A Practical SSL Server Performance Improvement Algorithm Based on Batch RSA Decryption
LI Shi-qun; WU Yong-dong; ZHOU Jian-ying; CHEN Ke-fei
2008-01-01
The secure socket layer/ transport layer security(SSL/TLS) handshake protocol uses public key cryptographic algorithms such as RSA for key establishment. Typically, public key cryptographic algorithm is computational intensive due to the modular multiplications. Therefore, SSL/TLS servers often become swamped while performing public key decryptious when the simultaneous requests increase quickly. A batch RSA decryption algorithm was proposed. The novel algorithm provides the reasonable response time and opti-mizes server performance significantly. The decryption speedup is proportional to the batch size b, for instance,the speedup factor is 4, while in Shacham's scheme the acceleration rate is only 2.5 when b=4.
A Proposed Algorithm to improve security & Efficiency of SSL-TLS servers using Batch RSA decryption
Pateriya, R K; Shrivastava, S C; Patel, Jaideep
2009-01-01
Today, Internet becomes the essential part of our lives. Over 90 percent of the ecommerce is developed on the Internet. A security algorithm became very necessary for producer client transactions assurance and the financial applications safety. The rsa algorithm applicability derives from algorithm properties like confidentiality, safe authentication, data safety and integrity on the internet. Thus, this kind of networks can have a more easy utilization by practical accessing from short, medium, even long distance and from different public places. Rsa encryption in the client side is relatively cheap, whereas, the corresponding decryption in the server side is expensive because its private exponent is much larger. Thus ssl tls servers become swamped to perform public key decryption operations when the simultaneous requests increase quickly .The batch rsa method is useful for such highly loaded web server .In our proposed algorithm by reducing the response time and clients tolerable waiting time an improvement...
The Parallel FDFM Processor Core Approach for CRT-based RSA Decryption
Koji Nakano
2012-01-01
Full Text Available
One of the key points of success in high performance computation using an FPGA is the efficient usage of DSP slices and block RAMs in it. This paper presents a FDFM (Few DSP slices and Few block RAMs processor core approach for implementing RSA encryption. In our approach, an efficient hardware algorithm for Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT based RSA decryption using Montgomery multiplication algorithm is implemented. Our hardware algorithm supporting up-to 2048-bit RSA decryption is designed to be implemented using one DSP slice, one block RAM and few logic blocks in the Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA. The implementation results show that our RSA core for 1024-bit RSA decryption runs in 13.74ms. Quite surprisingly, the multiplier in the DSP slice used to compute Montgomery multiplication works in more than 95% clock cycles during the processing. Hence, our implementation is close to optimal in the sense that it has only less than 5% overhead in multiplication and no further improvement is possible as long as CRT-based Montgomery multiplication based algorithm is applied. We have also succeeded in implementing 320 RSA decryption cores in one Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA XC6VLX240T-1 which work in parallel. The implemented parallel 320 RSA cores achieve 23.03 Mbits/s throughput for 1024-bit RSA decryption.
Testing System Encryption-Decryption Method to RSA Security Documents
A model of document protection which was tested as one of the instruments, especially text document. The principle of the document protection was how the system was able to protect the document storage and transfer processes. Firstly, the text-formed document was encrypted; therefore, the document cannot be read for the text was transformed into random letters. The letter-randomized text was then unfolded by the description in order that the document owner was able to read it. In the recent research, the method adopted was RSA method, in which it used complicated mathematics calculation and equipped with initial protection key (with either private key or public key), thus, it was more difficult to be attacked by hackers. The system was developed by using the software of Borland Delphi 7. The results indicated that the system was capable to save and transfer the document, both via internet and intranet in the form of encrypted letter and put it back to the initial form of document by way of description. The research also tested for encrypted and decrypted process for various memory size documents. (author)
Research of an Efficient Variant of Batch RSA Algorithm%一种有效的Batch RSA算法的研究
李云飞; 柳青; 李彤; 郝林
2011-01-01
提出了一种改进的Batch RSA算法来提升Batch RSA算法的解密性能.该改进算法结合了负载转移技术和Multi-Power RSA技术,在Batch RSA算法的指数计算阶段提升Batch RSA算法的解密性能.实验结果和理论分析表明,该改进算法使得Batch RSA算法的解密性能得到显著提升,且易于并行实现,可使基于多核平台的Batch RSA算法的整体性能得到进一步提升.%This paper aimed at speeding up Batch RSA decryption. An efficient variant of Batch RSA was proposed to improve the Batch RSA decryption performance. The improved Batch RSA variant speeds up decryption by combining the load transferring technique and multi-power RSA technique in the exponentiation phase. The experimental result and the theoretical values show that the speed of the decryption is substantially improved and the variant can be efficiently implemented in parallel and parallel implementation of the variant on multi-core devices can further improve the overall performance of Batch RSA algorithm.
Research of efficient variant of the Batch RSA based on Multi- Power%基于Multi-Power的批处理RSA算法的研究
李云飞; 柳青; 李彤; 郝林
2011-01-01
提出一种改进的Batch RSA算法来提升Batch RSA算法的解密性能.该改进算法结合了批处理技术和Multi-Power RSA技术,在Batch RSA算法的指数计算阶段来提升Batch RSA算法的解密性能.实验结果和理论分析表明该改进算法使得Batch RSA算法的解密性能得到显著提升.%This paper aims at speeding up Batch RSA decryption.An efficient variant of Batch RSA is proposed to improve the Batch RSA decryption performance.The improved Batch RSA variant speeds up decryption by combining the batch technique and multi - power RSA technique in the exponentiation phase.The experimental result and the theoretical values show that the speed of the decryption has been substantially improved.
Alok Kumar Shukla*1,
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Now a day, we are having a great dependence on computer and network for communication. The security of computer communication is related to the whole world and everybody. Cryptography is the art and science of achieving security by encoding message to make them non-readable to secure data or information transmits over the network. In this paper introduced modified RSA approach based on multiple public keys and n prime number.RSA algorithm is mostly used in the popular implementation of public key cryptography. In public key cryptography two different keys are generated in RSA one keys is used in encryption data and other corresponding key used for decryption. No other key decrypt the data. Even if it is efficient algorithm it is vulnerable to other person. With the help of all brute force attacks can obtain private keys. In this research paper new approach we used n prime number and multiple public keys. Which is not easily crack able .In here implementation RSA algorithm .Using some mathematical logic integer factorization and discrete logarithm problem
Research of batch RSA based on multi-prime%基于多素数的批处理RSA算法的研究
柳青; 李云飞; 周保林; 彭华
2011-01-01
针对提升batch RSA算法的解密性能,提出了一种改进的batch RSA算法.该改进算法结合了批处理技术和多素数技术,使得batch RSA算法指数计算阶段的大数模幂运算的指数和模数的位数减少.实验结果和理论分析表明,该改进算法使得批处理RSA算法的解密性能得到显著提升.%This paper proposed a new batch RSA variant to improve the batch RSA decryption performance.The improved batch RSA variant speeded up decryption by combining the batch technique and multi-prime technique to reduce modules and private exponents in modular exponentiation in the exponentiation phase.The experimental result and the theoretical values show that the speed of the decryption has been substantially improved.
Blind Decryption and Privacy Protection
Mohammed Al-Fayoumi
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Blind decryption is an efficient way of protecting customer’s privacy in online marketing over the Internet (i.e. Hiding information about which goods a user purchases from the vendor. In this study, the RSA based blind decryption is simply transposed from an identical protocol as the Chaum’s blind signature scheme and the blind decryption protocol for the Elgamal encryption scheme is suggested. In addition, the difference between the known RSA based blind decryption protocol and our proposed protocol is examined in applications to protect copyright subjects of e-commerce documents over the internet.
k-PARTY SHARED RSA KEY GENERATION
HeMingxing; FanPingzhi; 等
2003-01-01
This Ietter presents a k-party RSA key sharing scheme and the related algorithms are pressented.It is shown that the shared key can be generated in such a collaborative way that the RSA modulus is pubicly known but none of the parties is able to decrypt the enciphered message individually.
Lenstra, Arjen K.; Weger, de, B.M.M.; Benjamin, M M
2005-01-01
We introduce Twin RSA, pairs of RSA moduli (n, n+ 2), and formulate several questions related to it. Our main questions are: is Twin RSA secure, and what is it good for? © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.
On the Efficiency of Fast RSA Variants in Modern Mobile Phones
Klaus Hansen
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Modern mobile phones are increasingly being used for more services that require modern security mechanisms such as the public-key cryptosystem RSA. It is, however, well-known that public-key cryptography demands considerable computing resources and that RSA encryption is much faster than RSA decryption. It is consequently an interesting question if RSA as a whole can be executed efficiently on modern mobile phones. In this paper, we explore the efficiency on modern mobile phones of variants of the RSA cryptosystem, covering CRT, Multi-Prime RSA, Multi-Power RSA, Rebalanced RSA and R-Prime RSA by comparing the encryption and decryption time using a simple Java implementation and a typical RSA setup.Keywords—Public-key cryptography; RSA; software; mobile phones;
A New Approach for Complex Encrypting and Decrypting Data
Obaida Mohammad Awad Al-Hazaimeh
2013-04-01
Full Text Available During the last decades, information security has become a major issue. Encrypting and decrypting datahave recently been widely investigated and developed because there is a demand for a stronger encryptionand decryption which is very hard to crack. Cryptography plays major roles to fulfilment these demands.Nowadays, many of researchers have proposed many of encryption and decryption algorithms such as AES,DES, RSA, and others. But most of the proposed algorithms encountered some problems such as lack ofrobustness and significant amount of time added to packet delay to maintain the security on thecommunication channel between the terminals. In this paper, the security goals were enhanced via "A NewApproach for Complex Encrypting and Decrypting Data" which maintains the security on thecommunication channels by making it difficult for attacker to predicate a pattern as well as speed of theencryption / decryption scheme.
Data Security With Colors Using Rsa
G. Sankara Rao,
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Data Security with Colors using RSA technique that integrates the RGB Color model with the well-known public key cryptographic algorithm RSA (Rivest, Shamir and Adleman. This model provides both confidentiality and authentication to the data sent across the network. RSA algorithm uses public key and private key to encrypt and decrypt the data and thus provides confidentiality. But the public key is known to everyone and so anyone can encrypt the data and send the message. Hence authentication of users is needed. In this technique we use RGB color model to provide authentication. Every user will have a unique color assigned to him. A sender must know the receiver’s color to send a message. The color value is encrypted using a key which is used as a password while decrypting the message. To decrypt the message, the receiver must provide his color values. If the decrypted color values and his color values are equal then the sender and receiver are send to be authentic. The data encryption and decryption follows RSA procedure. Thus both authentication and confidentiality are provided for the data.
On the Efficiency of Fast RSA Variants in Modern Mobile Phones
Hansen, Klaus; Olsen, Kim
2010-01-01
Modern mobile phones are increasingly being used for more services that require modern security mechanisms such as the public key cryptosystem RSA. It is, however, well known that public key cryptography demands considerable computing resources and that RSA encryption is much faster than RSA decryption. It is consequently an interesting question if RSA as a whole can be executed efficiently on modern mobile phones. In this paper, we explore the efficiency on modern mobile phones of variants of the RSA cryptosystem, covering CRT, MultiPrime RSA, MultiPower RSA, Rebalanced RSA and R Prime RSA by comparing the encryption and decryption time using a simple Java implementation and a typical RSA setup.
Penambahan Chinese Reminder Theorem Untuk Mempercepat Proses Enkripsi Dan Dekripsi Pada RSA
Hasibuan, Andi Hazri
2015-01-01
Many methods are used to protect digital data stored or transmitted via electronic media. One way is to use a cryptographic algorithm RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman). Standard RSA uses modular arithmetic to perform the encryption and decryption. In this thesis discussed the addition of Chinese Remainder Theorem to speed up the RSA. 100823021
On the Efficiency of Fast RSA Variants in Modern Mobile Phones
Hansen, Klaus; Larsen, Troels; Olsen, Kim
2009-01-01
Modern mobile phones are increasingly being used for more services that require modern security mechanisms such as the public-key cryptosystem RSA. It is, however, well-known that public-key cryptography demands considerable computing resources and that RSA encryption is much faster than RSA...... decryption. It is consequently an interesting question if RSA as a whole can be executed efficiently on modern mobile phones....
On the Efficiency of Fast RSA Variants in Modern Mobile Phones
Klaus Hansen; Troels Larsen; Kim Olsen
2009-01-01
Modern mobile phones are increasingly being used for more services that require modern security mechanisms such as the public-key cryptosystem RSA. It is, however, well-known that public-key cryptography demands considerable computing resources and that RSA encryption is much faster than RSA decryption. It is consequently an interesting question if RSA as a whole can be executed efficiently on modern mobile phones. In this paper, we explore the efficiency on modern mobile phones of variants o...
Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.
1991-01-01
Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.
An efficient and secure RSA--like cryptosystem exploiting R\\'edei rational functions over conics
Bellini, Emanuele; Murru, Nadir
2015-01-01
We define an isomorphism between the group of points of a conic and the set of integers modulo a prime equipped with a non-standard product. This product can be efficiently evaluated through the use of R\\'edei rational functions. We then exploit the isomorphism to construct a novel RSA-like scheme. We compare our scheme with classic RSA and with RSA-like schemes based on the cubic or conic equation. The decryption operation of the proposed scheme turns to be two times faster than RSA, and inv...
A New Factorization Method to Factorize RSA Public Key Encryption
Bhagvant Ram Ambedkar; Sarabjeet Singh Bedi
2011-01-01
The security of public key encryption such as RSA scheme relied on the integer factoring problem. The security of RSA algorithm is based on positive integer N, because each transmitting node generates pair of keys such as public and private. Encryption and decryption of any message depends on N. Where, N is the product of two prime numbers and pair of key generation is dependent on these prime numbers. The factorization of N is very intricate. In this paper a New Factorization method is propo...
Sapna Sejwani*1
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA cryptosystem, named after its creators, is one of the most popular public key cryptosystems. It is most widely used for its strong security feature and easy implementation. The RSA cryptosystem has been utilized for many e-commerce applications, various forms of authentication, and virtual private networks in any organizations. The importance of high security and faster implementations paved the way for hardware implementations of the RSA algorithm. This work consists of describing a new approach to enhance RSA security. In this paper we will enhance the security feature by introducing an advance model called Triple RSA. Although RSA has not been attacked yet, it is still prone to attacks. So to enhance its security we have implemented triple RSA just like triple DES which is extremely secure. This model provides along with confidentiality, a strong authentication, data integrity, tamper detection and non repudiation.
Strategies and performances of Soft Input Decryption
Zivic, Natasa
2009-01-01
This paper analyzes performance aspects of Soft Input Decryption and L values. Soft Input Decryption is a novel method which uses L values (soft output) of a SISO channel decoder for the correction of input of Soft Input Decryption (SID blocks) which have been modified during the transmission over a noisy channel. The method is based on the combination of cryptography and channel coding improving characteristics of both of them. The algorithm, strategies and scenarios of Soft Input Decryption...
An RSA Encryption Hardware Algorithm using a Single DSP Block and a Single Block RAM on the FPGA
Koji Nakano
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The main contribution of this paper is to present an efficient hardware algorithm for RSA encryption/decryption based on Montgomery multiplication. Modern FPGAs have a number of embedded DSP blocks (DSP48E1 and embedded memory blocks (BRAM. Our hardware algorithm supporting 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption is designed to be implemented using one DSP48E1, one BRAM and few logic blocks (slices in the Xilinx Virtex-6 family FPGA. The implementation results showed that our RSA module for 2048-bit RSA encryption/decryption runs in 277.26ms. Quite surprisingly, the multiplier in DSP48E1 used to compute Montgomery multiplication works in more than 97% clock cycles over all clock cycles. Hence, our implementation is close to optimal in the sense that it has only less than 3% overhead in multiplication and no further improvement is possible as long as Montgomery multiplication based algorithm is used. Also, since our circuit uses only one DSP48E1 block and one Block RAM, we can implement a number of RSA modules in an FPGA that can work in parallel to attain high throughput RSA encryption/decryption.
刘承彬; 耿也; 舒奎; 高真香子
2012-01-01
RSA algorithms play an important role in the public key cryptography. Its computational efficiency have an immediately correlation with the efficiency of modular exponentiation implementation. In this paper the general formula for multiple primes of RSA algorithm were given by reducing the number of modular exponentiation, recover the original simply and fast. A formula for estimating efficiency also was given to calculate the efficiency of acceleration by estimating, which can provide the basis for the most appropriate numbers for RSA.%RSA算法在公钥密码体制中占有重要的地位,它的计算效率与模幂运算的实现效率有着直接关联.本实验在基于使用中国剩余定理简化的RSA解密算法的条件下,给出多个素数情况下的解密通用公式,通过减少大量的模幂运算,迅速简单地恢复出原文.并给出了效率提升估算公式,通过估算求出加速效率,为确定使用多少个素数最为合适提供依据.
Simple Encryption/Decryption Application
Majdi Al-qdah
2007-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an Encryption/Decryption application that is able to work with any type of file; for example: image files, data files, documentation filesÃ¢â‚¬Â¦etc. The method of encryption is simple enough yet powerful enough to fit the needs of students and staff in a small institution. The application uses simple key generation method of random number generation and combination. The final encryption is a binary one performed through rotation of bits and XOR operation applied on each block of data in any file using a symmetric decimal key. The key generation and Encryption are all done by the system itself after clicking the encryption button with transparency to the user. The same encryption key is also used to decrypt the encrypted binary file.
A New Factorization Method to Factorize RSA Public Key Encryption
Bhagvant Ram Ambedkar
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The security of public key encryption such as RSA scheme relied on the integer factoring problem. The security of RSA algorithm is based on positive integer N, because each transmitting node generates pair of keys such as public and private. Encryption and decryption of any message depends on N. Where, N is the product of two prime numbers and pair of key generation is dependent on these prime numbers. The factorization of N is very intricate. In this paper a New Factorization method is proposed to obtain the factor of positive integer N. The proposed work focuses on factorization of all trivial and nontrivial integer numbers and requires fewer steps for factorization process of RSA modulus N. The New Factorization method is based on Pollard rho factorization method. Experimental results shown that factorization speed is fast as compare existing methods.
