PATTERSON, Miles L.; 飯塚, 雄一; Miles L., PATTERSON; Yuichi, IIZUKA
Nonverbal communication is a pervasive influence in every life. Furthermore, in most setting, nonverbal communication has a greater impact on interactions than does verbal communication. In this article, we first describe the basic processes involved in nonverbal communication and then briefly examine the factors affecting patterns of nonverbal communication - biology, culture, gender, and personality. Finally, we discuss the role of nonverbal communication in health care settings. Nonverbal ...
De Cao, Tian
The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.
Decision making criteria for population protection in nuclear accidents are discussed, and in particular the three basic principles: 1) excluding the appearance of nonstostochastic effects that occur in the case of high individual doses; 2) weighing the risks of radiation damage if such measures are not taken; 3) optimization based on comparison of benefit and costs, using the same measures for costs of health injury to affected populations and of the protected measures to be taken. The decision making criteria developed in Bulgaria are based on international recommendations with lowered upper limit of the range for evacuation and specified doses for vulnerable groups, children and pregnant women. The organization and the specific problems of the following individual types of protective measures are described: sheltering; protection of respiratory organs; iodine prophylaxis; evacuation of the public. One major condition for ensuring protection is to provide the public with timely information on the actual situation and the necessary countermeasures. Such information should be released in a manner that allows for understanding the expediency and significance of actions to be taken. An important aspect of emergency planning consists in taking into consideration the conditions actually prevailing in the country. This is well illustrated in the principle designated as 'national level of challenge' taking into account a country's capabilities for introducing intervention levels and permissible dose levels. In the case of Bulgaria this still remains to be done in protective planning for accidents. (author)
Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique
Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.
Cesario, Sandra K
A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses. PMID:19639918
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....
The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report)
Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W
Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.
... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics Print ... advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...
The basic principles of positron emission tomography (PET) technique are reviewed. lt allows to obtain functional images from gamma rays produced by annihilation of a positron, a positive beta particle. This paper analyzes positron emitters production in a cyclotron, its general mechanisms, and the various detection systems. The most important clinical applications are also mentioned, related to oncological uses of fluor-l8-deoxyglucose
Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I: Thermionics covers topics related to thermionic devices. The book starts by providing a physical background about electronics, including structure of matter, ionic, chemical and covalent combination, crystalline structure, conductors and insulators, and thermionic emission. The text then discusses electron dynamics; the characteristics and properties of electrons in solids; electron emission; and thermionic emission in a vacuum diode or triode. The development of the vacuum triode; gas-filled valves; and power amplifiers are also considered. The book
Lymph nodes are involved in a wide variety of diseases, particularly in cancer. In the latter, precise nodal staging is essential to guide therapeutic options and to determine prognosis. For long, imaging of the lymphatic system has been limited to lymph vessel,especially via the exclusive use of conventional lymphography, at the expense of invasive procedures and patient's discomfort. Three main technical advances, however, have recently completed the clinical armamentarium for lymph node imaging: first, the refinement of cross sectional imaging, i.e. CT and MRI, combined or not with dedicated contrast agents, has progressively replaced conventional lymphography in oncology situations; second, the development of intra-operative sentinel node mapping has profoundly modified the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in several cancer situations, mostly melanoma and breast cancer; finally, the increased availability of functional imaging, especially through the use of FDG-PET, has greatly contributed to the accuracy improvement of nodal metastases identification. The aim of this review will thus be to briefly review the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic systems and to overview the basic principles of up-to-date lymph node imaging
Ivanitckiy, A. M.
The given report proposes general and consistent statement of the classical electrodynamics basis using axiomatic and duality principles for its construct. Vector algebra and vector analysis are created by the application of the duality principle. The last fact allows formulating Maxwell equations in strictly symmetric form. It means the statement of electrodynamics postulates (axioms) under a principle of duality. Electrodynamics basis construction begins immediately using its postulates for...
The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups
Gu, Xianglin; Zhou, Yong
Based on the latest version of designing codes both for buildings and bridges (GB50010-2010 and JTG D62-2004), this book starts from steel and concrete materials, whose properties are very important to the mechanical behavior of concrete structural members. Step by step, analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete members under basic loading types (tension, compression, flexure, shearing and torsion) and environmental actions are introduced. The characteristic of the book that distinguishes it from other textbooks on concrete structures is that more emphasis has been laid on the basic theories of reinforced concrete and the application of the basic theories in design of new structures and analysis of existing structures. Examples and problems in each chapter are carefully designed to cover every important knowledge point. As a basic course for undergraduates majoring in civil engineering, this course is different from either the previously learnt mechanics courses or the design courses to be learnt. Compa...
Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...
Full Text Available Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement, "five freedoms" for animals and "Solna principles". "Replacement" means the substitution for conscious living higher animals of insentient material. "Reduction" means reduction in the numbers of animals used to obtain information of a given amount and precision. "Refinement" means any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals which still have to be used. The "five freedoms" are: freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from adverse environmental impacts, freedom from disease and injury, freedom to exhibit normal behavior and freedom from adverse mental states. "Solna principles" state that tests for regulatory purposes need to reflect the following: biological Relevance (meaningfulness and usefulness of a test for a particular purpose, Reliability (reproducibility of results within and between laboratories, and Regulatory acceptability (suitability of a test for risk assessment purposes (human health /environment.
Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.
This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)
Stepanov Vyacheslav Konstantinovich; Starikov Aleksandr Sergeevich
Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities were adopted in 1993 by the United Nations. They have been valid since then. The number of disabled and elderly people is ever growing due to injuries, accidents, environmental problems, deterioration of health, population aging and demographic disorders. The term "universal habitat" reads as "universal design" worldwide. The concept of "universal design" was developed by Ronald Mace, American arc...
Phase Equilibria: Basic Principles, Applications, Experimental Techniques presents an analytical treatment in the study of the theories and principles of phase equilibria. The book is organized to afford a deep and thorough understanding of such subjects as the method of species model systems; condensed phase-vapor phase equilibria and vapor transport reactions; zone refining techniques; and nonstoichiometry. Physicists, physical chemists, engineers, and materials scientists will find the book a good reference material.
In this interactive exercise, the basic principles of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry are shown. Each step of the voltammetric process is described using simulated animations. This activity illustrates what takes place in the voltammetric cell when this technique is applied to the determination of cadmium as well as to the simultaneous determination of copper and cadmium.
Lee, David L.; Axelrod, Saul
This classic book presents the basic principles of behavior emphasizing the use of preventive techniques as well as consequences naturally available in the home, business, or school environment to change important behaviors. This book, and its companion piece, "Measurement of Behavior," represents more than 30 years of research and strategies in…
Basic Principles Simulators have the purpose of teaching general concepts, demonstrating and displaying the fundamental physical processes of a plant. They are used to illustrate theory to students and also to provide a preliminary training to the operators, to aquaint them with the basic dynamic interactions of the various systems during the normal operation of a plant, and to show the consequences of the most important and common transients and malfunctions. Basic principles simulators may vary in size from small desk cabinets to large panels. They represent with a certain detail the nuclear and thermohydraulic part of the plant. The availability of video displays allows to present detailed information about process parameters which are not shown on the control panels. In general the overall plant behaviour is represented well. Limitations are mostly found in the areas of logic and control. (orig./HP)
Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement), "five fr...
Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) has been proposed as a tool for representing goals and functions of complex industrial plants and suggested as a basis for reasoning about control situations. Lind presents an introduction to MFM but do not describe how control functions are used in the modeling. The purpose of the present paper is to serve as a companion paper to this introduction by explaining the basic principles used in MFM for representation of control functions. A theoretical foundation for modeling control functions is presented and modeling examples are given for illustration. (author)
... measuring medications, and understanding nutrition labels all require math skills. Choosing between health plans or comparing prescription ... outcomes. Health information can overwhelm even persons with advanced literacy skills. Medical science progresses rapidly. What people ...
The AECB has developed as its mission statement: 'To ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment'. This report proposes eleven qualitative principles for regulating nuclear activities whose achievement would satisfy the broad policy enunciated in the statement. They would further provide a basis for the specific regulatory requirements expressed by the AECB in its Regulations and other documents. They would thus represent a connecting link between the policy enunciated in the mission statement and the requirements. The proposed principles are largely concerned with how the allowable risk should be set for members of the public, for industry workers, for society as a whole, and for the environment. In making these recommendations the risks from normal operation of the licensed facility and those from a possible serious accident are considered separately. The distribution of risk between geographic communities and between generations is also addressed in the proposed principles. These are listed in the final section of the report. 23 refs
To maximize office productivity, dentists should focus on performing tasks that only they can perform and not spend office hours performing tasks that can be delegated to non-dentist personnel. An important element of maximizing productivity is to arrange the schedule so that multiple patients are seated simultaneously in different operatories. Doing so allows the dentist to work on one patient in one operatory without needing to wait for local anesthetic to take effect on another patient in another operatory, or for assistants to perform tasks (such as cleaning up, taking radiographs, performing prophylaxis, or transporting and preparing equipment and supplies) in other operatories. Another way to improve productivity is to structure procedures so that fewer steps are needed to set up and implement them. In addition, during procedures, four-handed dental passing methods can be used to provide the dentist with supplies or equipment when needed. This article reviews basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity, based on the author's observations of business logistics used by various dental offices. PMID:22414506
Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.C.; Tyson, D.; Ziaoping, Qiu, Lessa, A.
The overall objective is to determine the basic principles and mechanisms which underlie a number of selective oil agglomeration processes that have been proposed for beneficiating fine-size coal. An understanding of the basic principles and mechanisms will greatly facilitate technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.
Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)
This report describes the consequences of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living cells and tissues. The basic processes of living cells, which are relevant to an understanding of health physics problems, are outlined with particular reference to cell-death, cancer induction and genetic effects. (author)
Ella, Victor B.
This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions.
Outlines principles for holistic technology education by examining the following: (1) knowing and understanding through practical engagement with technology; (2) dialectics and praxis; and (3) the work of Dewey, Hegel, Feuerbach, and Marx. Identifies four interconnected factors: humans, applied setting, environment, and tools. (Contains 20…
Agee, James K; Skinner, Carl N
Successful fire exclusion in the 20th century has created severe fire problems across the West. Not every forest is at risk of uncharacteristically severe wildfire, but drier forests are in need of active management to mitigate fire hazard. We summarize a set of simple principles important to address in fuel reduction treatments: reduction of surface fuels, increasing the height to live crown, decreasing crown density, and retaining large trees of fire-resistant species. Thinning and prescrib...
A course designed to provide communications between the designer of a system such as a mechanical engineer or a physicist and the material scientist such as a chemist or chemical engineer is presented. The topics discussed are stoichiometric principles, behavior of ideal gases, vapor pressure, humidity and saturation, solubility of gases in liquids, diffusion of gases, chemical reaction kinetics, and application of concepts to compatibility problems. The appendix provides problems to be used in conjunction with TV lectures
This Safety Guide sets forth the objectives of an adequate strategy for monitoring internal and external radiation exposures of workers. It covers individual monitoring, and workplace monitoring to the extent required for assessment and control of individual radiation doses. The responsibilities of authorities for organizing the monitoring of radiation workers are discussed, and brief descriptions are given of the rules governing the implementation of monitoring methods. The general principles to be considered in selecting instrumentation and appropriate monitoring techniques are described, as well as calibrating techniques, methods of record keeping and related aspects
The technological applications of radioactive isotopes and radiation in South Africa have grown steadily since the first consignment of man-made radioisotopes reached this country in 1948. By the end of 1975 there were 412 authorised non-medical organisations (327 industries) using hundreds of sealed sources as well as their fair share of the thousands of radioisotope consignments, annually either imported or produced locally (mainly for medical purposes). Consequently, it is necessary for South African technologists to understand the principles of radioactivity in order to appreciate the industrial applications of nuclear techniques
Zlotnicki, Jason P; Naendrup, Jan-Hendrik; Ferrer, Gerald A; Debski, Richard E
Motion at the knee joint is a complex mechanical phenomenon. Stability is provided by a combination of static and dynamic structures that work in concert to prevent excessive movement or instability that is inherent in various knee injuries. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a main stabilizer of the knee, providing both translational and rotatory constraint. Despite the high volume of research directed at native ACL function, pathogenesis and surgical reconstruction of this structure, a gold standard for objective quantification of injury and subsequent repair, has not been demonstrated. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that novel anatomic structures may play a significant role in knee stability. The use of biomechanical principles and testing techniques provides essential objective/quantitative information on the function of bone, ligaments, joint capsule, and other contributing soft tissues in response to various loading conditions. This review discusses the principles of biomechanics in relation to knee stability, with a focus on the objective quantification of knee stability, the individual contributions of specific knee structures to stability, and the most recent technological advances in the biomechanical evaluation of the knee joint. PMID:27007474
To overcome the diffraction limit in the optical imaging, the superlens with superresolution are developed using negative index materials. In this part, the basic principle of the near-field superlens is explained in details.
Bevelacqua, Joseph John
Radiation litigation, the cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, radon exposure, nuclear medicine, food irradiation, stricter regulatory climate--these are some of the reasons health physics and radiation protection professionals are increasingly called upon to upgrade their skills. Designed to prepare candidates for the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive examination (Part I) and other certification examinations, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions introduces professionals in the field to radiation protection principles and their practical application in routine and emergency situations. It features more than 650 worked examples illustrating concepts under discussion along with an in-depth coverage of sources of radiation, standards and regulations, biological effects of ionizing radiation, instrumentation, external and internal dosimetry, counting statistics, monitoring and interpretations, operational health physics, transportation and waste, nuclear emergencies, and more. Reflecting for the first time the true scope of health physics at an introductory level, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions gives readers the tools to properly evaluate challenging situations in all areas of radiation protection, including the medical, university, power reactor, fuel cycle, research reactor, environmental, non-ionizing radiation, and accelerator health physics.
The beginnings of modern anesthetic equipment date back to Morton's inhalation flagon in 1846. The numerous devices developed and introduced subsequently can be divided into four groups: 1. Simple ether and chloroform masks for open inhalation anesthesia, from Simpson (1847) to Brown (1928). 2. Vapour inhalators according to the "draw over" principle of Snow (1847) up to the Oxford vaporizer (1941). 3. Closed or half-closed inhalation equipment for ether or chloroform with to and fro breathing, from Clover (1877) to Ombredanne (1908). 4. Equipment for anaesthesia with nitrous oxide. From 1868 onwards this led to the incorporation of gas bottles in anaesthetic equipment and between 1885 and 1890 to the construction of mixing-valves for nitrous oxide and oxygen. In addition, reducing valves, flow meters and vaporizers were developed. The first anaesthetic apparatus with circle system and CO2-absorber was constructed in 1925 by the Dräger factory in Lübeck. Sudeck and Schmidt introduced this technique of anaesthesia in the university hospital of Hamburg-Eppendorf between 1920 and 1925. PMID:6758628
The paper deals with the basic terms which are within scope of activities of the expert group for risk analysis and assessment of potential consequences of a nuclear accident. The expert group is a part of the Technical Support Center which is going to be established within a new croatian national emergency response plan as the Lead Technical Agency in case of a nuclear emergency. Terms such as protective measures (urgent and long-term), intervention levels (generic and operational), projected and avertable doses are considered. Potential accident in the Krsko NPP, as an example for implementation of mentioned terms, is analyzed and a rapid approach for assessment in pretective measures which would be taken is applied. It is emphasized that rapid methods are characterized by a high degree of uncertainty. It is concluded that the time factor remains the most critical one in the entire accident response process. In order to optimize the time necessary for decision making, implementation and surveillance of protective measures, a set of requirements are pointed out. (author)
Full Text Available The radical scavenging antioxidants play an essential role in the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases, and a thorough understanding of the action and capacity of antioxidants is critically important. Despite the assumption that antioxidants must exert beneficial effects against oxidative stress, many large-scale randomized controlled trials gave inconsistent and disappointing results on the prevention of chronic diseases. It is now generally accepted that there is no evidence to support the use of non-discriminative antioxidant supplements for prevention of diseases. On the other hand, recent data show that antioxidants may be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of diseases when the right antioxidant is given to the right subject at the right time for the right duration. Now it is accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS act as physiologically important signaling messengers as well as deleterious agents. The signaling ROS are produced in a subtly regulated manner, while many deleterious ROS are produced and react randomly. Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation products which, in contrast to enzymatic oxidation products, are produced by non-specific mechanisms cause oxidative damage, but may also induce adaptive response to enhance the expression of antioxidant enzymes and compounds. This has raised a question if removal of too many ROS by supplementation of antioxidants may upset the cell signaling pathways and actually increase the risk of chronic diseases. However, it is unlikely that antioxidants impair physiologically essential signaling pathways.
