pilot. Preliminary tests on 150 nm thick W films deposited onto polyimide cruciform substrates are presented. The obtained results for applied strains using x-ray diffraction and digital image correlation methods clearly show the full potentialities of this new setup.

  18. Development of a synchrotron biaxial tensile device for in situ characterization of thin films mechanical response

    We have developed on the DIFFABS-SOLEIL beamline a biaxial tensile machine working in the synchrotron environment for in situ diffraction characterization of thin polycrystalline films mechanical response. The machine has been designed to test compliant substrates coated by the studied films under controlled, applied strain field. Technological challenges comprise the sample design including fixation of the substrate ends, the related generation of a uniform strain field in the studied (central) volume, and the operations from the beamline pilot. Preliminary tests on 150 nm thick W films deposited onto polyimide cruciform substrates are presented. The obtained results for applied strains using x-ray diffraction and digital image correlation methods clearly show the full potentialities of this new setup.

  19. Biaxial lidar efficiency rising based on improving of spatial selectivity and stability against background radiation

    Agishev, R.R.; Bajazitov, R.A.; Galeyev, M.M. [Kazan State Technical Univ., Tatarstan (Russian Federation). Dept. of Radioelectronic and Quantum Systems

    1996-12-31

    A criterion of spatial-angular efficiency (SAE) of remote electro-optical systems for atmosphere monitoring is formulated. The dependencies of the SAE from normalized range and minimal operating range for different optical receiving schemes of ground-based biaxial lidar are analyzed. It is shown that low SAE of traditional VIS and NIR systems are a main cause of a low signal-to-background-noise ratio at the photodetector input, the considerable measurements errors. and the following low accuracy of atmospheric optical parameters reconstruction. The most effective protection against sky background radiation in such systems consists in forming an angular field according to the introduced SAE criterion. Some approaches to achieve high value of the SAE-parameter for receiving system optimization are discussed.

  20. Measurement of refractive index of biaxial potassium titanyl phosphate crystal plate using reflection spectroscopic ellipsometry technique

    A K Chaudhary; A Molla; A Asfaw

    2009-10-01

    The paper reports the measurement of refractive indices and anisotropic absorption coefficients of biaxial potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal in the form of thin plate using reflection ellipsometry technique. This experiment is designed in the Graduate Optics Laboratory of the Addis Ababa University and He–Ne laser ( = 632.8 nm), diode laser ( = 670.0 nm) and temperature-tuned diode laser ( = 804.4 and 808.4 nm), respectively have been employed as source. The experimental data for , are fitted to the Marquardt–Levenberg theoretical model of curve fitting. The obtained experimental data of refractive indices are compared with different existing theoretical and experimental values of KTP crystals and found to be in good agreement with them.

  1. Tresca criterion for plasticity and viscoplasticity: Application to localization in biaxial loading conditions

    Bolis C.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that plastic instabilities in biaxial stretching conditions were better reproduced by using a Tresca yield surface rather than a Von Mises one. The simulation of the phenomenon in an expanding TA6V4 (Ti-6Al-4V alloy shell experiment is performed using the Tresca criterion and both elasto-plastic and viscoplastic constitutive models: in this aim, Tresca flow surfaces had to be defined in viscoplasticity. The two models exhibit localization but, whereas the elastoplastic case develops shear banding in times in agreement with the onset of instabilities in the experiment, the viscoplastic case develops diffuse necking at later times. On the contrary, the viscoplastic simulation exhibits patterns the size of which seems in better agreement with the experimental ones.

  2. The Landau-de Gennes theory of nematic liquid crystals: Uniaxiality versus Biaxiality

    Majumdar, Apala

    2011-12-01

    We study small energy solutions within the Landau-de Gennes theory for nematic liquid crystals, subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions. We consider two-dimensional and three-dimensional domains separately. In the two-dimensional case, we establish the equivalence of the Landau-de Gennes and Ginzburg-Landau theory. In the three-dimensional case, we give a new definition of the defect set based on the normalized energy. In the threedimensional uniaxial case, we demonstrate the equivalence between the defect set and the isotropic set and prove the C 1,α-convergence of uniaxial small energy solutions to a limiting harmonic map, away from the defect set, for some 0 < a < 1, in the vanishing core limit. Generalizations for biaxial small energy solutions are also discussed, which include physically relevant estimates for the solution and its scalar order parameters. This work is motivated by the study of defects in liquid crystalline systems and their applications.

  3. Development of a synchrotron biaxial tensile device for in situ characterization of thin films mechanical response

    Geandier, G.; Thiaudire, D.; Randriamazaoro, R. N.; Chiron, R.; Djaziri, S.; Lamongie, B.; Diot, Y.; Le Bourhis, E.; Renault, P. O.; Goudeau, P.; Bouaffad, A.; Castelnau, O.; Faurie, D.; Hild, F.

    2010-10-01

    We have developed on the DIFFABS-SOLEIL beamline a biaxial tensile machine working in the synchrotron environment for in situ diffraction characterization of thin polycrystalline films mechanical response. The machine has been designed to test compliant substrates coated by the studied films under controlled, applied strain field. Technological challenges comprise the sample design including fixation of the substrate ends, the related generation of a uniform strain field in the studied (central) volume, and the operations from the beamline pilot. Preliminary tests on 150 nm thick W films deposited onto polyimide cruciform substrates are presented. The obtained results for applied strains using x-ray diffraction and digital image correlation methods clearly show the full potentialities of this new setup.

  4. Biaxial extrusion of polyimide LARC-TPI and LARC-TPI blends

    Haghighat, R. Ross; Elandjian, Lucy; Lusignea, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Biaxial films of polyimide LARC-TPI and LARC-TPI/liquid crystal polymer Xydar were extruded directly from the melt for the first time via an innovative extrusion technique. Three types of films, neat LARC-TPI, LARC-TPI/10 wt pct and 30 wt pct blends were processed as a part of this NASA-funded program. Processability was greatly enhanced by incorporating Xydar. The coefficient of thermal expansion was reduced from 34 ppm/C for the neat LARC-TPI to 15 ppm/C for the 10 wt pct Xydar blend and ultimately down to 1 to 3 ppm/C for the 30 wt pct blend films in the direction of extrusion. The maximum improvement in stiffness was realized by incorporating 10 wt pct Xydar (2.8 GPa up to 4.9 GPa). Tensile strength, however, experienced a drop as a result of Xydar addition, probably caused by inefficient mixing of the two phases.

  5. Transient and residual stresses in a pressable glass-ceramic before and after resin-cement coating determined using profilometry.

    2011-05-01

    The effect of heat-pressing and subsequent pre-cementation (acid-etching) and resin-cementation operative techniques on the development of transient and residual stresses in different thicknesses of a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were characterised using profilometry prior to biaxial flexure strength (BFS) determination.

  6. UV protective zinc oxide coating for biaxially oriented polypropylene packaging film by atomic layer deposition

    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) packaging film was coated with zinc oxide (ZnO) coatings by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to protect the film from UV degradation. The coatings were made at a process temperature of 100 °C using diethylzinc and water as zinc and oxygen precursors, respectively. The UV protective properties of the coatings were tested by using UV–VIS and infrared spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a mechanical strength tester, which characterised the tensile and elastic properties of the film. The results obtained with 36 and 67 nm ZnO coatings showed that the ZnO UV protective layer is able to provide a significant decrease in photodegradation of the BOPP film under UV exposure. While the uncoated BOPP film suffered a complete degradation after a 4-week UV exposure, the 67 nm ZnO coated BOPP film was able to preserve half of its original tensile strength and 1/3 of its elongation at break after a 6-week exposure period. The infrared analysis and DSC measurements further proved the UV protection of the ZnO coatings. The results show that a nanometre scale ZnO coating deposited by ALD is a promising option when a transparent UV protection layer is sought for polymer substrates. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposited zinc oxide coatings were used as UV protection layers. • Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film was well protected against UV light. • Formation of UV degradation products in BOPP was significantly reduced. • Mechanical properties of the UV exposed BOPP film were significantly improved

  7. UV protective zinc oxide coating for biaxially oriented polypropylene packaging film by atomic layer deposition

    Lahtinen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.lahtinen@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Kääriäinen, Tommi, E-mail: tommi.kaariainen@colorado.edu [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Johansson, Petri, E-mail: petri.johansson@tut.fi [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kotkamo, Sami, E-mail: sami.kotkamo@tut.fi [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Maydannik, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Seppänen, Tarja, E-mail: tarja.seppanen@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Kuusipalo, Jurkka, E-mail: jurkka.kuusipalo@tut.fi [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Cameron, David C., E-mail: david.cameron@miktech.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland)

    2014-11-03

    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) packaging film was coated with zinc oxide (ZnO) coatings by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to protect the film from UV degradation. The coatings were made at a process temperature of 100 °C using diethylzinc and water as zinc and oxygen precursors, respectively. The UV protective properties of the coatings were tested by using UV–VIS and infrared spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a mechanical strength tester, which characterised the tensile and elastic properties of the film. The results obtained with 36 and 67 nm ZnO coatings showed that the ZnO UV protective layer is able to provide a significant decrease in photodegradation of the BOPP film under UV exposure. While the uncoated BOPP film suffered a complete degradation after a 4-week UV exposure, the 67 nm ZnO coated BOPP film was able to preserve half of its original tensile strength and 1/3 of its elongation at break after a 6-week exposure period. The infrared analysis and DSC measurements further proved the UV protection of the ZnO coatings. The results show that a nanometre scale ZnO coating deposited by ALD is a promising option when a transparent UV protection layer is sought for polymer substrates. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposited zinc oxide coatings were used as UV protection layers. • Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film was well protected against UV light. • Formation of UV degradation products in BOPP was significantly reduced. • Mechanical properties of the UV exposed BOPP film were significantly improved.

  8. Effect of Temperature and Mechanical Stress on Barrier Properties of Polymeric Films Used for Food Packaging

    Mrkić, Saša; Kata GALIĆ; Marica IVANKOVIĆ

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The permeance of carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and air through commercial polymers based on polyethylene (PE), biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), and polyamide (PA) used for food packaging is reported. The influence of temperature (from 10 to 60?C) and crease stress cycles (30, 50, 70, and 110) on gas permeance is also analyzed. Generally, the highest changes in gas permeance changes with increased stress cycles are observed with films having a metallized layer i...

  9. Mobility enhancement of strained GaSb p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors with biaxial compressive strain

    Yan-Wen, Chen; Zhen, Tan; Lian-Feng, Zhao; Jing, Wang; Yi-Zhou, Liu; Chen, Si; Fang, Yuan; Wen-Hui, Duan; Jun, Xu

    2016-03-01

    Various biaxial compressive strained GaSb p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The biaxial compressive strained GaSb MOSFETs show a high peak mobility of 638 cm2/V·s, which is 3.86 times of the extracted mobility of the fabricated GaSb MOSFETs without strain. Meanwhile, first principles calculations show that the hole effective mass of GaSb depends on the biaxial compressive strain. The biaxial compressive strain brings a remarkable enhancement of the hole mobility caused by a significant reduction in the hole effective mass due to the modulation of the valence bands. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00602) and the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2011ZX02708-002).

  10. Effect of Molecular Flexibility on the Nematic-to-Isotropic Phase Transition for Highly Biaxial Molecular Non-Symmetric Liquid Crystal Dimers

    María Blanca Ros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a study of the nematic (N–isotropic (I phase transition has been made in a series of odd non-symmetric liquid crystal dimers, the α-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4’-yloxy-ω-(1-pyrenimine-benzylidene-4’-oxy alkanes, by means of accurate calorimetric and dielectric measurements. These materials are potential candidates to present the elusive biaxial nematic (NB phase, as they exhibit both molecular biaxiality and flexibility. According to the theory, the uniaxial nematic (NU–isotropic (I phase transition is first-order in nature, whereas the NB–I phase transition is second-order. Thus, a fine analysis of the critical behavior of the N–I phase transition would allow us to determine the presence or not of the biaxial nematic phase and understand how the molecular biaxiality and flexibility of these compounds influences the critical behavior of the N–I phase transition.

  11. In-situ Curing Strain Monitoring of a Flat Plate Residual Stress Specimen Using a Chopped Stand Mat Glass/Epoxy Composite as Test Material

    Jakobsen, J.; Skordos, A.; James, S.; Correia, R. G.; Jensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The curing stresses in a newly proposed bi-axial residual stress testing configuration are studied using a chopped strand mat glass/epoxy specimen. In-situ monitoring of the curing is conducted using dielectric and fibre Bragg grating sensors. It is confirmed that a bi-axial residual stress state can be introduced in the specimens during curing and a quantification of its magnitude is presented. An alternative decomposition method used for converting the dielectric signal into a material state variable is proposed and good agreement with models found in the literature is obtained. From the cure cycles chosen it is suggested that any stress build up in the un-vitrified state is relaxed immediately and only stress build up in the vitrified state contributes to the residual stress state in the specimen.

  12. Effect of Biaxial Stretching at Temperatures and Strain Histories Comparable to Injection Stretch Blow Moulding on Tensile Modulus for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)

    Tan, C. W.; Menary, G. H.; Harkin-Jones, E. M. A.; Armstrong, C. G.; Martin, P. J.

    2007-04-01

    This study is particularly relevant to the injection stretch blow moulding (ISBM) process where PET material is typically biaxially stretched to form bottles for the water and carbonated soft drinks industry. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of biaxial stretching on the mechanical properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) using a custom built biaxial testing machine. An initially amorphous PET sample was prepared via injection moulding to form a square sample (76mm 76mm) suitable for stretching on the machine. This sample was then subjected to a series of biaxial tests (simultaneous and sequential) within a temperature range between 85C and 110 C, strain rates in the range of 1s-1 to 32s-1 and stretch ratios in the range of 1.5 to 3. Specimens were subsequently cut from the biaxial stretched sheets and used to measure the tensile modulus. Results showed that there is almost no effect found for strain rate and temperature on modulus development whilst stretch ratio and mode of deformation played the most important role on modulus development on PET under biaxial deformation.

  13. Thermal conductivity of biaxial-strained MoS2: sensitive strain dependence and size-dependent reduction rate

    Zhu, Liyan; Zhang, Tingting; Sun, Ziming; Li, Jianhua; Chen, Guibin; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of biaxial tensile strain on the thermal transport properties of MoS2 is investigated by combining first-principles calculations and the Boltzmann transport equation. The thermal conductivities of single layer MoS2 are found to be heavily suppressed by the applied strains; even a moderate biaxial tensile strain, 2 ? 4%, could result in a 10 ? 20% reduction in the thermal conductivity. Most interestingly, the reduction rate of thermal conductivity is size-dependent, which is due to different dominant phonon scattering mechanisms at different sizes of MoS2 samples. The sensitive strain dependence of thermal conductivity indicates that strain engineering could be an effective method to enhance the figure of merit for thermoelectric applications of MoS2.

  14. Active control of residual tool marks for freeform optics functionalization by novel biaxial servo assisted fly cutting.

    Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet; Zhang, Shaojian

    2015-09-01

    The inherent residual tool marks (RTM) with particular patterns highly affect optical functions of the generated freeform optics in fast tool servo or slow tool servo (FTS/STS) diamond turning. In the present study, a novel biaxial servo assisted fly cutting (BSFC) method is developed for flexible control of the RTM to be a functional micro/nanotexture in freeform optics generation, which is generally hard to achieve in FTS/STS diamond turning. In the BSFC system, biaxial servo motions along the z-axis and side-feeding directions are mainly adopted for primary surface generation and RTM control, respectively. Active control of the RTM from the two aspects, namely, undesired effect elimination or effective functionalization, are experimentally demonstrated by fabricating a typical F-theta freeform surface with scattering homogenization and two functional microstructures with imposition of secondary phase gratings integrating both reflective and diffractive functions. PMID:26368889

  15. Scanning electron microscopy study of the growth mechanism of biaxially aligned magnesium oxide layers grown by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) thin films have been grown by unbalanced magnetron sputtering on an inclined non-aligned substrate. This technique provides a way to grow biaxially aligned MgO layers. A preferential [111] out-of-plane orientation and a strong in-plane alignment have been observed. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the growth mechanism of these biaxially aligned MgO layers and to examine the morphology of the layers, revealing a columnar grain structure and roof-tile surface which is limited by {001} planes. Column bundling and repeated nucleation was observed. Also, the formation of highly disrupted regions caused by local heating of the growing film has been observed. A mechanism to explain the in-plane alignment is proposed

  16. Biaxial Q-shearing of 27Al 3QMAS NMR spectra: insight into the structural disorder of framework aluminosilicates

    Kobera, Libor; Brus, Jiří; Klein, Petr; Dědeček, Jiří; Urbanová, Martina

    57-58, February–April (2014), s. 29-38. ISSN 0926-2040 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-24155S; GA AV ČR IAA400400904 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : 27Al 3QMAS NMR * biaxial shearing * zeolite s Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 2.266, year: 2014

  17. Development of a synchrotron biaxial tensile device for in-situ characterization of thin films mechanical response

    Geandier, Guillaume; Djaziri, Soundes; Goudeau, Philippe; Le Bourhis, Eric; Renault, Pierre-Olivier; Thiaudière, Dominique; Hild, François; Faurie, Damien

    2010-01-01

    We have developed on the DIFFABS-SOLEIL beamline a biaxial tensile machine working in synchrotron environment for in-situ diffraction characterization of thin polycrystalline films mechanical response. The machine has been designed to test compliant substrates coated by the studied films under controlled applied strain field. Technological challenges comprise the sample design including fixation of the substrate ends, the related generation of a uniform strain field in the studied (central) v...

  18. Development of an in-plane biaxial test for forming limit curve (FLC) characterization of metallic sheets

    Zidane, Ibrahim; Guines, Dominique; Leotoing, Lionel; Ragneau, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to propose a new experimental device able to give for a single specimen a good prediction of rheological parameters and formability under static and dynamic conditions (for intermediate strain rates). In this paper, we focus on the characterization of sheet metal forming. The proposed device is a servo-hydraulic testing machine provided with four independent dynamic actuators allowing biaxial tensile tests on cruciform specimens. The formability is evaluated...

  19. Development of 1366 K (20000F) strain sensor and biaxial strain transducer for use to 1033 K (14000F)

    The development and evaluation of (a) the Battelle-Columbus Laboratories (BCL) resistance strain gage system for measurement of strains to 1366 K (20000F), and (b) a biaxial strain transducer, utilizing above system, for measurements to 1033 K (14000F) are described. Data are presented which depict pertinent gage and transducer performance characteristics. The paper should be of particular interest to those in need of strain data at temperatures exceeding the limits of commercially available electric resistance strain gages. (orig.)

  20. Electrically conducting oxide buffer layers on biaxially textured nickel alloy tapes by reel-to-reel MOCVD process

    Reel-to-reel MOCVD process for continuous growth of electrically conducting buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni5W tapes has been developed. The new buffer layer architechture is presented: 200 nm (La, Ba)2CuO4/40 nm (La, Ba)MnO3/Ni5W. Constituting layers with high structural quality have been grown on moving tapes (in plane FWHM ? 60 and out of plane FWHM ? 30)

  1. Numerical simulation of stick-slip behaviours of typical faults in biaxial compression based on a frictional-hardening and frictional-softening model

    Wang, X. B.; Ma, J.; Pan, Y. S.

    2013-08-01

    Stick-slip behaviours of typical faults and interactions among faults are numerically modelled using a proposed frictional-hardening and frictional-softening elastoplastic continuum model. Forty numerical tests in biaxial compression are conducted quasi-statically or dynamically in plane strain and in small or large strain mode using FLAC-3D. Faults are modelled by square or quadrilateral elements from a viewing angle perpendicular to the maximum surface of a specimen. An incremental plastic shear strain in a stick-slip cycle is involved in the model, which is calculated at the beginning of slip and then is set to be zero upon reaching its maximum at the end of stick. Thus, the repeated stick-slip behaviour can be modelled using the same set of equations, and only the evolution of an internal frictional angle is required to be different at different stages. At the slip stage, a decrease of the angle leads to an increase of the incremental plastic shear strain, while at the following stick stage, it is updated according to the present incremental plastic shear strain. Nodal velocities change at the two stages because of the use of dynamic equations even though a rate- and state-dependent law is not introduced. Effects of loading rate, fault width and maximum incremental plastic shear strain are investigated. To obtain size-independent stress-deformation curves, a slower loading is required for a finer mesh to ensure the same propagating distance of stress wave. For two intersecting faults or an echelon fault, a few small events are observed at the stick stage because of interactions among faults, whereas only one large event is observed at the slip stage. For a specimen with a bending fault, as the angle between two fault segments is large, the asynchronic softening and hardening of fault elements lead to a small stress drop at loading ends (stable sliding) rather than a saw-tooth-like behaviour (stick-slip). To validate the proposed model, a laboratory test is modelled quasi-statically that was performed on a specimen including an inclined fault oriented an angle of 60° with the horizontal direction in biaxial compression. The physical and numerical results agree well. Numerical results show that the stick-slip period is doubled if the loading velocity is halved. Compared with the rate- and state-dependent law, the present model is simple and can be implemented in FLAC-3D, capable of modelling the effects of creep, seepage and temperature. For complex faults under complex loading conditions, the proposed model can be used to identify faults prone to sliding or those with large stress drops, and to investigate active sequences of faults and their interactions. Advantages and disadvantages of square or quadrilateral meshes are also addressed, especially on the aspect of stick-slip modelling. For a bending or a single straight fault, a long stick-slip period and a low load-carrying capacity are obtained for quadrilateral meshes, but not for square meshes.

  2. Biaxially textured YBa 2Cu 3O 7-x films deposited on polycrystalline flexible yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic substrates

    Varanasi, C. V.; Burke, J.; Lu, R.; Wu, J.; Brunke, L.; Chuck, L.; Smith, H. E.; Maartense, I.; Barnes, P. N.

    2008-07-01

    Biaxially textured YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films were grown on polycrystalline flexible yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic substrates (Ceraflex) buffered with MgO and LaMnO3 layers. These substrates were initially coated with silica glass to obtain a smooth surface and then biaxially textured MgO buffer layers were deposited by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD-MgO). Lanthanum manganate (LMO) cap layers and YBCO layers were then deposited by the pulsed laser ablation method. Highly textured YBCO films with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 6.75° in (1 1 0) phi scans and a FWHM ∼ 5° in (2 0 0) omega scans were obtained. An initial deposition yielded samples with a Tc > 88 K and a self-field magnetization Jc of 2 × 105 A/cm2 at 77 K. A secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile of the samples indicated that with the present deposition condition, some La, Mn and Mg diffusion into the YBCO layers is possible and this may reduce the Jc in the self-field. The yield strength (YS) of uncoated Ceraflex substrates was compared with that of metallic substrates and it was found that Ceraflex substrates can have a YS at least 4-5 times higher than the YS of biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates and ∼1.5 times that of HastelloyTM substrates.

