Sample records for behavior fifteen experience-sampling

  1. Characterization of helium diffusion behavior from continuous heating experiments: Sample screening and identification of multiple 4He components

    McDannell, K. T.; Idleman, B. D.; Zeitler, P. K.


    Old, slowly cooled apatites often yield overdispersed helium ages due to factors such as parent zonation, He implantation, radiation damage, crystal defects, and fluid inclusions. Careful mineral selection and many replicate analyses can mitigate the impact of some of these effects. However, this approach adds unnecessary costs in time and resources when dating well-behaved apatites and is generally ineffective at identifying the root cause of age dispersion and providing suitable age corrections for poorly behaved samples. We assess a new technique utilizing static-gas measurement during continuous heating as a means to rapidly screen apatite samples. In about the time required for a conventional total-gas analysis, this method can discriminate between samples showing the volume-diffusion behavior expected for apatite and those showing anomalous release patterns, inconsistent with their use in thermochronologic applications. This method may also have the potential to quantify and discriminate between the radiogenic and extraneous 4He fractions released by a sample. Continuously heated samples that outgas by volume diffusion during a linear heating schedule should produce a characteristic sigmoidal 4He fractional loss profile, with the exact shape and position of these profiles (in loss vs. heating time space) controlled by sample kinetics, grain size, and heating rate. Secondary factors such as sample zoning and alpha-loss distribution have a relatively minor impact on such profiles. Well-behaved examples such as the Durango standard and other apatites with good age reproducibility show the expected smooth, sigmoidal gas release with complete exhaustion by temperatures predicted for volume diffusion using typical apatite kinetics (e.g., by ~900˚C for linear heating at 20˚C/minute). In contrast, "bad actor" samples that do not replicate well show significant degrees of helium release deferred to higher temperatures. We report on screening results for a range of

  2. Experience Sampling Methods: A Modern Idiographic Approach to Personality Research

    Tamlin S. Conner; Tennen, Howard; Fleeson, William; Barrett, Lisa Feldman


    Experience sampling methods are essential tools for building a modern idiographic approach to understanding personality. These methods yield multiple snapshots of people’s experiences over time in daily life and allow researchers to identify patterns of behavior within a given individual, rather than strictly identify patterns of behavior across individuals, as with standard nomothetic approaches. In this article, we discuss the origin and evolution of idiographic methods in the field of pers...

  3. Fifteen tips for success in injury prevention.

    Judkins, Daniel G


    Fifteen tips for success in injury prevention include the following: (1) make a plan; (2) understand injury epidemiology; (3) read, learn, and get educated; (4) show me the data; (5) select prevention strategies thoughtfully; (6) define risk factors and understand risk taking; (7) evaluate; (8) schedule a lunch meeting; (9) use principles of health behavior change, adult education theory, and communication theory; (10) be friends with the marketing and public affairs people; (11) recognize the fact that people are more emotional about injury in children than in adults; (12) understand cost-benefits and payoffs; (13) get stuff; (14) report your results; and (15) be patient. Several useful tables for basic references to resources in injury prevention are included. PMID:20029280

  4. Using the Experience Sampling Method in the Context of Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M.


    Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine…

  5. Inert gases in fifteen iron meteorites

    The inert gases helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon were measured mass-spectrometrically in the metal phases of fifteen iron meteorites and in graphite and troilite mineral separates from the Odessa iron meteorite. The meteorites analyzed were chosen because of their low cosmic ray exposure ages; most had known exposure ages of less than 200 million years. The hope was that the prominent spallation component seen in prior iron meteorite inert gas measurements would be reduced enough to allow detection of a trapped gas component, should one exist. Approximately three gram samples were fused in a thoroughly outgassed alumina crucible. Surface contamination was removed from the samples by acid treatment and by preheating the samples for two days at 3000C. Blank measurements were made for correction purposes before and after each sample. All of the meteorite samples show evidence of having a cosmogenic inert gas component. Small variations attributable to different trace element abundances and cosmic ray shielding are seen. Large deviations from the predicted cosmogenic compositions correlate with short cosmic ray exposure ages and often indicate the presence of a trapped atmospheric-like inert gas component. Those samples showing anomalous behavior in one inert gas tend to show anomalous behavior for all the inert gases. The inert gas data from most samples are consistent with the helium, neon, and argon concentrations being largely of cosmogenic origin and the krypton and xenon resulting from a mix of solar wind, atmospheric, and cosmogenic compositions. However, there are several meteorites which are anomalous with respect to the above interpretation

  6. A Refined Experience Sampling Method to Capture Mobile User Experience

    Cherubini, Mauro; Oliver, Nuria


    This paper reviews research methods used to understand the user experience of mobile technology. The paper presents an improvement of the Experience Sampling Method and case studies supporting its design. The paper concludes with an agenda of future work for improving research in this field. Keywords: Research methods, topology, case study, contrasting graph, Experience Sampling Method

  7. Computerized experience-sampling approach for realtime assessment of stress

    S. Serino


    Full Text Available The incredible advancement in the ICT sector has challenged technology developers, designers, and psychologists to reflect on how to develop technologies to promote mental health. Computerized experience-sampling method appears to be a promising assessment approach to investigate the real-time fluctuation of experience in daily life in order to detect stressful events. At this purpose, we developed PsychLog ( a free open-source mobile experience sampling platform that allows psychophysiological data to be collected, aggregated, visualized and collated into reports. Results showed a good classification of relaxing and stressful events, defining the two groups with psychological analysis and verifying the discrimination with physiological measures. Within the paradigm of Positive Technology, our innovative approach offers for researchers and clinicians new effective opportunities for the assessment and treatment of the psychological stress in daily situations.

  8. 短串联重复序列基因座与冲动暴力行为的关联研究%Association study of the genetic polymorphism of fifteen short tandem repeats loci and aggressive violent behavior

    杨春; 巴华杰; 高志勤; 赵汉清; 余海鹰; 施建安; 过伟


    目的 探讨冲动暴力行为与相关短串联重复序列基因座的关联情况.方法 运用AmpFISTR IdentifilerTM荧光标记复合扩增体系,对203例冲动暴力行为罪犯(研究组)与207名非暴力行为健康个体(对照组)样本进行聚合酶链反应复合扩增,然后应用ABI3100型基因分析系统对扩增产物进行电泳和基因检测,观察2组15个STR基因座等位基因及基因型频率的差异.结果 15个STR基因座均符合遗传平衡定律(Hardy-Weinberg定律);研究组与对照组THO1和TPOX基因座的等位基因频率分布的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);研究组和对照组THO1-10频率分别为0.0172和0.0580,差异有统计学意义(P=0.002,OR=0.29,95% CI:0.12 ~0.67);研究组和对照组TPOX-11频率分别为0.3621和0.2391,差异有统计学意义(P=0.000,OR=1.81,95% CI:1.33 ~ 2.45);其他STR基因座等位基因频率及所有基因型频率2组差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 THO1和TPOX基因座多态性与冲动暴力行为可能存在关联,等位基因THO1-10、TPOX-11与冲动暴力行为的发生可能有一定关系.%Objective To investigate the association of aggressive violent behavior and related short tandem repeats (STRs) loci by the analysis of 15 STRs loci genetic polymorphism.Methods The biological samples of 203 persons with aggressive violent behaviors and 207 healthy persons without violent behavior were collected.Then the DNA sample was amplified by AmpFISTR IdentifilerTM system and separated by electrophoresis to compare the genotypes and alleles of 15 STRs gene frequencies in the two groups.Results All the 15 STRs loci in people with aggressive violent behavior and healthy people were found to coincide with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium ( P > 0.05 ).There was a significant difference in distributing of allele frequency of THO1 and TPOX between people with aggressive violent behaviors and healthy people ( P < 0.05 ).The frequency of allele 10 of THO1

  9. An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol Related Problems

    Gaher, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Hahn, Nicole L; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Buchkoski, Jerome


    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to ...

  10. Experience-Sampling Methodology with a Mobile Device in Fibromyalgia

    Castilla Diana


    Full Text Available This work describes the usability studies conducted in the development of an experience-sampling methodology (ESM system running in a mobile device. The goal of the system is to improve the accuracy and ecology in gathering daily self-report data in individuals suffering a chronic pain condition, fibromyalgia. The usability studies showed that the developed software to conduct ESM with mobile devices (smartphones, cell phones can be successfully used by individuals with fibromyalgia of different ages and with low level of expertise in the use of information and communication technologies. 100% of users completed the tasks successfully, although some have completely illiterate. Also there seems to be a clear difference in the way of interaction obtained in the two studies carried out.

  11. Childhood negative emotionality predicts biobehavioral dysregulation fifteen years later.

    Hagan, Melissa J; Luecken, Linda J; Modecki, Kathryn L; Sandler, Irwin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A


    The temperamental trait of negative emotionality (NE) plays an important role in maladaptation among adults experiencing significant life stress. However, the prospective relation between childhood NE and subsequent interrelated behavioral, emotional, and biological dysregulation in later life has not yet been established among children who experience early adversity. Using a longitudinal sample of youth who experienced parental divorce during childhood (N = 160; 53% male; 83% White), we tested the hypothesis that childhood NE would predict physiological, emotional, and behavioral dysregulation 15 years later. NE was assessed by maternal report when youth were between 9 and 12 years old. Fifteen years later, young adults (mean age = 25.55 years) participated in a psychosocial stress task to assess cortisol reactivity and reported on internalizing symptoms and problematic alcohol use. Structural equation modeling revealed that higher childhood NE predicted significantly greater alcohol use, internalizing symptoms, and total cortisol output during a stress task 15 years later. Importantly, these findings held after adjusting for childhood internalizing symptoms. In addition, problematic alcohol use was associated with greater cortisol reactivity and internalizing symptoms. Findings suggest that childhood NE is a critical risk marker for interrelated forms of dysregulation in young adulthood among at-risk youth. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100364

  12. Coping with Boredom in School: An Experience Sampling Perspective

    Nett, Ulrike E.; Goetz, Thomas; Hall, Nathan C.


    The present study explored students' use of boredom-related coping strategies at trait and state levels. Two trait-based dimensions of coping relevant to boredom were considered, namely approach--versus avoidance-oriented and cognitively--versus behaviorally-oriented coping strategies. The two dimensions were assessed in a self-report…

  13. Coping with boredom in school : an experience sampling perspective

    Nett, Ulrike; Götz, Thomas; Hall, Nathan


    The present study explored students' use of boredom-related coping strategies at trait and state levels. Two trait-based dimensions of coping relevant to boredom were considered, namely approach – versus avoidance-oriented and cognitively – versus behaviorally-oriented coping strategies. The two dimensions were assessed in a self-report questionnaire administered to 537 grade 11 students (55.3% female, Mage = 17.15 years). Additionally, 79 of these participants completed state-based boredom-r...

  14. Coping with Boredom in School : An Experience Sampling Analysis

    Nett, Ulrike; Götz, Thomas; Hall, Nathan C.


    The present study explored students’ use of boredom-related coping strategies at trait and state levels. Two trait-based dimensions of coping relevant to boredom were considered, namely approach – versus avoidance-oriented and cognitively – versus behaviorally-oriented coping strategies. The two dimensions were assessed in a self-report questionnaire administered to 537 grade 11 students (55.3% female, Mage = 17.15 years). Additionally, 79 of these participants completed state-based boredom-r...

  15. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

    Matricano, Diego


    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries…

  16. Fifteen: Combining Magic Squares and Tic-Tac-Toe

    Yeo, Joseph B. W.


    Most students love to play games. Ernest (1986) believed that games could be used to teach mathematics effectively in four areas: motivation, concept development, reinforcement of skills, and practice of problem-solving strategies. Fifteen is an interesting and thought-provoking game that helps students learn mathematics at the same time. Playing…

  17. Reciprocal Markov Modeling of Feedback Mechanisms Between Emotion and Dietary Choice Using Experience-Sampling Data.

    Lu, Ji; Pan, Junhao; Zhang, Qiang; Dubé, Laurette; Ip, Edward H


    With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in the experience-sampling method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal the relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM data set (Lu, Huet, & Dube, 2011) that observed 160 participants' food consumption and momentary emotions 6 times per day in 10 days. Focusing on the analyses on feedback loop between mood and meal-healthiness decision, the proposed reciprocal Markov model (RMM) can accommodate both hidden ("general" emotional states: positive vs. negative state) and observed states (meal: healthier, same or less healthy than usual) without presuming independence between observations and smooth trajectories of mood or behavior changes. The results of RMM analyses illustrated the reciprocal chains of meal consumption and mood as well as the effect of contextual factors that moderate the interrelationship between eating and emotion. A simulation experiment that generated data consistent with the empirical study further demonstrated that the procedure is promising in terms of recovering the parameters. PMID:26717120

  18. Air pollution and business political influence in fifteen OECD countries

    Patrick Bernhagen


    In this paper I examine the political influence of business in the context of environmental politics by comparing the explanatory role of three distinct sources of business power: political organization, a structurally privileged position in politics, and informational advantages. Using data on fifteen OECD countries between 1981 and 1999, the analysis shows that business organizational strength and information asymmetry in government – business relations are important determinants of observe...

  19. Brain Embolism Secondary to Cardiac Myxoma in Fifteen Chinese Patients

    Youming Long


    Full Text Available Background. Heart myxoma-related embolisms commonly involve the central nervous system, but data are lacking in Chinese patients. Methods. 27 patients diagnosed with myxoma were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Among 27 patients, fourteen (51.9% patients were women. Fifteen (55.6% patients had brain embolisms. Rarely, patients were misdiagnosed with central nervous system vasculitis (n = 2, moyamoya disease (n = 1, and neuromyelitis optica (n = 1. We found positive associations between mRS (>3 and female gender (r = 0.873, P10 × 109/L (r = 0.722, P = 0.002, tumour size (r = 0.866, P0.05. Conclusions. Neurologic manifestations in Chinese patients with cardiac myxoma-related stroke were complicated and multifarious. Female gender, infection, other severe complications, low SBP, tumour size, bilateral brain lesions, TACI, and high WBC counts could be associated with a poor prognosis.

  20. Mood disorders in everyday life : A systematic review of experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies

    Aan het Rot, M.; Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, R.A.


    In the past two decades, the study of mood disorder patients using experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has yielded important findings. In patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), the dynamics of their everyday mood have been associated with various aspec

  1. Emotional experience improves with age : Evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling

    Carstensen, L.L.; Turan, B.; Scheibe, S.; Ram, N.; Ersner-Hershfield, H.; Samanez-Larkin, G.R.; Brooks, K.P.; Nesselroade, J.R.


    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N =

  2. Anxiety in High-Functioning Autism: A Pilot Study of Experience Sampling Using a Mobile Platform

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Gracey, Carolyn; Wood, Christopher


    Anxiety and stress are everyday issues for many people with high-functioning autism, and while cognitive-behavioural therapy is the treatment of choice for the management of anxiety, there are challenges in using it with people with high-functioning autism. This study used modified experience sampling techniques to examine everyday anxiety and…

  3. Experience-Sampling Research Methods and Their Potential for Education Research

    Zirkel, Sabrina; Garcia, Julie A.; Murphy, Mary C.


    Experience-sampling methods (ESM) enable us to learn about individuals' lives in context by measuring participants' feelings, thoughts, actions, context, and/or activities as they go about their daily lives. By capturing experience, affect, and action "in the moment" and with repeated measures, ESM approaches allow researchers…

  4. Reading in Class & out of Class: An Experience Sampling Method Study

    Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Kackar, Hayal


    This study described and compared the reading of sixth and eighth grade students both in and out of school using a unique data set collected with the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). On average, students read forty minutes a day out of class and seventeen minutes a day in class indicating that reading is a common leisure practice for…

  5. Kimura's disease: The CT and MRI characteristics in fifteen cases

    Objective: To summarize the CT and MRI features in a series of fifteen cases of Kimura's disease. Materials and methods: The clinical data, CT and MRI findings of 15 patients with histologically proved Kimura's disease were retrospectively reviewed. All imaging data were consensually evaluated by two radiologists to determine the lesion location, number, morphology, margin, signal intensity or CT density, lesion texture, contrast enhancement pattern and involvement of adjacent structures. Results: There were 14 male and 1 female, with peripheral blood eosinophilia in all 14 patients. 13 patients were presented with a painless mass. 13 patients had lesions located in the head and neck related to the major salivary glands. 1 patient had lesion in groin. Subcutaneous fat diffuse atrophy around the tumor site was found in 11 patients. 9 patients had solitary mass and 6 patients had multiple masses. Most masses were ill-defined, but no specific density or signal patterns were found. Most patients exhibited enlarged or obviously enhanced abnormal lymph nodes but without necrosis. Conclusion: The characteristic distribution, morphology with enlarged draining lymphadenopathy, combined with the clinical features and laboratory examination enables a confident preoperative diagnosis of Kimura's disease.

  6. Fifteen years of science and space weather studies

    von Rosenvinge, Tycho T.; Christian, Eric R.


    Fifteen years ago, on 25 August 1997, NASA launched the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. In operation for more than a solar cycle, ACE has provided numerous important scientific results while at the same time becoming a key component of the space weather-monitoring system and a cornerstone of the fleet of distributed spacecraft that make up the Heliophysics Great Observatory. ACE is located on the sunward side of Earth about 1.5 million kilometers away, or 4 times as far from Earth as is the Moon. This puts ACE well outside the Earth's magnetosphere and in an ideal position to monitor the solar wind environment “upwind” of Earth. ACE has six high-resolution spectrometers that measure the elemental, isotopic, and ionic charge-state composition of ions from hydrogen to iron; it also includes three particle and field monitors. One of the nine instruments has now failed (Solar Energetic Particle Ionic Charge Analyzer (SEPICA)), and two others are partially degraded (Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) and Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM)); however, the other six are working well. Instrument descriptions are available on the ACE Web site at

  7. Radial Star Formation Histories in Fifteen Nearby Galaxies

    Dale, Daniel A; Egan, Arika A; Hatlestad, Alan J; Herzog, Laura J; Leung, Andrew S; McLane, Jacob N; Phenicie, Christopher; Roberts, Jareth S; Barnes, Kate L; Boquien, Mederic; Calzetti, Daniela; Cook, David O; Kobulnicky, Henry A; Staudaher, Shawn M; van Zee, Liese


    New deep optical and near-infrared imaging is combined with archival ultraviolet and infrared data for fifteen nearby galaxies mapped in the Spitzer Extended Disk Galaxy Exploration Science survey. These images are particularly deep and thus excellent for studying the low surface brightness outskirts of these disk-dominated galaxies with stellar masses ranging between 10^8 and 10^11 Msun. The spectral energy distributions derived from this dataset are modeled to investigate the radial variations in the galaxy colors and star formation histories. Taken as a whole, the sample shows bluer and younger stars for larger radii until reversing near the optical radius, whereafter the trend is for redder and older stars for larger galacto-centric distances. These results are consistent with an inside-out disk formation scenario coupled with an old stellar outer disk population formed through radial migration and/or the cumulative history of minor mergers and accretions of satellite dwarf galaxies. However, these trends...

  8. Fifteen Years of Operating Experience of Kamini Reactor

    Kamini (KAlpakkam MINI) Reactor located at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakam, India is a U-233 fuelled, low power research reactor and functions as a neutron source facility with a flux of 8.0x1012 cm-2s-1 at the core center. Kamini belongs to the MTR (Material Testing Reactor) type of reactors and employs Beryllium Oxide (BeO) canned in Zircoloy-2 as reflector material and plate type fuel in a reactor tank. Demineralised light water is used as moderator, biological shield and coolant. The core is cooled by natural convection of reactor tank water. Cadmium is used as the absorbing material in the safety control plates (SCP) provided for power control and shut down. This paper details the design description, facilities available for experiments and their utilization for R and D, fifteen years of operating experience of Kamini which is the only operating reactor using U-233, the recent water activity problem and the improvements made in the user facilities for meeting additional requirements. (author)

  9. Emotional Experience Improves With Age: Evidence Based on Over 10 Years of Experience Sampling

    Carstensen, Laura L.; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Nesselroade, John R.


    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was r...

