Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L;
Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and m...
Beverly B. Green, MD, MPH
Full Text Available BackgroundThe American Cancer Society’s Active for Life is a worksite wellness program that encourages employees to be physically active. This paper reports the experience of implementing Active for Life in a worksite setting and its longer-term impact on physical activity.ContextThe Active for Life intervention was provided to employees at Group Health Cooperative, a nonprofit health care system in the Pacific Northwest with 9800 employees.MethodsPosters, newsletters, health fairs, and site captains promoted enrollment in Active for Life. Interventions included goal-setting, self-monitoring, incentives, and team competition. Preprogram and postprogram changes in physical activity were assessed at baseline, 10 weeks, and 6 months.ConsequencesActive for Life was offered to 3624 employees, and 1167 (32% enrolled; 565 (48% completed all three surveys. At 10 weeks, all physical activity measures increased significantly. The proportion of employees meeting the guideline of the Centers for Disease and Control and Prevention for physical activity increased from 34% to 48% (P < .01. At the 6-month follow-up, the frequency of exercising enough to work up a sweat (P < .01 remained significantly increased, but other measures of physical activity declined toward baseline.InterpretationA 10-week worksite program implemented at multiple facilities increased physical activity by the end of the intervention, but these changes were not sustained over time. Future interventions might include extending the length of the program, repeating the program, or adding larger economic incentives over time. Any such alternative models should be carefully evaluated, using a randomized design if possible.
Laws, P. W.
Early in his career Robert Millikan experimented with a laboratory-based method of teaching introductory physics that bears close resemblance to Workshop Physics.® In this talk, key elements of Workshop Physics are summarized. Some Workshop Physics activities are described which involve apparati that are used for rapid observations of conceptual aspects of physical phenomena as well as for equation verification experiments. Challenges are discussed that must be faced if recently developed activity-based approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of physics education research are to provide a foundation for a major paradigm shift in physics teaching.
Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip
Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…
Hager, Ronald L.; Hardy, Aaron; Aldana, Steven G.; George, James D.
Evaluated the impact of online, stage-based materials on exercise behavior and stage of readiness to change. College faculty participated in stage-based, action-message, or control groups. Occupational and leisure activity, 7-day physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and stage of readiness to change were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks.…
Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- plus eating well, is the best way to ... shortness of breath when you are active Build physical activity into your regular routine Simple lifestyle changes can ...
Kurti, Allison N; Logan, Henrietta; Manini, Todd; Dallery, Jesse
Background: Rural Americans engage in less physical activity (PA) and experience higher rates of consequent health problems (i.e., obesity, cardiovascular disease) than urban Americans. Although geographic barriers have historically made this population hard to reach, rural individuals are increasingly gaining access to smartphones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate PA behavior and barriers to PA among rural residents and to gauge their receptiveness to a smartphone-based PA ...
Sluijs, van der, E.; Poppel - Bruinvels, van, M.N.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Brug, J.; Mechelen, Van
PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs) on potential determinants of physical activity. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 29 general practices with the following inclusion criteria for patients: aged between 18 and 70 years, ...
Largo-Wight, Erin; Todorovich, John R.; O'Hara, Brian K.
Understanding and promoting physical activity is critical to combat the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. This study was designed to compare two 10-week physical activity programs among college students. One hundred and thirty-six undergraduate college students participated in this randomized posttest only control group study. Seventy-seven…
Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik;
Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....
As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA
Pardo, Berta Murillo; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Lanaspa, Eduardo Generelo; Bush, Paula L.; Casterad, Javier Zaragoza; Clemente, Jose A. Julian; Gonzalez, Luis Garcia
This narrative review describes the available scientific evidence regarding promising school-based strategies to increase physical activity of adolescents. We conducted a literature search for studies published up to 2011, regarding adolescent physical activity intervention studies that resulted in increased physical activity (regardless of…
Williams, David Michael
This study tested an integrated social cognitive model of physical activity intention formation, onset, and maintenance among sedentary participants (N = 465) in a church-based, social cognitive, physical activity intervention. Three separate models were tested via structural equation modeling. Each model provided a good fit to the data. The models explained 28%, 19%, and 9% of the variance in intention formation, physical activity onset, and physical activity maintenance, respectively. Consi...
Similar to medication adherence, objective measures of physical activity may allow physicians to improve activity rates among individual patients and patient populations, which should improve health care outcomes. Sensor-based systems may become a best practice for objective measurement of physical activity and the management of physical activity programs. Given the ease of tracking with these new devices and the ability to upload information automatically, a sensor-based system has the poten...
Yoder, Garett; Cook, Jerry
The Department of Physics at EKU [Eastern Kentucky University] with support from the National Science Foundations Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement Program has successfully converted our entire introductory physics sequence, both algebra-based and calculus-based courses, to an activity-based format where laboratory activities,…
Stenevi, Susanna; Daly, Robin; Lindén, Christian; Gärdsell, Per; Karlsson, Magnus
This 12-month prospective controlled intervention evaluated the effect of a general school based physical activity program on muscle strength, physical performance and body composition in prepubertal girls. Fifty-three girls aged 7-9 years involved in a school based exercise program [40 min/day of general physical activity per school day (200 min/week)] were compared with 50 age-matched girls who participated in the general Swedish physical education curriculum (mean 60 min/week). Body compos...
Bocarro, Jason N.; Floyd, Myron F.; Smith, William R.; Edwards, Michael B.; Schultz, Courtney L.; Baran, Perver; Moore, Robin A.; Cosco, Nilda; Suau, Luis J.
Introduction Parks provide opportunities for physical activity for children. This study examined sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity because differences may indicate that a standard environmental intervention to increase activity among children may not equally benefit boys and girls. Methods The System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities was used to measure physical activity among 2,712 children and adolescents in 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, North...
Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie
Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…
... Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve ... Have had recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), ...
Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Beighle, Aaron; Ahn, Soyeon
Research suggests that physical activity may foster improved academic performance, yet schools are receiving more pressure to achieve high academic standards. It is important for classroom teachers, administrators and school psychologists to understand the benefits of incorporating physical activity into the school day. This article serves as a…
Most studies focusing on the relationship between physical activity and obesity have been conducted in middle class Caucasian adults and children and few such studies are available concerning minority children in physical activity settings (Johnson, Kulinna, Tudor-Locke, Darst, & Pangrazi, 2007; Rowlands et al., 1999; Tudor-Locke, Lee, Morgan,…
Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Achiff, Annie; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.
Purpose: Family-based interventions present a much-needed opportunity to increase children?s physical activity levels. However, little is known about how best to engage parents and their children in physical activity research. This study aimed to engage with the whole family to understand how best to recruit for, and retain participation in, physical activity research. Methods: Families (including a ?target? child aged between 8 and 11 years, their parents, siblings, and others) were recr...
Rachele, Jerome N.; Cuddihy, Thomas F.; Washington, Tracy L.; McPhail, Steven M.
Physical education teachers are central to the facilitation of school-based physical activity promotion. However, teachers have self-reported a lack of knowledge, skills, understanding, and competence to successfully implement these strategies. The aim of this investigation was to explore the beliefs and perceptions of pre-service physical…
Melicia C. Whitt-Glover, PhD
Full Text Available IntroductionPhysical activity participation is low among blacks, and strategies are needed to successfully create immediate and sustained behavior change related to physical activity. Churches can play an important role in health promotion efforts among blacks because of their central role in spiritual guidance, communication, social support, and networking. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a physical activity program for sedentary black adults in churches.MethodsWe used a preintervention/postintervention single-group design to evaluate the effect of a 3-month faith-based physical activity intervention on daily walking and moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity among sedentary blacks. Eighty-seven black adults participated in eight group sessions that included discussion of physical activity-related topics, an instructor-led physical activity session, and weekly incentives to promote physical activity. We used a questionnaire to assess moderate and vigorous physical activity in minutes per week at baseline and after 3 months. Walking was assessed weekly in steps per day by using a pedometer.ResultsParticipants (mean age, 52 yrs; mean body mass index, 35 kg/m2 reported 27 ± 54 and 10 ± 25 minutes per week in moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively, and walked 4822 ± 2351 steps per day at baseline. After 12 weeks, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity increased by 67 ± 78 and 44 ± 66 minutes per week, respectively (P ≤ .01, and daily walking increased by 1373 ± 728 steps per day (P < .001.ConclusionThese data suggest that a faith-based physical activity intervention may be an appropriate strategy for increasing physical activity among sedentary black adults. Future research will determine the impact of this program in a randomized, controlled design.
The American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggest at least 30 min of moderate physical activity at least 5 days a week or 20 min of vigorous physical activity at least 3 days a week. The overall aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficacy of a web-based intervention--one that relied on…
Ullrich-French, Sarah; McDonough, Meghan H; Smith, Alan L
It is believed that the social connections formed by participating in physical activity-based positive youth development (PYD) programs contributes to building personal and social assets. In this study, we examined how changes in social connection over a physical activity-based PYD program for low-income youth were associated with changes in psychological outcomes. Participants (N = 197) completed pre- and postprogram questionnaires assessing leader support, social competence, physical competence, and psychological outcomes (global self-worth, physical self-worth, attraction to physical activity, and hope). Social competence, physical competence, physical self-worth, and global self-worth increased significantly over the 4-week program. Changes in social connections predicted changes in psychological outcomes. Effect sizes were modest but suggest that social interventions hold potential to promote positive outcomes in underserved youth. PMID:22978193
Cooper Dan M; Schneider Margaret
Abstract Background A school-based physical activity intervention designed to encourage adolescent girls to be more active was more effective for some participants than for others. We examined whether baseline enjoyment of exercise moderated response to the intervention. Methods Adolescent girls with a low level of baseline activity who participated in a controlled trial of an intervention to promote increased physical activity participation (n = 122) self-reported their enjoyment of exercise...
Objective. To evaluate the association between safety from crime and physical activity among older adults. Methods. A population-based survey including 1,656 older adults (60+ years) took place in Florianopolis, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Commuting and leisure time physical activity were assessed through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perception of safety from crime was assessed using the Neighbourhood Environment Walk ability Scale. Results. Perceiving the neighbourhood as safe during the day was related to a 25% increased likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.02-1.53); general perception of safety was also associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.01-1.54). Street lighting was related to higher levels of commuting physical activity (prevalence ratio: 1.89; 95% CI 1.28-2.80). Conclusions. Safety investments are essential for promoting physical activity among older adults in Brazil
Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin; Cooper, Bruce; Dowling, Glenna
Objectives The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. Methods In this one group pre-test, post-test pilot study, 20 participants played an active videogame for 30 min, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively ...
Knowles Zoe R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low childhood physical activity levels are currently one of the most pressing public health concerns. Numerous school-based physical activity interventions have been conducted with varied success. Identifying effective child-based physical activity interventions are warranted. The purpose of this formative study was to elicit subjective views of children, their parents, and teachers about physical activity to inform the design of the CHANGE! (Children's Health, Activity, and Nutrition: Get Educated! intervention programme. Methods Semi-structured mixed-gender interviews (group and individual were conducted in 11 primary schools, stratified by socioeconomic status, with 60 children aged 9-10 years (24 boys, 36 girls, 33 parents (4 male, 29 female and 10 teachers (4 male, 6 female. Questions for interviews were structured around the PRECEDE stage of the PRECEDE-PROCEDE model and addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards physical activity, as well as views on barriers to participation. All data were transcribed verbatim. Pen profiles were constructed from the transcripts in a deductive manner using the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model framework. The profiles represented analysis outcomes via a diagram of key emergent themes. Results Analyses revealed an understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health, although some children had limited understanding of what constitutes physical activity. Views elicited by children and parents were generally consistent. Fun, enjoyment and social support were important predictors of physical activity participation, though several barriers such as lack of parental support were identified across all group interviews. The perception of family invested time was positively linked to physical activity engagement. Conclusions Families have a powerful and important role in promoting health-enhancing behaviours. Involvement of parents and the whole family is a
Simonÿ, Charlotte; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D.;
, and it seems to be crucial to further emphasise the individuals lived experiences when exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation is followed. Hence this study aims to investigate how patients experience exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in a hospital setting. Methods. This study, which included nine...... other to begin exercising; and growing confidence in the heart, whereby the patients overcome anxiety and dare to be physically active. Conclusions. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation provides a comfort-giving setting that offers peer support and a positive physical perception leading to confidence...... into that the heart endures physical activity. In addition to serving as physical guidance, exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation offers valuable mental support. The patients find help to overcome an initial anxiety and move forward towards a physically active life featuring a feeling of improved...
Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A;
physical activity on quality of life. METHODS: The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program-DirectLife (Philips)-aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The......BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of...... inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing...
Marques, Adilson; Calmeiro, Luís; Loureiro, Nuno; Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar
In this study, we investigated the relationship between screen-based behaviours, physical activity, and health complaints (headaches, feeling low, irritability, and nervousness). Screen-based behaviour included TV viewing, computer use, and time spent playing video games. Data were collected from 4462 Portuguese adolescents (2394 girls) aged 11-16 years. Girls who reported engaging in more screen-based behaviour (hours/day) also reported having more headaches, feeling lower, being more irritable, and feeling more nervous. Boys who reported more screen time were more irritable. Physical activity (times/week) was negatively associated with reports of feeling nervous among girls, and with headaches, feeling low, irritability, and feeling nervous among boys. Considering that time spent using the computer is related with more health complaints, and physical activity was related with fewer health complaints among boys, it is important to develop strategies to reduce adolescents' computer screen time, and to promote physical activity. PMID:26275746
Shin, Y E; Choi, W H; Shin, T M
This paper suggests a physical activity assessment method based on quaternion. To reduce user inconvenience, we measured the activity using a mobile device which is not put on fixed position. Recognized results were verified with various machine learning algorithms, such as neural network (multilayer perceptron), decision tree (J48), SVM (support vector machine) and naive bayes classifier. All algorithms have shown over 97% accuracy including decision tree (J48), which recognized the activity with 98.35% accuracy. As a result, physical activity assessment method based on rotated acceleration using quaternion can classify sedentary behavior with more accuracy without considering devices' position and orientation. PMID:25571109
Mura, Gioia; Vellante, Marcello; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni
Schools are an ideal setting to implement physical activity programs targeted at youths' learning and intellectual abilities, as exercise has been associated with improvement in cognitive skills and academic proficiency. A systematic review of the literature was performed to examine the effects of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and cognitive outcomes. A search for relevant papers was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar. Only quasi-experimental and experimental studies were included, if focused on school-based physical activity interventions targeting 3 to 18 year-old healthy pupils, and designed to establish a relationship between exercise performed in a school setting and cognitive/academic performance. Thirty-one papers were retrieved by the search, reporting the findings of twenty-eight school-based physical activity interventions. Most of the included studies were published in the past five years. A large majority of the studies showed positive results in terms of academic achievement and, above all, cognitive skills. In the recent years, the number of studies on school-based physical interventions aimed to establish a relationship between physical activity performed in school setting and cognitive/academic outcomes significantly increased, as well as high quality assessments and designs. This review highlights the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and, above all, on youths' cognitive performance. Some interesting findings come from studies assessing brain functional changes, from interventions targeting culturally diverse or low-income samples, and from interventions where physical activity is in the form of active videogames. PMID:26556088
Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff;
BACKGROUND: Many people in Western countries do not follow public health physical activity (PA) recommendations. Web-based interventions provide cost- and time-efficient means of delivering individually targeted lifestyle modification at a population level. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether access...
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. Methods: In this one group pretest posttest pilot study, twenty participants played an active videogame for 30 minutes, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. Results: There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. Conclusions: These results suggest participants’ perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.
This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting health outcome changes in a 6-month, church-based, controlled, lifestyle intervention previously proven effective for improving diet quality, physical activity, and blood lipids. Descriptive ind...
Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F;
Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because...... that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal...