  3. Evaluation of Biaxial Mechanical Properties of Aortic Media Based on the Lamellar Microstructure

    Hadi Taghizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the mechanical properties of arterial wall components is necessary for establishing a precise mechanical model applicable in various physiological and pathological conditions, such as remodeling. In this contribution, a new approach for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of aortic media accounting for the lamellar structure is proposed. We assumed aortic media to be composed of two sets of concentric layers, namely sheets of elastin (Layer I and interstitial layers composed of mostly collagen bundles, fine elastic fibers and smooth muscle cells (Layer II. Biaxial mechanical tests were carried out on human thoracic aortic samples, and histological staining was performed to distinguish wall lamellae for determining the dimensions of the layers. A neo-Hookean strain energy function (SEF for Layer I and a four-parameter exponential SEF for Layer II were allocated. Nonlinear regression was used to find the material parameters of the proposed microstructural model based on experimental data. The non-linear behavior of media layers confirmed the higher contribution of elastic tissue in lower strains and the gradual engagement of collagen fibers. The resulting model determines the nonlinear anisotropic behavior of aortic media through the lamellar microstructure and can be assistive in the study of wall remodeling due to alterations in lamellar structure during pathological conditions and aging.

  4. Biaxially textured Mo films with diverse morphologies by substrate-flipping rotation

    A class of nanostructured Mo thin films was grown by DC magnetron sputtering using a robust substrate rotation mode called 'flipping rotation'. In this rotation mode, the substrate is arranged to rotate continuously at a fixed speed around an axis lying within and parallel to the substrate. The incident flux is perpendicular to the rotational axis, and the incident flux angle changes continuously. Mo nanostructured films, grown under different rotation speeds with three orders of magnitude spread (ranging from 0.008 to 24 rotation min−1), different flipping directions (clockwise and counter-clockwise), and different ending deposition angles, were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) surface-pole-figure techniques. Despite their very different morphologies, such as 'C'-shaped, 'S'-shaped, and vertically aligned nanorods, the same (110)[1 1-bar 0] biaxial texture with an average out-of-plane dispersion of ∼ 15° was observed. In contrast, we showed that only a fiber-textured Mo film was obtained by using the conventional rotation mode where the oblique incident flux angle was fixed with the substrate rotating around the surface normal.

  5. Remote monitoring of bi-axial loads on a lifting surface moving unsteadily in water

    Johnson, P. B.; Drake, K. R.; Eames, I.; Wojcik, A.

    2014-12-01

    A system of measuring the bi-axial load on a lifting surface (blade) which is freely moving and operates submerged in water at the laboratory scale is described. A blade with a span of 500 mm, a chord of 60 mm and a thickness of 9 mm (15% of the chord) was employed and the lift/drag forces were measured using a bespoke strain-gauge based load cell located at the mid-span of the blade, measuring bending moments in two independent directions. The requirement to move freely dictated that the load cell was encapsulated within the blade, along with signal conditioning circuitry, power supply and a data logger with wireless transmission. Submerged operation in water resulted in very short transmission distances, meaning that data were recorded and subsequently transferred using an aerial placed close to the blade while it was stationary. Assumptions based on Euler-Bernoulli beam bending theory were used to infer the total load from measurements of the bending moment at the mid-span and example data from a freely moving aerofoil on a Darrieus-type tidal energy extraction device are presented. The novelty of this system lies in its combination of free movement, submerged operation and small scale.

  6. Inflation and Bi-Axial Tensile Testing of Healthy PorcineCarotid Arteries.

    Boekhoven, Renate W; Peters, Mathijs F J; Rutten, Marcel C M; van Sambeek, Marc R; van de Vosse, Frans N; Lopata, Richard G P

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the intrinsic material properties of healthy and diseased arterial tissue components is ofgreat importance in diagnostics. This study describes an invitro comparison of 13 porcine carotid arteries usinginflation testing combined with functional ultrasound and bi-axial tensile testing. The measured tissue behavior was described using both a linear, but geometrically non-linear, one-parameter (neo-Hookean) model and a two-parameter non-linear (Demiray) model. The shear modulus estimated using the linear model resulted ingood agreement between the ultrasound and tensile testing methods, GUS=255.7kPa and GTT=235.4kPa. No significant correspondence was observed for the non-linear model aUS=1.02.7kPa vs. aTT=178.8kPa, p? 0); however, the exponential parameters were in correspondence (bUS=124.2 vs. bTT=101.7, p > 0.05). Estimation of more complex models invivo is cumbersome considering the sensitivity of the model parameters to small changes in measurement data and the absence of intraluminal pressure data, endorsing the use of a simple, linear model invivo. PMID:26598396

  7. A Parametric Study of Mixing in a Granular Flow a Bi-Axial Spherical Tumbler

    Christov, Ivan C; Ottino, Julio M; Sturman, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We report on a computational parameter space study of mixing protocols for a half-full bi-axial spherical granular tumbler. The quality of mixing is quantified via the intensity of segregation (concentration variance) and computed as a function of three system parameters: angles of rotation about each tumbler axis and the flowing layer depth. Only the symmetric case is considered in which the flowing layer depth is the same for each rotation. We also consider the dependence on $\\bar{R}$, which parametrizes the concentric spheroids ("shells") that comprise the volume of the tumbler. The intensity of segregation is computed over 100 periods of the mixing protocol for each choice of parameters. Each curve is classified via a time constant, $\\tau$, and an asymptotic mixing value, $bias$. We find that most choices of angles and most shells throughout the tumbler volume mix well, with mixing near the center of the tumbler being consistently faster (small $\\tau$) and more complete (small $bias$). We conclude with ex...

  8. Remote monitoring of bi-axial loads on a lifting surface moving unsteadily in water

    A system of measuring the bi-axial load on a lifting surface (blade) which is freely moving and operates submerged in water at the laboratory scale is described. A blade with a span of 500 mm, a chord of 60 mm and a thickness of 9 mm (15% of the chord) was employed and the lift/drag forces were measured using a bespoke strain-gauge based load cell located at the mid-span of the blade, measuring bending moments in two independent directions. The requirement to move freely dictated that the load cell was encapsulated within the blade, along with signal conditioning circuitry, power supply and a data logger with wireless transmission. Submerged operation in water resulted in very short transmission distances, meaning that data were recorded and subsequently transferred using an aerial placed close to the blade while it was stationary. Assumptions based on Euler–Bernoulli beam bending theory were used to infer the total load from measurements of the bending moment at the mid-span and example data from a freely moving aerofoil on a Darrieus-type tidal energy extraction device are presented. The novelty of this system lies in its combination of free movement, submerged operation and small scale. (paper)

  9. Bi-Axial Solar Array Drive Mechanism: Design, Build and Environmental Testing

    Scheidegger, Noemy; Ferris, Mark; Phillips, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The development of the Bi-Axial Solar Array Drive Mechanism (BSADM) presented in this paper is a demonstration of SSTL's unique space manufacturing approach that enables performing rapid development cycles for cost-effective products that meet ever-challenging mission requirements: The BSADM is designed to orient a solar array wing towards the sun, using its first rotation axis to track the sun, and its second rotation axis to compensate for the satellite orbit and attitude changes needed for a successful payload operation. The tight development schedule, with manufacture of 7 Flight Models within 1.5 year after kick-off, is offset by the risk-reduction of using qualified key component-families from other proven SSTL mechanisms. This allowed focusing the BSADM design activities on the mechanism features that are unique to the BSADM, and having an Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) built 8 months after kick-off. The EQM is currently undergoing a full environmental qualification test campaign. This paper presents the BSADM design approach that enabled meeting such a challenging schedule, its design particularities, and the ongoing verification activities.

  10. RF magnetron-sputtered ZNO thin films: on the evolution of microstructure and residual stresses

    Özen, İstem; Ozen, Istem

    2006-01-01

    Thin ZnO films (200-500 nm) were deposited onto glass, mica, and Si(100) substrates, to study the relations between microstructure and residual stresses. The ranges for the substrate temperature, chamber pressure, and RF power were room temperature-200 °C, 0.009-0.4 mbar, and 100-125 W, respectively. The strain measurements by x-ray diffraction and the biaxial stress model showed that the films were under residual compressive stresses from -2 to -8 GPa. 5-11 percent of those stresses were ind...

  11. Incremental stress-strain law for graphite under multiaxial loadings

    Tzung, F.

    1979-11-01

    An incremental stress-strain law for describing the nonlinear, compressible and asymmetric behavior of graphite under tension and compression as well as complex loadings is derived based on a dry friction model in the theory of plasticity. Stress-strain relations are defined by longitudinal-lateral strain measurements for specimens under uniaxial tension-compression. Agreements with experimentally determined curves from biaxial loading experiments are shown. Agreements in finite element computations using the present model with strain measurements for diametral compression and 4-point bend tests of graphite are also obtained.

  12. Dependence of electronic properties of germanium on the in-plane biaxial tensile strains

    The hybrid HSE06 functional with the spin–orbit coupling effects is used to calculate the habituation of the electronic properties of Ge on the (0 0 1), (1 1 1), (1 0 1) in-plane biaxial tensile strains (IPBTSs). Our motivation is to explore the nature of electronic properties of tensile-strained Ge on different substrate orientations. The calculated results demonstrate that one of the most effective and practical approaches for transforming Ge into a direct transition semiconductor is to introduce (0 0 1) IPBTS to Ge. At 2.3% (0 0 1) IPBTS, Ge becomes a direct bandgap semiconductor with 0.53 eV band gap, in good agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental results. We find that the (1 1 1) and (1 0 1) IPBTSs are not efficient since the shear strain and inner displacement of atoms introduced by them quickly decrease the indirect gap of Ge. By investigating the dependence of valence band spin–orbit splitting on strain, we prove that the dependency relationship and the coupled ways between the valence-band states of tensile-strained Ge are closely related to the symmetry of strain tensor, i.e., the symmetry of the substrate orientation. The first- and second-order coefficients describing the dependence of indirect gap, direct gap, the valence band spin–orbit coupling splitting, and heavy-hole–light-hole splitting of Ge on IPBTSs have been obtained by the least squares polynomial fitting. These coefficients are significant to quantitatively modulate the electronic properties of Ge by tensile strain and design tensile-strained Ge devices by semiconductor epitaxial technique

  13. Dependence of electronic properties of germanium on the in-plane biaxial tensile strains

    Yang, C.H. [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Beijing 100876 (China); Yu, Z.Y., E-mail: yuzhongyuan30@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Beijing 100876 (China); Liu, Y.M.; Lu, P.F. [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Beijing 100876 (China); Gao, T. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, M.; Manzoor, S. [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Beijing 100876 (China)

    2013-10-15

    The hybrid HSE06 functional with the spin–orbit coupling effects is used to calculate the habituation of the electronic properties of Ge on the (0 0 1), (1 1 1), (1 0 1) in-plane biaxial tensile strains (IPBTSs). Our motivation is to explore the nature of electronic properties of tensile-strained Ge on different substrate orientations. The calculated results demonstrate that one of the most effective and practical approaches for transforming Ge into a direct transition semiconductor is to introduce (0 0 1) IPBTS to Ge. At 2.3% (0 0 1) IPBTS, Ge becomes a direct bandgap semiconductor with 0.53 eV band gap, in good agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental results. We find that the (1 1 1) and (1 0 1) IPBTSs are not efficient since the shear strain and inner displacement of atoms introduced by them quickly decrease the indirect gap of Ge. By investigating the dependence of valence band spin–orbit splitting on strain, we prove that the dependency relationship and the coupled ways between the valence-band states of tensile-strained Ge are closely related to the symmetry of strain tensor, i.e., the symmetry of the substrate orientation. The first- and second-order coefficients describing the dependence of indirect gap, direct gap, the valence band spin–orbit coupling splitting, and heavy-hole–light-hole splitting of Ge on IPBTSs have been obtained by the least squares polynomial fitting. These coefficients are significant to quantitatively modulate the electronic properties of Ge by tensile strain and design tensile-strained Ge devices by semiconductor epitaxial technique.

  14. Effect of surface finishing and storage media on bi-axial flexure strength and microhardness of resin-based composite.

    Gordan, Valeria V; Patel, Shreena B; Barrett, Allyson A; Shen, Chiayi

    2003-01-01

    This in vitro study tested the following null hypotheses: (1) surface finishing treatments do not significantly affect the biaxial flexure strength and microhardness of resin-based composites (RBC) and (2) storage media do not significantly affect these physical properties. Discs (81 RBC and 81 UR; 3M/ESPE) were prepared using a circular polyethylene mold (2.4-mm thick x 16.7 mm in diameter) that was polymerized through a Mylar strip and divided into three surface finishing treatment groups: 1 microm aluminum oxide slurry; 15 microm diamond and a Mylar strip. Randomly selected controls for each finishing group were stored at room temperature in individual vials. Test specimens were immersed in water, stored at 37 degrees C for two days and transferred for an additional seven days to one of three aqueous storage media at 37 degrees C: coffee (pH 5.1), cola (pH 2.4) or red wine (pH 3.7). Post immersion (nine days total), the specimens were tested for biaxial flexure strength (BFS) and Vicker's microhardness (VHN). ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were used for statistical analysis. ANOVA results indicated that surface finishing treatments had a significant effect on the biaxial flexure strength and microhardness of the RBC and the UR specimens. BFS results for RBC specimens were AL>DD>ML (pML (p<0.0001). Storage in wine medium reduced the VHN of UR specimens significantly. Both alternative hypotheses were accepted. In addition, the Mylar finishing group, because of the resin-rich surface layer, yielded the lowest mean values of BFS and VHN. PMID:14531602

  15. Energetical and multiscale approaches for the definition of an equivalent stress for magneto-elastic couplings

    A main limitation of most models describing the effect of stress on the magnetic behavior is that they are restricted to uniaxial - tensile or compressive - stress. Nevertheless, stress is multiaxial in most of industrial applications. An idea to overcome the strong limitation of models is to define a fictive uniaxial stress, the equivalent stress, that would change the magnetic behavior in a similar manner than a multiaxial stress. A first definition of equivalent stress, called the deviatoric equivalent stress, is proposed. It is based on an equivalence in magneto-elastic energy. This formulation is first derived for isotropic materials under specific assumptions. An extension to orthotropic media under disoriented magneto-mechanical loading is made. A new equivalent stress expression, called generalized equivalent stress, is then proposed. It is based on an equivalence in magnetization. Inverse identification of equivalent stress is made possible thanks to a strong simplification of the description of the material seen as an assembly of elementary magnetic domains. It is shown that this second proposal is a generalization of the deviatoric expression. Equivalent stress proposals are compared to former proposals and validated using experimental results carried out on an iron-cobalt sheet submitted to biaxial mechanical loading. These results are compared to the predictions obtained thanks to the equivalent stress formulations. The generalized equivalent stress is shown to be a tool able to foresee the magnetic behavior of a large panel of materials submitted to multiaxial stress. - Research highlights: ? Classical magneto-elastic models restricted to uniaxial stress. ? Stress demonstrated multiaxial in most of industrial applications. ? Proposals of deviatoric and generalized equivalent stresses - multidomain modeling. ? Experimental validation using iron-cobalt sheet submitted to biaxial loading. ? Generalization of former proposals and modeling of previous results.

  16. Alternating domains with uniaxial and biaxial magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Fe films on BaTiO3

    T.H.E. Lahtinen; Y. Shirahata; YAO, L; K.J.A. Franke; Venkataiah, G.; T. Taniyama; Dijken, S. van

    2012-01-01

    We report on domain formation and magnetization reversal in epitaxial Fe films on ferroelectric BaTiO3 substrates with ferroelastic a-c stripe domains. The Fe films exhibit biaxial magnetic anisotropy on top of c domains with out-of-plane polarization, whereas the in-plane lattice elongation of a domains induces uniaxial magnetoelastic anisotropy via inverse magnetostriction. The strong modulation of magnetic anisotropy symmetry results in full imprinting of the a-c domain pattern in the Fe f...

  17. Biaxial bending of slender hsc columns and tubes filled with concrete under short- and long-term loads: ii) verification

    Jose A. Rodríguez-Gutiérrez; Aristizabal-Ochoa, Jose Dario

    2014-01-01

    An analytical method that calculates both the short- and long-term response of slender columns made of high-strength concrete (HSC) and of tubes filled with concrete with generalized end conditions that are subjected to transverse loads along the span and to axial loads at the ends (causing single- or double-curvature under uniaxial or biaxial bending) is presented in a companion paper. The columns that can be analyzed with this method include those with solid and hollow rectangular, circular...

  18. Effect of light sources and curing mode techniques on sorption, solubility and biaxial flexural strength of a composite resin

    Andreia Assis Carvalho; Francine do Couto Lima Moreira; Rodrigo Borges Fonseca; Carlos José Soares; Eduardo Batista Franco; João Batista de Souza; Lawrence Gonzaga Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Adequate polymerization plays an important role on the longevity of the composite resin restorations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing units, curing mode techniques and storage media on sorption, solubility and biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of a composite resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and forty specimens were made of one composite resin (Esthet-X) in a stainless steel mold (2 mm x 8 mm Ø), and divided into 24 groups (n=10) established a...

  19. Catalytic surface modification of roll-milled poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) biaxially stretched to ultra-thin dimension

    Foo, H.L. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Bionic Materials Technology Group, Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Taniguchi, A. [Bionic Materials Technology Group, Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Yu, H. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Okano, T. [Bionic Materials Technology Group, Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Tokyo Women' s Medical University (Japan); Teoh, S.H. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)]. E-mail: mpetsh@nus.edu.sg

    2007-03-15

    A novel roll-milling polymer processing technique along with biaxial stretching was used to fabricate 10 {mu}m thick poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) films. A less invasive collagen surface modification was used, involving a reaction between corona-preactivated membranes and ferrous-containing acrylic acid solution at the low temperature of 42 {sup o}C. Successful modified films were characterized by Toluidine Blue O assay and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells also showed both higher proliferation rate and differentiated cobblestone morphology on these collagen-immobilized substrates.

  20. Polarization properties of lasing near an optical axis in the KGd(WO4)2:Nd biaxial crystal

    Fluorescence and stimulated emission were obtained for propagation directions in the vicinity of the optical axis from the biaxial Nd-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal. We visualized the peculiar role of the optical axis by fluorescence conoscopy. A fourth spectroscopic parameter due to the monoclinic symmetry was exhibited. Intra-laser-cavity conoscopy was performed in conjunction with the lasing in order to indicate the role of the elliptical modes. The lasing efficiency was found to be in agreement with the relative intensity of the left and right circular polarized components of the fluorescence near the optical axis. (letter)

  1. Residual stress and fracture of laminated ceramic membranes

    Bilayer laminated ceramic membranes were produced comprising a layer of gadolinia-doped ceria (CGO) 180 microm thick and a layer of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) 5 microm thick. The residual stresses in the laminates at room temperature were estimated from their curvature and the elastic constants of the individual layers. The fracture of the laminates was studied in biaxial flexure at 35 and 800 C. The mean failure stress in the CGO in the laminates was much greater than in unlaminated CGO. This is due partly to an improved microstructure from the lamination process and partly to the restraint of the compressively stressed YSZ. The combined effects of higher failure stress and residual stresses lead to the laminated membranes having higher apparent strength than single layer CGO membranes by factors of between 1.75 and 4.06

  2. Development of a methodology for the assessment of shallow-flaw fracture in nuclear reactor pressure vessels: Generation of biaxial shallow-flaw fracture toughness data

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow-surface flaws. Shallow-flaw fracture toughness of RPV material has been shown to be higher than that for deep flaws, because of the relaxation of crack-tip constraint. This report describes the preliminary test results for a series of cruciform specimens with a uniform depth surface flaw. These specimens are all of the same size with the same depth flaw. Temperature and biaxial load ratio are the independent variables. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading could have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. Through that temperature range, the effect of full biaxial (1:1) loading on uniaxial, shallow-flaw toughness varied from no effect near the lower shelf to a reduction of approximately 58% at higher temperatures

  3. Status of the MeLoDIE Experiment, an Advanced Device for Online Biaxial Study of the Irradiation Creep of LWR Cladding

    As a prototype of future instrumented material experiments in the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), the CEA in collaboration with VTT is in the process of starting the MeLoDIE experiment in the OSIRIS reactor in about a year. MeLoDIE is an initiative to go beyond the 'cook and look' concept, often used for past material experiments in MTRs. Its innovative sample holder aims to an online measurement of the biaxial creep of a LWR cladding sample under twice the typical fast neutron flux in LWRs. It is designed to perform an online-controlled biaxial loading of the sample and an online biaxial measurement of its deformation with sensors co-designed with IFE Halden. Technical challenge is to perform reliably accurate measurements under the high nuclear heat load of in-core locations while keeping within their tight space and safety constraints. (author)

  4. Influence of dipole-dipole correlations on the stability of the biaxial nematic phase in the model bent-core liquid crystal

    A molecular theory of biaxial nematic ordering in the system of bent-core molecules has been developed in the two-particle cluster approximation which enables one to take into account short-range polar correlations determined by both electrostatic dipole-dipole interaction and polar molecular shape. All orientational order parameters and short-range correlation functions are calculated numerically as functions of temperature in the uniaxial and in the biaxial nematic phases, and the results are compared with the ones obtained in the mean-field approximation and in the cluster approximation but without taking into consideration the dipole-dipole interaction. It is shown that short-range polar correlations and, in particular, the dipole-dipole correlations dramatically increase the temperature of the transition into the biaxial nematic phase and enhancing its stability range. The results are also very sensitive to the value of the opening angle of a model bent-core molecule. (fast track communication)

  5. Enhanced carrier mobility and direct tunneling probability of biaxially strained Ge1-xSnx alloys for field-effect transistors applications

    Liu, Lei; Liang, Renrong; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jun

    2015-05-01

    The carrier transport and tunneling capabilities of biaxially strained Ge1-xSnx alloys with (001), (110), and (111) orientations were comprehensively investigated and compared. The electron band structures of biaxially strained Ge1-xSnx alloys were calculated by the nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method and the modified virtual crystal approximation was adopted in the calculation. The electron and hole effective masses at the band edges were extracted using a parabolic line fit. It is shown that the applied biaxial strain and the high Sn composition are both helpful for the reduction of carrier effective masses, which leads to the enhanced carrier mobility and the boosted direct band-to-band-tunneling probability. Furthermore, the strain induced valance band splitting reduces the hole interband scattering, and the splitting also results in the significantly enhanced direct tunneling rate along the out-of-plane direction compared with that along the in-plane direction. The biaxially strained (111) Ge1-xSnx alloys exhibit the smallest band gaps compared with (001) and (110) orientations, leading to the highest in-plane and out-of-plane direct tunneling probabilities. The small effective masses on (110) and (111) planes in some strained conditions also contribute to the enhanced carrier mobility and tunneling probability. Therefore, the biaxially strained (110) and (111) Ge1-xSnx alloys have the potential to outperform the corresponding (001) Ge1-xSnx devices. It is important to optimize the applied biaxial strain, the Sn composition, and the substrate orientation for the design of high performance Ge1-xSnx field-effect transistors.

  6. Enhanced carrier mobility and direct tunneling probability of biaxially strained Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} alloys for field-effect transistors applications

    Liu, Lei; Liang, Renrong, E-mail: liangrr@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: junxu@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jun, E-mail: liangrr@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: junxu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-14

    The carrier transport and tunneling capabilities of biaxially strained Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} alloys with (001), (110), and (111) orientations were comprehensively investigated and compared. The electron band structures of biaxially strained Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} alloys were calculated by the nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method and the modified virtual crystal approximation was adopted in the calculation. The electron and hole effective masses at the band edges were extracted using a parabolic line fit. It is shown that the applied biaxial strain and the high Sn composition are both helpful for the reduction of carrier effective masses, which leads to the enhanced carrier mobility and the boosted direct band-to-band-tunneling probability. Furthermore, the strain induced valance band splitting reduces the hole interband scattering, and the splitting also results in the significantly enhanced direct tunneling rate along the out-of-plane direction compared with that along the in-plane direction. The biaxially strained (111) Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} alloys exhibit the smallest band gaps compared with (001) and (110) orientations, leading to the highest in-plane and out-of-plane direct tunneling probabilities. The small effective masses on (110) and (111) planes in some strained conditions also contribute to the enhanced carrier mobility and tunneling probability. Therefore, the biaxially strained (110) and (111) Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} alloys have the potential to outperform the corresponding (001) Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} devices. It is important to optimize the applied biaxial strain, the Sn composition, and the substrate orientation for the design of high performance Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} field-effect transistors.