Simple Encryption/Decryption Application
Majdi Al-qdah; Lin Yi Hui
2007-01-01
This paper presents an Encryption/Decryption application that is able to work with any type of file; for example: image files, data files, documentation filesÃ¢â‚¬Â¦etc. The method of encryption is simple enough yet powerful enough to fit the needs of students and staff in a small institution. The application uses simple key generation method of random number generation and combination. The final encryption is a binary one performed through rotation of bits and XOR operation applied on each b...
Research on the Safe Parameter of RSA Algorithm%RSA算法的安全参数研究
赵进宏
2012-01-01
RSA算法是一个非对称密钥加密算法。文章系统地介绍了RSA公钥密码算法的基本原理及利用RSA算法进行数据加密的过程：对RSA公钥密码算法安全参数的选择进行分析，并探讨了安全参数的选择对RSA公钥密码算法的安全性影响及重要性。%The RSA algorithm is an asymmetric key cryptographic algorithm.The paper introduces the working principle of RSA system in a system way, besides that it perform encryption and decryption in RSA algorithm,and study how to choose the safe parameter of RSA system,and then analyze the importance of a proper parameter in maintaining secudty of the RSA system.
Dual-Layer Video Encryption using RSA Algorithm
Chadha, Aman; Mallik, Sushmit; Chadha, Ankit; Johar, Ravdeep; Mani Roja, M.
2015-04-01
This paper proposes a video encryption algorithm using RSA and Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence, aimed at applications requiring sensitive video information transfers. The system is primarily designed to work with files encoded using the Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) codec, although it can be easily ported for use with Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) encoded files. The audio and video components of the source separately undergo two layers of encryption to ensure a reasonable level of security. Encryption of the video component involves applying the RSA algorithm followed by the PN-based encryption. Similarly, the audio component is first encrypted using PN and further subjected to encryption using the Discrete Cosine Transform. Combining these techniques, an efficient system, invulnerable to security breaches and attacks with favorable values of parameters such as encryption/decryption speed, encryption/decryption ratio and visual degradation; has been put forth. For applications requiring encryption of sensitive data wherein stringent security requirements are of prime concern, the system is found to yield negligible similarities in visual perception between the original and the encrypted video sequence. For applications wherein visual similarity is not of major concern, we limit the encryption task to a single level of encryption which is accomplished by using RSA, thereby quickening the encryption process. Although some similarity between the original and encrypted video is observed in this case, it is not enough to comprehend the happenings in the video.
Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms
赵晓宇; 陈刚; 张亶; 王肖虹; 董光昌
2004-01-01
Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms, commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack. In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm,we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms. First, a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices. Then, by using probability theory and algebraic principles, the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then, by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices, we improve a specific decryption al-gorithm. Finally, some simulation results are shown.
Threshold Decryption Scheme with Multiple Policies
FEI Ru-chun; WANG Li-na
2005-01-01
Based on the difficulty in computing discrete logarithm and square root on some special conditions, we propose a basic threshold secret sharing scheme for multiple secrets with multiple policies, which allows a group of users to share multiple secret keys and only one secret shadow to be kept by each user. An efficient threshold decryption scheme with multiple policies is designed on the basis of the basic threshold scheme. This decryption scheme allows multiple secret keys to be shared among a group of users, and each user to keep only one secret shadow. Different public keys can be used to encrypt documents. If and only if the number of cooperated users who keep the secret shadows is greater than or equal to the threshold value of the corresponding secret key,they can cooperate to decrypt the documents. It is proved that the proposed scheme has very strong security, unless the attackers can solve the discrete logarithm problem and the square root problem.
Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms
赵晓宇; 陈刚; 张亶; 王肖虹; 董光昌
2004-01-01
Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms,commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack.In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm,we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms.First,a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices.Then,by using probability theory and algebraic principles,the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then,by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices,we improve a specific decryption algorithm.Finally,some simulation results are shown.
WANG Baocang; LIU Shuanggen; HU Yupu
2006-01-01
The security of the RSA system with the prime pairs of some special form is investigated. A new special-purpose algorithm for factoring RSA numbers is proposed. The basic idea of the method is to factor RSA numbers by factoring a well-chosen quadratic polynomial with integral coefficients. When viewed as a general-purpose algorithm, the new algorithm has a high computational complexity. It is shown that the RSA number n=pq can be easily factored if p and q have the special form of p=as+b, q=cs+d, where a, b, c, d are relatively small numbers. Such prime pairs (p, q) are the weak keys of RSA, so when we generate RSA modulus, we should avoid using such prime pairs (p, q).
Robust RSA for Digital Signature
Virendra Kumar; Puran Krishen Koul
2011-01-01
The RSA cryptosystem is currently used in a wide variety of products, platforms, and industries around the world. It is found in many commercial software products and is planned to be in many more. In hardware, the RSA algorithm can be found in secure telephones, on ethernet network cards, and on smart cards.It offers encryption and digital signatures (authentication). In this paper we will illustrate the application and problem associated with RSA Algorithm.
Robust RSA for Digital Signature
Virendra Kumar
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The RSA cryptosystem is currently used in a wide variety of products, platforms, and industries around the world. It is found in many commercial software products and is planned to be in many more. In hardware, the RSA algorithm can be found in secure telephones, on ethernet network cards, and on smart cards.It offers encryption and digital signatures (authentication. In this paper we will illustrate the application and problem associated with RSA Algorithm.
加密算法之RSA算法%Encryption Algorithm of the RSA Algorithm
盛仲飙
2012-01-01
RSA algorithm is one of the most widely used non-symmetric cipher system. On the base of the study of RSA algorithm theory,principle, algorithm description and so on,the paper further studies the details of the problems in the implementation of RSA algorithm that should be paid attention and its application in the encryption/ decryption, digital signatures, key exchange. Finally, the paper proposes a kind of private key power module operation improvement scheme. The scheme improved the speed of RSA algorithm in the decryption.%RSA算法是使用最广泛的一种非对称密码体制.在对RSA算法的理论基础、原理、算法描述等进行研究的基础上,近一步研究了RSA算法在实现时应注意的问题以及它在数字签名、密钥交换等方面的应用.最后提出了一种对私有密钥进行幂模运算的改进方案,提高了RSA算法在解密时的运算速度.
Decrypted secrets methods and maxims of cryptology
Bauer, Friedrich L
2006-01-01
A reference work on cryptology offering technical and biographical details. This book reviews secret codes and their uses - the foundations of cryptography. It also deals with the process of covertly decrypting a secret code - cryptanalysis, and gives particular advice on assessing methods.
Enhanced NTRU cryptosystem eliminating decryption failures
Yao Jun; Zeng Guihua
2006-01-01
An enhaned NTRU cryptosystem eliminating decryption failures is proposed without using padding schemes and can resist the oracle model andchosen-ciphertext attacks. Because lattice reduction is the main threat to lattice-based cryptosystems, lattice reductionalgorithms are analyzed to evaluate the security of this scheme. Furthermore, the new scheme remains the advantage of high efficiency of original NTRU.
Additively homomorphic encryption with a double decryption mechanism, revisited
Peter, A.; Kronberg, M.; Trei, W.; Katzenbeisser, S.
2012-01-01
We revisit the notion of additively homomorphic encryption with a double decryption mechanism (DD-PKE), which allows for additions in the encrypted domain while having a master decryption procedure that can decrypt all properly formed ciphertexts by using a special master secret. This type of encryp
Balogh, Tomáš
2013-01-01
Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá implementací obecného algoritmu RSA prostřednictvím Montgomeryho násobení pro grafické karty. Pro vybranou platformu CUDA jsou vytvořeny čtyři verze implementace s cílem dosáhnutí co nejvyššího zrychlení výpočtu v porovnání s výpočtem na procesoru. Zrychlení výpočtu je kromě jiného dosaženo paralelizací aritmetických operací sčítání a násobení velkých čísel.
Richter, OTTO-G.
1993-01-01
The original Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxy sample of almost 1300 galaxies has been augmented with further bright galaxies from the RSA appendix as well as newer galaxy catalogs. A complete and homogeneous, strictly magnitude-limited all-sky sample of 2345 galaxies brighter than 13.4 in apparent blue magnitude was formed. New 21 cm H1 line observations for more than 600 RSA galaxies have been combined with all previously available H1 data from the literature. This new extentise data act allows detailed tests of widely accepted 'standard' reduction and analysis techniques.
Multi-Prime RSA Over Galois Approach
Rawal, Swati
2016-01-01
Many variants of RSA cryptosystem exist in the literature. One of them is RSA over polynomials based on Galois approach. In standard RSA modulus is product of two large primes whereas in the Galois approach author considered the modulus as a product of two irriduciable polynomials. We use this idea and extend Multi-prime RSA over polynomials.
2011-01-01
Globaalne kindlustusgrupp RSA ja SEB Pank teatasid 19. aprillil, et alustavad koostööd varakindlustustoodete pakkumisel SEB klientidele Eestis, mis tähendab seda, et RSAst saab ainus varakindlustuse pakkuja pangas
Abhishek Patial
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Cloud computing presents IT organizations with a fundamentally different model of operation, one that takes advantage of the maturity of web applications and networks and the rising interoperability of computing systems to provide IT services. Data security is becoming a core problem in cloud computing, there are some kind of solution that are provide some security with model, some technology. In this paper is attempt to secure data from unauthorized access, the Method of data security is RSA algorithm for providing data security by encrypting the given data based on the KEY combinations. And this data then can only be decrypted by authorized person by using his private key. For the same purpose Google application cloud has been implemented on IJCT Foundation, all data has of IJCT Foundation sifted to Google cloud and RSA security algorithm is implemented by us for secure data.
Extending Algorithm of RSA Algorithm%基于RSA算法的扩展算法
张延招
2011-01-01
The security of RSA is designed on the basis of the difficulty of large integer decomposition.In the RSA public key encryption system the public key n is the product of two large prime number,aiming at the large integer n decomposition of the form n=pq（in which p,q as large prime number）.The paper describes the encryption and decryption theory of extending RSA algorithm,aiming at the large integer n decomposition to the form n=p1,p2,…,pr（in which p1,p2,…,pr as large prime number）.The addition of prime number could enhance the security of RSA algorithm.Compared to RSA algorithm,the extending RSA algorithm could be applied to both digital encryption/decryption and digital signature.Digital signature algorithm based on extending RSA algorithm is also of high security and reliability.%RSA的安全性是依据大整数分解的困难性而设计的。RSA公开密钥加密体制中n为2个大素数的乘积,即针对n=pq（p,q为大素数）的大整数分解,这里介绍了RSA算法的扩展算法的加密和解密原理,即针对n=p1,p2,…,pr（p1,p2,…,pr为大素数）的大整数分解。通过扩展素因子的个数达到RSA算法的安全性。比较RSA算法,扩展的RSA算法不仅可用于数据加密解密,也可用于数字签名。利用扩展的RSA算法实现数字签名也具有较高的安全性和可靠性。
Factorization of a 768-bit RSA modulus
Kleinjung, T; Aoki, K.; Franke, J.; Lenstra, A.K.; Thomee, E; Bos, Joppe,; Gaudry, P.; Kruppa, Alexander; Montgomery, P. L.; Osvik, D.A.; Riele, te, H.; Timofeev, Andrey; Zimmermann, P; Rabin, T.
2010-01-01
The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com International audience This paper reports on the factorization of the 768-bit number RSA-768 by the number field sieve factoring method and discusses some implications for RSA.
EFFICIENT ASIC ARCHITECTURE OF RSA CRYPTOSYSTEM
Varun Nehru; H.S. Jattana
2014-01-01
This paper presents a unified architecture design of the RSA cryptosystem i.e. RSA cryptoaccelerator along with key-pair generation. A structural design methodology for the same is proposed and implemented. The purpose is to design a complete cryptosystem efficiently with reduced hardware redundancy. Individual modular architectures of RSA, Miller-Rabin Test and Extended Binary GCD algorithm are presented and then they are integrated. Standard algorithm for RSA has been used. T...
Generating RSA moduli with a predetermined portion
Lenstra, Arjen K.
1998-01-01
This paper reviews and generalizes a method to generate RSA moduli with a predetermined portion. The potential advantages of the resulting methods are discussed. Both the storage and the computational requirements of the RSA cryptosystem can be considerably reduced. The constructions are as efficient as generation of regular RSA moduli, and the resulting moduli do not seem to offer less security than regular RSA moduli
Mathematical Attacks on RSA Cryptosystem
Imad K. Salah
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper some of the most common attacks against Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA cryptosystem are presented. We describe the integer factoring attacks, attacks on the underlying mathematical function, as well as attacks that exploit details in implementations of the algorithm. Algorithms for each type of attacks are developed and analyzed by their complexity, memory requirements and area of usage.
EFFICIENT ASIC ARCHITECTURE OF RSA CRYPTOSYSTEM
Varun Nehru
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a unified architecture design of the RSA cryptosystem i.e. RSA cryptoaccelerator along with key-pair generation. A structural design methodology for the same is proposed and implemented. The purpose is to design a complete cryptosystem efficiently with reduced hardware redundancy. Individual modular architectures of RSA, Miller-Rabin Test and Extended Binary GCD algorithm are presented and then they are integrated. Standard algorithm for RSA has been used. The RSA datapath has further been transformed into DPA resistant design. The simulation and implementation results using 180nm technology are shown and prove the validity of the architecture.
Improved RSA cryptosystem based on the study of number theory and public key cryptosystems
Israt Jahan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Security is required to transmit confidential information over the network. Security is also demanding in wide range of applications. Cryptographic algorithms play a vital role in providing the data security against malicious attacks. RSA algorithm is extensively used in the popular implementations of Public Key Infrastructures. In asymmetric key cryptography, also called Public Key cryptography, two different keys (which form a key pair are used. One key is used for encryption and only the other corresponding key must be used for decryption. No other key can decrypt the message – not even the original (i.e. the first key used for encryption. In this paper, we have proposed an improved approach of RSA algorithm using two public key pairs and using some mathematical logic rather than sending one public key d irectly.Because if an attacker has an opportunity of getting the public key componet they can find private key value by brute force search. General Terms: Cryptography, network security
Analyzing standards for RSA integers
Loebenberger, Daniel
2011-01-01
The key-generation algorithm for the RSA cryptosystem is specified in several standards, such as PKCS#1, IEEE 1363-2000, FIPS 186-3, ANSI X9.44, or ISO/IEC 18033-2. All of them substantially differ in their requirements. This indicates that for computing a "secure" RSA modulus it does not matter how exactly one generates RSA integers. In this work we show that this is indeed the case to a large extend: First, we give a theoretical framework that will enable us to easily compute the entropy of the output distribution of the considered standards and show that it is comparatively high. To do so, we compute for each standard the number of integers they define (up to an error of very small order) and discuss different methods of generating integers of a specific form. Second, we show that factoring such integers is hard, provided factoring a product of two primes of similar size is hard.
Santanu, Sarkar; Maitra, Subhamoy
2011-01-01
International audience Several schemes under the framework of Dual RSA have been proposed by Sun et al (IEEE-IT, August 2007). We here concentrate on the Dual CRT-RSA scheme and present certain range of parameters for which this is insecure. As a corollary of our work, we prove that the Dual Generalized Rebalanced-RSA (Scheme III of Sun et al) can be e ciently broken for a signi cant region where the scheme has been claimed to be secure.
Factorization of a 512-bit RSA modulus
Cavallar, S.H.; Lioen, W.M.; Riele, te, H.; Dodson, B.; Lenstra, A.K.; Montgomery, P. L.; Murphy, B.
2000-01-01
On August 22, 1999, we completed the factorization of the 512--bit 155--digit number RSA--155 with the help of the Number Field Sieve factoring method (NFS). This is a new record for factoring general numbers. Moreover, 512--bit RSA keys are frequently used for the protection of electronic commerce---at least outside the USA---so this factorization represents a breakthrough in research on RSA--based systems. The previous record, factoring the 140--digit number RSA--140, was established on Feb...
Factorization of a 512-bit RSA modulus
Cavallar, S.H.; Lioen, W.M.; Riele, H.J.J. te; Dodson, B.; Lenstra, A.K.; Montgomery, P.L.; Murphy, B.
2000-01-01
On August 22, 1999, we completed the factorization of the 512--bit 155--digit number RSA--155 with the help of the Number Field Sieve factoring method (NFS). This is a new record for factoring general numbers. Moreover, 512--bit RSA keys are frequently used for the protection of electronic commerce-
RSA Monitoring Redesign Initiative Informational Booklet #1
US Department of Education, 2005
2005-01-01
This informational booklet contains background materials regarding the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) initiative to redesign its monitoring system. The booklet is intended to expand the knowledge and understanding of those individuals selected to participate in the RSA-sponsored monitoring conference that was held August 24 and 25,…
SRI RAMSHALAKA: A VEDIC METHOD OF TEXT ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION
Rajkishore Prasad
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates usability of SriRamshalakha, a vedic tool used in Indian Astrology, in the encryption and decryption of plain English text. Sri Ram Shalaka appears in Sri RamChartmanas, one of the very popular sacred epic of Hindu religion, written by great Saint Tulsidasji. SriRamshalakha is used to fetch/infer the approximate answer of questions/decisions by the believers. Basically, the said shalaka embed nine philosophical verses from Sri RamCharitmanas in a matrix form based on which answers to queries are inferred and ingrained. However, none of the verses are visible and directly readable. Thus here we take SriRamshalakha as the ancient Indian method of text encryption and decryption and based on the same algorithms for the encryption and decryption of plain English text areproposed. The developed algorithms are presented with examples and possibility of its use in steganography and text to image transformation are also discussed.
Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Bylsma, Lauren M.; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria
2013-01-01
We examined whether the combined indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest (resting RSA) and in response to a sad film (RSA reactivity) predict effective and ineffective responses to reduce sadness (adaptive vs. maladaptive mood repair) in women with histories of juvenile-onset depression (n = 74) and no history of major mental disorders (n = 75). Structural equation models were used to estimate latent resting RSA, depression, and adaptive and maladaptive mood repair and to test the stu...
On the factorization of RSA-120
Denny, T; Dodson, B.; Lenstra, Arjen K.; Manasse, M. S.
1994-01-01
We present data concerning the factorization of the 120-digit number RSA-120, which we factored on July 9, 1993, using the quadratic sieve method. The factorization took approximately 825 MIPS years and was completed within three months real time. At the time of writing RSA-120 is the largest integer ever factored by a general purpose factoring algorithm. We also present some conservative extrapolations to estimate the difficulty of factoring even larger numbers, using either the quadratic si...