LaBreche, Mandy; Cheri, Ashley; Custodio, Harold; Fex, Cleo Carlos; Foo, Mary Anne; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; May, Vanessa Tui'one; Orne, Annette; Pang, Jane Ka'ala; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Surani, Zul; Talavou, Melevesi Fifita; Toilolo, Tupou; Palmer, Paula Healani; Tanjasiri, Sora Park
Pacific Islander (PI) populations of Southern California experience high obesity and low physical activity levels. Given PI's rich cultural ties, efforts to increase physical activity using a community-tailored strategy may motivate members in a more sustainable manner. In this paper, we (1) detail the program adaptation methodology that was utilized to develop the Weaving an Islander Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training (WINCART) Center's PI Let's Move Program, a culturally tailored program aimed to increase physical activity levels among members of PI organizations in Southern California, and (2) share the program's pilot evaluation results on individual and organizational changes. The WINCART Center applied the National Cancer Institute's program adaptation guidelines to tailor the evidence-based Instant Recess program to fit the needs of PIs. The end product, the PI Let's Move Program, was piloted in 2012 with eight PI organizations, reaching 106 PI adults. At baseline, 52 % of participants reported that they were not physically active, with the average number of days engaged in medium-intensity physical activity at 2.09 days/week. After the 2-month program, participants increased the number of days that they engaged in medium-intensity physical activity from 2.09 to 2.90 days/week. Post-pilot results found that 82 % of participants reported intentions to engage in physical activity for at least the next 6 months. At baseline, only one organization was currently implementing a physical activity program, and none had implemented an evidence-based physical activity program tailored for PIs. After the 2-month timeframe, despite varying levels of capacity, all eight organizations were able to successfully implement the program. In conclusion, results from our program provide evidence that disparity populations, such as PIs, can be successfully reached through programs that are culturally tailored to both individuals and their community
Vallance, Jeffrey K.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Taylor, Lorian M.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Mackey, John R.
This study's objective was to develop and evaluate the suitability and appropriateness of a theory-based physical activity (PA) guidebook for breast cancer survivors. Guidebook content was constructed based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) using salient exercise beliefs identified by breast cancer survivors in previous research. Expert…
Friederichs, S.A.H.; Oenema, A.; Bolman, C.; Guyaux, J.; Keulen, H.M. van; Lechner, L.
The purpose of this study was to identify which question/reflection format leads to the most favorable results in terms of effect on autonomous motivation and appreciation for the intervention in a web-based computer-tailored physical activity (PA) intervention, based on principles from self-determi
... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...
Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.
Maturi Masumeh S; Afshary Pourandokht; Abedi Parvin
Abstract Background Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with weight gain in women, and retention of weight gained during pregnancy can lead to obesity in later life. Diet and physical activity are factors that can influence the loss of retained pregnancy weight after birth. Exercise guidelines exist for pregnancy, but recommendations for exercise after childbirth are virtually nonexistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity intervention based on pedomete...
Full Text Available Standard "cookbook" laboratory activities that are used to teach students the optimal physical growth conditions of microorganisms should be modified so that they more effectively foster student's higher order cognitive skills and attract student interest. This paper describes a laboratory activity that engages students in an inquiry-based approach to studying the physical growth requirements of microorganisms. In this activity, students design and implement an experiment to obtain pure cultures of specific microorganisms, with distinct growth properties, that are provided to them in a mixed culture.
Stephanie E. Bonn
Full Text Available Accurate assessment of children’s physical activity is critical in determining associations between childhood physical activity and health later in life. We have developed a web-based questionnaire, KidActive-Q, to assess physical activity in early childhood. The feasibility and reproducibility of KidActive-Q were assessed in a sample of 20 children aged 2 to 6 years. The questionnaire was distributed to parents via e-mail on two occasions. The median time required to complete KidActive-Q was 2.5 minutes. All the parents reported that the questionnaire was easy or very easy to fill. The intraclass correlations for test-retest reliability were 0.60 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.88 for daily time spent outdoors, and 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.72-0.97 for daily time watching television. Our results suggest that KidActive-Q is a user-friendly tool for assessing physical activity in early childhood. To our knowledge, this is the first web-based questionnaire specifically developed for young children.
Fortier Michelle S
Full Text Available Abstract A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion.
Pérez-Cruzado, David; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.
Background People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have lower levels of physical activity and quality of life and they have a lot of barriers to face when taking part in physical activity. Other problems are the poor adherence to physical activity such people have so this study is designed to improve adherence to physical activity for people with intellectual disabilities with the assistance of an application for smartphones. The aim of the study will be to improve physical activity and ph...
Ornes, Lynne; Ransdell, Lynda B.
This study compared the effectiveness of a web-based physical activity intervention to two control conditions in terms of increasing walking behavior in college-aged women. Women (N=112) from a public university in the southwest were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The 4-week intervention featured an experimental, repeated…
Hutchison, Andrew J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Johnston, Lynne H.
This review critically examines Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based interventions for physical activity (PA) behavior change. It has been suggested that the TTM may not be the most appropriate theoretical model for applications to PA behavior change. However, previous reviews have paid little or no attention to how accurately each intervention…
Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus
Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…
Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David
Purpose: Some religions espouse doctrines that (in)directly impact physical activity (PA) behavior. Yet limited PA interventions have been tailored to religious minorities. Thus, a formative study was conducted to examine the effect of a faith-based pedometer program (Virtual Umra) on psychological correlates of PA behavior and their contribution…
Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; McDermott, Robert J.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nickelson, Jen; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; DeBate, Rita D.; Phillips, Leah M.; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang
Background: Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age)…
Mouton, Alexandre; Rompen, Jérôme; Cloes, Marc
Purpose. Despite the numerous health benefits, population physical activity levels are low and decline with age. Few studies exposed that a better knowledge about physical activity could encourage people to become physically active, which constitute a critical health challenge for older people. Moreover, neighbourhood environment internet-based interventions are recommended to promote physical activity. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a neighbourhood en...
. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, sedentary time and nutrition habits. Costs will be compared with outcomes to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of the healthy weight and physical activity interventions. Discussion This study addresses a significant gap in public health practice by providing evidence for the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a low cost, low contact, high reach intervention promoting healthy weight and physical activity among people with CVD in rural and urban areas in Australia. The replication arm of the study, undertaken by the control group, will demonstrate whether the findings of the previously proven physical activity intervention can be generalised to new settings. This population-based approach could potentially improve access to and outcomes of secondary prevention programs, particularly for rural or disadvantaged communities. Trial Registration ACTRN12610000102077
Maher, Carol; Crettenden, Angela; Evans, Kerry; Thiessen, Myra; Toohey, Monica; Dollman, Jim
Background Physical activity affords a wide range of physiological and psychological benefits for children and adolescents, yet many children with physical disabilities are insufficiently active to achieve these benefits. The StepUp program is a newly developed 6-week pedometer-based self-management program for children and adolescents with physical disability. Participants use a pedometer to undertake a 6-week physical activity challenge, with personalised daily step count goals set in consu...
Buscemi, Joanna; Kong, Angela; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Bustamante, Eduardo E; Davis, Catherine L; Pate, Russell R; Wilson, Dawn K
The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges elementary schools to provide children with ample opportunities to engage in physical activity during school hours. In addition to promoting overall child health, physical activity also supports academic achievement. In addition to improving their aerobic fitness, regular physical activity improves cognitive function, influences the brain, and improves mood in children. Better aerobic fitness and physical activity are associated with increased grade point averages and standardized test scores. Despite the documented relationship between physical activity, fitness, and academic achievement, few schools have implemented physical activity as a tool to improve academic performance. SBM recommends that elementary schools provide children with the recommended 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during school hours. Further, SBM urges schools to work with the local school districts and state education departments to mandate minimum physical activity time for elementary school physical education. PMID:25584093
Pate, Russell R.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Ward, Dianne S.; Felton, Gwen; Trost, Stewart G.; Dowda, Marsha
Tested the effectiveness of a community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity among rural fifth graders. Data on students who participated in after-school and summer programs and home, school, and community interventions indicated that the after-school and summer interventions were implemented as planned, but the home, school,…
Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Webster, Collin A.; Moore, Justin
The YMCA of the USA serves more than nine million youth in its summer day camping programs nationwide. In spring 2011, the YMCA of Columbia, SC, with support from the University of South Carolina, adopted a competency-based staff-level training approach in an attempt to align staff behaviors with the YMCA of the USA new physical activity standards…
Buscemi, Joanna; Kong, Angela; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Bustamante, Eduardo E.; Davis, Catherine L.; Pate, Russell R.; Wilson, Dawn K.
The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges elementary schools to provide children with ample opportunities to engage in physical activity during school hours. In addition to promoting overall child health, physical activity also supports academic achievement. In addition to improving their aerobic fitness, regular physical activity improves cognitive function, influences the brain, and improves mood in children. Better aerobic fitness and physical activity are associated with increased gr...
Atif Ali; Naveed Akhtar; Haji Muhammad Shoaib Khan
The purpose of the present work was to investigate the changes on physical stability (color, creaming, liquefaction, pH, conductivity, centrifugation, viscosity and rheological parameters) by non-ionic surfactant polysiloxane polyalkyl polyether copolymer based creams following inclusion of plant extract containing phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the plant extract alone and after addition in the cream was assessed using the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DP...
Rabin, Carolyn; Dunsiger, Shira; Ness, Kirsten K.; Marcus, Bess H
Purpose: Young adults who have been treated for cancer face several health and psychosocial risks. To minimize these risks, is it imperative that they address any modifiable risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle. Unfortunately, more than half of young adult cancer survivors remain sedentary. To facilitate the adoption of physical activity (PA) in this population—potentially reducing health and psychosocial risks—we developed and pilot tested an internet-based PA intervention for young sur...
... Food and Beverage Toolkit The AHA's Recommendations for Physical Activity in Children Updated:Jul 21,2016 Click image ... Inactive children are likely to become inactive adults. Physical activity helps with: controlling weight reducing blood pressure raising ...
Mouton, Alexandre; Cloes, Marc
With more social support and environment-centered interventions being recommended in web-based interventions, this study examined the efficacy of three intervention conditions aimed at promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults. The efficacy analyses included the self-reported PA level, stage of change for PA and awareness about PA among…
Heath, Gregory W; Diana C Parra; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Owen, Neville; Goenka, Shifalika; Montes, Felipe; Brownson, Ross C.
Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activi...
Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Sohrabi MR, Davoudi-Monfared E, Tayefi B, Hajihashemi Z, Sajjadi E. The effect of regular physical activity on exercise tolerance: a school-based intervention. Novel Biomed 2013;1(2:34-38.Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to assess the effects of daily physical activity on exercise tolerance ability using the six minute walk test in healthy female students.Methods: The participants in this field study were 252 healthy girls, 9-12 years old, studying in an elementary school in Tehran from March to June 2011. A three months daily physical activity protocol, with 15 minutes exercise per day, was designed as a curricular-based exercise intervention program. The six minute walk test was used as a tool to measure exercise tolerance ability before and after the intervention. Paired t-test, ANOVA and correlation tests were used when appropriate.Results: The participants, with mean age of 10.6 (SD = 1.1, formed different body mass index groups known as underweight, normal, at risk and overweight with 8.3, 60.7, 18.7, and 12.3% respectively. The mean of the distances moved along in a six minute walk test, before and after the intervention, increased from 833.4 meter to 923.3 meter , indicating 10% increase and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.001. However, analysis of mean differences of the walked distances, before and after the intervention, showed no statistically significant difference for the body mass index groups (P> 0.05.Conclusion: A 15-minutes daily physical activity could enhance the exercise tolerance of school-age girls; the activity, as an easy and inexpensive form of intervention, is recommended to students.
Small, Staci; Ryan, Ben; Vann, Nik; Moore, Christopher
Longwood University's Society of Physics Students conducted a six-week, activity-based after-school program for middle-school students in partnership with a rural low-income school system. Hands-on learning activities were designed and implemented to improve content knowledge in typically low-scoring standardized testing areas in the physical sciences. For example, we used colored yarn of different lengths to help demonstrate visible light in the electromagnetic spectrum along with the relationship between wavelength and frequency. Other topics were explored, such as reflection, refraction, sound and inference. At the end of the six-week program, a science exposition was held where the students came to Longwood and participated in more sophisticated experiments, such as liquid nitrogen demonstrations. After the exposition, Longwood University held a small awards ceremony in which the parents were invited to watch their students receive an award congratulating them on completing the program and welcoming them into the Lancer Discovery Club. )
Reid, Natasha; Daly, Robin M.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Healy, Genevieve N.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations of monitor-derived measures of sedentary time and physical activity with performance-based physical function in healthy Australian adults. Data from 602 participants (mean age 58.1±10.0 years; 58% female) from the 2011/12 wave of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab3) study were analyzed. The thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-days continuous wear) was used to derive time during waking hours spent: sitting/reclining; standing; and, stepping (overall, and separately as light [stand transitions. Associations of these (in hours/day, or 15 transitions/day) with physical function measures (8ft Timed Up and Go [TUG-8; log-transformed seconds] and Knee Extensor Strength [KES; kg]) were tested via linear regression, adjusting for confounders. Interactions by sex and age-category (tested. In all participants, KES was significantly (pstanding, sit-stand transition and sex interactions were not statistically significant. In summary, sitting time was not significantly associated with impaired muscle strength or gait/mobility in Australian adults aged 36–80 years, but light- to moderate activity (stepping) was positively associated with muscle strength, and gait/mobility in older adults aged ≥65 years. The direction of causation is not known and remains important to investigate considering the high prevalence of both poor function and limited activity in older age. PMID:27073888
Maturi Masumeh S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with weight gain in women, and retention of weight gained during pregnancy can lead to obesity in later life. Diet and physical activity are factors that can influence the loss of retained pregnancy weight after birth. Exercise guidelines exist for pregnancy, but recommendations for exercise after childbirth are virtually nonexistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity intervention based on pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures of women after childbirth. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 66 women who had given birth 6 weeks to 6 months prior were randomly assigned to receive either a 12 week tailored program encouraging increased walking using a pedometer (intervention group, n = 32 or routine postpartum care (control group, n = 34. During the 12-week study period, each woman in the intervention group wore a pedometer and recorded her daily step count. The women were advised to increase their steps by 500 per week until they achieved the first target of 5000 steps per day and then continued to increase it to minimum of 10,000 steps per day by the end of 12th week. Assessed outcomes included anthropometric measures, physical activity level, and energy expenditure per week. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, Wilcoxon, covariance analysis, and the general linear model repeated measures procedure as appropriate. Results After 12 weeks, women in the intervention group had significantly increased their physical activity and energy expenditure per week (4394 vs. 1651 calorie, p P = 0.001, Body Mass Index (P = 0.001, waist circumference (P = 0.001, hip circumference (P = 0.032 and waist-hip ratio (P = 0.02 were presented after the intervention. The intervention group significantly increased their mean daily step count over the study period (from 3249
Alley, Stephanie; Jennings, Cally; Ronald C Plotnikoff; Vandelanotte, Corneel
Background There is a need for effective population-based physical activity interventions. The internet provides a good platform to deliver physical activity interventions and reach large numbers of people at low cost. Personalised advice in web-based physical activity interventions has shown to improve engagement and behavioural outcomes, though it is unclear if the effectiveness of such interventions may further be improved when providing brief video-based coaching sessions with participant...
Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.
Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802
Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to investigate the changes on physical stability (color, creaming, liquefaction, pH, conductivity, centrifugation, viscosity and rheological parameters by non-ionic surfactant polysiloxane polyalkyl polyether copolymer based creams following inclusion of plant extract containing phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the plant extract alone and after addition in the cream was assessed using the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Physical stability was assessed by submitting the creams to storage at 8°C, 25°C, 40°C, and at 40°C with 70% RH (relative humidity for a period of two months. Physical characteristics of polysiloxane polyalkyl polyether copolymer based creams, that is, color, creaming, liquefaction, centrifugation and pH were noted at various intervals for 2 months. The viscosities and rheological behavior of creams were determined using a rotational rheometer. Data were analyzed by using Brookfield Software Rheocalc version (2.6 with IPC Paste and Power Law (PL math models. Cream with plant extract showed pseudo plastic behaviour with decreasing on viscosity. The Acacia nilotica (AN extract alone and the cream containing this extract showed great antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Power Law and IPC analysis were found to fit all the rheograms.
Macdonald-Wallis, Kyle; Jago, Russell; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L
Despite the known health benefits, the majority of children do not meet physical activity guidelines, with past interventions to increase physical activity yielding little success. Social and friendship networks have been shown to influence obesity, smoking and academic achievement, and peer-led interventions have successfully reduced the uptake of adolescent smoking. However, the role of social networks on physical activity is not clear. This paper investigates the extent to which friendship...
Baghianimoghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhtari-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Dabagh-Nikookheslat, Saeed; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh
Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce risk of morbidity and overall mortality. A study has displayed that achieving 10,000 steps/day is associated with important health outcomes and have been used to promote PA. Pedometers are a popular tool for PA interventions in different setting. This study investigated the effects on pedometer-based and self-reported PA among Tabriz University employees. Methods: This experimental study assessed the effects of 16 weeks pedometer-based workplace intervention. Participants (n = 154) were employees of two worksites. Pedometer-based and self-reported PA from one intervention worksite was compared with the data of a comparison workplace. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for self-reported measure of PA, and demographic (age, marital status, educational level, employment status, and stage of change) variables were obtained. To measure PA objectively pedometer was used. Results: Participants reported to increase the step counts from baseline (end of summer) to posttest (winter). The intervention effect revealed significant increase in the intervention group (8279 ± 2759 steps/day than in the comparison work place (4118 ± 1136). Self-reported based on IPAQ concluded women in intervention worksite had a significant increase in the leisure time domain, but similar finding was not found in the comparison worksite. Conclusions: Pedometer used might rather benefit those individuals who want feedback on their current PA, also walking should be considered to increase PA in employee women. PMID:27076888
Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government
Cabrita, Miriam; Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam
An active lifestyle is of utmost importance for the quality of life of the older adults. With active lifestyle is meant not only physically active, but also engaged with the social environment. Although some individuals can achieve a desired level of physical activity and engagement by themselves, o
Measurement of physical activity is important, given the vital role of this behavior in physical and mental health. Over the past quarter of a century, the use of small, non-invasive, wearable monitors to assess physical activity has become commonplace. This review is divided into three sections. In the first section, a brief history of physical activity monitoring is provided, along with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of different devices. In the second section, recent applications of physical activity monitoring in physical activity and public health research are discussed. Wearable monitors are being used to conduct surveillance, and to determine the extent and distribution of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in populations around the world. They have been used to help clarify the dose–response relation between physical activity and health. Wearable monitors that provide feedback to users have also been used in longitudinal interventions to motivate research participants and to assess their compliance with program goals. In the third section, future directions for research in physical activity monitoring are discussed. It is likely that new developments in wearable monitors will lead to greater accuracy and improved ease-of-use. (paper)
Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian
This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…
Blanton, Jedediah E.; Oregon, Evelyn M.; Flett, M. Ryan; Gould, Daniel R.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.
Background and Purpose: Given the urgency to design programs to increase physical activity, especially to combat obesity in children, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions and opinions of a nature-based physical activity intervention designed for low-income urban adolescents. Methods: Four focus groups of adolescents,…
Sazonov, Edward S; Hegde, Nagaraj; Tang, Wenlong
In our previous research we developed a SmartShoe--a shoe based physical activity monitor that can reliably differentiate between major postures and activities, accurately estimate energy expenditure of individuals, measure temporal gait parameters, and estimate body weights. In this paper we present the development of the next stage of the SmartShoe evolution--SmartStep, a physical activity monitor that is fully integrated into an insole, maximizing convenience and social acceptance of the monitor. Encapsulating the sensors, Bluetooth Low Energy wireless interface and the energy source within an assembly repeatedly loaded with high forces created during ambulation presented new design challenges. In this preliminary study we tested the ability of the SmartStep to measure the pressure differences between static weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities (such as no load vs. sitting vs. standing) as well as capture pressure variations during walking. We also measured long-term stability of the sensors and insole assembly under cyclic loading in a mechanical testing system. PMID:24111408
Herens, Marion; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria
Background Physical inactivity is a core risk factor for non-communicable diseases. In the Netherlands, socially vulnerable groups are relatively less active than groups with higher socio-economic status. Community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs aim to empower socially vulnerable groups by improving participants’ health and wellbeing through physical activity. CBHEPA programs often revolve around group-based principles for action, such as active participation, enjo...
Dawson, Kimberley A.; Jill Tracey; Tanya Berry
The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results ...
Mouton, Alexandre; Rompen, Jérôme; Cloes, Marc
Purpose. Recent research suggests that internet-based physical activity interventions can be suitable and effective, even for older adults. Besides, neighbourhood environment internet-based interventions are currently considered as more effective than traditional motivational interventions. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a neighbourhood environment internet-based intervention on physical activity behaviours of older adults. Methods. At baseline, 87 old...
Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo
The promotion of physical activity within schools and physical education (PE) has attracted growing interest in recent years. Schools have been acknowledged as the primary institution with responsibility for promoting activity in young people and more specifically, school PE has been recognized as having a key role to play. Given this, and based…
Bombardier, Charles H.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Kraft, George H.
Objective: Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48).…
Dias-da-Costa Juvenal Soares
Full Text Available We aimed to measure the prevalence of physical inactivity (PI during leisure time and to identify variables associated with it in a southern Brazilian adult population. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out, covering a multiple-stage sample of 1,968 subjects aged 20-69 years. Weekly participation in leisure-time physical activity was addressed. For each activity, energy expenditure was calculated using data on duration, metabolic equivalent, and body weight. Energy expenditures of individual activities were summed to give a weekly total. PI was defined as fewer than 1,000 kilocalories per week. The prevalence of PI was 80.7% (95%CI: 78.9-82.4. After adjusted analyses, the following variables were positively associated with the outcome: female gender, age, living with a partner, and smoking. Schooling and economic status were inversely associated with PI. Chronically undernourished individuals were significantly more likely to be inactive. We found no differences according to skin color or alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the prevalence of PI in this adult population was higher than in populations from developed countries, but the associated variables were similar.
Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M;
The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....
People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.
Esslinger, Keri A.; Grimes, Amanda R.; Pyle, Elizabeth
In this study, we investigated students' attitudes toward physical activity (PA) when including a required PA component in a university-required personal wellness class. The study included (a) an experimental group of students enrolled in a personal wellness course in which there was a required PA requirement and (b) a control group of students…
Bergier, Józef; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Wojtyła, Andrzej
The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (pstudents spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to promote various forms of physical activity among students and schoolchildren. A constant decrease in physical activity observed among children and adolescents suggests that it is necessary to pay greater attention to this social group while developing health programmes. PMID:22462455
Stijn A.H. Friederichs; Catherine Bolman; Anke Oenema; Peter Verboon; Lilian Lechner
The aim of this study was to compare a web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing (I Move) to a traditional web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention (Active Plus) with regard to their basic psychological need supporting capabilities. We also aimed to assess the extent to whether self-determination constructs played a stronger mediating role in the effects of I Move than in the effects of Active ...
Greene, Amy; Dotterweich, Andy R.
Childhood obesity and physical inactivity are serious threats to the health and wellness of our schoolchildren. Research has shown that play and physical activity are important in development, behaviour and academic achievement. Through the efforts of coordinated school health program and a Physical Education for Progress grant, a county school…
Burke Linda; Lee Andy H; Jancey Jonine; Xiang Liming; Kerr Deborah A; Howat Peter A; Hills Andrew P; Anderson Annie S
Abstract Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230) of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires...
Burke, Linda; Lee, Andy H.; Jancey, Jonine; Xiang, Liming; Deborah A. Kerr; Howat, Peter A.; Hills, Andrew P; Anderson, Annie S
Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230) of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires at basel...
Leigh M. Vanderloo
Full Text Available The childcare environment represents an appropriate avenue to support physical activity among preschoolers. The aim of this study was two-fold: (1 to measure the physical activity levels of a sample of preschoolers during childcare hours; and (2 to assess which attributes (e.g., space, equipment, policies within centre-based childcare environments influenced physical activity. Thirty-one preschoolers from 5 childcare centres across London, Canada participated. Actical accelerometers were worn by participants for one day during childcare hours to assess activity levels using a 15 second epoch length. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument was used to conduct a full-day evaluation of the childcare environment. On average, participants engaged in 1.54 min/h of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 17.42 min/h of total physical activity. Sedentary opportunities, portable and fixed play equipment, and staff behaviour accounted for 49.3% of the variability in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 14.1% of the variability in total physical activity, with sedentary opportunities, fixed play equipment, and staff behaviours displaying an inverse relationship. Results emphasize the critical role the childcare environment plays in supporting physical activity among preschoolers.
Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng
Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586
Seghers, Jan; Rutten, Cindy
Introduction Cardiorespiratory fitness is a key component of overall physical fitness and has been identified as a powerful health index in youth (Anderssen et al., 2007). The apparently obvious positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity still requires further research. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with leisure-time physical activity, active travel to school and screen-based sedent...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the benefits of physical activity in preventing chronic medical conditions are well established, its impacts on infectious diseases, and seasonal influenza in particular, are less clearly defined. We examined the association between physical activity and influenza-coded outpatient visits, as a proxy for influenza infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study of Ontario respondents to Statistics Canada's population health surveys over 12 influenza seasons. We assessed physical activity levels through survey responses, and influenza-coded physician office and emergency department visits through physician billing claims. We used logistic regression to estimate the risk of influenza-coded outpatient visits during influenza seasons. The cohort comprised 114,364 survey respondents who contributed 357,466 person-influenza seasons of observation. Compared to inactive individuals, moderately active (OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.74-0.94 and active (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77-0.98 individuals were less likely to experience an influenza-coded visit. Stratifying by age, the protective effect of physical activity remained significant for individuals <65 years (active OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.75-0.98, moderately active: OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.97 but not for individuals ≥ 65 years. The main limitations of this study were the use of influenza-coded outpatient visits rather than laboratory-confirmed influenza as the outcome measure, the reliance on self-report for assessing physical activity and various covariates, and the observational study design. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Moderate to high amounts of physical activity may be associated with reduced risk of influenza for individuals <65 years. Future research should use laboratory-confirmed influenza outcomes to confirm the association between physical activity and influenza.
Garcia-Aymerich, J; Lange, Peter; Benet, M; Schnohr, P; Antó, J M
BACKGROUND: Information about the influence of regular physical activity on the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is scarce. A study was undertaken to examine the association between regular physical activity and both hospital admissions for COPD and all-cause and specific...... mortality in COPD subjects. METHODS: From a population-based sample recruited in Copenhagen in 1981-3 and 1991-4, 2386 individuals with COPD (according to lung function tests) were identified and followed until 2000. Self-reported regular physical activity at baseline was classified into four categories....... RESULTS: After adjustment for relevant confounders, subjects reporting low, moderate or high physical activity had a lower risk of hospital admission for COPD during the follow up period than those who reported very low physical activity (incidence rate ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 0...
Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration. PMID:6958045
Friederichs, Stijn A H; Oenema, Anke; Bolman, Catherine; Guyaux, Janneke; Van Keulen, Hilde M; Lechner, Lilian
The purpose of this study was to identify which question/reflection format leads to the most favorable results in terms of effect on autonomous motivation and appreciation for the intervention in a web-based computer-tailored physical activity (PA) intervention, based on principles from self-determination theory (SDT) and motivational interviewing (MI). For this purpose, a randomized trial was conducted among 465 Dutch adults, comparing three web-based computer-tailored MI/SDT PA interventions, including (i) exclusively open-ended questions (without skillful reflections), (ii) exclusively multiple choice questions (with skillful reflections) and (iii) including both question types (with skillful reflections). Measurements included motivation-related determinants of PA and process variables, measured at baseline, directly following the intervention and 1-month post-intervention. Results suggest that open-ended questions represent an important element in web-based MI in terms of effect on autonomous motivation. In order to optimize appreciation of the intervention, a combination of both open-ended and multiple choice question types seems to hold most promise. The findings of this study suggest that both open-ended and multiple choice questions should be included in web-based computer-tailored SDT/MI PA interventions. More research is needed to reveal the optimal configuration of this novel intervention type. PMID:24101160
Saelens, Brian E.; Sallis, James F.; Black, Jennifer B.; Chen, Diana
Objectives. This study evaluated a neighborhood environment survey and compared the physical activity and weight status of the residents in 2 neighborhoods. Methods. On 2 occasions, 107 adults from neighborhoods with differing “walkability” were selected to complete a survey on their neighborhood environment. Physical activity was assessed by self-report and by accelerometer; height and weight were assessed by self-report. Results. Neighborhood environment characteristics had moderate to high test–retest reliabilities. Residents of high-walkability neighborhoods reported higher residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, and safety. They had more than 70 more minutes of physical activity and had lower obesity prevalence (adjusted for individual demographics) than did residents of low-walkability neighborhoods. Conclusions. The reliability and validity of self-reported neighborhood environment subscales were supported. Neighborhood environment was associated with physical activity and overweight prevalence. PMID:12948979
Cundiff David K
Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate system of determining the relationship of macronutrient profiles of foods and beverages to the long-term weight impacts of foods is necessary for evidence-based, unbiased front-of-the-package food labels. Methods Data sets on diet, physical activity, and BMI came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the World Health Organization (WHO, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT, and Epidemiology Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC. To predict future BMI of individuals, multiple regression derived FAO/WHO and DCCT/EDIC formulas related macronutrient profiles and physical activity (independent variables to BMI change/year (dependent variable. Similar formulas without physical activity related macronutrient profiles of individual foods and beverages to four-year weight impacts of those items and compared those forecasts to published food group profiling estimates from three large prospective studies by Harvard nutritional epidemiologists. Results FAO/WHO food and beverage formula: four-year weight impact (pounds=(0.07710 alcohol g+11.95 (381.7+carbohydrates g per serving*4/(2,613+kilocalories per serving–304.9 (30.38+dietary fiber g per serving/(2,613+kilocalories per serving+19.73 (84.44+total fat g*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving–68.57 (20.45+PUFA g per serving*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving*2.941–12.78 (n=334, R2=0.29, P 2=0.03, P P = 0.0004. Formula predictions did not correlate with food group profiling findings for potatoes and dairy products (n=10, r= −0.33 P=0.36. A formula based diet and exercise analysis tool is available to researchers and individuals: http://thehealtheconomy.com/healthTool/. Conclusions Two multiple regression derived formulas from dissimilar databases produced markedly similar estimates of future BMI for 1,055 individuals with type 1 diabetes and female and male cohorts from 167 countries. These formulas predicted the long-term weight impacts of
Sutherland Rachel; Campbell Elizabeth; Lubans David R; Morgan Philip J; Okely Anthony D; Nathan Nicole; Wolfenden Luke; Jones Jannah; Davies Lynda; Gillham Karen; Wiggers John
Abstract Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools loca...
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper;
) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children's perceived barriers......BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Methods/design Conscription-aged men (18 years attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n = 1500 will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n = 640 or a control group (n = 640 during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference, body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. Discussion The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service
One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors have argued that student conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinesthetic experiences of being. If central schemas have a bodily basis, this idea should be utilized in physics instruction. Thus, we argue that kinesthetic activities, including careful experiential and conceptual analysis will provide useful entry point for student acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and can overcome the phenomenological gap between the experiential and the conceptual understanding. We discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. We argue that this schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We provide an example of a kinesthetic model and describe how an instructional strategy of these exercises can support studen...
Kobza Cee E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of physical activity in improving cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profiles has been well established. However, the effectiveness of health promotion programs implemented at the community level remains controversial. This study evaluated a school-based work-site physical activity program. Methods Using a community-based participatory research model, a work-site wellness intervention was implemented in a rural public school system in Southwestern Oklahoma. During the 2005-2006 school year, 187 participants (mean age 45 years completed a pre intervention screening for CVD risk factors followed by a physical activity promotion program. Post intervention screening was conducted after a 6 month period. During both screening sessions, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed. The focus of the intervention was on promoting physical activity. Opportunities for in school physical activity were created by marking hallways, adding a treadmill in each school, and allowing teachers to use planning periods for physical activity. Results During the post intervention screening, compared to pre intervention levels, participants had lower total, low, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (t = 5.9, p Conclusions A successful participatory program was associated with improvements in several CVD risk factors among school employees. Limitations of this study such as seasonal variation in the outcome variables and lack of a control group limit our ability to draw solid conclusions about the effectiveness of the intervention.
Rahimian M.* MSc,
Full Text Available Aims Physical inactivity has been identified as the 4th leading risk factor for global mortality causing an estimated of 3.2million deaths per year. This study aimed to assess the physical activity of health volunteers with Pender’s Health Promotion Model. Instrument & Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was performed on 80 health volunteers in Torbat-e-Jam City, Iran, in 2015. A researcher-made questionnaire with the following sections was used to gather data; perceived benefits, perceived barriers, selfefficacy, interpersonal influences, positive emotion, commitment, modeling and competing preferences. SPSS 16 sofware was used to analyze data by independent T, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Findings There was no significant difference between the scores according to educational levels, age groups, BMI score, marital status, habitat and experience as a health volunteer duration. Physical activity had positive correlation with perceived benefits, self-efficacy, commitment, positive emotion and situational influences and a negative correlation with perceived barriers. Situational influences, as the strongest predictor of the physical activity, predicted 35.1% of it and then positive emotions predicted 34.7% and self-efficacy predicted 23.4% of physical activity. Conclusion The level of physical activity in health volunteers of Torbat-e-Jam City, Iran, is not appropriate and is less than moderate.