  7. Texture mechanisms and microstructure of biaxial thin films grown by oblique angle deposition

    Shetty, A.R.; Karimi, A. [Institut de Physique de la Matiere Condensee (IPMC), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-08-15

    In order to understand the texture formation mechanism in thin films grown under oblique angle deposition (OAD), TiAlN films were deposited at room temperature (RT) under various incident angles. We show that both in-plane and out-of-plane crystallographic orientations respond strongly to the deposition angle. For {alpha} = 0 , the pole figures show a (111) and (200) mixed out-of-plane orientation with random in-plane alignment. In contrast, under OAD, inclined textures are observed with the (111) direction moving toward the incident flux direction and the (200) moving away, showing substantial in-plane alignment. This observation suggests that TiAlN crystals prefer to grow with the (200) direction perpendicular to the substrate while maintaining the minimization of the surface free energy by maximizing the (111) surface area toward the incident flux. The in-plane texture, which is randomly oriented at normal incidence, gives rise to two preferred orientations under oblique angles - one along the direction of flux and other away from the deposition source. The biaxial texture results from a competition among texture mechanism related to surface mobilities of adatoms, geometrical and directional effects. The surface and cross-section of the films were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OAD films develop a kind of smooth tiles of a roof structure, with no faceted crystallites. The columns of these films were tilted toward the direction of incident flux. The dependence of (111) texture tilt angle and column angle {beta} on the incidence flux angle {alpha} is evaluated using four well-known models. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study reveals a voided, intercolumnar structure with oblique growth toward the flux direction. The selected area diffraction pattern (SAED) pattern supports the pole figure observations. Measurements of the nanoindentation test were performed in order to discuss the change of mechanical properties as a function of incident flux angle. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Role of biaxial strain and microscopic ordering for structural and electronic properties of InxGa1 -xN

    Cui, Ying; Lee, Sangheon; Freysoldt, Christoph; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    The structural and electronic properties of InxGa1 -xN alloys are studied as a function of c -plane biaxial strain and In ordering by density functional theory with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional. A nonlinear variation of the c lattice parameter with In content is observed in biaxial strain and should be taken into account when deducing In content from interplanar distances. From compressive to tensile strain, the character of the top valence-band state changes, leading to a nonlinear variation of the band gap in InxGa1 -xN . Interestingly, the well-known bowing of the InxGa1 -xN band gap is largely removed for alloys grown strictly coherently on GaN, while the actual values for band gaps at x <0.33 are hardly affected by strain. Ordering plays a minor role for lattice constants but may induce changes of the band gap up to 0.15 eV.

  9. Refractive index measurements of films with biaxial symmetry. 1. Determination of complex refractive indices using polarized reflectance/transmittance ratio.

    Diao, Jie; Hess, Dennis W

    2005-07-01

    A new method to extract complex refractive indices of films with biaxial symmetry from polarized transmission and reflection spectra is described. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the reflectance/transmittance ratio (R/T ratio) of two films of different thicknesses but with the same optical anisotropy is a simple function of the refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k). For films with biaxial symmetry, components of n and k on symmetric axes can be extracted from either s- or p-polarized R/T ratios if the film thickness values are known. The R/T ratio method can generate n and k spectra within a particular wavelength range without assuming a specific relationship among n, k, and wavelength, which is an advantage over many currently available techniques. The R/T ratio method is used to extract the anisotropic complex refractive indices of a polyimide film with known uniaxial symmetry. The resultant n and k spectra compare well with simulations based on known n and k values. The accuracy of n and k spectra is affected mostly by data error in reflection and transmission spectra collection, thickness variation across sample films, and error in sample alignment. PMID:16852588

  10. Synthesis, structuring and characterization of rare earth oxide thin films: Modeling of the effects of stress and defects on the phase stability

    This work studies the effects of the deposition parameters on the microstructure and the related residual stress in a rare earth oxide thin film. This study is focused on the yttrium sesquioxide (Y2O3) thin films deposited on Si (100) substrates using the ion beam sputtering technique. This technique allows the control of the microstructure and the related residual stress in the thin films by monitoring the energy of the argon beam used in the deposition process. Measurements of the stresses within the oxide layer were performed by the X-ray diffraction-sin2Ψ method. The results show that the classic model of a pure biaxial in-plane model of stress, generally proposed in thin films, is not satisfying. A model that includes a hydrostatic stress due to the crystalline defects generated during the deposition process and a biaxial stress called a fixation stress, gives a good agreement with the experimental results. This modeling of the residual stress, based on nanometer-scale inclusions (point, extended defects) inducing a hydrostatic stress field, leads to a quantitative analysis of the nature and the concentration of the defects. This work shows results that establish a relationship between residual stress, defects and non-equilibrium phase stabilization during growth. - Highlights: • Microstructure of Y2O3 thin films • Measurements of residual stresses in the thin films • Modeling of a triaxial residual stress state • Stress-induced stabilization of non-equilibrium phase

  11. a Prism Coupling Study of Optical Anisotropy in Polyimide Including Moisture, Stress, and Thickness Effects.

    Noe, Susan Cunningham

    The study focuses on polymer systems which are currently used in microelectronics, particularly the commercially available polyimides: BTDA-ODA/MPDA (made from benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and the diamines oxydianiline and meta-phenylene diamine); PMDA-ODA (made from pyromellitic dianhydride and oxydianiline); and BPDA-PDA (made from biphenyl dianhydride and para-phenylene diamine). The non-destructive planar optical waveguiding technique of prism coupling is used to measure the film thickness and the in-plane (nTE) and out-of-plane (nTM) refractive indices at a wavelength of 0.63 mu m (HeNe laser). The film birefringence is calculated as the difference between nTE and nTM. Birefringence values confirm that the polymer chains in the solvent-cast films are preferentially oriented in plane, leading to a transverse isotropic film geometry. Film birefringence is shown to correlate qualitatively with the rigid-rod nature of the polyimide. A suspended membrane load-deflection technique is used to measure the in-plane biaxial stress and the in-plane biaxial modulus of the films. Film properties are measured on adhered films, which are in a state of residual stress, free films, which are in a zero-stress state, and on films which are biaxially stretched to an intermediate stress state. Use of the empirical model allows data taken on adhered films, at several humidities, to be analyzed to extract values of zero-stress birefringence and stress -optic coefficient. The extrapolated zero-stress birefringence is confirmed with free film measurements, and the stress -optic coefficient is confirmed with stretched film measurements. Varying the solution dilution and spin speed, to obtain different thickness films, is found to affect the film properties, including birefringence, in-plane coefficient of thermal expansion, and residual biaxial stress, in a way that is correlated with film thickness. Modelling shows that a substrate-mediated through-thickness gradient in film properties could account for the experimentally observed behavior. Optical and mechanical measurements are also made to study the effect of extended cure, simulating re-work, on the polyimide BTDA-ODA/MPDA. The adhered film birefringence is found to increase with extended cure, due to stress and orientation changes in the films. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.) (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  12. Property development for biaxial drawing of ethylene-tetrafluoroehtylene copolymer films and resultant fractural behavior analyzed by in situ X-ray measurements.

    Uehara, Hiroki; Ono, Yasunori; Kakiage, Masaki; Sakamura, Takumi; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Yukawa, Yasumasa; Higuchi, Yoshiaki; Kamiya, Hiroki; Yamanobe, Takeshi

    2015-03-19

    The property development of the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE) membrane induced by simultaneous biaxial drawing was investigated. Commonly, tensile strength can be increased by drawing; conversely, tear resistance decreases. In this study, the balance between tensile strength and tear resistance for the resultant ETFE membrane was optimized achieved by a combination of lamination of low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) layers and subsequent biaxial drawing. The structural factor determining tear resistance of these biaxially drawn membranes was determined based on in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurement during tensile deformation simulating tearing tests. Lozenge shaped scattering, which indicated inclined lamellae, was observed during such tensile deformation of the resultant membranes. Remarkably, this inclined lamellar structure was observed for the pure LMW membrane; however, it also appeared at the interface between LMW and HMW layers within biaxially drawn membranes. For the membrane exhibiting the highest tearing strength, the fraction of such inclined lamella increased up to the critical strain corresponding to the actual sample breaking. These results confirm that the inclined lamellar structure absorbed strain during membrane tearing. PMID:25697812

  13. First- and second-order phase transitions between quantum and classical regimes for the escape rate of a biaxial spin system

    Kim, G H

    1999-01-01

    The particle Hamiltonian for a biaxial spin system with a transverse or longitudinal magnetic field is investigated. We apply the Hamiltonian to the quantum-classical escape rate transition in small magnets. It is found that the phase boundary separating the first- and second-order transition is greatly influenced by the transverse anisotropy constant as well as the external magnetic field.

  14. Fracture of thin-walled bodies with crack under biaxial loading

    Bastun, V. N.

    1994-07-01

    The influence of the load applied parallel to the crack on the fracture stress oriented perpendicular to the crack in thin-walled circular cylindrical shells with a longitudinal through slot has been investigated. The shells, made from titanium alloys of two brands and low-carbon steel, were subjected to static and cyclic loading by axial force and internal pressure at their various ratios. It is shown that the longitudinal tensile load in definite limits causes an increase of fracture stress and durability along with a decrease of the crack growth rate. The opposite result is obtained when the applied load is compressive. Experimental values of fracture stresses are compared with those calculated under the assumption that the crack surface energy density or the critical value of the J-integral is independent of the stress state mode.

  15. Creep strength variation with applied stress on stress-relieved and recrystallized Zry-4 cladding

    The bi-axial tube creep test was carried out using the stress-relieved and fully recrystallized low tin Zry-4 materials under the the temperature range of 360-400 .deg. C and applied hoop stress of 90-150MPa. The diametral creep strength of Rx tube was better than the SR tube at the 90 and 120MPa stress conditions, while the trend was reversed when the stress was applied at 150MPa. The stress exponents of SR and Rx tubes showed stress and temperature dependency and these values were 3-5 and 4.5-7, respectively. The creep activation energies of SR and Rx tubes also showed stress dependency, and these were determined as 45-65kcal/mole and 50-70kcal/mole, respectively. The deformed structure of SR tube was maintained in the crept specimens, and well developed dislocation cells and networks were observed both in the SR and Rx materials. To explain the stress dependency of SR and Rx tubes, the concept of obstacle density distribution with obstacle strength was proposed. As a result, the obstacle density of SR tube would be decreased slowly, whilst that of Rx tube decreased rapidly with obstacle strength increase

  16. Analysis of rock stress and rock stress measurements with application to Aespoe HRL

    The process of choosing a site for a nuclear waste repository means that many aspects have to be taken into consideration. One of these is that the repository has to be mechanically stable for a long time. The mechanical stability of the rock is very difficult to determine. One of several factors, which determine the mechanical stability, is the virgin state of stress. The thesis project consists of two parts. In the first part the state of stress at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory had to be defined. This was done based on earlier rock stress measurements conducted during the years 1988 to 1997. Two different measurement techniques have been used, hydraulic fracturing and overcoring. During the overcoring two types of cells have been used, CSIRO HI-cell and a cell developed by the Swedish State Power Board (SSPB). In the second part of the project, investigation of the correlation between the stress and geological structures are made using numerical modelling tools such as FLAC, UDEC and 3DEC. The rock stress measurements using the hydraulic fracturing gave orientations of the horizontal stress that coincide with earlier hydraulic fracturing measurements conducted in Scandinavia. The magnitudes of rock stresses are slightly lower than the earlier reported stress magnitudes for the Scandinavian part of the earth crust. The rock stresses obtained from the overcoring resulted in higher stresses than what was predicted by the hydraulic fracturing measurements. However, the orientation of the maximum horizontal stresses coincides well between the two techniques. The orientation is also more or less constant with respect to increasing depth. The state of stress at Aespoe is defined by using the results from the hydraulic fracturing and the measurements conducted by SSPB-cell. The measurements from the SSPB-cell are used since these have a Poisson's ratio that corresponds well with the uniaxial tests of rock samples and since the measurements have been done at a distance from the opening where no influence from the openings can be expected. Since the magnitudes of the rock stresses differ between overcoring and hydraulic fracturing, some efforts have been made to find possible causes for this. The rock stresses when conducting overcoring gave higher values overall, which could be explained by high Poisson's ratios and a minor influence from the opening as the stress measurements might have been done in the disturbed zone. The high Poisson's ratio may depend on the stress-induced microcracks, which might be initiated during the overcoring of the cell, during the drilling of the pilot borehole, in which the cell is installed, and during biaxial testing. Statistical analysis showed that there is significant differences between the mean values of Poisson's ratio obtained from biaxial tests of cores containing the CSIRO HI-cell and the SSPB-cell. Poisson's ratio is about 0.34 for CSIRO HI-cell while the SSPB-cell gave a Poisson's ratio of 0.23. The analysis also showed that Young's modulus does not differ between the techniques. The modelling in FLAC was made to simulate the overcoring and biaxial testing. The result show that it is possible to obtain extensional strain in the core during overcoring if the major principal stress is perpendicular to the borehole axis. This may lead to microcracking occurring in the core causing high Poisson's ratio, which results in higher stresses. It can also be seen from the simulation of the biaxial testing that extensional strain is achieved even if the hollow core is not damaged during overcoring. The analyses using UDEC was made to study the effect of different properties of a discontinuity, such as the dip angle, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, density and the normal and shear stiffness. The analyses showed that an inclined discontinuity affects the stresses especially if sliding occurs. So, the dip angle does not solely, determine the amount of disturbance of the state of stress around a discontinuity. If slip will occur or not depends, thus, on a combination of dip angle, friction angle and the far field state of stress. A dip angle of 30 degrees affected the major principal stress most, while the minor principal stress is most affected by a dip angle of 45 degrees, for a friction angle of 10 degrees. The results from the simulation of a thick zone showed that the elastic properties of the zone material mainly affect the stresses within the zone. However, higher values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio in the zone than in the side rock resulted in higher stresses within the zone than outside. The orientation of the major principal stress becomes more perpendicular to the zone. The 3-dimensional analyses using 3DEC was made in order to investigate if the stresses at Aespoe could be correlated with the major geological structures. The results show that the increase in the horizontal stress seen both in KAS02 and KAS03 is obtained in the model when using a bilinear stress state that is based on the measurements performed at Aespoe. However, a satisfying coincidence is not obtained with the measured stresses in KAS02, KAS03, KAS05 and KZXSD8HL, which were the boreholes used as reference boreholes. One of the reasons for the disagreement may mainly be that the discontinuities used in the 3DEC model are more or less vertical. The least dip angle used is 60 degrees. Another reason may be that the measured stresses are influenced by far more parameters than are used in the 3DEC-model, such as different rock types, smaller discontinuities and mineral grains

  17. Uniaxial and biaxial ratchetting study of SA333 Gr.6 steel at room temperature

    The phenomenon of ratchetting is defined as constant accumulation of plastic strain or deformation under combined steady state and cyclic loading. It can reduce the fatigue life or can cause failure of piping components or systems subjected to seismic or other cyclic loads. The uniaxial ratchetting characteristics of SA333 Gr.6 steel have been investigated at room temperature in the present paper. The specimens were subjected to cyclic axial stress with a constant mean stress of 200 MPa and a varying amplitude stress of 149, 174, 199 and 224 MPa. Tests were also performed on 203.2 mm, Sch 80, SA333 Gr. 6 carbon steel straight pipe. The pipe was subjected to a constant internal pressure of 18 MPa and a cyclic bending load. The effects of amplitude of load on the rate of ratchetting have also been investigated in the present paper. The uniaxial experiments showed that specimens exhibited shakedown at low stress amplitude after some strain accumulation. However, specimens experienced continuous ratchetting at higher stress amplitudes with no shakedown before failure. Ovalization of the pipe cross-section was observed when the pipe was subjected to constant internal pressure and cyclic point load. Local bulging was observed at higher loading. The pipe did not show any shakedown behaviour for the given cycles of loading and exhibited continuous ratchetting under the varying amplitude loading

  18. Domain Walls and Anchoring Transitions Mimicking Nematic Biaxiality in the Oxadiazole Bent-Core Liquid Crystal C7

    Kim, Young-ki; Xiang, Jie; Shin, Sung-Tae; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the origin of secondary disclinations that were recently described as a new evidence of a biaxial nematic phase in an oxadiazole bent-core thermotropic liquid crystal C7. With an assortment of optical techniques such as polarizing optical microscopy, LC PolScope, and fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy, we demonstrate that the secondary disclinations represent non-singular domain walls formed in an uniaxial nematic during the surface anchoring transition, in which surface orientation of the director changes from tangential (parallel to the bounding plates) to tilted. Each domain wall separates two regions with the director tilted in opposite azimuthal directions. At the centre of the wall, the director remains parallel to the bonding plates. The domain walls can be easily removed by applying a modest electric field. The anchoring transition is explained by the balance of (a) the intrinsic perpendicular surface anchoring produced by the polyimide aligning layer and (b) tangential alignme...

  19. Impact of biaxial compressive strain on the heterostructures of paraelectrics KTaO3 and SrTiO3

    Yi Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We have performed density functional theory calculations to explore the impact of biaxial compressive strain on the heterostructures of paraelectrics KTaO3 and SrTiO3. We find that the strain induces strong ferroelectric distortion in KTaO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures and it stabilizes the heterostructures in ferroelectric states.The strain influences the distribution of doped holes and leads to the localization of holes in TiO2 layer. It is very interesting that ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism simultaneously present in the strained heterostructures formed by the paraelectrics KTaO3 and SrTiO3. The reversal of ferroelectric polarization changes the interface magnetization and thus results in magnetoelectric coupling effect in the heterostructures.

  20. Self-field ac losses in biaxially aligned Y endash Ba endash Cu endash O tape conductors

    Self-field ac losses were measured by the conventional ac four-probe method in biaxially aligned Y endash Ba endash Cu endash O tapes using polycrystalline Hastelloy tapes with textured yttria-stabilized-zirconia buffer layers. The ac losses increased in proportion to the fourth power of transport current in the high Jc sample, and agreed well with Norris close-quote equation for thin strip conductors. However, the low Jc sample had rather higher losses than Norris close-quote prediction, suggesting excessive magnetic flux penetration caused by percolated current paths. The results confirmed Norris close-quote prediction of the low ac losses for thin strip conductors, and indicated the importance of removing percolated structures of current paths to avoid higher ac losses than the theoretical predictions based on uniform conductors. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. Childhood Stress

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  2. Influence of reversible epitactical stress on the electronic properties of thin superconducting films

    In this thesis new stress techniques are applied on thin superconducting (La,Sr)2CuO4 and BaFe1.8Co0.2As2 films. At one hand piezoelectric substrates are applied, which make a biaxial stress of the thin film deposed there possible, whereby the lattice parameters of the substrate are altered by an electric field. At the other hand on the base of flexible substrates by means of a bending experiment a uniaxial lattice deformation of thin film is realized.

  3. Failure mechanics of fiber composite notched charpy specimens. [stress analysis

    Chamis, C. C.

    1976-01-01

    A finite element stress analysis was performed to determine the stress variation in the vicinity of the notch and far field of fiber composites Charpy specimens (ASTM Standard). NASTRAN was used for the finite element analysis assuming linear behavior and equivalent static load. The unidirectional composites investigated ranged from Thornel 75 Epoxy to S-Glass/Epoxy with the fiber direction parallel to the long dimension of the specimen. The results indicate a biaxial stress state exists in (1) the notch vicinity which is dominated by transverse tensile and interlaminar shear and (2) near the load application point which is dominated by transverse compression and interlaminar shear. The results also lead to the postulation of hypotheses for the predominant failure modes, the fracture initiation, and the fracture process. Finally, the results indicate that the notched Charpy test specimen is not suitable for assessing the impact resistance of nonmetallic fiber composites directly.

  4. Mechanics of Stabbing: Biaxial Measurement of Knife Stab Penetration of Skin Simulant

    Gilchrist, Michael; Keenan, Stephen; Curtis, Michael; Cassidy, Mary; Byrne, Greg; Destrade, Michel

    2008-01-01

    In medicolegal situations, the consequences of a stabbing incident are described in terms that are qualitative without being quantitative. Here, the mechanical variables involved in knife-tissue penetration events are used to determine the parameters needed to be controlled in a measurement device. They include knife geometry, in-plane mechanical stress state of skin, angle and speed of knife penetration, and underlying fascia. Four household knives with different geometries were used. Synthe...

  5. Crack growth behavior of aluminum alloy 6061 T651 under uniaxial and biaxial planar testing condition

    S. Henkel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The crack growth behavior of the aluminum alloy 6061 T651 was investigated using cruciform specimens with a measurement area of 120 x 120 x 2 mm3 with two center crack configurations of the starting notch parallel to one of the loading axes and under an angle of 45, respectively. For the case with crack direction in one of the loading axes the load ratio R = ?min / ?max as well as the force parallel to the crack direction (resulting in different T-stresses were changed. Crack growth rate was studied under varying T-stress. Also the retardation after single overloads was determined for R = 0.1, R = 0.5 and R = 0.8. As a result a change in T-stress does not significantly affect crack growth rate on high R ratios (R = 0.5 for constant ?F loading. In case of lower R-ratios (R = 0.1 crack growth retardation was observed at presence of a static tensile load parallel to the crack growth direction due to higher influence of crack closure. Furthermore, such tensile load results in longer retardation periods after applying an overload at R = 0.1. Less pronounced overload retardation can be assumed with tensile force FX for R = 0.8 and 1.3 times overloads. Non proportional loading with a phase shift in time between the two axes of 45 and 90 results in a mixed mode situation (mode I / mode II at the crack tip of a crack which is orientated under 45 to the loading axes. Mode I and mode II fractions change during every cycle. A phase change of 45 did not change crack growth significantly compared with proportional load. Crack branching occurred when changing from proportional loading to non-proportional 90 phase shifted loading. The two crack tips of the center crack under 45 divided in 4 crack tips under approximately 90 to the loading axes which were simultaneous propagating for more than 10 mm. Finally, two crack tips propagated faster than the remaining two. The stress intensity factors KI and KII as well as the T-stress where calculated by FEA (ABAQUS. For the 45 crack orientation and the non-proportional load case with 90 phase shift linear elastic FEA calculations show that there are time dependent rotating principal stress axes on the crack tip during one cycle. In the unnotched (uncracked specimen there are fixed principal stress axes also in the phase shifted loading case. The configuration with 4 cracks has a significant higher ?KI than the configuration with two crack tips while ?KII is significantly lower. In addition uniaxial crack growth measurements were performed on SENB specimen in the size of 10 x 20 x 100 mm3 covering the threshold and Paris-region for loading ratios R = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8.

  6. Effect of biaxial strain and external electric field on electronic properties of MoS2 monolayer: A first-principle study

    Nguyen, Chuong V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, making use of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we systematically investigate the effect of biaxial strain engineering and external electric field applied perpendicular to the layers on the band gaps and electronic properties of monolayer MoS2. The direct-to-indirect band gaps and semiconductor-to-metal transition are observed in monolayer MoS2 when strain and electric field are applied in our calculation. We show that when the biaxial strain and external electric field are introduced, the electronic properties including band gaps of monolayer MoS2 can be reduced to zero. Our results provide many useful insights for the wide applications of monolayer MoS2 in electronics and optoelectronics.