Simple optical decryption based on a modified joint transform correlator technique
WANG Huai-bin; WANG Tian-zuo; YUAN Xiao-cong
2006-01-01
A new encryption/decryption system for optical information security is proposed in this paper. We used an iterative Fourier transform algorithm to optimize the encrypted hologram as well as the decryption key as phase-only elements. The optical decryption was implemented by superimposing the encrypted hologram and the decryption key in a simple optical setup. Numerical simulation and optical experiment have confirmed the proposed technique as a simple and easy implementation for optical decryption, demonstrating potential applications in optical information security verification.
Rahayu, Dini
2014-01-01
Securityandconfidentiality ofthe messageisa veryimportantaspectin the exchangeof information. This paperwillofferaprocess ofencodinga messageusing theRSA-Lehmann-CSPRNGwhichcanincreasethe security ofthe message. Inthis paperthe input data designisin the form ofa textfile. RSA algorithmwill be appliedonasoftware designedandcreatedusingthe VisualBasicprogramming languageBasic 6.0as a meanstoincreasemessaging security. 071402002
Encryption-Decryption RGB Color Image Using Matrix Multiplication
Mohamad M.AL-Laham
2015-10-01
Full Text Available An enhanced technique of color image encryption based on random matrix key encoding is proposed. To encrypt the color image a separation into Red Green and Blue (R, G, B channels will applied. Each channel is encrypted using a technique called double random matrix key encoding then three new coding image matrices are constructed. To obtain the reconstructed image that is the same as the original image in the receipted side; simple extracted and decryption operations can be maintained. The results shown that the proposed technique is powerful for color image encryption and decryption and a MATLAB and simulations were used to get the results. The proposed technique has high security features because each color component is separately treated using its own double random matrix key which is generated randomly and make the process of hacking the three keys very difficult
On the Performance of Joint Fingerprint Embedding and Decryption Scheme
Lian, Shiguo; Ren, Zhen; Wang, Haila
2007-01-01
Till now, few work has been done to analyze the performances of joint fingerprint embedding and decryption schemes. In this paper, the security of the joint fingerprint embedding and decryption scheme proposed by Kundur et al. is analyzed and improved. The analyses include the security against unauthorized customer, the security against authorized customer, the relationship between security and robustness, the relationship between secu-rity and imperceptibility and the perceptual security. Based these analyses, some means are proposed to strengthen the system, such as multi-key encryp-tion and DC coefficient encryption. The method can be used to analyze other JFD schemes. It is expected to provide valuable information to design JFD schemes.
Encryption-Decryption RGB Color Image Using Matrix Multiplication
Mohamad M.AL-Laham
2015-01-01
An enhanced technique of color image encryption based on random matrix key encoding is proposed. To encrypt the color image a separation into Red Green and Blue (R, G, B) channels will applied. Each channel is encrypted using a technique called double random matrix key encoding then three new coding image matrices are constructed. To obtain the reconstructed image that is the same as the original image in the receipted side; simple extracted and decryption operations can be mainta...
Encryption and Decryption of Messages on Android using NFC Tags
Andrei Dragan
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Working with NFC technology and mobile devices brings a faster and more secure way of doing things like giving out contact information, automating certain tasks or transmitting data, as easy as touching the two. What this article focuses on is the use of NFC tags on the Android platform to store random generated keys and automate the encryption and decryption of messages.
基于C语言的RSA算法的实现%The realization of RSA algorithm based on C language
戚娜
2015-01-01
RSA算法是现代公钥密码体制事实上的标准，既能用于数据加密解密也能用于数字签名。本文重点介绍RSA的算法原理，研究在数字签名和密钥交换方面的应用，分析RSA存在的安全问题以及RSA在C语言中具体的实现过程，并针对RSA算法中存在的缺点进行深入的分析研究。%The RSA algorithm is a standard of modern cryptography and is considered a better security key system that can be used for not only for data encryption and decryption but also can be used for digital signature. This paper focuses on algorithm principle, researches on the applications in the digital signature and key exchange, analyses the safety problems in RSA,the specific implementation process in the C language, and analyses the shortcoming that exist for the RSA algorithm in-depth.
Hardware modules of the RSA algorithm
Škobić Velibor
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes basic principles of data protection using the RSA algorithm, as well as algorithms for its calculation. The RSA algorithm is implemented on FPGA integrated circuit EP4CE115F29C7, family Cyclone IV, Altera. Four modules of Montgomery algorithm are designed using VHDL. Synthesis and simulation are done using Quartus II software and ModelSim. The modules are analyzed for different key lengths (16 to 1024 in terms of the number of logic elements, the maximum frequency and speed.
On Fixed Points of Order K of RSA
Zhang, Shaohua
2009-01-01
In this paper, we gave a preliminary dynamical analysis on the RSA cryptosystem and obtained a computational formulae of the number of the fixed points of $k$ order of the RSA. Thus, the problem in [8, 9] has been solved.
RSA Monitoring Redesign Initiative Informational Booklet #2
US Department of Education, 2005
2005-01-01
The U.S. Department of Education's Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) is undertaking a major initiative to substantially redesign its program monitoring and improvement system. The overriding goal is to improve vocational rehabilitation (VR) services and employment outcomes for individuals with disabilities through the development of a…
Analysis of RSA Algorithm using GPU Programming
Sonam Mahajan
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Modern-day computer security relies heavily on cry ptography as a means to protect the data that we ha ve become increasingly reliant on. The main researc h in computer security domain is how to enhance the speed of RSA algorithm. The computing capability of Graphic Processing Unit as a co-processor of the CPU can leverage massive-parallelism. This paper presents a novel algorithm for calculating modulo value that can process large power of numbers w hich otherwise are not supported by built-in data t ypes. First the traditional algorithm is studied. Secondl y, the parallelized RSA algorithm is designed using CUDA framework. Thirdly, the designed algorithm is realized for small prime numbers and large pr ime number . As a result the main fundamental problem of RSA algorithm such as speed and use of poo r or small prime numbers that has led to significant s ecurity holes, despite the RSA algorithm's mathemat ical soundness can be alleviated by this algorithm
An Optical Encryption and Decryption Method and System
2000-01-01
The invention relates to securing of information utilising optical imaging technologies and more specifically to phase encryption and decryption of images. An image is encrypted into a mask having a plurality of mask resolution elements (Xm, Ym) by encoding the image using e.g. a phase mask with an...... encoded phase value phi (Xm, Ym) and an encoded amplitude value a (Xm, Ym), and by further encrypting the mask (using e.g. a spatial light modulator) by addition of an encrypting phase value phi c (Xm, Ym) to the encoded phase value phi (Xm, Ym) and by multiplication of an encrypting amplitude value ac...
基于参数优化批处理的TLS协议%Parameter Optimization-Based Batching TLS Protocol
齐芳; 贾维嘉; 鲍丰; 吴永东; 王国军
2007-01-01
TLS(transport layer security)协议的基本设计目标是为两个通信实体之间提供数据的保密性和完整性.由于在传输层安全握手协议中最耗费计算资源的步骤是服务器RSA解密运算,优化的批处理的RSA方法提出可以用于加速TLS会话的初始化.首先指出了以前的批处理方法由于要求多证书实现而实用性不强.然后提出了单一证书策略的方法,从而克服了这一问题.还提出结合用户对于因特网服务质量的要求优化了批处理参数.为了选择优化的批处理的参数,不仅考虑了服务器的性能,而且还考虑了客户可容忍的等待时间.通过分析并在阐述平均排队时间、批处理服务时间和系统稳定性的基础上提出了一种新颖的优化批处理调度算法,已部署在服务器上.最后通过分析和模拟两种方法验证了所提出方案的实用性和有效性.%The primary goal of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol is to provide confidentiality and data integrity between two communicating entities. Since the most computationally expensive step in the TLS handshake protocol is the server's RSA decryption, it is introduced that optimal batch RSA can be used to speedup TLS session initialization. This paper first indicates that the previous batch method is impractical since it requires a multiple of certificates, then it proposes the unique certificate scheme to overcome the problem. It is also introduced that the batching parameter is optimized when integrating users' requirements for Internet Quality of Service (QoS). To select the optimal batching parameters, not only the server's performance but also the client's tolerable waiting time is considered. Based on the analysis of the mean queue time, batching service time and the stability of the system, a novel batch optimal scheduling algorithm which is deployed in a batching Web server is proposed. Finally, the proposed algorithm is evaluated to be practical and
Securing Watermarked-Relational Data by Using Encryption and Decryption
Nagarjuna Settipalli
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Ownership rights on outsourced relational database are very crucial issue in today’s internet environment and in many content distribution applications, because the rapid growth of the internet and related technologies offered an unprecedented ability to access and redistribute digital content. In earlier existing systems the relational data will be watermarked and directly send to the client system, in these systems while sending relational data from server to client attacker easily copy the data and create same copy of relational data. Here there is no security to watermarked relational data. In our proposed system before sending the watermarked relational data to client side we encrypt the relational data and send it to the client side, at client side decryption will be done to get the original watermarked data. Because of using this encryption technique even an attacker copy the data he/she may not read the watermarked relational data.
Fisher, Aaron J; Reeves, Jonathan W; Chi, Cyrus
2016-07-01
Expanding on recently published methods, the current study presents an approach to estimating the dynamic, regulatory effect of the parasympathetic nervous system on heart period on a moment-to-moment basis. We estimated second-to-second variation in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in order to estimate the contemporaneous and time-lagged relationships among RSA, interbeat interval (IBI), and respiration rate via vector autoregression. Moreover, we modeled these relationships at lags of 1 s to 10 s, in order to evaluate the optimal latency for estimating dynamic RSA effects. The IBI (t) on RSA (t-n) regression parameter was extracted from individual models as an operationalization of the regulatory effect of RSA on IBI-referred to as dynamic RSA (dRSA). Dynamic RSA positively correlated with standard averages of heart rate and negatively correlated with standard averages of RSA. We propose that dRSA reflects the active downregulation of heart period by the parasympathetic nervous system and thus represents a novel metric that provides incremental validity in the measurement of autonomic cardiac control-specifically, a method by which parasympathetic regulatory effects can be measured in process. PMID:27045609
The multi-dimension RSA and its low exponent security
曹珍富
2000-01-01
Using a well-known result of polynomial over the finite field , we show that the Euler-Fermat theorem holds in N[ x]. We present a multi-dimension RSA cryptosystem and point out that low exponent algorithm of attacking RSA is not suitable for the multi-dimension RSA. Therefore, it is believed that the security of the new cryptosystem is mainly based on the factorization of large integers.
The multi-dimension RSA and its low exponent security
无
2000-01-01
Using a well-known result of polynomial over the finite field Fp, we show that the Euler-Fermat theorem holds in ZN[x]. We present a multi-dimension RSA cryptosystem and point out that low exponent algorithm of attacking RSA is not suitable for the multi-dimension RSA. Therefore, it is believed that the security of the new cryptosystem is mainly based on the factorization of large integers.
Factorisation of RSA-220 with CADO-NFS
Bai, Shi; Gaudry, Pierrick; Kruppa, Alexander; Thomé, Emmanuel; Zimmermann, Paul
2016-01-01
We give details of the factorization of RSA-220 with CADO-NFS. This is a new record computation with this open-source software. We report on the factorization of RSA-220 (220 decimal digits), which is the 3rd largest integer factorization with the General Number Field Sieve (GNFS), after the factorization of RSA-768 (232 digits) in December 2009 [3], and that of 3 697 + 1 (221 digits) in February 2015 by NFS@home.
Factorization of RSA-140 using the number field sieve
Cavallar, S.H.; Dodson, B.; Lenstra, A.K.; Leyland, P. C.; Lioen, W.M.; Montgomery, P. L.; Murphy, B.; Riele, te, H.; Zimmermann, P
1999-01-01
On February 2, 1999, we completed the factorization of the 140--digit number RSA--140 with the help of the Number Field Sieve factoring method (NFS). This is a new general factoring record. The previous record was established on April 10, 1996 by the factorization of the 130--digit number RSA--130, also with the help of NFS. The amount of computing time spent on RSA--140 was roughly twice that needed for RSA--130, about half of what could be expected from a straightforward extrapolation of th...
A New Batch Verifying Scheme for Identifying Illegal Signatures
Adrian Atanasiu
2013-01-01
The concept of batch verifying multiple digital signatures is to find a method by which multiple digital signatures can be verified simultaneously in a lower time complexity than separately verifying all the signatures.In this article,we analyze the complexity of the batch verifying schemes defined by Li,Hwang and Chen in 2010,and propose a new batch verifying multiple digital signature scheme,in two variants:one for RSA-by completing the Harn's schema with an identifying illegal signatures algorithm,and the other adapted for a modified Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm protocol.
DMAC-AN INTEGRATED ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH RSA FOR AC TO OBSTRUCT INFERENCE ATTACKS
R. Jeeva
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The proposal of indistinguishable encryption in Randomized Arithmetic Coding(RAC doesn’t make the system efficient because it was not encrypting the messages it sends. It recomputes the cipher form of every messages it sends that increases not only the computational cost but also increases the response time.Floating point representation in cipher increases the difficulty in decryption side because of loss in precison.RAC doesn’t handle the inference attacks like Man-in-Middle attack,Third party attack etc. In our system, Dynamic Matrix Arithmetic Coding(DMAC using dynamic session matrix to encrypt the messages. The size of the matrix is deduced from the session key that contains ID of end users which proves the server authentication.Nonce values is represented as the public key of the opponents encrypted by the session key will be exchanged between the end users to provide mutual authentication. If the adversary try to compromise either server or end users,the other system won’t respond and the intrusion will be easily detected. we have increased the hacking complexity of AC by integrating with RSA upto 99%.
The Development of a Portable Hard Disk Encryption/Decryption System with a MEMS Coded Lock
Shengyong Li
2009-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system with a MEMS coded lock is presented, which can authenticate the user and provide the key for the AES encryption/decryption module. The portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system is composed of the authentication module, the USB portable hard-disk interface card, the ATA protocol command decoder module, the data encryption/decryption module, the cipher key management module, the MEMS coded lock controlling circuit module, the MEMS coded lock and the hard disk. The ATA protocol circuit, the MEMS control circuit and AES encryption/decryption circuit are designed and realized by FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array. The MEMS coded lock with two couplers and two groups of counter-meshing-gears (CMGs are fabricated by a LIGA-like process and precision engineering method. The whole prototype was fabricated and tested. The test results show that the user’s password could be correctly discriminated by the MEMS coded lock, and the AES encryption module could get the key from the MEMS coded lock. Moreover, the data in the hard-disk could be encrypted or decrypted, and the read-write speed of the dataflow could reach 17 MB/s in Ultra DMA mode.
Universally Composable Proactive Threshold RSA Signature
HONG Xuan; CHEN Ke-fei; LONG Yu
2008-01-01
Recently some efforts were made towards capturing the security requirements within the composable security framework.This modeling has some significant advantages in designing and analyzing complex systems.The threshold signature was discussed and a definition was given based on the universal composability framework,which is proved to be equivalent to the standard security definition.Furthermore,a simple,efficient and proactive threshold RSA signature protocol was presented.It is proved to be correct,consistent and unforgeable relative to the environment that at most t-1 parties are corrupted in each proactive stage.It is also secure under the universal composability framework.It is a UC based security and is proved to be equivalent to the standard security.
Preparing for a (RSA Digital Signature
Dragan Vidakovic
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Many people know the general story about RSA and large (probably prime numbers, without having an idea of how to perform arithmetic operations with the numbers of thousands of bits. Even if they want to develop their own tool for a digital signature, they give up because they think that special hardware-software offers are required for that. In this paper we want to show that even by using a very simple console application, the tools for signature can be developed. Those tools are not as powerful and functional as the products of renowned companies, but they are sufficient to stimulate the interest in cryptography (and the coding of known algorithms is the best way for that, and that is our overriding and permanent goal[3].
DETERMIN LARGE PRIME NUMBERS TO COMPUTE RSA SYSTEM PARAMETERS
Ioan Mang
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Cryptography, the secret writing, is probably same old as writing itself and has applications in data security insurance. There are cryptosystems where the encipher algorithm can be public. These are public key algorithms. Research on public key algorithms has been concerned with security aspects. The results of this research have induced sufficient confidence to apply public key cryptography a larger scale. The most used and checked public key-based cryptosystem was find by Rivest, Shamir and Adleman, so called RSA system. This paper shows the RSA algorithm. We have realised a program that is able to determine prime numbers with over 100 digits and compute RSA system parameters.
Providing Security in Data Aggregation using RSA algorithm
Sukhpreet Singh
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The RSA algorithm proposed by Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman is cryptography technique. The current problem with wireless sensor network is how to protect the security of the sensor data. RSA algoritm is used as a digital signature authentication in the field of security, basically works on deciding encryption variable. In this also the basic concept is to decide a description variable and then decide the description variable using same encryption variable. It is a secure and fast cryptographic system. The major effort will be applied on the RSA encryption technique in order to make node authenticated as well as to secure data while dealing with aggregation.
RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century
Candy, Sara
2011-01-01
This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.
EFFICIENT ALGORITHM FOR RSA TEXT ENCRYPTION USING CUDA-C
Sonam Mahajan
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Modern-day computer security relies heavily on cryptography as a means to protect the data that we have become increasingly reliant on. The main research in computer security domain is how to enhance the speed of RSA algorithm. The computing capability of Graphic Processing Unit as a co-processor of the CPU can leverage massive-parallelism. This paper presents a novel algorithm for calculating modulo value that can process large power of numbers which otherwise are not supported by built-in data types. First the traditional algorithm is studied. Secondly, the parallelized RSA algorithm is designed using CUDA framework. Thirdly, the designed algorithm is realized for small prime numbers and large prime number . As a result the main fundamental problem of RSA algorithm such as speed and use of poor or small prime numbers that has led to significant security holes, despite the RSA algorithm's mathematical soundness can be alleviated by this algorithm.