Ngrenngarmlert, Warunee; Sukkanon, Chutipong; Yaicharoen, Rapeeporn; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap
Although silicone-based monomolecular film (MMF) has been accepted as larvicide in several countries, its mosquito control potential has never been investigated in Thailand. Laboratory assessment in this study was conducted to determine the MMF efficacy against Aedes aegypti. At the recommended dosage (1mL/m(2) of water surface), mortality of pupae (99.17±0.83%) was significantly greater than mortality of old and young larvae (73.33±9.13, 11.67±3.47%; respectively). Pupicidal activity was rapidly exhibited within hours while larvicidal activity took at least one day. Interestingly, among the survived mosquitoes after MMF exposure, larval length (3.6±0.18mm), pupation (0%) and adult emergence (0%) were significantly less than the control group. Gravid females also avoided laying eggs in MMF-treated oviposition cups. There was no influence of physical factors on MMF efficacy and no toxic effects on fish and plants. These results indicated the MMF is promising to provide not only larvicidal and pupicidal activity but also inhibition of larval development as indicated by both larval length and stage transformation. PMID:27443608
... of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), improving the immune response ; and assisting with ... studies have started examining the factors related to long-term behavior change and increases in physical activity. ...
... stroke, type 2 diabetes, depression, and some cancers. Physical activity can also help with weight control, and may improve academic achievement in students. There's more . Inactive adults have a ...
Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.
Full Text Available Research has found that relatively few people en-gage in regular exercise or other physical activities. Despite the availability of numerous mobile applications and specialized devices for self-tracking, people mostly lack the motivation for performing physical activities. In this article we present SmartFit, a mobile application that uses step count for promoting the physical activities in adults. This article points out that while considering walk, activity duration is not sufficient for deter-mining users activeness state. Step count is another factor that should be taken into account. For this we propose an approach for converting the steps into duration for which activity has been performed. This duration is then used in Smartfit for categorizing user into different activeness levels. Gamification techniques have been incorporated in SmartFit as they are found to serve the purpose of motivating and encouraging the user. Gamification is used for awarding/deducting points to user in order to keep them engaged for longer period. Furthermore feedback is also provided to users depending upon their goal and achieved progress. The objective is to facilitate and motivate the user and then keep them engaged in carrying out the recommended level of physical activities.
Goh, Ying-Ying; Bogart, Laura M.; Sipple-Asher, Bessie Ko; Uyeda, Kimberly; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Olarita-Dhungana, Josephina; Ryan, Gery W.; Schuster, Mark A.
Using a community-based participatory research approach, we explored adolescent, parent, and community stakeholder perspectives on barriers to healthy eating and physical activity, and intervention ideas to address adolescent obesity. We conducted 14 adolescent focus groups (n = 119), 8 parent focus groups (n = 63), and 28 interviews with community members (i.e., local experts knowledgeable about youth nutrition and physical activity). Participants described ecological and psychosocial barrie...
Carbonell-Baeza Ana; Ruiz Jonatan R; Aparicio Virginia A; Ortega Francisco B; Munguía-Izquierdo Diego; Álvarez-Gallardo Inmaculada C; Segura-Jiménez Víctor; Camiletti-Moirón Daniel; Romero Alejandro; Estévez-López Fernando; Samos Blanca; Casimiro Antonio J; Sierra Ángela; Latorre Pedro A; Pulido-Martos Manuel
Abstract Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women...
Pekmezi, Dorothy W.; Williams, David M.; Dunsiger, Shira; Jennings, Ernestine G.; Lewis, Beth A.; Jakicic, John M.; Marcus, Bess H
Objective: Computer-tailored and Internet-based interventions to promote physical activity behavior have shown some promise, but only few have been tested among African Americans. We examined the feasibility and efficacy of three 1-year, multiple contact physical activity interventions (Tailored Internet, Tailored Print, Standard Internet) in a subsample of African American participants (n = 38) enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Participants randomly assigned t...
Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained
Irvine, A. Blair; Gelatt, Vicky A; John R. Seeley; Macfarlane, Pamela; Gau, Jeff M
Background Physical activity (PA) for older adults has well-documented physical and cognitive benefits, but most seniors do not meet recommended guidelines for PA, and interventions are lacking. Objectives This study evaluated the efficacy of a 12-week Internet intervention to help sedentary older adults over 55 years of age adopt and maintain an exercise regimen. Methods A total of 368 sedentary men and women (M=60.3; SD 4.9) were recruited, screened, and assessed online. They were randomize...
Ji Cheng-Ye; Middlestadt Susan E; Zhang Juan
Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a...
Studies have indicated that student misconceptions negatively impact the effectiveness of physics education. Research has also indicated that activity based instruction (ABI) has greater effectiveness than lecture based instruction (LBI) in many applications. It is natural to define a persistent misconception as the same wrong answer, for a given question, on pre and post evaluation tests. However, in practice, it is not possible to directly examine the impact of ABI on persistent misconceptions defined in this way because students cannot be returned to their pre-instruction state and re-instructed using ABI. In this paper an indirect method of determining the effect of ABI on persistent misconceptions is presented using the FMCE as an evaluation instrument. The unique feature of this analysis is the use of the occasional right to wrong responses as indicators of the change in probability for wrong to different wrong responses. Given this change in probability it is possible to determine the change in probability of wrong to same wrong responses: i.e. persistent misconceptions. The details of this analysis will be presented in the paper.
Koo, Jae-Eun; Lee, Gwang-Uk
This study puts its purpose in identifying the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the optimism of children, humor styles, and school life adjustment. To achieve the study purpose, this study selected 190 subjects as samples were extracted targeting senior students of elementary schools who participated in the physical activity-based recreation in the metropolitan areas as of 2014. As research methods, questionnaire papers were used and reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted by utilizing SPSS 18.0 after inputting analysis data into the computer. The study results, obtained in this study are as follows: First, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on optimism, participation frequency and participation intensity would have an effect on optimism, while participation period would have a significant effect on being positive among the sub-factors of optimism. Second, participation in physical activity-based recreation programs might have a significant effect on humor styles. Third, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the school life adjustment, it was demonstrated that participation period and participation intensity would have a significant effect on school life adjustment, while participation frequency would have a significant effect on regulation-observance and school life satisfaction. PMID:26171384
Barwais, Faisal A; Cuddihy, Thomas F.; Tomson, L Michaud
Background An increasing body of evidence associates a high level of sitting time with poor health outcomes. The benefits of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activities to various aspects of health are now well documented; however, individuals may engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week and still exhibit a high level of sitting time. This purpose of this study was to examine differences in total wellness among adults relat...
Herens, Marion; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria
Background: Physical inactivity is a core risk factor for non-communicable diseases. In the Netherlands, socially vulnerable groups are relatively less active than groups with higher socio-economic status. Community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs aim to empower sociall
Accurately estimating free-living energy expenditure (EE) is important for monitoring or altering energy balance and quantifying levels of physical activity. The use of accelerometers to monitor physical activity and estimate physical activity EE is common in both research and consumer settings. Recent advances in physical activity monitors include the ability to identify specific activities (e.g. stand vs. walk) which has resulted in improved EE estimation accuracy. Recently, a multi-sensor footwear-based physical activity monitor that is capable of achieving 98% activity identification accuracy has been developed. However, no study has compared the EE estimation accuracy for this monitor and compared this accuracy to other similar devices. Purpose . To determine the accuracy of physical activity EE estimation of a footwear-based physical activity monitor that uses an embedded accelerometer and insole pressure sensors and to compare this accuracy against a variety of research and consumer physical activity monitors. Methods. Nineteen adults (10 male, 9 female), mass: 75.14 (17.1) kg, BMI: 25.07(4.6) kg/m2 (mean (SD)), completed a four hour stay in a room calorimeter. Participants wore a footwear-based physical activity monitor, as well as three physical activity monitoring devices used in research: hip-mounted Actical and Actigraph accelerometers and a multi-accelerometer IDEEA device with sensors secured to the limb and chest. In addition, participants wore two consumer devices: Philips DirectLife and Fitbit. Each individual performed a series of randomly assigned and ordered postures/activities including lying, sitting (quietly and using a computer), standing, walking, stepping, cycling, sweeping, as well as a period of self-selected activities. We developed branched (i.e. activity specific) linear regression models to estimate EE from the footwear-based device, and we used the manufacturer's software to estimate EE for all other devices. Results. The shoe-based
Annette Quinto Romani
Full Text Available AbstractChildhood obesity and inactivity is a significant public health problem that also has economic consequences. Therefore, economists have a role to play in determining the causal impacts. The influences of childhood background on outcomes can, usefully, be broken down into the effect of family, school and peer. To combat the raising childhood obesity, schools have been advocated as a potential area. This paper analyses whether increasing physical activity in a school context can contribute to health improvement using multiple outcomes. We address the issue by using a unique longitudinal data set of, respectively, 1087 (BMI and 1047 (fitness schoolchildren attending 37 state schools in the Municipality of Aalborg, Denmark. The effect is identified by using a randomized experiment that creates an exogenous increase in physical activity. Surprisingly, we find that the intervention did not have the expected impact on schoolchildren’s health, and the scant evidence we have points towards a negative effect. A plausible explanation is that the results mask important heterogeneity. Another plausible explanation is that the results also capture any compensating behaviour that schoolchildren engage in by being less active out of school. From a public-policy perspective, increasing physical activity in a school context seems to increase the ‘gap’ in child health and ‘crowd-out’ outside-school physical activity. Consequently, a supportive cost-benefit case might exist if parental behaviour is assumed to be affected by school resources and endogenous.
Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C;
To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes...
Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ron; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim
Background Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. Objective To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. Methods A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online social networking physical activity intervention which included self-monitoring, social elements, and pedometers (“Active Team” Facebook app; n=51 individuals, 12 teams) or a wait-listed control condition (n=59 individuals, 13 teams). Assessments were undertaken online at baseline, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. The primary outcome measure was self-reported weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes were weekly walking, vigorous physical activity time, moderate physical activity time, overall quality of life, and mental health quality of life. Analyses were undertaken using random-effects mixed modeling, accounting for potential clustering at the team level. Usage statistics were reported descriptively to determine engagement and feasibility. Results At the 8-week follow-up, the intervention participants had significantly increased their total weekly MVPA by 135 minutes relative to the control group (P=.03), due primarily to increases in walking time (155 min/week increase relative to controls, Psocial networking physical activity intervention with pedometers can produce sizable short-term physical activity changes. Future work is needed to determine how to maintain behavior change in the longer term, how to reach at-need populations, and how to disseminate such interventions on a mass scale. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12614000488606; https://www
Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda
A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…
Peels, D. A.; van Stralen, M. M.; Bolman, C.; Golsteijn, R. H. J.; de Vries, H.; Mudde, A. N.; Lechner, L.
This study provides insight in the effectiveness of a print-delivered and a Web-based physical activity (PA) intervention (with or without additional environmental information on local PA possibilities) among people aged over 50. Intervention groups (print-delivered basic [PB; n = 439], print-delivered environmental [PE; n = 435], Web-based basic…
Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steve; Hooker, Steve; Hussey, Jim; Saunders, Ruth
Mediation analyses in faith-based physical activity (PA) interventions targeting African-American adults are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial mediators of a faith-based PA intervention with African-American adults. Churches were randomly assigned to receive immediate or delayed (1-year later) training in PA…
Iannotti Ronald J
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia and the USA, national guidelines exist for limiting children's screen-exposure to two hours per day. This study aims to determine whether exceeding the suggested guidelines for screen-based sedentary behavior is associated with reduced levels of physical activity across different geographical regions. Methods Data material were taken from the 2005/2006 survey of "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study; A WHO cross-National Survey". Data were collected through questionnaires from 11-,13- and,15- year olds. The final sample included 200,615 adolescents from 39 different countries in Europe and North America. Gender and country stratified analyses regressed time spent in leisure-time vigorous physical activity (VPA and days of 60 minutes moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA on time spent in screen-based sedentary behaviors. To simplify interpretation, the estimates from each country were pooled using a meta-analytic procedure. Results Exceeding 2 hrs of daily total screen-time was negatively associated with MVPA for both boys and girls, and with VPA for girls. When investigating the different types of screen-based behaviors separately, exceeding 2 hrs daily of TV viewing was associated with less MVPA for both boys and girls and less VPA for girls. Gaming was associated with less MVPA and VPA for boys, and non-gaming computer use was associated with higher levels of VPA for both genders. Stronger negative associations between physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors were found in countries where mean levels of physical activity were relatively high. The association between physical activity and sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with national levels of screen-based sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The displacement mechanism does not appear to be universal across countries. On a national level, negative associations between physical activity and screen-based
Said Catherine M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation have low activity levels and poor mobility outcomes. Increased physical activity may improve mobility. The objective of this Phase II study was to evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT of enhanced physical activity in older adults receiving rehabilitation. Methods Patients admitted to aged care rehabilitation with reduced mobility were randomized to receive usual care or usual care plus additional physical activity, which was delivered by a physiotherapist or physiotherapy assistant. The feasibility and safety of the proposed RCT protocol was evaluated. The primary clinical outcome was mobility, which was assessed on hospital admission and discharge by an assessor blinded to group assignment. To determine the most appropriate measure of mobility, three measures were trialled; the Timed Up and Go, the Elderly Mobility Scale and the de Morton Mobility Index. Results The protocol was feasible. Thirty-four percent of people admitted to the ward were recruited, with 47 participants randomised to a control (n = 25 or intervention group (n = 22. The rates of adverse events (death, falls and readmission to an acute service did not differ between the groups. Usual care therapists remained blind to group allocation, with no change in usual practice. Physical activity targets were met on weekdays but not weekends and the intervention was acceptable to participants. The de Morton Mobility Index was the most appropriate measure of mobility. Conclusions The proposed RCT of enhanced physical activity in older adults receiving rehabilitation was feasible. A larger multi-centre RCT to establish whether this intervention is cost effective and improves mobility is warranted. Trial registration The trial was registered with the ANZTCR (ACTRN12608000427370.
Full Text Available Depression is a major public health disorder. Clinical depression is the most frequent disability in North America among other countries and by 2020 it is estimated that it will represent the second most common disability worldwide. Physical activity can be used to prevent as well as treat depression. Its characteristics and structure should be individualized to the personality and special needs of the patient as well as to the severity of the disorder. Intensity, duration and the place of performance are of special importance. Research has identified neurobiological and psychological paths that can develop between physical activity and well being. More studies although are needed in order to standardize the use of physical activity as a treatment option, mainly in the groups of children and teenagers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA rates decline precipitously during the high school years and are consistently lower among adolescent girls than adolescent boys. Due to cultural barriers, this problem might be exacerbated in female Iranian adolescents. However, little intervention research has been conducted to try to increase PA participation rates with this population. Because PA interventions in schools have the potential to reach many children and adolescents, this study reports on PA intervention research conducted in all-female Iranian high schools. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of two six-month tailored interventions on potential determinants of PA and PA behavior. Students (N = 161 were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: an intervention based on Pender's Health Promotion model (HP, an intervention based on an integration of the health promotion model and selected constructs from the Transtheoretical model (THP, and a control group (CON. Measures were administered prior to the intervention, at post-intervention and at a six-month follow-up. Results Repeated measure ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between group and time for perceived benefits, self efficacy, interpersonal norms, social support, behavioral processes, and PA behavior, indicating that both intervention groups significantly improved across the 24-week intervention, whereas the control group did not. Participants in the THP group showed greater use of counter conditioning and stimulus control at post-intervention and at follow-up. While there were no significant differences in PA between the HP and CON groups at follow-up, a significant difference was still found between the THP and the CON group. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence of the effectiveness of a PA intervention based on Pender's HP model combined with selected aspects of the TTM on potential determinants to increase PA among
Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean
We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252
Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean
We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252
This review of solar physics emphasizes several of the more conspicuous scientific puzzles posed by contemporary observational knowledge of the magnetic activity of the Sun. The puzzles emphasize how much classical physics we have yet to learn from the Sun. The physics of solar activity is based on the principles of Newton, Maxwell, Lorentz, Boltzmann, et. al., along with the principles of radiative transfer. In the large, these principles are expressed by magnetohydrodynamics. A brief derivation of the magnetohydrodynamic induction and momentum equations is provided, with a discussion of popular misconceptions.