The idea of using saturable reactors as the basis of high power pulse generators is not a new concept, but there have been few recent applications of this technology. Here the principle of magnetic pulse generation is briefly described and some of the basic guidelines used to design these circuits are discussed. A demonstration of the principles by a small scale pulse amplifier is presented, and finally there is an extrapolation to a large scale system
The basic principles and the description of the technical aspects of SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) are described. The applications of SQUIDs in experimental researches and low temperature physics experiments are given. The concepts of fluxoid quantization in a superconductor and Josephson tunnelling are reviewed. The principles, the operation, the noise and the different configurations of r.f. and direct current bias SQUIDs are summarized. The principal characteristics of several SQUIDs are reported
This work offers system and information content of the following economic categories: development, sustainable economic development. The author has formulated the fundamental principles of sustainable development: the principle of minimum resource dissipation and the equation of self-organization, the law of conserving the economic potential of a social system. The basic equation of development has been formulated. The model of sustainable development is viewed on the basis of the equation.
The basic principles and some kinds of voltaic effect type radioisotope batteries are reviewed. This paper is focused on the micro-batteries based on radio-voltaic effect, which are widely used in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMs) and cardiac pacemakers. The prospects of such radio-voltaic isotope batteries are also reported. (authors)
Tkachov, Fyodor V.
This summary of several talks given in 1990-1993 discusses the problem of asymptotic expansions of multiloop Feynman diagrams in masses and external momenta - a central problem in perturbative quantum field theory. Basic principles of the theory of asymptotic operation -- the most powerful tool for that purpose -- are discussed. Its connection with the conventional methods is explained (the BPHZ theory, the method of leading logarithmic approximation etc.). The problem of non-euclidean asympt...
The present paper assembles contributions from the areas of education, psychology, cognitive science, and of course, neuroeducation itself to introduce the basic principles of research in the field of neuroeducation studies. It is particularly important, as such it is a useful way to justify researchers about what neuroeducation as a speciﬁc domain do that no other ﬁeld can do as well or cannot do at all. Based on the literature reviewed, neuroeducational research can be understood as an inte...
O. G. Shirokov
Full Text Available The paper contains formulation of basic theoretical principles pertaining to thermal protection of an oil transformer in accordance with classical theory of relay protection and theory of diagnostics with the purpose of unification of terminological and analytical information which is presently available in respect of this problem. Classification of abnormal thermal modes of an oil transformer and also algorithms and methods for operation of diagnostic thermal protection of a transformer have been proposed.
J.F.N. Abowei; C.C. Tawari; E.N. Ezekiel
A review of some basic principles in fishpond management was reviewed to educate fish culturist, private and public sector to effectively manage culture fisheries. Successful pond management requires more than just stocking fish. It is also important to maintain the proper environmental conditions, to monitor fish harvest and growth, check for successful fish reproduction, and to keep out unwanted fish. This is the science of fish management, the solid basis for ensuring good fishing. Good fi...
The KLT-40 NSSS has been developed for a floating power block of a nuclear heat and power station on the basis of ice-breaker-type NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) with application of shipbuilding technologies. Basic reactor plant components are pressurised water reactor, once-through coil-type steam generator, primary coolant pump, emergency protection rod drive mechanisms of compensate group-electromechanical type. Basic RP components are incorporated in a compact steam generating block which is arranged within metal-water shielding tank's caissons. Domestic regulatory documents on safety were used for the NSSS design. IAEA recommendations were also taken into account. Implementation of basic safety principles adopted presently for nuclear power allowed application of the KLT-40C plant for a floating power unit of a nuclear co-generation station. (author)
Cookson, R; Dolan, P.
This paper compares and contrasts three different substantive (as opposed to procedural) principles of justice for making health care priority-setting or "rationing" decisions: need principles, maximising principles and egalitarian principles. The principles are compared by tracing out their implications for a hypothetical rationing decision involving four identified patients. This decision has been the subject of an empirical study of public opinion based on small-group discussions, which fo...
The purpose of this paper is to present a new proposal to both dualistic and holistic paradigm, by introducing a complex basic unit system mathematical concept in which the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of reality commingle in a unit, and by presenting a new principle, the principle of synergy, we have then a new framework in which the opposites can become complementary. The purpose of the Bus is to establish a complex mathematical unit concept based on Euler relation from which reality, physical reality can be treated and interpreted, starting from more basic principles or just from a unified theoretical point of view. The exact simple pendulum formula and the well-known Schodinger Wave Equation will be the starting point. This approach will mean a departure from the normal evolution of physical western science had taken, but its main advantage will not only be a synthesis of that science but also a unification that will permit validate those great achievements of figures like Galileo, Newton, Amp...
Full Text Available The problem of understanding in the study of basic mathematical concepts in mathematics education has exacerbated during recent years. This is largely due to the fact that the style of thinking of pupils and students thanks to the intensive use of the Web becomes figurative and emotional, less inclined to abstract constructions. Fragments-clip thinking has become more common for most of students. The article deals with the didactic principles to be used in the study of mathematical concepts, which will contribute to achieving understanding.
A nuclear power plant basic principles simulator is a package of programs that numerically solve the dynamic equations of the simulated plant. This kind of tools is mainly used in the first step of training of operational personnel, to allow mental representation of physical phenomena governing the plant. They are also used for students or professional training, and experienced operators can also improve there performance under abnormal operation situations using the simulator. For the Embalse nuclear power plant, mainly the thermohydraulic behaviour, is simulated. The mathematical model was adapted from MANUVR, a code developed at the Electric Systems and Control Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). (Author)
The overall objective of this work is to determine the important principles and basic mechanisms which underlie various selective oil agglomeration processes for beneficiating fine-size coal in order to facilitate the technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. The recent work described herein has involved a more detailed study of the effects of mild oxidation on the surface properties of different types of coal and the relationship between the agglomerability of oxidized coals and their surface properties. In addition, the work has involved developing more effective means for separating coal and pyrite by finding and applying selective depressants for pyrite.
Riccabona, Michael, E-mail: email@example.com
Ultrasonography (US) is the mainstay of paediatric Radiology. This review aims at revisiting basic US principles, to list specific needs throughout childhood, and to discuss the application of new and modern US methods. The various sections elude to basic US physics, technical requisites and tips for handling, diagnostically valuable applications of modern techniques, and how to properly address hazards, risks and limitations. In conclusion, US holds vast potential throughout childhood in almost all body regions and many childhood specific queries – helping to reduce the need for or to optimize more invasive or irradiating imaging. Make the most of US and offerings a dedicated paediatric US service throughout the day, the week and the year thus is and will stay a major task of Paediatric Radiology.
For purposes of limitation of harmful factors, e.g. radiation, it is proposed to divide all countless numbers of biological effects into three groups: 1) social important effects (ultimate and effects); 2) intermediate effects (different diseases etc.), which are connected with and controlled by the first group; 3) pure biological effects, importance of which is not known. To determine the first group effects there are identified four indices describing all significant sides of human life: time of life, life-time integral of mental and physical capacity for work, aesthetical satisfaction from organism itself, reproduction of descendants. They reflect the main social and individual interests related to functioning of organism. On the base of weighing these indices it is suggested the united general index of health in form of time of a full life. The united index can be used for different principles of limitation (based on threshold, acceptable risk, maximum benefit). To realize the principle of maximum public benefit as ideal principle in the future limitation all benefit and detriment from utilization of harmful sources must be expressed in the united index of health (instead of money), which is the greatest value of individual and society. Authors suggest to standartize ionizing radiation on the general methodological approaches that were acceptable to non-ionizing factors too
This presentation is about the basic principles, physiologic variants and devices that work in the PET/TAC technique. Next the conclusions obtained in the same one are presented: For a correct evaluation of the PET/TAC images with FDG is necessary the knowledge of the image acquisition technique, as well as of the physiologic distribution of the FDG, variants of the normality, benign causes of captation and more frequent devices. The introduction of this hybrid procedure allows the correct anatomical localization and identification of the deposits of FDG largely avoiding false or doubtful interpretations, but it can also originate not specific devices existent in the conventional PET. The previous knowledge of the possible devices will make possible in certain cases its elimination and in other its identification avoiding incorrect interpretations. (Author)
Recent neurophysiological observations are giving rise to the expectation that in the near future genuine biological experiments may contribute more than will premature speculations to the understanding of global and cognitive functions. The classical reflex principle--as the basis of neural functions--has to yield to new ideas, like autopoiesis and/or self-organization, as the basic paradigm in the framework of which the essence of the neural can be better understood. Neural activity starts in the very earliest stages of development well before receptors and afferent input become functional. Under suitable conditions, both in nervous tissue cultures and in embryonic tissue recombination experiments, the conditions of such initial autopoietic activity can be studied. This paper tries to generalize this elementary concept for various neural centers, notably for the spinal segmental apparatus and the cerebral cortex. PMID:8236059
One of the primary goals of the application of mathematical methods and computational techniques in reactor physics is the effective and accurate solution of the neutron diffusion equation under various conditions. To reach this goal still requires much skill, experience, knowledge and imagination as can be seen from various contributions at this and other conferences. Experts are necessary. Will expert systems replace them. We shall discuss this question by describing the basic principles of problem solving by expert systems as compared to problem solving by mathematical and computational methods. From this we shall identify areas of possible applications of the new techniques in nuclear energy and develop some thoughts on present limitations. As a result we conclude that expert systems will not be able to replace experts as long as the experts use the systems to improve their own expertise
Liutov, G P
The comprehensive approach to choosing the nomenclature of aerosol inhalers is based on the definition of the basic principles in the development of apparatuses as to the optimization of their consumer qualities, the unification of basic blocks and the enhancement of their reliability. With the use of the approach, two models of fixed inhalers have been put into practice, a portable universal inhaler is brought to a commercial level, and two models of portable heat humid inhalers are under development, which is in full conformity with health care requirements for this medical equipment. PMID:7707891
Full Text Available Knowledge and technologies arising from the Human Genome Project promise in time to offer new opportunities for the treatment and prevention of disease. The enterprise of public health genomics aims to bridge the gap between advances in basic research and their responsible and effective implementation in clinical services and public health programmes. Public health genomics stresses the importance of understanding how genes and environment act together to influence health; avoiding genetic exceptionalism; appreciating the social and political context of genomic advances; and encouraging critical evaluation of proposed new tests and interventions. New international networks and collaborations are being established to develop public health genomics and further its aims.
Full Text Available Rehabilitation after ACL (anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has drastically changed over the last decade, with the adoption of a more aggressive approach, right from the first day after surgery. Progress in the effectiveness of rehabilitation is based on improvements in operative techniques, as well as on the encouraging results of histological studies regarding graft healing. Despite a huge amount of research papers on this topic, a rehabilitation golden standard still has not been established, due to the complexity of this problem. In this review, we point out the basic principles of rehabilitation after arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction based on actual practices, as well as the importance of specific procedures for the prevention of complications during the postoperative period. The importance of range-of-motion exercises, early weight bearing, an appropriate gait scheme, patella mobilisation, pain and oedema control, as well as stretching and balance exercises is explained. The functional advantages of closed kinetic chain exercises, as well as their influence on the graft are also described, in comparison to open kinetic chain exercises. The fundamentals of returning to sports are revealed and the specific aspects of rehabilitation regarding graft choice are pointed out. While waiting for new clinical investigations, which are expected to enable the establishment of a rehabilitation golden standard, the outlined principles should be followed. The complexity of this injury requires treatment in highly specialised institutions.
Full Text Available A review of some basic principles in fishpond management was reviewed to educate fish culturist, private and public sector to effectively manage culture fisheries. Successful pond management requires more than just stocking fish. It is also important to maintain the proper environmental conditions, to monitor fish harvest and growth, check for successful fish reproduction, and to keep out unwanted fish. This is the science of fish management, the solid basis for ensuring good fishing. Good fish management begins with an understanding of your pond’s physical, chemical, and biological features. Pond ecology, fish biology, site selection. Construction, liming, fertilization, brackish water pond management, culture species, stock management, managing fish population, management system, harvesting, fresh water pond management, fish species selection, fish stocking in fresh water ponds, stocking density, feeding, pond testing, diagnosing problems in pond, correcting muddy ponds, fish kills, aquatic weed control, managing other animals, habitat, pond renovation, fish harvesting in fresh water ponds, marketing and legal considerations are other important fish pond management principles the fish culturist need to know.
... additional option to establish a Basic Health Program for certain low-income individuals who would otherwise... 14, 2011 (76 FR 56767), HHS published a Request for Information (RFI) inviting the public to provide... 42 CFR Part 600 Office of the Secretary 45 CFR Part 144 Basic Health Program: State Administration...
This manuscript is dedicated to student of biological sciences. It provides the information necessary to perform practical works, the most commonly used in immunology. During my doctoral and post-doctoral periods, panoply of methods was employed in diverse subjects in my research. Technical means used in my investigations were diverse enough that i could extract a set of techniques that cover most the basic immunological methods. Each chapter of this manuscript contains a fairly complete description of immunological methods. In each topic the basic protocol and its variants were preceded by background information provided in paragraphs concerning the principle and generalities. The emphasis is placed on describing situations in which each method and its variants were used. These basic immunological methods are useful for students and even researchers studying the immune system of human, nice and other species. Different subjects showed not only detailed protocols but also photos or/and shemas used as support to illustrate some knowledge or practical knowledge. I hope that students will find this manual interesting, easy to use contains necessary information to acquire skills in immunological practice. (Author)
Full Text Available The present paper assembles contributions from the areas of education, psychology, cognitive science, and of course, neuroeducation itself to introduce the basic principles of research in the field of neuroeducation studies. It is particularly important, as such it is a useful way to justify researchers about what neuroeducation as a speciﬁc domain do that no other ﬁeld can do as well or cannot do at all. Based on the literature reviewed, neuroeducational research can be understood as an interdisciplinary endeavor to develop an insightful understanding and holistic picture of problems related to learning and education. It thus epistemologically is based on an integrated methodological pluralism paradigm. This requires researchers to understand multiple methods and methodologies and employ as they formulate their own research projects. Researchers have a critical role to play in providing systematic evidence and conclusions that are scientifically valid and reliable and educationally relevant and usable. One significant implication of this argument is the need to strengthen the quality of the research component in graduate programs of the field and train interested researchers in the identification and formulation of relevant research questions.
Gokben Hizli Sayar
Full Text Available Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy is a psychotherapy modality that helps the patient recognize the relationship between disruptions in social rhythms and the onset of previous episodes of psychiatric disorders. It uses psychoeducation and behavioral techniques to maintain social rhythm and sleep/wake regularity. It is closely related to and ldquo;social zeitgeber theory and rdquo; that emphasizes the importance that social rhythm regularity may play in synchronization of circadian rhythms in individuals with or at risk for bipolar spectrum disorders. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy have been shown to stabilize social rhythms and enhance course and outcome in bipolar disorder. This review focuses on the theoretical principles and the basic steps of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy as a psychotherapy approach in bipolar disorder. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar databases were searched without temporal restriction. Search terms included interpersonal social rhythm therapy, bipolar, mood disorders. Abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and randomized controlled trials of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy in bipolar disorder selected. These researches also summarized on the final part of this review. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 438-446
Full Text Available One of the most important achievements of the contemporary criminal justice system and criminal policy is development of the concept of restorative justice. Contemporary concept of restorative justice was developed in 1970s on the basis of the criticism of the traditional criminal law and criminal justice system. Since that time, it has been developing through different programs in many countries. Reform of the criminal justice system in Serbia staring from 2002 went into direction of entering elements of restorative justice into existing criminal justice system. In that sense, development of restorative justice is still at the beginning in our country. However, it can be noticed that there is a low level of awareness on the nature and importance of restorative forms of response to crime among our professionals, as well as a lack of understanding of the concept itself. Due to that, the aim of the paper is to enable better understanding of restorative concept in general through defining restorative justice and basic principles it relies on. That may put a basis for further recognition of restorative elements in our criminal justice system, which may provide adequate implementation of relevant provisions of restorative character in practice. .
Full Text Available In view of the basic contemporary classification criteria attempted the classification of unmanned aircraft systems have been attempted on the basis of available scientific and technical potential, of their applications features, and prospects for development of information and the aircraft manufacturing technologies. Based on the global trends analysis of unmanned aircraft systems development in determining the prospects for development of unmanned aircraft systems as a class has been discussed the need to use a single general classification system features that reflects the level of functional independence of the aircraft belonging to the UAS and takes into account not only the level of technical excellence, but also the level of development information and logistics systems. The formation principles of unmanned aircraft systems and complexes have been considered due to the UAC development problems, including the issues of the complex architectonics, its full composition, unmanned aircraft controlling methods, and the procedures for the unmanned aviation complex use as a whole taking into account the peculiarities the different UAVs categories application.