  10. The Relationship between Bipolar Disorder and Cannabis Use in Daily Life: An Experience Sampling Study

    Elizabeth Tyler; Steven Jones; Nancy Black; Lesley-Anne Carter; Christine Barrowclough


    Objectives Although cannabis use is common in bipolar disorder and may contribute to worse clinical outcomes, little is understood about the relationship between this drug and bipolar disorder over the course of daily life. The aim of study was to examine the effect of cannabis on affect and bipolar symptoms in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder. Methods Twenty-four participants with bipolar disorder type I or type II completed diaries for 6 days using Experience Sampling Methodolog...

  11. [New Brunswick Power] Fifteen year load forecast, 1990-2005

    A fifteen-year forecast of the electric requirements of the in-province customers of New Brunswick Power Commission is prepared each year based on a cause and effect analysis of past loads, combined with data gathered through customer surveys and an assessment of economic, demographic, technological and other factors which affect the utilization of electrical energy. In addition to the forecast requirements of each sales classification and total energy supply by month, a forecast of the monthly peak hour demand is also presented. The forecast results are used in overall short and long term planning, particularly the financial and facilities planning. Since variations from the forecast can significantly affect the future financial and facilities requirements, a forecast range is included which indicates the sensitivity of the forecast to various input parameters and their resulting impact on the final results. Total power demand is forecast to increase from 13,183 GWh to 19,703 GWh or 2.8%/y over the 15-year period; in the same period, the maximum peak demand is forecast to increase from 2637 MW to 3818 MW. These results are generally the same as in the previous year's forecast. Nevertheless, the latest forecast shows a trend toward lower energy consumption, a phenomenon which responds to the short term economic situation. By end-use sector, power demand is forecast to grow from 4316 GWh to 6240 GWh in the residential sector, from 2169 GWh to 3454 GWh in the general sector, and from 5247 GWh to 8319 GWh in the industrial sector. 15 figs., 18 tabs

  12. Relations among questionnaire and experience sampling measures of inner speech: a smartphone app study.

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles


    Inner speech is often reported to be a common and central part of inner experience, but its true prevalence is unclear. Many questionnaire-based measures appear to lack convergent validity and it has been claimed that they overestimate inner speech in comparison to experience sampling methods (which involve collecting data at random timepoints). The present study compared self-reporting of inner speech collected via a general questionnaire and experience sampling, using data from a custom-made smartphone app (Inner Life). Fifty-one university students completed a generalized self-report measure of inner speech (the Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire, VISQ) and responded to at least seven random alerts to report on incidences of inner speech over a 2-week period. Correlations and pairwise comparisons were used to compare generalized endorsements and randomly sampled scores for each VISQ subscale. Significant correlations were observed between general and randomly sampled measures for only two of the four VISQ subscales, and endorsements of inner speech with evaluative or motivational characteristics did not correlate at all across different measures. Endorsement of inner speech items was significantly lower for random sampling compared to generalized self-report, for all VISQ subscales. Exploratory analysis indicated that specific inner speech characteristics were also related to anxiety and future-oriented thinking. PMID:25964773

  13. Passage of Time Judgments Are Not Duration Judgments: Evidence from a Study Using Experience Sampling Methodology

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John


    This study examined relations between passage of time judgments and duration judgments (DJs) in everyday life, in young and elderly people, with an Experience Sampling Method. The DJs were assessed by verbal estimation and interval production measures. The results showed no difference between young and elderly people in judgments of rate of passage of time, a result contrary to the conventional idea that time passes more quickly as we get older. There were also no significant relation between the judgment of passage of time and the judgments of durations. In addition, the significant predictors of individual differences in the judgment of passage of time (emotion states and focus of attention on the current activity) were not predictors of judgment of durations. In sum, passages of time judgments are not related to DJs. PMID:26925006

  14. National and international interlocking directorates within Europe : Corporate networks within and among fifteen European countries

    van Veen, K.; Kratzer, J.


    This article focuses on the structural aspects of interlocking directorate networks within and among fifteen European countries. The results show large quantitative differences in network densities within countries. These differences are strongly and significantly related to the 'variety of capitali

  15. DMPD: NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 16723122 NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. Gloi...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. PubmedID 167...23122 Title NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later.

  16. An experience sampling study of emotional reactions to music: listener, music, and situation.

    Juslin, Patrik N; Liljeström, Simon; Västfjäll, Daniel; Barradas, Gonçalo; Silva, Ana


    The Experience Sampling Method was used to explore emotions to music as they naturally occurred in everyday life, with a focus on the prevalence of different musical emotions and how such emotions are related to various factors in the listener, the music, and the situation. Thirty-two college students, 20 to 31 years old, carried a palmtop that emitted a sound signal seven times per day at random intervals for 2 weeks. When signaled, participants were required to complete a questionnaire on the palmtop. Results showed that music occurred in 37% of the episodes, and in 64% of the music episodes, the participants reported that the music affected how they felt. Comparisons showed that happiness-elation and nostalgia-longing were more frequent in episodes with musical emotions, whereas anger-irritation, boredom-indifference, and anxiety-fear were more frequent in episodes with nonmusical emotions. The prevalence of specific musical emotions correlated with personality measures and also varied depending on the situation (e.g., current activity, other people present), thus highlighting the need to use representative samples of situations to obtain valid estimates of prevalence. PMID:18837617

  17. Well-being in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: a pilot Experience Sampling Study

    Ruben Gustav Leonhardt Real


    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this longitudinal study was to identify predictors of instantaneous well-being in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Based on flow theory well-being was expected to be highest when perceived demands and perceived control were in balance, and that thinking about the past would be a risk factor for rumination which would in turn reduce well-being.MethodsUsing the experience sampling method, data on current activities, associated aspects of perceived demands, control, and well-being were collected from 10 patients with ALS three times a day for two weeks.ResultsResults show that perceived control was uniformly and positively associated with well-being, but that demands were only positively associated with well-being when they were perceived as controllable. Mediation analysis confirmed thinking about the past, but not thinking about the future, to be a risk factor for rumination and reduced well-being. DiscussionFindings extend our knowledge of factors contributing to well-being in ALS as not only perceived control but also perceived demands can contribute to well-being. They further show that a focus on present experiences might contribute to increased well-being.

  18. Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling.

    Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R


    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

  19. Anxiety in high-functioning autism: A pilot study of experience sampling using a mobile platform.

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Gracey, Carolyn; Wood, Christopher


    Anxiety and stress are everyday issues for many people with high-functioning autism, and while cognitive-behavioural therapy is the treatment of choice for the management of anxiety, there are challenges in using it with people with high-functioning autism. This study used modified experience sampling techniques to examine everyday anxiety and stress in adults with high-functioning autism and to explore the feasibility of delivering real-time stress management techniques using a mobile platform. High levels of anxiety were found to be characterised by worry, confusing thoughts and being alone but was not associated with internal focus, imagery or rumination. Participants reported improved mood and less worry and anxious thinking in the active phase of the study. These results support previous studies indicating that people with high-functioning autism differ in their experience of anxiety and provided preliminary data on the feasibility of real-time stress management. The limitations of this approach are discussed together with considerations for future work in the area of developing clinical interventions on mobile platforms. PMID:26514793

  20. The relationship between bipolar disorder and cannabis use in daily life: an experience sampling study.

    Elizabeth Tyler

    Full Text Available Although cannabis use is common in bipolar disorder and may contribute to worse clinical outcomes, little is understood about the relationship between this drug and bipolar disorder over the course of daily life. The aim of study was to examine the effect of cannabis on affect and bipolar symptoms in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder.Twenty-four participants with bipolar disorder type I or type II completed diaries for 6 days using Experience Sampling Methodology to investigate the temporal associations between cannabis, affect and bipolar disorder symptoms.The results indicated that higher levels of positive affect increase the odds of using cannabis (OR:1.25 ,CI:1.06-1.47, P=0.008. However, neither negative affect, manic nor depressive symptoms predicted the use of cannabis. Cannabis use was associated with subsequent increases in positive affect (β=0.35, CI:0.20-0.51, P=0.000, manic symptoms (β=0.20,CI:0.05-0.34, P=0.009 and depressive symptoms (β= 0.17,CI:0.04-0.29, P=0.008.The findings indicate that cannabis use is associated with a number of subsequent psychological effects. However there was no evidence that individuals with BD were using cannabis to self-medicate minor fluctuations in negative affect or bipolar disorder symptoms over the course of daily life. The findings in relation to existing literature and clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Does body satisfaction influence self-esteem in adolescents' daily lives? An experience sampling study.

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Skouteris, Helen; Richardson, Ben; Nihill, Kristy; Watson, Brittany; Solomon, Daniel


    This study examined, within the context of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model, state-based associations between self-esteem and body satisfaction using the experience sampling method. One hundred and forty-four adolescent girls (mean age = 14.28 years) completed up to 6 assessments per day for one week using Palm Digital Assistants, in addition to baseline measures of trait body satisfaction and self-esteem. Results showed considerable variation in both state-based constructs within days, and evidence of effects of body satisfaction on self-esteem, but not vice versa. Although these state-based associations were small in size and weakened as the time lag between assessments increased for the sample as a whole, individual differences in the magnitude of these effects were observed and predicted by trait self-esteem and body satisfaction. Collectively, these findings offer support for key tenets of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model. PMID:26356806

  2. Tracking human activity and well-being in natural environments using wearable sensors and experience sampling.

    Doherty, Sean T; Lemieux, Christopher J; Canally, Culum


    A growing range of studies have begun to document the health and well-being benefits associated with contact with nature. Most studies rely on generalized self-reports following engagement in the natural environment. The actual in-situ experience during contact with nature, and the environmental features and factors that evoke health benefits have remained relatively unexplored. Smartphones offer a new opportunity to monitor and interact with human subjects during everyday life using techniques such as Experience Sampling Methods (ESM) that involve repeated self-reports of experiences as they occur in-situ. Additionally, embedded sensors in smartphones such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and accelerometers can accurately trace human activities. This paper explores how these techniques can be combined to comprehensively explore the perceived health and well-being impacts of contact with nature. Custom software was developed to passively track GPS and accelerometer data, and actively prompt subjects to complete an ESM survey at regular intervals throughout their visit to a provincial park in Ontario, Canada. The ESM survey includes nine scale questions concerning moods and emotions, followed by a series of open-ended experiential questions that subjects provide recorded audio responses to. Pilot test results are used to illustrate the nature, quantity and quality of data obtained. Participant activities were clearly evident from GPS maps, including especially walking, cycling and sedate activities. From the ESM surveys, participants reported an average of 25 words per question, taking an average of 15 s to record them. Further qualitative analysis revealed that participants were willing to provide considerable insights into their experiences and perceived health impacts. The combination of passive and interactive techniques is sure to make larger studies of this type more affordable and less burdensome in the future, further enhancing the ability to understand

  3. Assessing the Relationship between Family Mealtime Communication and Adolescent Emotional Well-Being Using the Experience Sampling Method

    Offer, Shira


    While most prior research has focused on the frequency of family meals the issue of which elements of family mealtime are most salient for adolescents' well-being has remained overlooked. The current study used the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study (N = 237 adolescents with…

  4. The Nordic Five to Fifteen questionnaire could provide the basis for a common neurological disability variable

    Illum, Niels Ove; Gradel, Kim Oren


    AIMS: Assessing disabilities in children is essential and Danish parents provide increasingly important feedback on how their child's disability affects daily living. The Nordic Five to Fifteen (FTF) parent questionnaire is widely used in Nordic countries to detect atypical or delayed development...

  5. The Role of Experience Sampling and Graphical Displays on One's Investment Risk Appetite

    Christine Kaufmann; Martin Weber; Emily Haisley


    Financial professionals have a great deal of discretion concerning how to relay information about the risk of financial products to their clients. This paper introduces a new risk tool to communicate the risk of investment products, and it examines how different risk-presentation modes influence risk-taking behavior and investors' recall ability of the risk-return profile of financial products. We analyze four different ways of communicating risk: (i) numerical descriptions, (ii) experience s...

  6. The Influence of Chronic Ego Depletion on Goal Adherence: An Experience Sampling Study.

    Ligang Wang

    Full Text Available Although ego depletion effects have been widely observed in experiments in which participants perform consecutive self-control tasks, the process of ego depletion remains poorly understood. Using the strength model of self-control, we hypothesized that chronic ego depletion adversely affects goal adherence and that mental effort and motivation are involved in the process of ego depletion. In this study, 203 students reported their daily performance, mental effort, and motivation with respect to goal directed behavior across a 3-week time period. People with high levels of chronic ego depletion were less successful in goal adherence than those with less chronic ego depletion. Although daily effort devoted to goal adherence increased with chronic ego depletion, motivation to adhere to goals was not affected. Participants with high levels of chronic ego depletion showed a stronger positive association between mental effort and performance, but chronic ego depletion did not play a regulatory role in the effect of motivation on performance. Chronic ego depletion increased the likelihood of behavior regulation failure, suggesting that it is difficult for people in an ego-depletion state to adhere to goals. We integrate our results with the findings of previous studies and discuss possible theoretical implications.

  7. Motivational and neural correlates of self-control of eating: A combined neuroimaging and experience sampling study in dieting female college students.

    Lopez, Richard B; Milyavskaya, Marina; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Heatherton, Todd F


    Self-regulation is a critical ability for maintaining a wide range of health behaviors, especially in preventing overeating and weight gain. Previous work has identified various threats to self-control in the eating domain, chief among which are desire strength and negative affect. In the present study, we examined individual differences in college-aged dieters' experiences of these threats as they encountered temptations to eat in their daily lives, and tested whether these differences characterized sub-groups of dieters with divergent self-control outcomes. Specifically, 75 dieting females (age range: 18-23) participated in a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and experience sampling study. Participants passively viewed food cues during a fMRI session, and then reported their daily eating behaviors for one week via ecological momentary assessment. We examined the characteristics of dieters who exhibited the most favorable combination of the aforementioned factors (i.e., low desire strength and positive mood) and who were thus most successful at regulating their eating. These dieters endorsed more autonomous reasons for their self-regulatory goals, and during the food cue reactivity task more readily recruited the inferior frontal gyrus, a brain region associated with inhibitory control. We suggest that these motivational and neural correlates may also be implicated in self-regulation of other important health behaviors. PMID:27058281

  8. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: An Experience Sampling study

    Keller, Melanie M.; Mei-Lin eChang; Eva S Becker; Thomas eGoetz; Frenzel, Anne C.


    Emotional exhaustion is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers’ professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers’ emotional experiences and emotional labor during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their emotional exhaustion (trait), and via the Experience Sampling Method on their momentary (state; N = 794) emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger) and momentary emotional labor (suppr...

  9. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: an experience sampling study

    Keller, Melanie M.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Eva S Becker; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.


    Emotional exhaustion (EE) is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers’ professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers’ emotional experiences and emotional labor (EL) during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their EE (trait), and via the experience sampling method on their momentary (state; N = 794) emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger) and momentary EL (suppression, faking). Teac...

  10. Using negative emotions to trace the experience of borderline personality pathology: Interconnected relationships revealed in an experience sampling study

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R. Michael


    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a B...

  11. Creating sustainable financing and support for immunization programs in fifteen developing countries.

    McQuestion, Michael; Gnawali, Devendra; Kamara, Clifford; Kizza, Diana; Mambu-Ma-Disu, Helene; Mbwangue, Jonas; de Quadros, Ciro


    Immunization programs are important tools for reducing child mortality, and they need to be in place for each new generation. However, most national immunization programs in developing countries are financially and organizationally weak, in part because they depend heavily on funding from foreign sources. Through its Sustainable Immunization Financing Program, launched in 2007, the Sabin Vaccine Institute is working with fifteen African and Asian countries to establish stable internal funding for their immunization programs. The Sabin program advocates strengthening immunization programs through budget reforms, decentralization, and legislation. Six of the fifteen countries have increased their national immunization budgets, and nine are preparing legislation to finance immunization sustainably. Lessons from this work with immunization programs may be applicable in other countries as well as to other health programs. PMID:21653967

  12. Fifteen-year treatment of metastatic thyroid medullary carcinoma: a case report

    Ozen Oz Gul


    Full Text Available Although very rare, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC is the most aggressive in differentiated thyroid malignancies. We report a 48-year-old male patient with the diagnosis of MTC, who was monitored for fifteen years and showed no serious adverse events due to long-term chemotherapy. Total thyroidectomy, neck dissection, retrosternal nodule excision and pericardiectomy were performed, and radiotherapy was applied to the neck area. Due to progressive metastatic disease cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, and vincristine were administrated. He tolerated chemotherapy well, and no severe systemic side effects were detected. He died due to multi-organ failure after fifteen years of diagnosis. The only curative treatment is surgery in MTC, however; radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and embolization may be used for patients for whom surgery cannot be performed. Although success rates of systemic chemotherapy are low, it is a treatment option in the progressive metastatic disease.

  13. Dominant nematodes in the first fifteen years of the primary succession on post-mining clays

    Háněl, Ladislav

    České Budějovice : Institute of Soil Biology ASCR, 2005. s. 30. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /8./. 20.04.2005-22.04.2005, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600660505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : dominant nematodes * the first fifteen years of the primary succession * post-mining clays Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Everyday forms of collective action in Bangladesh: Learning from Fifteen Cases

    Davis, Peter


    "This paper examines fifteen cases of collective action in six villages in rural Bangladesh. Collective action was defined broadly and identified from significant episodes in previous life-history research in the same villages. The types of collective action identified were catalyzed by marriage; dowry and domestic violence; disputes over land; illness, injury and death in accidents; and theft and cheating. The role of development NGOs was less significant than would be expected considering t...

  15. Transsternal approach to closure of bronchopleural fistulas after pneumonectomy. A fifteen cases report.

    Beltrami, V; Angelici, A; Bertagni, A; Bezzi, M; Ciulli, A; Forte, A; Gallinaro, L; Illuminati, G; Montesano, G; Prece, V


    A treatment method for main bronchus fistula after pneumonectomy via median sternotomy was described by P. Abruzzini in 1961. This operation is performed in an area not involved with infection. Fifteen patients underwent the procedure in our surgical department; one of them died of myocardial infarction while all the others survived for different periods of time, closely associated with the original disease; seven were long-term survivors. The transmediastinal approach seems an effective means of managing such a difficult complication. PMID:10880846

  16. A comprehensive analysis of fifteen genes of steviol glycosides biosynthesis pathway in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    Kumar, Hitesh; Kaul, Kiran; Bajpai-Gupta, Suphla; Kaul, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay


    Stevia [Stevia rebuaidana (Bertoni); family: Asteraceae] is known to yield diterpenoid steviol glycosides (SGs), which are about 300 times sweeter than sugar. The present work analyzed the expression of various genes of the SGs biosynthesis pathway in different organs of the plant in relation to the SGs content. Of the various genes of the pathway, SrDXS, SrDXR, SrCPPS, SrKS, SrKO and three glucosyltransferases namely SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1 were reported from stevia. Here, we report cloning of seven additional full-length cDNA sequences namely, SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS, SrHDS, SrHDR, SrIDI and SrGGDPS followed by expression analysis of all the fifteen genes vis-à-vis SGs content analysis. SGs content was highest in the leaf at 3rd node position (node position with reference to the apical leaf as the first leaf) as compared to the leaves at other node positions. Except for SrDXR and SrKO, gene expression was maximum in leaf at 1st node and minimum in leaf at 5th node. The expression of SrKO was highest in leaf at 3rd node while in case of SrDXR expression showed an increase up to 3rd leaf and decrease thereafter. SGs accumulated maximum in leaf tissue followed by stem and root, and similar was the pattern of expression of all the fifteen genes. The genes responded to the modulators of the terpenopids biosynthesis. Gibberellin (GA(3)) treatment up-regulated the expression of SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS and SrUGT74G1, whereas methyl jasmonate and kinetin treatment down-regulated the expression of all the fifteen genes of the pathway. PMID:22037480

  17. [Simultaneous determination of fifteen ultraviolet filters in sunscreen cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Meng, Xianshuang; Ma, Qiang; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Qing; Lü, Qing


    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of fifteen ultraviolet (UV) filters in sunscreen cosmetics was developed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Various cosmetic samples including lotions, emulsions, creams and waxes were firstly mixed thoroughly by adding tetrahydrofuran containing 2 g/L ammonium hydroxide followed by vortex and oscillation. If the wax samples were still homogenized incompletely, a ultrasonic oscillation protocol with heating to 50 °C was adopted. The homogeneous samples were then ultrasonically extracted by 80% aqueous methanol solution. After centrifugation and micropore filtration, the extracted components were separated on an XTerra MS C18 column with gradient elution by water containing 0. 1% (v/v) formic acid and methanol containing 0. 1% (v/v) formic acid, determined by a diode array detector (DAD) at 280 nm and 311 nm, and quantified using external standard method. Optimization for the pretreatment conditions of different matrices of cosmetics including sample dispersion solvents, extraction solvents and time were carried out. This developed method showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.999 1) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 1.2 and 5.1 µg/g. The recoveries of the fifteen compounds ranged from 84.2% to 100.7% at three spiked levels with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 0.9% and 9.5%. The analytes were well separated and this analytical method proved to be sensitive and accurate, so it can be used in the practical determination of the fifteen UV filters in commercial sunscreen cosmetics. PMID:26749854

  18. Expertise and politics crisis: lessons learned from fifteen years of negotiations on climate change

    The author proposes some analyses and comments about the relationships between experts who have been involved in various conferences and meetings (from Rio de Janeiro in 1992 to Marrakech in 2002) on climate change. He presents the different groups of experts and comments the issues which have been a matter of debate between them for the past fifteen years. For each of these issues, he gives an overview of the expertise status, highlights consensus as well as dissensus. He compares this expertise with the content of political discourses, and then shows which mechanisms led to The Hague failure and to the incomplete Marrakech's compromise

  19. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    Renata Wojciechowska; Anna Kołton


    The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador...