Reiser, Emily M.; Markes, Mark E.
Studies indicate that pre-existing misconceptions negatively impact the effectiveness of traditional physics education. Research has also shown that activity based instruction improves posttest scores on conceptual evaluations. However, the specific effect of activity based instruction on students who have pre-existing misconceptions that lecture instruction fails to remove is an important but unanswered question due to the impossibility of instructing a given student by two different methods...
Background: The prevalence of active travel to school in children is low and declining. For example, the 2014 National Travel Survey showed that just 46% of primary school children walk to school. This is despite the fact that children who actively travel have been shown to be more physically active overall as well as perform better in class. Beat the Street is a community based intervention which uses RFID (Radio Frequency ID) chip readers attached to locations around the neighbourhood. The ...
Diet quality and physical activity outcome improvements resulting from a church-based diet and supervised physical activity intervention for rural, southern, Africian American adults: Delta Body and Soul III
We assessed the effects of a 6-month, church¬-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention, conducted between 2011 and ¬2012, on improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of southern, African American adults. Using a quasi¬-experimental design, 8 self-selected, eligible c...
Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.
Physical fatigue reveals the health condition of a person at for example health checkup, fitness assessment or rehabilitation training. This paper presents an efficient noncontact system for detecting non-localized physi-cal fatigue from maximal muscle activity using facial videos acquired in a...... realistic environment with natural lighting where subjects were allowed to voluntarily move their head, change their facial expression, and vary their pose. The proposed method utilizes a facial feature point tracking method by combining a ‘Good feature to track’ and a ‘Supervised descent method’ to address...
VISHNU PETHKAR; SHRADDHA NAIK; SANJEEV SONAWANE
This paper is based on the fact, experience and concerns of many physical educators & teachers about the severe decline in levels of physical activity and the ways in which, incorporation & teaching of physical activity is carried out. This paper deals with the theoretical psychological basis of physical activity andinterventions carried out in measurement of this dimension. This paper tries to bring out the relevance of psychological determinants of physical activity and how these need to su...
Slykhuis, David; Park, John
Students from five high schools participated in a 2 to 4-week microcomputer based laboratory (MBL) physics curriculum in two groups. One group completed the curriculum entirely online, and the other completed the same curriculum in a traditional classroom setting. Variables were collected to predict student success on a post-unit measure of…
... Make sure he or she drinks water or juice after exercise. For more information about exercise and physical activity for older adults, visit www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life . National Institute on Aging National Institutes of Health NIH...Turning Discovery into Health Gentle Exercise Some ...
Background An increasing body of evidence associates a high level of sitting time with poor health outcomes. The benefits of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activities to various aspects of health are now well documented; however, individuals may engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week and still exhibit a high level of sitting time. This purpose of this study was to examine differences in total wellness among adults relative to high/low levels of sitting time combined with insufficient/sufficient physical activity (PA). The construct of total wellness incorporates a holistic approach to the body, mind and spirit components of life, an approach which may be more encompassing than some definitions of health. Methods Data were obtained from 226 adult respondents (27 ± 6 years), including 116 (51%) males and 110 (49%) females. Total PA and total sitting time were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) (short-version). The Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle Inventory was used to assess total wellness. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was utilised to assess the effects of the sitting time/physical activity group on total wellness. A covariate was included to partial out the effects of age, sex and work status (student or employed). Cross-tabulations were used to show associations between the IPAQ derived high/low levels of sitting time with insufficient/sufficient PA and the three total wellness groups (i.e. high level of wellness, moderate wellness and wellness development needed). Results The majority of the participants were located in the high total sitting time and sufficient PA group. There were statistical differences among the IPAQ groups for total wellness [F (2,220) = 32.5 (p <0.001)]. A Chi-square test revealed a significant difference in the distribution of the IPAQ categories within the classification of wellness [χ2 (N = 226) = 54.5, p < .001
Sayegh, Suzan; Van Der Walt, Mercia; Al-Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith
Background Physical inactivity is a growing health concern and has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. The Arab region includes countries with some of the world’s highest physical inactivity levels, such as Qatar, more specifically the Qatari female population. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the physical activity levels of Qatari national female adults during a 1-year pedometer-based program. Materials and methods A total of 549 Qatari national females aged between 18 years and 64 years were included. Data extracted from “Step into Health” program web database in Qatar were used for analyses. Daily habitual physical activity (daily total step count and aerobic steps) was assessed through the Omron HJ-324U pedometer. Step counts were classified as follows: <5,000 steps/d, sedentary; 5,000–7,499 steps/d, low active; and ≥7,500 steps/d, physically active. Statistical significance was set at P-value ≤0.05. Descriptive statistics were used, and habitual physical activity was calculated through repeated measures analysis of variance to determine the difference across the monitored days. Results Mean age was 37.4±11.7 years, and median body mass index of 28.8 kg/m2 (interquartile range 24.8–33.5). Daily steps for the overall population ranged from 3,505 steps/d to 10,010 steps/d, with a median of 6,008 steps/d. A total of 242 (44.1%) females were sedentary, 178 (32.4%) were low active, and 129 (23.5%) were physically active. The physically active group showed a median of 927 aerobic steps/d (interquartile range 0–4,248). Conclusion Based on the results of this study, Qatari females are not meeting the global recommendations of physical activity. Future research might need to consider barriers to physical activity as well as social, cultural, and environmental factors. PMID:27486343
Traditional risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and being overweight have received considerable attention in recent years, whereas physical activity as a preventive strategy does not enjoy the same public attention. In recent years the level of physical activity has decreased dramatically in children and adolescents in favor of time spent on the internet and in front of the TV. If this trend is allowed to develop along the same direction, a sharp increase in cardiovascular disease can be anticipated. The protective action of physical activity on the cardiovascular system has been well documented in large numbers of patients, and the basic physiological mechanisms have been elucidated. Metabolic changes comprise loss of weight, reduction in triglyceride and LDL levels, as well as an increase in HDL. Insulin sensitivity is enhanced in all tissues postponing the manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Shear forces created by physical activity induce ecNOS within the endothelial lining of the arteries. This enzyme is responsible for controlling vasomotion through the elaboration of NO which causes vasodilation in the smooth muscle within the vessel wall. Utilization of preformed collateral vessels has been postulated repeatedly; so far, however, it only could be documented in animals, not in humans. Nearly all studies concerned with primary prevention have shown a significant negative correlation between energy expenditure during exercise and cardiovascular mortality, even light and moderate exercise will result in a lower incidence. In order to eliminate a sedentary life style in children and adolescents, adequate programs should be initiated in all schools; they should aim for 60 min of physical activity on a daily basis. PMID:15021990
Friederichs, S.A.; Oenema, A.; Bolman, C.; Guyaux, J.; Keulen, H.M. van; Lechner, L.
Background: This article describes the systematic development of the I Move intervention: a web-based computer tailored physical activity promotion intervention, aimed at increasing and maintaining physical activity among adults. This intervention is based on the theoretical insights and practical applications of self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. Methods/design. Since developing interventions in a systemically planned way increases the likelihood of effectiveness, we us...
Gholamnia Shirvani, Zeinab; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff's wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel's spouses residing in organizational houses, in Tehran, Iran in 2014. The participants were randomly selected with multi-stage cluster sampling. The validity and reliability of the theory based scale evaluated before conducting the path analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS16 and LISREL8.8. The results indicated the model explained 77% and 17% of intention and behavior variance. Subjective norms (Beta=0.83) and intention (Beta=0.37) were the strongest predictors of intention and behavior, respectively. The instrumental and affective attitude had no significant path to intention and behavior. The direct relation of perceived behavioral control to behavior was non-significant. This research demonstrated relative importance and relationships of Theory of Planned Behavior constructs in physical activity behavior of military personnel's spouses in Tehran. It is essential to consider these determinants in designing of educational interventions for promoting and maintaining physical activity behavior in this target group. PMID:25948459
A brief review of processes of physical activation of molecules on the basis of phenomena of electronic and vibrational excitation, electron polarization is presented. Consideration is given to activation by electron impact, photo-, magneto- and mechanoactivation, as well as to radiation activation, proceeding under the effect of high-power radiations (102-107 eV). The character of disturbance of molecules, participating in chemical reactions, under the effect of different types of ionizing radiation (α-particles, electrons, γ-quanta etc.) is discussed
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable scope to improve the delivery of practices that increase the physical activity of children in centre based childcare services. Few studies have reported the effectiveness of interventions to address this, particularly at a population level. The primary aim of this study was to describe the impact of an intervention to increase the adoption of multiple policies and practices to promote physical activity in centre based childcare services. Methods A quasi experimental study was conducted in centre based childcare services (n =228 in New South Wales (NSW, Australia and involved a three month intervention to increase the adoption of eight practices within childcare services that have been suggested to promote child physical activity. Intervention strategies to support the adoption of practices included staff training, resources, incentives, follow-up support and performance monitoring and feedback. Randomly selected childcare services in the remainder of NSW acted as a comparison group (n = 164 and did not receive the intervention but may have been exposed to a concurrent NSW government healthy eating and physical activity initiative. Self reported information on physical activity policies, fundamental movement skills sessions, structured physical activity opportunities, staff involvement in active play and provision of verbal prompts to encourage physical activity, small screen recreation opportunities, sedentary time, and staff trained in physical activity were collected by telephone survey with childcare service managers at baseline and 18 months later. Results Compared with the comparison area, the study found significantly greater increases in the prevalence of intervention services with a written physical activity policy, with policy referring to placing limits on small screen recreation, and with staff trained in physical activity. In addition, non-significant trends towards a greater increase in the
Direito, Artur; Pfaeffli Dale, Leila; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph
Background There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklis...
The structure of preparation of future specialist is considered on a physical rehabilitation. An analysis is carried out over 30 literary sources. It is set that readiness of future specialist includes such structural components: motivational, cognitive, operation and personality. It is marked that a specialist owns knowledge about a health, healthy life style, health saving technologies. Also he realizes the value of health and ready to realize the knowledge in professional activity. Emphasi...
Jurak, Gregor; Cooper, Ashley; Leskosek, Bojan; Kovac, Marjeta
Many school-based physical activity (PA) interventions have been developed, but only a few have assessed their long-term effects. A PA intervention taking place in the first four years of some Slovenian primary schools entails an enhanced physical education (PE) curriculum, including two extra lessons of PE per week, a wider selection of PE content, and additional outdoor education delivered by both a specialist PE teacher and a general teacher. The effects of the intervention on children's physical fitness (motor tasks and anthropometry) were evaluated within a quasi-experimental study. In total, 324 children from nine Slovenian primary schools either received the enhanced curriculum (intervention (n=160)) or standard PE (control (n=164)), and were followed for a four-year intervention period and seven years post intervention. Data from the SLOFIT database were used to compare differences in the physical fitness of children each year. Linear Mixed Models were used to test the influence of the PA intervention. Over an 11-year period, the PA intervention group significantly differed in all motor tasks, but not in anthropometric measures or body mass index, after controlling for year of measurement and sex. Differences between the control and intervention groups decreased with time. This study highlights the importance of tracking the long term effects of PA interventions. PA intervention in the first four years of Slovenian primary school offers the possibility of improving physical performance in children; initiatives aiming to increase their performance (physical fitness, physical activity) and health outcomes are warranted. PMID:24592722
Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.
Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Roya
Lack of physical activity is ranked fourth among the causes of human death and chronic diseases. Using models and theories to design, implement, and evaluate the health education and health promotion interventions has many advantages. Using models and theories of physical activity, we decided to systematically study the educational and promotional interventions carried out in Iran from 2003 to 2013.Three information databases were used to systematically select papers using key words including Iranian Magazine Database (MAGIRAN), Iran Medical Library (MEDLIB), and Scientific Information Database (SID). Twenty papers were selected and studied .Having been applied in 9 studies, The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) was the most widespread model in Iran (PENDER in 3 studies, BASNEF in 2, and the Theory of Planned Behavior in 2 studies). With regards to the educational methods, almost all studies used a combination of methods. The most widely used Integrative educational method was group discussion. Only one integrated study was done. Behavior maintenance was not addressed in 75% of the studies. Almost all studies used self-reporting instruments. The effectiveness of educational methods was assessed in none of the studies. Most of the included studies had several methodological weaknesses, which hinder the validity and applicability of their results. According to the findings, the necessity of need assessment in using models, epidemiology and methodology consultation, addressing maintenance of physical activity, using other theories and models such as social marketing and social-cognitive theory, and other educational methods like empirical and complementary are suggested. PMID:25948454
Nakamura, Christopher Matthew
The work described here represents an effort to design, construct, and test an interactive online multimedia learning environment that can provide physics instruction to students in their homes. The system was designed with one-on-one human tutoring in mind as the mode of instruction. The system uses an original combination of a video-based tutor that incorporates natural language processing video-centered lessons and additional illustrative multimedia. Our Synthetic Interview (SI) tutor provides pre-recorded video answers from expert physics instructors in response to students' typed natural language questions. Our lessons cover Newton's laws and provide a context for the tutoring interaction to occur, connect physics ideas to real-world behavior of mechanical systems, and allow for quantitative testing of physics. Additional multimedia can be used to supplement the SI tutors' explanations and illustrate the physics of interest. The system is targeted at students of algebra-based and concept-based physics at the college and high school level. The system logs queries to the SI tutor, responses to lesson questions and several other interactions with the system, tagging those interactions with a username and timestamp. We have provided several groups of students with access to our system under several different conditions ranging from the controlled conditions of our interview facility to the naturalistic conditions of use at home. In total nearly two-hundred students have accessed the system. To gain insight into the ways students might use the system and understand the utility of its various components we analyzed qualitative interview data collected with 22 algebra-based physics students who worked with our system in our interview facility. We also performed a descriptive analysis of data from the system's log of user interactions. Finally we explored the use of machine learning to explore the possibility of using automated assessment to augment the interactive
Kimberley A. Dawson
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology
Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly
In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…
Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William
Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…
Midtgaard, J; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Tolver, Anders;
Sedentary behavior and impaired cardiovascular reserve capacity are common late effects of cancer therapy emphasizing the need for effective strategies to increase physical activity (PA) in cancer survivors. We examined the efficacy of a 12-month exercise-based rehabilitation program on self...
Valle, Carmina G.; Tate, Deborah F.; Mayer, Deborah K.; Allicock, Marlyn; Cai, Jianwen
Purpose: This study examined the effects of a physical activity (PA) intervention for young adult cancer survivors on changes in self-efficacy, social support, and self-monitoring and determined whether changes in these social cognitive theory constructs mediated the relationship between the intervention and changes in PA.
Tsiantoula E.; Tsiadoula L.; Patsiaouras A.; Kokaridas D.
Depression is a major public health disorder. Clinical depression is the most frequent disability in North America among other countries and by 2020 it is estimated that it will represent the second most common disability worldwide. Physical activity can be used to prevent as well as treat depression. Its characteristics and structure should be individualized to the personality and special needs of the patient as well as to the severity of the disorder. Intensity, duration and the place of pe...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences
Full Text Available Einas S Al-Eisa,1 Ahmad H Alghadir,1 Sami A Gabr1,2 1Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in healthy older adults.Methods: A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25, moderate (n=20, and physically active (n=35. Serum 25(OHD (25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively.Results: Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5% compared to females (26.25%. Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OHD concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OHD concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores
Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette
The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…
Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are s
Have, Mona; Nielsen, Jacob Have; Gejl, Anne Kær; Thomsen Ernst, Martin; Fredens, Kjeld; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard; Wedderkopp, Niels; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Gudex, Claire; Grøntved, Anders; Kristensen, Peter Lund
Background Integration of physical activity (PA) into the classroom may be an effective way of promoting the learning and academic achievement of children at elementary school. This paper describes the research design and methodology of an intervention study examining the effect of classroom-based PA on mathematical achievement, creativity, executive function, body mass index and aerobic fitness. Methods The study was designed as a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial targeting sc...
Rabiei, Katayoun; Kelishadi, Roya; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sadri, Gholamhossein; Amani, Ahmad
Introduction To assess the effect of a comprehensive community-based programme for increasing physical activity (PA) after 2 years of interventions. Material and methods A 6-year, action-oriented, comprehensive, and integrated community-based study, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme, was conducted in Iran from the year 2000. The interventions targeted the whole population of nearly 2,180,000 living in two cities, and were compared with another city considered as a reference. Educat...