  7. Spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion for Bessel beams propagating along the optical axes of homogeneous uniaxial and biaxial crystals

    A study is made of the dynamics of the spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion for zero-order and high order circularly polarized Bessel beams propagating along the optical axes of homogeneous uniaxial and biaxial crystals. Implementation of Bessel beams and a slab of homogeneous uniaxial crystal allow one to realize a highly efficient (about 100%) optical process in which the direct conversion of the optical angular momentum from the spin form to the orbital form takes place. It is shown that only in a biaxial crystal is there freedom from compensation of spin and orbital angular momentum exchanges with matter and, as a result, the optical torque emerges, which influences the plate. (paper)

  8. Nonorthogonal [Formula: see text] tight-binding parameterization of single-layer phosphorene under biaxial strain and application to FETs.

    Lee, Jaehyun; Seo, Jumbeom; Oh, Jung Hyun; Shin, Mincheol

    2016-06-17

    This paper presents a new set of [Formula: see text] tight-binding (TB) parameters for single-layer phosphorene within the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) scheme. For this, we develop the numerical algorithm to find the NRL TB parameters fitted to ab initio results. It is shown that the proposed NRL TB parameters successfully reproduce the band structure of a single-layer phosphorene, and even under biaxial or uniaxial strain, they appropriately describe the effects, such as modification of anisotropic effective masses and band gap. Via the top-of-the-barrier model, we also investigate the performance of single-layer phosphorene FETs under biaxial strain with the NRL TB Hamiltonian and find that the results are well in accordance with those of previous studies. PMID:27159924

  9. Polarization Manipulation via Orientation Control in Polycrystalline BiFeO3 Thin Films on Biaxially Textured, Flexible Metallic Tapes

    Shin, Junsoo [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Heatherly Jr, Lee [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    (111)-, (101)-, and (001)-oriented polycrystalline BiFeO3 films were fabricated on rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) with appropriate, buffer layer engineering of heteroepitaxially grown buffer multilayers on RABiTS. The crystallographic orientation and polarization direction were confirmed using X-ray diffraction and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), respectively. All the films exhibited excellent ferroelectric properties. Switching spectroscopy PFM demonstrated that the switching polarization in (111)-oriented polycrystalline BiFeO3 films is higher than (101) or (001) oriented films. These high-quality, BiFeO3 films on low-cost, flexible, biaxially textured metallic tapes with controllable orientation and polarization are attractive for application in flexible ferroelectric devices.

  10. The influence of external magnetic fields on phase states and spectra of coupled magnetoelastic waves in a biaxial non-Heisenberg ferromagnetic

    The spectra of coupled magnetoelastic waves of a biaxial non-Heisenberg ferromagnetic in an external magnetic field have been investigated. It is shown that in such systems there are phase transitions taking place through the changing of the magnitude of the magnetization vector. However, these transitions run through a weak quasiphonon mode. The phase diagrams of the system are constructed for different relations between material constants

  11. Manage Stress

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... of 9 sections The Basics: Benefits of Lower Stress What are the benefits of managing stress? Over ...

  12. Residual stress in AlN films grown on sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Rong, Xin; Wang, Xinqiang; Chen, Guang; Pan, Jianhai; Wang, Ping; Liu, Huapeng; Xu, Fujun; Tan, Pingheng; Shen, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Residual stress in AlN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been studied by Raman scattering spectroscopy. A strain-free Raman frequency and a biaxial stress coefficient for E2(high) mode are experimentally determined to be 657.8 ± 0.3 cm-1 and 2.4 ± 0.2 cm-1 / GPa , respectively. By using these parameters, the residual stress of a series of AlN layers grown under different buffer layer conditions has been investigated. The residual compressive stress is found to be obviously decreased by increasing the Al/N beam flux ratio of the buffer layer, indicating the generation of tensile stress due to stronger coalescence of AlN grains, as also confirmed by the in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) monitoring observation. The stronger coalescence does lead to improved quality of AlN films as expected.

  13. Measuring the interface stress: Silver/nickel interfaces

    Interface stress is a surface thermodynamics quantity associated with the reversible work of elastically straining an internal solid interface. In a multilayered thin film, the combined effect of the interface stress of each interface results in an in-plane biaxial volume stress acting within the layers of the film that is inversely proportional to the bilayer thickness. We calculated the interface stress of an interface between {111} textured Ag and Ni on the basis of direct measurements of the dependence of the in-plane elastic strains on the bilayer thickness. The strains were obtained using transmission x-ray diffraction. Unlike previous studies of this type, we used freestanding films so that there was no need to correct for intrinsic stresses resulting from forces applied by the substrate that can lead to large uncertainties of the calculated interface stress value. Based on the lattice parameters of the bulk, pure elements, an interface stress of -2.020.26 N/m was calculated using the x-ray diffraction results from films with bilayer thicknesses greater than 5 nm. This value is somewhat smaller than previous measurements obtained from as-deposited films supported by substrates. For smaller bilayer thicknesses the apparent interface stress becomes smaller in magnitude, possibly due to a loss of layering in the specimens. (c) 1999 Materials Research Society

  14. Effect of Ceramic Surface Treatments After Machine Grinding on the Biaxial Flexural Strength of Different CAD/CAM Dental Ceramics

    Bagheri, Hossein; Aghajani, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different ceramic surface treatments after machining grinding on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of machinable dental ceramics with different crystalline phases. Materials and Methods: Disk-shape specimens (10mm in diameter and 1.3mm in thickness) of machinable ceramic cores (two silica-based and one zirconia-based ceramics) were prepared. Each type of the ceramic surfaces was then randomly treated (n=15) with different treatments as follows: 1) machined finish as control, 2) machined finish and sandblasting with alumina, and 3) machined finish and hydrofluoric acid etching for the leucite and lithium disilicate-based ceramics, and for the zirconia; 1) machined finish and post-sintered as control, 2) machined finish, post-sintered, and sandblasting, and 3) machined finish, post-sintered, and Nd;YAG laser irradiation. The BFS were measured in a universal testing machine. Data based were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparisons post-hoc test (α=0.05). Results: The mean BFS of machined finish only surfaces for leucite ceramic was significantly higher than that of sandblasted (P=0.001) and acid etched surfaces (P=0.005). A significantly lower BFS was found after sandblasting for lithium disilicate compared with that of other groups (Plaser irradiation (Plaser irradiation may lead to substantial strength degradation of zirconia. PMID:27148372

  15. Strain mapping near a triple junction in strained Ni-based alloy using EBSD and biaxial nanogauges

    Clair, A. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Foucault, M.; Calonne, O. [Areva ANP, Centre Technique Departement Corrosion-Chimie, 30 Bd de l' industrie, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Lacroute, Y.; Markey, L.; Salazar, M.; Vignal, V. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Finot, E., E-mail: Eric.Finot@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Surface strains measured using nanogauge were compared to the texture obtained by EBSD. > Statistics of the principal strain discern the grains according to the Schmid factor. > Strain hotspots were localized near a triple junction of alloy 600 under tensile loading. > Asymetrical profile of the GB strains is a criterion for surface cracking initiation. - Abstract: A key element for analyzing the crack initiation in strained polycrystalline alloys is the local quantification of the surface strain distribution according to the grain texture. Using electron backscattered diffraction, the local microstructure was determined to both localize a triple junction and deduce the local Schmid factors. Kernel average misorientation (KAM) was also used to map the areas of defect concentration. The maximum principal strain and the in-plane shear strain were quantified using the biaxial nanogauge. Distortions of the array of nanodots used as spot markers were analyzed near the triple junction. The crystallographic orientation and the surface strain were then investigated both statistically for each grain and locally at the grain boundaries. The superimposition of microstructure and strain maps allows the high strain gradient (reaching 3-fold the applied strain) to be localized at preferential grain boundaries near the triple junction. The Schmid factors and the KAM were compared to the maximum principal strain and the in-plane shear strain respectively. The polycrystalline deformation was attributable first to the rotation of some grains, followed by the elongation of all grains along their preferential activated slip systems.

  16. A Study in Three-Dimensional Chaotic Dynamics: Granular Flow and Transport in a Bi-Axial Spherical Tumbler

    Christov, Ivan C; Ottino, Julio M; Sturman, Rob

    2014-01-01

    We study 3D chaotic dynamics through an analysis of transport in a granular flow in a half-full spherical tumbler rotated sequentially about two orthogonal axes (a bi-axial "blinking" tumbler). The flow is essentially quasi-2D in any vertical slice of the sphere during rotation about a single axis, and we provide an explicit exact solution to the model in this case. Hence, the cross-sectional flow can be represented by a twist map, allowing us to express the 3D flow as a linked twist map (LTM). We prove that if the rates of rotation about each axis are equal, then (in the absence of stochasticity) particle trajectories are restricted to 2D surfaces consisting of a portion of a hemispherical shell closed by a "cap"; if the rotation rates are unequal, then particles can leave the surface they start on and traverse a volume of the tumbler. The period-one structures of the governing LTM are examined in detail: analytical expressions are provided for the location of period-one curves, their extent into the bulk of...

  17. Insight into the band structure engineering of single-layer SnS2 with in-plane biaxial strain.

    Zhou, Wei; Umezawa, Naoto

    2016-03-01

    The effects of in-plane biaxial strain on the electronic structure of a photofunctional material, single-layer SnS2, were systematically investigated using hybrid density functional calculations. The bonding diagram for the band gap was firstly proposed based on the crystal orbital overlap population analysis. The conduction band-edge of single-layer SnS2 is determined by the anti-bonding interaction between Sn-5s and S-3p orbitals, while the valence band-edge comes from the anti-bonding between the neighboring S atoms. It is found that the compressive strain not only decreases the indirect band gap of single-layer SnS2, but also effectively promotes the band-edges of the conduction band to realize the overall water splitting. Besides, the dispersion of the valence band of single-layer SnS2 becomes weaker with increasing tensile strain which is beneficial for the photo-excitation through direct transitions. PMID:26912413

  18. Wettability and optical properties of O2 and CF4 plasma treated biaxially oriented semicrystalline poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    Jucius, D.; Grigaliūnas, V.; Kopustinskas, V.; Lazauskas, A.; Guobienė, A.

    2012-12-01

    Influence of low pressure O2, CF4, and successive O2 and CF4 RF plasma treatment on optical properties and wettability of biaxially oriented semicrystalline poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was examined. Produced by industrial stretch-blow molding PET films of the 300 μm thickness were chosen for the experiments. Influence of the aging was also investigated by storing plasma treated samples at room conditions for 60 days. It was revealed that O2 plasma treated samples suffered from the hydrophobic recovery and long term improvement of hydrophilicity was only a moderate. Energetic CF4 plasma treatment was able to form a large number of surface active sites which in turn was capable to attach the oxygen containing groups and to increase the hydrophilicity. However, aged for 10-60 days CF4 plasma treated PET films have showed a large scattering of the contact angle values measured on the same surface. Successive O2 and CF4 plasma treatment, despite induced hydrophobicity of as treated films, after 3 days of aging have resulted in highly homogeneous hydrophilic (Θ ≈ 20°) surfaces which have retained their hydrophilicity for the entire period of investigation. Moreover, combined plasma treatment of PET films has not influenced significantly the transmission of visible light. So, such a treatment can be considered as beneficial for the production of highly homogeneous hydrophilic surfaces without significant influence on their optical properties.

  19. Development of an in-plane biaxial test for forming limit curve (FLC) characterization of metallic sheets

    The main objective of this work is to propose a new experimental device able to give for a single specimen a good prediction of rheological parameters and formability under static and dynamic conditions (for intermediate strain rates). In this paper, we focus on the characterization of sheet metal forming. The proposed device is a servo-hydraulic testing machine provided with four independent dynamic actuators allowing biaxial tensile tests on cruciform specimens. The formability is evaluated thanks to the classical forming limit diagram (FLD), and one of the difficulties of this study was the design of a dedicated specimen for which the necking phenomenon appears in its central zone. If necking is located in the central zone of the specimen, then the speed ratio between the two axes controls the strain path in this zone and a whole forming limit curve can be covered. Such a specimen is proposed through a numerical and experimental validation procedure. A rigorous procedure for the detection of numerical and experimental forming strains is also presented. Finally, an experimental forming limit curve is determined and validated for an aluminium alloy dedicated to the sheet forming processes (AA5086)

  20. Field-induced optically isotropic state in bent core nematic liquid crystals: unambiguous proof of field-induced optical biaxiality

    The behaviour of bent core (BC) nematic liquid crystals was investigated under dc applied electric field. The optically isotropic state of a sample containing BC nematic was observed under application of low dc electric fields. The quality of the dark state when the sample was inserted between two crossed polarizers was found to be superb and it did not change when rotating the sample between the polarizers. The coupling between the net molecular dipole moment and the applied dc electric field was considered as the origin of the out-of-plane switching of the BC molecules resulting in switching from the field-off bright state to the field-on dark state. The field-induced optically isotropic state is an unambiguous proof of the field-induced biaxiality in the BC nematic liquid crystal. A simple model explaining the appearance of the isotropic optical state in BC nematics and the switching of the sample slow axis between three mutually orthogonal directions under dc applied electric field is proposed. (paper)

  1. An isotropic suspension system for a biaxial accelerometer using electroplated thick metal with a HAR SU-8 mold

    In this paper, a novel approach is developed to design an isotropic suspension system using thick metal freestanding micro-structures combining bulk micro-machining with electroplating based on a HAR SU-8 mold. An omega-shape isotropic suspension system composed of circular curved beams that have free switching of imaginary boundary conditions is proposed. This novel isotropic suspension design is not affected by geometric dimensional parameters and always achieves matching stiffness along the principle axes of elasticity. Using the finite element method, the isotropic suspension system was compared with an S-shaped meandering suspension system. In order to realize the suggested isotropic suspension system, a cost-effective fabrication process using electroplating with the SU-8 mold was developed to avoid expensive equipment and materials such as deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) or a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The fabricated isotropic suspension system was verified by electromagnetic actuation experiments. Finally, a biaxial accelerometer with isotropic suspension system was realized and tested using a vibration generator system. The proposed isotropic suspension system and the modified surface micro-machining technique based on electroplating with an SU-8 mold can contribute towards minimizing the system size, simplifying the system configuration, reducing the system price of and facilitating mass production of various types of low-cost sensors and actuators

  2. Understanding Nonlinear Dielectric Properties in a Biaxially Oriented Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Film at Both Low and High Electric Fields.

    Li, Yue; Ho, Janet; Wang, Jianchuan; Li, Zhong-Ming; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Zhu, Lei

    2016-01-13

    Understanding nonlinear dielectric behavior in polar polymers is crucial to their potential application as next generation high energy density and low loss dielectrics. In this work, we studied nonlinear dielectric properties of a biaxially oriented poly(vinylidene fluoride) (BOPVDF) film under both low and high electric fields. For fundamental nonlinear dielectric constants at low fields (measure up to the third harmonics. It was observed that the low-field dielectric nonlinearity for the BOPVDF disappeared above 10 Hz at room temperature, suggesting that the low-field dielectric nonlinearity originated from ionic migration of impurity ions rather than dipolar relaxation of the amorphous segments. Above the coercive field (EC ≈ 70 MV/m), bipolar electric displacement-electric field (D-E) loop tests were used to extract the nonlinear behavior for pure PVDF crystals, which had a clear origin of ferroelectric switching of polar crystalline dipoles and domains and nonpolar-to-polar (α → δ → β) phase transformations. By using HVBDS, it was observed that the ferroelectric switching of polar crystalline dipoles and domains in BOPVDF above the EC always took place between 20 and 500 Hz regardless of a broad range of temperature from -30 to 100 °C. This behavior was drastically different from that of the amorphous PVDF dipoles, which had a strong dependence on frequency over orders of magnitude. PMID:26698912

  3. Growth of thin Al2O3 films on biaxially oriented polymer films by atomic layer deposition

    The effects of thin film nucleation and initial growth on roughness, chemistry and thermomechanical properties of polymer film surfaces were studied. Al2O3 was deposited onto commercial biaxially oriented polypropylene and polylactic acid films at 80 C by using atomic layer deposition technique. Both substrates, especially the more hydrophobic polypropylene, showed initial growth through Al2O3 clusters. There was a faster deposition of Al2O3 on polylactic acid film than on polypropylene at the early stages of the Al2O3 deposition. There were also indications of chemical interactions between polylactic acid and trimethyl aluminum used as a precursor for Al2O3. Changes in the thermo-mechanical properties of the polymer surfaces with Al2O3 also evidenced the differences between the substrate polymer films. The near surface interphase formed in polylactic acid probably contributed to the strong increase and scattering in the softening temperature during the early thin film growth. - Highlights: ? Growth of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 at 80 C was studied on commercial films. ? Both substrate films showed early Al2O3 growth through clusters. ? Initial growth rate depends on the nature of the substrate film surface. ? There were indications of chemical interactions between substrate and precursor. ? Film thickness and chemical interactions affect thermo-mechanical properties.

  4. Understanding Nonlinear Dielectric Properties in a Biaxially Oriented Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Film at Both Low and High Electric Fields

    Li, Yue; Zhu, Lei; Case Western Reserve University Team; Sichuan University Team

    Understanding nonlinear dielectric behavior in polar polymers is crucial to their potential application as next genera tion high energy density and low loss dielectrics. In this work, we studied nonlinear dielectric properties of a biaxially oriented poly(vinylidene fluoride) (BOPVDF) film under both low and high electric fields. It was observed that the low-field dielectric nonlinearity for the BOPVDF disappeared above 10 Hz at room temperature, suggesting that the low-field dielectric nonlinearity originated from ionic migration of impurity ions rather than dipolar relaxation of the amorphous segments. Above the coercive field (EC ~70 MV/m), bipolar electric displacement-electric field (D-E) loop tests were used to extract the nonlinear behavior for pure PVDF crystals, which had a clear origin of ferroelectric switching of polar crystalline dipoles and domains and nonpolar-to-polar (α --> δ --> β) phase transformations. Using HVBDS, it was observed that the ferroelectric switching of polar crystalline dipoles and domains in BOPVDF above the EC always took place between 20 and 500 Hz, regardless of a broad range of temperature from -30 to 100 °C. This behavior was drastically different from the amorphous PVDF dipoles, which had a strong dependence on frequency over orders of magnitude. This work is supported by NSF(DMR-1402733).

  5. Mechanics of Stabbing: Biaxial Measurement of Knife Stab Penetration of Skin Simulant

    Gilchrist, Michael D; Curtis, Michael; Cassidy, Mary; Byrne, Greg; Destrade, Michel; 10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.10.010

    2008-01-01

    In medicolegal situations, the consequences of a stabbing incident are described in terms that are qualitative without being quantitative. Here, the mechanical variables involved in knife-tissue penetration events are used to determine the parameters needed to be controlled in a measurement device. They include knife geometry, in-plane mechanical stress state of skin, angle and speed of knife penetration, and underlying fascia. Four household knives with different geometries were used. Synthetic materials were used to simulate the response of skin, fat and cartilage: polyurethane, foam, and ballistic soap, respectively. The force and energy applied by the blade and the skin displacement were used to identify skin penetration. The skin tension is shown to have a direct effect on the force and energy for knife penetration and on the depth of displacement of the simulant prior to penetration: larger levels of in-plane tension in the skin are associated with lower penetration forces, energies and displacements. L...

  6. Influence of cyclic prestressing or additional hardening on the fatigue life of various steels under stress or strain control

    Tests performed on various steels (A42 mild steel, 304 and 316 L stainless steels) show that a new overload cycles have a favorable effect on the fatigue life in push-pull, in stress control, but a detrimental effect in strain-control, and that biaxial non-proportional loadings (90 deg out-of-phase tension and torsion) also enhance the fatigue life in stress control but reduce it in strain control. A method to estimate the influence of cyclic overloading and non-proportional loadings yields conservative predictions of the fatigue life. (authors)

  7. Anisotropy of tensile stresses and cracking in nonbasal plane AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures

    AlxGa1-xN films grown on nonpolar m (1100) and (1122) semipolar orientations of freestanding GaN substrates were investigated over a range of stress states (x≤0.17). Cracking on the (0001) plane was observed beyond a critical thickness in the (1100) oriented films, while no cracking was observed for (1122) films. Theoretical analysis of tensile stresses in AlxGa1-xN for the relevant planes revealed that anisotropy of in-plane biaxial stress for the nonpolar (1100) planes results in the highest normal stresses on the c-planes, consistent with experimental observations. Shear stresses are significant in the semipolar case, suggesting that misfit dislocation formation provides an alternative mechanism for stress relief.

  8. Nuclear stress test

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  9. Magnetostriction measurements of high strength steel under the influence of bi-axial magnetic fields

    Burgy, Christopher, E-mail: Christopher.burgy@navy.mil [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, West Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Wun-fogle, Marilyn; Restorff, J.B. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, West Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; ElBidweihy, Hatem [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    A detailed knowledge of a material's microscopic texture is required in order to produce a realistic model of the magnetization process under applied fields. Previous studies on the magnetostriction in high strength steels have ignored the internal anisotropies due to prior material handling. To this end, a measurement utilizing two perpendicular fields was designed to interrogate the magnetic texture and microstructure of high-strength steel rods. These magnetization and magnetostriction measurements were then fitted to an energy-based domain rotation model which had been altered to address vector fields and uniaxial anisotropies. Given the simplicity of the model it is surprising to see that it captures a number of the general trends in the Data, however the fit is generally poor. Improving upon this data set will allow us to determine general magnetic characteristics of microstructure in the steels. These measurements will be incorporated into a future Vector Preisach model allowing detailed predictions of the magnetic state after stress and field changes in multiple directions.

  10. A Shearing-Stretching Device That Can Apply Physiological Fluid Shear Stress and Cyclic Stretch Concurrently to Endothelial Cells.