L. V. Martsenyuk
Full Text Available Purpose. Undeveloped infrastructure and the system of public and tourist transport services prevent boom and spread of tourism glory of the country. Therefore, the development of tourist infrastructure and transport communication routes is a priority task. Methodology. Article methodology is based on the use of consequent methodological technique. Findings. Author analyzed the situation of tourism industry in Ukraine, set the basic principles for the tourism development and its priorities. The article contains the author's point of view on the fact that the tourism industry is of paramount importance to the state economics, and the development of this sector of public life should be a priority task for the near future. Originality. According to the author, the development of the inbound tourism is more reasonable, because it provides additional workplaces and exchange earnings. The author insists that the raise of quality level of domestic tourist services to the European standards would accelerate the development of Ukrainian tourism and would attract more holidaymakers from Ukraine and neighbouring countries. Practical value. The rational measures, which were taken regarding the proposed directions for the tourism development, can improve competitiveness of the Ukrainian tourist industry on the European tourist market.
The recent vigorous transnational migration of people and materials reflecting the development of transportation facilities, changes in social structure, and war disasters has increased the global spread of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Vaccine, which is the major fundamental prophylaxis against infectious diseases, has greatly contributed to the maintenance and improvement of human health worldwide. However, the disadvantages of conventional injection systems hamper the speedy mass-vaccination and the global distribution of vaccines. Transcutaneous immunization systems, which are easy-to-use and low-invasive methods of vaccination, have the potential to overcome certain issues associated with injectable vaccinations. In this review, we provide an outline of recent trends in the development of techniques for the transcutaneous delivery of vaccine antigens. We also introduce basic and clinical research involving our transcutaneous immunization systems that incorporate self-dissolving microneedle patch. PMID:24292185
Subhose, Varanasi; Srinivas, Pitta; Narayana, Ala
Pharmaceutical is one of the allied branches of science, which is closely associated with Medical science. Today pharmaceutical chemistry and pharmacognosy are playing important role in treatment for a disease and its prevention. Herbal medicines are being used by about 80% of the world population mostly in the developing countries in the primary health care. There has been an upsurge in demand for the Phyto-pharmaceutical products of Ayurvĕda in western nations, because of the fact that the synthetic drugs are considered to be unsafe. Due to this many national and multinational pharmaceutical companies are now concentrating on manufacturing of Ayurvĕdic Phyto-pharmaceutical products. Ayurvĕda is the Indian traditional system of medicine, which also deals about pharmaceutical science. The Ayurvĕdic knowledge of the pharmaceutical science is scattered in Ayurvĕdic classical texts. Săranghadhara Samhita, which is written by Săranghadhara, explain systematically about the information of the Ayurvĕdic pharmaceutical science and also updated it. Industrialized manufacturing of Ayurvĕdic dosage forms has brought in new challenges like deviation from basic concepts of medicine preparation. Săranghadhara Samrhită the devout text on pharmaceutics in Ayurvĕda comes handy to solve such problems, as the methods described are very lucid and easy to follow. PMID:17333665
Martyushev, Leonid M.
The overwhelming majority of maximum entropy production applications to ecological and environmental systems are based on thermodynamics and statistical physics. Here, we discuss briefly maximum entropy production principle and raises two questions: (i) can this principle be used as the basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and (ii) is it possible to ‘prove’ the principle? We adduce one more proof which is most concise today.
Shows how teachers can provide a more meaningful presentation of various accounting principles by illustrating them through a cyclical relationship approach. Thus, the students see the entire accounting relationship as a result of doing business. (CT)
PUZYNYA T.A.; BESKROVNAYA V.A.
The tax system of the Russian Federation based on economic and legal principles, to include economic justice, proportionality, efficiency or effectiveness, to legal same the legitimacy of the establishment, the combination of the interests of taxpayers with state authorities. In addition to the principles of taxation often include organizational rules, which imply a common methodological framework in the calculation of taxes and their exhaustive list.
Karl-Johan M. Söderholm
Full Text Available Different coatings are used in dentistry in an attempt to prevent caries, improve bonding of restorative materials to tooth tissues, and coat implant surfaces in efforts to speed up osseointegration. These are just a few of the many coating applications used in dentistry. The intention of this review is not to cover the entire field of different coatings used in dentistry, because that topic is just too big to be covered in one single paper. Therefore, this review aims to highlight some fundamental coating principles and present these principles to an audience consisting mainly of dentists. To do so, this review will focus on the fundamental principles of coatings, namely surface properties/adhesives in general, since these topics form the foundation for most coating procedures used in dentistry.
Харченко, В.П.; Національний авіаційний університет; Прусов, Д.Е.; Національний авіаційний університет
In view of the basic contemporary classification criteria attempted the classification of unmanned aircraft systems have been attempted on the basis of available scientific and technical potential, of their applications features, and prospects for development of information and the aircraft manufacturing technologies. Based on the global trends analysis of unmanned aircraft systems development in determining the prospects for development of unmanned aircraft systems as a class has been dis...
Nunes, A. C., Jr.
This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.
Heyneman, Stephen P
As a political strategy, Education-for-All has been a failure. Originally designed to attract education investments over other priorities, the portion of donor resources devoted to education has been stagnant. The strategy has made a fetish out of primary education at the expense of education sector development; generated a donor monopoly over client interests and exaggerated the role of the state in education provision. Stephen P. Heyneman explains why it is crucial now to return to basic pr...
It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHEC...
Ji Hoon Shin
Full Text Available Radiofrequency (RF ablation has been gaining popularity as a minimally invasive treatment for benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. RF ablation of benign nodules demonstrated volume reductions of 33–58% after one month and 51–85% after six months, while solving nodule-related clinical problems. RF ablation has recently shown positive short-term results for locoregional control as well as symptom improvement in patients with recurrent thyroid cancers. This paper reviews the basic physics, indications, patient preparation, devices, procedures, clinical results, and complications of RF ablation.
Formalism of the quantum mechanics developed for microscopic (atomic) level comes into collision with some logical difficulties on mesoscopic level. Some fundamental differences between application of its basic principles on microscopic and mesoscopic levels are accentuated.
The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) has taken a leadership role in promoting responsible planning, management and work practices that meet the pipeline industry's environment, health and safety objectives. This brochure contains CEPA's environment, health and safety statement. It lists the guiding principles developed and endorsed by CEPA and its member companies in support of protecting the environment and the health and safety of its employees and the public. The 11 CEPA member companies are: Alberta Natural Gas Company Ltd., ATCO Gas Services Ltd., Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd., Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., NOVA Gas Transmission Limited, TransGas Limited, Trans Mountain Pipe Line Company Ltd., Trans-Northern Pipelines Inc., Trans Quebec and Maritimes Pipeline Inc., and Westcoast Energy Inc
One of problems in health environment is organic liquid waste from many pollutant resources. Environmental friendly technology for degrading this waste is ozone which produced by plasma discharge technology, but its capability is limited. However, it is needed a new environmental friendly technology which has stronger capability. This new technology is so called advanced oxidation technology. Advanced oxidation technology is a hybrid of ozone, peroxide, UV light and photo catalyst. In this paper, it is introduced basic principle of hybrid of ozone and titania photo catalyst semiconductor. The capability of organic liquid degradation will be stronger because there is new radical which is produced by chemical reaction between electron-hole pair from photo catalyst titania and water or oxygen. This new radical then degrades this organic pollutant. This technology is used to degrade phenol. (author)
The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with essential keys to a unified understanding of the rapidly expanding field of molecular materials and devices: electronic structures and bonding, magnetic, electrical and photo-physical properties, and the mastering of electrons in molecular electronics. Chemists will discover how basic quantum concepts allow us to understand the relations between structures, electronic structures, and properties of molecular entities and assemblies, and to design new molecules and materials. Physicists and engineers will realize how the molecular world fits in with their need for systems flexible enough to check theories or provide original solutions to exciting new scientific and technological challenges. The non-specialist will find out how molecules behave in electronics at the most minute, sub-nanosize level. The comprehensive overview provided in this book is unique and will benefit undergraduate and graduate students in chemistry, materials science, and engineering, ...
This book introduces the fascinating world of plasmonics and physics at the nanoscale, with a focus on simulations and the theoretical aspects of optics and nanotechnology. A research field with numerous applications, plasmonics bridges the gap between the micrometer length scale of light and the secrets of the nanoworld. This is achieved by binding light to charge density oscillations of metallic nanostructures, so-called surface plasmons, which allow electromagnetic radiation to be focussed down to spots as small as a few nanometers. The book is a snapshot of recent and ongoing research and at the same time outlines our present understanding of the optical properties of metallic nanoparticles, ranging from the tunability of plasmonic resonances to the ultrafast dynamics of light-matter interaction. Beginning with a gentle introduction that highlights the basics of plasmonic interactions and plasmon imaging, the author then presents a suitable theoretical framework for the description of metallic nanostructu...
Lehr, James L.
Because radiology represents a sizeable financial and operational component of any health care delivery system, the needs for and opportunities provided by a radiology information system should be carefully considered in planning any medical data processing system. Experience with such systems over the past fifteen years has demonstrated that they can improve service quality and save money. The functions which can be performed by radiology computer systems are relatively well defined and will...
I introduce here the principles I use in my investigation of intercultural marketing and management. I explain how I discovered them, and show how they spring from a theoretical understanding of the dynamic of cultural differences. One of the basic methodological principles for my analysis of...
Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.
Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students’ acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students’ personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students’ potential for intellectual and personal growth. PMID:23162369
Khodyreva Viktoriia Andreevna
This research is devoted to general principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises. Development of small-scale enterprises is one of the most important lines of tax policy in Russian Federation. The development of principles of taxation is important while forming a strong state system of taxation. In this work basic principles and some specific are provided. This work is of great scientific interest to law students, graduates, teachers and other persons interested in law and particularly i...
Within the framework of the 5. coupled model inter-comparison project, an ensemble of coordinated decadal forecast simulations have been carried out, for the first time, by the climate community. This new initiative first aims at better understanding the decadal modulations that are superimposed on the anthropogenic-forced warming tendency and that are mostly explained, at such a timescale, by the internal variability in the ocean. The goal of this initiative is then to provide a first assessment of the climate predictability at decadal timescale. Forecasts differ from climate projections by the mandatory step of initialization of the model components either to direct observations or their reconstruction via the reanalyzes. They aim at simulating at best the observed fluctuations whereas projections and historical simulations only estimate the climate response to so-called external forcings such as solar activity, volcanism and anthropogenic perturbations. The goal of this article is primarily to review the basics of the decadal forecasts (concepts, methodologies, difficulties and limits) and to present preliminary and simple results on predictive skill estimated from hind-casts over 1960-2010. (authors)
A number of basic elements for neutron spin manipulation optics (NSMO) based on Larmor and non-Larmor (quantum) precessions under reflection are considered. It is concluded that transition to 3D in neutron polarization optics may bring additional instrumental possibilities. New neutron optical devices will include spin turners (particularly, π/2-turners and π- turners, or flippers), spin precessors and antiprecessors, 3D-polarizers, 3D-analyzers, 3D- rotators, spin manipulators, hyper-polarizers. The innovative neutron optics is directly applicable to developing 3D polarization and polarimetry techniques, such as reflectometry with 3D- polarimetry, Neutron optical Spin Echo (NoSE), including compact NoSE and TOF NoSE schemes. A hyper-polarizer is a device which not only separates neutrons with the opposite spins, but also flips the 'wrong' spins. Thus, hyper-polarizers can double the intensity of polarized neutron beams, although a gain in the intensity can be achieved only with the increase either in the angular divergence or in the width of the beam, in full accordance with the Liouville theorem. The tasks to be solved for implementation of the NSMO concepts are discussed.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.
As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on basic eddy current principles. The subject is presented under the following headings: Basic Eddy Current Concepts, Eddy Current Generation and Distribution,…
Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony
We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from…
Full Text Available It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF. If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological
The basic principle of the civil law embodies the basic concepts of civil law ,which is highly abstract and generalization of the civil law system and has important significance to guide the civil law and helps carry out the civil justice and civil activities smoothly .To study the basic principle of civil law ,first of all ,we should grasp the meaning and characteristics of the basic principles of the civil law to conduct in-depth analysis .Secondly ,we should study the development of the basic principles of the civil law of the world and make a comprehensive analysis of the basic content of the basic principles of civil law . Finally ,by studying the function and role of the basic principles of the civil law ,we can overcome the limits of statute law .We hope that through the in -depth study and analysis of the basic principles of the civil law , we can deepen our understanding of the basic principles of the civil law ,fully exert the function and basic principles of the civil law and serve the socialist civilization of rule by promoting law construction and economic and social development .% 民法基本原则体现着民法的基本理念，是对民事法律制度的高度抽象和概括，对指导民事法律立法、民事司法以及民事活动的顺利进行都具有重要的意义。要研究民法的基本原则，首先，要对民法基本原则的含义和特征进行深入的分析。其次，了解世界范围内民法基本原则的发展历程，全面分析我国民法基本原则的基本内容。最后，通过发挥民法基本原则的功能和作用，来克服我国成文法的局限性。希望能够通过对民法基本原则的深入研究和剖析，加深我们对民法基本原则的认识和理解，充分发挥民法基本原则的功能和作用，为社会主义法治文明建设和经济社会发展服务。
Gerlach, Martin; Sanner, Bernd
Sleep disorders are frequent. Economic costs and impairment of quality of life can be substantial. Usually, patients suffer from insomnia or hypersomnia. Several effective therapeutic options are available. Sleep disorders appear independently or accompany a multitude of organic and psychiatric diseases. Fatigue has to be distinguished from sleep disorders clearly. For classification, the ICSD-3, published by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, is used. Patients should be explicitly asked for their sleep quality, for many do not report actively. Patient's history and clinical examination usually narrow the diagnosis to a large extent. Clinical diagnostics should be carried out according to the diagnostic algorithm by the German Sleep Society (DGSM). An optimal sleep hygiene and if necessary weight reduction are crucial and can prevent chronification and health consequences. In addition, assistive technology, drug therapy, behaviour therapy, and in few cases surgery are available. PMID:26306014
According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo, some basic principles in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids can be estab- lished systematically. In this paper, an important integral relation in terms of con- volutions is given, which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem, but also to derive systemati- cally the complementary functionals for the eight-field, six-field, four-field simpli- fied Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the two-field one in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.
LUO En; LI WeiHua
According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo, some basic principles in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids can be established systematically. In this paper, an important integral relation in terms of convolutions is given, which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation, it Is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for the eight-field, six-field, four-field simplified Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the two-field one in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.
According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity,in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo,some basic principles in the linear theory of piezoelectric micropolar elastodynamics can be established systematically. In this paper,an important integral relation in terms of convolutions is given,which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation,it is not only possible to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem,but also to systematically derive the complementary functionals for the eleven-field,nine-field and six-field simplified Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the three-field one in the linear theory of piezoelectric micropolar elastodynamics by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore,with this approach,the intrinsic relationships among various principles can be explained clearly.
Weist, Mark D.; Sander, Mark A.; Walrath, Christine; Link, Benjaman; Nabors, Laura; Adelsheim, Steve; Moore, Elizabeth; Jennings, Jenni; Carrillo, Kristine
On the basis of activities of a federally funded national center for school mental health, review of literature on principles for best practice in child and adolescent mental health and school health, and consultation with national experts and family members, a set of 10 principles for best practice in school mental health was developed. A survey…
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Home Health Agency (HHA) Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare HHA claims. The CMS BSA...
Bodnar, YE. B.
Purpose. Justification of the basic principles of construction on-board diagnostic systems locomotive and choose from high-performance and reliable interface for the exchange of information on-board diagnostic systems. Methodology. Problem of getting correct and adequate information about the technical state of the technical object is solved with the use and compliance of the fundamental principles of modern computers. Findings. High-performance and reliable interface to exchange messages bet...
In this study, the information about war in Nahj al-Balagha, which contains many views of Hz Ali on many subjects, is considered in the light of basic principles of Islamic law of war. After the brief information of the understanding the war in Islam, the information in the Nahj al-Balagha about war is expressed in the light of basic principles of Islamic law of war, beneath three headlines as before war, during and after war. In the final analysis, it is emphasized that whether the informati...
Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.
Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…
... lowest in the Southwest. For cancers of the breast and cervix, American Indian/Alaska Native women are less likely than white women to have their cancer found early. References 1 National Cancer Institute. Health Disparities Defined. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and ...
There were revealed the basic principles of evaluating the real investments effectiveness, compliance with which will ensure the economic feasibility of projects, simplification of the evaluation process and rational behaviour of economic entities in their implementation. Sequence of forming the components of the systematic approach to the approval of management decisions was defined.