Full Text Available The structure of preparation of future specialist is considered on a physical rehabilitation. An analysis is carried out over 30 literary sources. It is set that readiness of future specialist includes such structural components: motivational, cognitive, operation and personality. It is marked that a specialist owns knowledge about a health, healthy life style, health saving technologies. Also he realizes the value of health and ready to realize the knowledge in professional activity. Emphasized necessity of improvement of indexes of personality qualities and professional culture.
Reiser, E M; Reiser, Emily M.; Markes, Mark E.
Studies indicate that pre-existing misconceptions negatively impact the effectiveness of traditional physics education. Research has also shown that activity based instruction improves posttest scores on conceptual evaluations. However, the specific effect of activity based instruction on students who have pre-existing misconceptions that lecture instruction fails to remove is an important but unanswered question due to the impossibility of instructing a given student by two different methods. In this paper pre and posttest Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation results are characterized in terms of wrong to same wrong, wrong to different wrong, wrong to right, etc., and a method of inferring the effect of activity based instruction on a lecture student using the right to wrong responses is presented. Results indicate that a wrong to same wrong response by a lecture student would be more likely to be converted to a wrong to right by activity based instruction than would be a wrong to different wrong response....
Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are supported by the Dutch government’s policy. Although many strategies have been developed to increase physical activity levels in general and in socially vulnerable groups in particular, most evaluations show o...
Wanner, Miriam; Martin-Diener, Eva; Bauer, Georg; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Martin, Brian W
Background Web-based interventions are popular for promoting healthy lifestyles such as physical activity. However, little is known about user characteristics, adherence, attrition, and predictors of repeated participation on open access physical activity websites. Objective The focus of this study was Active-online, a Web-based individually tailored physical activity intervention. The aims were (1) to assess and compare user characteristics and adherence to the website (a) in the open access...
Wanner, M.; Martin-Diener, E; Bauer, G; Braun-Fahrländer, C.; De Martin, B W
Background: Web-based interventions are popular for promoting healthy lifestyles such as physical activity. However, little is known about user characteristics, adherence, attrition, and predictors of repeated participation on open access physical activity websites. Objective: The focus of this study was Active-online, a Web-based individually tailored physical activity intervention. The aims were (1) to assess and compare user characteristics and adherence to the website (a) in the open a...
Bouzid, Mohamed; Sellaoui, Lotfi; Khalfaoui, Mohamed; Belmabrouk, Hafedh; Lamine, Abdelmottaleb Ben
In this work, we studied the adsorption of ethanol on three types of activated carbon, namely parent Maxsorb III and two chemically modified activated carbons (H2-Maxsorb III and KOH-H2-Maxsorb III). This investigation has been conducted on the basis of the grand canonical formalism in statistical physics and on simplified assumptions. This led to three parameter equations describing the adsorption of ethanol onto the three types of activated carbon. There was a good correlation between experimental data and results obtained by the new proposed equation. The parameters characterizing the adsorption isotherm were the number of adsorbed molecules (s) per site n, the density of the receptor sites per unit mass of the adsorbent Nm, and the energetic parameter p1/2. They were estimated for the studied systems by a non linear least square regression. The results show that the ethanol molecules were adsorbed in perpendicular (or non parallel) position to the adsorbent surface. The magnitude of the calculated adsorption energies reveals that ethanol is physisorbed onto activated carbon. Both van der Waals and hydrogen interactions were involved in the adsorption process. The calculated values of the specific surface AS, proved that the three types of activated carbon have a highly microporous surface.
Maher, Carol; Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse de; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim
Background Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. Objective To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. Methods A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online s...
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a variety of positive outcomes for young people. Physical activity (PA rates decline precipitously during the high school years and are consistently lower among adolescent girls than among adolescent boys. In order to stop or diverse this negative trend, there are necessary interventions based on various theories and models to promote physical activity in girls. Materials & Methods: This randomized control study evaluated the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise education program based on Pender’s Health Promotion model to improve cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with physical activity and to promote physical activity in adolescent girls (n =106. The program included educational sessions and tailored counseling. Results: There was an increase of 45 minutes for daily physical activity in the experimental group compared to their baseline. After intervention, the training group had a positive significant progression in stages along with significant improvements in self efficacy, enjoyment of physical activity, interpersonal influences, planning for physical activity, and also a decrease in perceived barriers to physical activity and competing preferences (p ≤ .0001-0.04. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed the positive effect of program on stage of change and potential determinants of the behavior of physical activity. The high proportion of the people in action and maintenance in experimental group compared to the baseline and the attainment of recommend criteria for physical activity are promising findings of school-based intervention based on Pender’s health promotion model.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome, and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain. Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control group (n = 60, a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60 or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60. Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration Clinical
Full Text Available M(III complexes of Cr, Mn and Fe with a Schiff base derived from 2-amino-4-ethyl-5-hydroxybenzaldehyde and thiocarbohydrazide were synthesized and characterized by several techniques, including elemental analysis (C,H,N, molar conductance measurements, magnetic measurements, and electronic, mass and IR spectral studies. Based on these studies, a five-coordinated square pyramidal geometry for all the complexes was proposed. The Schiff base ligand and the complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity (against the bacteria Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium, and the fungi Kluyveromyces fragilis, Rhodotorula rubra, Candida albicans and Trichoderma reesei to assess their inhibiting potential. An attempt was also made to correlate the antimicrobial activity with the geometry of the complexes. All complexes were found to be less active against the pathogens E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The Cr(III complex showed the best antimicrobial activity, but the ligand alone was found to be active against the fungus T. reesei.
11 pages Research-based “best practices” that support proper nutrition and increased physical activity for K-12 students form the basis of a Web-based Governor’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Scorecard. Schools are encouraged to use the Web-based scorecard as a tool for identifying best practices and measuring progress towards meeting the nutrition and physical activity needs of students. The best practices and policies recommended by Virginia Action for Healthy Kids, national and state ...
Christensen, Line Brinch
Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood and...... track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear in...... this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...
Shephard Roy J.; Trudeau François
Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE ...
Paulo Henrique Guerra
Full Text Available This study reviewed the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions aimed at reducing overweight, obesity and hypertension in children. We searched 14 databases and analyzed studies published between April 2009 and September 2012. Only randomized controlled trials performed at the school level that included elements of physical activity but did not include nutritional co-interventions were analyzed. Studies were assessed by two recommended tools (EPHPP and GRADE, and the standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were collected for a random-effect meta-analysis. A total of 12 papers were included in the meta-analysis, and these were divided according to three outcomes: body mass index (11 trials, n = 4,273, −0.02, 95% CI: −0.13 to 0.17, p = 0.8; body weight (5 trials, n = 1,330, −0.07, 95% CI: −0.18 to 0.04, p = 0.2; and blood pressure (6 trials, n = 1,549, including systolic (0.11, 95% CI: −0.10 to 0.31, p = 0.3 and diastolic pressure (−0.00, 95% CI: −0.10 to 0.10, p = 0.9. This meta-analysis of data from 11 randomized, school-based physical activity interventions suggests that, regardless of the potential benefits of physical activity in the school environment, the interventions did not have a statistically significant effect. However, it is difficult to generalize from these results because the duration, intensity and type of physical activity used in the interventions varied greatly.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools located in disadvantaged communities. Methods/Design The cluster randomised trial will be conducted with 10 secondary schools located in selected regions of New South Wales, Australia. The schools will be selected from areas that have a level of socio-economic status that is below the state average. Five schools will be allocated to receive an intervention based on the Health Promoting Schools framework, and will be supported by a part-time physical activity consultant placed in intervention schools who will implement a range of intervention adoption strategies. Study measures will be taken at baseline when students are in Year 7 (12–13 years and again after 12- and 24-months. The primary outcome, minutes of moderate- to-vigorous- intensity physical activity per day and percentage of time in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, will be objectively assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3x+. Group allocation and intervention delivery will commence after baseline data collection. The intervention will continue during school terms through to 24-month follow-up. Discussion The study will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention that includes an in-school physical activity consultant targeting the physical activity levels of adolescents in disadvantaged Australian secondary schools. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000382875.
Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Smith, Bryan K; Greene, Jerry L; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E
The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and demographic information. PAEE (portable indirect calorimeter) and physical activity (SOFIT) were simultaneously assessed in 38, 2nd through 5th grade children. PAEE and SOFIT were 3.04 +/- 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.8 +/- 0.4 (score), respectively. PAEE was predicted from SOFIT score and body weight [PAEE (kcal/min) = (1.384*SOFIT + 0.084*weight (kg)--5.126), R = .81, SEE = 1.23 kcal/min]. PAEE measured by indirect calorimeter and predicted from SOFIT and body weight were 3.04 +/- 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.04 +/- 0.9 kcal/min) respectively. SOFIT and body weight may provide a useful measure of PAEE associated with classroom based physical activity. PMID:19168920
Galán, I; Boix, R; Medrano, M J; Ramos, P; Rivera, F; Moreno, C
Our objective was to identify individual- and school-level contextual factors related to adherence to the recommendations for physical activity in adolescents. The study used a representative sample of 15,902 students from 328 schools aged 11-18 years participating in the Spanish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey 2006. In addition to the student questionnaire, the school management board completed a questionnaire about school-based policies related to physical activity. Adherence to the recommendations was defined as "having carried out moderate and/or vigorous physical activity for at least 60 min a day on five or more days during the last week". Analysis was undertaken using multilevel logistic regression models. Individual factors associated in a statistically significant way with a higher non-compliance were: being female; being older; immigrants; tobacco smoking; being overweight or obese; low consumption of fruit and vegetables; low level of satisfaction with life; not having a high level of academic achievement; and spending a lot of time studying. The family variables were: not undertaking sports activities with the family; low socioeconomic status; and a low level of satisfaction with family relationships. Compared with schools that have a low level of policies to promote physical activities, those with a high level of promotion had an odds ratio of 0.76 (CI 95 %, 0.61-0.94). In summary, irrespective of personal and family factors, students from schools with better policies of promotion of physical activity showed a higher compliance with the recommendations. PMID:23728581
Jiménez-Brobeil, Silvia A.
Full Text Available A collection of human remains, from the Argaric Culture sites, was studied to broaden knowledge about the physical activity carried out by those populations. Three types of activity markers were analyzed: osteoarthritis, musculoskeletal stress markers and traumatisms. The obtained results coincide with the environment and terrain in which the archaeological sites were found, demonstrating a remarkable difference between sexes. Although it is impossible to determine the profession of the studied individuals, it can be affirmed that the men would perform activities that required muscular strength, walking through rugged and steeped terrain in which they risked suffering further trauma. The women, however, carried out activities centred around the domestic environment.
Se estudian restos humanos procedentes de yacimientos de la Cultura de El Argar con el objetivo de ampliar el conocimiento sobre la actividad física llevada a cabo por los individuos. Se analizan tres tipos de marcadores: la artrosis, los marcadores de estrés músculo-esquelético y los traumatismos. Los resultados obtenidos son coincidentes con el entorno y los terrenos en los que se ubicaron los asentamientos argáricos y señalan una clara diferencia entre sexos. Aunque es imposible determinar la “profesión” de los individuos, sí se puede afirmar que los varones realizarían actividades que requerían fuerza muscular, caminar por terrenos duros y escarpados y en las que había riesgo de sufrir traumatismos. Las mujeres, sin embargo, llevarían a cabo actividades centradas en el entorno doméstico.
Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...
... out more! Email * Zipcode Physical Activity and Psoriatic Arthritis Physical activity plays an important role in overall well-being. If you have psoriatic arthritis, moderate exercise may offer specific benefits, including improved ...
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of active travel to school in children is low and declining. For example, the 2014 National Travel Survey showed that just 46% of primary school children walk to school. This is despite the fact that children who actively travel have been shown to be more physically active overall as well as perform better in class. Beat the Street is a community based intervention which uses RFID (Radio Frequency ID chip readers attached to locations around the neighbourhood. The aim of the intervention is to encourage walking and cycling by gamifying these travel behaviours; individuals taking part gain points by touching a smartcard on the readers and these points become part of a competition. One of the aims of Beat the Street is to encourage children who already walk and cycle to and from school to do so more, as well as achieve modal shift from motorised transport to active travel as a means of commuting. However, habitual travel mode is ‘sticky’ and, despite the potential health benefits being greater, it may be more difficult to change mode than it is to encourage more activity in those who already walk or cycle. Set in a neighbourhood in the city of Norwich, England, this analysis examines how travel mode prior to the initiation of Beat the Street is associated with subsequent engagement with the intervention and what the association of this engagement is with physical activity change. Aim: This pilot study evaluates how prior travel mode to school is associated with engagement in the Beat the Street intervention in schoolchildren in the city of Norwich, England. Methods: The Beat the Street intervention was conducted within a Norwich neighbourhood for 9 weeks during May-July 2014. Children were recruited to the evaluation via two schools; one in the intervention neighbourhood, and a control located on the opposite side of the city. All year 4 and 5 children (aged 8-10 years were invited at both schools. Recruited children
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that works your muscles ... yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human ...
Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.
Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.
Jennings, Cally; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vandelanotte, Corneel
Background Cost-effective and efficient methods to attract people to Web-based health behavior interventions need to be identified. Traditional print methods including leaflets, posters, and newspaper advertisements remain popular despite the expanding range of Web-based advertising options that have the potential to reach larger numbers at lower cost. Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of multiple Web-based and print-based methods to attract people to a Web-based physical activity intervention. Methods A range of print-based (newspaper advertisements, newspaper articles, letterboxing, leaflets, and posters) and Web-based (Facebook advertisements, Google AdWords, and community calendars) methods were applied to attract participants to a Web-based physical activity intervention in Australia. The time investment, cost, number of first time website visits, the number of completed sign-up questionnaires, and the demographics of participants were recorded for each advertising method. Results A total of 278 people signed up to participate in the physical activity program. Of the print-based methods, newspaper advertisements totaled AUD $145, letterboxing AUD $135, leaflets AUD $66, posters AUD $52, and newspaper article AUD $3 per sign-up. Of the Web-based methods, Google AdWords totaled AUD $495, non-targeted Facebook advertisements AUD $68, targeted Facebook advertisements AUD $42, and community calendars AUD $12 per sign-up. Although the newspaper article and community calendars cost the least per sign-up, they resulted in only 17 and 6 sign-ups respectively. The targeted Facebook advertisements were the next most cost-effective method and reached a large number of sign-ups (n=184). The newspaper article and the targeted Facebook advertisements required the lowest time investment per sign-up (5 and 7 minutes respectively). People reached through the targeted Facebook advertisements were on average older (60 years vs 50 years, PFacebook advertising is the
Pecori, Barbara; Zoltowsky, Bogdan; O’Sullivan, Colm
In this contribution the design, implementation, preliminary results, evaluation strategy and anticipated outcomes of the EU funded project LEPLA will be described and discussed. The design and implementation of this project is in response to evidence that the volume and quality of laboratory activities in secondary schools and universities across Europe is declining because of limitations of equipment costs, staff costs, maintenance, time constraints and accessibility. Project partners have ...
Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner
Introduction Despite the high prevalence of arthritis and physical disability among older American Indians, few evidence-based interventions that improve arthritis self-management via physical activity have been adapted for use in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about health, arthritis, and physical activity among older American Indians living in a rural area in Oregon to help select and adapt an arthritis self-management program. Methods In partnership with a tribal health program, we conducted surveys, a focus group, and individual interviews with older American Indians with arthritis. Our sample comprised 6 focus group participants and 18 interviewees. The 24 participants were aged 48 to 82 years, of whom 67% were women. Forms B and C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) instrument, modified for arthritis, measured MHLC. Results The concepts of health, arthritis, and physical activity overlapped in that health was a holistic concept informed by cultural teachings that included living a healthy lifestyle, socializing, and being functionally independent. Arthritis inhibited health and healthy behaviors. Participants identified barriers such as unreliable transportation and recruiting challenges that would make existing interventions challenging to implement in this setting. The Doctor subscale had the highest MHLC (mean = 4.4 [standard deviation (SD), 1.0]), followed by the Internal subscale (3.9 [SD, 1.4]) and the Other People subscale (2.8 [SD, 1.1]). Conclusions Existing evidence-based programs for arthritis should be adapted to address implementation factors, such as access to transportation, and incorporate cultural values that emphasize holistic wellness and social interconnectedness. Culturally sensitive programs that build on indigenous values and practices to promote active coping strategies for older American Indians with arthritis are needed. PMID:27337558
Translating a Community-Based Motivational Support Program to Increase Physical Activity Among Older Adults With Diabetes at Community Clinics: A Pilot Study of Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success (PALS
Odette Batik, MD, MPH
Full Text Available BackgroundRegular physical activity is an important goal for elders with chronic health conditions.ContextThis report describes Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success (PALS, an attempt to translate a motivational support program for physical activity, Active Choices, for use by a group of diverse, low-income, community-dwelling elders with diabetes.MethodsPALS linked physical activity assessment and brief counseling by primary care providers with a structured referral to a community-based motivational telephone support program delivered by older adult volunteers. People with diabetes aged 65 years or older who were receiving care at two community clinics were randomized to receive either immediate or delayed intervention. The main intended outcome measure was physical activity level; the secondary outcome measure was mean hemoglobin A1c.ConsequencesOne-third of those offered referral to the PALS program in the clinic setting declined. Another 44% subsequently declined enrollment or were unreachable by the support center. Only 14 (21% of those offered referral enrolled in the program. Among these 14, the percentage who were sufficiently active was higher at follow-up than at enrollment, though not significantly so. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, which included all randomized clinic patients, we found no significant change in mean hemoglobin A1c for the intervention group compared with controls.Interpretation A community-based referral and support program to increase physical activity among elderly, ethnically diverse, low-income people with diabetes, many of whom are not English-speaking, may be thwarted by unforeseen barriers. Those who enroll and participate in the PALS program appear to increase their level of physical activity.
Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Yu-Ming
In this study, we employed Flash- and Scratch-based multimedia by using a MaKey-MaKey-based task system to increase the motivation level of children with cerebral palsy to perform physical activities. MaKey MaKey is a circuit board that converts physical touch to a digital signal, which is interpreted by a computer as a keyboard message. In this study, we used conductive materials to control this interaction. This study followed single-case design using ABAB models in which A indicated the baseline and B indicated the intervention. The experiment period comprised 1 month and a half. The experimental results demonstrated that in the case of two kindergarten children with cerebral palsy, their scores were considerably increased during the intervention phrases. The developmental applications of the results are also discussed. PMID:24864049
Sallis James F; Hagströmer Maria; Grjibovski Andrej M; Bergman Patrick; Sjöström Michael
Abstract Background This study examines the relationship of neighbourhood environment factors with walking and total health enhancing physical activity. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study. The short self-administered version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to assess health enhancing physical activity including walking. The neighbourhood environment was assessed using a 17-item environmental module. A principal component analysis amo...
Shirvani, Zeinab Gholamnia; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff’s wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel’s...
Physical educators do not have necesseraly good representations about physical activity and sedentariness. During the presentation, participants will be involved in an interactive process aiming to underline the main concepts that they should use in order to become effective agents of physical activity promotion.
Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Atkin, Andrew J.; Panter, Jenna; Corder, Kirsten; Wong, Geoff; Mai J M Chinapaw; van Sluijis, Esther
Introduction Despite the established relationship between physical activity and health, data suggest that many children are insufficiently active, and that levels decline into adolescence. Engaging the family in interventions may increase and maintain children's physical activity levels at the critical juncture before secondary school. Synthesis of existing evidence will inform future studies, but the heterogeneity in target populations recruited, behaviour change techniques and intervention ...
DeBate, Rita D.; McDermott, Robert J.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; Hogeboom, David L.; Nickelson, Jen; Phiilips, Leah M.; Alfonso, Moya L.
Background: Participation in free-time play, including individual and group activities, is important during youth as patterns of physical activity established then persist into adulthood. The VERB Summer Scorecard (VSS) intervention is an innovative physical activity promotion initiative that offers tweens (8-13 year-olds) opportunities to be…
Nowadays, the interest for accelerator-based systems (ABS) in France is strongly related to the studies on long-lived radioactive waste management. Investigations aim to indicate whether ABS can play a role beside critical reactors in the process proposed to reduce the long term radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes. ABS is not envisaged to replace reactors for energy production even if the energy production is a mean to reduce the transmutation cost. Several French organisms (CEA, EDF, CNRS) are interested by ABS studies. Activities are shared out amongst different laboratories and involve international cooperation. The program aims at evaluating ABS performances for the report on waste management foreseen in 2006 and not at developing a project. This ABS evaluation concerns the following items: potential of radiotoxicity reduction, safety, economy, feasibility which must be compared with those of critical reactors. To achieve this end, activities at CEA are in progress on: - code development and validation, - nuclear data evaluation, -theoretical investigations on ABS characteristics, - study of existing projects. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs
Wouters, Eveline; Geenen,
Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti
Wouters, Eveline; Geenen, Rinie
Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti
The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…
Kuijpers, W.; Groen, W.G.; Aaronson, N.K.; Harten, van W.H.
Background: Patient empowerment reflects the ability of patients to positively influence their health and health behavior such as physical activity. While interactive Web-based interventions are increasingly used in various chronic disease settings to enhance empowerment and physical activity, such
Alireza Sabet Sarvestani; Mehrdad Afkhami
The purpose of this study to compare quality of life for the elderly based on differentlevels of physical activity in the city of Shiraz in 1389 was conducted. In this study; theresearch is type event (eli comparison). For this purpose; 120 elderly residents of nursing atthe center of Shiraz Jhandydgan example and were randomly selected. Elderly participantseligible after completion of physical activity determined based on the type and duration ofdaily activity and calorie intake was designed...
Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira de
This study evaluated the relative validity of physical activity indicators from the questionnaire used in the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, based on a sample of 174 students. The following indicators of weekly physical activity were evaluated: ACTIVE-300MIN (≥ 300 minutes/week); ACTIVE-150MIN (≥ 150 minutes), INACTIVE (no physical activity). Additionally, indicators of sedentary behavior were also assessed, as daily screen time (TV, videogames, and computer). The results from the questionnaire were compared with three 24-hour recalls. The results of ACTIVE-300MIN, ACTIVE-150MIN, and INACTIVE generated by PeNSE showed high accuracy. These indicators performed better than those of sedentary behavior in relation to frequency estimates as well as sensitivity, specificity, and correct classification rate. The indicators of physical activity from PeNSE showed satisfactory relative validity. PMID:25317515
Title: Physical activity in Greenland - a methodical perspective Inger Dahl-Petersen, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: The present study is the first population-based study in Greenland with information on physical activity using The International Physical...... Participants in a cross-sectional population survey representative of towns and villages in West Greenland completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire about their physical activity. The long version of The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure time spent on physical.......001). Less energy was used in leisure time among women living in a village (P<0.001). A similar tendency (non-significant) was found for men. Conclusion: IPAQ is a detailed method to measure physical activity in leisure time, home, work and transportation and provide information on both time and energy...
van Mechelen Willem
Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, only information regarding the effectiveness of an intervention programme is ever published. However, in recent years evaluating the translatability and feasibility of an intervention programme has become more important. Therefore, this paper presents the results of the evaluation of the iPlay programme aimed at preventing physical activity related injuries in primary school children. Methods The iPlay programme targeted injuries gained through physical activity, and consisted of a teacher's manual, informative newsletters and posters, a website, and set exercises to be carried out during physical education (PE classes. In order to evaluate the iPlay programme for translatability and feasibility, teachers, children and parents who participated in the iPlay programme filled out a questionnaire The objective of this study is to describe the results of the process-evaluation of the iPlay programme based on the five dimensions of the RE-AIM framework. Results The results showed that the participation rate of the children was 100% (reach. Nine percent of the schools who were invited to take part were willing to participate in the study (adoption rate. Teachers stated that they implemented the different elements of the programme partly as intended (implementation. The percentage of children and parents who followed the programme was less than expected. In addition, 52% of the teachers indicated that the current iPlay programme could become standard practice in their teaching routine (maintenance. Conclusion The iPlay programme is a first start in the prevention of physical activity related injuries in children, but further improvements need to be made to the programme on the basis of this process evaluation. Trial registration ISRCTN78846684; http://www.controlled-trials.com
Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.
Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Matthew C.
Existing literature shows promising effects of physical activity on children's cognitive outcomes. This study assessed via a randomized, controlled design whether additional curricular physical activity during the school day resulted in gains for children's fluid intelligence and standardized achievement outcomes. Participants were children…
Conclusions: Increasing the public knowledge about adopting physical activity habits in routine daily life, informing the families and students about the benefits of physical activity to improve learning, as well as providing safe places such as using the school facilities in non-school hours should be considered in planning effective preventive strategies and interventions.
This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, 408 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavio...
Seto, Edmund; Hua, Jenna; Wu, Lemuel; Shia, Victor; Eom, Sue; Wang, May; Li, Yan
Introduction Smartphone applications (apps) facilitate the collection of data on multiple aspects of behavior that are useful for characterizing baseline patterns and for monitoring progress in interventions aimed at promoting healthier lifestyles. Individual-based models can be used to examine whether behavior, such as diet, corresponds to certain typological patterns. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate individual-based modeling methods relevant to a person’s eating behavior, and the value of such approach compared to typical regression models. Method Using a mobile app, 2 weeks of physical activity and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data, and 6 days of diet data were collected from 12 university students recruited from a university in Kunming, a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Phone GPS data were collected for the entire 2-week period, from which exposure to various food environments along each subject’s activity space was determined. Physical activity was measured using phone accelerometry. Mobile phone EMA was used to assess self-reported emotion/feelings. The portion size of meals and food groups was determined from voice-annotated videos of meals. Individual-based regression models were used to characterize subjects as following one of 4 diet typologies: those with a routine portion sizes determined by time of day, those with portion sizes that balance physical activity (energy balance), those with portion sizes influenced by emotion, and those with portion sizes associated with food environments. Results Ample compliance with the phone-based behavioral assessment was observed for all participants. Across all individuals, 868 consumed food items were recorded, with fruits, grains and dairy foods dominating the portion sizes. On average, 218 hours of accelerometry and 35 EMA responses were recorded for each participant. For some subjects, the routine model was able to explain up to 47% of the variation in portion sizes, and
Full Text Available Smartphone applications (apps facilitate the collection of data on multiple aspects of behavior that are useful for characterizing baseline patterns and for monitoring progress in interventions aimed at promoting healthier lifestyles. Individual-based models can be used to examine whether behavior, such as diet, corresponds to certain typological patterns. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate individual-based modeling methods relevant to a person's eating behavior, and the value of such approach compared to typical regression models.Using a mobile app, 2 weeks of physical activity and ecological momentary assessment (EMA data, and 6 days of diet data were collected from 12 university students recruited from a university in Kunming, a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Phone GPS data were collected for the entire 2-week period, from which exposure to various food environments along each subject's activity space was determined. Physical activity was measured using phone accelerometry. Mobile phone EMA was used to assess self-reported emotion/feelings. The portion size of meals and food groups was determined from voice-annotated videos of meals. Individual-based regression models were used to characterize subjects as following one of 4 diet typologies: those with a routine portion sizes determined by time of day, those with portion sizes that balance physical activity (energy balance, those with portion sizes influenced by emotion, and those with portion sizes associated with food environments.Ample compliance with the phone-based behavioral assessment was observed for all participants. Across all individuals, 868 consumed food items were recorded, with fruits, grains and dairy foods dominating the portion sizes. On average, 218 hours of accelerometry and 35 EMA responses were recorded for each participant. For some subjects, the routine model was able to explain up to 47% of the variation in portion sizes, and the energy
Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.
Mary Ann S. Van Duyn, PhD, MPH, RD
Full Text Available IntroductionUsing a social marketing approach, we studied how best to adapt proven, evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity for use with underserved racial or ethnic groups.MethodsWe conducted focus groups with low-income Hispanic women in Texas, Hmong parents and their children in California, low-income African American women and men in the Mississippi Delta, and Native Hawaiian college students in Hawaii. We also interviewed key leaders of these communities. Topics of discussion were participants’ perceptions about 1 the benefits of engaging in physical activity, 2 the proposed evidence-based strategies for increasing each community’s level of physical activity, and 3 the benefits and barriers to following the proposed interventions for increasing physical activity. A total of 292 individuals participated in the study.ResultsAll groups considered that being physically active was part of their culture, and participants found culturally relevant suggestions for physical activities appealing. Overwhelmingly, strategies that aimed to create or improve social support and increase access to physical activity venues received the most positive feedback from all groups. Barriers to physical activity were not culturally specific; they are common to all underserved people (lack of time, transportation, access, neighborhood safety, or economic resources.ConclusionResults indicate that evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity need to be adapted for cultural relevance for each racial or ethnic group. Our research shows that members of four underserved populations are likely to respond to strategies that increase social support for physical activity and improve access to venues where they can be physically active. Further research is needed to test how to implement such strategies in ways that are embraced by community members.
Isabel Sobejano Tornos
, previously validated for the Spanish population, was used. Two definitions of "physically active" were employed: a total leisure-time energy expenditure of > 300 metabolic equivalentes (METs/day, and b physical exercise in activities expending > 4 METs for at least 25min/day for women and 30min/day for men. Results: When both definitions were applied, approximately half the population aged 35-84 years old were active in their leisure time. The prevalence of physically active persons (> 300 METs/day decreased after the age of 65 in women and no differences were found according to body mass index, educational level or occupation-based social class. In men, being active in their leisure time was related to age 65-74 years and medium or low social class. Conclusions: The population subgroups most susceptible to interventions aimed at promoting leisure-time physical activity in Navarre consisted of women over the age of 65 and men of high social class.
Chengzhi Zong; Jafari, Roozbeh
Heart rate tracking from a wrist-type photoplethysmogram (PPG) signal during intensive physical activities is a challenge that is attracting more attention thanks to the introduction of wrist-worn wearable computers. Commonly-used motion artifact rejection methods coupled with simple periodicity-based heart rate estimation techniques are incapable of achieving satisfactory heart rate tracking performance during intense activities. In this paper, we propose a two-stage solution. Firstly, we introduce an improved spectral subtraction method to reject the spectral components of motion artifacts. Secondly, instead of using heuristic mechanisms, we formalize the spectral peaks selection process as the shortest path search problem and validate its effectiveness. Analysis on the experimental results based on a published database shows that: (1) Our proposed method outperforms three other comparable methods with regards to heart rate estimation error. (2) The proposed method is a promising candidate for both offline cardiac health analysis and online heart rate tracking in daily life, even during intensive physical motions. PMID:26738168
Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Chin, Ming Kai; Chen, Shihui; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Bronikowski, Michal; Laudanska-Krzeminska, Ida; Milanovic, Ivana; Pasic, Milan; Balasekaran, Govindasamy; Phua, Kia Wang; Makaza, Daga
This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale (APAS) to measure the attitudes, beliefs, and self-efficacy toward physical activity by children at the primary school level. The framework included: physical fitness, self-efficacy, personal best goal orientation in physical activity, interest in physical activity, importance of physical activity, benefits of physical activity, contributions of video exercise to learning in school subjects, contributions of video exercise to learning about health and environmental support. The sample comprised of 630 school students between grades 1 and 7 from five countries, namely Lithuania (29%), Poland (26%), Serbia (19%), Singapore (16%) and Zimbabwe (11%). Rasch analysis found empirical evidence in support of measurement validity of the APAS in terms of Rasch item reliabilities, unidimensionality, effectiveness of response categories, and absence of gender differential item functioning (DIF). The validation of the APAS according to the Rasch model meant that a dependable tool was established for gauging programme effectiveness of intervention programs on physical activity of primary school children in classroom settings at various geographical locations globally. PMID:26771567
Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.
Peplonska, Beata; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hartman, Terryl J.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Blair, Aaron; Zatonski, Witold; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise A.
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer risk is reduced 30% to 40% in highly physically active compared with inactive women. However, the effects of moderate activities, timing of activities, and intervening effects of other risk factors remain less clear. METHODS: We analyzed data on physical activity patterns in 2176 incident breast cancer cases and 2326 controls in a population-based breast cancer case-control study in Poland conducted in 2000-2003. Using unconditio...