Improved decryption quality and security of a joint transform correlator-based encryption system
Some image encryption systems based on modified double random phase encoding and joint transform correlator architecture produce low quality decrypted images and are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. In this work, we analyse the algorithm of some reported methods that optically implement the double random phase encryption in a joint transform correlator. We show that it is possible to significantly improve the quality of the decrypted image by introducing a simple nonlinear operation in the encrypted function that contains the joint power spectrum. This nonlinearity also makes the system more resistant to chosen-plaintext attacks. We additionally explore the system resistance against this type of attack when a variety of probability density functions are used to generate the two random phase masks of the encryption–decryption process. Numerical results are presented and discussed. (paper)
Mamtha Shetty; Shreedhar. A. Joshi
2014-01-01
In this era of digital world, with the evolution of technology, there is an essential need for optimization of online digital data and information. Nowadays, Security and Authenticity of digital data has become a big challenge. This paper proposes an innovative method to authenticate the digital documents. A new method is introduced here, which allows multiple encryption and decryption of digital data.
Study of Encryption and Decryption of Wave File in Image Formats
Rahul R Upadhyay
2013-01-01
This paper describes a novel method of encrypting wave files in popular image formats like JPEG, TIF and PNG along with retrieving them from these image files. MATLAB software is used to perform matrix manipulation to encrypt and decrypt sound files into and from image files. This method is not only a stenographic means but also a data compression technique.
Study of Encryption and Decryption of Wave File in Image Formats
Rahul R Upadhyay
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method of encrypting wave files in popular image formats like JPEG, TIF and PNG along with retrieving them from these image files. MATLAB software is used to perform matrix manipulation to encrypt and decrypt sound files into and from image files. This method is not only a stenographic means but also a data compression technique.
ECC Based Threshold Decryption Scheme and Its Application in Web Security
ZHANG Xian-feng; ZHANG Feng; QIN Zhi-guang; LIU Jin-de
2004-01-01
The threshold cryptography provides a new approach to building intrusion tolerance applications. In this paper, a threshold decryption scheme based elliptic curve cryptography is presented. A zero-knowledge test approach based on elliptic curve cryptography is designed. The application of these techniques in Web security is studied. Performance analysis shows that our scheme is characterized by excellent security as well as high efficiency.
Secret Message Decryption: Group Consulting Projects Using Matrices and Linear Programming
Gurski, Katharine F.
2009-01-01
We describe two short group projects for finite mathematics students that incorporate matrices and linear programming into fictional consulting requests presented as a letter to the students. The students are required to use mathematics to decrypt secret messages in one project involving matrix multiplication and inversion. The second project…
Security analysis of RSA cryptosystem algorithm and it's properties
Liu, Chenglian; Guo, Yongning; Lin, Juan
2014-10-01
The information technology rapidly development and dramatically changed the life style people, in addition to shortening the distance of communication, but also promote the smooth exchange of information flows. However, derivatives to facilitate the relative safety of these issues, since into the digital information age, the majority of the practitioners of engineering and technical personnel and technical workers in terms of technology, information security is increasingly becoming an important issue. The RSA algorithm was published in 1978. It is a kind of very popular and widely application modem cryptosystem in the world. Even though there are lots of articles to discuss about how to break the RSA, but it is still secure today. In this paper, the authors would like to introduce a variant attack to RSA.
Batch By Batch Longitudinal Emittance Blowup MD
Mastoridis, T; Butterworth, A; Jaussi, M; Molendijk, J
2012-01-01
The transverse bunch emittance increases significantly at 450 GeV from the time of injection till the ramp due to IBS. By selectively blowing up the longitudinal emittance of the incoming batch at each injection, it should be possible to reduce the transverse emittance growth rates due to IBS. An MD was conducted on April 22nd 2012 to test the feasibility and performance of the batch-by-batch longitudinal emittance blowup. There were three main goals during the MD. First, to test the developed hardware, firmware, and software for the batch-by-batch blowup. Then, to measure the transverse emittance growth rates of blown-up and "witness" batches to quantify any improvement, and finally to test the ALLInjectSequencer class, which deals with the complicated gymnastics of introducing or masking the new batch to various RF loops.
Efficient, Robust and Constant-Round Distributed RSA Key Generation
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe
2010-01-01
We present the first protocol for distributed RSA key generation which is constant round, secure against malicious adversaries and has a negligibly small bound on the error probability, even using only one iteration of the underlying primality test on each candidate number.......We present the first protocol for distributed RSA key generation which is constant round, secure against malicious adversaries and has a negligibly small bound on the error probability, even using only one iteration of the underlying primality test on each candidate number....
Batch Attribute-Based Encryption for Secure Clouds
Chen Yang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Cloud storage is widely used by organizations due to its advantage of allowing universal access with low cost. Attribute-based encryption (ABE is a kind of public key encryption suitable for cloud storage. The secret key of each user and the ciphertext are associated with an access policy and an attribute set, respectively; in addition to holding a secret key, one can decrypt a ciphertext only if the associated attributes match the predetermined access policy, which allows one to enforce fine-grained access control on outsourced files. One issue in existing ABE schemes is that they are designed for the users of a single organization. When one wants to share the data with the users of different organizations, the owner needs to encrypt the messages to the receivers of one organization and then repeats this process for another organization. This situation is deteriorated with more and more mobile devices using cloud services, as the ABE encryption process is time consuming and may exhaust the power supplies of the mobile devices quickly. In this paper, we propose a batch attribute-based encryption (BABE approach to address this problem in a provably-secure way. With our approach, the data owner can outsource data in batches to the users of different organizations simultaneously. The data owner is allowed to decide the receiving organizations and the attributes required for decryption. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that our approach is more efficient than traditional encryption implementations in computation and communication.
50 CFR 648.207 - Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA).
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). 648.207... Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.207 Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). (a) NMFS shall... authorized to utilize RSA, based on the selection criteria described in the RFP. (d) NMFS shall consider...
RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 2; Eastern Range
Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.
2006-01-01
This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and propeller-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy propeller-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005, A total of 357,626 readings of 1-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 15 out of 19 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. RSA average wind speed data from these 15 showed a small positive bias of 0.38 kts. A slightly larger positive bias of 0.94 kts was found in the RSA peak wind speed.
RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 1; Western Range
Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.
2006-01-01
This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and cup-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Vandenberg AFB. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy cup-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005. A total of 153,961 readings of I-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 18 out of 34 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. Data from these 18 were used to form a composite comparison. A small positive bias in the composite RSA average wind speed increased from +0.5 kts at 15 kts, to +1 kt at 25 kts. A slightly larger positive bias in the RSA peak wind speed increased from +1 kt at 15 kts, to +2 kts at 30 kts.
Data Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Using Hamming Code and Arithmetic Operations
Kurapati Sundar Teja
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper explains the implementation of data encryption and decryption algorithm using hamming code and arithmetic operations with the help of Verilog HDL. As the days are passing the old algorithms are not remained so strong cryptanalyst are familiar with them. Hamming code is one of forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper hamming code algorithm was discussed and the implementation of it was done with arithmetic operations. For high security some arithmetic operations are added with hamming code process. A 3-bit data will be encrypted as 14-bit and using decryption process again we will receives 3-bit original data. The implemented design was tested on Spartan3A FPGA kit.
Bouslimi, D; Coatrieux, G; Cozic, M; Roux, Ch
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose a novel crypto-watermarking system for the purpose of verifying the reliability of images and tracing them, i.e. identifying the person at the origin of an illegal distribution. This system couples a common watermarking method, based on Quantization Index Modulation (QIM), and a joint watermarking-decryption (JWD) approach. At the emitter side, it allows the insertion of a watermark as a proof of reliability of the image before sending it encrypted; at the reception, another watermark, a proof of traceability, is embedded during the decryption process. The scheme we propose makes interoperate such a combination of watermarking approaches taking into account risks of interferences between embedded watermarks, allowing the access to both reliability and traceability proofs. Experimental results confirm the efficiency of our system, and demonstrate it can be used to identify the physician at the origin of a disclosure even if the image has been modified. PMID:25570990
Data Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Using Hamming Code and Arithmetic Operations
Kurapati Sundar Teja; Shanmukha Mallikarjuna Bandaru
2015-01-01
This paper explains the implementation of data encryption and decryption algorithm using hamming code and arithmetic operations with the help of Verilog HDL. As the days are passing the old algorithms are not remained so strong cryptanalyst are familiar with them. Hamming code is one of forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper hamming code algorithm was discussed and the implementation of it was done with arithmetic operations. For high security...
Mamtha Shetty
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this era of digital world, with the evolution of technology, there is an essential need for optimization of online digital data and information. Nowadays, Security and Authenticity of digital data has become a big challenge. This paper proposes an innovative method to authenticate the digital documents. A new method is introduced here, which allows multiple encryption and decryption of digital data.
How Tippecanoe County is Improving a Local Intersection by Using an RSA and Federal Funds
Kuhl, Opal; Haltom, Greg; Poad, Doug
2016-01-01
Road safety audits can be an integral tool to support an application for HSIP funds. In this session we will present how an RSA is used to document the need for a project requesting an HSIP eligibility determination. Attendees will learn how to conduct an RSA, who is needed on the RSA review team, how safety concerns are identified and documented, and how an RSA is used as part of the application for eligibility determination of HSIP funds. A sample RSA will be presented.
Minella, Michael T
2011-01-01
Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What
Hanzhong Zheng; Simin Yu; Xiangqian Xu
2014-01-01
A systematic methodology is developed for multi-images encryption and decryption and field programmable gate array (FPGA) embedded implementation by using single discrete time chaotic system. To overcome the traditional limitations that a chaotic system can only encrypt or decrypt one image, this paper initiates a new approach to design n-dimensional (n-D) discrete time chaotic controlled systems via some variables anticontrol, which can achieve multipath drive-response synchronization. To th...
Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M; Houltberg, Benjamin J
2015-06-01
The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents' emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multilevel latent growth modeling was employed to capture RSA responses across time (i.e., linear and quadratic changes; time course approach), and adolescent emotion regulation and adjustment variables were included in the model to test their links to RSA responses. Results indicated that high RSA baseline was associated with more adolescent prosocial behavior. A pattern of initial RSA decreases (RSA suppression) in response to angry event recall and subsequent RSA increases (RSA rebound) were related to better anger and sadness regulation and more prosocial behavior. However, RSA was not significantly linked to adolescent aggressive behavior. We also compared the time course approach with the conventional linear approach and found that the time course approach provided more meaningful and rich information. The implications of adaptive RSA change patterns are discussed. PMID:25642723
Miller, Jonas G; Chocol, Caroline; Nuselovici, Jacob N; Utendale, William T; Simard, Melissa; Hastings, Paul D
2013-02-01
This study examined the moderating effects of child temperament on the association between maternal socialization and 4-6-year-old children's dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change in response to anger-themed emotional materials (N=180). We used latent growth curve modeling to explore adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change in response to anger. Greater change in RSA during anger-induction, characterized by more initial RSA suppression and a subsequent return to baseline, was related to children's better regulation of aggression. For anger-themed materials, low levels of authoritarian parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for more anger-prone children, whereas more authoritative parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for less anger-prone children. These findings suggest that children's adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change can be characterized by latent growth curve modeling, and that these patterns may be differentially shaped by parent socialization experiences as a function of child temperament. PMID:23274169
Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method
Kuang Tsan Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matrix holographic image contain seven groups of codes used for reconstructing the covert image. The seven groups of codes are identification codes, covert-image dimension codes, covert-image graylevel codes, pre-RSA bit number codes, RSA key codes, post-RSA bit number codes, and information codes. The reconstructed covert image derived from the dot-matrix holographic image and the original covert image are exactly the same.
Efficient and Robust Two-Party RSA Key Generation
YANG Muxiang; HONG Fan; ZHENG Minghui; LI Jun
2006-01-01
An efficient two party RSA secret key sharing generation scheme based on a homomorphic encryption, which is semantically secure under the prime residuosity assumption, is proposed in this paper. At the stage of computing RSA modulo N, an initial distributed primality test protocol is used to reduce the computation complexity and increase the probability of N being a two-prime product. On the other aspect, the homomorphic encryption based sharing conversion protocols is devised and adopted in multi-party computing modulus N and secret key d. Comparing to any sharing conversion protocols based on oblivious transfer protocol, the homomorphic encryption based sharing conversion protocols are of high performance. Our scheme resists the passive attack and since a method of verifying the sharing was introduced in, the scheme can resists any cheating behaviors too. Security proof, computation complexity and communication complexity analysis are given at last.
Meteosat Images Encryption based on AES and RSA Algorithms
Boukhatem Mohammed Belkaid
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Satellite image Security is playing a vital role in the field of communication system and Internet. This work is interested in securing transmission of Meteosat images on the Internet, in public or local networks. To enhance the security of Meteosat transmission in network communication, a hybrid encryption algorithm based on Advanced Encryption Standard (AES and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA algorithms is proposed. AES algorithm is used for data transmission because of its higher efficiency in block encryption and RSA algorithm is used for the encryption of the key of the AES because of its management advantages in key cipher. Our encryption system generates a unique password every new session of encryption. Cryptanalysis and various experiments have been carried out and the results were reported in this paper, which demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed scheme.
Implementasi Sistem Keamanan Data Menggunakan Algoritma RSA Dan Modified LSB
Anggraini, Siska
2014-01-01
Security and confidentiality are two important aspect of data communication. In maintaining security and confidentiality of important messages to be sent, previously message is firstly encrypted and hidden into the media. Media that is used in this study is a digital image format bitmap (.bmp) with 24 bit color depth. This study aims to build a system that can be used to improve data security that is important confidential messages. Cryptography algorithms used to encrypt is the RSA algorithm...
Secure Three Prime RSA from Hardware Fault Attack
Ravi Rai Chaudhary; Prof. Deepali Kelkar; Vikas Arya
2011-01-01
RSA is the most widely deployed public key cryptosystem since it was proposed in 1978.It is used for securing web traffic, e-mail, and some wireless devices. Confidentiality of information has been particularly popularized with the explosive growth of the Internet. However from the user, the Internet was based on open network architecture with computer-based nodes and without network security, and thus was vulnerable to attackers and hackers. This paper is dedicated to the attack study of the...
Software and hardware implementation of the RSA public key cipher
Brady, Paul
1988-01-01
Cryptographic systems and their use in communications are presented. The advantages obtained by the use of a public key cipher and the importance of this in a commercial environment are stressed. Two two main public key ciphers are considered. The RSA public key cipher is introduced and various methods for implementing this cipher on a standard, nondedicated, 8 bit microprocessor are investigated. The performance of the different algorithms are evaluated and compared....
AN APPROXIMATE EXPRESSION RELATED WITH RSA FIXED POINTS
YuXiuyuan
2004-01-01
Let T=T(n,e,a)be the number of fixed points of RSA(n,e)that are co-prime with n=pq,and A,B be sets of prime numbers in (1,x)and(1,y) respectively.An estimation on the mean-value M(A,B,e,a)=1/(#A)(#B)∑p∈A,q∈B,(p.q)=1 logT(pq,e,a)is given.
An Efficient Proactive RSA Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks
ZHANG Rui-shan; CHEN Ke-fei
2007-01-01
A proactive threshold signature scheme is very important to tolerate mobile attack in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient proactive threshold RSA signature scheme for ad hoc networks. The scheme consists of three protocols: the initial secret share distribution protocol, the signature generation protocol and the secret share refreshing protocol. Our scheme has three advantages. First, the signature generation protocol is efficient. Second, the signature generation protocol is resilient. Third, the share refreshing protocol is efficient.
Simplified Threshold RSA with Adaptive and Proactive Security
Almansa Guerra, Jesus Fernando; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus
2006-01-01
We present the currently simplest, most efficient, optimally resilient, adaptively secure, and proactive threshold RSA scheme. A main technical contribution is a new rewinding strategy for analysing threshold signature schemes. This new rewinding strategy allows to prove adaptive security of a...... proactive threshold signature scheme which was previously assumed to be only statically secure. As a separate contribution we prove that our protocol is secure in the UC framework....
We consider different ways for encryption and decryption of information in communication systems using chaotic signal of a time-delay system as a carrier. A method is proposed for extracting a hidden message in the case when the parameters of the chaotic transmitter are a priori unknown. For different configurations of the transmitter the procedure of information signal extraction from the transmitted signal is demonstrated using numerical data produced by nonlinear mixing of the chaotic signal of the Mackey-Glass system and frequency-modulated harmonic signal
Baad-Hansen, Thomas; Kold, Søren; Kaptein, Bart L;
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: In RSA, tantalum markers attached to metal-backed acetabular cups are often difficult to detect on stereo radiographs due to the high density of the metal shell. This results in occlusion of the prosthesis markers and may lead to inconclusive migration results. Within the last few years......, new software systems have been developed to solve this problem. We compared the precision of 3 RSA systems in migration analysis of the acetabular component. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hemispherical and a non-hemispherical acetabular component were mounted in a phantom. Both acetabular components...... underwent migration analyses with 3 different RSA systems: conventional RSA using tantalum markers, an RSA system using a hemispherical cup algorithm, and a novel model-based RSA system. RESULTS: We found narrow confidence intervals, indicating high precision of the conventional marker system and model...
Application and Implementation of RSA Algorithm%RSA算法的应用与实现
白晓; 蔡贵荣
2013-01-01
RSA 算法是使用最广泛的一种非对称密码体制.在对RSA 算法的原理、算法描述等进行研究的基础上，近一步研究了 RSA算法在数字签名、密钥交换等方面的应用.最后在.NET平台中使用C#语言进行编程，实现RSA数字签名算法。%RSA algorithm is one of the most widely used Public Key Cryptosystem.On the base of the study of RSA algorithm theory and algorithm description ,the paper further studies the application of RSA in the digital signatures ,key exchange and so on.Finally, RSA digital signature algorithm is realised by C# programming In the.NET platform.
RsaI: a new sequence-specific endonuclease activity from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.
Lynn, S P; Cohen, L K; Kaplan, S; Gardner, J F
1980-01-01
A new type II sequence-specific endonuclease, RsaI, has been identified from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides strain 28/5. An RsaI purification scheme that yields enzyme which is free of contaminating exonuclease and phosphatase activities after a single column fractionation has been developed. The enzyme recognized the tetranucleotide sequence 5'-GTAC-3' and cleaved between the T and A, thereby generating flush ends. RsaI should be extremely useful in deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing experiments.
Kinerja Tanda Tangan Digital RSA 1024 bit pada Simulasi E-Voting Menggunakan Prosesor Multicore
Adnan, Adnan
2014-01-01
Paper ini menyajikan hasil pengujian kinerja program parallel algoritma tanda tangan digital RSA 1024 bit yang dimaksudkan untuk simulasi e-voting. Idenya adalah algoritma tanda tangan digital RSA diterapkan pada array bilangn big integer berdimensi 1024 1. Array ini mensimulasikan antrian surat suara hasil pemilihan umum. Dengan menyisipkan kode perulangan, komputasi algoritma tanda tangan digital RSA dilakukan sebanyak 600000. Perangkat lunak dikembangkan dengan me...