    Meza, Daphne; Abejar, Louie; Rubenstein, David A; Yin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) morphology and functions can be highly impacted by the mechanical stresses that the cells experience in vivo. In most areas in the vasculature, ECs are continuously exposed to unsteady blood flow-induced shear stress and vasodilation-contraction-induced tensile stress/strain simultaneously. Investigations on how ECs respond to combined shear stress and tensile strain will help us to better understand how an altered mechanical environment affects EC mechanotransduction, dysfunction, and associated cardiovascular disease development. In the present study, a programmable shearing and stretching device that can apply dynamic fluid shear stress and cyclic tensile strain simultaneously to cultured ECs was developed. Flow and stress/strain conditions in the device were simulated using a fluid structure interaction (FSI) model. To characterize the performance of this device and the effect of combined shear stress-tensile strain on EC morphology, human coronary artery ECs (HCAECs) were exposed to concurrent shear stress and cyclic tensile strain in the device. Changes in EC morphology were evaluated through cell elongation, cell alignment, and cell junctional actin accumulation. Results obtained from the numerical simulation indicated that in the "in-plane" area of the device, both fluid shear stress and biaxial tensile strain were uniform. Results obtained from the in vitro experiments demonstrated that shear stress, alone or combined with cyclic tensile strain, induced significant cell elongation. While biaxial tensile strain alone did not induce any appreciable change in EC elongation. Fluid shear stress and cyclic tensile strain had different effects on EC actin filament alignment and accumulation. By combining various fluid shear stress and cyclic tensile strain conditions, this device can provide a physiologically relevant mechanical environment to study EC responses to physiological and pathological mechanical stimulation. PMID:26810848

  11. Evaluation of biaxial flexural strength and modulus of filled and unfilled adhesive systems =Avaliação da resistência flexural biaxial e módulo de flexão de sistemas adesivos

    Liberti, Michele Santana et al.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência flexural e o módulo de flexão de dois sistemas adesivos, através de ensaio de resistência flexural biaxial. Metodologia: Os adesivos (Pentron Clinical Technologies estudados foram: Bond 1 (B1 e NanoBond (NB. Treze discos de cada adesivo foram preparados com dimensões aproximadas de 6,1 mm de diâmetro e 0,6 mm de espessura. Os discos de adesivos foram confeccionados utilizando-se moldes de teflon e fotopolimerizados com aparelho XL 3000 (3M ESPE. Após armazenamento por 10 dias, os discos foram testados em máquina universal de ensaio (Instron 5844, com velocidade de 1,27 mm/min. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (1 fator ao nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Os valores médios (±DP de resistência flexural para os adesivos foram (em MPa: B1- 89,7±7,6 e NB- 131,1±9,5. Os valores médios de módulo flexural (±DP foram (em MPa: B1- 1999,9±258,4 e NB- 2314,5±271,0. Conclusão: O adesivo contendo partículas de carga (NB mostrou maiores valores de resistência flexural e módulo de flexão que o adesivo B1.

  12. Stress Testing

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Stress Testing? Stress testing provides information about how your heart works during ... is working hard and beating fast. During stress testing, you exercise (walk or run on a treadmill ...

  13. Stress and structural damage sensing piezospectroscopic coatings validated with digital image correlation

    Gregory Freihofer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The piezospectroscopic effect, relating a material’s stress state and spectral signature, has recently demonstrated tailorable sensitivity when the photo-luminescent alpha alumina is distributed in nanoparticulate form within a matrix. Here, the stress-sensing behavior of an alumina-epoxy nanoparticle coating, applied to a composite substrate in an open hole tension configuration, is validated with the biaxial strain field concurrently determined through digital image correlation. The coating achieved early detection of composite failure initiation at 77% failure load, and subsequently tracked stress distribution in the immediate vicinity of the crack as it progressed, demonstrating non-invasive stress and damage detection with multi-scale spatial resolution.

  14. Stress enhanced self-diffusion in Si: Entropy effect in anisotropic elastic environment

    Rushchanskii, Konstantin Z.; Pochet, Pascal; Lançon, Frédéric

    2008-04-01

    We present a multiscale analysis on stress enhanced vacancy-mediated diffusion in strained Si that explicitly includes the Jahn-Teller structural distortion around vacancies. The resulting anisotropy combined with biaxial deformations applied to (100)-oriented films lead to an orientational dependency of the vacancy formation energy. At finite temperatures, it results in a strong entropy effect when thermal activation allows occupancy of high energy defect states. Kinetic Lattice Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the effective activation energy is a strongly nonlinear function of strain at small deformations. At larger deformations, it becomes linear where as the occupancy of the excited states becomes insignificant.

  15. Cation ordering and effect of biaxial strain in double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl6

    Here, we investigate the electronic structure, energetics of cation ordering, and effect of biaxial strain on double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl6 using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two constituents (i.e., CsCaCl3 and RbZnCl3) forming the double perovskite exhibit a stark contrast. While CsCaCl3 is known to exist in a cubic perovskite structure and does not show any epitaxial strain induced phase transitions within an experimentally accessible range of compressive strains, RbZnCl3 is thermodynamically unstable in the perovskite phase and exhibits ultra-sensitive response at small epitaxial strains if constrained in the perovskite phase. We show that combining the two compositions in a double perovskite structure not only improves overall stability but also the strain-polarization coupling of the material. Our calculations predict a ground state with P4/nmm space group for the double perovskite, where A-site cations (i.e., Cs and Rb) are layer-ordered and B-site cations (i.e., Ca and Zn) prefer a rocksalt type ordering. The electronic structure and bandgap in this system are shown to be quite sensitive to the B-site cation ordering and is minimally affected by the ordering of A-site cations. We find that at experimentally accessible compressive strains CsRbCaZnCl6 can be phase transformed from its paraelectric ground state to an antiferroelectric state, where Zn atoms contribute predominantly to the polarization. Furthermore, both energy difference and activation barrier for a transformation between this antiferroelectric state and the corresponding ferroelectric configuration are predicted to be small. The computational approach presented here opens a new pathway towards a rational design of novel double perovskites with improved strain response and functionalities

  16. Wettability and optical properties of O2 and CF4 plasma treated biaxially oriented semicrystalline poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    Highlights: ► PET films were treated by low pressure O2 and CF4 plasma. ► Influence of the plasma treatment on optical properties and wettability was examined. ► Aging effects were analyzed by storing the samples at room conditions for 60 days. ► Highly hydrophilic surfaces were made without worsening of optical transmission. - Abstract: Influence of low pressure O2, CF4, and successive O2 and CF4 RF plasma treatment on optical properties and wettability of biaxially oriented semicrystalline poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was examined. Produced by industrial stretch-blow molding PET films of the 300 μm thickness were chosen for the experiments. Influence of the aging was also investigated by storing plasma treated samples at room conditions for 60 days. It was revealed that O2 plasma treated samples suffered from the hydrophobic recovery and long term improvement of hydrophilicity was only a moderate. Energetic CF4 plasma treatment was able to form a large number of surface active sites which in turn was capable to attach the oxygen containing groups and to increase the hydrophilicity. However, aged for 10–60 days CF4 plasma treated PET films have showed a large scattering of the contact angle values measured on the same surface. Successive O2 and CF4 plasma treatment, despite induced hydrophobicity of as treated films, after 3 days of aging have resulted in highly homogeneous hydrophilic (Θ ≈ 20°) surfaces which have retained their hydrophilicity for the entire period of investigation. Moreover, combined plasma treatment of PET films has not influenced significantly the transmission of visible light. So, such a treatment can be considered as beneficial for the production of highly homogeneous hydrophilic surfaces without significant influence on their optical properties.

  17. Effect of light sources and curing mode techniques on sorption, solubility and biaxial flexural strength of a composite resin

    Andreia Assis Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Adequate polymerization plays an important role on the longevity of the composite resin restorations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing units, curing mode techniques and storage media on sorption, solubility and biaxial flexural strength (BFS of a composite resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and forty specimens were made of one composite resin (Esthet-X in a stainless steel mold (2 mm x 8 mm Ø, and divided into 24 groups (n=10 established according to the 4 study factors: light-curing units: quartz tungsten halogen (QTH lamp and light-emitting diodes (LED; energy densities: 16 J/cm² and 20 J/cm²; curing modes: conventional (CM and pulse-delay (PD; and permeants: deionized water and 75% ethanol for 28 days. Sorption and solubility tests were performed according to ISO 4049:2000 specifications. All specimens were then tested for BFS according to ASTM F394-78 specification. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA followed by Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05. RESULTS: In general, no significant differences were found regarding sorption, solubility or BFS means for the light-curing units and curing modes (p>0.05. Only LED unit using 16 J/cm² and PD using 10 s produced higher sorption and solubility values than QTH. Otherwise, using CM (16 J/cm², LED produced lower values of BFS than QTH (p<0.05. 75% ethanol permeant produced higher values of sorption and solubility and lower values of BFS than water (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Ethanol storage media produced more damage on composite resin than water. In general the LED and QTH curing units using 16 and 20 J/cm² by CM and PD curing modes produced no influence on the sorption, solubility or BFS of the tested resin.

  18. Biaxial bending of slender HSC columns and tubes filled with concrete under short- and long-term loads: I Theory

    Jose A. Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method that calculates both the short- and long-term response of slender columns made of high-strength concrete (HSC and tubes filled with concrete with generalized end conditions and subjected to transverse loads along the span and axial load at the ends (causing a single or double curvature under uniaxial or biaxial bending is presented. The proposed method, which is an extension of a method previously developed by the authors, is capable of predicting not only the complete load-rotation and load-deflection curves (both the ascending and descending parts but also the maximum load capacity. The columns that can be analyzed include solid and hollow (rectangular, circular, oval, C-, T-, L-, or any arbitrary shape cross sections and columns made of circular and rectangular steel tubes filled with HSC. The fiber method is used to calculate the moment-curvature diagrams at different levels of the applied axial load (i.e., the M-P-φ curves, and the Gauss method of integration (for the sum of the contributions of the fibers parallel to the neutral axis is used to calculate the lateral rotations and deflections along the column span. Long-term effects, such as creep and shrinkage of the concrete, are also included. However, the effects of the shear deformations and torsion along the member are not included. The validity of the proposed method is presented in a companion paper and compared against the experimental results for over seventy column specimens reported in the technical literature by different researchers.

  19. Effects of deposition temperature and thermal cycling on residual stress state in zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings

    Advanced ceramic multilayered coatings are commonly used as protective coatings for engine metal components to improve performance, e.g. thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Zirconia-based TBCs were produced by plasma spraying process and characterized in terms of microstructure, porosity, elastic modulus, adherence and residual stresses. In this contribution the residual stresses in multilayered coatings applied on Ni based superalloys for use as thermal barrier coatings were studied both by numerical modelling and experimental stress measurement. The thermal residual stresses generated during the spraying process of duplex TBCs were simulated by using an heat transfer finite element program and an elasto-plastic biaxial stress model. The TBC system was subjected to different thermal cycling conditions (maximum temperature, heating up and cooling down rates, dwell time at maximum temperature, etc.). The stress distribution within the TBC was also modelled after thermal cycling. The stress state in the as-deposited and in thermally cycled coatings was verified using an X-ray diffraction technique. The measurements were in good agreement with the residual stress modelled calculations. It was observed that the residual stresses were dependent on the thermal history of the TBC (as-deposited and thermally cycled). It is proposed that thermal cycling allowed the stresses to relax by microcracking and creep mechanisms at high temperature such that on cooling down to room temperature, an in-plane biaxial compressive stress will arise on the zirconia top coating due to the difference on the coefficients of thermal expansion between the metallic substrate and ceramic coating material. (orig.)

  20. Fourier space method for calculating the propagation of laser radiation in biaxial crystals taking into account the angle between the eigenpolarisations

    Grechin, S G; Nikolaev, P P [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Okhrimchuk, A G [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-31

    We have proposed a technique for calculating the propagation of laser radiation in biaxial optical crystals in arbitrary directions. The technique is based on the use of the Fourier space method and takes into account both diffraction and angle beween the eigenpolarisations of the spatial spectrum components, phase shift differences for them with account for all orders of the spatial dispersion and also the features of the boundary conditions at the input and output facets. Using internal conical refraction as an example, we have compared the results of calculations with experimental data. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  1. 1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications

    Gassenq, A.; Guilloy, K.; Osvaldo Dias, G.; Pauc, N.; Rouchon, D.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Widiez, J.; Tardif, S.; Rieutord, F.; Escalante, J.; Duchemin, I.; Niquet, Y.-M.; Geiger, R.; Zabel, T.; Sigg, H.; Faist, J.; Chelnokov, A.; Reboud, V.; Calvo, V.

    2015-11-01

    High tensile strains in Ge are currently studied for the development of integrated laser sources on Si. In this work, we developed specific Germanium-On-Insulator 200 mm wafer to improve tolerance to high strains induced via shaping of the Ge layers into micro-bridges. Building on the high crystalline quality, we demonstrate bi-axial tensile strain of 1.9%, which is currently the highest reported value measured in thick (350 nm) Ge layer. Since this strain is generally considered as the onset of the direct bandgap in Ge, our realization paves the way towards mid-infrared lasers fully compatible with CMOS fab technology.

  2. Film stresses and electrode buckling in organic solar cells

    Brand, Vitali

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the film stresses that develop in the polymer films and metal electrodes of poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. A compressive biaxial stress of ∼-36 MPa was measured in PEDOT:PSS while a tensile stress of ∼6 MPa was measured in the BHJ layer. We then analyze the effect of electrode deposition rate on the film stresses in the Al electrode. Compressive stresses of ∼-100 to -145 MPa in the Al electrode lead to a buckling instability resulting in undulating electrode surface topography. The BHJ layer was found to have the lowest cohesion (∼1.5-1.8 J/m 2) among the layers of the solar cell and dependent on the Al electrode deposition rate. The cohesive failure path in the BHJ layer exhibited the same periodicity and orientation of the Al electrode buckling topography. We discuss the implications of the film stresses on damage processes during device fabrication and operation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of stress in cracked fibrous tissue specimens with varied crack location, loading, and orientation using finite element analysis.

    Peloquin, John M; Elliott, Dawn M

    2016-04-01

    Cracks in fibrous soft tissue, such as intervertebral disc annulus fibrosus and knee meniscus, cause pain and compromise joint mechanics. A crack concentrates stress at its tip, making further failure and crack extension (fracture) more likely. Ex vivo mechanical testing is an important tool for studying the loading conditions required for crack extension, but prior work has shown that it is difficult to reproduce crack extension. Most prior work used edge crack specimens in uniaxial tension, with the crack 90° to the edge of the specimen. This configuration does not necessarily represent the loading conditions that cause in vivo crack extension. To find a potentially better choice for experiments aiming to reproduce crack extension, we used finite element analysis to compare, in factorial combination, (1) center crack vs. edge crack location, (2) biaxial vs. uniaxial loading, and (3) crack-fiber angles ranging from 0° to 90°. The simulated material was annulus fibrosus fibrocartilage with a single fiber family. We hypothesized that one of the simulated test cases would produce a stronger stress concentration than the commonly used uniaxially loaded 90° crack-fiber angle edge crack case. Stress concentrations were compared between cases in terms of fiber-parallel stress (representing risk of fiber rupture), fiber-perpendicular stress (representing risk of matrix rupture), and fiber shear stress (representing risk of fiber sliding). Fiber-perpendicular stress and fiber shear stress concentrations were greatest in edge crack specimens (of any crack-fiber angle) and center crack specimens with a 90° crack-fiber angle. However, unless the crack is parallel to the fiber direction, these stress components alone are insufficient to cause crack opening and extension. Fiber-parallel stress concentrations were greatest in center crack specimens with a 45° crack-fiber angle, either biaxially or uniaxially loaded. We therefore recommend that the 45° center crack case be tried in future experiments intended to study crack extension by fiber rupture. PMID:26741533

  4. STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Charu Jain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has the right to live their life very happily. But the question arises,Do they really live their life happily. The answer is No. Human beings are not living their life happily because of stress, tension and depression in their life. Due to stress, tension and depression, a person cannot focus on their work properly and as a result of this, their focus from the work has been diverted, results in bad performance at home and at work. In this article, my focus is on stress management and how to reduce stress. Stress management encompasses those techniques which helps the human beings to survive their life by reducing stress. Stress can come at any stage of life. Stress cant be removed totally but it can be reduced and alter. Stress management plays a vital role in human being life.

  5. Multi-mode technique for the determination of the biaxial Y2SiO5 permittivity tensor from 300 to 6 K

    The Y2SiO5 (YSO) crystal is a dielectric material with biaxial anisotropy with known values of refractive index at optical frequencies. It is a well-known rare-earth (RE) host material for optical research and more recently has shown promising performance for quantum-engineered devices. In this paper, we report the first microwave characterization of the real permittivity tensor of a bulk YSO sample, as well as an investigation of the temperature dependence of the tensor components from 296 K down to 6 K. Estimated uncertainties were below 0.26%, limited by the precision of machining the cylindrical dielectric. Also, the electrical Q-factors of a few electromagnetic modes were recorded as a way to provide some information about the crystal losses over the temperature range. To solve the tensor components necessary for a biaxial crystal, we developed the multi-mode technique, which uses simultaneous measurement of low order whispering gallery modes. Knowledge of the permittivity tensor offers important data, essential for the design of technologies involving YSO, such as microwave coupling to electron and hyperfine transitions in RE doped samples at low temperatures

  6. Semicrystalline Structure-Dielectric Property Relationship and Electrical Conduction in a Biaxially Oriented Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Film under High Electric Fields and High Temperatures.

    Yang, Lianyun; Ho, Janet; Allahyarov, Elshad; Mu, Richard; Zhu, Lei

    2015-09-16

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based homopolymers and copolymers are attractive for a broad range of electroactive applications because of their high dielectric constants. Especially, biaxially oriented PVDF (BOPVDF) films exhibit a DC breakdown strength as high as that for biaxially oriented polypropylene films. In this work, we revealed the molecular origin of the high dielectric constant via study of a commercial BOPVDF film. By determination of the dielectric constant for the amorphous phase in BOPVDF, a high value of ca. 21-22 at 25 °C was obtained, and a three-phase (i.e., lamellar crystal/oriented interphase/amorphous region) semicrystalline model was proposed to explain this result. Meanwhile, electronic conduction mechanisms in BOPVDF under high electric fields and elevated temperatures were investigated by thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) spectroscopy and leakage current studies. Space charge injection from metal electrodes was identified as a major factor for electronic conduction when BOPVDF was poled above 75 °C and 20 MV/m. In addition, when silver or aluminum were used as electrodes, new ions were generated from electrochemical reactions under high fields. Due to the electrochemical reactions between PVDF and the metal electrode, a question is raised for practical electrical applications using PVDF and its copolymers under high-field and high-temperature conditions. A potential method to prevent electrochemical degradation of PVDF is proposed in this study. PMID:26120953

  7. Distribution and Viability of Fetal and Adult Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in a Biaxial Rotating Vessel Bioreactor after Seeding on Polymeric 3D Additive Manufactured Scaffolds

    Leferink, Anne M.; Chng, Yhee-Cheng; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    One of the conventional approaches in tissue engineering is the use of scaffolds in combination with cells to obtain mechanically stable tissue constructs in vitro prior to implantation. Additive manufacturing by fused deposition modeling is a widely used technique to produce porous scaffolds with defined pore network, geometry, and therewith defined mechanical properties. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue engineering-based cell therapies due to their multipotent character. One of the hurdles to overcome when combining additive manufactured scaffolds with MSCs is the resulting heterogeneous cell distribution and limited cell proliferation capacity. In this study, we show that the use of a biaxial rotating bioreactor, after static culture of human fetal MSCs (hfMSCs) seeded on synthetic polymeric scaffolds, improved the homogeneity of cell and extracellular matrix distribution and increased the total cell number. Furthermore, we show that the relative mRNA expression levels of indicators for stemness and differentiation are not significantly changed upon this bioreactor culture, whereas static culture shows variations of several indicators for stemness and differentiation. The biaxial rotating bioreactor presented here offers a homogeneous distribution of hfMSCs, enabling studies on MSCs fate in additive manufactured scaffolds without inducing undesired differentiation. PMID:26557644

  8. Surface roughness of MgO thin film and its critical thickness for optimal biaxial texturing by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    We investigated the deposition time dependences of the in-plane grain alignment (Δφ) and the surface roughness (w) of biaxially textured MgO thin films fabricated by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) and found a strong correlation between them. The time evolution of the surface roughness of IBAD-MgO showed an abrupt increase at the same time corresponding to the beginning of the deterioration in Δφ. The roughness versus thickness profiles obtained under different deposition conditions with different assisting ion-beam currents collapsed to a single curve, even though the deposition rates were significantly different in each condition. This implies that the abrupt increase in roughness occurred at the same thickness--of about 4 nm--irrespective of the deposition rate. The result also indicated that the Δφ deterioration began with the same thickness of about 4 nm. This ''critical'' thickness of about 4 nm might be related to the completion of the crystallization of the film. Further, deposition beyond the critical thickness, therefore, became merely a homoepitaxial deposition under the ''IBAD'' condition, which was far from optimal because of the ion bombardment and low temperature (no-heating), and thus Δφ deteriorated. Based on these considerations, we propose an approach to attain a sharp texture in a IBAD-MgO-based biaxial substrate; moreover, we demonstrated this approach using a two-step deposition process.

  9. Multi-mode technique for the determination of the biaxial Y2SiO5 permittivity tensor from 300 to 6 Kelvin

    Carvalho, N C; Krupka, J; Tobar, M E

    2015-01-01

    The Y2SiO5 (YSO) crystal is a dielectric material with biaxial anisotropy with known values of refractive index at optical frequencies. It is a well-known rare-earth host material for optical research and more recently has shown promising performance for quantum-engineered devices. In this paper, we report the first microwave characterization of the real permittivity tensor of a bulk YSO sample, as well as an investigation of the temperature dependence of the tensor components from 296 K down to 6 K. Estimated uncertainties were below 0.26%, limited by the precision of machining the cylindrical dielectric. Also, the electrical Q-factors of a few electromagnetic modes were recorded as a way to provide some information about the crystal losses over the temperature range. To solve the tensor components necessary for a biaxial crystal, we developed a new multi-mode technique, which uses simultaneous measurement of low order Whispery Gallery Modes. Knowledge of the permittivity tensor offers new important data, es...

  10. Multi-mode technique for the determination of the biaxial Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} permittivity tensor from 300 to 6?K

    Carvalho, N. C., E-mail: natalia.docarmocarvalho@research.uwa.edu.au; Le Floch, J-M.; Tobar, M. E. [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems (EQuS), 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Krupka, J. [Instytut Mikroelektroniki i Optoelektroniki PW, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-05-11

    The Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (YSO) crystal is a dielectric material with biaxial anisotropy with known values of refractive index at optical frequencies. It is a well-known rare-earth (RE) host material for optical research and more recently has shown promising performance for quantum-engineered devices. In this paper, we report the first microwave characterization of the real permittivity tensor of a bulk YSO sample, as well as an investigation of the temperature dependence of the tensor components from 296?K down to 6?K. Estimated uncertainties were below 0.26%, limited by the precision of machining the cylindrical dielectric. Also, the electrical Q-factors of a few electromagnetic modes were recorded as a way to provide some information about the crystal losses over the temperature range. To solve the tensor components necessary for a biaxial crystal, we developed the multi-mode technique, which uses simultaneous measurement of low order whispering gallery modes. Knowledge of the permittivity tensor offers important data, essential for the design of technologies involving YSO, such as microwave coupling to electron and hyperfine transitions in RE doped samples at low temperatures.

  11. On the Novel Biaxial Strain Relaxation Mechanism in Epitaxial Composition Graded La1−xSrxMnO3 Thin Film Synthesized by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Yishu Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel method to fabricate composition gradient, epitaxial La1−xSrxMnO3 thin films with the objective to alleviate biaxial film strain. In this work, epitaxial, composition gradient La1−xSrxMnO3, and pure LaMnO3 and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films were deposited by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The crystalline and epitaxy of all films were first studied by symmetric θ–2θ X-ray diffraction (XRD and low angle XRD experiments. Detailed microstructural characterization across the film thickness was conducted by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Four compositional gradient domains were observed in the La1−xSrxMnO3 film ranging from LaMnO3 rich to La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 at the surface. A continuous reduction in the lattice parameter was observed accompanied by a significant reduction in the out-of-plane strain in the film. Fabrication of the composition gradient La1−xSrxMnO3 thin film was found to be a powerful method to relieve biaxial strain under critical thickness. Besides, the coexistence of domains with a composition variance is opening up various new possibilities of designing new nanoscale structures with unusual cross coupled properties.