Full Text Available Background: There is an urgent need for interventions which can effectively change behaviours, in order to prevent and reduce the impact of costly chronic conditions such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (WHO, 2014. Smartphones offer a platform for cost-effective and broad implementation, and at the same time, via real-time tracking and sensor data, offer unprecedented possibilities for personalising interventions (Jovanov & Milenkovic, 2011. While a great number of health-related applications exist already, the content of these is rarely based on behaviour change theory, and, consequently, evidence for the effectiveness of digital behaviour change applications is minimal (Webb, Joseph, Yardley, & Michie, 2010. Even when health-related applications are theory-based, users will likely not achieve behavioural changes if they do not engage with the applications. This lack of engagement is supported by statistics: a quarter of downloaded apps were only used once (Leger, 2011. A major challenge of health care research is therefore the identification of personal treatment response, and factors which mitigate engagement and effectiveness within individuals. To address these issues, our research group, an EU-funded multi-disciplinary consortium has developed the PREventitive Care Infrastructure based On Ubiquitous Sensing (PRECIOUS mobile application. This app targets behavioural changes in physical activity, diet, and stress, and includes both motivational and action components for each. The service design draws from evidence-based techniques in self-determination theory (SDT, Deci & Ryan, 2000, motivational interviewing (MI, Miller & Rollnick, 2002, and social cognitive theories (e.g. Schwarzer, 2008, to enhance engagement with the process of behaviour change. Through integrating sensor data, self-reported responses, and self-monitoring records, the system provides each user with a dynamic, personalised trajectory through the app
Chalin, Patrice; Thompson, Nicholas
Background Emerging technologies (ie, mobile phones, Internet) may be effective tools for promoting physical activity (PA). However, few interventions have provided effective means to enhance social support through these platforms. Face-to-face programs that use group dynamics-based principles of behavior change have been shown to be highly effective in enhancing social support through promoting group cohesion and PA, but to date, no studies have examined their effects in Web-based programs. Objective The aim was to explore proof of concept and test the efficacy of a brief, online group dynamics-based intervention on PA in a controlled experiment. We expected that the impact of the intervention on PA would be moderated by perceptions of cohesion and the partner’s degree of presence in the online media. Methods Participants (n=135) were randomized into same-sex dyads and randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: standard social support (standard), group dynamics-based–high presence, group dynamics-based–low presence, or individual control. Participants performed two sets of planking exercises (pre-post). Between sets, participants in partnered conditions interacted with a virtual partner using either a standard social support app or a group dynamics-based app (group dynamics-based–low presence and group dynamics-based–high presence), the latter of which they participated in a series of online team-building exercises. Individual participants were given an equivalent rest period between sets. To increase presence during the second set, participants in the group dynamics-based–high presence group saw a live video stream of their partner exercising. Perceptions of cohesion were measured using a modified PA Group Environment Questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as the time persisted during set 2 after controlling for persistence in set 1. Results Perceptions of cohesion were higher in the group dynamics-based–low presence (overall
Full Text Available This study examines the associations of socioeconomic status (SES with intensity of different types of physical activity (PA in Chinese adults, aimed at outlining and projecting socioeconomic disparities in PA among the population undergoing a rapid nutrition transition.A community-based survey was conducted among 3,567 residents aged 30-65 years old in Jiaxing, China, in 2010. SES and PA were assessed by a structured questionnaire. SES was assessed as socioeconomic index (SEI score based on self-reported educational attainment, household income and occupation. Metabolic equivalents (METs were calculated for each subject to quantify the total amount of PA from occupation, exercise, transportation and housework.Intensity of overall PA in this population was 165 MET-hours/week, in which energy expenditure in occupational PA accounted for 82%. Both types and intensity of PA were significantly different by SES: middle SES groups had higher intensity of occupational activities; lower SES subjects engaged in more household work; whereas higher SES subjects were more likely to exercise, more active during commuting and had longer sedentary time. All the three components of SES, education attainment, income and occupation, contributed to socioeconomic disparities in PA in this population.Our results suggest an overall insufficiency and socioeconomic inequalities in PA among Chinese adults in Jiaxing, a typical city experiencing a rapid urbanization in China. There is an urgent need to promote leisure-time activities in this population.
Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy
It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…
This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement. Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 12/9/2014.
Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.
Muhammad Fahim; Muhammad Idris; Rahman Ali; Christopher Nugent; Byeong Kang; Eui-Nam Huh; Sungyoung Lee
Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications) to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate ...
The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of theworld and becoming one of the major global public health problems. Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time, available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity. Increases in physical activity have been shown to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition, with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate. The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life. However, the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for aerobic training, or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits. Indeed, nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health, and should be encouraged in all age groups, particularly early in life. The question is no longer centered around the health benefit of increasing physical activity, but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals. Hence, effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity. Among various interventions, the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children. The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challenge in this field today.
Teller, E.; Hyde, T.; Wood, L.
We offer a case for active technical management of the radiative forcing of the temperatures of the Earth's fluid envelopes, rather than administrative management of atmospheric greenhouse gas inputs, in order to stabilize both the global- and time-averaged climate and its mesoscale features. We suggest that active management of radiative forcing entails negligible--indeed, likely strongly negative--economic costs and environmental impacts, and thus best complies with the pertinent mandate of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. We propose that such approaches be swiftly evaluated in sub-scale in the course of an intensive international program.
Teller, E; Hyde, T; Wood, L
We offer a case for active technical management of the radiative forcing of the temperatures of the Earth's fluid envelopes, rather than administrative management of atmospheric greenhouse gas inputs, in order to stabilize both the global- and time-averaged climate and its mesoscale features. We suggest that active management of radiative forcing entails negligible--indeed, likely strongly negative--economic costs and environmental impacts, and thus best complies with the pertinent mandate of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. We propose that such approaches be swiftly evaluated in sub-scale in the course of an intensive international program.
Kriemler, S; Meyer, U; Martin, E;
School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness although there is controversy about the optimal strategy to intervene.......School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness although there is controversy about the optimal strategy to intervene....
Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Jerry L.; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E.
The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and demographic information. PAEE (portable indirect calorimeter) and physical activity (SOFIT) were simultaneously assessed in 38, 2nd through 5th grade children. PAEE and SOFIT were 3.04 ± 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.8 ± 0.4 (score), respectively. PAEE was predicted from SOF...
Sturrock, Peter A.
The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In adolescents, loss of bone mineral mass usually occurs during phases of reduced physical activity (PA, such as when an injured extremity spends several weeks in a cast. We recorded the PA of adolescents with lower limb fractures during the cast immobilization, at 6 and at 18 months after the fracture, and we compared these values with those of healthy controls. Methods Fifty adolescents with a first episode of limb fracture and a control group of 50 healthy cases were recruited for the study through an advertisement placed at the University Children’s Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. PA was assessed during cast immobilization and at 6- and 18-month follow-up by accelerometer measurement (Actigraph® 7164, MTI, Fort Walton Beach, FL, USA. Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender and age. Time spent in PA at each level of intensity was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. Results From the 50 initial teenagers with fractures, 44 sustained functional evaluations at 6 months follow-up, whereas only 38 patients were studied at 18 months. The total PA count (total number of counts/min was lower in patients with lower limb fractures (-62.4% compared with healthy controls (ppp Importantly, we observed that time spent in vigorous PA, which reflects high-intensity forces beneficial to skeletal health, returned to similar values between both groups from the six month follow-up in adolescents who sustained a fracture. However, a definitive reduction in time spent in moderate PA was observed among patients with a lower limb fracture at 18 months, when comparing with healthy controls values (p = 0.0174. Conclusions As cast immobilization and reduced PA are known to induce bone mineral loss, this study provides important information to quantify the decrease of skeletal loading in adolescents with limb fractures. The results of this study demonstrate
Svirin, I. S.; Epishina, E. V.; Voronin, V. V.; Semenishchev, E. A.; Solodova, E. N.; Nabilskaya, N. V.
In this paper we present a method for the functional analysis of human heart based on electrocardiography (ECG) signals. The approach using the apparatus of analytical and differential geometry and correlation and regression analysis. ECG contains information on the current condition of the cardiovascular system as well as on the pathological changes in the heart. Mathematical processing of the heart rate variability allows to obtain a great set of mathematical and statistical characteristics. These characteristics of the heart rate are used when solving research problems to study physiological changes that determine functional changes of an individual. The proposed method implemented for up-to-date mobile Android and iOS based devices.
Markes, Mark; Reiser, Emily
Studies have indicated that student misconceptions negatively impact the effectiveness of physics education. Research has also shown that activity based instruction (ABI) has greater effectiveness than lecture based instruction (LBI) in many applications. This paper examines the effect of ABI on the persistent misconceptions of physics students. A persistent misconception is defined for an LBI student as identical wrong answers on pre and posttests, using the Force and Motion Concept Evaluation. To evaluate the effect of ABI on persistent misconceptions, pretest and posttest responses were divided into wrong to same wrong (ww), wrong to different wrong (ww'), and wrong to right (wr). The effect of ABI was modeled as a transfer of probability among these three response groups. Results indicate that ABI obtains about equal gains from the ww' and ww groups with the transfer from ww to ww' small in comparison. This indicates that ABI is about equally effective with students who have persistent misconceptions and students who do not have persistent misconceptions.
Robertson, Judy; Jepson, Ruth; Macvean, Andrew; Gray, Stuart
Many public health interventions are less effective than expected in 'real life settings', yet little work is undertaken to understand the reasons why. The effectiveness of complex public health interventions can often be traced back to a robust programme theory (how and why an intervention brings about a change in outcome(s)) and assumptions that are made about the context in which it is implemented. Understanding whether effectiveness (or lack thereof) is due to the intervention or the context is hugely helpful in decisions about whether to a) modify the intervention; b) modify the context; c) stop providing the intervention. Exergames-also known as Active Video Games or AVGS-are video games which use the player's bodily movements as input and have potential to increase physical activity in children. However, the results of a recent pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a location-based exergame (FitQuest) in a school setting were inconclusive; no significant effect was detected for any of the outcome measures. The aim of this study was to explore whether the programme theory for FitQuest was correct with respect to how and why it would change children's perceptions of physical activity (PA) and exercise self-efficacy in the school setting. A further aim was to investigate the features of the school setting (context) that may impact on FitQuest's implementation and effectiveness. Qualitative data (gathered during the RCT) were gathered from interviews with teachers and children, and observation of sessions using FitQuest. Thematic analysis indicated that whilst children enjoyed playing the game, engaged with goal setting within the game context and undertook low to vigorous physical activity, there were significant contextual factors that prevented it from being played as often as intended. These included environmental factors (e.g. size of the playground), school factors (cancellations due to other activities), school technology policy (rules relating to
A population-based randomized controlled trial of the effect of combining a pedometer with an intervention toolkit on physical activity among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness
Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Severin, Maria; Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann
To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness.......To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness....
Eves, Neil D; Davidson, Warren J
The 2 most common respiratory diseases are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Growing evidence supports the benefits of exercise for all patients with these diseases. Due to the etiology of COPD and the pathophysiology of asthma, there may be some additional risks of exercise for these patients, and hence accurate risk assessment and clearance is needed before patients start exercising. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature regarding the risks of exercise for patients with respiratory disease and provide evidence-based recommendations to guide the screening process. A systematic review of 4 databases was performed. The literature was searched to identify adverse events specific to exercise. For COPD, 102 randomized controlled trials that involved an exercise intervention were included (n = 6938). No study directly assessed the risk of exercise, and only 15 commented on exercise-related adverse events. For asthma, 30 studies of mixed methodologies were included (n = 1278). One study directly assessed the risk of exercise, and 15 commented on exercise-related adverse events. No exercise-related fatalities were reported. The majority of adverse events in COPD patients were musculoskeletal or cardiovascular in nature. In asthma patients, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and (or) asthma symptoms were the primary adverse events. There is no direct evidence regarding the risk of exercise for patients with COPD or asthma. However, based on the available literature, it would appear that with adequate screening and optimal medical therapy, the risk of exercise for these respiratory patients is low. PMID:21800949
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedometers have become common place in physical activity promotion, yet little information exists on who is using them. The multi-strategy, community-based 10,000 Steps Rockhampton physical activity intervention trial provided an opportunity to examine correlates of pedometer use at the population level. Methods Pedometer use was promoted across all intervention strategies including: local media, pedometer loan schemes through general practice, other health professionals and libraries, direct mail posted to dog owners, walking trail signage, and workplace competitions. Data on pedometer use were collected during the 2-year follow-up telephone interviews from random population samples in Rockhampton, Australia, and a matched comparison community (Mackay. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent influence of interpersonal characteristics and program exposure variables on pedometer use. Results Data from 2478 participants indicated that 18.1% of Rockhampton and 5.6% of Mackay participants used a pedometer in the previous 18-months. Rockhampton pedometer users (n = 222 were more likely to be female (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.23, aged 45 or older (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.46 and to have higher levels of education (university degree OR = 4.23, 95% CI: 1.86, 9.6. Respondents with a BMI > 30 were more likely to report using a pedometer (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.54 than those in the healthy weight range. Compared with those in full-time paid work, respondents in 'home duties' were significantly less likely to report pedometer use (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.53. Exposure to individual program components, in particular seeing 10,000 Steps street signage and walking trails or visiting the website, was also significantly associated with greater pedometer use. Conclusion Pedometer use varies between population subgroups, and alternate strategies need to be investigated to engage men, people with lower levels
Full Text Available The cells continuously produce free radicals and reactive oxygen species as a part of metabolic processes. Increased aerobic metabolism during exercise is a potential source of oxidative stress. Also, anaerobic physical activity and oxidative stress are interrelated because the intense anaerobic activity leads to damage proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in muscle cells and blood. Complex system of antioxidant defense, which has the enzymatic and non-enzymatic part, has a role in protecting tissues from excessive oxidative damage. Most of the research conducted so far about the impact of various forms of physical activity on levels of oxidative stress is confirmed by changes in biomarkers that indicate lipid peroxidation and proteins modification. Untrained persons, as opposed to trained, are more susceptible to major changes in the body caused by oxidative stress during physical activity. The results of researches have shown that there are no significant differences between the genders in the level of oxidative stress during physical activity and response to antioxidant supplementation possibly applied. It is interesting that, despite of numerous studies, the exact location of oxidative stress origin during physical activity has not been reliably established. In addition, research results provide insufficient evidence on the effectiveness of using antioxidant supplementation to increase the defense against oxidative stress. It is necessary further investigation about the redox status and oxidative stress during physical activity in adolescent athletes.
Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Gilmore, Jennica C; Gunnell, Katie E
The purpose of this study was to provide population-based estimates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in Canadians diagnosed with Crohn disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Data were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 3.1 (2005). Those diagnosed with CD (n = 474; 61.60% female) or UC (n = 637; 65.10% female) were compared with those not reporting CD/UC (n = 113,685; 53.60% female). The most prevalent forms of LTPA reported were walking and gardening/yard work. Individuals with CD were more likely to be classified as "inactive" (OR = 1.34; 95% CI [1.12, 1.61]) and less likely to be "active" (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.55, 0.87]) than those not reporting CD/UC. These trends were mirrored for those living with UC, although statistical significance was not attained. Despite claims advocating the benefits of LTPA for ameliorating complications associated with CD/UC, prevalence estimates from a population-based sample of Canadians living with CD/UC suggest that the majority do not meet current public health guidelines. Results offer benchmarks for prevalence of LTPA in those diagnosed with CD/UC. Findings suggest that many living with this condition will not benefit from the protective role of LTPA on complications associated with CD/UC. PMID:21814062
Miller, Michelle; Zrim, Stephanie; Lawn, Sharon; Woodman, Richard; Leggett, Stephanie; Jones, Lynnette; Karapetis, Christos; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Sukumaran, Shawgi; Roy, Amitesh C; Koczwara, Bogda
Exercise and a healthy diet are beneficial after cancer, but are not uniformly adopted by cancer survivors. This study reports on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a self-management-based nutrition and exercise intervention for Australian cancer survivors. Adult survivors (n = 25) during curative chemotherapy (stratum 1[S1]; n = 11) or post-treatment (stratum 2 [S2]; n = 14) were recruited prospectively from a single center. The Flinders Living Well Self-Management Program™ (FLW Program) was utilized to establish patient-led nutrition and exercise goals and develop a tailored 12-wk intervention plan. Fortnightly reviews occurred with assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 wk. A recruitment and retention rate of 38% and 84% were observed. Both strata maintained total skeletal muscle mass. Small reductions in body mass index, hip circumference, and percentage body fat, and small increases in hand grip strength and exercise capacity among subjects in both strata were observed. No significant differences were observed between strata; however, significant increases in exercise capacity and global health status for S2 were observed from baseline to 12 wk. FLW Program is a feasible mode of delivering nutrition and exercise intervention to cancer survivors and it appears that there are no barriers to implementing this program early during chemotherapy. Hence, the additive effect of gains achieved over a longer duration is promising and this should be explored in randomized controlled trials adequately powered to observe clinically and statistically significant improvements in relevant outcomes. PMID:27176450