  20. Fifteen Years of Cold Matter on the Atom Chip: Promise, Realizations, and Prospects

    Keil, Mark; Zhou, Shuyu; Groswasser, David; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron


    Here we review the field of atom chips in the context of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC) as well as cold matter in general. Twenty years after the first realization of the BEC and fifteen years after the realization of the atom chip, the latter has been found to enable extraordinary feats: from producing BECs at a rate of several per second, through the realization of matter-wave interferometry, and all the way to novel probing of surfaces and new forces. In addition, technological applications are also being intensively pursued. This review will describe these developments and more, including new ideas which have not yet been realized.

  1. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  2. Banking concentration in the European Union during the last fifteen years

    Santillán-Salgado Roberto J.


    Full Text Available The increase in the concentration of the banking industry across European Union countries during the last fifteen years can be explained in terms of: a global factors, like the comprehensive adoption of technological innovations, the intensification of competition that has resulted from the deregulation of the financial sector and, more recently, as a consequence of the government interventions and forced acquisitions prompted by the 2007-2009 financial crisis; and, b factors that have been specific to the E.U., in particular, the structural changes that took place in the region as a result of the creation of the Single Financial Market (1993 and the introduction of the euro (1999. This work analyzes the concentration process of the banking industry in the E.U. during the last fifteen years giving preeminence to the strategic choices made by the region’s commercial banks. It also reports the most visible E.U. banks’ M&As and government interventions that resulted from the 2007-2009 financial crisis, make a preliminary evaluation of the outcomes, and suggests possible future trends for the banking industry in the region.

  3. Experience Sampling Methodology reveals similarities in the experience of passage of time in young and elderly adults.

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John H


    Many people accept the idea that time seems to pass more quickly as they get older, as if this is a psychological reality. However, systematic investigations of differences in judgments of passage of time between young and elderly people are very rare and contradictory. The present study examined the experience of passage of time in daily life in young and elderly people using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM), with 8 alerts per day for 5 days being delivered by smartphones. At each alert, a short questionnaire was filled in, asking questions about passage of present time, affective state, arousal level, and attention to current activities, among others. Our ESM study found no difference between the young and the old participants in the judgment of passage of present time. Irrespective of the participants' age, the experience of passage of time in every-day life was significantly related to affective states and current activities when they captured attention. PMID:25701720

  4. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael


    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology. PMID:25710731

  5. Beijing fifteen years on: the persistence of barriers to gender mainstreaming in health policy.

    Payne, Sarah


    In 2010, fifteen years after the Beijing declaration on women's rights, the UN Commission on the Status of Women met to review progress in gender mainstreaming. Reports on gender equality by member states revealed differences in the degree of change achieved in this period, while highlighting common barriers to gender mainstreaming. The same barriers have long been identified by academics and activists, but prove remarkably resistant to strategies to address gender inequalities. This paper reviews approaches to gender mainstreaming in the context of health policy, and suggests that a model of the obstacles to gender mainstreaming, which identifies barriers as essentially pragmatic, conceptual, or political in origin, might enable a more explicit discussion of the factors underlying this resistance and the ways in which they might be challenged. PMID:22292172

  6. Using Experience Sampling Methods/Ecological Momentary Assessment (ESM/EMA) in Clinical Assessment and Clinical Research: Introduction to the Special Section

    Trull, Timothy J.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.


    This article introduces the special section on experience sampling methods and ecological momentary assessment in clinical assessment. We review the conceptual basis for experience sampling methods (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1987) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA; Stone & Shiffman, 1994). Next, we highlight several advantageous features of ESM/EMA as applied to psychological assessment and clinical research. We provide a brief overview of the articles in this special section, ea...

  7. Teachers' emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: an experience sampling study.

    Keller, Melanie M; Chang, Mei-Lin; Becker, Eva S; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C


    Emotional exhaustion (EE) is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers' professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers' emotional experiences and emotional labor (EL) during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their EE (trait), and via the experience sampling method on their momentary (state; N = 794) emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger) and momentary EL (suppression, faking). Teachers reported that in 99 and 39% of all lessons, they experienced enjoyment and anger, respectively, whereas they experienced anxiety less frequently. Teachers reported suppressing or faking their emotions during roughly a third of all lessons. Furthermore, EE was reflected in teachers' decreased experiences of enjoyment and increased experiences of anger. On an intra-individual level, all three emotions predict EL, whereas on an inter-individual level, only anger evokes EL. Explained variances in EL (within: 39%, between: 67%) stress the relevance of emotions in teaching and within the context of teacher burnout. Beyond implying the importance of reducing anger, our findings suggest the potential of enjoyment lessening EL and thereby reducing teacher burnout. PMID:25566124

  8. Understanding the relationships between self-esteem, experiential avoidance, and paranoia: structural equation modelling and experience sampling studies.

    Udachina, Alisa; Thewissen, Viviane; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Fitzpatrick, Sam; O'kane, Aisling; Bentall, Richard P


    Hypothesized relationships between experiential avoidance (EA), self-esteem, and paranoia were tested using structural equation modeling in a sample of student participants (N = 427). EA in everyday life was also investigated using the Experience Sampling Method in a subsample of students scoring high (N = 17) and low (N = 15) on paranoia. Results showed that paranoid students had lower self-esteem and reported higher levels of EA than nonparanoid participants. The interactive influence of EA and stress predicted negative self-esteem: EA was particularly damaging at high levels of stress. Greater EA and higher social stress independently predicted lower positive self-esteem. Low positive self-esteem predicted engagement in EA. A direct association between EA and paranoia was also found. These results suggest that similar mechanisms may underlie EA and thought suppression. Although people may employ EA to regulate self-esteem, this strategy is maladaptive as it damages self-esteem, incurs cognitive costs, and fosters paranoid thinking. PMID:19752645

  9. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: An Experience Sampling study

    Melanie M. Keller


    Full Text Available Emotional exhaustion is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers’ professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers’ emotional experiences and emotional labor during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their emotional exhaustion (trait, and via the Experience Sampling Method on their momentary (state; N = 794 emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger and momentary emotional labor (suppression, faking. Teachers reported that in 99% and 39% of all lessons, they experienced enjoyment and anger, respectively, whereas they experienced anxiety less frequently. Teachers reported suppressing or faking their emotions during roughly a third of all lessons. Furthermore, emotional exhaustion was reflected in teachers’ decreased experiences of enjoyment and increased experiences of anger. On an intra-individual level, all three emotions predict emotional labor, whereas on an inter-individual level, only anger evokes emotional labor. Explained variances in emotional labor (within: 39%, between: 67% stress the relevance of emotions in teaching and within the context of teacher burnout. Beyond implying the importance of reducing anger, our findings suggest the potential of enjoyment lessening emotional labor and thereby reducing teacher burnout.

  10. Halides with Fifteen Aliphatic C–H···Anion Interaction Sites

    Shi, Genggongwo; Aliakbar Tehrani, Zahra; Kim, Dongwook; Cho, Woo Jong; Youn, Il-Seung; Lee, Han Myoung; Yousuf, Muhammad; Ahmed, Nisar; Shirinfar, Bahareh; Teator, Aaron J.; Lastovickova, Dominika N.; Rasheed, Lubna; Lah, Myoung Soo; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Kim, Kwang S.


    Since the aliphatic C–H···anion interaction is relatively weak, anion binding using hydrophobic aliphatic C–H (Cali–H) groups has generally been considered not possible without the presence of additional binding sites that contain stronger interactions to the anion. Herein, we report X-ray structures of organic crystals that feature a chloride anion bound exclusively by hydrophobic Cali–H groups. An X-ray structure of imidazolium-based scaffolds using Cali–H···A‑ interactions (A‑ = anion) shows that a halide anion is directly interacting with fifteen Cali–H groups (involving eleven hydrogen bonds, two bidentate hydrogen-bond-type binding interactions and two weakly hydrogen-bonding-like binding interactions). Additional supporting interactions and/or other binding sites are not observed. We note that such types of complexes may not be rare since such high numbers of binding sites for an anion are also found in analogous tetraalkylammonium complexes. The Cali–H···A‑ interactions are driven by the formation of a near-spherical dipole layer shell structure around the anion. The alternating layers of electrostatic charge around the anion arise because the repulsions between weakly positively charged H atoms are reduced by the presence of the weakly negatively charged C atoms connected to H atoms.

  11. Halides with Fifteen Aliphatic C-H···Anion Interaction Sites.

    Shi, Genggongwo; Aliakbar Tehrani, Zahra; Kim, Dongwook; Cho, Woo Jong; Youn, Il-Seung; Lee, Han Myoung; Yousuf, Muhammad; Ahmed, Nisar; Shirinfar, Bahareh; Teator, Aaron J; Lastovickova, Dominika N; Rasheed, Lubna; Lah, Myoung Soo; Bielawski, Christopher W; Kim, Kwang S


    Since the aliphatic C-H···anion interaction is relatively weak, anion binding using hydrophobic aliphatic C-H (Cali-H) groups has generally been considered not possible without the presence of additional binding sites that contain stronger interactions to the anion. Herein, we report X-ray structures of organic crystals that feature a chloride anion bound exclusively by hydrophobic Cali-H groups. An X-ray structure of imidazolium-based scaffolds using Cali-H···A(-) interactions (A(-) = anion) shows that a halide anion is directly interacting with fifteen Cali-H groups (involving eleven hydrogen bonds, two bidentate hydrogen-bond-type binding interactions and two weakly hydrogen-bonding-like binding interactions). Additional supporting interactions and/or other binding sites are not observed. We note that such types of complexes may not be rare since such high numbers of binding sites for an anion are also found in analogous tetraalkylammonium complexes. The Cali-H···A(-) interactions are driven by the formation of a near-spherical dipole layer shell structure around the anion. The alternating layers of electrostatic charge around the anion arise because the repulsions between weakly positively charged H atoms are reduced by the presence of the weakly negatively charged C atoms connected to H atoms. PMID:27444513

  12. Fifteen years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Lessons learned

    Fifteen years has passed on this year since accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant had formed on April 26, 1986. From before or after the accident, the world experienced a number of changes. On August, 1986, USSR carried out a report on the accident at an international conference on the accident at Chernobyl held at Wien. Outlines of the report are described in a report of IAEA INSAG (INSAG-1). After then, various facts hidden in the USSR report at this time have appeared. Then, INSAG revised previous INSAG-1 and published INSAG-7 re-evaluated on technical meanings of the accident on 1992, which became so-called finished issue on technical analysis and evaluation on causes and progresses of the accident. To correctly understand lessons on the accident, it must be begun from correct understanding of its real facts. It is widely recognized that its actual and fundamental reason was slight or neglect on safety found at whole of nuclear development and applications in USSR and shorts of safety culture such as emptiness of technology and regulation brought by them, relaxation of working rule, and so on, which were only the largest lesson on the Chernobyl accident. (G.K.)

  13. Motivation towards career choice of Brazilian freshman students in a fifteen-year period.

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Jordao, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; de Paula Ferreira, Naiara; de Fatima Nunes, Maria; Queiroz, Maria Goretti; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues


    Examining dental students' profiles and perspectives contributes to discussions concerning dental education and practice. This study aimed, first, to investigate Brazilian dental students' reasons for pursuing dentistry as an occupation and, secondly, to consider the professional expectations of freshman students at a Brazilian public university over a fifteen-year period. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from a self-administered questionnaire to all first-year students enrolled in the 1993-95 and 2006-08 periods at the Federal University of Goias, Brazil (n=376). A total of 296 students responded (response rate=78.7 percent). Frequency analysis and chi-square tests were used to compare frequencies between the two time periods. Job conception was cited as the primary reason for pursuing dentistry, and the students considered oral health promotion and oral disease prevention as the primary purposes of dentistry. Most students intended to serve both high and low socioeconomic populations and both private and public practices after graduation. The majority cited an interest in specializing in clinical fields, orthodontics being the most frequent option. Significant trends included a greater interest in health promotion and public services and specializing in aesthetic dentistry and implantology in the 2006-08 period. This study revealed significant differences in the freshman students' motivations and professional perspectives over time. Personal views and concepts about profession are major influencing factors for choosing dentistry as a career. PMID:21205736

  14. Fifteen years of teaching and research into nuclear physics at the University of Madagascar

    The paper reports on fifteen years of teaching and research experience in nuclear physics at the University of Madagascar. Many difficulties were encountered in setting up the Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Applied Physics (LPNPA) from scratch. At the outset there were no offices, laboratory rooms, students, technicians or research workers - and only one professor, who had done his research in theoretical (elementary particle) physics. Through the support of the Malagasy Government, in particular the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, and the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency beginning in 1977, these difficulties were overcome and some thirty students were successfully trained locally at post-Masters level, laboratories were set up for X-ray fluorescence analysis, alpha and gamma radioactivity studies, and equipped with solid-state nuclear detectors. All this culminated in some fifty publications. The paper also describes the recommended strategy (programme development, mushrooming, bilateral and/or multilateral co-operation problems, training of teachers, and the endogenous approach). (author)

  15. Elaboration, validation and standardization of the five to fifteen (FTF) questionnaire in a Danish population sample.

    Lambek, Rikke; Trillingsgaard, Anegen


    The five to fifteen (FTF) is a parent questionnaire developed to assess ADHD, its common comorbid conditions and associated problems in children and adolescents. The present study examined (1) the psychometric properties of scores on the new teacher version of the FTF, (2) competing models of the FTF subdomain structure and (3) the psychometric properties and utility of scores on the newly developed FTF impact questions. Parents (n=4258) and teachers (n=1298) of Danish children and adolescents (ages 5 to 17 years), selected using simple random sampling, completed the FTF. In the largest study of the FTF to date, parent and teacher scores had acceptable psychometric properties. The FTF subdomains were organized into six domains labelled cognitive skills, motor/perception, emotion/socialization/behaviour, attention, literacy skills and activity control and analysis of these domains may provide additional information when applying the FTF in the future. The impact questions yielded information above and beyond that provided by symptom count alone and appeared to increase the ability of the FTF to identify at risk children and adolescents. PMID:25590170

  16. Construction of somatic athletes who train in WTF Taekwondo MUKS "Fifteen" in Bydgoszcz.

    Cieslicka Miroslawa.


    Full Text Available Introduction. The sports training process consists of two phenomena, on the one hand is the level of motor skills, on the other player's body to adapt to certain types and sizes of exercise, what the result is the formation of body specific to the sport. Objective. The objective was to measure the somatic features on school students practicing taekwondo and comparison with regional research Kujawsko-Pomorskie conducted by Marek Napierala. Materials and methods. The research was done on secondary school students (aged 14.5 - 16.5 years taekwondo training in Student Interschool Sports Club " Fifteen " in Bydgoszcz. We analyzed somatic features (height, weight, and BMI. There have been a correlation analysis between pairs of traits studied to investigate the relationships between the parameters of body and compared with regional research Kujawsko-Pomorskie conducted by Marek Napierala. Results and conclusions. In the case of boys outside the body of the youngest age category (14.5 years, greater than their peers from the regional research. In the group of girls higher average body height of girls exhibit regional research. Taekwondo trains are characterized by low BMI, which in most places in the range of normal. In all three age categories were characterized by higher body weight in girls with regional research. In this age the boys of regional research are on average 6.08 kg heavier than their peers who train taekwondo.

  17. Atypical presentation of Legionella pneumonia among patients with underlying cancer: A fifteen-year review☆

    del Castillo, Maria; Lucca, Anabella; Plodkowski, Andrew; Huang, Yao-Ting; Kaplan, Janice; Gilhuley, Kathleen; Babady, N. Esther; Seo, Susan K.; Kamboj, Mini


    Summary Background Immunocompromised patients, especially those receiving treatment with corticosteroids and cytotoxic chemotherapy are at increased risk for developing Legionella pneumonia. Objective The aim of this study was to determine clinical and radiographic characteristics of pulmonary infection due to Legionella in persons undergoing treatment for cancer and stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. Methods Retrospective review of Legionella cases at MSKCC over a fifteen-year study period from January 1999 and December 2013. Cases were identified by review of microbiology records. Results During the study period, 40 cases of Legionella infection were identified; nine among these were due to non-pneumophila species. Most cases occurred during the summer. The majority [8/9, (89%)] of patients with non-pneumophila infection had underlying hematologic malignancy, compared to 18/31 (58%) with Legionella pneumophila infections. Radiographic findings were varied-nodular infiltrates mimicking invasive fungal infection were seen only among patients with hematologic malignancy and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients and were frequently associated with non-pneumophila infections (50% vs 16%; P = 0.0594). All cases of nodular Legionella pneumonia were found incidentally or had an indolent clinical course. Conclusions Legionella should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nodular lung lesions in immunocompromised patients, especially those with hematologic malignancy and SCT recipients. Most cases of nodular disease due to Legionella are associated with non-pneumophila infections. PMID:26496794

  18. An empirical investigation on different methods of economic growth rate forecast and its behavior from fifteen countries across five continents

    Yin, Yip Chee; Hock-Eam, Lim


    Our empirical results show that we can predict GDP growth rate more accurately in continent with fewer large economies, compared to smaller economies like Malaysia. This difficulty is very likely positively correlated with subsidy or social security policies. The stage of economic development and level of competiveness also appears to have interactive effects on this forecast stability. These results are generally independent of the forecasting procedures. Countries with high stability in their economic growth, forecasting by model selection is better than model averaging. Overall forecast weight averaging (FWA) is a better forecasting procedure in most countries. FWA also outperforms simple model averaging (SMA) and has the same forecasting ability as Bayesian model averaging (BMA) in almost all countries.