Public finance principles, though usually treated as a minor consideration, lie at the heart of effective national health care reform. Four principles are discussed: charge for a service where its cost is created; distinguish rents, resources, and transfers; know what services cost and pay accordingly; balance distributional and equity concerns. The principles' implications include: since employment does not much affect health costs, financing (particularly of incremental insureds) need not b...
This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the p
This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the p
Chapter topics • The history of the evolving recognition of the need to regulate research involving human subjects • Consideration of some key ethical principles relevant to the research process • Applying ethical understanding in the practice of research
Full Text Available Termination of pregnancy is an event that takes place at the request of expectant parents or due to reasons beyond their desire. However, in the presence of appropriate indications, there is no need for abortion debate. In this case, it is important to terminate the pregnancy with the request of expectant parents. Even if cessation of the pregnancy is performed within a legal framework, basic ethical principles, such as autonomy, do no harm, being useful and fairness should be applied. Precisely the problem for physicians already emerges at this point and the physicians can fall in a dilemma about how to behave with the mother or the fetus. In this article, ethical dilemmas that may arise in termination of pregnancy will be discussed briefly in accordance with the basic ethical principles.
Full Text Available In order to have a systematic theoretical education of Marxism among university students, help university students master the world outlook and methodology of Marxism, set up Marxism’s outlook on life and sense of worth, learn to use the world outlook and methodology of Marxism to observe and analyze problems and cultivate and improve university students’ capacity in applying Marxism theory to analyze and resolve actual problems, teachers have to have positive exploration in the classroom teaching in teaching of “Introduction to the Basic Principles of Marxism” in colleges and universities, based on human-orientation, establish teachers’ leading role and students’ subject position, change the traditional concepts, realize three changes in the process of teaching, keep pace with the times, continuously update means of teaching, connect theory with reality, reflect the methodology significance of courses and enhance effectiveness of the classroom teaching of “Introduction to the Basic Principles of Marxism”.
Full Text Available A conceptual model for a computer aided design and engineering system has been developed in the paper. The paper presents basic automation process principles including a graphical representation network and calculation results, convenient user interface, automatic mode calculation, selection of transformer rated power and cross-section area of wires. The developed algorithm and program make it possible to save time and improve quality of project implementation.
Ivo Cap; Klara Capova; Dagmar Faktorova
The paper deals with the basic principles of operation and with the utilization possibilities of phased array (PA) in materials nondestructive testing (NDT). The first part deals with description of PA arrangement modes, which enable to generate, focus and steer the ultrasonic beem. The second part deals with the description of electromagnetic acoustic transducer PA operation. The last part deals with the description of the utilization of PA in nondestructive testing of conductive materials a...
Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan
Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences and 3T field strength magnets allow high quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfus...
Prager, C M; Varga, A; Olmsted, P; Ingram, J C; Cattau, M; Freund, C; Wynn-Grant, R; Naeem, S
Programs and projects employing payments for ecosystem service (PES) interventions achieve their objectives by linking buyers and sellers of ecosystem services. Although PES projects are popular conservation and development interventions, little is known about their adherence to basic ecological principles. We conducted a quantitative assessment of the degree to which a global set of PES projects adhered to four ecological principles that are basic scientific considerations for any project focused on ecosystem management: collection of baseline data, identification of threats to an ecosystem service, monitoring, and attention to ecosystem dynamics or the formation of an adaptive management plan. We evaluated 118 PES projects in three markets-biodiversity, carbon, and water-compiled using websites of major conservation organizations; ecology, economic, and climate-change databases; and three scholarly databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, and Google Scholar). To assess adherence to ecological principles, we constructed two scientific indices (one additive [ASI] and one multiplicative [MSI]) based on our four ecological criteria and analyzed index scores by relevant project characteristics (e.g., sector, buyer, seller). Carbon-sector projects had higher ASI values (P water-sector projects and marginally higher ASI scores (P budget. These findings suggest, at this critical phase in the rapid growth of PES projects, that fundamental ecological principles should be considered more carefully in PES project design and implementation in an effort to ensure PES project viability and sustainability. PMID:26502915
Nancarrow, Susan A
Abstract This paper proposes approaches to break down the boundaries that reduce the ability of the health workforce to respond to population needs, or workforce flexibility. Accessible health services require sufficient numbers and types of skilled workers to meet population needs. However, there are several reasons that the health workforce cannot or does not meet population needs. These primarily stem from workforce shortages. However, the health workforce can also be prevented from respon...
YE. B. Bodnar
Full Text Available Purpose. Justification of the basic principles of construction on-board diagnostic systems locomotive and choose from high-performance and reliable interface for the exchange of information on-board diagnostic systems. Methodology. Problem of getting correct and adequate information about the technical state of the technical object is solved with the use and compliance of the fundamental principles of modern computers. Findings. High-performance and reliable interface to exchange messages between different units of management systems and on-board diagnostic systems was selected. Properties which are required high data rate, high reliability and low error rate of information transfer. Originality. The main principles of building on-board diagnostic systems which ensure compliance locomotives accumulation of accurate and adequate information about the technical condition which is necessary to organize its maintenance and repair were formulated. Practical value. Diagnostic equipment designed with use of requirements set forth above and principles will affect the technical condition of the engine, increasing the likelihood of uptime, productivity and locomotive repair teams. The introduction of on-board diagnostic systems and stationary locomotives will significantly improve the system and optimize their maintenance costs of maintenance and repairs. Besides, information about diagnostic parameters changing accumulated with the aim of airborne systems will be used in order to create mathematical models that, in turn, will organize a system of maintenance and predict the technical condition of locomotives
Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy
The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that can be housed in a given space footprint, and they are thus able to support large and diverse research programs. This review is designed to provide managers, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other parties responsible for care and use of these animals with a comprehensive overview of the basic operating and design principles of zebrafish housing systems. This information can be used to help plan the construction of new facilities and/or the upgrade and maintenance of existing operations. PMID:23382349
The purpose is to reestablish rather complete basic balance equations and boundary conditions for polar thermomechanical continua based on the restudy of the traditional theories of micropolar thermoelasticity and thermopiezoelectricity. The equations of motion and the local balance equation of energy rate for micropolar thermoelasticity are derived from the rather complete principle of virtual power. The equations of motion, the balance equation of entropy and all boundary conditions are derived from the rather complete Hamilton principle. The new balance equations of momentum and energy rate which are essentially different from the existing results are presented. The corresponding results of micromorphic thermoelasticity and couple stress elastodynamics may be naturally obtained by the transition and the reduction from the micropolar case, respectively. Finally, the results of micropolar thermopiezoelectricity are directly given.
Fartoukh, S; Hofle, W; Lamont, M; de Maria, R; Miyamoto, R; Muller, G; Ponce, L; Redaelli, S; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Tomas, R; Vanbavinckhove, G; Wenninger, J
The Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) scheme is a novel squeezing mechanism enabling the production of very low β* in circular colliders. The basic principles of the ATS scheme will be reviewed together with its strong justification for the High-Luminosity LHC Project. In this context, a few dedicated experiments with beam were meticulously prepared and took place at the LHC in 2011. The results obtained will be highlighted, demonstrating the potential of the ATS scheme for any upgrade project relying on a strong reduction of β*.
Based on the theory of latency system and dominance system and the analytical methods of the four forms and five stages in the development of a disease, this article is to explore the regularity of the five basic patterns of a syndrome to explain the mechanism of its occurrence and development. Different patterns of a syndrome suggest different areas affected and symptoms of a disease. Therefore, different treating principles and prescriptions should be adopted, I.e., 'treating the same syndrome with different methods'.
Norman Daniels, in applying Rawls' theory of justice to the issue of human health, ideally presupposes that society exists in a state of moderate scarcity. However, faced with problems like climate change, many societies find that their state of moderate scarcity is increasingly under threat. The first part of this essay aims to determine the consequences for Daniels' theory of just health when we incorporate into Rawls' understanding of justice the idea that the condition of moderate scarcity can fail. Most significantly, I argue for a generation-neutral principle of basic needs that is lexically prior to Rawls' familiar principles of justice. The second part of this paper aims to demonstrate how my reformulated version of Daniels' conception of just health can help to justify action on climate change and guide climate policy within liberal-egalitarian societies. PMID:21913049
Bárbara Carvalho Malheiros
Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: This study is an experience report on the construction of a map of a Basic Health Unit (BHU. The objective was to understand the relevance and/or importance of mapping a BHU and acquire more knowledge on the health-disease status of the registered population and identify the importance of cartography as a working tool. Case description: After reading some texts, evaluating information systems and on-site visits, it was possible to identify the health status of the population of the neighborhoods. The proposed objectives were considered to be achieved, considering the mapping of the assessed population’s health-disease situation with a closer-to-reality viewpoint, identifying the number of individuals, the diseases, living situation and health care. Conclusion: The mapping approach is a powerful working tool for allowing the planning of strategic interventions that enables the development of assistance activities, aiming to promote health and disease prevention. KEYWORDS: Mapping; Basic Health Unit; Health Planning.
Dedi Afandi; Yuli Budiningsih; Oktavinda Safitry; Agus Purwadianto; Dwi Novitasari; Ivan R. Widjaja
Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with pa...
Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions
Today's workplaces are full of materials and processes which are potentially hazardous to our health. Industry depends on a large range of naturally occurring and synthetic materials, many of which can adversely affect the health of the workers. Even some non-industrial workplaces can contain hazardous materials or cause exposure to physical or biological agents that can be harmful to health. Principles of Occupational Health and Hygiene offers a systematic and comprehensive overview of occupational health hazards and hazardous environments encountered in a range of industries and organisatio
Agier, Isabelle; Ly, Antarou; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Kouanda, Seni; Ridde, Valéry
In West Africa, health system funding rarely involves cross-subsidization among population segments. In some countries, a few community-based or professional health insurance programs are present, but coverage is very low. The financial principles underlying universal health coverage (UHC) sustainability and solidarity are threefold: 1) anticipation of potential health risks; 2) risk sharing and; 3) socio-economic status solidarity. In Burkina Faso, where decision-makers are favorable to national health insurance, we measured endorsement of these principles and discerned which management configurations would achieve the greatest adherence. We used a sequential exploratory design. In a qualitative step (9 interviews, 12 focus groups), we adapted an instrument proposed by Goudge et al. (2012) to the local context and addressed desirability bias. Then, in a quantitative step (1255 respondents from the general population), we measured endorsement. Thematic analysis (qualitative) and logistic regressions (quantitative) were used. High levels of endorsement were found for each principle. Actual practices showed that anticipation and risk sharing were not only intentions. Preferences were given to solidarity between socio-economic status (SES) levels and progressivity. Although respondents seemed to prefer the national level for implementation, their current solidarity practices were mainly focused on close family. Thus, contribution levels should be set so that the entire family benefits from healthcare. Some critical conditions must be met to make UHC financial principles a reality through health insurance in Burkina Faso: trust, fair and mandatory contributions, and education. PMID:26803656
Full Text Available Background Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods This study was conducted in three stages: 1 Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2 The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3 Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion Determining the principles of HIA from
Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick
Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the principles of HIA from peer
Full Text Available During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients’ health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports. Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS are meant to centralize an individual’s health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS. In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.
The central supervisory agency holding many competences in this field is the State Office for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection (SAAS) of the German Democratic Republic. It is an agency with legal capacity of the Council of Ministers and is headed by the President under the principle of personal management and personal responsibility with collective consultancy in basic issues of atomic safety and radiation protection. The President of the Office is responsible and accountable to the Council of Ministers for supervising and directing his area of duty. He is appointed and dismissed by the Council of Ministers. His comprehensive duties are defined in the 'Statute of the State Office for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of the German Democratic Republic - Decision by the Council of Ministers'. (orig./HP)
This paper discusses the basic principles of the RITME method of 3-dimensional reactor core flux and power calculations, and briefly describes the LOGARITME development environment for implementing and managing applications based on the RITME method. RITME is a nodal method for solving the neutron transport equation; it obtains an integral solution in which the fluxes are related to the source terms by precalculated Green functions. The mean flux value per mesh and point flux values are calculated using a library of Green functions computed once and for all by a reference transport code. The carrier and microscopic power distributions can be determined from these flux values. LOGARITME is a computerized environment based on software case (object-oriented analysis aid software utilities) and ADA language. It provides a consistent framework for applications using the RITME method. The general specifications of this environment are described, and potential applications are noted. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab
Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Ebihara, Tadashi
Measurement — the act of measuring physical properties that we perform — has the potential to contribute to the successful advancement of sciences and society. To open doors in physics and other sciences, various measurement methods and related applications have been developed, and ultrasound has remained a useful probe, power source, and interesting measurement object for the past two centuries. In this paper, we first summarize the basic principles of ultrasound from the viewpoint of measurement techniques for readers who just have started studying or are interested in the field of ultrasonic electronics. Moreover, we also introduce recent studies — ultrasonic properties of materials, measurement techniques, piezoelectric devices, nonlinear acoustics, biomedical ultrasound, and ocean acoustics — and their trends related to measurement techniques in ultrasonic electronics to provide some ideas for related applications.
Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.; Mutule, A.
The authors propose to select long-term solutions to the reliability problems of electrical networks in the stage of development planning. The guide lines or basic principles of such optimization are: 1) its dynamical nature; 2) development sustainability; 3) integrated solution of the problems of network development and electricity supply reliability; 4) consideration of information uncertainty; 5) concurrent consideration of the network and generation development problems; 6) application of specialized information technologies; 7) definition of requirements for independent electricity producers. In the article, the major aspects of liberalized electricity market, its functions and tasks are reviewed, with emphasis placed on the optimization of electrical network development as a significant component of sustainable management of power systems.
Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich; Kordulla, Wilhelm
Viscous flow is usually treated in the frame of boundary-layer theory and as a two-dimensional flow. At best, books on boundary layers provide the describing equations for three-dimensional boundary layers, and solutions only for certain special cases. This book presents the basic principles and theoretical foundations of three-dimensional attached viscous flows as they apply to aircraft of all kinds. Though the primary flight speed range is that of civil air transport vehicles, flows past other flying vehicles up to hypersonic speeds are also considered. Emphasis is put on general three-dimensional attached viscous flows and not on three-dimensional boundary layers, as this wider scope is necessary in view of the theoretical and practical problems that have to be overcome in practice. The specific topics covered include weak, strong, and global interaction; the locality principle; properties of three-dimensional viscous flows; thermal surface effects; characteristic properties; wall compatibility con...
... support of basic health services; (7) Home health services provided at an enrollee's home by health care...) Pediatric and adult immunizations, in accord with accepted medical practice. (b) In addition, an HMO may...) Durable medical equipment for home use (such as wheel chairs, surgical beds, respirators,...
Raimundo Nonato Silva Gomes
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the infrastructure of basic health units, as the adaptation to the standards recommended by theMinistry of Health. Methods: descriptive study with a quantitative approach, carried in 18 basic health units. For datacollection, we used a checklist built based on Ministerial Decree 2,226/09. Data analysis was performed using the StatisticalPackage for Social Sciences and a scoring scale (0-10 was used for the classification of health facilities. Results: 16.6% of theanalyzed units received the average score of 3.5; 16.6% received 3.0; 5.5%, 2.5; 16.6% received grade 2.0; 11.1%, 1.5; 11.1%,1.0; and 22.2% received 0.5 and, therefore, all units had inadequate physical structure. Conclusion: the city does not offerthe public a service that addresses the ideals standards in its structure in most of the inspected units.
At a conference organised by the Law Society, Mental Health Act Commission, and Institute of Psychiatry possible reform of mental health legislation in England and Wales was discussed. It was concluded that radical legal reform was required, and that the law should be designed specifically for provision of care in both hospital and the community. Reform should be based on principle rather than pragmatism, particularly the principle of reciprocity--patients' civil liberties may not be removed for the purposes of treatment if resources for that treatment are inadequate. Protection of society from nuisance or even violence is insufficient reason for detention. Legal provision for compulsion of patients, whether in hospital or the community, must be matched by specific rights to treatment. PMID:8179659
Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Ratajczak, M.; Timmel, K.; Wondrak, T.
Contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT) aims at reconstructing the flow structure of a liquid metal from the magnetic fields measured at various positions outside the fluid body which are induced by the flow under the influence of one or multiple applied magnetic fields. We recap the basic mathematical principles of CIFT and the results of an experiment in which the propeller-driven three-dimensional flow in a cylindrical had been reconstructed. We also summarize the recent activities to utilize CIFT in various problems connected with the experimental simulation of the continuous casting process. These include flow reconstructions in single-phase and two-phase flow problems in the Mini-LIMMCAST model of slab-casting, studies of the specific effects of an electromagnetic stirrer attached to the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN), as well as first successful applications of CIFT on the background of a strong electromagnetic brake field. We conclude by discussing some remaining obstacles for the deployment of CIFT in a real caster.