Cooijmans, Tim; Ballas, Nicolas; Laurent, César; Gülçehre, Çağlar; Courville, Aaron
2016-01-01
We propose a reparameterization of LSTM that brings the benefits of batch normalization to recurrent neural networks. Whereas previous works only apply batch normalization to the input-to-hidden transformation of RNNs, we demonstrate that it is both possible and beneficial to batch-normalize the hidden-to-hidden transition, thereby reducing internal covariate shift between time steps. We evaluate our proposal on various sequential problems such as sequence classification, language modeling an...
Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method
Kuang Tsan Lin; Sheng Lih Yeh
2014-01-01
The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matri...
Lattice Based Attack on Common Private Exponent RSA
Santosh Kumar Ravva
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Lattice reduction is a powerful concept for solving diverse problems involving point lattices. Lattice reduction has been successfully utilizing in Number Theory, Linear algebra and Cryptology. Not only the existence of lattice based cryptosystems of hard in nature, but also has vulnerabilities by lattice reduction techniques. In this paper, we show that Wieners small private exponent attack, when viewed as a heuristic lattice based attack, is extended to attack many instances of RSA when they have the same small private exponent.
Information-Theoretic Secure Verifiable Secret Sharing over RSA Modulus
QIU Gang; WANG Hong; WEI Shimin; XIAO Guozhen
2006-01-01
The well-known non-interactive and information-theoretic secure verifiable secret sharing scheme presented by Pedersen is over a large prime. In this paper, we construct a novel non-interactive and information-theoretic verifiable secret sharing over RSA (Rivest,Shamir,Adleman) modulus and give the rigorous security proof. It is shown how to distribute a secret among a group such that any set of k parties get no information about the secret. The presented scheme is generally applied to constructions of secure distributed multiplication and threshold or forward-secure signature protocols.
Secure User Data in Cloud Computing using RSA Algorithm
Sunny Behal
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Cloud computing is an emerging computing paradigm in which resources of the computing infrastructure are provided as services of the internet. Cloud computing provides customers the way to share distributed resources and services that belong to different organizations or sites. Cloud computing allows consumers and businesses to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet access. This paper explores various security methods such as Access Control, Telecommunications and Network Security, Information security governance and risk management, Application Security, Security Architecture and Design, We proposed a method using RSA algorithm.
Rao, P Raja Malleswara
2015-01-01
If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.
Про одну модифікацію алгоритму RSA шифрування – дешифрування півтонових зображень
Ковальчук, А.; Пелешко, Д.; Навитка, М.; Борзов, Ю.
2012-01-01
Описано застосування модифікації алгоритму RSA для шифрування – дешифрування зображень. Шифрування – дешифрування проводиться без і з додатковим зашумленням. We describe the use of modified RSA algorithm for encryption – decryption of images. Encryption – decryption is carried out without and with extra noisy.
47 CFR 22.969 - Cellular RSA licenses subject to competitive bidding.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular RSA licenses subject to competitive bidding. 22.969 Section 22.969 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.969 Cellular RSA...
Efficient RSA Key Generation and Threshold Paillier in the Two-Party Setting
Hazay, Carmit; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Rabin, Tal;
2011-01-01
The problem of generating an RSA composite in a distributed manner without leaking its factorization is particularly challenging and useful in many cryptographic protocols. Our first contribution is the first non-generic fully simulatable protocol for distributively generating an RSA composite with...... security against malicious behavior. Our second contribution is complete Paillier [Pai99] threshold encryption scheme in the two-party setting with security against malicious behavior. Furthermore, we describe how to extend our protocols to the multiparty setting with dishonest majority. Our RSA key...... generation is comprised of the following: (i) a distributed protocol for generation of an RSA composite, and (ii) a biprimality test for verifying the validity of the generated composite. Our Paillier threshold encryption scheme uses the RSA composite as public key and is comprised of: (i) a distributed...
Efficient RSA Key Generation and Threshold Paillier in the Two-Party Setting
Hazay, Carmit; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Rabin, Tal;
2012-01-01
The problem of generating an RSA composite in a distributed manner without leaking its factorization is particularly challenging and useful in many cryptographic protocols. Our first contribution is the first non-generic fully simulatable protocol for distributively generating an RSA composite with...... security against malicious behavior in the two party setting. Our second contribution is a complete Paillier [37] threshold encryption scheme in the two-party setting with security against malicious behavior. Our RSA key generation is comprised of the following: (i) a distributed protocol for generation of...... an RSA composite, and (ii) a biprimality test for verifying the validity of the generated composite. Our Paillier threshold encryption scheme uses the RSA composite as public key and is comprised of: (i) a distributed generation of the corresponding secret-key shares and, (ii) a distributed...
Decryptable to Your Eyes: Visualization of Security Protocols at the User Interface
Nyang, DaeHun; Kwon, Taekyoung; Kang, Brent; Stavrou, Angelos
2011-01-01
The design of authentication protocols, for online banking services in particular and any service that is of sensitive nature in general, is quite challenging. Indeed, enforcing security guarantees has overhead thus imposing additional computation and design considerations that do not always meet usability and user requirements. On the other hand, relaxing assumptions and rigorous security design to improve the user experience can lead to security breaches that can harm the users' trust in the system. In this paper, we demonstrate how careful visualization design can enhance not only the security but also the usability of the authentication process. To that end, we propose a family of visualized authentication protocols, a visualized transaction verification, and a "decryptable to your eyes only" protocol. Through rigorous analysis, we verify that our protocols are immune to many of the challenging authentication attacks applicable in the literature. Furthermore, using an extensive case study on a prototype o...
Hanzhong Zheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A systematic methodology is developed for multi-images encryption and decryption and field programmable gate array (FPGA embedded implementation by using single discrete time chaotic system. To overcome the traditional limitations that a chaotic system can only encrypt or decrypt one image, this paper initiates a new approach to design n-dimensional (n-D discrete time chaotic controlled systems via some variables anticontrol, which can achieve multipath drive-response synchronization. To that end, the designed n-dimensional discrete time chaotic controlled systems are used for multi-images encryption and decryption. A generalized design principle and the corresponding implementation steps are also given. Based on the FPGA embedded hardware system working platform with XUP Virtex-II type, a chaotic secure communication system for three digital color images encryption and decryption by using a 7D discrete time chaotic system is designed, and the related system design and hardware implementation results are demonstrated, with the related mathematical problems analyzed.
Hinnant, James Benjamin; El-Sheikh, Mona
2009-01-01
We examined associations between basal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in conjunction with RSA regulation with the hypothesis that their interaction would explain unique variability in children's prospective adjustment 2 years later. Participants were 176 children (98 girls; 78 boys) in middle childhood. RSA regulation was assessed through…
Estimation of capacity of RSA module set, stable for cryptoanalysis
Селюх, П. В.
2014-01-01
Розглянуто аспекти практичної стійкості криптосистеми RSA, проаналізовано стандартизовані методи генерації параметрів криптосистеми, стійкість криптосистеми на практиці. Отримано кількісні оцінки множини стійких параметрів для застосування під час генерації параметрів криптосистеми. Висунуто гіпотезу про поліноміальну потужність множини надійних модулів RSA. This paper deals with aspects of practical security of RSA cryptosystem, analyzes standardized methods of generating cryptos...
ECC over RSA for Asymmetric Encryption-A Review
Kamlesh Gupta
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Cryptography is used to transmit the data securely in open network. This paper gives the survey of Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC used in many applications. ECC is a when compared to RSA and discrete logarithm systems, is a better option for the future. For this reason ECC is such an excellent choice for doing asymmetric cryptography in portable devices right now. The smaller ECC keys it turn makes the cryptographic operations that must be performed by the communicating devices to be embedded into considerably smaller hardware, so that software applications may complete cryptographic operations with fewer processor cycles, and operations can be performed much faster, while still retaining equivalent security. This means, in turn, reduced power consumption, less space consumed on the printed circuit board, and software applications that run more rapidly make lower memory demands. In brief, for communication using smaller devices and asymmetric cryptosystem we need ECC.
The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry
Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian
1994-01-01
We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are
Cryptanalysis and Improvement of Digital Multisignature Scheme Based on RSA
SU Li; CUI Guo-hua; CHEN Jing; YUAN Jun
2007-01-01
Zhang et al. proposed a sequential multisignature scheme based on RSA. The scheme has advantages of low computation and communication costs, and so on. However, we find a problem in their scheme that the verifier can not distinguish whether the multisignature is signed by all the signers of the group or only by the last signer. Thus, any single signature created by the last signer can be used as a multisignature created by the whole group members. This paper proposes an improved scheme that can overcome the defect. In the new scheme, the identity messages of all the signers are added in the multisignature and used in verification phase, so that the verifier can know the signature is generated by which signers. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme costs less computation than the original scheme in both signature and verification phases. Furthermore, each partial signature is based on the signer's identity certificate, which makes the scheme more secure.
Batch-to-batch model improvement for cooling crystallization
Forgione, Marco; Birpoutsoukis, Georgios; Bombois, Xavier; Mesbah, Ali; Daudey, Peter; Van Den Hof, Paul
2015-01-01
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Two batch-to-batch model update strategies for model-based control of batch cooling crystallization are presented. In Iterative Learning Control, a nominal process model is adjusted by a non-parametric, additive correction term which depends on the difference between the measured output and the model prediction in the previous batch. In Iterative Identification Control, the uncertain model parameters are iteratively estimated using the measured batch data. Due to the diff...
Nurses as advocates between western and traditional wealth practices in RSA
Valerie Ehlers
2000-02-01
Full Text Available The RSA, like most African countries, have two health care systems. The most visible one is the Westernised hospital and/or clinic based treatment of diseases. This system was introduced by the colonisers and perpetuated by the current formal education programmes of most health care professionals in the RSA. Traditional African medicine has existed since time immemorial and continues to treat vast numbers of people. Both these health care systems will be briefly discussed. Then the role of nurses in the RSA's health care system(s will be examined. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Lysov, Zakhar; Swystun, Laura L; Kuruvilla, Sara; Arnold, Andrew; Liaw, Patricia C
2015-01-01
Lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy have an elevated risk for thrombosis. However, the mechanisms by which chemotherapy agents increase the risk for thrombosis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) by which lung cancer chemotherapy agents cisplatin, carboplatin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel elicit increased tissue factor activity on endothelial cells, A549 cells, and monocytes. Tissue factor activity, tissue factor antigen, and phosphatidylserine exposure were measured on chemotherapy-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), A549 cells, and monocytes. Cell surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and cell surface free thiol levels were measured on HUVEC and A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Treatment of HUVECs, A549 cells, and monocytes with lung cancer chemotherapy significantly increased cell surface tissue factor activity. However, elevated tissue factor antigen levels were observed only on cisplatin-treated and gemcitabine-treated monocytes. Cell surface levels of phosphatidylserine were increased on HUVEC and monocytes treated with cisplatin/gemcitabine combination therapy. Chemotherapy also resulted in increased cell surface levels of PDI and reduced cell surface free thiol levels. Glutathione treatment and PDI inhibition, but not phosphatidylserine inhibition, attenuated tissue factor activity. Furthermore, increased tissue factor activity was reversed by reducing cysteines with dithiothreitol. These studies are the first to demonstrate that lung cancer chemotherapy agents increase procoagulant activity on endothelial cells and A549 cells by tissue factor decryption through a disulfide bond formation in a PDI-dependent mechanism. PMID:24911456
A New Algorithm of Encryption and Decryption of Images Using Chaotic Mapping
Musheer Ahmad
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The combination of chaotic theory and cryptography forms an important field of information security. In the past decade, chaos based image encryption is given much attention in the research of information security and a lot of image encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps have been proposed. Due to some inherent features of images like bulk data capacity and high data redundancy, the encryption of images is different from that of texts; therefore it is difficult to handle them by traditional encryption methods. In this communication, a new image encryption algorithm based on three different chaotic maps is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, the plain-image is first decomposed into 8x8 size blocks and then the block based shuffling of image is carried out using 2D Cat map. Further, the control parameters of shuffling are randomly generated by employing 2D coupled Logistic map. After that the shuffled image is encrypted using chaotic sequence generated by one-dimensional Logistic map. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully encrypt/decrypt the images with same secret keys, and the algorithm has good encryption effect, large key space and high sensitivity to a small change in secret keys. Moreover, the simulation analysis also demonstrates that the encrypted images have good information entropy, very low correlation coefficients and the distribution of gray values of an encrypted image has random-like behavior.
Robert Vaagan
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. In 1999-2000, a Norwegian youth cracked a DVD-access code and published a decryptation program on the Internet. He was sued by the US DVD Copy Control Association (DVD-CCA and the Norwegian Motion Picture Association (MAP, allies of the US Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA, arrested by Norwegian police and charged with data crime. Two Norwegian court rulings in 2003 unanimously ruled that the program did not amount to a breach of Norwegian law, and he was fully acquitted. In the US, there have been related cases, some with other outcomes. Method. Based on a theoretical framework developed by Zwass, the paper discusses these court rulings and the wider issues of intellectual property rights versus public access rights. Analysis. The DVD-Jon case illustrates that intellectual property rights can conflict with public access rights, as the struggle between proprietary software and public domain software, as well as the SPARC and Open Archives Initiative reflect. Results. An assessment of the DVD-Jon case based on the Zwass framework does not give a clear information ethics answer. The analysis depends on whether one ascribes to consequentialist (e.g., utilitarian or de-ontological reflection, and also on which side of the digital gap is to be accorded most weight. Conclusion. While copyright interests are being legally strengthened, there may be ethically- grounded access rights that outweigh property rights.
An Image Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Sequence%基于混沌序列的图像加密解密算法
陈永红; 黄席樾
2003-01-01
In this paper, an image encryption and decryption algorithm based on chaos sequence is proposed. This algorithm provides low computational complexity, high security and no distortion. Finally, experimental results are satisfactory.
Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Teti, Douglas M.; Ammerman, Robert T.
2013-01-01
This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children’s inhibitory control. Children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent–child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children’s independently-assessed inhibitory con...
Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W.; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.
2015-01-01
The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents’ emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10–18 years old, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multi-lev...
Practical Analysis of RSA Countermeasures Against Side-Channel Electromagnetic Attacks
Perin, Guilherme; Imbert, Laurent; Torres, Lionel; Maurine, Philippe
2013-01-01
International audience This paper analyzes the robustness of RSA countermeasures against electromagnetic analysis and collision attacks. The proposed RSA cryptosystem uses residue number systems (RNS) for fast executions of the modular calculi with large numbers. The parallel architecture is protected at arithmetic and algorithmic levels by using the Montgomery Ladder and the Leak Resistant Arithmetic countermeasures. Because the architecture can leak information through control and memory...
Lal, Nidhi; Singh, Anurag Prakash; Kumar, Shishupal
2015-01-01
The security of RSA algorithm depends upon the positive integer N, which is the multiple of two precise large prime numbers. Factorization of such great numbers is a problematic process. There are many algorithms has been implemented in the past years. The offered KNJ -Factorization algorithm contributes a deterministic way to factorize RSA. The algorithm limits the search by only considering the prime values. Subsequently prime numbers are odd numbers accordingly it also requires smaller num...
WANG Ya-Ping; WU Chong-Qing; WANG Zhi; WANG Yong-Jun; YANG Shuang-Shou
2009-01-01
An all-optical encryption-decryption method using an exclusive-or gate hazed on the cross-phase modulation between O-band and C-band light waves is proposed. The feasibility of the encryption-decryption technique is verified by handling binary signals at 2.5Gbps, with less than 3dB penalty of extinction ratio and 1 dB polarization dependent loss.
Improved Trial Division Technique for Primality Checking in RSA Algorithm
Kumarjit Banerjee
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The RSA cryptosystem, invented by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman was first publicized in the August 1977 issue of Scientific American. The security level of this algorithm very much depends on two large prime numbers. To check the primality of large number in personal computer is huge time consuming using the best known trial division algorithm. The time complexity for primality testing has been reduced using the representation of divisors in the form of 6n±1. According to the fundamental theorem of Arithmetic, every number has unique factorization. So to check primality, it is sufficient to check if the number is divisible by any prime below the square root of the number. The set of divisors obtained by 6n±1 form representation contains many composites. These composite numbers have been reduced by 30k approach. In this paper, the number of composites has been further reduced using 210k approach. A performance analysis in time complexity has been given between 210k approach and other prior applied methods. It has been observed that the time complexity for primality testing has been reduced using 210k approach.
A randomized RSA study concentrating especially on continuous migration.
Molt, Mats; Ryd, Leif; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören
2016-06-01
Background and purpose - There is a general call for phased introduction of new implants, and one step in the introduction is an early evaluation of micromotion. We compared the micromotion in the Triathlon and its predecessor, the Duracon total knee prosthesis, concentrating especially on continuous migration over 5 years of follow-up. Patients and methods - 60 patients were randomized to receive either a cemented Triathlon total knee prosthesis or a cemented Duracon total knee prosthesis. 3-D tibial component migration was measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) at 3 months and at 1, 2, and 5 years. Results - There was no statistically significant difference in maximum total point motion (MTPM) between the 2 groups (p = 0.1). The mean MTPM at 5 years for the Duracon was 1.10 (SD 1.21) mm and for the Triathlon it was 0.66 (SD 0.38) mm. The numbers of continuously migrating prostheses were similar in the groups at the fifth year of follow-up; 6 of 21 prostheses in the Duracon group and 3 of 21 in the Triathlon group had migrated more than 0.3 mm between the second year and the fifth year of follow-up (p = 0.2). Interpretation - The Triathlon has a micromotion pattern similar to that of the Duracon total knee system at both short-term and medium-term follow-up, and may therefore, over time, show the same good long-term mechanical stability. PMID:27088580
Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium
Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.
2015-08-01
Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.