  19. A gold immunochromatographic assay for the rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams

    Chen, Yanni; Wang, Yongwei; Liu, Liqiang; Wu, Xiaoling; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Li, Aike; Xu, Chuanlai


    A novel gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) based on anti-β-lactam receptors was innovatively developed that successfully allowed rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams in milk samples in 5-10 minutes. By replacing the antibodies used in traditional GICA with anti-β-lactam receptors, the difficulty in producing broad specific antibodies against β-lactams was overcome. Conjugates of ampicillin with BSA and goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgG) were immobilized onto the test and control lines on the nitrocellulose membrane, respectively. Since goat anti-mouse IgG does not combine with receptors, negative serum from mice labelled with gold nanoparticles (GNP) was mixed with GNP-labelled receptors. Results were obtained within 20 min using a paper-based sensor. The utility of the assay was confirmed by the analysis of milk samples. The limits of detection (LOD) for amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, cefaclor, ceftezole, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, cefoperazone, cefathiamidine, and cefepime were 0.25, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 1, 5, 5, 10, 25, 10, 100, 10, 5, 5, and 2 ng mL-1, respectively, which satisfies the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by the European Union (EU). In conclusion, our newly developed GICA-based anti-β-lactam receptor assay provides a rapid and effective method for one-site detection of multiple β-lactams in milk samples.A novel gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) based on anti-β-lactam receptors was innovatively developed that successfully allowed rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams in milk samples in 5-10 minutes. By replacing the antibodies used in traditional GICA with anti-β-lactam receptors, the difficulty in producing broad specific antibodies against β-lactams was overcome. Conjugates of ampicillin with BSA and goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgG) were immobilized onto the test and control lines on the nitrocellulose membrane, respectively

  20. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    Renata Wojciechowska


    Full Text Available The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador’, ‘Takstar F1’,‘Tęcza’, ‘Warna’, ‘Zorza’, Polan (‘Polanowska’, ‘Topolska’, PlantiCo Gołębiew (‘Alibaba’, ‘Efekt’, ‘Kristine’, ‘Niagara F1’,and PlantiCo Zielonki (‘Bila’, ‘Irka’, ‘Wenta’, ‘Zeta’. Plants produced from seedlings were grown in the experimental field of the University of Agriculture in Kraków. After crop harvesting and additional drying, nitrate and dry matter content in bulbs of all cultivars were measured. The following cultivars: ‘Efekt’, ‘Labrador’ and red-skinned ‘Wenta’, were characterized by the lowest ability to accumulate NO3- in bulbs. The highest nitrate content was noted in bulbs of ‘Takstar F1’ (a very early-season cultivar, followed by ‘Bila’ and ‘Tęcza’. A weak, yet statistically significant negative correlation between nitrate and dry matter content was observed. The highest dry matter content was determined in bulbs of white-skinned ‘Alibaba’, while the lowest – in brown-skinned ‘Labrador’.

  1. Fifteen fatal fallacies of financial fundamentalism Quince falacias funestas del fundamentalismo financiero

    Vickrey William


    Full Text Available In this article, Professor Vickrey shows that current economic policy is based on incomplete analyses, counterfactual assumptions, and false analogies. The article examines in detail fifteen fallacies which, taken together, lead to policies which at best generate economic lethargy with unemployment rates close to 5 or 6 percent. For Professor Vickrey, this situation is harmful in that it reduces potential production between 10 and 15 percent even if the loss is distributed in an equitable way among the population; but when it turns into unemployment of 10, 20, and up to 40 percent for the less favored groups, the additional harm in terms of poverty, family breakup, school absence and dropout, illegitimacy,
    drug use, and crime becomes very serious. Thus these policies are like a 'premeditated homicidal fire' and, even worse, when they are carried to their ultimate consequences, in search of 'budgetary equilibrium', they can lead to a deep depression.En este articulo, el profesor Vickrey muestra que la politica economica actual se basa en analisis incompletos, supuestos contrafactuales y analogias falsas. El articulo examina en detalle quince falacias que, en conjunto, llevan a politicas que, en el mejor de los casos, generan un letargo economico con tasas de desempleo cercanas al 5 o 6 por ciento. Para el profesor Vickrey, esta situacion es perjudicial por cuanto reduce la produccion potencial entre un 10 y un 15 por ciento aun asi la perdida de se reparte de forma equitativa entre toda la poblacion; pero cuando se traduce un desempleo de 10, 20 o hasta 40 por ciento para los grupos desfavorecidos, los perjuicios adicionales en terminos de pobreza, ruptura familiar, ausencia y desercion escolar, ilegitimidad, uso de drogas y crimenes llegan a ser muy graves. De modo que estas politicas se asemejan a un "incendio homicida premeditado" y, aun peor, cuando se llevan hasta sus ultimas concecuencias, en busca de un 'presupuesto equilibrado

  2. Research in Behavior Modification; New Developments and Implications.

    Krasner, Leonard, Ed.; Ullmann, Leonard P., Ed.

    Fifteen articles by different authors discuss behavior modification in terms of research, training, and social application. Topics considered include the classification of behavioral pathology, the extension of learning principles to human behavior, studies of normal and deviant child behavior, operant conditioning of two speech-deficient boys,…

  3. The Inhibitory Effect of Oridonin on the Growth of Fifteen Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Junhui Chen; Shaobin Wang; Dongyang Chen; Guisheng Chang; Qingfeng Xin; Shoujun Yuan; Zhongying Shen


    OBJECTIVE To study the inhibitory effect of oridonin on the growth of cancer cells.METHODS Fifteen human cancer cell lines were subjected to various concentrations of oridonin in culture medium.The inhibitory rate of cell growth was measured by the MTT assay.and compared with a negative control and 5-Fu-positive control.RESULTS The 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) and maximal inhibi tion (Imax) of oridonin shown by studying the growth of the cancer cell lines were as follows:leukemias (HL60 cells:3.9 μg/ml and 73.8%.K562 cells:4.3 μg/ml and 76.2%):esophageal cancers (SHEEC cells:15.4 μg/ml and 99.2%,Eca109 cells:15.1 μg/ml and 84.6%,TE1 cells:4.0 μg/ml and 70.2%):gastric cancers (BGC823 cells:7.6 μg/ml and 98.7%,SGC7901 cells:12.3 μg/ml and 85.7%):colon cancers (HT29 cells:13.6 μg/ml and 97.2%,HCT cells:14.5 μg/ml and 96.5%):liver cancers (Bel7402 cells:15.2 μg/ml and 89.2%,HepG2 cells:7.1 μg/ml and 88.3%):pancreatic cancer (PC3 cells:11.3 μg/ml and 68.4%):lung cancer (A549 cells:18.6 μg/ml and 98.0%):breast cancer (MCF7 cells:18.4 μg/ml and 84.7%):uterine cervix cancer (Hela cells:13.7μg/ml and 98.5%).CONCLUSION Oridonin had a relatively wide anti-tumor spectrum,and a relatively strong inhibitory effect on the growth of the 15 human cancer cells.Inhibitory effects were concentration dependent.

  4. A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data

    Mikhail Zhizhin


    Full Text Available We have produced annual estimates of national and global gas flaring and gas flaring efficiency from 1994 through 2008 using low light imaging data acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP. Gas flaring is a widely used practice for the disposal of associated gas in oil production and processing facilities where there is insufficient infrastructure for utilization of the gas (primarily methane. Improved utilization of the gas is key to reducing global carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The DMSP estimates of flared gas volume are based on a calibration developed with a pooled set of reported national gas flaring volumes and data from individual flares. Flaring efficiency was calculated as the volume of flared gas per barrel of crude oil produced. Global gas flaring has remained largely stable over the past fifteen years, in the range of 140 to 170 billion cubic meters (BCM. Global flaring efficiency was in the seven to eight cubic meters per barrel from 1994 to 2005 and declined to 5.6 m3 per barrel by 2008. The 2008 gas flaring estimate of 139 BCM represents 21% of the natural gas consumption of the USA with a potential retail market value of $68 billion. The 2008 flaring added more than 278 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e into the atmosphere. The DMSP estimated gas flaring volumes indicate that global gas flaring has declined by 19% since 2005, led by gas flaring reductions in Russia and Nigeria, the two countries with the highest gas flaring levels. The flaring efficiency of both Russia and Nigeria improved from 2005 to 2008, suggesting that the reductions in gas flaring are likely the result of either improved utilization of the gas, reinjection, or direct venting of gas into the atmosphere, although the effect of uncertainties in the satellite data cannot be ruled out. It is anticipated that the capability to estimate gas flaring volumes based on satellite data will spur improved utilization of

  5. Tracking the train of thought from the laboratory into everyday life: An experience-sampling study of mind wandering across controlled and ecological contexts

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.; Kwapil, Thomas R.


    In an experience-sampling study that bridged laboratory, ecological, and individual-differences approaches to mind-wandering research, 72 subjects completed an executive-control task with periodic thought probes (reported by McVay & Kane, 2009) and then carried PDAs for a week that signaled them 8 times daily to report immediately whether their thoughts were off-task. Subjects who reported more mind wandering during the laboratory task endorsed more mind-wandering experiences during everyday ...

  6. The contents of fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their aqueous extracts

    The content of fifteen elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined in Green Tea samples imported from different countries such as India, China, Kenya and Bangladesh in packets and without packets were purchased from authorized tea dealers in Peshawar. Wet ashing procedures were employed for decomposing the organic matter in the tea samples. Aqueous extract of each green tea sample was also prepared by heating with de-ionized water at 80 /sup o/C on electric heating plates. (author)

  7. Fifteen classes of solutions of the quantum two-state problem in terms of the confluent Heun function

    Ishkhanyan, A M


    We derive 15 classes of time-dependent two-state models solvable in terms of the confluent Heun functions. These classes extend over all the known families of 3- and 2-parametric models solvable in terms of the Gauss hypergeometric and the Kummer confluent hypergeometric functions to more general four-parametric classes involving three-parametric detuning modulation functions. The classes suggest a variety of families of field configurations possessing useful properties not covered by the previously known analytic models. In the case of constant detuning the field configurations defined by the derived classes describe excitations of two-state quantum systems by symmetric or asymmetric pulses of controllable width and edge-steepness. The particular classes out of the derived fifteen that provide constant detuning pulses of finite area are identified and the factors controlling the corresponding pulse shapes are discussed in detail. The positions of the pulse edges for the case of step-wise edges are determined...

  8. Fifteen years TRIGA Mainz

    Some of the operational data of the reactor are presented. The great number of samples irradiated in 1970 and 1971 was due to cyclic irradiation of samples for fission experiments. The maximum of the number of pulses performed per year was reached in 1973 with 2315 pulses. In the following years the number of pulses decreased, while the energy generated and also the operating time increased. This was due to increasing steady state operation of the reactor for two mass separators, installed at two beam-tubes and also to the use of steady state operation instead of pulses for irradiations combined with fast chemical separations. Until 1980 more than 12,800 pulses have been performed. A chronological survey of the maintenance work and the improvements done at the reactor is given

  9. Chernobyl, fifteen years after

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  10. Fifteen years after accident

    This book is devoted to 15th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Four problems have been reflected in the book: contamination of territories of Western Europe, Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation by cesium-137; plutonium, americium and other actinides on territory of Belarus; problems of radioactive wastes management of Chernobyl origin; influence of various factors on oncology morbidity in the Republic of Belarus

  11. The Association between Television-Viewing Behaviors and Adolescent Dating Role Attitudes and Behaviors

    Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Lebo, Melanie J.


    Two hundred and fifteen ninth grade students were surveyed to examine the relationship between television use and gender role attitudes and behavior in dating situations. Findings indicate the existence of a relationship between watching "romantic" television programming and having more traditional gender role attitudes in dating situations.…

  12. Weatherization Beyond the Numbers: Case Studies of Fifteen High-performing Weatherization Agencies - Conducted May 2011 through July 2012

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The report presents fifteen individual case studies of high-performing and unique local weatherization agencies. This research was one component of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. The agencies were chosen to represent a range of contexts and approaches to weatherization. For example, the set of agencies includes a mix of urban and rural agencies, those that mainly use in-house crews to weatherize homes versus those that use contractor crews, and a mix of locations, from very cold climates to moderate to hot humid and dry climates. The case studies were mainly based on site visits to the agencies that encompassed interviews with program directors, weatherization crews, and recipients of weatherization. This information was supplemented by secondary materials. The cases document the diversity of contexts and challenges faced by the agencies and how they operate on a day-by-day basis. The cases also high common themes found throughout the agencies, such as their focus on mission and respect for their clients.

  13. Sexual Violence Against Children under Fifteen Years in the Case Lubanga: Critical Analysis and a Proposed Solution

    Leandro Alberto Dias


    Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues that the Pre-Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Court had to decide in their judgment against Thomas Lubanga Dyilo was the legal treatment of the acts of sexual violence committed during the armed conflict of Ituri. This was a challenging aspect because the Prosecutor had previously decided not to present charges based on sex crimes. On the contrary, he mostly focused his prosecutorial strategy on the war crimes of conscripting, enlisting children under the age of fifteen years or using them to participate actively in hostilities. Facing that situation, the majority of the Trial Chamber I decided not to analyse the issue, while judge Elizabeth Odio Benito took up this point and considered that acts of sexual violence constitute an active participation in hostilities. In this essay I will critically analyse both opinions with the aim of offering an alternative explanation. The latter could be read as follows: despite the fact that acts of sexual violence were not included in the charges, they are covered by the conducts of conscripting or enlisting.

  14. Fifteen years of labour market regulations and policies in Italy: What have we learned from their evaluation?

    Ugo Trivellato


    Full Text Available During the last fifteen years a notable number of labour market interventions took place in Italy, under two main headings: new regulations and implementation of active and/or passive programmes. The paper reviews a fair number of subjectively selected impact evaluation studies published in the last ten years. The framework is provided by counterfactual analysis; preliminary, its barebones are sum up. The focus of the review in on two aspects. First, a blend of empirical and analytical issues critical for credible impact evaluations are discussed. They emerge from the fact that the reviewed studies are carried out in an observational setting, and refer to prospective vs. retrospective evaluation, availability (or lack of adequate data, over-identification tests in order to corroborate (or falsify the identifying restriction on which the evaluation strategy rests, and heterogeneous effects. Second, the substantive evidence offered by the reviewed studies is summarized. It points to generally minor policy effects; some tentative explanations for that lack of effectiveness are suggested.

  15. For a responsible energetic future. Energy: let us rejoice, France is waking up. Fifteen tales on energy transition

    In a first article, the author discusses the possible content of a law on energy transition which is supposed to be voted by the Parliament during the autumn 2014, and which will probably decide the shutting down of some French nuclear plants. The author outlines the social, economical and energy-related consequences of such a policy. In a second article he rejoices over the publication of two reports (one on the Energy Climate Package by the Cour des Comptes, and one by the General Commissioner for Strategy and Prospective) which consider that the objectives of development of renewable energies (notably wind and photovoltaic) are too ambitious and even unrealistic, and outline the bad management of investments and the inefficiency of action by the ADEME and the Ministry of Ecology. In the third article he denounces fifteen 'tales' about the German energy model, the uselessness of seven German nuclear plants which have been stopped, the low cost of energy transition, the environmental benefit of renewable energies, the high potential of energy savings, the new electricity storage means, the electric car as a new mean of storage of electric current, the sun which does not send any bill, wind energy (when a wind farm is said to be able to supply energy to so many thousands households), geothermal energy production, technological leap, the benefit of decentralization, the miracle of job creation by renewable energies, the ecologic electricity, nuclear wastes we do not know what to do with

  16. Progress made in the last fifteen years through analyses of the TMI-2 accident performed in member countries

    The TMI-2 accident keeps providing unique full scale data giving opportunities to check the ability of the codes to model overall plant behaviour and to perform many sensitivity and uncertainty calculations. Some countries continue improving their system codes using the TMI data. The objective of this status report was to summarise on-going activities on TMI-2 analysis in NEA member countries, and progress made in this area, and to find out to which extent current advanced codes are able to model later phases of the TMI-2 accident. The work started in early spring 2003 under the lead of IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire). The participating organisations and their codes used were as follows: ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, Italy): ASTEC, ICARE/CATHARE V1 and SCDAP/RELAP5; GRS (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany) : ATHLET-CD; IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France): ICARE/CATHARE V2; NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, United States of America): MELCOR; Univ. Pisa (Universita di Pisa, Italy): SCDAP/RELAP5; PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland): MELCOR. In this report, several experts in using severe accident codes have provided their views about the progress made during the last fifteen years in the calculation of the TMI-2 transient: physical modelling improvements (thermal hydraulics, cladding oxidation, material properties, molten corium progression, debris bed), plant and transient description improvements, comparison with last benchmark conclusions

  17. The contents of fifteen essential trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their infusions

    The content of fifteen elements i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined for 30 sample from three types of green tea samples using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were purchased from authentic tea dealer in Peshawar imported from India, China and Kenya. However, some samples were taken which were locally produced in Pakistan with branded packing and without package. The NBS tea leaves. The wet digestion and infusion procedure reference material was also analyzed simultaneously with tea samples. The wet digestion and infusion procedures were employed for determination of total elements and aqueous extracted elements respectively. It was found that, considerable amount of essential and trace elements are present in total in tea infusion. The levels of toxic metals are low but level of aluminum is high in both forms. The results obtained from this analysis have shown good accuracy and reproducibility. The relative error and relative standard deviation were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed. (author)

  18. The inter-relationship between mood, self-esteem and response styles in adolescent offspring of bipolar parents: an experience sampling study.

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P


    The response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) proposes three main strategies individuals employ in response to low mood: rumination, active coping (distraction and problem-solving) and risk taking. Although recent research has suggested this theory has utility in understanding the symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD), the role of these processes in conferring vulnerability to the condition is poorly understood. Twenty-three adolescent children of patients with BD and 25 offspring of well parents completed the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 1987) diary for six days. Longitudinal analyses were carried out to examine inter-relationships between mood, self-esteem and response styles. Increased negative as well as positive mood resulted in greater rumination in both groups. Low self-esteem triggered greater risk-taking at the subsequent time point in the at-risk group, while negative affect instigated increased active coping in the control group. In both groups, engagement in risk-taking improved mood at the subsequent time point, whilst rumination dampened self-esteem. Differential longitudinal associations between mood, self-esteem and response styles between at-risk and control children suggest early psychological vulnerability in the offspring of BD parents, with important indications for early intervention. PMID:25529261

  19. An Evaluation of clinical, serologic, anatomopathologic and immunohistochemical findings for fifteen patients with mucosal leishmaniasis before and after treatment

    Valdir S. AMATO


    Full Text Available Treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML can be controlled by clinical examination and by serologic titers by the indirect immunofluorescence serologic reaction (IISR. We studied the correlation between the presence of antigen in tissue determined by immunohistochemistry, the IISR titers and the anatomopathologic findings in fifteen patients with ML before and after healing of the lesions as determined by otorhinolaryngologic evaluation, and evaluated these parameters to determine which of them could be useful during follow-up. Tissue antigens became negative in four patients (group A after treatment, with a statistically significant reduction or negativity of IISR titers (pO controle de tratamento da leishmaniose mucosa (LM pode ser realizado pelo exame clínico e o acompanhamento dos títulos sorológicos da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI. Estudamos a correlação entre a presença de antígeno no tecido através da reação de imuno-histoquímica, os títulos da reação de imunofluorescência indireta e os achados anatomopatológicos, em quinze pacientes com LM, antes e após as lesões estarem cicatrizadas pela avaliação otorrinolaringológica, e avaliamos qual destes parâmetros pode ter utilidade no seguimento. Após a terapêutica houve negativação do antígeno tecidual em quatro doentes (grupo A, sendo a redução ou negativação dos títulos da RIFI estatisticamente significante (p<0.05, o que não ocorreu nos doentes, em que houve permanência do antígeno posteriormente ao tratamento (grupo B, sugerindo que o acompanhamento sorológico deva ser realizado conjuntamente com a pesquisa do antígeno tecidual, associação que não conhecemos ter sido utilizada anteriormente em outro estudo. A negativação do antígeno tecidual e o comportamento dos títulos da RIFI nos doentes do grupo A, provavelmente indicam menor possibilidade de recidiva. Ao exame anatomo-patológico, o processo inflamatório persistiu após a

  20. Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education

    Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.


    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…

  1. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    Wessels, A.B.


    Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica) were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is con...