  12. Effect of state of stress on the cavitation behavior of Al 5083 superplastic material

    Chandra, Namas; Kalu, Peter [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Khraisheh, Marwan K. [Dept. of MEch. Eng., Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper we address the controversial issue of nucleation of cavities in Al 5083 alloys and their subsequent growth to coalescence and failure. We focus on the origin and growth of cavities not only during the primary processing of Al 5083 in sheet forms, but also during the manufacture of these sheets into SPF (superplastic forming) components. Experimental observations of pre-existing cavities in this alloy are made using optical and electron microscopy. The role of sheet rolling direction, and the state of stress during superplastic deformation on the cavity formation and coalescence are also discussed. The effect of the state of stress (uniaxial, plane strain, balanced biaxial, and tri-axial) on the growth characteristics of cavitation is also examined. It is found that the uniaxial model based cavitation cannot directly be extended to predict the behavior of more complex stress states, unless great care is taken to identify the right strain measure for the mapping process. (orig.)

  13. Childhood Stress

    ... their day especially if they've had a stressful day themselves. But expressing interest shows your kids ... journal. You also can help by anticipating potentially stressful situations and preparing kids for them. For example, ...

  14. Stress Management

    ... intensity? Seasonal Fitness Target Heart Rates Warm Up, Cool Down When is the best time of day ... Stress Four Ways to Deal With Stress Quit Smoking Quitting Smoking Why Quit Smoking? Smoking: Do you ...

  15. Cold Stress

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  16. Caregiver Stress

    ... womenshealth.gov/widget/hrsa-widget-en.html Caregiver stress Caregivers care for someone with an illness, injury, ... be rewarding, but it can also be challenging. Stress from caregiving is common. Women especially are at ...

  17. Heat Stress

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW Criteria ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  18. Neuromuscular Stress.

    White, Timothy P.; Kern, Marialice

    1994-01-01

    Discusses exercise-induced stress that results from motor unit recruitment, the impact of recruitment on selected systemic support systems, and some of the environmental overlays that affect the degree of physiological stress. Adaptations to sustained changes in physical activity and muscle and myotendinous injury induced by stress are examined.

  19. Comparison of Some Mechanical and Physical Methods for Measurement of Residual Stresses in Brush-Plated Nickel Hardened Gold and Silver Coatings

    Harri LILLE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hard gold and silver are applied in coating owing to their high hardness, good wear and corrosion resistance for engineering application (e.g. on generators slip rings, sliding contacts and small machine parts and are typically plated on copper (mostly, brass and bronze. The studied nickel-hardened gold and silver coatings were brush plated on open thin-walled copper ring substrates. Residual stresses in the coatings were calculated from the curvature changes of the substrates. Biaxial intrinsic residual stresses were also determined by nanoindentation testing and by the X-ray technique. The values of the residual stresses represented tensile stresses and when determined by the techniques used they were comparable within a maximum limit of measurement uncertainty. These stresses relax; the dependence of relaxation time was approximated by a linear-fractional function.

  20. On the evolution of residual stress at different substrate temperatures in sputter-deposited polycrystalline Mo thin films by x-ray diffraction

    The evolution of in-plane biaxial residual stress in polycrystalline Mo thin films deposited on Si at different substrate temperature were investigated using x-ray diffraction methods. The analyses were performed using both single and multi hkl reflection peak shifts methods in the asymmetric grazing incidence geometry. High compressive stress builds up in films synthesized at low substrate temperature while tensile stresses which are relatively low in magnitude manifest themselves at high substrate temperature. While such an evolutionary pattern is a direct consequence of competition between the intrinsic and thermal components of stress and varies as a function of temperature, the predominant cause of intrinsic compressive stress in Mo films deposited at low substrate temperature was traced to oxygen impurities incorporated in the film during the growth process. (paper)

  1. Design and calibration of a bi-axial extended octagonal ring transducer system for the measurement of tractor-implement forces

    Khan J.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A bi-axial extended octagonal ring (EOR transducer system for the measurement of tractor-implement forces was designed for a category II and III MB Trac 1300 tractor. The EOR transducers and a gauged top link were calibrated and the Sensitivity, Cross-Sensitivity, Hysteresis, Linearity and Repeatability were found. The system was tested for 80kN applied coincident load and 60kN perpendicular load. No lateral forces or moment in the plane of the two forces was considered. The results of the calibration tests of the system showed its workability. The system could best be used for the measurement of draught (horizontal and vertical forces where heavy implements are attached with the tractor.

  2. Application of a linear elastic - brittle interface model to the crack initiation and propagation at fibre-matrix interface under biaxial transverse loads

    Manti?, V; Blzquez, A; Graciani, E; Pars, F

    2013-01-01

    The crack onset and propagation at the fibre-matrix interface in a composite under tensile/compressive remote biaxial transverse loads is studied by a new linear elastic - (perfectly) brittle interface model. In this model the interface is represented by a continuous distribution of springs which simulates the presence of a thin elastic layer. The constitutive law for the continuous distribution of normal and tangential of initially linear elastic springs takes into account possible frictionless elastic contact between fibre and matrix once a portion of the interface is broken. A brittle failure criterion is employed for the distribution of springs, which enables the study of crack onset and propagation. This interface failure criterion takes into account the variation of the interface fracture toughness with the fracture mode mixity. The main advantages of the present interface model are its simplicity, robustness and its computational efficiency when the so-called sequentially linear analysis is applied. Mo...

  3. The biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB₃O₆ as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion.

    Halevy, A; Megidish, E; Dovrat, L; Eisenberg, H S; Becker, P; Bohatý, L

    2011-10-10

    We describe the full characterization of the biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB₃O₆ (BiBO) as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion. We consider the relevant parameters for crystal design, such as cutting angles, polarization of the photons, effective nonlinearity, spatial and temporal walk-offs, crystal thickness and the effect of the pump laser bandwidth. Experimental results showing entanglement generation with high rates and a comparison to the well investigated β-BaB₂O₄ (BBO) crystal are presented as well. Changing the down-conversion crystal of a polarization entangled photon source from BBO to BiBO enhances the generation rate as if the pump power was increased by 2.5 times. Such an improvement is currently required for the generation of multiphoton entangled states. PMID:21997051

  4. The biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB3O6 as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion

    Halevy, A; Dovrat, L; Eisenberg, H S; Becker, P; Bohatý, L

    2011-01-01

    We describe the full characterization of the biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB3O6 (BiBO) as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion. We consider the relevant parameters for crystal design, such as cutting angles, polarization of the photons, effective nonlinearity, spatial and temporal walk-offs, crystal thickness and the effect of the pump laser bandwidth. Experimental results showing entanglement generation with high rates and a comparison to the well investigated beta-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal are presented as well. Changing the down-conversion crystal of a polarization entangled photon source from BBO to BiBO enhances the generation rate as if the pump power was increased by more than three times. Such an improvement is currently required for the generation of multiphoton entangled states.

  5. Development of Biaxially Textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} Coated Conductors in the U.S.

    Christen, D.K.; Hawsey, R.A.; Kroeger, D.M.

    1999-11-13

    Two new processes have been under development since 1991 that promise a new, cost-effective way to manufacture flexible, high current density wires made from YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO). The key is to prepare a textured substrate, or ''template,'' on which the YBCO may be deposited as a biaxially aligned thick film. Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of yttria stabilized zirconia or magnesium oxide on alloy tapes enables a final superconducting layer with grain-to-grain, in-plane alignment to within 3-5 degrees. Similar results are achieved on rolling-assisted, biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) using a variety of oxide layers on textured nickel tapes. The performance of research lengths of prototype wires in strong magnetic fields at 65 K already exceeds that of NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn in liquid helium. A scalable, ex-situ process for the YBCO coating has been demonstrated on both types of substrates. Consistent values of critical current density (J{sub c }) greater than 1 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} are now obtained on RABiTS, and J{sub c}'s in excess of 2 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} have been obtained on both substrates. A nonmagnetic variation of RABiTS (Ni-13% Cr) has also been shown to yield Jc greater than 1.5 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} . Six private companies in the U.S. are scaling up YBCO coated conductors for power and physics applications.

  6. Operator stress

    This paper addresses operator stress in the controlled testing environment of operator licensing accreditation for operation of a nuclear plant facility. From the perspective of stress theory, the authors look at the operator and shift supervisor under accreditation test conditions. They map theory to the real world of nuclear plant operations to reach conclusions concerning the stressfullness of the test situation, and recognize the stress management skills and self control of those operators and shift supervisors who successfully pass the test. (author)

  7. Stress induced martensitic transformation kinetics of polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy

    The variation of semi-empirical volume fraction of martensite as a function of thermodynamic driving force (t.d.f.) is determined based on measurements of pseudo-elastic deformation effects appearing in tubular Ni51at.%-Ti specimens submitted to isothermal biaxial proportional loading. To this end a thermodynamic framework developed by one of the authors (B.R.) was employed. These new experimental results when compared with the predictions of specific formal equations for martensitic phase transformation (p.t.) proposed earlier by B.R., indicate the need for modification of the formula describing the kinetics of reverse p.t. (martensite→austenite) associated with the formation of partial hysteresis in stress-strain co-ordinates. The applied method is new and the results are of importance in macroscopic modelling (determination of appropriate sets of constitutive equations) of the pseudo-elastic behaviour of SMA under complex stress state

  8. Oxidative stress

    This book contains 18 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Oxidative Stress: Introductory Remarks; Radiolysis of DNA and Model Systems in the Presence of Oxygen; Organic Peroxy Free Radicals as Ultimate Agents in Oxygen Toxicity; Antimalarials; and the Role of Dietary Components in Oxidative Stress in Tissues

  9. Geopotential Stress

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Density heterogeneity in the Earth’s lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth’s Stress Field. In theory the GPE...... is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite...... are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long...

  10. Modeling of delayed strains of concrete under biaxial loadings. Application to the reactor containment of nuclear power plants; Modelisation des deformations differees du beton sous sollicitations biaxiales. application aux enceintes de confinement de batiments reacteurs des centrales nucleaires

    Benboudjema, F

    2002-12-15

    The prediction of delayed strains is of crucial importance for durability and long-term serviceability of concrete structures (bridges, containment vessels of nuclear power plants, etc.). Indeed, creep and shrinkage cause cracking, losses of pre-stress and redistribution of stresses, and also, rarely, the ruin of the structure. The objective of this work is to develop numerical tools, able to predict the long-term behavior of concrete structures. Thus, a new hydro mechanical model is developed, including the description of drying, shrinkage, creep and cracking phenomena for concrete as a non-saturated porous medium. The modeling of drying shrinkage is based on an unified approach of creep and shrinkage. Basic and drying creep models are based on relevant chemo-physical mechanisms, which occur at different scales of the cement paste. The basic creep is explicitly related to the micro-diffusion of the adsorbed water between inter-hydrates and intra-hydrates and the capillary pores, and the sliding of the C-S-H gel at the nano-porosity level. The drying creep is induced by the micro-diffusion of the adsorbed water at different scales of the porosity, under the simultaneous effects of drying and mechanical loadings. Drying shrinkage is, therefore, assumed to result from the elastic and delayed response of the solid skeleton, submitted to both capillary and disjoining pressures. Furthermore, the cracking behavior of concrete is described by an orthotropic elastoplastic damage model. The coupling between all these phenomena is performed by using effective stresses which account for both external applied stresses and pore pressures. This model has been incorporated into a finite element code. The analysis of the long-term behavior is also performed on concrete specimens and prestressed concrete structures submitted to simultaneous drying and mechanical loadings. (author)

  11. The effect of the tensile stress on the swelling and microstructure of the stainless steels irradiated to high neutron fluence

    The void swelling and microstructure of the 0Kh16N15M3B and 0Kh16N15M3BP austenitic steels after irradiation in BN-350 reactor to displacement doze of 60 dpa at 4800C versus the applied stress have been studied. The swelling of those steels was found are linear with the biaxial tensile stress changing over the range 0/196 MPa. Swelling modulus, therewith was equal to 5x10-3MPa-1 and 9.2/15.8x10-3MPa-1 for the 0Kh16N15M3B and OKh16N15M3BP steels respectively. The stress effects the void number density increase without any significant changes of the void size. 2 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab. (author)

  12. A methodology for interpretation of overcoring stress measurements in anisotropic rock

    The in situ state of stress is an important parameter for the design of a repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. This report presents work conducted to improve the quality of overcoring stress measurements, focused on the interpretation of overcoring rock stress measurements when accounting for possible anisotropic behavior of the rock. The work comprised: (i) development/upgrading of a computer code for calculating stresses from overcoring strains for anisotropic materials and for a general overcoring probe configuration (up to six strain rosettes with six gauges each), (ii) development of a computer code for determining elastic constants for transversely isotropic rocks from biaxial testing, and (iii) analysis of case studies of selected overcoring measurements in both isotropic and anisotropic rocks from the Posiva and SKB sites in Finland and Sweden, respectively. The work was principally limited to transversely isotropic materials, although the stress calculation code is applicable also to orthotropic materials. The developed computer codes have been geared to work primarily with the Borre and CSIRO HI three-dimensional overcoring measurement probes. Application of the codes to selected case studies, showed that the developed tools were practical and useful for interpreting overcoring stress measurements conducted in anisotropic rock. A quantitative assessment of the effects of anisotropy may thus be obtained, which provides increased reliability in the stress data. Potential gaps in existing data and/or understanding can also be identified. (orig.)

  13. Modeling of delayed strains of concrete under biaxial loadings. Application to the reactor containment of nuclear power plants

    The prediction of delayed strains is of crucial importance for durability and long-term serviceability of concrete structures (bridges, containment vessels of nuclear power plants, etc.). Indeed, creep and shrinkage cause cracking, losses of pre-stress and redistribution of stresses, and also, rarely, the ruin of the structure. The objective of this work is to develop numerical tools, able to predict the long-term behavior of concrete structures. Thus, a new hydro mechanical model is developed, including the description of drying, shrinkage, creep and cracking phenomena for concrete as a non-saturated porous medium. The modeling of drying shrinkage is based on an unified approach of creep and shrinkage. Basic and drying creep models are based on relevant chemo-physical mechanisms, which occur at different scales of the cement paste. The basic creep is explicitly related to the micro-diffusion of the adsorbed water between inter-hydrates and intra-hydrates and the capillary pores, and the sliding of the C-S-H gel at the nano-porosity level. The drying creep is induced by the micro-diffusion of the adsorbed water at different scales of the porosity, under the simultaneous effects of drying and mechanical loadings. Drying shrinkage is, therefore, assumed to result from the elastic and delayed response of the solid skeleton, submitted to both capillary and disjoining pressures. Furthermore, the cracking behavior of concrete is described by an orthotropic elastoplastic damage model. The coupling between all these phenomena is performed by using effective stresses which account for both external applied stresses and pore pressures. This model has been incorporated into a finite element code. The analysis of the long-term behavior is also performed on concrete specimens and prestressed concrete structures submitted to simultaneous drying and mechanical loadings. (author)

  14. Intrinsic stress in ZrN thin films: Evaluation of grain boundary contribution from in situ wafer curvature and ex situ x-ray diffraction techniques

    Koutsokeras, L. E. [Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Institut Pprime, CNRS-Universite de Poitiers-ENSMA, UPR 3346, SP2MI, Teleport 2, Bd M et P Curie, F 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Abadias, G. [Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Institut Pprime, CNRS-Universite de Poitiers-ENSMA, UPR 3346, SP2MI, Teleport 2, Bd M et P Curie, F 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)

    2012-05-01

    Low-mobility materials, like transition metal nitrides, usually undergo large residual stress when sputter-deposited as thin films. While the origin of stress development has been an active area of research for high-mobility materials, atomistic processes are less understood for low-mobility systems. In the present work, the contribution of grain boundary to intrinsic stress in reactively magnetron-sputtered ZrN films is evaluated by combining in situ wafer curvature measurements, providing information on the overall biaxial stress, and ex situ x-ray diffraction, giving information on elastic strain (and related stress) inside crystallites. The thermal stress contribution was also determined from the in situ stress evolution during cooling down, after deposition was stopped. The stress data are correlated with variations in film microstructure and growth energetics, in the 0.13-0.42 Pa working pressure range investigated, and discussed based on existing stress models. At low pressure (high energetic bombardment conditions), a large compressive stress is observed due to atomic peening, which induces defects inside crystallites but also promotes incorporation of excess atoms in the grain boundary. Above 0.3-0.4 Pa, the adatom surface mobility is reduced, leading to the build-up of tensile stress resulting from attractive forces between under-dense neighbouring column boundary and possible void formation, while crystallites can still remain under compressive stress.

  15. Intrinsic stress in ZrN thin films: Evaluation of grain boundary contribution from in situ wafer curvature and ex situ x-ray diffraction techniques

    Low-mobility materials, like transition metal nitrides, usually undergo large residual stress when sputter-deposited as thin films. While the origin of stress development has been an active area of research for high-mobility materials, atomistic processes are less understood for low-mobility systems. In the present work, the contribution of grain boundary to intrinsic stress in reactively magnetron-sputtered ZrN films is evaluated by combining in situ wafer curvature measurements, providing information on the overall biaxial stress, and ex situ x-ray diffraction, giving information on elastic strain (and related stress) inside crystallites. The thermal stress contribution was also determined from the in situ stress evolution during cooling down, after deposition was stopped. The stress data are correlated with variations in film microstructure and growth energetics, in the 0.13-0.42 Pa working pressure range investigated, and discussed based on existing stress models. At low pressure (high energetic bombardment conditions), a large compressive stress is observed due to atomic peening, which induces defects inside crystallites but also promotes incorporation of excess atoms in the grain boundary. Above 0.3-0.4 Pa, the adatom surface mobility is reduced, leading to the build-up of tensile stress resulting from attractive forces between under-dense neighbouring column boundary and possible void formation, while crystallites can still remain under compressive stress.

  16. Hypervelocity Impact of Unstressed and Stressed Titanium in a Whipple Configuration in Support of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Propellant Tanks

    Nahra, Henry K.; Christiansen, Eric; Piekutowski, Andrew; Lyons, Frankel; Keddy, Christopher; Salem, Jonathan; Miller, Joshua; Bohl, William; Poormon, Kevin; Greene, Nathanel; Rodriquez, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Hypervelocity impacts were performed on six unstressed and six stressed titanium coupons with aluminium shielding in order to assess the effects of the partial penetration damage on the post impact micromechanical properties of titanium and on the residual strength after impact. This work is performed in support of the definition of the penetration criteria of the propellant tanks surfaces for the service module of the crew exploration vehicle where such a criterion is based on testing and analyses rather than on historical precedence. The objective of this work is to assess the effects of applied biaxial stress on the damage dynamics and morphology. The crater statistics revealed minute differences between stressed and unstressed coupon damage. The post impact residual stress analyses showed that the titanium strength properties were generally unchanged for the unstressed coupons when compared with undamaged titanium. However, high localized strains were shown near the craters during the tensile tests.

  17. Stress incontinence

    Onwude, Joseph Loze

    2009-01-01

    Stress incontinence, involving involuntary leaking of urine on effort, exertion, sneezing, or coughing, affects 17-45% of adult women. Risk factors include pregnancy (especially with vaginal delivery), smoking, and obesity.

  18. Stressing academia?

    Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    short of individual need while high degrees of fit will mitigate stress. The analysis is based on a stratified random sample including 2127 researchers at 64 Danish university departments and covering all main areas of research and all academic staff categories. The results show that fit with regard to......Incongruences between the individual and the organizational work context are potential stressors. The present study focuses on the relationship between a complementary need-supply fit and Danish researchers’ self-perceived job stress. Strain is expected to increase as organizational supplies fall...... “soft” dimensions as freedom and independence in the job, personal and professional development at work, and receiving peer recognition is highly significant for the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The better the fit is the lower stress-levels the researchers’ on average report. On the other...

  19. ANTIOXIDATIVE STRESS

    DÜNDAR, Y.; ASLAN, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this short review is to provokefocuses on the antioxidant-induced stress. Althoughthere are studies documenting that supplementationwith antioxidants appears to reduce lipid peroxidationand oxidative stress, it is still unknown exactly whatamounts are needed to have a beneficial antioxidanteffect and which dose reflects the safe and appropri-ate  limit for use. Many of  antioxidant vitamins and theother antioxidants can cause pathologic changes tothe exposed tissues and ...

  20. Stress fractures

    The diagnosis of a stress fracture should be considered in patients presented with pain after a change in activity, especially if the activity is strenuous and the pain is in the lower extremities. Since evidence of the stress fracture may not be apparent for weeks on routine radiographs, proper use of other imaging techniques will allow an earlier diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis is especially important in the femur, where displacement may occur

  1. Determination of residual stresses through piezo-spectroscopy in the alumina layer localized at the interface of thermal barriers; Determination des contraintes residuelles par piezospectroscopie dans les couches d'alumine a l'interface des barrieres thermiques

    Margueron, S.; Lepoutre, F. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    2003-03-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are ceramics layers deposited on the hot parts of turbines, their low thermal conductivity makes operating temperatures higher and as a consequence improves the turbine global yield. The authors propose a method for measuring the intensity of residual stresses in alumina oxide layer in order to better understand the aging processes that lead to TBC damages. This method has been applied to an AM1 sample covered with a polished underlayer of NiAl (Zr 500 ppm) and then with a TBC made of zircon that has been deposited through EB-PVD (electron beam physical vapour deposition). A series of about 1800 thermal cycles has been performed (operating temperature: 1100 Celsius degrees). An oxide layer has appeared at the interface between TBC and the underlayer. The analysis of fluorescence spectra shows the existence of a stress gradient inside the oxide layer. Moreover a regular pattern of macroscopic ripples can be noticed on the surface of the sample. It seems as if the ripples were due to a diffusion process of matter into the underlayer. Through the method the authors have shown and quantified the existence of: - biaxial residual stresses whose intensity is about -4 GPa, - an important biaxial stress gradient in the oxide layer: 0,95 GPa, and - stresses perpendicular to the interface whose intensity is {+-} 200 GPa. (A.C.)

  2. Stress analyses of flat plates with attached nozzles. Vol. 2: Experimental stress analyses of a flat plate with one nozzle attached

    Vol. 1 of this report compares experimental results with theoretical stress distributions for a flat plate with one nozzle configuration and for a flat plate with two closely spaced nozzles attached. This volume contains the complete test results for a flat plate with one nozzle attached that was subjected to 1:1 and 1:2 biaxial planar loadings on the plate, to a thrust loading on the nozzle, and to a moment loading on the nozzle. The plate tested was 36 x 36 x 0.375 in., and the attached nozzle had an outer dia of 2.625 in. and a 0.250-in.-thick wall. The nozzle was located in the center of the plate and was considered to be free of weld distortions and irregularities in the junction area. (U.S.)

  3. Chemical Solution-Based Epitaxial Oxide Films on Biaxially Textured Ni-W Substrates with Improved Out-of-Plane Texture for YBCO-Coated Conductors

    Bhuiyan, M. S.; Paranthaman, M.; Sathyamurthy, S.

    2007-10-01

    Epitaxial films of rare-earth (RE) niobates (where the rare earth includes La, Ce, and Nd) and lanthanum tantalate with pyrochlore structures were grown directly on biaxially textured nickel-3 at.% tungsten (Ni-W) substrates using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed the surface morphology of the films to be smooth and homogeneous. Detailed X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films of pyrochlore RE niobate and La-tantalate are highly textured with cube-on-cube epitaxy. The overall texture quality of the films was investigated by measuring the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) of the (004) and (222) rocking curves. We observed a sharper texture for both lanthanum niobate (La3NbO7) and lanthanum tantalate (La3TaO7) films compared to the underlying Ni-W substrate, though they have a larger lattice misfit with the Ni-W substrates. These results were comparable to the texture improvement observed in vacuum-deposited Y2O3 seed layers. Texture improvement in the seed layer is the key towards obtaining YBCO films with a␣higher critical current density. Hence, solution-deposited La3NbO7 and La3TaO7 films can be used as a seed layer towards developing all metalorganic-deposited (MOD) buffer/YBCO architectures.