Omoumi, Patrick; Verdun, Francis R; Guggenberger, Roman; Andreisek, Gustav; Becce, Fabio
In recent years, technological advances have allowed manufacturers to implement dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) on clinical scanners. With its unique ability to differentiate basis materials by their atomic number, DECT has opened new perspectives in imaging. DECT has been successfully used in musculoskeletal imaging with applications ranging from detection, characterization, and quantification of crystal and iron deposits, to simulation of noncalcium (improving the visualization of bone marrow lesions) or noniodine images. Furthermore, the data acquired with DECT can be postprocessed to generate monoenergetic images of varying kiloelectron volts, providing new methods for image contrast optimization as well as metal artifact reduction. The first part of this article reviews the basic principles and technical aspects of DECT including radiation dose considerations. The second part focuses on applications of DECT to musculoskeletal imaging including gout and other crystal-induced arthropathies, virtual noncalcium images for the study of bone marrow lesions, the study of collagenous structures, applications in computed tomography arthrography, as well as the detection of hemosiderin and metal particles. PMID:26696082
Omoumi, Patrick; Becce, Fabio; Racine, Damien; Ott, Julien G; Andreisek, Gustav; Verdun, Francis R
In recent years, technological advances have allowed manufacturers to implement dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) on clinical scanners. With its unique ability to differentiate basis materials by their atomic number, DECT has opened new perspectives in imaging. DECT has been used successfully in musculoskeletal imaging with applications ranging from detection, characterization, and quantification of crystal and iron deposits; to simulation of noncalcium (improving the visualization of bone marrow lesions) or noniodine images. Furthermore, the data acquired with DECT can be postprocessed to generate monoenergetic images of varying kiloelectron volts, providing new methods for image contrast optimization as well as metal artifact reduction. The first part of this article reviews the basic principles and technical aspects of DECT including radiation dose considerations. The second part focuses on applications of DECT to musculoskeletal imaging including gout and other crystal-induced arthropathies, virtual noncalcium images for the study of bone marrow lesions, the study of collagenous structures, applications in computed tomography arthrography, as well as the detection of hemosiderin and metal particles. PMID:26696081
Vilitis, O.; Rutkis, M.; Busenberg, J.; Merkulov, D.
Determination of electric potential difference using the Kelvin probe, i.e. vibrating capacitor technique, is one of the most sensitive measuring procedures in surface physics. Periodic modulation of distance between electrodes leads to changes in capacitance, thereby causing current to flow through the external circuit. The procedure of contactless, non-destructive determination of contact potential difference between an electrically conductive vibrating reference electrode and an electrically conductive sample is based on precise control measurement of Kelvin current flowing through a capacitor. The present research is devoted to creation of a new low-cost miniaturised measurement system to determine potential difference in real time and at high measurement resolution. Furthermore, using the electrode of a reference probe, the Kelvin method leads to both the indirect measurement of an electronic work function, or a contact potential of sample, and of a surface potential for insulator type samples. In the article, the first part of the research, i.e., the basic principles and prerequisites for establishment of such a measurement system are considered.
Pinay, Gilles; Clément, Jean Christophe; Naiman, Robert J
Understanding the environmental consequences of changing water regimes is a daunting challenge for both resource managers and ecologists. Balancing human demands for fresh water with the needs of the environment for water in appropriate amounts and at the appropriate times are shaping the ways by which this natural resource will be used in the future. Based on past decisions that have rendered many freshwater resources unsuitable for use, we argue that river systems have a fundamental need for appropriate amounts and timing of water to maintain their biophysical integrity. Biophysical integrity is fundamental for the formulation of future sustainable management strategies. This article addresses three basic ecological principles driving the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in river systems. These are (1) how the mode of nitrogen delivery affects river ecosystem functioning, (2) how increasing contact between water and soil or sediment increases nitrogen retention and processing, and (3) the role of floods and droughts as important natural events that strongly influence pathways of nitrogen cycling in fluvial systems. New challenges related to the cumulative impact of water regime change, the scale of appraisal of these impacts, and the determination of the impacts due to natural and human changes are discussed. It is suggested that cost of long-term and long-distance cumulative impacts of hydrological changes should be evaluated against short-term economic benefits to determine the real environmental costs. PMID:12481915
In a series of essays, beginning with this article, we are going to develop a new formulation of microphenomena based on the principles of reality and causality. The new theory provides us with a new depiction of microphenomena assuming a uniﬁed concept of information, matter and energy. So, we suppose that in a deﬁnite microphysical context (including other interacting particles), each particle is enfolded by a probability ﬁeld whose existence is contingent on the existence of the particle, but it can locally affect the physical status of the particle in a context-dependent manner. The dynamics of the whole particle-ﬁeld system obeys deterministic equations in a manner such that when the particle is subjected to a conservative force, the ﬁeld also experiences a conservative complex force, the form of which is determined by the dynamics of the particle. So, the ﬁeld is endowed with a given amount of energy, but its value is contingent on the physical conditions the particle is subjected to. Based on the energy balance of the particle and its associated ﬁeld, we argue why the ﬁeld has a probabilistic objective nature. The basic elements of this new formulation, its application for some stationary states and its nonlinear generalization for conservative systems are discussed here.
Theoretical incompleteness of the existing conservation laws of energy for polar continuum mechanics is further clarified. For completeness, the principles of total work and energy and of total work and energy of incremental rate type are postulated. Via total variations of the former and the latter of them, the principles of virtual displacement and microrotation & stress and couple stress as well as virtual velocity and angular velocity &stress rate and couple stress rate are immediately obtained, respectively. From these principles all balance equations and boundary conditions for micropolar mechanics are naturally and simultaneously deduced. The essential differences between the nontraditional results obtained in this paper and the existing conservation laws of energy are expounded.
Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.
Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic…
Belov, Yuriy; Rabinovich, Zinoviy
Given in the report conceptual presentation of the main principles of fractal-complexity Ration of the media and thinking processes of the human was formulated on the bases of the cybernetic interpretation of scientific information (basically from neurophysiology and neuropsychology, containing the interpretation giving the best fit to the authors point of view) and plausible hypothesis's, filling the lack of knowledge.
Microstructural changes in boiler tubes during prolong operation at high temperature and pressure decrease load bearing capacity limiting their useful lives. When the load bearing capacity falls below a critical level depending on operating parameters and tube geometry, failure occurs. In order to avoid such failures mainly from the view point of economy and safety, this paper describes some basic principles behind remaining life assessment of service exposed components and also a few case studies related to failure of a reheater tube of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel, a carbon steel tube and final superheater tubes of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and remaining creep life assessment of service exposed but unfailed platen superheater and reheater tubes of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Sticking of fly ash particles causing reduction in effective tube wall thickness is responsible for failure of reheater tubes. Decarburised metal containing intergranular cracks at the inner surface of the carbon steel tube exhibiting a brittle window fracture is an indicative of hydrogen embrittlement responsible for this failure. In contrast, final superheater tube showed that the failure took place due to short-term overheating. The influence of prolong service revealed that unfailed reheater tubes exhibit higher tensile properties than that of platen superheater tubes. In contrast both the tubes at 50 MPa meet the minimum creep rupture properties when compared with NRIM data. The remaining creep life of platen superheater tube as estimated at 50 MPa and 570 deg. C (1058 oF) is more than 10 years and that of reheater tube at 50 MPa and 580 deg. C (1076 oF) is 9 years
Belička M.; Devínsky F.; Balgavý P.
In our paper, we demonstrate several possibilities of using neutrons in pharmaceutical research with the help of examples of scientific results achieved at our University. In this first part, basic properties of neutrons and elementary principles of elastic scattering of thermal neutrons are described. Results of contrast variation neutron diffraction on oriented phospholipid bilayers with intercalated local anaesthetic or cholesterol demonstrate the potential of this method at determination ...
K. Zh. Seminsky
Full Text Available Long-term studies of shear zones have included collection of data on fractures showing no indication of displacement which are termed as 'blank' fractures. A method aimed at mapping fault structures and stress fields has been developed on the basis of results of paragenetic analysis of measurements of abundant fractures. The method is termed as 'specialized mapping', firstly, due to its specific structural goal so that to distinguish it from the conventional geological mapping of regions in nature, and, secondly, because of the specific procedure applied to refer to fractures as references to decipher fault-block patterns of natural regions. In Part 1, basic theoretical concepts and principles of specialized mapping are described. Part 2 is being prepared for publication in one of the next issues of the journal; it will cover stages of the proposed method and describe some of the cases of its application.In terms of general organizational principles, specialized mapping is similar to other methods based on structural paragenetic analysis and differs from such methods in types of paragenesises viewed as references to reveal crustal fault zones. Such paragenesises result from stage-by-stage faulting (Fig 2 and Fig. 7 during which stress fields of the 2nd order are regularly changeable within the shear zone. According to combined experimental and natural data, a complete paragenesis of fractures in the shear zone includes a major (1st order fault plane and fractures of other seven types, R, R’, n, n’, t, t’ and T (2nd order (Fig. 4 and Fig 8. At the fracture level, each of them corresponds to a paragenesis including three nearly perpendicular systems of early ruptures (Fig. 1, which are based on two classical patterns of conjugated fractures, one of which is consistent with the position of the fault plane (Fig. 3. Taking into account that strike-slip, reverse and normal faults are similar in terms of mechanics (i.e. they are formed due to
Faria, Liliam Saldanha; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita
The Surveillance in Health is constituted as an Assistance Model with potential to reorganize the working processes. This study was developed to identify and analyze surveillance practices in the Primary Health Care field, in a region of São Paulo City-Brazil. Interviews were performed with 14 individual, from February to April 2006: health workers and administrators who had been operating in the Epidemiologic Surveillance area of health basic units. The speeches were analyzed based on the social theory of the health-disease process and by the materialistic interpretation of the labor process. It was verified that their work was fragmented. The precariousness of the working structure, the lack of professional qualification and of management-political support, besides the lack of participation from the population were all identified as barriers that limit health surveillance practices. It was concluded that, in a local level, there is a potential to change the organization of the working process in health and meet the health needs of the population through a Health Surveillance Model. PMID:20964059
Decision making with respect to safety is becoming more and more complex. The risk involved must be taken into account together with numerous other factors such as the benefits, the uncertainties and the public perception. Can the decision maker be aided by some kind of system, general rules of thumb, or broader perspective on similar decisions? This question has been addressed in a joint Nordic project relating to nuclear power. Modern techniques for risk assessment and management have been studied and parallels drawn to such areas as offshore safety and management of genotoxic chemicals in the environment. The topics include synoptic vs. incrementalistic approaches to decision making, health hazards from radiation and genotoxic chemicals, value judgments in decision making, definitions of low risks, risk comparisons, and principles for decision making when risks are involved. (author) 47 refs
Full Text Available The generalized model is created and the criterion of an abrasive wear of surfaces of materials is determined at not hard-mounted corpuscles. The principle of construction of a data bank of an abrasive wear resistance of materials of friction units is determined.
Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Nielsen, Ole H; Wang, Yulan L;
Metabonomics-the study of metabolic changes in an integrated biologic system-is an emerging field. This discipline joins the other 'omics' (genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics) to give rise to a comprehensive, systems-biology approach to the evaluation of holistic in vivo function. Metabonom...... metabonomics in basic and clinical research, with emphasis on applications in the field of gastroenterology....
Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael
The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who…
Praha: Karolinum, 2007 - (Bláha, P.; Sussane, C.; Rebato, E.), s. 75-95 ISBN 978-80-246-1338-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : history * principles * transmission of traits * karyotype * mutagenesis * polymorphism * pedigree analysis * twin and adoption studies * behavioural genetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy
The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that ...
Kristi L. Koenig
Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.
Full Text Available Abstract This commentary discusses a study on measurements of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 in serum of pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients recently published in Journal of Molecular Medicine. This study can be considered the typical "obstacle" to effective translational medicine as previously documented in JTM journal. Although serum has been frequently proven as inappropriate sample for determining numerous circulating MMPs, among them MMP-9, there are over and over again studies, as in this case, that measure MMP-9 in serum. Comparative measurements in serum and plasma samples demonstrated higher concentrations for MMP-9 in serum due to the additional release from leukocytes and platelets following the coagulation/fibrinolysis process. From this example it can be concluded that translating basic research discoveries into clinical tools needs a more intensive exchange between basic biomedical research and clinical scientists already in an early stage. Otherwise a lost of translation, as discussed in JTM journal, seems to be inevitable.
The author reviews the basic principles of high gain free electron laser amplifier in single pass configuration for generation of intense, tunable radiation for wavelength shorter than 1,000 angstrom. Two schemes are discussed: for wavelength region between 1,000--100 angstrom, the high gain harmonic generation of a coherent input radiation can be used. For x-ray wavelength as short as a few angstrom, the self-amplified spontaneous emission is currently the only known free electron laser scheme. The author also presents a brief introduction of various key issues in realizing these schemes, which will be discussed in detail in other papers in these proceedings
Full Text Available In our paper, we demonstrate several possibilities of using neutrons in pharmaceutical research with the help of examples of scientific results achieved at our University. In this first part, basic properties of neutrons and elementary principles of elastic scattering of thermal neutrons are described. Results of contrast variation neutron diffraction on oriented phospholipid bilayers with intercalated local anaesthetic or cholesterol demonstrate the potential of this method at determination of their position in bilayers. Diffraction experiments with alkan-1-ols located in the bilayers revealed their influence on bilayer thickness as a function of their alkyl chain length.
This is a review of the most important milestones in the last ten years of development in the field of grating-based x-ray and neutron imaging. It provides a description of the basic imaging principles of grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary multimodal radiography results obtained with x-rays and neutrons. Furthermore, it reviews the theory of grating-based quantitative transmission, phase-contrast, and dark-field scattering computed tomography.
This study deals with the the basic strategies for long term power planning in Romanian economy taking into account socio-economic factors, refurbishment and restructuring, having in view the requirements of free market economy transition. The main directions of this strategy refer to the development of the present power capacities based on fossil fuel burning and hydroelectric power and also to the development of nuclear power plants based on CANDU type reactors. (author) 3 tabs
Full Text Available With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and “static” properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement… can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the “vacuum rest frame”, VRF. But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a “grand unification” view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.
International audience It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4 x 10E19 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a...
A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual’s commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person’s own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing m...
Iermakov S.S.; Apanasenko G.L.; Bondarenko T.V.; Prasol S.D.
The role of establishments of physical culture and health protection is considered in education and formation of culture of health of personality and society. It is pointed at the necessity of biological, psychological and world-view knowledge in becoming of culture of health. Valued guideline of social and physical adaptation of personality and society is marked to the social, economic and spiritual changes in the environment of dwelling. It is showed that the rational use of personality and...
Radiation protection aspects encompass environmental aspects. This textbook and basic course in radiation protection and health physics sets out the fundamental facts and principles from the angle of physics and biology, as well as the measuring methods applied for detection and identification of the radionuclides used in the fields of medicine, biology, physics, and engineering. In addition, the legal provisions relating to radiation protection are presented in a way easy to understand by readers not belonging to the legal community. Practical aspects of radiation protection are discussed and illustrated by numerous examples, including applications of modern, commercial instruments. The book is intended for students of medicine, biology, physics and the engineering sciences, or professionals dealing with radioactive materials or instruments for the generation of ionizing radiation. The presentation of physical and technical aspects has been designed for beginners' levels. The collection of problems and solutions relating to the practice of radiation protection and health physics in the nuclear or physical laboratory, or radiographic and nuclear medical establishments, will enable readers to check their learning progress. A comprehensive glossary, a useful subject index as well as some annexes presenting significant factual and numeric information round up the textbook. (orig./CB)
Main hazard from work with lasers is the possibility of eye and skin damage. Secondary hazards consists of ionizing radiation, ozone, pollution of working atmosphere with chemical toxic and biological agents from target and laser, electrical and cryogenic liquid hazard, fire and explosion hazard etc. Basic safety measures are: arrangement of working room, with laser working requirements, permanent laser beam path control. Use of appropriate laser protective eye wears, and all additional protective measures against to secondary laser hazards. Current standards and those which will be issued in our country will in rather good level cover the field of laser radiation protection. (author)
Based on the restudies of existing polar continuum theories rather completesystems of basic balance laws and equations for micropolar continuum theory are presented.In these new systems not only the additional angular momentum, surface moment and bodymoment produced by the linear momentum, surface force and body force, respectively, butalso the additional velocity produced by the angular velocity are considered. The newcoupled balance laws of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy arereestablished. From them the new coupled local and nonlocal balance equatiors arenaturally derived. Via contrast it can be clearly seen that the new results are believed to berather general and complete.