  2. One the way to European Union: changes in the Czech education system during the last fifteen years

    Milada Rubusicová


    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to describe the changes in the educationalsystem in the Czech Republic that have taken place from the beginning of the 1990’s up to the present. The first part includes a brief characterisation of the initial situation typical of the socialist model of education and a specification ofthose areas that were viewed sceptically or critically after the „velvet revolution»in 1989, and that have been identified as areas where a change is desirable. Next part of the paper describes the course of changes and reforms of education in subsequent years. Periodisation of reforms is carried out on the basisof a general model that has been created, as one of possible approaches, for postsocialist countries in transformation. Each part of the model, i.e. the correctivereforms, modernization reforms, structural reforms and system reforms, containsan outline of the respective individual changes that took place in the Czech Republic in the course of the last, almost fifteen years, and the changes arecritically evaluated.There are some documents (e.g. the Czech «White Paper» that are of essential importance to the recent and current situation in the Czech educational systembecause they create basic visions and orientation but also a strategy of future changes. The documents are treated in the next section of the present text. It isfollowed by a brief analysis of the current situation of the Czech educational system, namely as regards the educational opportunities and participation in education, structure and network of schools, financing of the Czech educational system, and finally the school leavers’ prospects at the labour market.The last part of the paper deals with the outlooks of further development of the Czech educational system in connection with the entry into the European Union,and a conclusion is drawn that it involves mutual convergence of problems caused by global economic and social forces that also leads to

  3. A Rewarding Fifteen Years: From SLG to SCR/SP11%值得的十五年——从SLG到SCR/SP11

    崔海洋; 赖钊; 薛勇彪


    Self_incompatibility (SI) is a major genetic mechanism to prevent self_fertilization in flowering plants and, in most cases, controlled by a single multiallelic locus, known as the S locus. In Brassica, the genes mediating both stylar (SRK, S receptor kinase) and pollen (SCR/SP11, S locus cystein rich protein/S locus protein 11) expression of self_incompatible reaction have been characterized though the first S locus_encoded gene, SLG (S locus glycoprotein), was isolated nearly fifteen years ago. These findings have finally unveiled the molecular partners in pollen recognition during self_incompatible reaction in Brassica.

  4. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    A. B. Wessels


    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.




    The present paper reports thirty-three species of the genus Cryptolechia in China. Fifteen speciesare described as new to science: C. deflecta sp. nov. , C. kangxianensis sp. nov. , C. microbyrsa sp. nov. ,C.falsivespertina sp. nov., C.cornutivalvata sp. nov., C .fasciruptasp. nov., C. neargometra sp. nov., C.paranthaedeaga sp. nov., C.sp. nov., C. stictifascia sp. nov., C.jigongshanica sp. nov., C. mirabilis sp. nov., C. anthaedeaga sp. nov., C. gei sp. nov. and C. varifascirupta sp. nov. The genital structures of the new species are illustrated.

  6. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence

    Jennifer Marks; Kayla de la Haye; Barnett, Lisa M.; Steven Allender


    Introduction There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Methods Participants were 310 students, aged 11–13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and s...

  7. Cementless total hip arthroplasty with the rectangular titanium Zweymuller stem. A concise follow-up, at a minimum of fifteen years, of a previous report.

    Grübl, Alexander; Chiari, Catharina; Giurea, Alexander; Gruber, Martin; Kaider, Alexandra; Marker, Martina; Zehetgruber, Harald; Gottsauner-Wolf, Florian


    Between October 1986 and November 1987, 208 total hip arthroplasties were performed with use of the cementless Zweymüller stem and a threaded cup in 200 consecutive patients. Of 102 patients (108 hips) who were available for follow-up at a minimum of 180 months postoperatively, eighty-three (eighty-nine hips) had the primary joint replacement still intact. No stem had been revised because of aseptic loosening, but we found various degrees of osteolysis around sixteen (18%) of the implants. The probability of survival of the stem at fifteen years was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.00). The probability of survival of the cup was 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 0.91). PMID:17015598

  8. Benefits of transformational behaviors for leaders: A daily investigation of leader behaviors and need fulfillment.

    Lanaj, Klodiana; Johnson, Russell E; Lee, Stephanie M


    Although a large body of work has examined the benefits of transformational leadership, this work has predominantly focused on recipients of such behaviors. Recent research and theory, however, suggest that there are also benefits for those performing behaviors reflective of transformational leadership. Across 2 experience-sampling studies, we investigate the effects of such behaviors on actors' daily affective states. Drawing from affective events theory and self-determination theory we hypothesize and find that engaging in behaviors reflective of transformational leadership is associated with improvement in actors' daily affect, more so than engaging in behaviors reflective of transactional, consideration, initiating structure, and participative leadership. Behaviors reflective of transformational leadership improved actors' affect in part by fulfilling their daily needs. Furthermore, extraversion and neuroticism moderated these effects such that extraverts benefitted less whereas neurotics benefitted more from these behaviors in terms of affective changes. We consider the theoretical and practical implications of these findings and offer directions for future research. PMID:26348475

  9. Fifteen-Year Biochemical Relapse-Free Survival, Cause-Specific Survival, and Overall Survival Following I125 Prostate Brachytherapy in Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Seattle Experience

    Purpose: To report 15-year biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) outcomes of patients treated with I125 brachytherapy monotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer early in the Seattle experience. Methods and Materials: Two hundred fifteen patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were consecutively treated from 1988 to 1992 with I125 monotherapy. They were prospectively followed as a tight cohort. They were evaluated for BRFS, CSS, and OS. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate outcomes by pretreatment clinical prognostic factors. BRFS was analyzed by the Phoenix (nadir + 2 ng/mL) definition. CSS and OS were evaluated by chart review, death certificates, and referring physician follow-up notes. Gleason scoring was performed by general pathologists at a community hospital in Seattle. Time to biochemical failure (BF) was calculated and compared by Kaplan-Meier plots. Results: Fifteen-year BRFS for the entire cohort was 80.4%. BRFS by D'Amico risk group classification cohort analysis was 85.9%, 79.9%, and 62.2% for low, intermediate, and high-risk patients, respectively. Follow-up ranged from 3.6 to 18.4 years; median follow-up was 15.4 years for biochemically free of disease patients. Overall median follow-up was 11.7 years. The median time to BF in those who failed was 5.1 years. CSS was 84%. OS was 37.1%. Average age at time of treatment was 70 years. There was no significant difference in BRFS between low and intermediate risk groups. Conclusion: I125 monotherapy results in excellent 15-year BRFS and CSS, especially when taking into account the era of treatment effect.

  10. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.


    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals significant…

  11. Fifteen minute stories about training.

    Crowther, Catherine; Wiener, Jan; Tserashchuk, Alena; Tsivinsky, Vladimir; Volodina, Elena; Alexandrova, Natalia L


    This panel presentation at the Journal's conference in St Petersburg responded to the conference theme of 'Ancestors in Personal, Professional and Social History' by relating it to the experience of training and being trained on the IAAP 'router' programme in Russia. The two organizers of the programme (JW and CC) have worked in Russia for over 12 years, bringing analysts from Britain to Moscow and St Petersburg on a 'shuttle' basis as supervisors and personal analysts. A few months after handing over the router programme in December 2010 to the Russian colleagues they had trained, they invited four analysts, three Russian and one Belarusian, to tell a short personal story about their training, linking it to the theme of 'the Ancestors'. The resulting four stories are very different but complement each other, using imagery to illustrate issues concerning both value and ambivalence. JW and CC jointly wrote their story about the programme in response to the four stories, reflecting on some of their themes and from them, giving consideration to the flexibility and limits of such a model of cross-cultural training. Themes in the stories included the possibility of mutual adaptation to another culture without losing tradition and identity; moving on from doctrinaire Soviet attitudes in education to embrace 'not knowing'; both organizers and routers learning from mistakes and from joint experience without guilt or shame; the need to protect reflective space amidst the constraints of time and geography. All Russian and UK contributors could finally acknowledge their shared luck to find themselves in the right place at the right time to respond to the collective revival of psychoanalytic practice in Russia. PMID:22039945

  12. Supermembranes: the first fifteen weeks

    There are four fundamental extended objects with d > 2 world-volume dimensions and D-dimensional spacetime supersymmetry: (d = 3, D = 11), (d = 6, D = 10), (d = 4, D = 6), and (d = 3, D = 4). A simultaneous dimensional reduction of the world volume and the spacetime then yields four sequences of super-extended object which include the four classical Green-Schwarz superstrings (d = 2, D = 10, 6, 4, and 3) as special cases. We discuss which of these models is likely to be quantum consistent and finish with some speculations. (author)

  13. Volatile Exsolution Experiments: Sampling Exsolved Magmatic Fluids

    Tattitch, B.; Blundy, J. D.


    In magmatic arcs the conditions of volatile exsolution exert a direct control on the composition of exsolved magmatic volatiles phases (MVPs), as well as on their parental magmas. The ability to accurately assess the exchange of major and trace elements between MVPs and magmas is key to understanding the evolution of arc magmas. The trace element signatures measured in arc volcanoes, fumaroles, and hydrothermal ore deposits are greatly influenced by the role of MVPs. In order to investigate the interplay and evolution of melts and MVPs we need experimental methods to simulate MVP exsolution that impose minimal external constraints on their equilibration. Previous experiments have focused on evaluating the exchange of elements between aqueous fluids and silicate melts under equilibrium conditions[1,2]. However, the large mass proportion of fluid to melt in these experiment designs is unrealistic. As a result, the idealized compositions of the aqueous fluids may exert a strong control on melt compositions for which they are out of equilibrium, especially at low melt fractions. In contrast, other experiments have focused on the melt during crystallization but must calculate MVP compositions by mass balance[3]. In order to investigate MVPs and magmas during this critical period of MVP exsolution, we present a new two-stage fluid-melt experimental design. Stage one experiments generate super-liquidus hydrous melts using Laguna del Maule rhyolites and dactites, as analogues for ascending arc magmas. Stage two experiments allow aliquots of stage one melt/glass to crystallize and exsolve MVPs. The design then uses pressure cycling to promote infiltration of in-situ fractured quartz[4] and traps the MVPs as synthetic fluid inclusions. We present results from trial stage 2 experiments, which produced synthetic fluid inclusions consistent with literature values of fluid-melt Cl partitioning[5] and of sufficient size for LA-ICPMS analysis. Trace element partitioning for Li, Na, K, Cu, Mo, and Au will also be presented. [1] Candela P.A. and Holland H.D. (1984) GCA 48, 373-380 [2] Simon et al. (2006) GCA 70, 5583-5600. [3] Clemente B., Scaillet B., Pichavant M. (2004) Jour. Pet. 45, 2171-2196 [4] Sterner S.M. and Bodnar R.J. (1991) Am. J. Sci. 291, 1-54. [5] Webster J.D. and Holloway J.R. (1988) GCA 52, 2091-2105.

  14. Operant schedule transformations and human behavioral momentum.

    Plaud, J J; Gaither, G A; Lawrence, J B


    Behavioral momentum, which can be defined as the persistence of behavior under altered environmental contingencies, is derived from Newtonian physics and operant psychology, and has relevance to behavior therapy in terms of shaping strong behaviors and ensuring effective relapse prevention strategies. The present study investigated whether changing operant schedule contingencies affects how humans respond to different stimuli when reinforcement density is systematically manipulated. Fifteen subjects participated in a computer study, in which each of two keys in a baseline condition was associated with the same schedule of reinforcement, multiple variable interval schedules, the only difference being that one reinforcer was ten times larger than the other. After six sessions, the contingency schedule changed to either an extinction condition, a variable time schedule, or a changed variable interval schedule to assess how 'subjects' responses persisted when reinforcement contingencies were systematically changed. Results of this study were found to be consistent with the general predictions of behavioral momentum. Subjects not only biased responding in favor of the more densely reinforcing key, but when contingencies changed, subjects showed continued biased responding. Implications for behavioral momentum for behavior modification and behavior therapy are discussed, and it is concluded that behavioral momentum has significant implications for designing new and comprehensive behavior change programs. PMID:9327296

  15. Correlation Between Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Fifteen Eucalyptus Species Growing in the Korbous and Jbel Abderrahman Arboreta (North East Tunisia

    Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri


    Full Text Available The essential oils of fifteen Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman and Korbous arboreta (North East Tunisia were screened for their antibacterial activities by the agar disc diffusion method. Eighteen major components as identified by GC/FID and GC/MS were selected for a study of the chemical and biological activity variability. The main one was 1,8-cineole, followed by spathulenol, trans-pinocarveol, α-pinene, p-cymene, globulol, cryptone, β-phellandrene, viridiflorol, borneol, limonene and isospathulenol. The chemical principal component analysis identified five species groups and subgroups, where each group constituted a chemotype, however that of the values of zone diameter of the inhibition (zdi identified six groups of Eucalyptus oils, characterized by their antibacterial inhibition ability. The strongest activity was shown by E. platypus oil against Enterococcus faecalis and by E. lamannii oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A correlation between the levels of some major components and the antibacterial activities was observed.

  16. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 5, Fifteen-year-old male and adult female

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for a fifteen-year-old male or an adult female (55 to 58 kg). These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods of Snyder et al. at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Deformities due to Leprosy in Children under Fifteen Years Old as an Indicator of Quality of the Leprosy Control Programme in Brazilian Municipalities

    Francisco Carlos Félix Lana


    Full Text Available The present study aims at analysing the degree of deformity in leprosy cases diagnosed in children under 15 years old and its relationship with operational and epidemiological factors. This epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out at municipalities of three microregions in a Brazilian hyperendemic area. Data between 1998 and 2010 was collected from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases database. The average coefficient of detection was 32.96/100.000 inhabitants; 7.61% of new cases were diagnosed in children under 15 years old; 5% in this age group were grade 2 deformity at diagnosis. Prevalence of leprosy cases in children under 15 years old with deformity was higher in males ( CI 95%: 1.09–6.45 and in multibacillary patients ( CI 95%: 3.54–60.87 and lower when the detection mode was passive ( CI 95%: 0.31–1.73. Such context suggests high transmissibility and early exposure to Mycobacterium leprae since a lot of cases were diagnosed in children under fifteen years old and the incubation period of the leprosy bacillus varies from 02 to 07 years. This situation contributes to maintaining the chain of disease transmission in the area and indicates that health care services should intensify leprosy control.

  18. Volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution and its uncertainty to be used for nuclear materials accountancy proved by demonstration over fifteen years

    An accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution stored in an accountability tank with dip-tubes has been developed and demonstrated over fifteen years at the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As a result of calibrations during the demonstration, it was proved that measurement uncertainty practically achieved and maintained was less than 0.1% (systematic character) and 0.15% (random) as one sigma which was half of the current target uncertainty admitted internationally. It was also proved that discrepancy between measured density and analytically determined density was less than 0.002 g·cm-3 as one sigma. These uncertainties include effects by long term use of the accountability tank where cumulative plutonium throughput is six tons. The system consists of high precision differential pressure transducers and a dead-weight tester, sequentially controlled valves for periodical zero adjustment, dampers to reduce pressure oscillation and a procedure to correct measurement biases. The sequence was also useful to carry out maintenances safely without contamination. Longevity of the transducer was longer than 15 years. Principles and essentials to determine solution volume and weight of plutonium, measurement biases and corrections, accurate pressure measurement system, maintenances and diagnostics, operational experiences, evaluation of measurement uncertainty are described. (author)

  19. Antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior among Iranian nurses: a multicenter study

    Taghinezhad, Fakhredin; Safavi, Mahboobe; Raiesifar, Afsaneh; Yahyavi, Sayed Hossein


    Background Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) improves efficiency and employees’ participation and generally provides a good ambiance. This study was conducted to determine the role of job satisfaction (JS), organizational commitment (OC) and procedural justice (PJ) in explaining OCB among nurses working in fifteen educational-treatment centers in Tehran-Iran, to provide guidelines for health care managers’ further understanding of how to encourage citizenship behavior among nurses. Me...

  20. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Alex Resende Schio; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Antônio Ferraz Porto Junior


    Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holsteinx Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin) and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 gcrude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM) in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feeding...

  1. Fifteen year outcome of the ceraver hermes posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty: safety of the procedure with experienced and inexperienced surgeons.

    Hernigou, Philippe; Manicom, Olivier; Flouzat-Lachaniete, Charles Henri; Roussignol, Xavier; Filippini, Paolo; Poignard, Alexandre


    We wished to determine whether total knee replacement (TKA) performed by young surgeons increased rates of mortality and complications compared with TKA performed by senior surgeons using the same model of arthroplasty. There were no significant pre-operative differences between the groups in terms of age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, diagnosis, comorbidity and duration of follow-up, which was a mean of 15 years in both groups. Hence, we assessed the 15 year survival of the first 150 Ceraver Posterior-Stabilized total knee arthroplasties undertaken by young surgeons (aged of less than 30 years) in formation in a single university hospital setting (Group B). We used survival curve analysis, with strict definitions regarding end-points, and evaluated a number of different endpoint criteria to assess the outcome and to compare the results with those obtained by the two seniors (aged of more than 40 years) with their 50 first implantations (Group A). The clinical results and survival rate of implants at intermediate to long-term follow-up were similar in both Groups. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, with revision as the endpoint for failure, showed that the rate of survival at ten years was 96% (95% CI, 93 to 100) in both groups. At fifteen years the rate of survival was 91% (95% CI, 85 to 97) in group B, and 92% (95% CI, 90 to 94) in group A. The implant used in this series appears particularly safe since the usual complications observed with posterior stabilized arthroplasties were not observed even with young surgeons. PMID:19572035

  2. A systematic approach to implementing and evaluating clinical guidelines: The results of fifteen years of Preventive Child Health Care guidelines in the Netherlands.

    Fleuren, Margot A H; van Dommelen, Paula; Dunnink, Trudy


    Preventive Child Health Care (PCHC) services are delivered to all children in the Netherlands by approximately 5500 doctors, nurses and doctor's assistants. In 1996, The Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports asked for the development of evidence-based PCHC guidelines. Since 1998, twenty-five guidelines have been published. Levels of implementation affect outcomes and so implementation and evaluation of the actual use of guidelines are essential. At the outset, there was a national implementation plan with six main activities: a) determinant analysis before the implementation of a guideline, b) innovation strategies tailored to the determinants, c) dissemination to all professionals, d) ongoing evaluation of the awareness and use of the guidelines, e) trained implementation coordinator(s) in each PCHC organization and f) a national help desk. The awareness and use of the guidelines in random samples of doctors, nurses and doctor's assistants were surveyed using questionnaires. The respondents stated (on a 7-point scale) the proportion of all children they had exposed to given core elements in a guideline. The aim is for at least 90% of the professionals to be aware of the guideline and for 80% to perform the core elements for all (or nearly all) children. The six main activities, with the exception of ongoing evaluation, were gradually put into place, albeit only gradually, between 1998 and 2015 for all guidelines. In 2012, the use of individual core elements in all guidelines, dating from before 2012, varied from 28% to 100%. One guideline met both criteria of 90% awareness and 80% use, and three guidelines nearly met these criteria. Looking back on fifteen years of PCHC guidelines, we may conclude that the guidelines produced recently are implemented in accordance with the national implementation plan. Unfortunately, the evaluation of guideline use continues to be a difficulty. PMID:25982867

  3. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Seretse Moyo


    Full Text Available Orientation: The Fifteen Factor Questionnaire Plus (15FQ+ is a prominent personality questionnaire that organisations frequently use in personnel selection in South Africa.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+.Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection.Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database.Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available.Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  4. Fifteen novel mutations in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, 2, 3, 4, 4L, 5 and 6 genes from Iranian patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).

    Rezvani, Zahra; Didari, Elmira; Arastehkani, Ahoura; Ghodsinejad, Vadieh; Aryani, Omid; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Houshmand, Massoud


    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an optic nerve dysfunction resulting from mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is transmitted in a maternal pattern of inheritance. It is caused by three primary point mutations: G11778A, G3460A and T14484C; in the mitochondrial genome. These mutations are sufficient to induce the disease, accounting for the majority of LHON cases, and affect genes that encode for the different subunits of mitochondrial complexes I and III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Other mutations are secondary mutations associated with the primary mutations. The purpose of this study was to determine MT-ND variations in Iranian patients with LHON. In order to determine the prevalence and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in the LHON patients, their DNA was studied using PCR and DNA sequencing analysis. Sequencing of MT-ND genes from 35 LHON patients revealed a total of 44 nucleotide variations, in which fifteen novel variations-A14020G, A13663G, C10399T, C4932A, C3893G, C10557A, C12012A, C13934T, G4596A, T12851A, T4539A, T4941A, T13255A, T14353C and del A 4513-were observed in 27 LHON patients. However, eight patients showed no variation in the ND genes. These mutations contribute to the current database of mtDNA polymorphisms in LHON patients and may facilitate the definition of disease-related mutations in human mtDNA. This research may help to understand the disease mechanism and open up new diagnostic opportunities for LHON. PMID:24158608

  5. Aggressive Behavior

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes ... type of behavior? The best way to prevent aggressive behavior is to give your child a stable, secure ...