Meunier, Félicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Draye, Xavier; Javaux, Mathieu; Lobet, Guillaume
2015-04-01
In this study, we developed a new operation pipe showing that the combined use of computer models and in vivo experiments allows one a better analysis of the water fluxes in the soil-plant system and can help researchers to decrypt the root water uptake dynamics. From an experimental point of view, we monitored in 2D the evolution of soil water content around roots of transpiring maize plants using a light transmission imaging (LTI) technique on a rhizotron. Subsequently, we digitized the entire root system in order to create an input file for the model RSWMS (HYDRUS-like model for soil-plant water transfers). In the other hand, we performed a global sensitivity analysis of the modeled experiment to highlight the plant parameters that can be measured thanks to such a procedure. Then fitting the simulated changes of distributed Sink term in Richards equation to experimental data enabled us to depict the local radial and axial conductivities. The use of the RSWMS model in association with experimental data gave us an insight on the water potential distribution in the plant and fluxes by and through individual segments during the entire duration of the experiment. Finally, this analysis can be optimized by changing the timing and/or types of measurements included in the protocol in order to maximize the information content of the experiment. A validation of the results can also take place: the optimized conductivities of the root segments are indeed sensitive to a global conductance measurement and to other root water uptake experiments. In the future, this experimental set-up will enable us to compare genotypes hydraulic architectures in order to answer questions such as: which genotype is the best adapted to avoid a drought stress occurring at a certain time in a given environment?
Boxma, O.; Van der Wal; Yechiali, U.
2008-01-01
This article considers a batch service polling system. We first study the case in which the server visits the queues cyclically, considering three different service regimes: gated, exhaustive, and globally gated. We subsequently analyze the case (the so-called "Israeli Queue") in which the server first visits the queue with the "oldest" customer. In both cases, queue lengths and waiting times are the main performance measures under consideration.
Modelling of Batch Process Operations
Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul
Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...
Rampioni, Giordano; Polticelli, Fabio; Bertani, Iris; Righetti, Karima; Venturi, Vittorio; Zennaro, Elisabetta; Leoni, Livia
2006-01-01
In the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing (QS) is crucial for virulence. The RsaL protein directly represses the transcription of lasI, the synthase gene of the main QS signal molecule. On the basis of sequence homology, RsaL cannot be predicted to belong to any class of characterized DNA-binding proteins. In this study, an in silico model of the RsaL structure was inferred showing that RsaL belongs to the tetrahelical superclass of helix-turn-helix proteins. ...
The Quorum-Sensing Negative Regulator RsaL of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Binds to the lasI Promoter
Rampioni, Giordano; Bertani, Iris; Zennaro, Elisabetta; Polticelli, Fabio; Venturi, Vittorio; Leoni, Livia
2006-01-01
A mutation in the rsaL gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces dramatically higher amounts of N-acyl homoserine lactone with respect to the wild type, highlighting the key role of this negative regulator in controlling quorum sensing (QS) in this opportunistic pathogen. The DNA binding site of the RsaL protein on the rsaL-lasI bidirectional promoter partially overlaps the binding site of the LasR protein, consistent with the hypothesis that RsaL and LasR could be in binding competition on thi...
Ambadiyil, Sajan; K. G, Jayan; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.
2015-05-01
Today, document counterfeiting is a global menace because of the advanced technologies available at ever decreasing prices. Instead of eschew the paper documents; applying efficient cost effective security methodologies are the feasible solutions. This paper reports a novel cost effective and simple optical technique using micro text encrypted optical variable device (OVD) threads, ultra-violet (UV) based optical invariable device (OID) patterns and artistic fonts for secure preparation of the documents and its forensic application. Applying any one of the above technique or together can effectively enhance the level of security of the most valuable document. The genuineness of the documents can be verified using simple decryption techniques.
On the improvement of Wiener attack on RSA with small private exponent.
Wu, Mu-En; Chen, Chien-Ming; Lin, Yue-Hsun; Sun, Hung-Min
2014-01-01
RSA system is based on the hardness of the integer factorization problem (IFP). Given an RSA modulus N = pq, it is difficult to determine the prime factors p and q efficiently. One of the most famous short exponent attacks on RSA is the Wiener attack. In 1997, Verheul and van Tilborg use an exhaustive search to extend the boundary of the Wiener attack. Their result shows that the cost of exhaustive search is 2r + 8 bits when extending the Weiner's boundary r bits. In this paper, we first reduce the cost of exhaustive search from 2r + 8 bits to 2r + 2 bits. Then, we propose a method named EPF. With EPF, the cost of exhaustive search is further reduced to 2r - 6 bits when we extend Weiner's boundary r bits. It means that our result is 2(14) times faster than Verheul and van Tilborg's result. Besides, the security boundary is extended 7 bits. PMID:24982974
无
2010-01-01
本刊讯10月21～22日，在RSA进入中国市场10周年之际。由美国RSA Conference（RSA大会）主办、中国电子学会承办的RSA 大会2010信息安全国际论坛在北京举行，标志着RSA Conference这一全球最权威的信息安全年度峰会首次进入中国。国家工业与信息化部有关领导出席论坛并讲话，对论坛的积极意义表示高度肯定。
Security analysis of RSA cryptosystem algorithm and it’s properties
Liu, Chenglian [School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Long Yan university, Lonyan 364012 (China); Guo, Yongning, E-mail: guoyn@163.com, E-mail: linjuanliucaihong@qq.com; Lin, Juan, E-mail: guoyn@163.com, E-mail: linjuanliucaihong@qq.com [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China)
2014-10-06
The information technology rapidly development and dramatically changed the life style people, in addition to shortening the distance of communication, but also promote the smooth exchange of information flows. However, derivatives to facilitate the relative safety of these issues, since into the digital information age, the majority of the practitioners of engineering and technical personnel and technical workers in terms of technology, information security is increasingly becoming an important issue. The RSA algorithm was published in 1978. It is a kind of very popular and widely application modem cryptosystem in the world. Even though there are lots of articles to discuss about how to break the RSA, but it is still secure today. In this paper, the authors would like to introduce a variant attack to RSA.
Security analysis of RSA cryptosystem algorithm and it’s properties
The information technology rapidly development and dramatically changed the life style people, in addition to shortening the distance of communication, but also promote the smooth exchange of information flows. However, derivatives to facilitate the relative safety of these issues, since into the digital information age, the majority of the practitioners of engineering and technical personnel and technical workers in terms of technology, information security is increasingly becoming an important issue. The RSA algorithm was published in 1978. It is a kind of very popular and widely application modem cryptosystem in the world. Even though there are lots of articles to discuss about how to break the RSA, but it is still secure today. In this paper, the authors would like to introduce a variant attack to RSA
A Formal Proof of Countermeasures against Fault Injection Attacks on CRT-RSA
Rauzy, Pablo; Guilley, Sylvain
2014-01-01
In this article, we describe a methodology that aims at either breaking or proving the security of CRT-RSA implementations against fault injection attacks. In the specific case-study of the BellCoRe attack, our work bridges a gap between formal proofs and implementation-level attacks. We apply our results to three implementations of CRT-RSA, namely the unprotected one, that of Shamir, and that of Aum\\"uller et al. Our findings are that many attacks are possible on both the unprotected and the...
More on Combinatorial Batch Codes
Ruj, Sushmita; Roy, Bimal
2008-01-01
Paterson, Stinson and Wei \\cite{PSW} introduced Combinatorial batch codes, which are combinatorial description of Batch code. Batch codes were first presented by Ishai, Kushilevita, Ostrovsky and Sahai \\cite{IKOS} in STOC'04. In this paper we answer some of the questions put forward by Paterson, Stinson and Wei and give some results for the general case $t>1$ which were not studied by the authors.
Modelling of Batch Process Operations
Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul
Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that...... Freedom (DoF) analysis, choice of variables to satisfy DoF and solution strategy. The batch distillation model for setting up and testing an operating sequence is developed and simulated. This looks at such operating policies as constant reflux ratio or set concentration of specific compound in the...
Jorge L. Gardea-Torresdey
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Batch and column experiments were performed to determine the Cu(II binding capacity of silica-immobilized humin biomass. For column studies, 500 bed volumes of a 0.1 mM Cu(II solution were passed through humin packed columns at the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 mL/min. The biopolymer showed an average Cu binding capacity of 12 ± 1.5 mg/g and a Cu recovery of about 96.5 % ± 1.5. The breakthrough points for Cu(II alone were approximately 420, 390, 385, and 300 bed volumes for the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mL/min, respectively. The interference studies demonstrated that at low concentrations, the hard cations Ca(II and Mg(II did not seem to represent a major interference on Cu(II binding to the humin biopolymer. The selectivity showed by this biopolymer was Cu(II>Ca(II>Mg(II. On the other hand, batch experiments showed that Ca(II + Mg(II at 100mM each reduced the Cu(II binding to 73 %. However, 1000 mM concentrations of Ca(II and Mg(II, separately and in mixture, reduced the Cu(II binding to 47 %, 44 % and 31 %, respectively. The results of this study showed that immobilized humin in a silica matrix could represent an inexpensive bio-source for Cu removal from contaminated water, even in the presence of low concentrations of the hard cations Ca(II and Mg(II.
Heterogeneous batch structures in throughput scheduling
Weeda, P.J.
1993-01-01
Recently a few papers appeared on throughput scheduling, dealing with the relationship between batch structure and process structure in discrete batch production, while maximizing time-constrained throughput. Results have been concentrated on the class of homogeneous batch structures, i.e. batch structures with equal batch sizes for each process per cycle. In this paper heterogeneous batch structures are considered. By numerical examples, it is shown that heterogeneous batch structures can ou...
Emotion suppression moderates the quadratic association between RSA and executive function
Spangler, Derek P.; Bell, Martha Ann; Deater-Deckard, Kirby
2016-01-01
There is uncertainty about whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a cardiac marker of adaptive emotion regulation, is involved in relatively low or high executive function performance. In the present study, we investigated: (1) whether RSA during rest and tasks predict both relatively low and high executive function within a larger quadratic association among the two variables, and (2) the extent to which this quadratic trend was moderated by individual differences in emotion regulation. To achieve these aims, a sample of ethnically and socioeconomically diverse women self-reported reappraisal and emotion suppression. They next experienced a two-minute resting period during which ECG was continually assessed. In the next phase, the women completed an array of executive function and non-executive cognitive tasks while ECG was measured throughout. As anticipated, resting RSA showed a quadratic association with executive function that was strongest for high suppression. These results suggest that relatively high resting RSA may predict poor executive function ability when emotion regulation consumes executive control resources needed for ongoing cognitive performance. PMID:26018941
Resting RSA Is Associated with Natural and Self-Regulated Responses to Negative Emotional Stimuli
Demaree, Heath A.; Robinson, Jennifer L.; Everhart, D. Erik; Schmeichel, Brandon J.
2004-01-01
Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed among 111 adult participants. These individuals were then asked to watch a positive or negative affective film in either a natural manner or while exaggerating their facial response. Facial reactions to the film were video-recorded and subsequently rated in terms of facial affect.…
Використання адитивно-різницевих операцій в модифікаціях алгоритму RSA
Ковальчук, А.; Пелешко, Д.; Навитка, М.
2011-01-01
Запропоновано модифікації шифрування - дешифрування зображень у градаціях сірого, які грунтуються на використанні ідей базового алгоритму RSA з додатковим зашумленням зашифрованого зображення і без додаткового зашумлення. A modification of the encryption – decryption of images in grayscale, and are based on ideas using the basic algorithm of RSA, with additional noise encrypted image without any additional noise....
Microalgal TAG production strategies: why batch beats repeated-batch
Benvenuti, G.; Lamers, P.P.; Breuer, G.; Bosma, R.; Cerar, Ana; Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M. J.
2016-01-01
Background For a commercially feasible microalgal triglyceride (TAG) production, high TAG productivities are required. The operational strategy affects TAG productivity but a systematic comparison between different strategies is lacking. For this, physiological responses of Nannochloropsis sp. to nitrogen (N) starvation and N-rich medium replenishment were studied in lab-scale batch and repeated-batch (part of the culture is periodically harvested and N-rich medium is re-supplied) cultivation...
Rampioni, Giordano; Bertani, Iris; Pillai, Cejoice Ramachandran; Venturi, Vittorio; Zennaro, Elisabetta; Leoni, Livia
2012-01-01
In many bacteria, quorum sensing (QS) systems rely on a signal receptor and a synthase producing N-acyl-homoserine lactone(s) as the signal molecule(s). In some species, the rsaL gene, located between the signal receptor and synthase genes, encodes a repressor limiting signal synthase expression and hence signal molecule production. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism of action of the RsaL protein in the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida WCS358 (RsaLWCS). In P. ...
Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL
2009-01-01
In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.
Batch compositions for cordierite ceramics
Hickman, David L.
1994-07-26
Ceramic products consisting principally of cordierite and a method for making them are provided, the method employing batches comprising a mineral component and a chemical component, the mineral component comprising clay and talc and the chemical component consisting essentially of a combination of the powdered oxides, hydroxides, or hydrous oxides of magnesium, aluminum and silicon. Ceramics made by extrusion and firing of the batches can exhibit low porosity, high strength and low thermal expansion coefficients.
RSA public key cryptography and security analysis%公钥密码RSA体制及安全性分析
王红珍
2012-01-01
The RSA algorithm is a public key cryptography algorithm. The RSA based on count the theory of unsymmetrical key cryptography. The security of the RSA problem depends on the big integral factoring. The RSA experienced various attack, it can not be offend to break completely up to now.%RSA算法是一种公钥密码算法.RSA是一个基于数论的非对称密码体制,RSA的安全性是依赖于大整数素因子分解的困难性问题.其经历了各种攻击,至今未能被完全攻破.
New Attacks on RSA with Modulus N = p2q Using Continued Fractions
Asbullah, M. A.; Ariffin, M. R. K.
2015-06-01
In this paper, we propose two new attacks on RSA with modulus N = p2q using continued fractions. Our first attack is based on the RSA key equation ed - ϕ(N)k = 1 where ϕ(N) = p(p - 1)(q - 1). Assuming that and , we show that can be recovered among the convergents of the continued fraction expansion of . Our second attack is based on the equation eX - (N - (ap2 + bq2)) Y = Z where a,b are positive integers satisfying gcd(a,b) = 1, |ap2 - bq2| < N1/2 and ap2 + bq2 = N2/3+α with 0 < α < 1/3. Given the conditions , we show that one can factor N = p2q in polynomial time.
Modified Trail division for Implementation of RSA Algorithm with Large Integers
Satyendra Nath Mandal
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The RSA cryptosystem, invented by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman was first published in the August 1978 issue of ACM[4 ]. The cryptosystem is most commonly used for providing priva cy and ensuring authenticity of digital data. The security level of this algorithm depends on chooing two large prime numbers. But, to handle large prime in personal computer is huge time consuming. Further, each and every compiler has a maximum limit to integer handling capability. In this paper, an approach has been made to modify trial division technique for implementation of RSA algorithm for large numbers beyond the range of a compiler that has been used to implement it. The time complexity of this modified trial division method has been calculated using personal computer, at the end for large integer.
When performing radiostereometric analysis (RSA) in a clinical setting it may be desirable to orient the two imaging devices nonorthogonally to obtain the best views of an anatomical structure. In this study, a calibration frame was constructed that allowed the relative angles of fiducial and control planes to be adjusted. Precision and accuracy were quantified across multiple trials and orientations. The 90 deg. frame was always of equivalent or greater accuracy than a calibration frame with the fiducial and control planes aligned parallel to the image intensifiers. This study also showed that RSA may be performed with imaging devices at relative angles other than 90 deg. without compromising accuracy. This allows researchers greater freedom in positioning equipment.
Kedgley, Angela E.; Jenkyn, Thomas R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Wolf Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Fowler Kennedy Sport Medicine Clinic, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada) and School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)
2009-07-15
When performing radiostereometric analysis (RSA) in a clinical setting it may be desirable to orient the two imaging devices nonorthogonally to obtain the best views of an anatomical structure. In this study, a calibration frame was constructed that allowed the relative angles of fiducial and control planes to be adjusted. Precision and accuracy were quantified across multiple trials and orientations. The 90 deg. frame was always of equivalent or greater accuracy than a calibration frame with the fiducial and control planes aligned parallel to the image intensifiers. This study also showed that RSA may be performed with imaging devices at relative angles other than 90 deg. without compromising accuracy. This allows researchers greater freedom in positioning equipment.
BatchJobs and BatchExperiments: Abstraction Mechanisms for Using R in Batch Environments
Bernd Bischl
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Empirical analysis of statistical algorithms often demands time-consuming experiments. We present two R packages which greatly simplify working in batch computing environments. The package BatchJobs implements the basic objects and procedures to control any batch cluster from within R. It is structured around cluster versions of the well-known higher order functions Map, Reduce and Filter from functional programming. Computations are performed asynchronously and all job states are persistently stored in a database, which can be queried at any point in time. The second package, BatchExperiments, is tailored for the still very general scenario of analyzing arbitrary algorithms on problem instances. It extends package BatchJobs by letting the user define an array of jobs of the kind apply algorithm A to problem instance P and store results. It is possible to associate statistical designs with parameters of problems and algorithms and therefore to systematically study their influence on the results. The packages main features are: (a Convenient usage: All relevant batch system operations are either handled internally or mapped to simple R functions. (b Portability: Both packages use a clear and well-defined interface to the batch system which makes them applicable in most high-performance computing environments. (c Reproducibility: Every computational part has an associated seed to ensure reproducibility even when the underlying batch system changes. (d Abstraction and good software design: The code layers for algorithms, experiment definitions and execution are cleanly separated and enable the writing of readable and maintainable code.
Improved RSA cryptosystem based on the study of number theory and public key cryptosystems
Israt Jahan; Mohammad Asif; Liton Jude Rozario
2015-01-01
Security is required to transmit confidential information over the network. Security is also demanding in wide range of applications. Cryptographic algorithms play a vital role in providing the data security against malicious attacks. RSA algorithm is extensively used in the popular implementations of Public Key Infrastructures. In asymmetric key cryptography, also called Public Key cryptography, two different keys (which form a key pair) are used. One key is used for encryption and only t...
Timing Attack against Protected RSA-CRT Implementation Used in PolarSSL
Arnaud, Cyril; Fouque, Pierre-Alain
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present a timing attack against the RSA-CRT algorithm used in the current version 1.1.4 of PolarSSL, an open-source cryptographic library for embedded systems. This implementation uses a classical countermeasure to avoid two previous attacks of Schindler and another one due to Boneh and Brumley. However, a careful analysis reveals a bias in the implementation of Montgomery multiplication. We theoretically analyse the distribution of output values for Montgomery multiplicatio...
Precision measurements of the RSA method using a phantom model of hip prosthesis.