The characteristic x rays can be used as powerful analytical tools for qualitative and quantitative determination of the major, minor and trace composition of materials. X Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques used for almost four decade to solve many problems in basic, applied science, and in industry. The XRF techniques that were developed initially used crystal spectrometers, and are referred to in literature as Wavelength Dispersive (WD) techniques. These WD techniques are still used in many fields and have the merit of a excellent energy resolution that allows for the analysis of many elements while avoiding the overlapping of some fluorescence peaks. They are also particularly useful in a matrix that produces copious quantities of a particular radiation. The principal disadvantages of a WD system are the low efficiency of crystal and the reduced energy region in which crystal spectrometer can be used. In the 1960's, Solid State Detectors (SSD) were developed with energy resolution such that the Energy Dispersive XRF techniques could be developed. These SSD's overcame some of the limitations of the WD techniques. The most attractive characteristics of the EDXRF techniques are in their intrinsic multielemental and non destructive capabilities. The development of the high intensity, high brilliance Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources have open the possibility to make microanalyses using the XRF techniques, increasing the interest of the scientific community for these techniques. In this paper the basic concepts of the XRF technique are reviewed taking in account the availability of the new sources of x rays. 32 refs., 7 figs
After a review of the various types of radioactive wastes (short and long lives), the principles of radioactive waste storage in geologic structures are detailed: water is the main vector of migration so radionuclides are buried at depth within a medium of very low permeability and hydraulic gradient; the geological medium must retain its integrity during all the duration of their activity; its very age is obviously the guarantee of its future, but tectonic movements, erosion, climate must not deteriorate it in any way nor break down its structure. The thermomechanical effects are examined for each host medium such as plastic media (salt, clay) and brittle media (granite, shale) with an estimation of the long term and very long term rheological properties. 4 figs., 1 tab., 21 refs
The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) has, in INSAG-11, attempted to show what safety principles are common to all applications of all sources of radiation. It has been considered that these general principles should apply to all industrial activities. A comparison of INSAG-11 with Article 11 of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) shows that the management of radioactive waste is but a special case of industrial activity and follows the same safety rules. The importance of the Joint Convention comes, however, from the fact that it is a politically important document, requiring ratification by the parliaments of the contracting parties. The safe management of radioactive waste implies that five types of issue must be taken into consideration, not only technical and ethical ones, but also socio-political, economic and ecological ones. By comparison, sustainable development in its three dimensions (temporal, spatial and sectorial) has five components (ecology, economics, ethics, socio-politics and technology), just like the safe management of radioactive waste. The consequence of this is that if management is treated as a particular case of sustainable development, it will not be accepted by society. The conclusions are that technology alone can not ensure the safety of radioactive waste management and that society will always give priority to socio-political issues over technological ones. Furthermore, it is crucial that people involved in the management of radioactive waste learn to communicate better and to listen more attentively. Their efforts will only succeed when they incorporate all the components that determine the fabric of our society. (author)
Sridhar, Devi; McKee, Martin; Ooms, Gorik; Beiersmann, Claudia; Friedman, Eric; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter; Jahn, Albrecht
Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is widely considered one of the key components for the post-2015 health goal. The idea of UHC is rooted in the right to health, set out in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Based on the Covenant and the General Comment of the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which is responsible for interpreting and monitoring the Covenant, we identify 6 key legal principles that should underpin UHC based on the right to health: minimum core obligation, progressive realization, cost-effectiveness, shared responsibility, participatory decision making, and prioritizing vulnerable or marginalized groups. Yet, although these principles are widely accepted, they are criticized for not being specific enough to operationalize as post-2015 indicators for reaching the target of UHC. In this article, we propose measurable and achievable indicators for UHC based on the right to health that can be used to inform the ongoing negotiations on Sustainable Development Goals. However, we identify 3 major challenges that face any exercise in setting indicators post-2015: data availability as an essential criterion, the universality of targets, and the adaptation of global goals to local populations. PMID:26077857
P. J. Pretorius
Full Text Available The word homeostasis, proposed by W.B. Cannon in 1929, is derived from the Greek word homois (— like, resembling, the same and stasis (— standing, static. It denotes a condition of dynamic internal stability.of a system by means of coordinated reactions. These reactions of the system compensate or neutralize any disturbing influence from outside or inside the system. These disturbing influences would otherwise change the normal structural and functional characteristics of the system. Two im portant aspects should be considered namely: (1 the aspect of internal stability and (2 coordinated reaction to assure stability. The idea of regulation or control and coordination in living beings is not new. The basic idea is found in Chinese, Egyptian, Hebrew and Greek literature. According to Langley several physiologists were responsible for establishing the theory of homeostasis.
Tim Campbell; Sara Freedheim
Since 1989, the Bank has given increasing support to Mexico's National Solidarity Program (PRONASOL) in projects for education, health, transportation, and regional development. Despite the Bank's growing association with PRONASOL, given its magnitude and complexity, it is easy to underestimate its sweeping scope, size and impact on Mexican development. PRONASOL is a matching grant program that, except for its scale, can be compared to some of the Bank- financed social investment funds in Lat...
In the framework of this research contract, a number of important questions have been considered which have been of basic interest in radiological protection against low doses of ionizing radiation. In particular, research concentrated on the various statistical concepts for the evaluation of epidemiological data for the purpose of radiation risk analysis, derivation of dose-time-effect-relationships for certain somatic effects, time dependence of selected dose-conversion factors, radiation hazards of carbon-14, tritium, and of radon daughter products. The essential results have been reported in separate publications, and therefore will only be shortly summarized here. (orig./HP)
Harkness, Kate L; Monroe, Scott M
Life stress is a central factor in the onset and course of a wide range of medical and psychiatric conditions. Determining the precise etiological and pathological consequences of stress, though, has been hindered by weaknesses in prevailing definitional and measurement practices. The purpose of the current paper is to evaluate the primary strategies for defining and measuring major and minor acute life events, chronic stressors, and daily hassles as informed by 3 basic scientific premises. The first premise concerns the manner in which stress is conceptualized and operationally defined, and specifically we assert that stress measures must not conflate the stress exposure with the stress response. The second premise concerns how stress exposures are measured, and we provide guidelines for optimizing standardized and sensitive indicators of life stress. The third premise addresses the consequences of variations in the procedures for life event measurement with regard to the validity of the research designs employed. We show that life stress measures are susceptible to several sources of bias, and if these potential sources of bias are not controlled in the design of the research, spurious findings may result. Our goal is to provide a useful guide for researchers who consider life stress to be an important factor in their theoretical models of disease, wish to incorporate measures of life stress in their research, and seek to avoid the common pitfalls of past measurement practices. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27254487
It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological relevance of UHECR
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The study is devoted to the solution of the urgent scientific and other problems the development of enterprises in the global economy and the development of the theoretical and methodological aspects of innovative management and marketing of the enterprise development innovation and market orientation on the basis of formation of the system principles of innovative development, marketing management within the processes of globalization. The results of the analysis. It is revealed that one of the main problems for modern Ukrainian enterprises is the preservation of competitiveness and the maintenance of business activity in the conditions of the external environment which is continuously changing. It is shown that the economy of the country which wants to develop in the conditions of innovative orientation and increase of the level of motivation in organizational innovation are the main reason to secure enterprises the conditions for the implementation of innovation-marketing orientation, especially in the framework of international commodity markets. It is proved that the company has the influence on the nonlinear nature for the development of the components of open socio-economic systems. It is revealed that in its activity the enterprise has a high degree of dynamism and variability of the external environment, which contributes to the emergence of new laws for the development and control of nonlinear dissipative media. Also, in the global economy within the geo-space there is a place for ‘the presence of co-evolutional effects”. In the study we have got the characteristic of cases within the framework of the need for innovation-marketing development of the enterprise. The substantive aspects of the strategic approach, which are specified in the principles system of the innovative development management of the enterprise-marketing orientation in the global economy are considered. It is found that formation of the
Full Text Available A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1 An individual’s commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person’s own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not. Goals may be any desired endpoint of a behavioral sequence, including finding out more about something, i.e., exploring possible goals, such as job possibilities or personal relationships. (2 Such responses are accompanied and perhaps preceded by protoemotional activity or full emotional arousal, the amplitude of which determines the likelihood of response and is related to the value placed on the goal. (3 When the individual is in a situation conducive to making progress toward attaining the goal, the response to goal cues takes the form of actions or operant mental acts that advance the goal pursuit. (4 When circumstances are unfavorable for goal-directed operant behavior, the response remains purely mental, as in mind-wandering and dreaming, but still reflects the content of the goal pursuit or associated content. (5 Respondent responses such as mind-wandering are more likely when the individual is mentally unoccupied with ongoing tasks and less likely the more that is at stake in the ongoing task. The probability of respondent thought is highest during relaxed periods, when the brain’s default-mode network dominates, or during sleep. The article briefly summarizes neurocognitive findings that relate to mind-wandering and evidence regarding adverse effects of mind-wandering on task performance as well as evidence suggesting adaptive functions in regard to creative problem-solving, planning, resisting delay discounting, and
Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Padhani, Anwar R; Chenevert, Thomas L; Koh, Dow-Mu; De Keyzer, Frederik; Taouli, Bachir; Le Bihan, Denis
Technologic advances enable performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at ultrahigh b-values, where standard monoexponential model analysis may not apply. Rather, non-Gaussian water diffusion properties emerge, which in cellular tissues are, in part, influenced by the intracellular environment that is not well evaluated by conventional DWI. The novel technique, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), enables characterization of non-Gaussian water diffusion behavior. More advanced mathematical curve fitting of the signal intensity decay curve using the DKI model provides an additional parameter Kapp that presumably reflects heterogeneity and irregularity of cellular microstructure, as well as the amount of interfaces within cellular tissues. Although largely applied for neural applications over the past decade, a small number of studies have recently explored DKI outside the brain. The most investigated organ is the prostate, with preliminary studies suggesting improved tumor detection and grading using DKI. Although still largely in the research phase, DKI is being explored in wider clinical settings. When assessing extracranial applications of DKI, careful attention to details with which body radiologists may currently be unfamiliar is important to ensure reliable results. Accordingly, a robust understanding of DKI is necessary for radiologists to better understand the meaning of DKI-derived metrics in the context of different tumors and how these metrics vary between tumor types and in response to treatment. In this review, we outline DKI principles, propose biostructural basis for observations, provide a comparison with standard monoexponential fitting and the apparent diffusion coefficient, report on extracranial clinical investigations to date, and recommend technical considerations for implementation in body imaging. PMID:26119267
Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) decided to enhance the quality and scope of initial training of NEK technical personnel, mainly in so called Phase 1 and 2 of training for licensed personnel. This training is a prerequisite for further training on the full scope simulator for future operators and is also given to larger number of engineers, working in different important areas where thorough knowledge of nuclear technology and plant systems is required. Due to that it was decided that plant specific Basis Principle Simulators (BPS) should be developed. The other important reason for such decision was an indication that NEK specific full scope simulator will have to be purchased. Based on that it was concluded that BPS should serve as a good opportunity to learn about the state of the art approaches in the modeling area, to see in which direction development of software in conjunction with state of the art hardware is going and in particular to the extent possible verify the existence of required plant documentation in support BPS and later plant specific full scope simulator. In this paper the scope of NEK BPS simulation, experience in initial data gathering, experience with know-how transfer based on direct involvement of NEK and Izobrazevalni Center za Jedrsko Tehnnologijo (ICJT) personnel in modeling of instrumentation and control will be presented. Lessons learned, particularly in light of coming project for NEK full scope simulator, will also be addressed. The future use of the BPS in the NEK training programs will be described. It can be concluded that due to very complex technology, phase approaches in training of key NEK technical personnel, the development of NEK plant specific BPS is justifiable, regardless of the fact that NEK will also obtain specific full scope simulator. It has to be pointed out that BPS can not be supplement for plant specific full scope simulator, due to number of reasons discussed in the paper. (author)
Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael
The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p effect size of d = 0.72. However, while students in the experimental group performed better than their control group peers, they rated their knowledge of the topic lower than the control group ( M post-control = 3.0, M post-experiment = 2.7), leading to further examination of their laboratory journals. Results of this study show that video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.
Jimenez V, A.M. [Especialista en Medicina Nuclear, Profa. Depto. Radiologia de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)
This presentation is about the basic principles, physiologic variants and devices that work in the PET/TAC technique. Next the conclusions obtained in the same one are presented: For a correct evaluation of the PET/TAC images with FDG is necessary the knowledge of the image acquisition technique, as well as of the physiologic distribution of the FDG, variants of the normality, benign causes of captation and more frequent devices. The introduction of this hybrid procedure allows the correct anatomical localization and identification of the deposits of FDG largely avoiding false or doubtful interpretations, but it can also originate not specific devices existent in the conventional PET. The previous knowledge of the possible devices will make possible in certain cases its elimination and in other its identification avoiding incorrect interpretations. (Author)
The purpose is to reestablish the coupled conservation laws, the local conservation equations and the jump conditions of mass and inertia for polar continuum theories. In this connection the new material derivatives of the deformation gradient, the line element, the surface element and the volume element were derived and the generalized Reynolds transport theorem was presented. Combining these conservation laws of mass and inertia with the balance laws of momentum, angular momentum and energy derived in our previous papers of this series, a rather complete system of coupled basic laws and principles for polar continuum theories is constituted on the whole. From this system the coupled nonlocal balance equations of mass, inertia, momentum, angular momentum and energy may be obtained by the usual localization.
Positron emission tomography (PET) of the brain and heart has made important contributions in clinical and research applications in the fields of neurology and cardiology. The more recent applications of PET in tumor imaging has marked oncology as the next frontier in PET; however, the dilemma of rising health care cost will challenge the application of new technologies. This challenge can be approached by innovative and appropriate use of sophisticated technology in both the research and clinical realms. The current developments of PET imaging technology to accurately stage the extent of tumor, as well as monitor the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of new or current therapies will be an extremely valuable tool in research and in the cost effective management of cancer patients. In the future, the oncologist may be able to adjust the chemotherapy to the tumor response based on PET imaging. In other situations, PET may be able to predict that no existing therapy will elicit a durable response, resolving the patients and families uncertainty of whether extreme therapeutic measures would have made a significant difference. This paper reviews some of the recent developments and areas of research in tumor PET imaging, and describes some of the practical and technical aspects involved with FDG tumor quantitation and whole body PET imaging. (authors)
Ingela Backstrom; Pernilla Ingelsson; Catrin Johansson
The purpose of this paper is to compare health related values within Quality Management with Key Principles of Communicative Leadership in order to see if Communicative leaders also promote healthy co-workers. A literature review was conducted within the area of Communicative Leadership and within the values of health related Quality Management. The principles within Communicative leadership were compared with the underlying dimensions within the health related values ‘Leadership Commitment’...
Lei, Xin Gen; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bao, Yongping; Ho, Ye-Shih; Reddi, Amit R; Holmgren, Arne; Arnér, Elias S J
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from aerobic metabolism, as a result of accidental electron leakage as well as regulated enzymatic processes. Because ROS/RNS can induce oxidative injury and act in redox signaling, enzymes metabolizing them will inherently promote either health or disease, depending on the physiological context. It is thus misleading to consider conventionally called antioxidant enzymes to be largely, if not exclusively, health protective. Because such a notion is nonetheless common, we herein attempt to rationalize why this simplistic view should be avoided. First we give an updated summary of physiological phenotypes triggered in mouse models of overexpression or knockout of major antioxidant enzymes. Subsequently, we focus on a series of striking cases that demonstrate "paradoxical" outcomes, i.e., increased fitness upon deletion of antioxidant enzymes or disease triggered by their overexpression. We elaborate mechanisms by which these phenotypes are mediated via chemical, biological, and metabolic interactions of the antioxidant enzymes with their substrates, downstream events, and cellular context. Furthermore, we propose that novel treatments of antioxidant enzyme-related human diseases may be enabled by deliberate targeting of dual roles of the pertaining enzymes. We also discuss the potential of "antioxidant" nutrients and phytochemicals, via regulating the expression or function of antioxidant enzymes, in preventing, treating, or aggravating chronic diseases. We conclude that "paradoxical" roles of antioxidant enzymes in physiology, health, and disease derive from sophisticated molecular mechanisms of redox biology and metabolic homeostasis. Simply viewing antioxidant enzymes as always being beneficial is not only conceptually misleading but also clinically hazardous if such notions underpin medical treatment protocols based on modulation of redox pathways. PMID:26681794
Full Text Available Even though stem cell therapies are still under experimentation, the media has represented them as a panacea that would cure all diseases. This fact secured the authorization for using human embryos as research material. Therapies include manipulation of human material in tissue bioengineering, suggesting a representation of the body as a factory. This article describes stem cell research projects being carried out in the health sciences center of a higher education institution, focusing on field organization and on the system of values underlying scientific activity. Researchers at different levels were interviewed about perspectives on, and implications of, their research in order to analyze the discourse of the projects' participants. Experiments with adult stem cells enjoyed wide support, while the use of human embryos was disputed. The foundations of those arguments were sought in their relation both to the structure of the scientific field and to the researchers' religious background.