  6. Long term monitoring at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Campi Flegrei, Italy): 1998-2014, fifteen years of soil CO2 flux measurement.

    Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Rosiello, Angelo; Bagnato, Emanuela; Avino, Rosario; Frondini, Francesco; Donnini, Marco; Caliro, Stefano


    With a flux of deeply derived fluids of ~5000 t/d and an energetic release of ~100 MW Solfatara of Pozzuoli is one of the largest studied volcanic-hydrothermal system of the world. Since 1998, soil CO2 flux surveys where performed using the accumulation chamber method over a large area (1.45 km2), including the volcanic apparatus and its surroundings. The statistical elaboration of CO2 flux, also coupled with the investigation of the CO2 efflux isotopic composition, allowed to characterize both the CO2 flux connected to by biological activity in the soil and that feed to the degassing of the hydrothermal system. A geostatistical elaboration of CO2 fluxes based on sequential Gaussian simulations, allowed to define the spatial structure of the degassing area, pointing out the presence of a well defined diffuse degassing structure interested by the release of deeply derived CO2 (Solfatara DDS). Solfatara DDS results well correlated to volcanic and tectonic structures interesting the crater area and the eastern area of Pisciarelli. With the same approach the total amount of CO2 release was estimated to range between 754 t/d and 1530 t/d in the last fifteen year (with an error in the estimate varying between 9 and 15 %). Also the extension of the DDS experienced relevant variations varying between 4.5x105 m2 to 12.3 x105 m2. In particular two major changes occurred in the extension of the DDS, the first consisted in its doubling in 2003-2004 and the second in further enlargement of ~ 30% in 2011-2012, the last occurring after period of decreasing trend which interrupted 4-5 years of relative stability. These variations mainly occurred external to the crater area in correspondence of a NE-SW fault system where fluxes increased from background to values typical of the endogenous source. The first event was previously correlated with the occurrence in 2000 of a relatively deep seismic swarm, which was interpreted as the indicator of the opening of an easy-ascent pathway

  7. A questão racial na política brasileira (os últimos quinze anos The racial question in Brazilian politics (the past fifteen years

    Antonio Sérgio Alfredo Guimarães


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analiso o modo como a questão racial tem marcado a política brasileira nos últimos quinze anos. Começo expondo o que significou a idéia de democracia racial no processo de construção da nacionalidade brasileira, para depois, com a brevidade que o espaço exige, resenhar os estudos sobre o comportamento eleitoral dos negros brasileiros e tratar da emergência de movimentos sociais negros e de sua incorporação ao sistema político. Meu entendimento é que devemos ver na "democracia racial" um compromisso político e social do moderno estado republicano brasileiro, que vigeu, alternando força e convencimento, do Estado Novo de Vargas até o final da ditadura militar. Tal compromisso, hoje em crise, consistiu na incorporação da população negra brasileira ao mercado de trabalho, na ampliação da educação formal, enfim na criação das condições infra-estruturais de uma sociedade de classes que desfizesse os estigmas criados pela escravidão. A imagem do negro enquanto povo comum e o banimento, no pensamento social brasileiro, do conceito de "raça", substituído pelos de "cultura" e "classe social", são as expressões maiores desse compromisso.In this article, I analyze how the racial question has marked Brazilian politics in the past fifteen years. I start by showing what the idea of racial democracy meant to the process of reconstruction of the Brazilian nationality, and go on to review the studies on the voting behaviour of the Brazilian Black population and discuss the emergence of Black social movements and their incorporation into the political system. I understand that we must see "racial democracy" as a political and social compromise of the Brazilian modern republican state, which was in power from the Vargas' New State until the end of the military dictatorship. This compromise which at present is in crisis, consisted of the incorporation of the Brazilian Black population into the work market, of the

  8. The online Prescriptive Index platform for the assessment of managerial competencies and coaching needs: development and initial validation of the experience sampling Mood Wheel and the Manager-Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale

    David, O.A.


    Full Text Available The Prescriptive Index platform is dedicated to the appraisal and development of managerial competencies, and it is comprised of such measures as the multi-rater Freeman-Gavita Prescriptive Executive Coaching (PEC Assessment for assessing core managerial skills, and the multi-rater Managerial Coaching Assessment System (MCAS for the evaluation of coaching competencies in managers. The aim of this research was to present the development and psychometric properties of new tools, part of the Prescriptive Index platform, for the assessment of managerial emotional competencies: the web and mobile based Mood Wheel measure using experience sampling procedures, for the assessment of current/previous distress and positive emotions; and the self-report Manager Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale (M-RIBS for the assessment of managerial attitudes involved in emotion-regulation processes. Results obtained show that both instruments integrated in the Prescriptive Index platform have adequate initial psychometric support and predictive validity. Practical implications of our findings are discussed in the light of the importance of enabling organizations to accurately identify managerial competencies and coaching needs.

  9. Gas exchange and leaf specific mass of different foliar cohorts of the wintergreen shrub Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) stuntz (Eleocarpaceae) fifteen days before the flowering and the fall of the old cohort

    Carlos Henrique B. de A. Prado; Damascos, María A.


    In the beginning of the spring Aristotelia chilensis sheds the old cohort, forms a new one and flowers. Fifteen days before the flowering and the fall we measured net photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), specific leaf mass (SLM) and area and mass of leaves per branch in old and new cohorts. Under low irradiance the old cohort exhibited higher mean values of A and WUE on area bases (P

  10. Behavioral economics

    Berg, Nathan


    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  11. Sub-Saharan rainfall anomalies and global sea-surface temperature relationships for the recent fifteen year (1970-1984) period

    Semazzi, F. H. M.; Mehta, V.; Sud, Y. C.


    The results of this rainfall index-sea surface temperature (SST) correlation analysis suggest that interannual fluctuations in SST, which are dominated by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have a significant influence on the oscillatory behavior of sub-Saharan rainfall anomalies. It is noted that the sub-Saharan rainfall correlates significantly with tropical Pacific as well as with Empirical Orthogonal Functions 1 (EOF1) of the Atlantic SST anomalies.

  12. Withholding Behavior

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Withholding Behavior Page Content Article Body I got upset at ... a specific fear is the reason behind his behavior, demonstrate clearly in several different ways—through conversation, ...

  13. Behavioralizing Finance

    Shefrin, Hersh


    Finance is in the midst of a paradigm shift, from a neoclassical based framework to a psychologically based framework. Behavioral finance is the application of psychology to financial decision making and financial markets. Behavioralizing finance is the process of replacing neoclassical assumptions with behavioral counterparts. This monograph surveys the literature in behavioral finance, and identifies both its strengths and weaknesses. In doing so, it identifies possible directions for behav...

  14. Behavioral toxicology.

    Needleman, H L


    The new fields of behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology investigate the outcome of specific toxic exposures in humans and animals on learning, memory, and behavioral characteristics. Three important classes of behavioral neurotoxicants are metals, solvents, and pesticides. The clearest data on the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to toxicants comes from the study of two metals, lead and mercury, and from epidemiological investigations of the effects of alcohol taken during p...

  15. Classroom Behavior

    Segal, Carmit


    This paper investigates the determinants and malleability of noncognitive skills. Using data on boys from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, I focus on youth behavior in the classroom as a measure of noncognitive skills. I find that student behavior during adolescence is persistent. The variation in behavior can be attributed to…

  16. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.


    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  17. Collaborative study on fifteen compounds in the rat-liver Comet assay integrated into 2- and 4-week repeat-dose studies.

    Rothfuss, Andreas; O'Donovan, Mike; De Boeck, Marlies; Brault, Dominique; Czich, Andreas; Custer, Laura; Hamada, Shuichi; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Hayashi, Makoto; Howe, Jonathan; Kraynak, Andrew R; van der Leede, Bas-jan; Nakajima, Madoka; Priestley, Catherine; Thybaud, Veronique; Saigo, Kazuhiko; Sawant, Satin; Shi, Jing; Storer, Richard; Struwe, Melanie; Vock, Esther; Galloway, Sheila


    A collaborative trial was conducted to evaluate the possibility of integrating the rat-liver Comet assay into repeat-dose toxicity studies. Fourteen laboratories from Europe, Japan and the USA tested fifteen chemicals. Two chemicals had been previously shown to induce micronuclei in an acute protocol, but were found negative in a 4-week Micronucleus (MN) Assay (benzo[a]pyrene and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine; Hamada et al., 2001); four genotoxic rat-liver carcinogens that were negative in the MN assay in bone marrow or blood (2,6-dinitrotoluene, dimethylnitrosamine, 1,2-dibromomethane, and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline); three compounds used in the ongoing JaCVAM (Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods) validation study of the acute liver Comet assay (2,4-diaminotoluene, 2,6-diaminotoluene and acrylamide); three pharmaceutical-like compounds (chlordiazepoxide, pyrimethamine and gemifloxacin), and three non-genotoxic rodent liver carcinogens (methapyrilene, clofibrate and phenobarbital). Male rats received oral administrations of the test compounds, daily for two or four weeks. The top dose was meant to be the highest dose producing clinical signs or histopathological effects without causing mortality, i.e. the 28-day maximum tolerated dose. The liver Comet assay was performed according to published recommendations and following the protocol for the ongoing JaCVAM validation trial. Laboratories provided liver Comet assay data obtained at the end of the long-term (2- or 4-week) studies together with an evaluation of liver histology. Most of the test compounds were also investigated in the liver Comet assay after short-term (1-3 daily) administration to compare the sensitivity of the two study designs. MN analyses were conducted in bone marrow or peripheral blood for most of the compounds to determine whether the liver Comet assay could complement the MN assay for the detection of genotoxins after long-term treatment. Most of the liver genotoxins

  18. Human behavioral momentum in a sample of older adults.

    Plaud, J J; Plaud, D M; von Duvillard, S P


    Behavioral momentum, the persistence of behavior under altered environmental contingencies, is derived from Newtonian physics and operant psychology. It has relevance to behavior analysis in terms of shaping strong behaviors and ensuring effective relapse prevention strategies in behavior modification and therapy. The authors investigated whether changing the operant schedule contingencies affects the responses of older humans to different stimuli when reinforcement density is systematically manipulated. Fifteen older adults participated in a computer study in which each of 2 keys in a baseline condition was associated with the same schedule of reinforcement and multiple variable intervals; the only difference was that 1 reinforcer was 10 times larger than the other. After 6 sessions, the authors changed the contingency schedule to either an extinction condition, a variable-time schedule, or a different variable-interval schedule, to assess how participants' responses persisted when reinforcement contingencies were systematically changed. The results were consistent with the predictions of behavioral momentum. The participants not only biased their responses in favor of the more densely reinforcing key, but when contingencies changed, they showed significantly biased responses. Results supported the conclusion that healthy older adults allocate their behaviors in a manner very sensitive to training stimuli conditions; consistent with the basic principles of behavioral momentum, they show a degree of resistance to change in their behaviors when the behavioral contingencies are altered. PMID:10368942

  19. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.


    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  20. Behavioral Finance

    Hirshleifer, David


    Behavioral finance is the study of how psychology affects financial decision making and financial markets. A valuable resource for both academics and practitioners, this authoritative collection brings together the main works in both psychology and finance, dealing with the debate between proponents of the behavioral school and advocates of the efficient market school. The first volume contains works written by leading psychologists that underlie behavioral finance, focusing on general issues...

  1. Behavior modification.

    Pelham, W E; Fabiano, G A


    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and substantially impairing disorder. This means that treatment must also be chronic and substantial. Behavior Modification, and in many cases, the combination of behavior modification and stimulant medication, is a valid, useful treatment for reducing the pervasive impairment experienced by children with ADHD. Based on the research evidence reviewed, behavior modification should be the first line of treatment for children with ADHD. PMID:10944662

  2. The good and bad of being fair: effects of procedural and interpersonal justice behaviors on regulatory resources.

    Johnson, Russell E; Lanaj, Klodiana; Barnes, Christopher M


    The justice literature has paid considerable attention to the beneficial effects of fair behaviors for recipients of such behaviors. It is possible, however, that exhibiting fair behaviors may come at a cost for actors. In this article, we integrate ego depletion theory with organizational justice research in order to examine the consequences of justice behaviors for actors. We used an experience-sampling method in a sample of managerial employees to examine the relations of performing procedural justice and interpersonal justice behaviors with subsequent changes in actors' regulatory resources. Our results indicate that procedural justice behaviors are draining, whereas interpersonal justice behaviors are replenishing for actors. Depletion, in turn, adversely affected the performance of citizenship behavior, and depletion mediated relations of justice behavior with citizenship. Furthermore, 2 traits that impact self-regulatory skills--extraversion and neuroticism--moderated the replenishing effects of engaging in interpersonal justice behaviors. We conclude by discussing implications and avenues for future research. PMID:24446913

  3. Quince años de investigación en trastornos de la conducta alimentaria Fifteen years researching on eating disorders

    Rosa Behar A


    ,009. Identification with female gender role stereotype was significant in ED (42.9%, mainly in restrictive anorexia, considered as a risk factor for developing ED. The more restrictive and bulimic behaviors, the less assertive were the ED patients (7.5 points mainly in submissive and dependant behaviors (-0.6 points (p < 0.001. Lack of assertiveness showed a significant predictive capacity (53.2% for developing an ED. Conclusions: Our findings confirmed the evidence of the international literature satisfying the research guidelines for ED according to the American Psychiatric Association.

  4. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Staats, Arthur W.


    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in cha...

  5. Behaviorally inadequate

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua


    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment, but...... situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory is...... producing positive results. However, because endorsing behaviorally ineffective virtues, for whatever reason, entails that environmental ethicists are abandoning the goal of helping and protecting the environment, environmental ethicists should consider looking elsewhere than virtues and focus instead on...

  6. Behavioral economics and behavioral momentum.

    Nevin, J A


    Some relations between elasticity of demand and the conditions of reinforcement are reanalyzed in terms of resistance to change, in ways suggested by the metaphor of behavioral momentum; some relations between resistance to change and the conditions of reinforcement are reanalyzed in terms of elasticity of demand, in ways suggested by behavioral economics. In addition, some data on labor supply in relation to variable-ratio schedules and alternative reinforcement are reanalyzed in terms of resistance to change and compared with steady-state resistance data for performance on multiple and concurrent interval schedules. The results of these studies can be summarized by two functions based on the behavioral momentum approach, relating relative behavioral mass to relative reinforcement per response or per unit time. The former is a relation between relative unit price and relative behavioral mass, suggesting the possibility of convergent measurement of a theoretical construct common to both approaches. However, the momentum and economic approaches differ fundamentally on whether it is preferable to construe discriminated operant behavior as selected and strengthened by its consequences or as part of a behavior-consequence bundle that maximizes utility. PMID:16812775

  7. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion.

    Belter, Anke


    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape-cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996-is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period. PMID:26784233

  8. 四川省地震局“十五”地震前兆数据库维护%Introduction of "Fifteen Five-Plan" Precursor Database of Earthquake Administration of Sichuan Province

    袁燕妮; 卢婷; 张晓明; 韩蓉萍


    本文主要介绍了四川省地震局"十五"地震前兆Oracle数据库的特性与优点,为了更好地维护与管理前兆数据库,对Oracle数据库我们需要了解一些基本知识和日常维护,常用的Sql语句和Oracle管理工具的使用,以及Oracle数据库如何备份的指令。%This paper mainly introduces characteristics and advantages of the "Fifteen Five-Plan" Oracle database.In order to maintain and manage the precursory database of Earthquake Administration of Sichuan Province well,we need to understand the basic knowledge on the Oracle database,backup and routine of maintaining,which are commonly used in Sql statements and Oracle management tool.

  9. Gender differences on the Five to Fifteen questionnaire in a non-referred sample with inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity and a clinic-referred sample with hyperkinetic disorder

    Lambek, Rikke; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Kadesjö, Björn;


    The aim of the present study was to examine gender differences in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity on the Five to Fifteen (FTF) parent questionnaire. First, non-referred girls (n = 43) and boys (n = 51) with problems of attention and hyperactivity-impulsivity and then...... questionnaire. Secondly, it was examined whether the application of gender mixed norms versus gender specific norms would result in varying proportions of clinic-referred children with HKD being identified as impaired on the subdomains of the FTF questionnaire. Based on results it was concluded that the use of...... a gender mixed normative sample may lead to overestimation of impairment in boys with HKD, but the type of sample applied to define impairment on the FTF should depend on the purpose for applying the questionnaire....

  10. Can "good" stressors spark "bad" behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors.

    Rodell, Jessica B; Judge, Timothy A


    The authors combined affective events theory (H. M. Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and the transactional stress model (R. S. Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) to build and test a model specifying the dynamic, emotion-based relationships among challenge and hindrance stressors and citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. The study employed an experience sampling methodology. Results showed that challenge stressors had offsetting indirect links with citizenship behaviors through attentiveness and anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety. Hindrance stressors had a negative indirect effect on citizenship behaviors through anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety and anger. Finally, multilevel moderating effects showed that the relationship between hindrance stressors and anger varied according to employees' levels of neuroticism. PMID:19916654

  11. Behavior Modification

    Boardman, Randolph M.


    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  12. Discounting Behavior

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten;


    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time-dated...

  13. Resting State Brain Connectivity After Surgical and Behavioral Weight Loss

    Lepping, Rebecca J.; Bruce, Amanda S.; Francisco, Alex; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Martin, Laura E.; Powell, Joshua N.; Hancock, Laura; Patrician, Trisha M.; Breslin, Florence J.; Selim, Niazy; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Brooks, William M.; Savage, Cary R.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Bruce, Jared M.


    OBJECTIVE We previously reported changes in food-cue neural reactivity associated with behavioral and surgical weight loss interventions. Resting functional connectivity represents tonic neural activity that may contribute to weight loss success. Here we explore whether intervention type is associated with differences in functional connectivity after weight loss. METHODS Fifteen obese participants were recruited prior to adjustable gastric banding surgery. Thirteen demographically matched obese participants were selected from a separate behavioral diet intervention. Resting state fMRI was collected three months after surgery/behavioral intervention. ANOVA was used to examine post-weight loss differences between the two groups in connectivity to seed regions previously identified as showing differential cue-reactivity after weight loss. RESULTS Following weight loss, behavioral dieters exhibited increased connectivity between left precuneus/superior parietal lobule (SPL) and bilateral insula pre- to post-meal and bariatric patients exhibited decreased connectivity between these regions pre- to post-meal (pcorrected<.05). CONCLUSIONS Behavioral dieters showed increased connectivity pre- to post-meal between a region associated with processing of self-referent information (precuneus/SPL) and a region associated with interoception (insula) whereas bariatric patients showed decreased connectivity between these regions. This may reflect increased attention to hunger signals following surgical procedures, and increased attention to satiety signals following behavioral diet interventions. PMID:26053145

  14. Fifteen Questions and Answers about Elder Abuse

    ... of domestic violence or abuse • Mental illness, dependency, family dysfunction • Economic pressures, personal stress • Longstanding personality traits (bad temper, hypercritical, tendency to blame others ...

  15. Fifteen years experience: Egyptian metabolic lab

    Ekram M. Fateen


    Conclusion: This study illustrates the experience of the reference metabolic lab in Egypt over 15 years. The lab began metabolic disorder screening by using simple diagnostic techniques like thin layer chromatography and colored tests in urine which by time updated and upgraded the methods to diagnose a wide range of disorders. This study shows the most common diagnosed inherited inborn errors of metabolism among the Egyptian population.

  16. Fifteen minute consultation: tics and Tourette syndrome.

    Ong, Min Tsui; Mordekar, Santosh R; Seal, Arnab


    Tic disorders including Tourette syndrome (TS) are neuropsychiatric disorders that are common referrals to paediatricians, paediatric neurologists and child psychiatrists. Although differentiating tics and TS from other movement disorders is not difficult, it is essential to detect comorbid conditions and their contribution to TS. PMID:26396225


    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA


    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  18. Behavioral Economics

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Thaler, Richard H.