Mäkinen, Tatu J; Koort, Jyri K; Mattila, Kimmo T; Aro, Hannu T
2004-04-01
Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) has become one of the recommended techniques for pre-market evaluation of new joint implant designs. In this study we evaluated the effect of repositioning of X-ray tubes and phantom model on the precision of the RSA method. In precision measurements, we utilized mean error of rigid body fitting (ME) values as an internal control for examinations. ME value characterizes relative motion among the markers within each rigid body and is conventionally used to detect loosening of a bone marker. Three experiments, each consisting of 10 double examinations, were performed. In the first experiment, the X-ray tubes and the phantom model were not repositioned between one double examination. In experiments two and three, the X-ray tubes were repositioned between one double examination. In addition, the position of the phantom model was changed in experiment three. Results showed that significant differences could be found in 2 of 12 comparisons when evaluating the translation and rotation of the prosthetic components. Repositioning procedures increased ME values mimicking deformation of rigid body segments. Thus, ME value seemed to be a more sensitive parameter than migration values in this study design. These results confirmed the importance of standardized radiographic technique and accurate patient positioning for RSA measurements. Standardization and calibration procedures should be performed with phantom models in order to avoid unnecessary radiation dose of the patients. The present model gives the means to establish and to follow the intra-laboratory precision of the RSA method. The model is easily applicable in any research unit and allows the comparison of the precision values in different laboratories of multi-center trials. PMID:14996560
S.H.Mortazavi; Avadhani, Prof. P. S.
2013-01-01
This paper is discussed the security of computer networks is a concern for businesses and individuals who are aware of its advantages due to its flexibility. With the increase security of IDS for companies and homes, where information property are shared continually, security is of the nature.. Cryptography is seen as a major instrumentation in the line of defense of network security. This paper discusses the various RSA cryptography algorithm used in network security especially IDS and how e...
Introducing random safety audits (RSA) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
Szymanska, M
2012-01-31
Random safety audits (RSA) have been shown to be effective in improving standards of clinical practice. 19 data collection audits were performed relating to hygiene, safe prescribing, oxygen pulse oximetry monitoring and documentation in keeping with the requirements of the new Medical Practitioners Act (MPA) 2007. Hygiene audits (range from 20\\/25 to 21\\/21 80%-100%) and safe prescribing audits (range from 23\\/25 to 25\\/25 86%-100%) achieved n=25 100% compliance with unit guidelines over a 3 month period. Compliance with oxygen pulse oximetry monitoring guideline limits improved from 4\\/27 (15%) to 9\\/16 (56%). Compliance with requirement and use of Physician IMC registration number in documentation was only 10\\/18 (56%). RSA\\'s led to improvements in hygiene and prescribing. Compliance with oxygen monitoring guideline limits highlighted the need for greater education. Awareness of legal requirements relating to documentation improved but this has not translated into a change in practice. RSA\\'s can facilitate real time quality improvement in daily clinical practice.
Efficient and Fair Exchange of Digital Signatures Based on RSA Algorithm
V Swapna kumari
2012-03-01
Full Text Available A fair contract-signing protocol allows two potentially mistrusted parities to exchange their commitments (i.e., digital signatures to an agreed contract over the Internet in a fair way, so that either each of them obtains the other’s signature, or neither party does. Based on the RSA signature scheme, a new digital contract-signing protocol is proposed in this paper. Like the existing RSA-based solutions for the same problem, our protocol is not only fair, but also optimistic, since the trusted third party is involved only in the situations where one party is cheating or the communication channel is interrupted. Furthermore, the proposed protocol satisfies a new property— abuse-freeness. That is, if the protocol is executed unsuccessfully, none of the two parties can show the validity of intermediate results to others. Technical details are provided to analyze the security and performance of the proposed protocol. In summary, we present the first abuse-free fair contract signing protocol based on the RSA signature, and show that it is both secure and efficient
Aspects of ultra-high-precision diamond machining of RSA 443 optical aluminium
Mkoko, Z.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.
2015-08-01
Optical aluminium alloys such as 6061-T6 are traditionally used in ultra-high precision manufacturing for making optical mirrors for aerospace and other applications. However, the optics industry has recently witnessed the development of more advanced optical aluminium grades that are capable of addressing some of the issues encountered when turning with single-point natural monocrystalline diamond cutters. The advent of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades has generally opened up new possibilities for ultra-high precision manufacturing of optical components. In this study, experiments were conducted with single-point diamond cutters on rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 443 material. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of depth of cut and feed rate at a fixed rotational speed on the tool wear rate and resulting surface roughness of diamond turned specimens. This is done to gain further understanding of the rate of wear on the diamond cutters versus the surface texture generated on the RSA 443 material. The diamond machining experiments yielded machined surfaces which are less reflective but with consistent surface roughness values. Cutting tools were observed for wear through scanning microscopy; relatively low wear pattern was evident on the diamond tool edge. The highest tool wear were obtained at higher depth of cut and increased feed rate.
RSA加密算法中MPI的应用%Application of MPI in RSA encryption algorithm
陆玉阳
2015-01-01
RSA加密算法在进行复杂判断和大数运算时,计算时间往往花费较多,对计算机的运行速度、存储容量等方面具有较高的要求.MPI能够提供较快的数值计算和数据处理能力,提供高性能并行计算.该文通过在RSA加密算法中MPI的应用,通过实践证明MPI并行计算可以改进RSA算法,提高加密速度、减少容量需求等.%RSA encryption algorithm in the complex judgment and operation of large Nbers, calculating the time tend to spend more, the computer run faster, have higher requirements in terms of storage capacity. MPI provides fast Nerical calculation and data processing capability, providing high performance parallel computing. Based on RSA encryption algorithm in application of MPI, MPI parallel computing can improve the RSA algorithm proved by practice, increase speed, reduce capacity requirements, and so on.
S. Shivkumar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A PKI (public key infrastructure enables users of a basically unsecure public network to securely and privately exchange data through the use of a public and a private cryptographic key pair that is obtained and shared through a trusted authority. The public key infrastructure provides for a digital certificate that can identify an individual or an organization and directory services that can store and, when necessary, revoke the certificates. Although the components of a PKI are generally understood, a number of different vendor approaches and services are emerging. The two major digital signature algorithms are Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA which is the elliptic curve analogue of the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA and RSA algorithm. The two algorithms are used for generating the certificates exchanged between computer systems. Elliptic curve based systems can give better security compared to RSA with less key size. This study compares the performance of ECC based signature schemes and RSA schemes using NS2 simulation. It is observed that ECC based certificate authority schemes gives better speed and security. Elliptic curve based schemes are the best for time and resource constrained wireless applications.
Mathewson, Karen J; Schmidt, Louis A; Miskovic, Vladimir; Santesso, Diane L; Duku, Eric; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M; Moscovitch, David A
2013-05-01
Modifying dysfunctional emotion regulation is an important goal in psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Antecedent-focused strategies learned in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), such as cognitive reappraisal, have proven more effective in reducing social anxiety than response-focused strategies, such as expressive suppression. Still, not all patients with SAD respond well to CBT. Medications and physiological factors may also influence the clinical response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role that these factors play in determining treatment response following CBT for SAD. Using multilevel modeling, we examined associations across four separate laboratory visits between change in self-reported anxiety and indices of reappraisal, suppression, medication status, and resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a proxy measure of self-regulatory capacity, in 23 socially anxious adults during a 12-week program of CBT. Most participants were ultimately classified as responders to CBT (n=15), but in some, anxiety levels remained unchanged (n=8). Medication use explained substantial variance related to individual differences in anxiety among participants. When modeled separately, reappraisal, suppression, and RSA each accounted for significant variance related to anxiety. However, the best-fitting model included reappraisal and RSA. Moreover, RSA reactivity (change in RSA levels over time) was more important for predicting anxiety reduction than were baseline levels of RSA. These findings suggest that reappraisal and parasympathetic responsiveness may be important in reducing anxiety in adults with SAD who respond well to CBT. PMID:23545482
一种高效的彩色图像加密和解密算法%Efficient Encryption and Decryption Algorithm for Color Image
彭静玉
2013-01-01
分析了基于Arnold变换的加密方案在加密效果及加密效率方面的不足。提出了一种新的彩色图像加密及解密算法。加密过程将像素的物理位置置乱并映射到不同的色彩空间；解密过程提出了一种针对彩色图像的逆变换算法，使解密的时间仅依赖加密的密钥而不依赖变换周期。仿真分析比较了该算法在加密效果及加密效率方面的优势。实验数据表明，该加密算法的加密效果理想，且加密效率较高，是一种简单、可行的彩色图像加密方法。%The deficiencies of encryption scheme based on Arnold transformation is analyzed, and a new encryption/decryption algorithm for color image proposed. The physical locations of pixels are scrambled and mapped to different color spaces in the encryption process. An inverse conversion method for color im-age is suggested in decryption process, thus making the decryption time dependent only on the encryption key instead of on the conversion cycle. Simulation and comparison of the advantages of proposed algorithm in encryption effect and encryption efficiency indicates that the proposed algorithm could improve encryp-tion effect while raising the decryption efficiency, and thus a simple and feasible color image encryption method.
Olivecrona, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q.; Noz, Marilyn E.; Zeleznik, Michael P.
2016-01-01
Background and Purpose. The gold standard for detection of implant wear and migration is currently radiostereometry (RSA). The purpose of this study is to compare a three-dimensional computed tomography technique (3D CT) to standard RSA as an alternative technique for measuring migration of acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. With tantalum beads, we marked one cemented and one uncemented cup and mounted these on a similarly marked pelvic model. A comparison was made between 3D CT and standard RSA for measuring migration. Twelve repeated stereoradiographs and CT scans with double examinations in each position and gradual migration of the implants were made. Precision and accuracy of the 3D CT were calculated. Results. The accuracy of the 3D CT ranged between 0.07 and 0.32 mm for translations and 0.21 and 0.82° for rotation. The precision ranged between 0.01 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.06 and 0.29° for rotations, respectively. For standard RSA, the precision ranged between 0.04 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.08 and 0.32° for rotations, respectively. There was no significant difference in precision between 3D CT and standard RSA. The effective radiation dose of the 3D CT method, comparable to RSA, was estimated to be 0.33 mSv. Interpretation. Low dose 3D CT is a comparable method to standard RSA in an experimental setting. PMID:27478832
Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches
Emilio Medina-Rivero
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
2009-12-09
QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.
Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin
Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.
1973-01-01
Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)
Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches
Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Estrada-Parra, Sergio
2016-01-01
Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277
Бінарні операції та елементи алгоритму RSA при шифруванні-дешифруванні кольорових зображень
Ковальчук, А.; Пелешко, Д.; Борзов, Ю.
2013-01-01
Описано поєднання елементів алгоритму RSA і бінарних операцій для сумісного використання при шифруванні–дешифруванні зображень. Шифрування–дешифрування проводиться без додаткового зашумлення. Described combination of elements of the RSA algorithm and binary operations for the joint use for encryption–interpretation of images. Encryption–decryption is performed without additional noise....
Кубічні і лінійні фрактали з елементами алгоритму RSA в шифруванні і дешифруванні зображень
Ковальчук, А.; Цмоць, І.; Ступень, М.
2014-01-01
Запропоновано застосування кубічних фрактальних перетворень до шифрування і дешифрування зображень у градаціях сірого кольору з використанням елементів алгоритму RSA. Proposed application of cubic fractal changes to the encryption and decryption, grayscale color using elements of the RSA algorithm.
NGBAuth - Next Generation Batch Authentication for long running batch jobs.
Juto, Zakarias
2015-01-01
This document describes the prototyping of a new solution for the CERN batch authentication of long running jobs. While the job submission requires valid user credentials, these have to be renewed due to long queuing and execution times. Described within is a new system which will guarantee a similar level of security as the old LSFAuth while simplifying the implementation and the overall architecture. The new system is being built on solid, streamlined and tested components (notably OpenSSL) and a priority has been to make it more generic in order to facilitate the evolution of the current system such as for the expected migration from LSF to Condor as backend batch system.
基于Common Lisp的RSA加密实现%RSA Encryption Based on Common Lisp Implementation
解晨
2013-01-01
著名的非对称密钥加密系统——RSA公钥加密系统,是当今流行的加密系统,其简单的实现和高效的保密性使RSA加密算法成为当下最有影响力的公钥加密算法,并且其堪称完美的理论基础使得RSA加密算法可以抵抗目前所知的所有密码攻击.该文探究了RSA加密算法的原理,并使用一门小众语言Common Lisp对RSA加密进行了实现.%Asymmetric key encryption system -- the famous RSA public key encryption system, the encryption system is popu?lar, its simple implementation and high security RSA encryption algorithm to become the most influential contemporary public-key encryption algorithm, and it is theoretical basis of perfect makes the RSA encryption algorithm can resist all known attacks. This paper discusses the principle of RSA encryption algorithm, and realizes the encryption of RSA using a minority language Common Lisp.
Wen Nuan; Dai Zibin; Zhang Yongfu
2006-01-01
In order to make the typical Montgomery's algorithm suitable for implementation on FPGA, a modified version is proposed and then a high-performance systolic linear array architecture is designed for RSA cryptosystem on the basis of the optimized algorithm. The proposed systolic array architecture has distinctive features, i.e. not only the computation speed is significantly fast but also the hardware overhead is drastically decreased. As a major practical result, the paper shows that it is possible to implement public-key cryptosystem at secure bit lengths on a single commercially available FPGA.
Hollister, R
2009-09-17
QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.
Optimal online-list batch scheduling
Paulus, JJ Jacob Jan; Ye, Deshi; Zhang, G.
2008-01-01
We consider the online-list batch scheduling problem. Jobs arrive one by one and have to be assigned upon arrival to a scheduled batch such that the makespan is minimized. Each batch can accommodate up to B jobs. We give a complete classification of the tractability of this online problem.
间歇结晶过程的分批优化%Batch-to-batch Optimization of Batch Crystallization Processes
Woranee Paengjuntuek; Paisan Kittisupakorn; Amornchai Arpornwichanop
2008-01-01
It is the fact that several process parameters are either unknown or uncertain. Therefore, an optimal control profile calculated with developed process models with respect to such process parameters may not give an optimal performance when implemented to real processes. This study proposes a batch-to-batch optimization strat-egy for the estimation of uncertain kinetic parameters in a batch crystallization process of potassium sulfate produc-tion. The knowledge of a crystal size distribution of the product at the end of batch operation is used in the proposedmethodology. The updated kinetic parameters are applied for determining an optimal operating temperature policy for the next batch run.
Revisión sobre la capacidad de repetir sprint o RSA en jugadores de fútbol
Saenz Tomás, Juan
2014-01-01
En los últimos años, la capacidad para repetir esprines (RSA), se ha considerado como un factor limitante del rendimiento en el contexto deportivo del fútbol. En este sentido, esta revisión analiza los aspectos importantes que condicionan el rendimiento de la RSA, tales como los aspectos fisiológicos, los diferentes métodos de entrenamiento que se utilizan así como los test más utilizados para su evaluación. Por ello, el objetivo principal de esta revisión es dar a conocer los métodos y recom...
Nebergall, Audrey K; Rader, Kevin; Palm, Henrik;
2015-01-01
Background and purpose - In traditional radiostereometric analysis (RSA), 1 segment defines both the acetabular shell and the polyethylene liner. However, inserting beads into the polyethylene liner permits employment of the shell and liner as 2 separate segments, enabling distinct analysis of the...... precision of 3 measurement methods in determining femoral head penetration and shell migration. Patients and methods - The UmRSA program was used to analyze the double examinations of 51 hips to determine if there was a difference in using the shell-only segment, the liner-only segment, or the shell + liner...
Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K;
2015-01-01
Vitamin E diffusion into highly cross-linked polyethylene (E-XLPE) is a method for enhancing oxidative stability of acetabular liners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo penetration of E-XLPE using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Eighty-four hips were recruited into a prospective...... 10-year RSA. This is the first evaluation of the multicenter cohort after 3-years. All patients received E-XLPE liners (E1, Biomet) and porous-titanium coated cups (Regenerex, Biomet). There was no difference (P=0.450) in median femoral head penetration into the E-XLPE liners at 3-years comparing...
Rancangan Model Algoritma Pohlig–Hellman Multiple-Key Berdasarkan Algoritma R.S.A. Multiple-Key
Simarmata, Allwin M.
2012-01-01
This study uses Pohlig-Hellman algorithm and the RSA algorithm, which is part of an asymmetric algorithm using the generation of prime numbers as keys. RSA algorithm is better than the Pohlig-Hellman algorithm for use of two prime numbers as keys while the Pohlig-Hellman algorithm uses only one key.The design of Pohlig-Hellman algorithm model of multiple-key can be a solution for the development of Pohlig-Hellman algorithm for adding a key that can enhance the security of informationon the al...
Influence of batch or fed-batch growth on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation
Cerca, Nuno; Pier, Gerald B.; Vilanova, Manuel; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana
2004-01-01
Aims: To make a quantitative evaluation of the differences in biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis using batch and fed-batch growth systems and to correlate this with production of the major biofilm polysaccharide, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG). Methods and Results: Dry weight measurements of biofilms formed in batch and fed-batch conditions were compared with haemagglutination titres, which measure the amount of PNAG produced. Strains grown in batch systems devel...
抗侧沟道泄漏信息攻击的安全RSA-CRT算法研究%Improved RSA-CRT algorithm with prevented side channel information attacks
蒋惠萍; 毛志刚
2004-01-01
在信息安全领域中侧沟道泄漏信息(SCI)攻击可以利用加密算法的特点和硬件模块的泄漏信息分析出加密硬件中的关键信息.其中故障分析(Bellcore-Lenstra)和差分功耗分析(differential power analysis,DPA)是该类攻击中的主要方法.由于该类攻击的廉价高效性,在设计采用中国余数定理的安全的并行RSA加密协处理器(RSA-CRT)时必须认真考虑SCI攻击的解决方法.为了获得性价比的最大化,提出把掩码技术和消除中间变量技术引入RSA-CRT算法中来防止SCI攻击,该方案只需增加30%左右的时间消耗,就可以实现安全的RSA-CRT算法,同时简要说明了改进的RSA-CRT算法能够有效的防止side channel information攻击.
Combinatorial Batch Codes with Redundancy
Jung, Jiyoon; Mummert, Carl; Niese, Elizabeth; Schroeder, Michael w.