Karl Blanchet; Daksha Patel
Understanding Health systems have now become the priority focus of researchers and policy makers, who have progressively moved away from a project-centred perspectives. The new tendency is to facilitate a convergence between health system developers and disease-specific programme managers in terms of both thinking and action, and to reconcile both approaches: one focusing on integrated health systems and improving the health status of the population and the other aiming at improving access to...
Mackert, Michael; Poag, Meg
Objective: This project examined health literacy efforts among adult basic education providers in Central Texas. Methods: A survey was conducted with all adult literacy providers in Central Texas (N = 58). Results: Most programs provide health-related information. Literacy programs see needs for helping students communicate with doctors, filling…
This document provides the methodology and data sources necessary to determine Federal payment amounts made in program years 2017 and 2018 to states that elect to establish a Basic Health Program under the Affordable Care Act to offer health benefits coverage to low-income individuals otherwise eligible to purchase coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (hereinafter referred to as the Exchanges). PMID:26925486
Tideman, T. N.
An economic approach to design efficient transportation systems involves maximizing an objective function that reflects both goals and costs. A demand curve can be derived by finding the quantities of a good that solve the maximization problem as one varies the price of that commodity, holding income and the prices of all other goods constant. A supply curve is derived by applying the idea of profit maximization of firms. The production function determines the relationship between input and output.
Winkler, Mirko S.; Jürg Utzinger
Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a relatively young field of endeavour, and hence, future progress will depend on the planning, implementation and rigorous evaluation of additional HIAs of projects, programmes and policies the world over. In the June 2014 issue of the International Journal of Health Policy and Management, Fakhri and colleagues investigated underlying principles of HIA through a comprehensive review of the literature and expert consultation. With an emphasis on the Is...
To confirm structural integrity of a primary cooling system and in-vessel components in a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, monitoring and inspection technique applying Gamma-rays emitted from sodium are proposed. The basic principle is as follows. As radioisotope 24Na decays, photons are emitted and a fraction of these photons penetrate materials. If the number of these photons is counted by radiation detectors, an image of gamma-rays source is reconstructed by a computed tomography technique. In this report, Applicability and problems concerned with the technique are investigated. Main results are as follows: (1) To verify applicability, the technique was analytically investigated based on gamma-rays emitted from sodium coolant in a typical pipe of a primary cooling system. As a result, it was confirmed that the image of gamma-rays source could be reconstructed. (2) A required time to measure in a spatial resolution of about 1mm was investigated in the detection efficiency of 20%. The time was about 4 minutes per section by a thousand detectors in the typical pipe of a primary cooling system. And in a typical steam generator, the time was about 2 days per section by ten thousand detectors. (3) To realize a fluoroscopic inspection system, it is necessary that the principle should be verified by experimental researches. Main equipments of the system are a collimator, radiation detector, scanner, signal processing device and image processing device. As a spatial resolution is decide by the collimator, the shape must be evaluated by experimental researches and analytical investigation. (author)
Undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral scientists trained as virologists can play critical roles in public health, such as in health science policy, epidemiology, and national defense. Despite a need for basic science backgrounds within these fields, finding entry-level careers can be challenging. Volunteer opportunities are a great way for scientists to experience public health careers while still in school, and this article describes volunteering with the Medical Reserve Corps and outlin...
Holcík, J; Koupilová, I
Paper provides some basic information on selected social determinants of health that had been summarised in the process of creating, detailing, implementing and evaluating the European health policy led by WHO. The social areas discussed are: social gradient, stress, early life experiences, social exclusion, job control at work, unemployment, social support, addiction, food, and transport. We also present a brief summary of policy recommendations related to social determinants of health. This information is relevant both for the development of the health services system and the system of health care and policy in a broader sense. PMID:11242982
Full Text Available Understanding Health systems have now become the priority focus of researchers and policy makers, who have progressively moved away from a project-centred perspectives. The new tendency is to facilitate a convergence between health system developers and disease-specific programme managers in terms of both thinking and action, and to reconcile both approaches: one focusing on integrated health systems and improving the health status of the population and the other aiming at improving access to health care. Eye care interventions particularly in developing countries have generally been vertically implemented (e.g. trachoma, cataract surgeries often with parallel organizational structures or specialised disease specific services. With the emergence of health system strengthening in health strategies and in the service delivery of interventions there is a need to clarify and examine inputs in terms governance, financing and management. This present paper aims to clarify key concepts in health system strengthening and describe the various components of the framework as applied in eye care interventions.
Blanchet, Karl; Patel, Daksha
Understanding Health systems have now become the priority focus of researchers and policy makers, who have progressively moved away from a project-centred perspectives. The new tendency is to facilitate a convergence between health system developers and disease-specific programme managers in terms of both thinking and action, and to reconcile both approaches: one focusing on integrated health systems and improving the health status of the population and the other aiming at improving access to health care. Eye care interventions particularly in developing countries have generally been vertically implemented (e.g. trachoma, cataract surgeries) often with parallel organizational structures or specialised disease specific services. With the emergence of health system strengthening in health strategies and in the service delivery of interventions there is a need to clarify and examine inputs in terms governance, financing and management. This present paper aims to clarify key concepts in health system strengthening and describe the various components of the framework as applied in eye care interventions. PMID:22944762
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.
The manual guides an instructor in conducting a training course for first-line supervisors to familiarize them with six aspects relating to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970: (1) requirements of the Act, (2) compliance with its standards, (3) identification of health and safety hazards, (4) correction of adverse conditions, (5) record…
Decades back AYUSH systems of medicine were limited to their own field with few exceptions in some states as health in India is a state issue. This took a reverse turn after the initiation of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in 2005 which brought the concept of “Mainstreaming of AYUSH and Revitalization of Local Health Traditions” utilizing the untapped AYUSH workforces, therapeutics and principles for the management of community health problems. As on 31/03/2012 AYUSH facilities were co-...
Nuclear safety of NPPs should receive the highest priority concerns in any mode of operation because various operational transients can develop into an accident of serious consequence. In most nuclear countries, two-tier approach is commonly adopted to assure the operational safety; (1) various operational and maintenance activities by the utility which has the primary responsibility for the safety of the facility, (2) surveillance and inspection by the government authority which officially confirms the nuclear safety to protect the public from the radiation hazards. The utility has to improve the economy of the plant operation and at the same time has to enhance the safety through the achievement of high quality and reliability in operation and maintenance. The regulatory body, in the meantime, confirms the operational safety through the safety review and inspection activities in the form of preoperational inspection, periodical inspection, daily inspection, special inspection, etc. This paper reviews the basic principles for operation and maintenance of NPP, and the fundamental framework of the roles and responsibilities of the utility and the regulatory body with a view to achieving the operational safety. Also discussed is the regulatory effort in Korea to verify the adequacy of the plant management
Schewe, C D; Spotts, H E
The health-care marketplace is aging by leaps and bounds and bringing with it new and different medical needs. As costs soar and public assistance programs dwindle in impact, health-care providers will need better marketing strategies to bring treatments to patients/consumers. This article looks at the research findings of behavioral scientists and offers guidelines for effective communication with aging audiences. Health-care providers can use these findings to design more effective advertising, promotional brochures, newsletters, and a host of other communication tools targeted at an older market. Health-care managers and other professionals should find the guidelines useful in their daily interactions with patients and colleagues. PMID:10107270
Ignorance, carelessness or improper practices in the laboratory or the improper handling of hazardous or toxic materials may lead to work accidents and work-related ill-health. Laboratory users and administrators cannot afford to overlook these possible consequences due to the misconduct of laboratory practices and should decide how best to manage the health and safety aspects in the laboratory. This book has been written for safety representatives of colleges and universities, for lectures, teachers and students, and for researchers working in laboratories. It is also for everyone responsible for laboratory safety, laboratory accidents and their consequences. The emphasis is on hazards to health and safety, with the focus on the general hazards in the laboratory, how they arise and how to prevent, how to eliminate and control them. Special hazards will also be discussed such as radiation hazards and human factors. This book also provides information on governmental and non-governmental agencies and authorities, emergency contact numbers of relevant authorities, a list of Malaysia occupational safety and health related legislation and some useful occupational safety and health web sites. Readers will find that the information contained in this book will serve as the foundation for laboratory users safety policy. A set of Laboratory Safety Forms for a typical laboratory is also available in the appendix for reference. Laboratory users can use and adapt these forms for their own laboratory requirements. (author)
Vianna, Nubia Garcia; Cavalcanti, Maria de Lourdes Tavares; Acioli, Moab Duarte
This article analyzed whether the practices of hearing health care were consistent with the principles of universality, comprehensiveness and equity from the standpoint of professionals. It involved qualitative research conducted at a Medium Complexity Hearing Health Care Center. A social worker, three speech therapists, a physician and a psychologist constituted the study subjects. Interviews were conducted as well as observation registered in a field diary. The thematic analysis technique was used in the analysis of the material. The analysis of interviews resulted in the construction of the following themes: Universality and access to hearing health, Comprehensive Hearing Health Care and Hearing Health and Equity. The study identified issues that interfere with the quality of service and run counter to the principles of Brazilian Unified Health System. The conclusion reached was that a relatively simple investment in training and professional qualification can bring about significant changes in order to promote a more universal, comprehensive and equitable health service. PMID:25014297
Quenum, C A
The notion or concept of need has different meanings according to the individual groups or ages to which it is applied. A need is something which man subjectively feels an urge to satisfy. Basic or primary needs are the minimum vital requirements which must be met to ensure dignified human existence. Basic needs relate both to individuals and communities. Although the needs of individuals and communities are contingent, they are not necessarily in harmony. One of the principal goals of socioeconomic development in general and health care development in particular is the satisfaction of the basic needs of the greatest number of people. Growth-oriented strategies have so far failed to reduce inequalities and physical, mental, and social destitution. Development strategies focusing on basic needs must: 1) eliminate social inequalities; 2) include coherent programs of activities relating to basic needs; and 3) undergo radical structural changes (a social revolution in community health). Promotion of health care for the most underprivileged segments of society necessitate: 1) production of goods necessary for the satisfaction of basic needs such as building materials or essential medicines; 2) construction of country roads; and 3) development of programs of rural health, water supply, literacy, and housing. Primary health care is essential care which is fundamental to basic needs. Policies, strategies, and plans of action should be formulated in order to develop primary health care. An excellent means of implementing primary health care is the choice of appropriate technology for health care. Choosing the appropriate technology for development entails finding the right balance between labor-intensive and capital-intensive technology; it should be the result of combining knowledge and practices which help improve the physical, mental, and social well-being of individuals, families, and communities. In most rural populations of the world, infections and epidemic and
《法国民法典》确立了近代民法的基本原则,而《德国民法典》又将近代民法基本原则发展。民法的基本原则随时间和社会发展不断在调整和完善。中国1986年的《民法通则》所规范的基本原则有局限性和滞后性,应进一步发展和完善。%France civil law gives us the basic principles of the civil law in modern times,German civil law made them better.The basic principles of the civil law is becoming better day by day.In China,the civil law ’s basic principles have many weaknesses.The article discusses the development and perfection of the civil law ’s basic principles these years.
In the article an author proves that the mechanism of prognostication and rapid reacting is needed on an event «offensive of krizisna», which will be instrumental in the proof functioning of enterprise structures in the period of krizisna. Basic principles over of postoeniya of such mechanism are brought in the article.
ABSTRACT This cross-sectional study examined potential demand-side barriers to women’s use of basic health services in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). Face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire were carried out on 205 currently-married women, inquiring about their use of health facilities: regular antenatal care (ANC) during the last pregnancy and medical treatment services when they suffered from common illness. Questions about their perceptions of barriers to the use of hea...
Fast development of new technologies with application of electromagnetic fields (EMF), their ubiquity and uncertainties about possible health risks pose a big challenge for corresponding protection policies. There is a common consent that the uncertainty considering development and health risks should be covered by precautionary measures, but the questions are what measures are appropriate, how to implement them in the existing legislation and what changes in protection policies and philosophies are needed in order to reach optimal solutions. This paper gives some reflections, analysis, proposals and examples relating to these questions. Different possibilities for precautionary measures in the fields of environmental protection, consumer products and occupational exposure are discussed as well as their implementation in the corresponding protection policies and legislation. The special roles of research and information are illustrated and some examples from Switzerland are given. (author)
Duquenoy, Penny; Whitehouse, Diane
The social and ethical implications of contemporary technologies are becoming an issue of steadily growing importance. This paper offers an overview in terms of identity and the field of ethics, and explores how these apply to eHealth in both theory and practice. The paper selects a specific circumstance in which these ethical issues can be explored. It focuses particularly on radio-frequency identifiers (RFID). It ends by discussing ethical issues more generally, and the practice of et...
Jones, R; Barton, S
Sexual health has a profound influence over an individual's physical and psychological wellbeing. There is an increasing need to develop effective strategies to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) globally. Many STIs are asymptomatic and yet, highly infectious. The sequelae of such infections may be catastrophic and hence, an integrated multidisciplinary and preventative approach to the control of STIs is clearly necessary. Sexual history taking holds the key to the...
Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong
As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.
This article explores the relation between the precautionary and health care decision making. Decision making in medical practice as well as health policy is characterized by uncertainty. On the level of clinical practice for example, one never knows in advance whether one has made the right diagnosis or has opted for the right treatment. Though medical decisions have a risk on serious harms and burdens, the precautionary principle is not applicable to health care. This principle holds that one should not act when there is no scientific proof that no harms will result from a medical act or a policy decision. However, in clinical practice there is a duty to act. Physicians have an obligation to do good to their patients and have to weigh the benefits against possible harms and burdens. The basis virtue of medical decision making is not avoidance of risks, as stated in the precautionary principle, but the prudent assessment of benefits, burdens, and harms, in relation to other ethical principles like respect for autonomy and justice. The precautionary principle does play a role in health care, but it should never rule medical decision making as an absolute principle. This is not only true for clinical decision making, but also for the area of health policy. Physicians and other health care decision makers need to have knowledge about the possible effects of treatments or the precision of diagnostic procedures in order to reduce harm and promote well-being. Evidence-based medicine may contribute to the wisdom of health care decision makers, but this evidence-based wisdom should always be applied under the guidance of prudence, which is the central virtue of health care decision making
Bryant, J H
This paper opens with a concern for the causes of the maldistribution of health care throughout most of the world. It then explores briefly the question of entitlement to health care, focusing on the appropriateness of expressing that entitlement in terms of social justice. Some principles of justice as related to health care are formulated, drawing on the thinking of John Rawls and his Theory of Justice, and the ideas of distributive justice that have been set forth by Nicholas Rescher. These principles are then used as a basis for planning a theoretical health care system in the setting of a less-developed country. This theoretical health care system is intended to reflect a just distribution of health care under conditions of varying limitations of resources, including those in which resources are not adequate to provide care for all of the people. Some of the technical, social, and political implications of such a system are discussed. PMID:914402
Cavalcante, Suzy S.; Nunes de Melo, Maria Clotildes; Carneiro, Nadya Bustani; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues
Purpose: This paper aims to determine the knowledge that staff in day nurseries in Brazil had of basic measures to promote child health which are connected with high child mortality. These measures included breastfeeding, oral rehydration therapy, child growth follow-up, immunization and the identification of signs that indicate that the child…
The growing epidemic of allergy and allergy-induced asthma poses a significant challenge to population health. This article, written for a target audience of policy-makers in public health, aims to contribute to the development of policies to counter allergy morbidities by demonstrat- ing how principles of social justice can guide public health initiatives in reducing allergy and asthma triggers. Following a discussion of why theories of social justice have utility in analyzing allergy, a ste...
Full Text Available Occupational health is the area of medicine dedicated to the prevention and management of occupational and environmental injury, illness and disability, and the promotion of health and productivity of workers, their families and communities. Workers represent half the world’s population and the major contributors to economic and social development. Their health is determined not only by workplace hazards but also by social and individual factors and access to health services
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health organizations the world over are required to set priorities and allocate resources within the constraint of limited funding. However, decision makers may not be well equipped to make explicit rationing decisions and as such often rely on historical or political resource allocation processes. One economic approach to priority setting which has gained momentum in practice over the last three decades is program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA. Methods This paper presents a detailed step by step guide for carrying out a priority setting process based on the PBMA framework. This guide is based on the authors' experience in using this approach primarily in the UK and Canada, but as well draws on a growing literature of PBMA studies in various countries. Results At the core of the PBMA approach is an advisory panel charged with making recommendations for resource re-allocation. The process can be supported by a range of 'hard' and 'soft' evidence, and requires that decision making criteria are defined and weighted in an explicit manner. Evaluating the process of PBMA using an ethical framework, and noting important challenges to such activity including that of organizational behavior, are shown to be important aspects of developing a comprehensive approach to priority setting in health care. Conclusion Although not without challenges, international experience with PBMA over the last three decades would indicate that this approach has the potential to make substantial improvement on commonly relied upon historical and political decision making processes. In setting out a step by step guide for PBMA, as is done in this paper, implementation by decision makers should be facilitated.