    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  19. OPEC behavior

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  20. Gas exchange and leaf specific mass of different foliar cohorts of the wintergreen shrub Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. stuntz (Eleocarpaceae fifteen days before the flowering and the fall of the old cohort

    Prado Carlos Henrique B. A.


    Full Text Available In the beginning of the spring Aristotelia chilensis sheds the old cohort, forms a new one and flowers. Fifteen days before the flowering and the fall we measured net photosynthesis (A, transpiration (E, water use efficiency (WUE, specific leaf mass (SLM and area and mass of leaves per branch in old and new cohorts. Under low irradiance the old cohort exhibited higher mean values of A and WUE on area bases (P<0.05. Under high irradiance A and WUE on mass bases were higher in new cohort due to its lower SLM (42.10 gm-2 in relation to old cohort (79.53 gm-2. Because old cohort showed 3.7 times more dry mass per branch it was able to counterbalance its lower performance on mass bases. It was concluded that old cohort was an important source of carbon during two powerful sink processes in the beginning of the spring: new leaves cohort construction and flowering.


    Ilie BUDICA


    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  2. Logical Behaviorism

    Malcolm, Norman; Altuner, Ilyas


    The paper deals exclusively with the doctrine called ‘Logical Behaviorism’. Although this position does not vogue it enjoyed in the 1930s and 1940s, it will always possess a compelling attraction for anyone who is perplexed by the psychological concepts, who has become aware of worthlessness of an appeal to introspection as an account of how we learn those concepts, and he has no inclination to identify mind with brain. There, of course, are other forms of behaviorism, and of reductionism, wh...

  3. The Reliability and Validity of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Leerkes, Esther M.


    The reliability and validity of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised was examined in a sample of 6 month old infants and their parents. One hundred and fifteen mothers and 79 fathers completed the IBQ-R and a measure of depression and 98 infants participated in a laboratory assessment of temperament. Internal consistency reliability was adequate for all 14 IBQ-R subscales for both mothers and fathers and inter-rater reliability of mother and father reports was demonstrated for 11 of 14 s...

  4. Behavior Modification is not...

    Tawney, James W.; And Others


    Identified are misconceptions of behavior modification procedures according to which behavior modification is connected mistakenly with noncontingent reinforcement, partial change of a teacher's behavior, decelerations of inappropriate behaviors only, dependency producing technology, teacher dominated activity, a single type of classroom…

  5. Capturing emotions : experience sampling at live music events

    Wood, Emma; Moss, Jonathan


    Purpose – Using techniques developed mainly in subjective well-being and “happiness” studies, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the applicability of these and related methods for understanding and evaluating the emotional responses experienced within the live music event environment. Design/methodology/approach – The concept of “experience” is debated and set within the context of music events designed to create a specific type of emotional experience for the attendees. The ...

  6. Serotonin modulates vocalizations and territorial behavior in an amphibian.

    Ten Eyck, Gary R


    It is well established that the serotonergic system modulates social and aggressive behaviors. This study employed field experiments to examine the effects of serotonin on male social structure and behavior in the Puerto Rican coquí frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui. This frog displays three types of male behavioral phenotypes: territorial, satellite, and paternal males. Territorial males produce advertisement calls that delineate territories and actively defend these areas. Satellite males typically do not call or defend given areas but are commonly within given conspecific territories. Paternal males brood and defend developing embryos typically in isolation. The objective of this investigation was to focus on territorial and satellite males to determine the impact of the serotonergic system on territorial behavior, specifically with regard to advertisement calling. Serotonin receptor subtype systems 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/C) were chosen due to their known function in behavioral regulation. Fifteen territorial and satellite males were injected with the 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT and 15 territorial and satellite males were injected with the 5-HT(2A/C) agonist DOI. Control territorial and satellite males received saline injections. Results indicated that a significant number of territorial males injected with 8-OH-DPAT and DOI failed to emit territorial vocalizations and did not display dominant postural behaviors. It is hypothesized that 8-OH-DPAT and DOI activate 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/C) receptor systems, respectively, and this activation results in the elimination of territorial behavior resulting in subordinate status. It is concluded that the serotonergic system is essential for the manifestation of male social behavior in E. coqui. PMID:18554729

  7. The Influence of Ergonomics Training on Employee Behavior at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Leslie Guthrie Puckett


    A survey of employee behavior was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of ergonomic behavior that decreased the chance of having a work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) among employees. The null hypothesis was tested to determine if there was a significant difference in ergonomic behavior between trained and untrained employees. The LANL employees were stratified by job series and then randomly selected to participate. The data were gathered using an electronic self-administered behavior questionnaire. The study population was composed of 6931 employees, and the response rate was 48%. The null hypothesis was rejected for twelve out of fifteen questions on the questionnaire. Logistic regression results indicate that the trained participants were more likely to report the risk-avoiding behavior, which supported the rejection of the null hypothesis for 60% of the questions. There was a higher frequency that the beneficial or risk-avoiding behavior was reported by the uninjured participants. Job series analysis revealed that ergonomics is an important issue among participants from all the job series. It also identified the occupational specialist classification (an administrative job), as the job series with the most occurrences of undesired ergonomic behaviors. In conclusion, there was a significant difference between the trained and untrained participants of the beneficial ergonomic behavior in the reported risk reducing behaviors.

  8. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    Salzinger, Kurt


    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.

  9. Fostering employee service creativity: Joint effects of customer empowering behaviors and supervisory empowering leadership.

    Dong, Yuntao; Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia; Zhou, Jing; Campbell, Elizabeth M


    Integrating insights from the literature on customers' central role in service and the literature on employee creativity, we offer theoretical and empirical account of how and when customer empowering behaviors can motivate employee creativity during service encounters and, subsequently, influence customer satisfaction with service experience. Using multilevel, multisource, experience sampling data from 380 hairstylists matched with 3550 customers in 118 hair salons, we found that customer empowering behaviors were positively related to employee creativity and subsequent customer satisfaction via employee state promotion focus. Results also showed that empowering behaviors from different agents function synergistically in shaping employee creativity: supervisory empowering leadership strengthened the indirect effect of customer empowering behaviors on employee creativity via state promotion focus. PMID:25774571

  10. The independent effects of personality and situations on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion.

    Sherman, Ryne A; Rauthmann, John F; Brown, Nicolas A; Serfass, David G; Jones, Ashley Bell


    The joint influence of persons and situations on behavior has long been posited by personality and social psychological theory (Funder, 2006; Lewin, 1951). However, a lack of tools for real-time behavioral and situation assessment has left direct investigations of this sort immobilized. This study combines recent advances in situation assessment and experience sampling methodology to examine the simultaneous effects of personality traits and situation characteristics on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion in N = 210 participants. The results support an additive model such that both personality traits and situation characteristics independently predict real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. These results have implications for several prominent theoretical perspectives in personality, including both trait and cognitive theories. PMID:25915131

  11. Autistic behavior, behavior analysis, and the gene.

    Malott, Richard W


    This article addresses the meaning of autism, the etiology of autistic behavior and values, the nature-nurture debate, contingencies vs. genes, and resistance to a behavioral analysis of autism. PMID:22477285

  12. Hanseníase em menores de quinze anos no município de Paracatu, MG (1994 a 2001 Leprosy in patients under fifteen years of age in the city of Paracatu-MG (1994 to 2001

    Isaias Nery Ferreira


    actions due to the high rates of detection and prevalence of the condition, especially among children under fifteen years of age. In 1998 and 1999, an information program was implemented in order to provide explanations on the signs and symptoms of the disease to a population of 8,000 students, in order to improve the detection rate of the disease in children under fifteen years of age, given Paracatu was classified as a hyper-endemic city between 1997 and 2001. A descriptive study was carried out comprising forty-five patients diagnosed and treated in Paracatu between 1994 and 2001. Fifty-three percent of diagnoses were in male children, 75.5% of the cases being between ten and fourteen years of age; individuals had less years of schooling than what would be expected for their ages; 84% of the population lived in the urban area. All patients included (100% were new cases, of which 56% were multibacillary forms, mainly the Dimorph clinical form (potentially infectious, followed by the Undetermined (30.8% and Tuberculoid (13.2% forms. All were treated according to standard procedures, with a 100% cure rate. During treatment 24% of patients presented reactions, and 9% did after being discharged. Twenty-two percent of patients were diagnosed with some degree of disability, and 13% presented some degree of disability upon discharge (a rate considered high. Sixty-two percent of patients had contact with other Hansen's disease bearers, and only 15.5% of these contacts had two BCG vaccine scars. Leprosy is a serious public health problem in the city studied, and the work accomplished with students was primary to increase case detection.

  13. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.


    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  14. The Psyche as Behavior



    Full Text Available Behaviorism has argued that behavior is the Psyche and the subject matter of psychology. Although, some scientists had done empirical work with objective methods before 1913, the year in which John B. Watson published his manifesto, he was the first one to attempt a systematization of behavior as the Psyche, that is, as psychology’s subject matter. In this text, I outline Watson’s notion of behavior to compare it with two other forms of behaviorism: Skinner’s radical behaviorism and molar behaviorism. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the concept of behavior has been and is changing.

  15. Development and Validation of the Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire.

    Nicholas T Van Dam

    Full Text Available At a fundamental level, taxonomy of behavior and behavioral tendencies can be described in terms of approach, avoid, or equivocate (i.e., neither approach nor avoid. While there are numerous theories of personality, temperament, and character, few seem to take advantage of parsimonious taxonomy. The present study sought to implement this taxonomy by creating a questionnaire based on a categorization of behavioral temperaments/tendencies first identified in Buddhist accounts over fifteen hundred years ago. Items were developed using historical and contemporary texts of the behavioral temperaments, described as "Greedy/Faithful", "Aversive/Discerning", and "Deluded/Speculative". To both maintain this categorical typology and benefit from the advantageous properties of forced-choice response format (e.g., reduction of response biases, binary pairwise preferences for items were modeled using Latent Class Analysis (LCA. One sample (n1 = 394 was used to estimate the item parameters, and the second sample (n2 = 504 was used to classify the participants using the established parameters and cross-validate the classification against multiple other measures. The cross-validated measure exhibited good nomothetic span (construct-consistent relationships with related measures that seemed to corroborate the ideas present in the original Buddhist source documents. The final 13-block questionnaire created from the best performing items (the Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire or BTQ is a psychometrically valid questionnaire that is historically consistent, based in behavioral tendencies, and promises practical and clinical utility particularly in settings that teach and study meditation practices such as Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR.

  16. Leptospirosis en personas de riesgo de quince explotaciones porcinas y de la central de sacrificio de Manizales, Colombia Leptospirosis in high risk groups of workers from fifteen piggeries and the central abbatoir in Manizales, Colombia



    Full Text Available La leptospirosis es una enfermedad infecciosa, transmisible de alta prevalencia en bovinos y porcinos, por lo cual se presume que la prevalencia de la infección por leptospira, en personas de riesgo, es también alta. Este trabajo se realizó con trabajadores de 15 granjas porcinas y de una planta de sacrificio de bovinos y porcinos. Los trabajadores fueron sangrados tres veces, con dos meses de intervalo, para obtener la prevalencia puntual a leptospirosis, por el MAT 1/50 y por la Inhibición de Crecimiento (IC 1/25. Se tomaron además muestras de orina, para Visualización Directa (VD en campo oscuro y cultivo. Las prevalencias obtenidas por el MAT fueron muy bajas en ambos grupos, siendo más altas por la IC, y más altas aún por la VD y por el cultivo. Este último es la técnica más confiable para el diagnóstico, en tanto que el MAT detecta infecciones agudas, pero no es adecuado para la detección de infecciones crónicas. El serovar más prevalente en los dos grupos estudiados fue hardjopratjino, en tanto que los trabajadores del matadero fueron positivos además, a pomona, grippotyphosa, bratislava y hardjobovis, y los de granjas porcinas a canicola e icterohaemorragiae, esta última no detectada en trabajadores del matadero. La leptospirosis en humanos, en particular en personas de riesgo, puede ser un problema de salud que merece atención de las autoridades sanitarias, y de las aseguradoras de riesgos profesionalesLeptospirosis is a transmissible infectious disease of high prevalence in the bovine and porcine species, reason why it is assumed that prevalence of leptospire infection in risk people is also high. This work was carried out with workers from fifteen piggeries, and from a bovines and porcines abbatoir. The workers were bled thrice with two months intervals, to get leptospirosis point prevalence by the Microagglutination test (MAT 1:50, and growth inhibition test ((GIT 1:25. Additionally, urine samples were taken for

  17. Decreased sleep spindle density in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and patients with Parkinson’s disease

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle;


    ObjectiveTo determine whether sleep spindles (SS) are potentially a biomarker for Parkinson’s disease (PD). MethodsFifteen PD patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (PD+RBD), 15 PD patients without RBD (PD−RBD), 15 idiopathic RBD (iRBD) patients and 15 age-matched controls underwent...... polysomnography (PSG). SS were scored in an extract of data from control subjects. An automatic SS detector using a Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was developed and applied to the PSG recordings. The SS densities in N1, N2, N3, all NREM combined and REM sleep were obtained and...

  18. Toward a behavioral ecology of rescue behavior.

    Hollis, Karen L; Nowbahari, Elise


    Although the study of helping behavior has revolutionized the field of behavioral ecology, scientific examination of rescue behavior remains extremely rare, except perhaps in ants, having been described as early as 1874. Nonetheless, recent work in our laboratories has revealed several new patterns of rescue behavior that appear to be much more complex than previously studied forms. This precisely-directed rescue behavior bears a remarkable resemblance to what has been labeled empathy in rats, and thus raises numerous philosophical and theoretical questions: How should rescue behavior (or empathy) be defined? What distinguishes rescue from other forms of altruism? In what ways is rescue behavior in ants different from, and similar to, rescue in other non-human animals? What selection pressures dictate its appearance? In this paper, we review our own experimental studies of rescue in both laboratory and field, which, taken together, begin to reveal some of the behavioral ecological conditions that likely have given rise to rescue behavior in ants. Against this background, we also address important theoretical questions involving rescue, including those outlined above. In this way, we hope not only to encourage further experimental analysis of rescue behavior, but also to highlight important similarities and differences in very distant taxa. PMID:23864298

  19. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Johnston, J M; Foxx, Richard M; Jacobson, John W.; Green, Gina; Mulick, James A.


    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We also consider the features of PBS that have facilitated its broad dissemination and how ABA might benefit from emulating certain practices of the P...

  20. Chemicals and chemoreceptors: ecologically relevant signals driving behavior in Drosophila.

    Ana eDepetris-Chauvin


    Full Text Available Insects encounter a vast repertoire of chemicals in their natural environment, which can signal positive stimuli like the presence of a food source, a potential mate, or a suitable oviposition site as well as negative stimuli such as competitors, predators, or toxic substances reflecting danger. The presence of specialized chemoreceptors like taste and olfactory receptors allow animals to detect chemicals at short and long distances and accordingly, trigger proper behaviors towards these stimuli. Since the first description of olfactory and taste receptors in Drosophila fifteen years ago, our knowledge on the identity, properties, and function of specific chemoreceptors has increased exponentially. In the last years, multidisciplinary approaches combining genetic tools with electrophysiological techniques, behavioral recording, evolutionary analysis, and chemical ecology studies are shedding light on our understanding on the ecological relevance of specific chemoreceptors for the survival of Drosophila in their natural environment. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on chemoreceptors of both the olfactory and taste systems of the fruitfly. We focus on the relevance of particular receptors for the detection of ecologically relevant cues such as pheromones, food sources, and toxic compounds, and we comment on the behavioral changes that the detection of these chemicals induce in the fly. In particular, we give an updated outlook of the chemical communication displayed during one of the most important behaviors for fly survival, the courtship behavior. Finally, the ecological relevance of specific chemicals can vary depending on the niche occupied by the individual. In that regard, in this review we also highlight the contrast between adult and larval systems and we propose that these differences could reflect distinctive requirements depending on the change of ecological niche occupied by Drosophila along its life cycle.

  1. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin


    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with. PMID:27090952

  2. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.


    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  3. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Tincani, Matt


    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  4. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    ... Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Toddlers and Sexual Behavior Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... problem or sexual abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually nothing ...

  5. Child Behavior Disorders

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  6. Suicide and suicidal behavior

    ... of taking one's own life on purpose. Suicidal behavior is any action that could cause a person ... Suicide and suicidal behaviors usually occur in people with one or more of the following: Bipolar disorder Borderline personality disorder Depression Drug or ...

  7. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.


    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  8. What determines our behavior

    Marko Radovan


    In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980) proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question a...

  9. Principles of (Behavioral) Economics

    David Laibson; List, John A.


    Behavioral economics has become an important and integrated component of modern economics. Behavioral economists embrace the core principles of economics—optimization and equilibrium—and seek to develop and extend those ideas to make them more empirically accurate. Behavioral models assume that economic actors try to pick the best feasible option and those actors sometimes make mistakes. Behavioral ideas should be incorporated throughout the first-year undergraduate course. Instructors should...

  10. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  11. Consumer behavior research

    Hašková, Lucie


    The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.

  12. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.


    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve...

  13. Behavioral Adaptation and Acceptance

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.


    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to uninte

  14. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft


    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior....... Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....

  15. Relationship Between Sexting and Sexual Risk Behavior and Some Psychosocial Factors

    Ivana Vrselja


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore whether there are significant differences between those who have never engaged in sexting behavior and those who have for at least once in any number of variables: sexual risk behavior, anger, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and association with deviant peers. Also, the goal was to explore whether anger and unpleasant emotions of depression and anxiety are significant predictors of sexting and whether self-efficacy and association with deviant peers express moderator role in the relationship between enlisted predictors and sexting. Analyzed data were collected in 2012 from 311 students (149 boys, 162 girls, aged between fifteen and seventeen years. The results of series of independent t-tests showed significant differences between the two groups in sexual risk behavior and deviant peers association, whereby those who have engaged in sexting behavior at least once, compared to those who have never sexted, engaged more frequently in sexual risk behaviors and have more deviant friends. The results of hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis showed that sexting was not significantly predicted by anger, depression and anxiety and that self-efficacy and association with deviant peers do not change the relationship between anger and sexting, as well as the relationship between unpleasant emotions of depression or anxiety and sexting. The results are discussed in terms of findings of previous research and in the context of the relationship between the variables specified in the context of Agnew's (1992 general strain theory.

  16. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Thierry Lefèvre


    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  17. Behavioral Law and Economics

    Christine Jolls


    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...


    Andrade, A. Chitra; Kumaraiah, V.; Mishra, H.; Chatterji, S.; Andrade, Chittaranjan


    Transsexualism is a rare disorder, and there is little literature available on its treatment. A case is presented of transsexualism with homosexual orientation in a 24 year old male. Since the disorder appeared to have behavioral antecedents, it was treated with a behavior therapy package comprising relaxation, aversion therapy with aversion relief, modelling, hypnosis, orgasmic reconditioning, behavioral counselling and sex education. Therapy resulted in normalization of gender identity, but...

  19. Culture and Consumer Behavior

    Chiu, Chi-Yue; Kwan, Letty Y.-Y.; Li, Dongmei; Peng, Luluo; Peng, Siqing


    Understanding how culture influences consumer behaviors is crucial to success in international marketing. In this monograph, the authors present a conceptual and empirical framework for understanding how culture impacts consumer behaviors, and recommend seven analytical steps for understanding similarities and differences between cultures as well as within-culture variations in consumer behaviors. These analytical steps are: (1) identify the key components of culture; (2) find out and describ...

  20. [Neurobiology of behavioral addictions].

    Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M; Heinz, A; Mann, K


    Reward learning represents a crucial mechanism in the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behavior. The underlying neurobiological foundations and associated neurobiological pathways are identified in this review and similarities between substance abuse and behavioral addictions will be discussed. In the second section current neuroimaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of pathological gambling and computer and internet addiction are discussed. The main focuses are on changes in neurocognitive processes, such as cue reactivity, reward and punishment processing and behavioral control. PMID:23632569

  1. Behavioral Labor Economics

    Berg, Nathan


    Behavioral economics has in recent decades emerged as a prominent set of methodological developments that have attracted considerable attention both within and outside the economics profession. The time is therefore auspicious to assess behavioral contributions to particular subfields of economics such as labor economics. With empirical validity among its chief objectives, one might guess that behavioral economics would have made its clearest mark in data-driven subfields such as labor econom...

  2. Online Shopping Behavior

    Shahzad, Hashim


    Online shopping is a very much developed phenomena in Scandinavian countries. Different online factors impact online consumers’ behavior differently depending on the environment of different regions. Sweden is one of the developed and technologically advanced countries. To see the impact of different factors on consumers’ online shopping behavior, the purpose of this study is to analyse the factors that influence consumers’ online shopping behavior in Sweden’s context. One of the objectives o...

  3. Contingency and behavior analysis

    Lattal, Kennon A.


    The concept of contingency is central to theoretical discussions of learned behavior and in the application of learning research to problems of social significance. This paper reviews three aspects of the contingency concept as it has been developed by behavior analysts. The first is the empirical analysis of contingency through experimental studies of both human and nonhuman behavior. The second is the synthesis of experimental studies in theoretical and conceptual frameworks to yield a more...

  4. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology.

    Malott, R W


    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly reinforce or punish the cultural practices (e.g., the food increase is too delayed to reinforce the cow worship). Therefore, the molar, materialistic contingencies need the support of molecular, behavioral contingencies. And according to the present theory of rule-governed behavior, the statement of rules describing those molar, materialistic contingencies can establish the needed molecular contingencies. Given the proper behavioral history, such rule statements combine with noncompliance to produce a learned aversive condition (often labeled fear, anxiety, or guilt). The termination of this aversive condition reinforces compliance, just as its presentation punishes noncompliance (e.g., the termination of guilt reinforces the tending to a sick cow). In addition, supernatural rules often supplement these materialistic rules. Furthermore, the production of both materialistic and supernatural rules needs cultural designers who understand the molar, materialistic contingencies. PMID:22478012

  5. Modeling shopping behavior

    SOUBUSTA, Václav


    This work deals with modeling agents in multiagent systems, where it will create a java application in program Greenfoot. This application will serve as a simulation of different shopping behavior of customers when choosing a suitable trade for purchase for them. The behavior will be visualized in the program Greenfoot and properly documented on the javadoc level .

  6. Behavior Therapy of Impotence

    Dengrove, Edward


    Behavior therapy approaches to the treatment of male sexual impotence, specifically premature ejaculation and erective impotence, are discussed. Included in the behavioral therapies are systematic desensitization, active graded therapy, assertive techniques, sexual responses, operant approaches and others. Often marriage counseling is also…

  7. Personalizing Behavior Modification.

    White, Debra G.; And Others


    Process reinforcement is proposed as a reinforcement method that is more comfortable, personal, comprehensive, and interactive than traditional behavior modification. Process reinforcement strengthens desired behaviors by engaging learners in a one-on-one examination of how they achieved correct responses and by practicing comfortable eye contact…

  8. Stages and Behaviors

    ... take behaviors personally. Remain patient and calm. Explore pain as a trigger. Don't argue or try to convince. Accept behaviors as a reality of the disease and try to work through it. ALZConnected ® Connect with our online caregiver community at From Our Blog Sudden ...

  9. Stress and eating behavior

    Peters, Achim; Langemann, Dirk


    How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.

  10. Defining Behavior Modification

    Christoplos, Florence; Valletutti, Peter


    Discusses the proposition that: "The educational problem involved in behavior modification, in the evaluationand measurement of learning, is the integration and coordination of three types of information affecting the achievement of specific behavioral goals: (1) information about the child, (2) information about the task, and (3) information…

  11. Nascent Leadership Behaviors

    Payette, Dennis L.; Libertella, Anthony F.


    This paper is a compendium of leadership behaviors that emerging or aspirant leaders could choose to enhance their management and leadership skills. These behaviors were drawn directly from the experience of the authors, both of whom have held senior leadership and management positions in business, law, and higher education. This paper is an…

  12. Zen and Behavior Analysis

    Bass, Roger


    Zen's challenge for behavior analysis is to explain a repertoire that renders analysis itself meaningless--a result following not from scientific or philosophical arguments but rather from a unique verbal history generated by Zen's methods. Untying Zen's verbal knots suggests how meditation's and koans' effects on verbal behavior contribute to…

  13. Youth Suicidal Behavior

    AAS 2011 Youth Suicidal Behavior Fact Sheet 4,822 youth age 15-24 died by suicide. i We want to change that. Su icid eRat ... death in 2011. The 2011 Youth Risk and Behavior Survey found that in the previous 12 months ...

  14. What determines our behavior

    Marko Radovan


    Full Text Available In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980 proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question and percieved normative expectations of reference group. On the other hand Bandura (1986; 1997 claims that person's motivation for a specific behavior and direction toward a specific social object respectively, reflects perception of his or hers self-efficacy beliefs. Some of the findings concerning the synthesis of the two models are also reviewed.

  15. Research on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Trust and Customer Citizenship Behavior

    Gongxing Guo; Xing Zhou


    The concept of Customer Citizenship Behavior is evolved from Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and therelationship between them has been researched by few scholars. To examine the effect of OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior on Customer Citizenship Behavior, this research adopted questionnaire investigationmethod to survey 208 consumers. As predicted, the results showed that, organizational citizenship behaviorinfluenced customer citizenship behavior positively; trust acted as a mediator b...

  16. An uncommon case of random fire-setting behavior associated with Todd paralysis: A case report

    Kanehisa Masayuki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd’s paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. Case presentation A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported. The man, who had been arrested on felony arson charges, complained of difficulties concentrating and of recent memory disturbances with leg weakness. A video-EEG recording demonstrated a close relationship between the focal motor impairment and a clear-cut epileptic ictal discharge involving the bilateral motor cortical areas. The SPECT result was statistically analyzed by comparing with standard SPECT images obtained from our institute (easy Z-score imaging system; eZIS. eZIS revealed hypoperfusion in cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and hyperperfusion in frontal cortex,. A neuropsychological test battery revealed lower than normal scores for executive function, attention, and memory, consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. Conclusion The fire-setting behavior and Todd’s paralysis, together with an unremarkable performance on tests measuring executive function fifteen months prior, suggested a causal relationship between this organic brain lesion and the fire-setting behavior. The case describes a rare and as yet unreported association between random, impulse-driven fire-setting behavior and damage to the brain and suggests a disconnection of frontal lobe structures as a possible pathogenic mechanism.

  17. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology

    Malott, Richard W


    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly ...

  18. Relationship Quality and the Theory of Planned Behavior Models of Behavioral Intentions and Purchase Behavior



    Using real-life purchase behavior data of apparel and survey information, this study compares the Relationship Quality and the Theory of Planned Behavior models. The attitude towards the buying behavior, the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control (antecedents of the buying intention in the Theory of Planned Behavior) are better predictors of behavioral intentions than Relationship Quality. In both models intentions fully mediate the impact of attitudinal antecedents on behavior, bot...

  19. Personality and Prosocial Behavior

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Glöckner, Andreas; Zettler, Ingo


    Concerning the dispositional determinants of prosocial behavior and cooperation, work based on the classic 5 personality factors, and especially Agreeableness, has turned out somewhat inconsistent. A clearer picture has emerged from consideration of the HEXACO model of personality-though supported......-Humility (and certain aspects of five-factor Agreeableness) account for prosocial behavior-thus explaining previous inconsistencies and providing a more nuanced understanding of the links between basic personality and prosocial or cooperative behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)....

  20. On operator strategic behavior

    Hancock, P. A.


    Deeper and more detailed knowledge as to how human operators such as pilots respond, singly and in groups, to demands on their performance which arise from technical systems will support the manipulation of such systems' design in order to accommodate the foibles of human behavior. Efforts to understand how self-autonomy impacts strategic behavior and such related issues as error generation/recognition/correction are still in their infancy. The present treatment offers both general and aviation-specific definitions of strategic behavior as precursors of prospective investigations.

  1. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Foxall, Gordon R.


    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  2. Facilitator control as automatic behavior: A verbal behavior analysis

    Hall, Genae A.


    Several studies of facilitated communication have demonstrated that the facilitators were controlling and directing the typing, although they appeared to be unaware of doing so. Such results shift the focus of analysis to the facilitator's behavior and raise questions regarding the controlling variables for that behavior. This paper analyzes facilitator behavior as an instance of automatic verbal behavior, from the perspective of Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior. Verbal behavior is autom...

  3. Suicide and suicidal behavior

    ... this page: // Suicide and suicidal behavior To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Suicide is the act of taking one's own life ...

  4. Dealing with Oppositional Behaviors

    ... ways to manage oppositional behaviors is a daily reality for many people who know FTD first hand. ... been heard. Adjust creatively and laugh Watching a television program I enjoy can be a challenge to ...

  5. Child Behavior Disorders

    ... problem, ask for help. Poor choices can become habits. Kids who have behavior problems are at higher risk for school failure, mental health problems, and even suicide. Classes or family therapy ...

  6. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet


    data scientists and present a review and tutorial focusing on the application of clustering techniques to mine behavioral game data. Several algorithms are reviewed and examples of their application shown. Key topics such as feature normalization are discussed and open problems in the context of game......Recent years have seen a deluge of behavioral data from players hitting the game industry. Reasons for this data surge are many and include the introduction of new business models, technical innovations, the popularity of online games, and the increasing persistence of games. Irrespective of the...... causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...

  7. Network-behavior dynamics

    Veenstra, René; Dijkstra, Jan; Steglich, Christian; Van Zalk, Maarten H. W.


    Researchers have become increasingly interested in disentangling selection and influence processes. This literature review provides context for the special issue on network-behavior dynamics. It brings together important conceptual, methodological, and empirical contributions focusing on longitudina

  8. Behavioral Law & Economics

    Tomasz Nieborak


    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  9. Consumer Buying Behavior

    Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc


    The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...

  10. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Bachmanov Alexander A


    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  11. HIV Behavioral Research Online

    Chiasson, Mary Ann; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Tesoriero, James M.; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Hirshfield, Sabina; Remien, Robert H.


    Internet access has caused a global revolution in the way people of all ages and genders interact. Many have turned to the Internet to seek love, companionship, and sex, prompting researchers to move behavioral studies online. The sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) has been more closely studied than that of any other group online given the abundance of gay-oriented websites and concerns about increasing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Not only do...


    Iftime Dragoș Adrian


    Without any doubt, sport has become a major consumer market, either we discuss about practicing any kind of sport at professional or amateur level, or we are just interested by a competition, sport organization or an athlete as a regular consumer. From this last perspective, we can distinguish between two types of behaviors, respectively the spectator and the supporter or fan. Each of these two typologies has its own characteristics which define, in a significant manner, the consumer behavior...

  13. Zen and Behavior Analysis

    Bass, Roger


    Zen's challenge for behavior analysis is to explain a repertoire that renders analysis itself meaningless—a result following not from scientific or philosophical arguments but rather from a unique verbal history generated by Zen's methods. Untying Zen's verbal knots suggests how meditation's and koans' effects on verbal behavior contribute to Enlightenment and Samādhi. The concept of stimulus singularity is introduced to account for why, within Zen's frame of reference, its methods can be stu...

  14. Is Behavioral Economics Doomed?

    David K. Levine


    It is fashionable to criticize economic theory for focusing too much on rationality and ignoring the imperfect and emotional way in which real economic decisions are reached. All of us facing the global economic crisis wonder just how rational economic men and women can be. Behavioral economics — an effort to incorporate psychological ideas into economics — has become all the rage. In this book, David K. Levine questions the idea that behavioral economics is the answer to economic problems. H...

  15. Prosocial behavior and gender

    Maria Paz eEspinosa; Jaromir eKovarik


    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in “neutral” baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometime...

  16. Behavioral Contract Theory

    Botond Koszegi


    This review provides a critical survey of psychology-and-economics ("behavioral-economics") research in contract theory. First, I introduce the theories of individual decision making most frequently used in behavioral contract theory, and formally illustrate some of their implications in contracting settings. Second, I provide a more comprehensive (but informal) survey of the psychology-and-economics work on classical contract-theoretic topics: moral hazard, screening, mechanism design, and i...

  17. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    ... NGOs Protective Factors Parent Engagement School Connectedness Positive Parenting Practices Sexual Risk Behaviors Program Evaluation Evaluations of ... including— Behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence Sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually ...

  18. Biblical behavior modification.

    Lasure, L C; Mikulas, W L


    Although we may have formalized and systematized the field of behavior modification in the last few decades, people around the world have been using behavioral change strategies throughout history. Premack's (1965) theory of reinforcement is often called "Grandma's rule" because grandmothers have long been using it (e.g. You must finish your vegetables before you may go out and play). Franks (1969, p. 4), in one of the first behavioral texts, gave historical examples from China, Turkey, France, and Italy. Knapp and Shodahl (1974) showed how Benjamin Franklin used behavior modification. And de Silva (1984, 1985) gave examples of behavior modification by the Buddha and other early Buddhists. Conspicuously absent from our literature are examples from the Judeo-Christian tradition. In this paper, we provide a number of behavior modification examples from the Bible (New International Version). Footnotes provide references for many more examples. In the discussion, we explore implications for education and therapy. Examples are grouped by the following categories: operant conditioning, respondent conditioning, modeling, and cognitive interventions. However, the Biblical examples, like contemporary case studies, do not always fall neatly into discrete categories. They often are a combination, particularly operant and respondent conditioning interweaving. PMID:8826763

  19. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya


    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment. PMID:22641961

  20. Leader Behavior and Subordinate Motivation.

    Klimoski, Richard J.; Hayes, Noreen J.


    Supervisor behaviors influence effort expenditure, the perception of organizational contingencies, and most facets of job satisfaction. Supervisor behaviors are also related to job performance. (Author)

  1. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Roos, Philip


    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  2. Empathy, Communication, and Prosocial Behavior.

    Stiff, James B.; And Others


    Examines the relationships among different dimensions of empathy, communication, and prosocial behavior. Supports an altruistic interpretation of prosocial behavior and suggests that the egoistic model be reformulated. (JK)

  3. Evaluating a Web-Based Educational Module on Oral Cancer Examination Based on a Behavioral Framework.

    Wee, Alvin G; Zimmerman, Lani M; Pullen, Carol H; Allen, Carl M; Lambert, Paul M; Paskett, Electra D


    Patients at risk of developing oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) are more likely to see primary care providers (PCPs) than a dentist. Many PCPs do not regularly perform oral cancer examination (OCE). The purpose of this study was to design a web-based educational program based on a behavioral framework to encourage PCPs to conduct OCE. PCPs were solicited to provide feedback on the program and to evaluate their short-term knowledge. The integrated behavioral model was used to design the program. Fifteen PCPs (five in each group: physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) reviewed the program and took a posttest: (1) index of knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer (RiskOC) and (2) index of knowledge of diagnostic procedures for oral cancer (DiagOC). Findings from the process evaluation were mainly positive, with comments on the length of the program comprising the ten negative comments. No significant difference among groups of PCPs (physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) was detected for DiagOC (p = 0.43) or RiskOC (p = 0.201). A program on OPC for PCPs should be less than 40 min. Postviewing knowledge outcomes were similar for all PCPs. The web-based program on OPC based on a behavioral framework could have similar short-term knowledge outcomes for all PCPs and may increase the number of PCPs performing OCEs. PMID:25572460

  4. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta


    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  5. Escape behaviors in insects.

    Card, Gwyneth M


    Escape behaviors are, by necessity, fast and robust, making them excellent systems with which to study the neural basis of behavior. This is especially true in insects, which have comparatively tractable nervous systems and members who are amenable to manipulation with genetic tools. Recent technical developments in high-speed video reveal that, despite their short duration, insect escape behaviors are more complex than previously appreciated. For example, before initiating an escape jump, a fly performs sophisticated posture and stimulus-dependent preparatory leg movements that enable it to jump away from a looming threat. This newfound flexibility raises the question of how the nervous system generates a behavior that is both rapid and flexible. Recordings from the cricket nervous system suggest that synchrony between the activity of specific interneuron pairs may provide a rapid cue for the cricket to detect the direction of an approaching predator and thus which direction it should run. Technical advances make possible wireless recording from neurons while locusts escape from a looming threat, enabling, for the first time, a direct correlation between the activity of multiple neurons and the time-course of an insect escape behavior. PMID:22226514

  6. Epilepsy, cognition and behavior.

    Gulati, Sheffali; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop


    Epilepsy is defined as two or more unprovoked seizures. Epileptic patients have intellectual disability and behavioral co-morbidities to the tune of up to 25 and 75% respectively. Various factors like underlying etiology, socioeconomic environment at home, age at onset, seizure semiology, seizure descriptors like duration, severity and frequency, therapy related adverse effects secondary to antiepileptic drugs and epilepsy surgery have been implicated for the causation of cognitive and behavioral impairment in epilepsy. Cognitive epilepsy has emerged as a specific entity. This may manifest as a transient behavioral or cognitive change, insidous onset subacute to chronic encephalopathy or more catastrophic in the form of nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Cognitive impairment seen in epileptic children include difficulties in learning, memory, problem solving as well as concept formation. Anxiety, depression and attention deficit hyperkinetic disorders are the most common psychiatric co-morbidities seen. Investigating a child with epilepsy for cognitive and behavioral impairment is difficult as these tests would require cooperation from the patient's side to a significant extent. A rational approach towards treatment would be judicious selection of antiepileptic drugs, treatment of underlying cause, appropriate management of behavioral co-morbidities including psychopharmacotherapy and a trial of immunotherapy (particularly in cognitive epilepsies), wherever appropriate. PMID:25073691

  7. The neural components of empathy: predicting daily prosocial behavior.

    Morelli, Sylvia A; Rameson, Lian T; Lieberman, Matthew D


    Previous neuroimaging studies on empathy have not clearly identified neural systems that support the three components of empathy: affective congruence, perspective-taking, and prosocial motivation. These limitations stem from a focus on a single emotion per study, minimal variation in amount of social context provided, and lack of prosocial motivation assessment. In the current investigation, 32 participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing painful, anxious, and happy events that varied in valence and amount of social context provided. They also completed a 14-day experience sampling survey that assessed real-world helping behaviors. The results demonstrate that empathy for positive and negative emotions selectively activates regions associated with positive and negative affect, respectively. In addition, the mirror system was more active during empathy for context-independent events (pain), whereas the mentalizing system was more active during empathy for context-dependent events (anxiety, happiness). Finally, the septal area, previously linked to prosocial motivation, was the only region that was commonly activated across empathy for pain, anxiety, and happiness. Septal activity during each of these empathic experiences was predictive of daily helping. These findings suggest that empathy has multiple input pathways, produces affect-congruent activations, and results in septally mediated prosocial motivation. PMID:22887480

  8. Positive behavior support: Expanding the application of applied behavior analysis

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Freeman, Kurt A.


    Positive behavior support (PBS) is an approach to providing services to individuals who exhibit challenging behavior. Since its inception in the early 1990s, PBS has received increasing attention from the behavior-analytic community. Some behavior analysts have embraced this approach, but others have voiced questions and concerns. In this paper we describe the framework of PBS and show that it is consistent with the tenets of behavior analysis. Also, we illustrate how the framework of PBS mig...

  9. Rule-governed behavior: Unifying radical and paradigmatic behaviorism

    Burns, G. Leonard; Staats, Arthur W.


    Commonalities and differences between Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior and the paradigmatic behaviorism (PB) approach are described as a means of introducing the latter to behavior analysis. The focus is on treating the topic of rule-governed behavior—a topic of current interest in behavior analysis in addressing the challenge of cognitive psychology—within the PB framework. Dealing behaviorally with traditional psychology interests is considered important in PB, and this article aims to...

  10. Behavioral Economics of Education

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt


    During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi......-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...... approaches from behavioral economics help our understanding of the complexity of educational investments and outcomes, and we discuss what insights can be gained from such concepts in the context of education....