2015-01-01
A combinatorial batch code with redundancy $r$ and parameters $(n,k,m,t)$ can be represented as a system $C$ of $m$ (not necessarily distinct) subsets of an underlying $n$-element set $F$, so that each $k$-subset of $F$ can be covered by every $(m-r)$-subset $K$ of $C$ while taking no more than $t$ elements of $F$ with each set in $K$. The sum of the cardinalities of the sets in $C$ is the weight of the code. We focus on the case $t =1$, and determine the minimal weight for several ranges of ...
YU Xue-wen; REN Yong-hui; LI Xue-cheng; GAO Cheng-ge; LI Fen; HAN Zhen; LI Xu
2005-01-01
Objective: To investigate estrogen receptor β (ERβ) gene Rsa1 polymorphism and concentration of estrogen, FSH and LH in serum in peri-menopausal and menopausal women with depressive disorder. Methods: Seventy-four peri-menopausal and menopausal women with depressive disorder met ICD-10 and CCMD-3 assessment criteria for depressive disorder were recruited. ERβ gene Rsa1 polymorphism was analyzed with PCR-RFLP. Serum levels of estrogen, FSH and LH were measured by magnetism-ELISA. Results: The respective frequency of ERβ gene Rsa1 polymorphism was no significant difference between women with depressive disorder and the healthy women (χ2=1.106,P>0.05). The serum level of estrogen was lower in women with depressive disorder than in the healthy women (P<0.05). No difference was found for FSH and LH between two groups. Conclusion: ERβ gene Rsa1 polymorphism may be not associated with depressive disorder in the peri-menopausal and menopausal women. The serum level of estrogen is associated with depressive disorder in the peri-menopausal and menopausal women.
Yang, Yifan; Sun, Haipeng; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Mingxing; Xue, Ting; Sun, Baolin
2016-06-01
Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is a common alternative carbon source for various bacteria, and its uptake usually relies on the hexose phosphate antiporter UhpT. In the human pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, the ability to utilize different nutrients, particularly alternative carbon source uptake in glucose-limiting conditions, is essential for its fitness in the host environment during the infectious process. It has been reported that G6P uptake in S. aureus is regulated by the three-component system HptRSA. When G6P is provided as the only carbon source, HptRSA could sense extracellular G6P and activate uhpT expression to facilitate G6P utilization. However, the regulatory mechanism of HptRSA is still unclear. In this study, we further investigated the HptRSA system in S. aureus. First, we confirmed that HptRSA is necessary for the normal growth of this pathogen in chemically defined medium with G6P supplementation, and we discovered that HptRSA could exclusively sense extracellular G6P compared to the other organophosphates we tested. Next, using isothermal titration calorimetry, we found that HptA could bind to G6P, suggesting that it may be the G6P sensor. After that experiment, using an electrophoresis mobility shift assay, we verified that the response regulator HptR could directly bind to the uhpT promoter and identified a putative binding site from -67 to -96-bp. Subsequently, we created different point mutations in the putative binding site and revealed that the entire 30-bp sequence is essential for HptR regulation. In summary, we unveiled the regulatory mechanism of the HptRSA system in S. aureus, HptA most likely functions as the G6P sensor, and HptR could implement its regulatory function by directly binding to a conserved, approximately 30-bp sequence in the uhpT promoter. PMID:26711125
Fair Exchange of Digital Signatures using RSA-based CEMBS and Offline STTP
Hussein, Jamal A
2009-01-01
One of the essential security services needed to safeguard online transactions is fair exchange. In fair exchange protocols two parties can exchange their signatures in a fair manner, so that either each party gain the other's signature or no one obtain anything useful. This paper examines security solutions for achieving fair exchange. It proposes new security protocols based on the "Certified Encrypted Message Being Signature" (CEMBS) by using RSA signature scheme. This protocol relies on the help of an "off-line Semi-Trusted Third Party" (STTP) to achieve fairness. They provide with confidential protection from the STTP for the exchanged items by limiting the role and power of the STTP. Three different protocols have been proposed. In the first protocol, the two main parties exchange their signatures on a common message. In the second protocol, the signatures are exchanged on two different messages. While in the third one, the exchange is between confidential data and signature.
Interdependence relationships between morphometric indicators in the Bârsa Country (Romania
GEORGIAN IONUT PURCÃREATÃ
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In a geomorphological analysis on a geographical space, the study of the interdependence between the morphometric indicators can offer us new details concerning the characteristics and causal relationships between the considered parameters. The methodology taken from the literature was adapted to the geographical space of Bârsa. The research area includes a pilot area for which the boundaries are defined by inter fluves bordering the large confluence area of the Olt river in the Brașov Depression. The arrangement of the relief gives the research area obvious asymmetric features, which are completed in this study by the mathematical analysis and graphics. The conclu sion derived from the correlated mathematical analysis between the relief energy and the drainage density is that the relief energy is in a closely dependent relationship with the drainage density, the correlation being positively linear and directly prop ortional, fact prooved by the resulted graphical models.
一种基于 me mo ry 的数据加解密算法%An Encryption and Decryption Algorithm of Data Based on Memory
张金旻; 谢小东
2015-01-01
Most memory researches only focus on improving the performance ,which is to enlarge the capacityand and to increase the speed .However ,aided designs to realize more functions have been rarely achieved in present memory studies .So an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt the address of memory is given out in this paper ,and the encryption and decryption of the data is realized ,which is based on the characteristics of memory ,and the feasibility of this algorithm with simulation is validates .%对于memory的研究，大部分都只是停留在对容量的扩充，速度的提高等性能提升方面，很少涉及对mem‐ory进行辅助设计以实现更多的特殊功能。提出了一种通过对memory地址作用加解密算法，利用memory自身的特性来实现对数据的加解密的功能，并通过实验仿真验证了该方法的可行性。
Batch processing: definition and event log identification
Martin, Niels,; SWENNEN, Marijke; Depaire, Benoit; Jans, Mieke; CARIS, An; Vanhoof, Koen
2015-01-01
A resource typically executes a particular activity on a series of cases. When a resource performs an activity on several cases simultaneously, (quasi-) sequentially or concurrently, this is referred to as batch processing. Given its influence on process performance, batch processing needs to be taken into account when modeling business processes for performance evaluation purposes. This paper suggests event logs as an information source to gain insight in batching behavior. It marks a first ...
Batch process design: an overview from control
Zuluaga Bedoya, Christian Camilo
2015-01-01
Abstract: batch process design: an overview from control In this work, the topic of batch process design is addressed, through an analysis of the phenomenological-based model and using set-theoretic methods to deduce process constraints and parametric effects in state controllability. A review of literature is presented about characterization of batch process from point of view of design problem. Furthermore simultaneous process and control design is also reviewed, considering the main contri...
Ковальчук, А.; Кузнєцов, Є.; Артимич, Ю.
2010-01-01
An application of RSA algorithm encryption and decryption of locally finite topological elements cover image that is clearly marked internal contours. Запропоновано застосування алгоритму RSA шифрування і дешифрування елементів локально скінченного топологічного покриття зображення, яке має чітко виділені внутрішні контури.
Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report
The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas
Realization and Discussion of RSA Public-key Cryptosystem Based on Java%基于Java的RSA公钥密码算法的实现与探讨
曹军委; 李翼
2011-01-01
Because of Java language on the network security characteristics and superiority of RSA encryption algorithm,This article mainly introduced the concept of public-key cryptosystem and the principle of RSA encryption algorithm,And realize the RSA public-key%鉴于Java语言在网络上的安全特性和RSA加密算法的优越性,介绍了公钥密码体制的概念和RSA加密算法的原理,并在Java环境下实现RSA公钥密码算法。
对RSA密码系统旁路攻击的防御%Resistance against side channel attack for RSA cryptosystem
祝力; 谷大武; 王超
2008-01-01
Based on the structure of the side channel attacks (SCAs) to RSA cryptosystem can resist the fault attack andcombine with the randomization method for the message and secret exponent, a new implementation scheme of CRT-based(the Chinese remained theorem) RSA is proposed. The proposed scheme can prevent simple power analysis (SPA), differentialpower analysis (DPA) and time attack, and is compatible with the existing RSA-CRT cryptosystem as well. In addition, animprovement for resisting fault attack is proposed, which can reduce extra computation time.
Ковальчук, А.; Ступень, М.
2015-01-01
Запропоновано алгоритм шифрування-дешифрування зображень з використанням елементів алгоритму RSA як найбільш криптографічно стійкого до несанкціонованого дешифрування, стосовно зображень зі строго чіткими контурами. Елементи алгоритму RSA пропонується використовувати як коефіцієнти деякого лінійно-квадратичного афінного перетворення. Запропонований алгоритм має вищу криптографічну стійкість порівняно з алгоритмом RSA. Suggested algorithm encryption-decryption images with using elements RSA al...
Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations
Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
1999-01-01
Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...
Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column
无
2001-01-01
A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.
Beránek, Jakub
2013-01-01
Bakalářská práce je zaměřena na dávkové systémy. V teoretické části je stručně popsána filozofie dávkových systémů a norma ANSI/ISA 88, která je významným dokumentem v dávkovém řízení. V další části je popsáno několik programů pro řízení dávkových procesů z české i celosvětové produkce. Poslední část obsahuje přípravu, návrh a realizaci laboratorní úlohy pro řízení modelového dávkového procesu s použitím modulu COMES Batch.
Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach
Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler
27 CFR 19.748 - Dump/batch records.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.748.../batch records. (a) Format of dump/batch records. Proprietor's dump/batch records shall contain, as... ingredients used; (10) Formula number; (11) Quantity of ingredients used in the batch that have...
H Hadiyanto
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Nowadays reserve of fossil fuel has gradually depleted. This condition forces many researchers to find energy alternatives which is renewable and sustainable in the future. Ethanol derived from cheese industrial waste (whey using fermentation process can be a new perspective in order to secure both energy and environment. The aim of this study was to compare the operation modes (batch and fed-batch of fermentation system on ethanol production from whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus. The result showed that the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system was higher at some point of parameters compared with batch system. Growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of fed-batch fermentation were 0.122/h and 0.21 gP/gS respectively; growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of batch fermentation were 0.107/h, and 0.12 g ethanol/g substrate, respectively. Based on the data of biomass and ethanol concentrations, the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system were higher at some point of parameters compared to batch system. Periodic substrate addition performed on fed-batch system leads the yeast growth in low substrate concentrations and consequently increasing their activity and ethanol productivity. Keywords: batch; ethanol; fed-batch; fermentation;Kluyveromyces marxianus, whey
Maloma, Tsietsi John
2011-01-01
This thesis, Parallels in portraits of leadership in mega churches of Gauteng (RSA) and Florida (USA), the researcher, studied literature on church leadership with special reference to the leadership of mega churches. He researched issues relating to the nature of church leadership by exploring relevant Bible passages, the lives of certain Bible characters that the Bible presents as good but not perfect leaders, as well as relevant key theological conceptions of leadership. The study accordin...
Safe Characteristics of One Like RSA%一个类RSA系统的两个安全特性
刘益和
2004-01-01
本文通过对比RSA系统的安全问题,给出了由Dickson 多项式簇gk(x,a)构成的类RSA系统的两个安全特性:除少数几个数外,类RSA 算法不满足同态性;类RSA系统仍然存在循环攻击问题.
J.G. van Staden
1995-03-01
Full Text Available The principle of religious neutrality in the American democracy - implications for education in the RSA In a changing, democratic educational dispensation the accommodation of various religious convictions and religious needs of the heterogenous South African population is a matter that has to be dealt with with great circumspection. Valuable lessons that can prevent distress and disruption may be learnt from the way in which the American hyper-democracy has handled the situation. Democracy is the American's predominant pre-occupation. Any attempt of any group (e.g. a religious group to grant a monopoly in state schools to religious values in special learning content and religious ceremonies and practices has always been opposed. This approach has eventually led to total neutrality as regards traditional religious convictions and practices in American state schools, resulting in the establishment of another conviction (secular humanism in state schools. Thus it seems that neutrality as regards religious convictions is not possible. Absolutism of the principle of neutrality as regards traditional religions has resulted in a degeneration of moral values. If all the religious convictions cannot be accommodated in the South African public education system, it may for South Africa, as bastion of Christian civilization, be a danger sign as has been the case in the USA.
Panella, Lorenzo; Piccioni, Davide; Borcescu, Lidia; Isella, Celeste; Callegari, Camilla
2015-01-01
Objectives, social role and organization of Italian nursing homes (RSA) are characterized by a pronounced regional differentiation that causes situations which are difficult to compare about expected outcomes. The definition of a functional outcome is particularly difficult in institutionalized patients and this is due to the failure of a conclusive moment of the rehabilitative treatment. Furthermore we often take care of patients who have already been admitted to intensive and/or extensive rehabilitation units time after time, without further functional profit margin. The inconstant presence of professional figures of rehabilitation in nursing homes' staff makes difficult the drafting of an adequate rehabilitative project, especially for the multiple needs of frail old people. Starting with these assumptions, authors hypothesize and adopt a model of sanitary organization to consent a correct allocation of available resources, according to the patient's needs. They stratified all nursing home patients, using the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) and "Scheda di osservazione intermedia assistenza" (SOSIA), and measured the residual function. They concluded that a multidimensional evaluation of patients allows to identify wellness (of the sick person and of caregivers) as the main objective; nursing home organization could be think as a "complex supportive prosthesis for old people", made by the interaction among structure, operators and activities. PMID:26934811
An Improved RSA Based User Authentication and Session Key Agreement Protocol Usable in TMIS.
Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P
2015-08-01
Recently, Giri et al.'s proposed a RSA cryptosystem based remote user authentication scheme for telecare medical information system and claimed that the protocol is secure against all the relevant security attacks. However, we have scrutinized the Giri et al.'s protocol and pointed out that the protocol is not secure against off-line password guessing attack, privileged insider attack and also suffers from anonymity problem. Moreover, the extension of password guessing attack leads to more security weaknesses. Therefore, this protocol needs improvement in terms of security before implementing in real-life application. To fix the mentioned security pitfalls, this paper proposes an improved scheme over Giri et al.'s scheme, which preserves user anonymity property. We have then simulated the proposed protocol using widely-accepted AVISPA tool which ensures that the protocol is SAFE under OFMC and CL-AtSe models, that means the same protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The informal cryptanalysis has been also presented, which confirmed that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. The performance analysis section compares the proposed protocol with other existing protocols in terms of security and it has been observed that the protocol provides more security and achieves additional functionalities such as user anonymity and session key verification. PMID:26123833
Schwickerath, Ulrich
2007-01-01
Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System
Fractional Repetition and Erasure Batch Codes
Silberstein, Natalia
2014-01-01
Batch codes are a family of codes that represent a distributed storage system (DSS) of $n$ nodes so that any batch of $t$ data symbols can be retrieved by reading at most one symbol from each node. Fractional repetition codes are a family of codes for DSS that enable efficient uncoded repairs of failed nodes. In this work these two families of codes are combined to obtain fractional repetition batch (FRB) codes which provide both uncoded repairs and parallel reads of subsets of stored symbols...
Batch Proving and Proof Scripting in PVS
Munoz, Cesar A.
2007-01-01
The batch execution modes of PVS are powerful, but highly technical, features of the system that are mostly accessible to expert users. This paper presents a PVS tool, called ProofLite, that extends the theorem prover interface with a batch proving utility and a proof scripting notation. ProofLite enables a semi-literate proving style where specification and proof scripts reside in the same file. The goal of ProofLite is to provide batch proving and proof scripting capabilities to regular, non-expert, users of PVS.
Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time
Sukoyo Sukoyo; TMA. Ari Samadhi; Bermawi P. Iskandar; Abdul Hakim Halim
2010-01-01
This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N), which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the numbe...
Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes
Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani; Wangikar, Pramod P.
2011-01-01
as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch...... and fed batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl......−1, 6.34g$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....
Claeys, Dieter; Laevens, Koenraad; Walraevens, Joris; Bruneel, Herwig
2010-01-01
Whereas the buffer content of batch-service queueing systems has been studied extensively, the customer delay has only occasionally been studied. The few papers concerning the customer delay share the common feature that only the moments are calculated explicitly. In addition, none of these surveys consider models including the combination of batch arrivals and a server operating under the full-batch service policy (the server waits to initiate service until he can serve at full capacity). In...
21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be prepared for each batch of drug product produced and shall include complete information relating to...
7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional... cheese particles or ingredients after the cooker batch of cheese has reached the final...
40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.
2010-07-01
... from all aggregate batch vent streams in the compliance demonstration required for reactor batch... comply with the mass emission limit for reactor batch process vents. ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream...
A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials
Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.
2016-04-01
The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.
Applying prior knowledge to model batch keeping-quality of cucumber batches
Schouten, R.E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.; Jongbloed, G.
2004-01-01
Keeping-quality of individual cucumbers is limited by the green colour; the keeping-quality of batches of cucumbers is limited by the time it takes before 5␘f the cucumbers in the batch reach a predefined colour limit. From literature concerning the synthesis and degradation of chlorophyll and a pub
Batch Attribute-Based Encryption for Secure Clouds
Chen Yang; Yang Sun; Qianhong Wu
2015-01-01
Cloud storage is widely used by organizations due to its advantage of allowing universal access with low cost. Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is a kind of public key encryption suitable for cloud storage. The secret key of each user and the ciphertext are associated with an access policy and an attribute set, respectively; in addition to holding a secret key, one can decrypt a ciphertext only if the associated attributes match the predetermined access policy, which allows one to enforce fin...
Quality and Batch-to-Batch Consistency of Original and Biosimilar Epoetin Products.
Halim, Liem Andhyk; Brinks, Vera; Jiskoot, Wim; Romeijn, Stefan; Haselberg, Rob; Burns, Chris; Wadhwa, Meenu; Schellekens, Huub
2016-02-01
Comprehensive physicochemical characterization and biological assays are essential parts in assessing quality attributes of biologicals. Here, we compared the quality of different marketed recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) products: originators, Eprex and NeoRecormon as well as 2 biosimilars, Retacrit and Binocrit. In addition, assessment of batch-to-batch variability was included by collecting 2 or more batches of each product. Common assays which included sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, capillary zone electrophoresis, and potency testing were used. Of the tested products and among batches of single products, variations in epoetin content, isoform profiles, and potency were found. Ultimately, this study demonstrated the high quality of epoetin products with some degree of variation among products and batches, confirming the "similar but not identical" paradigm of biologicals. PMID:26869417