  4. Biaxially textured copper and copper-iron alloy substrates for use in YBa2Cu3O7-x coated conductors

    Copper and Cu-Fe (Fe ?2.35 wt%) alloy substrates were thermo-mechanically processed and the biaxial texture development, magnetic properties, yield strength, and electrical resistivity were studied and compared to determine their suitability as substrates for high-temperature superconducting coated conductor applications. Average full width half maximum (FWHM) of 5.50 in Phi scans (in-plane alignment), and 6.60 in omega scans (out-of-plane alignment) was obtained in copper samples. Cu-Fe samples showed 5.90 FWHM in Phi scans and 5.90 in omega scans. Even with the presence of 2.35% Fe in the Cu-alloy, the saturation magnetization (Msat) value was found to be 4.27 emu g-1 at 5 K, which is less than in Ni samples by an order of magnitude and comparable to that of Ni-9 at.% W substrates. The yield strength of the annealed Cu-Fe alloy substrate was found to be at least two times higher than that of similarly annealed copper substrates. The electrical resistivity of Cu-Fe alloy was found to be an order of magnitude higher than that of pure copper at 77 K

  5. Epitaxial Growth of Yb2O3 Buffer Layers on Biaxially Textured-Ni (100) Substrates by Sol-Gel Process

    Beach, D.B.; Chirayil, T.G.; Christen, D.K.; Feenstra, R.; Goyal, A.; Kroeger, D.M.; Lee, D.F.; Martin, P.M.; Morrell, J.S.; Paranthaman, M.; Sun, E.Y.; Verebelyi, D.T.; Williams, R.K.

    1999-04-05

    In order to develop an alternative buffer layer architecture using the sol-gel process to produce YBCO (YBa2Cu307+) coated conductors, Yb203 has been chosen as the candidate material. Buffer layers of fi03 were epitaxkdly grown on biaxially textured-Ni (100) substrates by the sol gel process for the first time. The ~03 precursor solution was prepared from an alkoxide sol-gel route in 2-xnetho~ethanol and was deposited on textured-Ni (100) substrates by either spin coating or dip coating methods. The amorphous film was then processed at 1160oC under flowing (96%)MH2(4%) gas mixture for one hour. The fi03 iihn exhibited a strong c-axis orientation on the Ni (100) substrates. The phi and omega scans indicated good in plane and out of plane orientations. The X-ray (222) pde figure showed a cube-on-cube epitaxy. High current YBCO films were grown on the Y&03 sol-gel buffered-Ni substrates.

  6. Three-Dimensional Packing Structure and Electronic Properties of Biaxially Oriented Poly(2,5-bis(3-alkylthiophene-2-yl)thieno[3,2- b ]thiophene) Films

    Cho, Eunkyung

    2012-04-11

    We use a systematic approach that combines experimental X-ray diffraction (XRD) and computational modeling based on molecular mechanics and two-dimensional XRD simulations to develop a detailed model of the molecular-scale packing structure of poly(2,5-bis (3-tetradecylthiophene-2-yl) thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT-C 14) films. Both uniaxially and biaxially aligned films are used in this comparison and lead to an improved understanding of the molecular-scale orientation and crystal structure. We then examine how individual polymer components (i.e., conjugated backbone and alkyl side chains) contribute to the complete diffraction pattern, and how modest changes to a particular component orientation (e.g., backbone or side-chain tilt) influence the diffraction pattern. The effects on the polymer crystal structure of varying the alkyl side-chain length from C 12 to C 14 and C 16 are also studied. The accurate determination of the three-dimensional polymer structure allows us to examine the PBTTT electronic band structure and intermolecular electronic couplings (transfer integrals) as a function of alkyl side-chain length. This combination of theoretical and experimental techniques proves to be an important tool to help establish the relationship between the structural and electronic properties of polymer thin films. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. How light sources and distance of the light tip influence water sorption, solubility, and biaxial flexural strength of a composite resin.

    Lopes, Lawrence Gonzaga; Moraes, Beatriz Rodrigues; Souza, Renata Magalhaes P; Jardim Filho, Alfeu da Veiga; Moreira, Francine do Cuoto Lima; Campos, Roberto Elias; de Souza, Joao Batista

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the water sorption (WS), solubility (SL), and biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of a resin composite based on different polymerization units, storage permeants (distilled water and 75% ethanol), and distances between the light's tip and the composite resin. Using a stainless steel mold, 80 specimens were made and separated in two independent groups, according to the duration of storage (7 days or 60 days). The specimens were photocured using either a QTH or LED light (both used at 600 mW/cm2 for 40 seconds), with the light's tip guide either 0 mm or 2 mm from the surface of the resin. In general, the 75% ethanol produced higher WS and SL values but lower BFS values compared to water. Both distances influenced the WS and SL values, especially when 75% ethanol was used (p 0.05). For nearly all groups, the WS, SL, and BFS in different solvents and at different distances for photocuring of the tested resin were not affected by the curing light used. PMID:20591764

  8. Use of biaxially oriented polypropylene film for evaluating and cleaning contaminated atomic force microscopy probe tips: An application to blind tip reconstruction

    Nie, H.-Y.; Walzak, M. J.; McIntyre, N. S.

    2002-11-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of a surface is basically a convolution of the probe tip geometry and the surface features; it is important to know this tip effect to ensure that an image truly reflects the surface features. We have found that a biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film is suitable for checking tip performance and for cleaning contaminated tips, thus making it possible to collect images of the same area of a BOPP film surface before and after the tip was cleaned. Therefore, the difference between the two different images is solely due to the contamination of the tip. We took advantage of our ability to collect AFM images of the same area using the same tip, in one instance, contaminated and, in the other, after being cleaned. First we used blind reconstruction on the image collected using the contaminated tip. Blind tip reconstruction allows one to extract the geometry of the tip from a given image. Once we had estimated the geometry of the contaminated tip, we used it to simulate the tip effect using the image collected using the cleaned tip. By comparing the simulation result with the image collected using the contaminated tip we showed that the blind reconstruction routine works well. Prior to this, there was no de facto method for testing blind reconstruction algorithms.

  9. Stress Analysis

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)......The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)...

  10. Feeling Stressed

    ... is a big deal for teens. Because your body and mind are changing, you need more sleep to recharge ... might cause stress include: Schoolwork Changes in your body or weight Problems with friends or other relationships Being bullied Living in a dangerous neighborhood Peer ...

  11. Stress Tests

    Our Nuclear Facilities have recently operated in a special regime. Since March until December they were scrutinised by a team verifying and drilling all possible scenarios in case of emergency situations, earthquake, floods or long-term power supply loss. Stress tests were the hard job but their findings are already now a great contribution. (author)

  12. Stressed podocytes

    Svenningsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    conditions and in response to injury induced by endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress (Golubinskaya et al., 2015). Their report shed light on the complex regulation of Best3 in podocytes and will help pave the way for future studies on the pathogenesis of kidneys diseases with podocyte injury. This article is...

  13. Modeling of the cold work stress relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes mechanical behavior under PWR operating conditions

    This paper proposes a damaged viscoplastic model to simulate, for different isotherms (320, 350, 380, 400 and 420 degC), the out-of-flux anisotropic mechanical behavior of cold work stress relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes over the fluence range 0-85.1024 nm-2 (E > 1 MeV). The model, identified from uni and biaxial tests conducted at 350 and 400 degC, is validated from tests performed at 320, 380 and 420 degC. This model is able to simulate strain hardening under internal pressure followed by a stress relaxation period (thermal creep), which is representative of a pellet cladding mechanical interaction occurring during a power transient (class 2 incidental condition). Both the integration of a scalar state variable, characterizing the damage caused by a bombardment with neutrons, and the modification of the static recovery law allowed us to simulate the fast neutron flux effect (irradiation creep). (author)

  14. Stress and temperature-dependent hydride reorientation of Zircaloy-4 cladding and its effect on the ductility degradation

    A hydride reorientation can deteriorate the mechanical ductility of spent fuel cladding and make it more susceptible to failure. Therefore, an evaluation of the reorientation under dry storage conditions and their effects on the cladding ductility are critical issues in terms of the regulation criteria. In this work, biaxial stress was applied to Zircaloy-4 cladding by pressurizing Ar gas. The study showed that the hydride reorientation can occur at around 60 and 80 MPa at 400 and 300°C, respectively. The ring compression test at room temperature showed that the ductility decreases with an increase in radial hydride quantity: Fl(45) and radial hydride continuity factor. In addition, a significant hydride reorientation can occur at high temperature conditions even if the hoop stress is equal to or less than 90 MPa which can bring a significant ductility degradation. (author)

  15. Analysis of linear elasticity and non-linearity due to plasticity and material damage in woven and biaxial braided composites

    Goyal, Deepak

    Textile composites have a wide variety of applications in the aerospace, sports, automobile, marine and medical industries. Due to the availability of a variety of textile architectures and numerous parameters associated with each, optimal design through extensive experimental testing is not practical. Predictive tools are needed to perform virtual experiments of various options. The focus of this research is to develop a better understanding of linear elastic response, plasticity and material damage induced nonlinear behavior and mechanics of load flow in textile composites. Textile composites exhibit multiple scales of complexity. The various textile behaviors are analyzed using a two-scale finite element modeling. A framework to allow use of a wide variety of damage initiation and growth models is proposed. Plasticity induced non-linear behavior of 2x2 braided composites is investigated using a modeling approach based on Hill's yield function for orthotropic materials. The mechanics of load flow in textile composites is demonstrated using special non-standard postprocessing techniques that not only highlight the important details, but also transform the extensive amount of output data into comprehensible modes of behavior. The investigations show that the damage models differ from each other in terms of amount of degradation as well as the properties to be degraded under a particular failure mode. When compared with experimental data, predictions of some models match well for glass/epoxy composite whereas other's match well for carbon/epoxy composites. However, all the models predicted very similar response when damage factors were made similar, which shows that the magnitude of damage factors are very important. Full 3D as well as equivalent tape laminate predictions lie within the range of the experimental data for a wide variety of braided composites with different material systems, which validated the plasticity analysis. Conclusions about the effect of fiber type on the degree of plasticity induced non-linearity in a +/-25° braid depend on the measure of non-linearity. Investigations about the mechanics of load flow in textile composites bring new insights about the textile behavior. For example, the reasons for existence of transverse shear stress under uni-axial loading and occurrence of stress concentrations at certain locations were explained.

  16. Atomic-level stress and induced growth of wurtzite zinc oxide using molecular dynamics simulation

    Molecular dynamics is used to simulate the film growth process of zinc oxide (ZnO) deposited on a ZnO substrate. In the work, the Buckingham-type interatomic potential is modelled to describe the interaction of Zn-O atoms. The effects of incident energy and substrate temperature on the layer coverage function, radial distribution function and residual stress are investigated. Results show that the crystal growth of the deposition film is a symmetric wurtzite lattice along the [0?0?0?1] direction due to charge transformation. Epitaxial-like growth only occurs at very low incident energies, while the intermixing process could start from an incident energy of 3 eV. The average stress of the Zn layer is a compressive stress that is close to zero. However, the average mean biaxial stress and the normal stress of the O layer are -4.49 GPa and -3.07 GPa, respectively. The simulation results are compared with experimental results available in the literature. (paper)

  17. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  18. Efficient stress-relaxation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes using carbon nanotubes

    Park, Ah Hyun; Seo, Tae Hoon; Chandramohan, S.; Lee, Gun Hee; Min, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Seula; Kim, Myung Jong; Hwang, Yong Gyoo; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2015-09-01

    A facile method to facilitate epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of gallium nitride (GaN) was developed by using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). High-quality GaN was achieved on sapphire by simply coating the SWCNTs as an intermediate layer for stress and defect mitigation. SWCNTs maintained their integrity at high reaction temperature and led to suppression of edge dislocations and biaxial stress relaxation by up to 0.32 GPa in a GaN template layer. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on this high-quality GaN template offered enhanced internal quantum efficiency and light output power with reduced efficiency droop. The method developed here has high potential to replace current ELO methods such as patterned sapphire substrates or buffer layers like SiO2 and SiNx.A facile method to facilitate epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of gallium nitride (GaN) was developed by using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). High-quality GaN was achieved on sapphire by simply coating the SWCNTs as an intermediate layer for stress and defect mitigation. SWCNTs maintained their integrity at high reaction temperature and led to suppression of edge dislocations and biaxial stress relaxation by up to 0.32 GPa in a GaN template layer. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on this high-quality GaN template offered enhanced internal quantum efficiency and light output power with reduced efficiency droop. The method developed here has high potential to replace current ELO methods such as patterned sapphire substrates or buffer layers like SiO2 and SiNx. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR04239A

  19. Residual stress investigation of copper plate and canister EB-Welds Complementary Results

    The residual stresses in copper as induced by EB-welding were studied by specimens where the weld had two configurations: either a linear or a circumferential weld. This report contains the residual stress measurements of two plates, containing linear welds, and the full-scale copper lid specimen to which a hollow cylinder section had been joined by a circumferential EB-weld. The residual stress state of the EB-welded copper specimens was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), hole drilling (HD) ring core (RC) and contour method (CM). Three specimens, canister XK010 and plates X251 and X252, were subjected to a thorough study aiming at quantitative determination of the residual stress state in and around the EB-welds using XRD for surface and HD and RC for spatial stress analysis. The CM maps one stress component over a whole cross section. The surface residual stresses measured by XRD represent the machined condition of the copper material. The XRD study showed that the stress changes towards compression close to the weld in the hollow cylinder, which indicates shrinkage in the hoop direction. According to the same analogy, the shrinkage in the axial direction is much smaller. The HD measurements showed that the stress state in the base material is bi-axial and, in terms of von Mises stress, 50 MPa for the plates and 20 MPa for the cylinder part of the canister. The stress state in the EB-welds of all specimens differs clearly from the stress state in the base material being more tensile, with higher magnitudes of von Mises stress in the plate than in the canister welds. The HD and RC results were obtained using linear elastic theory. The RC measurements showed that the maximum principal stress in the BM is close to zero near the surface and it becomes slightly tensile, 10 MPa, deeper under the surface. Welding pushed the general stress state towards tension with the maximum principal stress reaching 50 MPa, deeper than 5 mm below the surface in the weld. The distribution in Step II of the EB-weld differed from this behaviour by following the trend of the BM results. The CM presented weld longitudinal stress maps over the whole cross-section of the EB-welded plates. Tensile stresses of 50 - 70 MPa were observed in the welds and widely outside the HAZ, almost 10 times the width of the weld. (orig.)

  20. Equi-penetration grazing incidence X-ray diffraction method: Stress depth profiling of ground silicon nitride

    In this work a new modification of the grazing incidence X-ray diffraction method for residual stress determination is presented. This equi-penetration grazing incidence X-ray diffraction method is especially suitable for the precise determination of the residual stress depth profile in materials. It originates from a sin2ψ approach based on the determination of the lattice spacing of various selected diffraction planes. Additionally, for each measurement the condition ∂τ/∂ψ = 0 is here fulfilled and one dataset corresponds strictly to a specific mean penetration depth τ independent of the tilt angle ψ. This can be achieved by the individual adjustment of the incidence angle for each measured diffraction maximum. In the actual work, the influence of different surface finishes on the stress depth profile of commercial silicon nitride ceramic samples is investigated. The ground specimen displays an almost biaxial compressive stress parallel and near to the specimen surface of 3 GPa, which decreases almost up to zero in a depth of 5 μm. After the polishing process, the specimens show a strongly reduced compressive stress maximum at the surface of 1 GPa, which diminishes similarly with increasing depth. The orientation between the stress component and the grinding direction is of minor influence. Furthermore, the influence of a possible residual stress component perpendicular to the sample surface is discussed

  1. Tensile strength and internal stress determination in salt compacts by diametrical and axial compression tests

    Due to the brittle character of the material an indirect method (diametrical and axial compression testing) was adopted for tensile strength determination. Two lots of compacts were prepared from salt powder, by pressing it in steel dyes by means of a hydraulic press. For uniaxial tests, cylindrical compacts were used. Biaxial tests were done on disk-shaped compacts, each disk having a diametrical V-shaped cut on one of its plane areas. The punches used for compression tests, were designed to obtain a ratio of 1.2 between their curvature radius and sample radius. At the same time with the tensile strength, the stress intensity factor (KIC and KIIC values) has been obtained. The results obtained are in good agreement with the mechanical properties of the salt, previously reported. (Authors)

  2. BUCLASP 3: A computer program for stresses and buckling of heated composite stiffened panels and other structures, user's manual

    Tripp, L. L.; Tamekuni, M.; Viswanathan, A. V.

    1973-01-01

    The use of the computer program BUCLASP3 is described. The code is intended for thermal stress and instability analyses of structures such as unidirectionally stiffened panels. There are two types of instability analyses that can be effected by PAINT; (1) thermal buckling, and (2) buckling due to a specified inplane biaxial loading. Any structure that has a constant cross section in one direction, that may be idealized as an assemblage of beam elements and laminated flat and curved plate strip-elements can be analyzed. The two parallel ends of the panel must be simply supported, whereas arbitrary elastic boundary conditions may be imposed along any one or both external longitudinal side. Any variation in the temperature rise (from ambient) through the cross section of a panel is considered in the analyses but it must be assumed that in the longitudinal direction the temperature field is constant. Load distributions for the externally applied inplane biaxial loads are similar in nature to the permissible temperature field.

  3. Effects of Uniaxial and Biaxial Strain on Few-Layered Terrace Structures of MoS2 Grown by Vapor Transport.

    McCreary, Amber; Ghosh, Rudresh; Amani, Matin; Wang, Jin; Duerloo, Karel-Alexander N; Sharma, Ankit; Jarvis, Karalee; Reed, Evan J; Dongare, Avinash M; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Terrones, Mauricio; Namburu, Raju R; Dubey, Madan

    2016-03-22

    One of the most fascinating properties of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is its ability to be subjected to large amounts of strain without experiencing degradation. The potential of MoS2 mono- and few-layers in electronics, optoelectronics, and flexible devices requires the fundamental understanding of their properties as a function of strain. While previous reports have studied mechanically exfoliated flakes, tensile strain experiments on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown few-layered MoS2 have not been examined hitherto, although CVD is a state of the art synthesis technique with clear potential for scale-up processes. In this report, we used CVD-grown terrace MoS2 layers to study how the number and size of the layers affected the physical properties under uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain. Interestingly, we observed significant shifts in both the Raman in-plane mode (as high as -5.2 cm(-1)) and photoluminescence (PL) energy (as high as -88 meV) for the few-layered MoS2 under ∼1.5% applied uniaxial tensile strain when compared to monolayers and few-layers of MoS2 studied previously. We also observed slippage between the layers which resulted in a hysteresis of the Raman and PL spectra during further applications of strain. Through DFT calculations, we contended that this random layer slippage was due to defects present in CVD-grown materials. This work demonstrates that CVD-grown few-layered MoS2 is a realistic, exciting material for tuning its properties under tensile strain. PMID:26881920

  4. Caracterización mecánica de aleaciones Ti-Nb mediante ensayos de flexión biaxial

    Amigó, V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays titanium and titanium alloys are increasingly being used in the industry. Particularly β-Ti alloys that stand out for having great strength properties and low elastic modulus compared to Ti c.p. or Ti-6Al-4V. Among Ti alloys, Ti-Nb alloys with high contents of alloying elements are widely used. In this work Ti-Nb alloys have been obtained using conventional powdermetallurgy. It has been studied the evolution of properties of these alloys as a function of the percentage of niobium. It can be noted the ball on three balls test used in order to characterize the samples.

    En la actualidad, cada vez, son más importantes en la industria las aleaciones de titanio. En especial las aleaciones tipo-β, que destacan por tener buenas propiedades resistentes y bajos módulos elásticos, en comparación con el Ti c.p. o el Ti-6Al-4V. Dentro de estas aleaciones cabe destacar las Ti-Nb con altos contenidos en elementos aleantes. En este trabajo se han obtenido, mediante pulvimetalurgia convencional, una serie de aleaciones Ti-Nb, en el rango del 20-40 % de niobio. Se ha obtenido la evolución de las propiedades de dichas aleaciones en función del porcentaje de niobio, mediante la utilización del ensayo de flexión biaxial con tres apoyos (three ball test.

  5. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    ... Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Repetitive Stress ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  6. Stress in childhood

    ... recognize that they are stressed. Parents may suspect stress if the child has experienced a stressful situation and begins to ... or desires, and loss. Recognize signs of unresolved stress in your child. Keep your child informed of necessary and anticipated ...

  7. Stress and Mood

    ... Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking ... story: Time Out Times 10 >> share What Causes Stress? Read full story: What Causes Stress? >> share The ...

  8. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Repetitive Stress Injuries Print ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  9. Stress and your heart

    Coronary heart disease - stress; Coronary artery disease - stress ... Your body responds to stress on many levels. First, it releases stress hormones that make you breathe faster. Your blood pressure goes up. Your muscles ...

  10. Oxidative stress

    Stevanović Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085

  11. Flexión biaxial de las columnas esbeltas de concreto en alta resistencia y los tubos llenos de concreto bajo cargas a corto y largo plazo: II) Verificación

    Jose A. Rodríguez-Gutiérrez; Jose Dario Aristizabal-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    En un artículo adjunto se presenta el método analítico para calcular las respuestas, a corto y largo plazo, de las columnas esbeltas de concreto en alta resistencia (HSC) y de los tubos rellenos de hormigón; con condiciones de apoyo generalizados, sometidos a cargas transversales de luz y a cargas axiales excéntricas en los extremos (causando curvatura simple o doble bajo flexión uniaxial o biaxial).Los tipos de columnas que pueden ser analizadas son: ovaladas, rectangulares, circulares, C, T...

  12. New Lyotropic Mixtures with Non-Chiral N-Acylamino Acid Surfactants Presenting the Biaxial Nematic Phase Investigated by Laser Conoscopy, Polarized Optical Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction

    Erol Akpinar; Dennys Reis; Muhammet Yildirim; Antônio Martins Figueiredo Neto

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid-based surfactants were used as the main surfactants to prepare new lyotropic mixtures presenting three nematic phases. One of them is biaxial (NB), and the two others are uniaxial, discotic (ND) and calamitic (NC). These surfactants were the non-chiral molecules, potassium N-dodecanoyl-DL-alaninate (DL-KDDA), potassium N-dodecanoyl-DL-serinate (DL-KDDS), disodium N-dodecanoyl-DL-aspartate (DL-NaDDAs) and potassium N-dodecanoyl-glycinate (KDDGly). Measurements of the optical bire...