核能的和平发展和利用，是20世纪人类最重大的科技成就之一。核电站于上世纪50年代左右开始起步，到本世纪已经达到了商业化发展的水平，成为一种具有吸引力的能源。但是，核能的和平利用在给人类社会带来巨大好处的同时，也伴随着巨大的风险。随着前苏联切尔诺贝利和日本福岛等重大核事故的不断发生，核安全特别是核损害赔偿问题日益引起国际社会的广泛关注。通过对与核损害赔偿有关的国际公约和各国国内法进行系统整理，总结出核损害赔偿的基本原则，可为我国制定《核安全法》提供有益的经验。%Utilizing and developing nuclear energy peacefully is a great scientiifc achievement for human in 20th Century. For instance, nuclear energy station, which launched in the last 50 years of 20th Century. has reached a common application in business this century and utilizing of nuclear energy beneifts human a lot. however, it also brings great risks. With the serious nuclear accidents happened in Chernobyl, the former Soviet Union and Fukushima, Japan, nuclear security, especially nuclear damage compensation continually arouses more attention from international community. In view of this, it is necessary to summarize the basic principles of nuclear damage compensation, which will contribute to the making of the Nuclear security law of China.
Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia
Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…
Waris, Attiya; Latif, Laila Abdul
Scholarship on international health law is currently pushing the boundaries while taking stock of achievements made over the past few decades. However despite the forward thinking approach of scholars working in the field of global health one area remains a stumbling block in the path to achieving the right to health universally: the financing of heath. This paper uses the book Global Health Law by Larry Gostin to reflect and take stock of the fiscal support provided to the right to health from both a global and an African perspective. It then sets out the key fiscal challenges facing global and African health and proposes an innovative solution for consideration: use of the domestic principles of tax to design the global health financing system. PMID:26337764
Bappaditya Dey; Dannenberg, Arthur M.
Part I. Basic Principles. TB vaccines cannot prevent establishment of the infection. They can only prevent an early pulmonary tubercle from developing into clinical disease. A more effective new vaccine should optimize both cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) better than any existing vaccine. The rabbit is the only laboratory animal in which all aspects of the human disease can be reproduced: namely, the prevention of most primary tubercles, the arrestment of ...
Smith, Gene; Poteat-Godwin, Annah; Harrison, Lisa Macon; Randolph, Greg D
This case study describes a local home health and hospice agency's effort to implement Lean principles and Kaizen methodology as a rapid improvement approach to quality improvement. The agency created a cross-functional team, followed Lean Kaizen methodology, and made significant improvements in scheduling time for home health nurses that resulted in reduced operational costs, improved working conditions, and multiple organizational efficiencies. PMID:22139310
SCHMINSKI VIEIRA, Roseli
Full Text Available The Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons (PNSPI – in Portuguese was formulated by the Ministry of Health through Ordinance No. 2.528/2006 in line with the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The study investigated whether municipalities from the South region of the State of Santa Catarina had knowledge and applied the PNSPI, on the performed actions in basic healthcare, especially on the Units of Family Healthcare Services based on what the Constitution and the Statute of the Elderly comprise. A deductive method with a qualitative approach and a descriptive research were used. As a result, some difficulties experienced by the research subjects related to two important points of policies and strategies of PNSPI were identified: the lack of a planned policy and of a continuous health education for the elderly; and the lack of a stimulating exercise of social control, whether in the health sector, or in the Municipal Council of Elderly People.
Joseph J. Capuno; Kraft, Aleli D.
In developing countries like the Philippines, a major policy concern is the inequity in access to health and education services. In this paper, we investigate the effects of factors over which households have control ("choices") or none ("circumstances") on their access to basic services. Our logit regression analyses of two nationwide household surveys reveal that household income and composition, mother's age and education status, and the child's age and gender are critical. The circumstanc...
Mennella, Julie A.
Health initiatives address childhood obesity in part by encouraging good nutrition early in life. This review highlights the science that shows that children naturally prefer higher levels of sweet and salty tastes and reject lower levels of bitter tastes than do adults. Thus, their basic biology does not predispose them to favor the recommended low-sugar, low-sodium, vegetable-rich diets and makes them especially vulnerable to our current food environment of foods high in salt and refined su...
Sukhodimtseva Anna Petrovna
This article is about the importance of the implementation of principles of the continuous education system’s development, defining the social phenomenon of sustainable development at the level of general education.
Kregar, Mirjana; Marčun, Tomaž; Dovžan, Irma; Cehovin, Lojzka
The increasingly closer international business cooperation in the areas of production, trade, transport and activities such as tourism and education is promoting the mobility of people. This increases the need for the provision of health care services across borders. In order to provide increasingly safer and effective treatment that is of ever higher quality in these cases as well, it is necessary to ensure that data accompanies patients even when they travel to other regions, countries or continents. eHealth solutions are one of the key tools for achieving such objectives. When building these solutions, it is necessary to take into account the different aspects and limitations brought about by the differences in the environments where such a treatment of a patient takes place. In the debates on the various types of cross-border interoperability of eHealth solutions, it is necessary to bring to attention the necessity of suitable management and interconnection of data registers that form the basis of every information system: data on patients, health care service providers and basic code tables. It is necessary to promote well-arranged and quality data in the patient's domestic environment and the best possible options for transferring and using those data in the foreign environment where the patient is receiving medical care at a particular moment. Many of the discussions dealing with conditions for the interoperability of health care information systems actually start with questions of how to ensure the interconnectivity of basic data registers. PMID:21685602
The publication summarizes the discussion of the basic principles of Czechoslovak power policy in the 1990's and beyond; the authors of the contributions are specialists from all walks of Czechoslovak science, economy, industries, educational institutions, etc. All positive and negative aspects of the present and future situation in Czechoslovak power generation were debated. It was suggested that in future, one of the four concepts on which Czechoslovak nuclear power is based should be implemented: Soviet type WWER nuclear power plants (basic programme); WWER type reactors of an improved Czechoslovak design (intellectualization of the basic programme); foreign reactors (LWR) with the maximum possible participation of Czechoslovak industry and civil engineering (application programme); and medium power nuclear facilities of a modular design with the participation of Czechoslovak industry and civil engineering after 2000 (development programme). (P.A.)
Miller, Aaron S; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily
Effective chronic disease management is essential to improve positive health outcomes, and incentive strategies are useful in promoting self-care with longevity. Gamification, applied with mHealth (mobile health) applications, has the potential to better facilitate patient self-management. This review article addresses a knowledge gap around the effective use of gamification design principles, or mechanics, in developing mHealth applications. Badges, leaderboards, points and levels, challenges and quests, social engagement loops, and onboarding are mechanics that comprise gamification. These mechanics are defined and explained from a design and development perspective. Health and fitness applications with gamification mechanics include: bant which uses points, levels, and social engagement, mySugr which uses challenges and quests, RunKeeper which uses leaderboards as well as social engagement loops and onboarding, Fitocracy which uses badges, and Mango Health, which uses points and levels. Specific design considerations are explored, an example of the efficacy of a gamified mHealth implementation in facilitating improved self-management is provided, limitations to this work are discussed, a link between the principles of gaming and gamification in health and wellness technologies is provided, and suggestions for future work are made. We conclude that gamification could be leveraged in developing applications with the potential to better facilitate self-management in persons with chronic conditions. PMID:24986104
Full Text Available ... Health & Education Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction ...
Ana Claudia Camargo Gonçalves da Silva
Full Text Available Objectives: To introduce a basic webliography to access highly qualified evidence-based material on health promotion and disease prevention, aiming at the continuing education of health professionals. Methods: By means of Google® browser, applying the descriptors in sequence to progressively refine the search on Internet and key concepts to be learned, all previously defined by the authors themselves, we proceeded a qualitative analyses of the 20 first listed links for each searched issue and the final selection of the most scientifically relevant ones. Results: The 34 selected links are presented in 4 groups: 23 portals, 5 guides and recommendations, 4 scientific journals and 3 blogs that allow free access to health promotion and disease prevention related subjects, such as: concepts; national and international public policies; epidemiology, statistics and health indicators; diseases screening and prophylaxis; counseling for behavior change of health related habits; and interdisciplinary work. Among the selected links 10 (29% are written in English while the others are in Portuguese. Conclusions: The identification of reading materials on health promotion and disease prevention available on Internet, many in Portuguese, allowed us to select relevant scientifically qualified literature and turn it accessible to health professionals, enabling the acquisition of new knowledge or quick update.
Full Text Available Background: Health-related Habits (HrH are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy. Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future.
Some theories in Tsunzi＇s thought are to a certain extent consistent with basic principles of modern economic law.The thought of ＂all fairness means no fairness＂ embodies fairness principle,＂both interest and justice＂the society-oriented principle,＂value on ritual and law＂the appropriate government intervention principle,and＂reasonable measurement and distribution＂the sustainable devel-opment principle of economic law.%荀子思想中的有关理论与中国现代经济法所体现的基本原则有相当的一致性：其＂维齐非齐＂的思想体现了经济法的平原则,其＂义利两有＂思想体现了经济法的社会本位原则,其＂隆礼重法＂思想体现了经济法的国家适度干预原则,其＂度量分界＂思想体现了经济法的可持续发展原则。
Larissa Almondes da Luz
Full Text Available Each year, about 650,000 elderly people are incorporated to the population, raising the necessity to reorganize, primarily, the social models in order to meet decent health care standards for the aging population. These models seek to recover, maintain and promote autonomy and independence, directing individual and collective health measures to this end. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the strategic actions in the health care of the elderly in Basic Health Units (BHU in Teresina, State of Piaui. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out through questionnaires of the ‘Modified Assessment to Improve the Quality of Family Health Strategy - Self-assessment brochures 4 and 5 - Family Health Team - Part II - HEALTH OF THE ELDERLY’ applied to the 20 BHU executive board members in Teresina, after signing the term of consent, according to resolution 196/96. It was possible to observe that 70% of the units develop collective actions, 60% develop educational activities, 100% have updated registration of elderly patients, 95% monitor vaccination to date, 50% have a complete oral examination as a routine activity, 70% are not monitored by the Dental Health Team; 70% develop examination of the body surface as a routine, 60% are involved in the training of home care workers, 65% are involved in early detection of dementia, 80% of the professionals know the National Health Policy for the Elderly (PNSPI, 80% refuse training for action development at the PNSPI, 65% do not work at the identification of disabilities. It was possible to conclude, through the evaluation of the strategic actions in health care for the elderly, that there are deficits related to the internal professional practice at the UBS system in Teresina.
Full Text Available The growing epidemic of allergy and allergy-induced asthma poses a significant challenge to population health. This article, written for a target audience of policy-makers in public health, aims to contribute to the development of policies to counter allergy morbidities by demonstrat- ing how principles of social justice can guide public health initiatives in reducing allergy and asthma triggers. Following a discussion of why theories of social justice have utility in analyzing allergy, a step-wise policy assessment protocol formulated on Rawlsian principles of social jus- tice is presented. This protocol can serve as a tool to aid in prioritizing public health initiatives and identifying ethically problematic policies that necessitate reform. Criteria for policy assess- ment include: 1 whether a tentative public health intervention would provide equal health ben- efit to a range of allergy and asthma sufferers, 2 whether targeting initiatives towards particu- lar societal groups is merited based on the notion of ‘worst-off status’ of certain population seg- ments, and 3 whether targeted policies have the potential for stigmatization. The article con- cludes by analyzing three examples of policies used in reducing allergy and asthma triggers in order to convey the general thought process underlying the use of the assessment protocol, which public health officials could replicate as a guide in actual, region-specific policy development.
Huster, E U
Good health is not distributed equally, neither in life conditions--including the individual ability to act--nor according to the supply grid. These interrelations, shown in several empirical investigations, assume more importance in view of the groving tendency to social polarisation in the countries of Europe, different in fact in the single countries, but clear in respect of tendency: social exclusion does not only mean to have less financial resources but also social disadvantages in other realms of living, especially in health. Migration, not only from East to West, but also inside and between the countries of the European Union and inside of Eastern Europe too, is only an especially dear expression that social problems have their origin in international problems and casualities, but become visible in local and regional structures and thus in the responsibility of the municipalities. Globalisation, Europe etc., terms mostly connected with positive connotations, have not only a positive side, but also another one, namely, the re-regionalisation of social problems especially in the municipalities. Normally the municipalities have to counterbalance and to regulate the negative consequences of these European--and moreover international--changes of the structures, although their financial means are declining. The municipal health service is integrated in this contradictory constellation. To prevent irrational social and/or political developments, the reasons and possible strategies of reform policy will have to be discussed carefully. PMID:9889465
... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Backpack Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Backpack Basics Print A ... it can cause back problems or even injury. Backpacks Are Best Backpacks can't be beat for ...
... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...
Adrian Doru BÎGIOI; Cristina Elena DUMITRU
Respecting shareholders’ rights represents one of the fundamental principles of corporate governance, underpinning the establishment of economic entities, as a form of association of individuals and / or legal entities in order to carry out profit-oriented activities. However, there are situations in which the management, the other shareholders, or even the authorities, do not respect certain shareholders’ rights, leading to a number of negative effects, such as the closing of companies. Bas...
Kappadath, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Nye, J [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)
This continuing education session will discuss the physical principles of PET/CT imaging and characterization of contrast recovery using accreditation phantoms. A detailed overview will be given on the physical principles of PET including positron decay physics, 2D and 3D data acquisition, time-of-flight, scatter correction, CT attenuation correction, and image reconstruction. Instrument quality control and calibration procedures will be discussed. Technical challenges, common image artifacts and strategies to mitigate these issues will also be discussed. Data will be presented on acquisition techniques and reconstruction parameters affecting contrast recovery. The discussion will emphasize the minimization of reconstruction differences in quantification metrics such as SUV and contrast recovery coefficients for the NEMA and ACR clinical trial phantoms. Data from new and older generation scanners will be shown including comparison of contrast recovery measurements to their analytical solutions. The goal of this session is to update attendees on the quality control and calibration of PET/CT scanners, on methods to establish a common calibration for PET/CT scanners to control for instrument variance across multiple sites. Learning Objectives: Review the physical principles of PET/CT, quality control and calibration Gain further understanding on how to apply techniques for improving quantitative agreement across multiple cameras Describe the differences between measured and expected contrast recovery for the NEMA and ACR PET phantoms.
This continuing education session will discuss the physical principles of PET/CT imaging and characterization of contrast recovery using accreditation phantoms. A detailed overview will be given on the physical principles of PET including positron decay physics, 2D and 3D data acquisition, time-of-flight, scatter correction, CT attenuation correction, and image reconstruction. Instrument quality control and calibration procedures will be discussed. Technical challenges, common image artifacts and strategies to mitigate these issues will also be discussed. Data will be presented on acquisition techniques and reconstruction parameters affecting contrast recovery. The discussion will emphasize the minimization of reconstruction differences in quantification metrics such as SUV and contrast recovery coefficients for the NEMA and ACR clinical trial phantoms. Data from new and older generation scanners will be shown including comparison of contrast recovery measurements to their analytical solutions. The goal of this session is to update attendees on the quality control and calibration of PET/CT scanners, on methods to establish a common calibration for PET/CT scanners to control for instrument variance across multiple sites. Learning Objectives: Review the physical principles of PET/CT, quality control and calibration Gain further understanding on how to apply techniques for improving quantitative agreement across multiple cameras Describe the differences between measured and expected contrast recovery for the NEMA and ACR PET phantoms
Nurses care for people each day in many settings such as hospitals, physician offices, schools, and public health facilities. Such positions often require nurses to work variable and long hours, exposing them to the stressors of caring for people who are ill. These stressors can support poor food choices that adversely affect the health and well-being of the nurse. Nurses are also an integral part of providing nutrition related information to patients. As such, patients may be very cognizant of the health habits of their nurses. Eating for good health is one way that nurses can reduce the impact of stressors on the body and positively influence their health, allowing them to better care for patients and themselves. This article reviews two common nutrition related areas of concern to nurses, stressors, inflammation, and nutrition and sleep and eating patterns, that can lead to obesity. Knowledge and attitudes about nutrition education are also discussed briefly. Finally, the article offers a review of nutrition basics for nurses and suggestions to avoid potential food pitfalls common for nurses. PMID:26824155