  13. Chronic Stress and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders.

    Davidson, Laura M.; Baum, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    Examined the relationship between chronic stress and symptoms of posttraumatic stress syndrome in people living within five miles of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power station. Results provided evidence of substantive links between chronic stress and development of mild symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. (Author/BL)

  14. Stress, texture and microstructure of zirconium thin films probed by X-ray diffraction

    Zirconium (?-Zr) thin films (thicknesses: 12 nm-240 nm) have been deposited on glass substrates by dc magnetron sputtering. Anisotropic broadening of diffraction lines has been observed for all films when probed by X-ray diffraction. Williamson-Hall method of X-ray line profile analysis shows average crystallite sizes of a few nanometers and high average microstrains for all films. Diffraction stress analysis of Zr films reveals relatively high biaxial compressive stresses that are found to decrease with increasing film thickness. The level of stress has been compared to the theoretical yield strength of Zr films obtained by a model calculation. All Zr films show (0002) fiber texture as dominant texture component except 240 nm thick films. Ratios of strain-free lattice parameters (co/ao) determined for all Zr films are higher than the reported co/ao ratio for bulk zirconium. Observation of anisotropic diffraction line broadening in the textured Zr films with high in-plane compressive stress indicates anisotropy in the shape of individual crystallite in all films

  15. Effect of Zirconia Thickness on the Tensile Stress of Zirconia Based All-Ceramic Restorations

    Masood Shiezadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the presented study was to evaluate the effect of zirconia thickness on the tensile stress of zirconia based all-ceramic restorations. Methods: Twenty zirconia disks with 10mm diameter were prepared in two groups using CAD/CAM system. The thickness of zirconia was 0.5mm in first group and 0.3mm in second group. After sintering, 0.4mm glass ceramic porcelain was applied to each disk. Then, sintering and glazing of porcelain carried out. Instron testing machine with 1mm/min crosshead speed used to evaluate the failure load of the samples. Biaxial Flexural strength standard formula employed to calculate tensile stress of specimens. Statistical analysis performed using SPSS software. Results: Although data analysis showed more maximum tensile stress in 1st group, no significant differences were found between two groups. Conclusion: Zirconia with 0.5mm and 0.3mm thicknesses cause similar tensile stress in all-ceramic restorations and thickness of these laminates could be reduced to 0.7mm.

  16. The influence of multiaxial states of stress on the hydrogen embrittlement of zirconium alloy sheet

    Yunchang, Fan; Koss, D. A.

    1985-04-01

    The ductility of ZIRCALOY *-2 sheets containing 21-615 wt ppm hydrogen has been investigated at room temperature over a range of stress states from uniaxial to equibiaxial tension. Data based on locally determined fracture strains show a decrease in ductility with both increasing hydrogen content and increasing degree of biaxiality of the stress state. Metallographic and fractographic examinations indicate that the embrittlement is a consequence of void nucleation (due to hydride fracture), void growth, and void link-up. The influence of hydrogen content and stress state on each of the sequential stages of ductile fracture is determined. These results indicate that the primary cause for the influence of stress state on the hydrogen embrittlement of the ZIRCALOY sheet is that void link-up is initiated at a much lower critical void density in equibiaxial tension than in uniaxial tension. This appears to be a result of equibiaxial deformation enhancing (a) direct participation of previously unfractured hydrides in providing a fracture path linking up voids and (b) a localized shear instability process which is triggered by the nucleation of voids.

  17. Vibration and Stability of Thick Simply Supported Shallow Shells Subjected to In-Plane Stresses

    MATSUNAGA, H.

    1999-08-01

    The effects of higher order deformations on natural frequencies and buckling stresses of a thick shallow shell with reactangular planform subjected to uniaxial and biaxial in-plane stresses are studied. Based on the power series expansion of displacement components, a set of fundamental dynamic equations of a two-dimensional higher order shallow shell theory is derived through Hamilton's principle. Several sets of truncated approximate theories which can take into account the complete effects of higher order deformations such as shear deformations with thickness changes and rotatory inertia are applied to solve the vibration and stability problems of a thick shallow shell. Three types of simply supported shallow shells with positive, zero and negative Gaussian curvatures are considered. In order to assure the accuracy of the present theory, convergence properties of the lowest two natural frequencies for the first vibration moder=s=1 are examined in detail. The present results are also compared with those of existing theories. In the case of a simply supported shallow shell, buckling stresses can be calculated from the natural frequencies without in-plane stresses.

  18. Investigations on the influence of the stress state on fracture-mechanical values

    Fracture toughness obtained from specimen can be applied to construction elements only when the same stress state exists. In standardised fracture-mechanical tests plain strain is realised. Using the stress intensity factor, a critical crack length or a critical load can be obtained. Above these values a crack propagates in an unstable way. The specimen are tested under uni-axial load. In this paper investigations have been made whether a biaxial load increases the stress state over the plain strain and whether consequently a decrease of the critical fracture toughness and a shift of the temperatures Tsub(g)sub(y) and Tsub(s) results which characterise the fracture behaviour of steel. In order to answer these questions the tests were made which induced due to their geometry an additional nominal stress parallel to the crack front in spite of uni-axial loading. The results were compared with those from specimen without an additional nominal stress and having in their cross section under same test conditions nearly the same plain strain. The fracture toughness of both specimen types were compared at temperatures between 142 K and 252 K and correlated to other material-characterising values. The tests were completed by stress analysis and by comparing the crack opening displacement. Due to the additional stress, Tsub(g)sub(y) was found to be 20 K higher than for the reference specimen. The fracture toughness decreases significantly in certain temperature ranges. The plastic stress concentration factor was comperatively higher and the remaining plastic crack opening decreases up to 25%. (orig.)

  19. Stress assessment in piping under synthetic thermal loads emulating turbulent fluid mixing

    Costa Garrido, Oriol, E-mail: oriol.costa@ijs.si; El Shawish, Samir, E-mail: samir.elshawish@ijs.si; Cizelj, Leon, E-mail: leon.cizelj@ijs.si

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Generation of complex space-continuous and time-dependent temperature fields. • 1D and 3D thermo-mechanical analyses of pipes under complex surface thermal loads. • Surface temperatures and stress fluctuations are highly linearly correlated. • 1D and 3D results agree for a wide range of Fourier and Biot numbers. • Global thermo-mechanical loading promotes non-equibiaxial stress state. - Abstract: Thermal fatigue assessment of pipes due to turbulent fluid mixing in T-junctions is a rather difficult task because of the existing uncertainties and variability of induced thermal stresses. In these cases, thermal stresses arise on three-dimensional pipe structures due to complex thermal loads, known as thermal striping, acting at the fluid-wall interface. A recently developed approach for the generation of space-continuous and time-dependent temperature fields has been employed in this paper to reproduce fluid temperature fields of a case study from the literature. The paper aims to deliver a detailed study of the three-dimensional structural response of piping under the complex thermal loads arising in fluid mixing in T-junctions. Results of three-dimensional thermo-mechanical analyses show that fluctuations of surface temperatures and stresses are highly linearly correlated. Also, surface stress fluctuations, in axial and hoop directions, are almost equi-biaxial. These findings, representative on cross sections away from system boundaries, are moreover supported by the sensitivity analysis of Fourier and Biot numbers and by the comparison with standard one-dimensional analyses. Agreement between one- and three-dimensional results is found for a wide range of studied parameters. The study also comprises the effects of global thermo-mechanical loading on the surface stress state. Implemented mechanical boundary conditions develop more realistic overall system deformation and promote non-equibiaxial stresses.

  20. Stress assessment in piping under synthetic thermal loads emulating turbulent fluid mixing

    Highlights: • Generation of complex space-continuous and time-dependent temperature fields. • 1D and 3D thermo-mechanical analyses of pipes under complex surface thermal loads. • Surface temperatures and stress fluctuations are highly linearly correlated. • 1D and 3D results agree for a wide range of Fourier and Biot numbers. • Global thermo-mechanical loading promotes non-equibiaxial stress state. - Abstract: Thermal fatigue assessment of pipes due to turbulent fluid mixing in T-junctions is a rather difficult task because of the existing uncertainties and variability of induced thermal stresses. In these cases, thermal stresses arise on three-dimensional pipe structures due to complex thermal loads, known as thermal striping, acting at the fluid-wall interface. A recently developed approach for the generation of space-continuous and time-dependent temperature fields has been employed in this paper to reproduce fluid temperature fields of a case study from the literature. The paper aims to deliver a detailed study of the three-dimensional structural response of piping under the complex thermal loads arising in fluid mixing in T-junctions. Results of three-dimensional thermo-mechanical analyses show that fluctuations of surface temperatures and stresses are highly linearly correlated. Also, surface stress fluctuations, in axial and hoop directions, are almost equi-biaxial. These findings, representative on cross sections away from system boundaries, are moreover supported by the sensitivity analysis of Fourier and Biot numbers and by the comparison with standard one-dimensional analyses. Agreement between one- and three-dimensional results is found for a wide range of studied parameters. The study also comprises the effects of global thermo-mechanical loading on the surface stress state. Implemented mechanical boundary conditions develop more realistic overall system deformation and promote non-equibiaxial stresses

  1. Wettability and optical properties of O{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasma treated biaxially oriented semicrystalline poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    Jucius, D., E-mail: dalius.jucius@ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, Savanoriu 271, LT-50131 Kaunas (Lithuania); Grigaliunas, V.; Kopustinskas, V.; Lazauskas, A.; Guobiene, A. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, Savanoriu 271, LT-50131 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PET films were treated by low pressure O{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of the plasma treatment on optical properties and wettability was examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aging effects were analyzed by storing the samples at room conditions for 60 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly hydrophilic surfaces were made without worsening of optical transmission. - Abstract: Influence of low pressure O{sub 2}, CF{sub 4}, and successive O{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} RF plasma treatment on optical properties and wettability of biaxially oriented semicrystalline poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was examined. Produced by industrial stretch-blow molding PET films of the 300 {mu}m thickness were chosen for the experiments. Influence of the aging was also investigated by storing plasma treated samples at room conditions for 60 days. It was revealed that O{sub 2} plasma treated samples suffered from the hydrophobic recovery and long term improvement of hydrophilicity was only a moderate. Energetic CF{sub 4} plasma treatment was able to form a large number of surface active sites which in turn was capable to attach the oxygen containing groups and to increase the hydrophilicity. However, aged for 10-60 days CF{sub 4} plasma treated PET films have showed a large scattering of the contact angle values measured on the same surface. Successive O{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasma treatment, despite induced hydrophobicity of as treated films, after 3 days of aging have resulted in highly homogeneous hydrophilic ({Theta} Almost-Equal-To 20 Degree-Sign ) surfaces which have retained their hydrophilicity for the entire period of investigation. Moreover, combined plasma treatment of PET films has not influenced significantly the transmission of visible light. So, such a treatment can be considered as beneficial for the production of highly homogeneous hydrophilic surfaces without significant influence on their optical properties.

  2. New Lyotropic Mixtures with Non-Chiral N-Acylamino Acid Surfactants Presenting the Biaxial Nematic Phase Investigated by Laser Conoscopy, Polarized Optical Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction

    Erol Akpinar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid-based surfactants were used as the main surfactants to prepare new lyotropic mixtures presenting three nematic phases. One of them is biaxial (NB, and the two others are uniaxial, discotic (ND and calamitic (NC. These surfactants were the non-chiral molecules, potassium N-dodecanoyl-DL-alaninate (DL-KDDA, potassium N-dodecanoyl-DL-serinate (DL-KDDS, disodium N-dodecanoyl-DL-aspartate (DL-NaDDAs and potassium N-dodecanoyl-glycinate (KDDGly. Measurements of the optical birefringences and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to characterize the nematic phases and phase transitions. Mixtures with DL-KDDS exhibited the largest biaxial phase domain (~9 °C with respect to the other mixtures in this study. The results obtained with the KDDGly mixture showed that the existence of hydrogen bonding between the head groups of the surfactant molecules seems to hinder the orientation of the micelles under the action of an external magnetic field.

  3. Managing Leadership Stress

    Bal, Vidula; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less . . . and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to look for and having a strategy for increasing your resources will help you manage leadership stress and be more effective over a long career.Table of ContentsThe Stress of Leadership 7Why Is Leadership Stressful? 8Stress Assessment 13When Stress Is Wh

  4. How Coaches Manage Stress.

    Ruder, M. Karen

    1991-01-01

    Presents stress management strategies for coaches, focusing on what stress is, how it affects the body, and what to do to minimize the effects of stress on health. The article explains on- and off-the-job stress factors so coaches can recognize potential stress situations and handle them as they occur. (SM)

  5. Prediction of stress relaxation under multiaxial stresses

    Computations have been made of the relaxation of residual stresses in a thick walled tube under conditions corresponding to commercial stress relief heat treatment of the nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel A533B. The distribution of residual stresses which were introduced was peaked around a given radius in the tube. The relax- ation of the equivalent stresses followed almost exactly a uniaxial behavior. The relaxation rate of the hydrostatic stress was of about the same order or slower than that of the equivalent stress. The time dependence of the hydrostatic stress was mainly controlled by the initial magnitude of hydrostatic stress whereas the degree of the constraint and thereby the boundary conditions at the tube walls had only a small influence. The relaxation rate decreased with increasing initial magnitude of the hydrostatic stress. The computed relaxation behaviour under multiaxial stress could be rationalized in terms of a developed model. This model was also suc- cessfully applied to Gott's measurements on stress relaxation during stress relief heat treatment of a welded joint between 130 mm thick plates of A533B where the stress state was highly triaxial. (Authors)

  6. Raman characterization and stress analysis of AlN:Er3+ epilayers grown on sapphire and silicon substrates

    Highlights: The wurtzite structure of AlN:Er3+ was confirmed. A Raman spectra comparison of AlN:Er3+ grown on different substrates was performed. AlN:Er3+ grown on silicon substrate exhibits a high structural quality. The biaxial stress in AlN:Er3+ thin films was studied. Temperature variation of E2(high) Raman frequency and linewidth was established using a theoretical model. - Abstract: Raman spectra and resulting stress analyses were performed for two sets of erbium implanted aluminum nitride (AlN:Er3+) epilayers deposited by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on (0 0 0 1) sapphire and (1 1 1) silicon substrates. The AlN:Er3+ epilayers were examined using Raman scattering at different temperatures revealing the presence of the allowed E2(high) and A1(LO) phonon modes. The E2(high) mode linewidths reflect the best qualities of the implanted and thermally annealed epilayers grown on silicon substrates compared with those grown on sapphire substrates. It was observed that relatively tensile stress existed in AlN:Er3+ epilayer grown on sapphire in contrast to a compressive stress present in the AlN:Er3+ epilayer grown on silicon as indicated by the observed E2(high) mode frequency shift and the broadening of the vibrational mode linewidth. The stress value was calculated. The temperature dependence of the E2(high) frequency and linewidth for the AlN:Er3+ epilayer grown on sapphire were theoretically modeled

  7. Electron probe response function and piezo-spectroscopic behaviour of semiconductor materials in presence of highly graded stress fields

    Pezzotti, G [Ceramic Physics Laboratory, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, 606-8585 Kyoto (Japan); Zhu, W [Ceramic Physics Laboratory, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, 606-8585 Kyoto (Japan); Leto, A [Research Institute for Nanoscience, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, 606-8585 Kyoto (Japan); Matsutani, A [Ceramic Physics Laboratory, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, 606-8585 Kyoto (Japan); Porporati, A A [Research Institute for Nanoscience, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, 606-8585 Kyoto (Japan)

    2006-12-07

    The response function of the electron probe and the stress dependence of cathodoluminescence spectra emitted by selected semiconductor materials have been evaluated by scanning across sharp bi-material interfaces and along highly graded residual stress fields generated at the tip of an equilibrium crack, respectively. These microscopic procedures can be made fully quantitative provided that the crack opening displacement of the investigated crack is preliminarily measured in a scanning electron microscope for an in situ estimate of the crack-tip stress intensity factor. Taking advantage of the high scanning flexibility of the electron probe, capable of nanometric lateral displacements, spectral shifts typical of the K-dominated zone along the axis of crack propagation were recorded as a function of distance from the crack-tip. A plot of equi-biaxial stress versus spectral band shift was then obtained whose slope represents the piezo-spectroscopic coefficient of the selected material band. A theoretical analysis was attempted to analyse the in-plane interaction between sample and electron probe and to put forward suitable conditions for a reliable assessment of highly graded stress fields. Conditions were worked out into generalized plots as a function of spectroscopic and mechanical parameters for GaN, 3C-SiC and GaAs, as paradigm semiconductor materials.

  8. Effect of cyclic block loading on character of deformation and strength of structural materials in plane stressed state

    The paper is concerned with choice of conditions for preliminary cyclic block loading, determination of fatigue failure resistance characteristics for various structural materials under regular and selected block loading, investigation of the preliminary cyclic loading effect on regularities of elastoplastic deformation of materials concerned in the biaxial stressed state. Under selected conditions of cyclic block loading the character of damage accumulation is close to the linear law for the materials of high-srength doped steel, and VT6 alloys of concern. These materials in the initial state and after preliminary cyclic loading are anisotropic. Axial direction is characterized by a higher plastic strain resistance for steel and tangential direction - for VT6 alloy. The generalized strain curves for the materials in question are not invariant as to the stressed state type. It is stated that the effect of preliminary unsteady cyclic loading on resistance and general regularities of material deformation in the complex stressed state is insignificant. It is observed that stress-strain properties of the materials tend to vary in the following way: plastic strain resistance of the steel lowers and that of VT6 rises, anisotropy of the materials somehow decreases. The variation in the material anisotropy may be attributed to a decrease in residual stresses resulting from preliminary cyclic loading

  9. Stress and Coping with Stress in Adolescence

    Petra Dolenc

    2015-01-01

    Because of the many developmental changes in adolescence, young people are exposed to greater likelihood of experiencing stress. On the other hand, this period is critical for developing effective and constructive coping strategies. In the contribution, we summarize part of what is known about stress, stress responses and coping. Throughout, we focus on common stressful events among adolescents and emphasize the importance of dealing successfully with stressors in their daily lives. Finally, ...

  10. Stress urinary incontinence

    Incontinence - stress ... over 2 cups of urine in their bladder. Stress incontinence occurs when the muscles that control your ... area or the prostate (in men) Unknown causes Stress incontinence is the most common type in women. ...

  11. Stress and Heart Health

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Stress and Heart Health Updated:Jun 13,2014 When ... Health and Heart Health Last reviewed 6/2014 Stress Management • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction ...

  12. Stress and Migraine

    ... disabling headaches . Home > Stress and Migraine Print Email Stress and Migraine ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Stress and Migraine Mia Minen, MD MPH Key Points: ...

  13. Teacher Wellness: Too Stressed for Stress Management?

    Kipps-Vaughan, Debi; Ponsart, Tyler; Gilligan, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Healthier, happier teachers promote healthier, happier, and more effective learning environments. Yet, many teachers experience considerable stress. Studies have found that between one fifth and one fourth of teachers frequently experience a great deal of stress (Kyriacou, 1998). Stress in teaching appears to be universal across nations and

  14. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  15. Stress and Reliability Analysis of a Metal-Ceramic Dental Crown

    Anusavice, Kenneth J; Sokolowski, Todd M.; Hojjatie, Barry; Nemeth, Noel N.

    1996-01-01

    Interaction of mechanical and thermal stresses with the flaws and microcracks within the ceramic region of metal-ceramic dental crowns can result in catastrophic or delayed failure of these restorations. The objective of this study was to determine the combined influence of induced functional stresses and pre-existing flaws and microcracks on the time-dependent probability of failure of a metal-ceramic molar crown. A three-dimensional finite element model of a porcelain fused-to-metal (PFM) molar crown was developed using the ANSYS finite element program. The crown consisted of a body porcelain, opaque porcelain, and a metal substrate. The model had a 300 Newton load applied perpendicular to one cusp, a load of 30ON applied at 30 degrees from the perpendicular load case, directed toward the center, and a 600 Newton vertical load. Ceramic specimens were subjected to a biaxial flexure test and the load-to-failure of each specimen was measured. The results of the finite element stress analysis and the flexure tests were incorporated in the NASA developed CARES/LIFE program to determine the Weibull and fatigue parameters and time-dependent fracture reliability of the PFM crown. CARES/LIFE calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and/Or proof test loading. This program is an extension of the CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program.

  16. Effect of large mechanical stress on the magnetic properties of embedded Fe nanoparticles

    Srinivasa Saranu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for next generation high density magnetic data storage devices. Data storage requires precise control of the magnetic properties of materials, in which the magnetic anisotropy plays a dominant role. Since the total magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy scales with the particle volume, the storage density in media composed of individual nanoparticles is limited by the onset of superparamagnetism. One solution to overcome this limitation is the use of materials with extremely large magneto-crystalline anisotropy. In this article, we follow an alternative approach by using magneto-elastic interactions to tailor the total effective magnetic anisotropy of the nanoparticles. By applying large biaxial stress to nanoparticles embedded in a non-magnetic film, it is demonstrated that a significant modification of the magnetic properties can be achieved. The stress is applied to the nanoparticles through expansion of the substrate during hydrogen loading. Experimental evidence for stress induced magnetic effects is presented based on temperature-dependent magnetization curves of superparamagnetic Fe particles. The results show the potential of the approach for adjusting the magnetic properties of nanoparticles, which is essential for application in future data storage media.

  17. Stress and Alcohol

    Keyes, KM; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AU...

  18. A parametric evaluation of residual stress resulting from abrasive waterjet surface treatments with elastic prestress: Experiments and modeling

    Sadasivam, Balaji

    Recent advances in Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) technology have resulted in a new process for surface treatment that is capable of introducing compressive residual stresses and a surface texture that facilitates bonding. The current research focuses on quantifying the influences of Abrasive Waterjet Peening (AWJP) with elastic prestress on the surface and subsurface residual stress distributions and surface texture of three engineering metals (ASTM 228, Ti6Al4V and inconel 718). A design of experiments (DOE) and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to identify the treatment parameters with primary contributions to the residual stress field. The applied elastic prestress ranged from 0 to 75% of the target yield strength. Surface residual stress resulting from AWJP was compressive and ranged from 500 to 2500 MPa, and the depth of compressive residual stress ranged from nearly 80 to 600 mum. While the elastic prestress had no effect on the surface texture, it was a primary contributor to the magnitude of surface residual stress, which increased with an increase in the elastic prestress. The boundary conditions used to apply the prestress were found to be important to the residual stress field. Load control flexure prestress resulted in larger surface and subsurface compressive residual stress when compared to the displacement control flexure prestress. A finite element analysis of the treatment was used to explore the potential for using alternate prestress configurations to improve the residual stress distributions and to develop an understanding of the treatment mechanics. Three different prestress conditions (flexure, axial and biaxial loading) were simulated on a Ti6Al4V target subjected to a single impact. Each condition was studied under both load and displacement control boundary conditions. The finite element evaluations identified two mechanisms (plasticization and superposition) that contributed to the increase in magnitude and changes in shape of the residual stress field in treatments with elastic prestress. Overall, application of elastic prestress resulted in a 100% and 40% increase in the compressive surface residual stress and maximum residual stress and a 25% increase in the depth of compressive residual stress. The responses were influenced by the prestress distribution and in all cases load control prestress had a larger influence when compared to the displacement control. Results of the finite element model indicated that a biaxial prestress incorporating a combination of compressive and tensile components could be used to further improve the residual stress characteristics resulting from particle-based surface treatments. According to the results of this study, AWJP with elastic prestress can serve as a viable method of surface treatment in situations that require an increase in surface roughness and a compressive residual stress. The current study has showed that elastic prestress could be used as a design variable to achieve a desired subsurface residual stress distribution in particle-based surface treatments. Keywords: abrasive waterjet, elastic prestress, finite element model, residual stress.

  19. The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters.

    Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently. PMID:26850311

  20. Stress and eating behavior

    Peters, Achim; Langemann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.