Courtney, Karen L.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Mecca, Laurel Person; Garlock, Laurie A.; Schulz, Richard; Dick, Andrew W.; Olshansky, Ellen
Community-based (multi-user) telehealth interventions may be beneficial for older adults, but there is little research regarding community-based telehealth. We used a qualitative descriptive approach to examine the acceptability and perceived value of community-based telehealth kiosks with regard to current health self-management practices of community-dwelling older adults as a first step in feasibility assessment. Participants included residents (n=6) and community agency case managers (n=3) of a HUD-subsidized senior apartment building. Both positive impressions and concerns of each group are presented. Findings helped guide the plans for future telehealth kiosk implementation and training. PMID:20509594
Robinson, Lance W.; Makupa, Enock
Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation—Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania—using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor—spending powers and revenue-generating powers—relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.
King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny
The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk. PMID:26159602
Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles
Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…
Full Text Available Commons scholarship has tended to focus on the administration and use of commons by individuals and households and less so on collective enterprises that extract, transform and market what they harvest from the commons. In this paper, we consider Nuevo San Juan, a Mexican case that is well known in the community forestry and commons literature. In San Juan, indigenous community members who hold the rights for the commons are also the members of the enterprise that transforms and markets goods from the commons. We argue that such a strategy is one way to confront internal and external pressures on a commons. We draw upon the transcripts of 40 interviews undertaken during 2006 which are analyzed using a framework developed from the social, community-based and indigenous enterprise literature. Our goal was to utilize this framework to analyze the San Juan Forest Enterprise and understand its emergence and formation as a long-standing community-based enterprise that intersects with a commons, and thereby identify factors that increase chances of success for community enterprises. We found that by starting from the community-based and indigenous enterprise literature and using that literature to engage with thinking on commons, it was possible to consider the enterprise from the perspective of a regulatory framework rather than from the poles of dependency and modernization theories in which much commons work has been based. Enterprise and commons intersect when both are guided by core cultural values and the enterprise can become a new site for the creation of social and cultural cohesion. We also found that there were a number of necessary conditions for commons-based community-enterprises to retain internal and external legitimacy, namely: (1 leadership representative of the broad social mission rooted in the customary institutions, values and norms of the community; (2 accountability of enterprise leaders to the memberships they represent; and (3
Bruce, Bertram C.; Bloch, Naomi
This paper develops a philosophical basis for the concept of community inquiry. Community inquiry derives from pragmatist theory as articulated by Dewey, Peirce, Addams, and others. Following Brendel, we discuss pragmatism in terms of its emphasis on the practical dimensions of inquiry, the pluralistic nature of the tools that are used to study…
Bruce, Bertram C.; Bloch, Naomi
This paper develops a philosophical basis for the concept of community inquiry. Community inquiry derives from pragmatist theory as articulated by Dewey, Peirce, Addams, and others. Following Brendel, we discuss pragmatism in terms of its emphasis on the practical dimensions of inquiry, the pluralistic nature of the tools that are used to study phenomena, the participatory role of individuals with different perspectives, and the provisional nature of inquiry. We then apply this framework in a...
Taylor, Bruce; Robertson, David; Wiratunga, Nirmalie; Craw, Susan; Mitchell, Dawn; Stewart, Elaine
Community occupational therapists have long been involved in the provision of environmental control systems. Diverse electronic technologies with the potential to improve the health and quality of life of selected clients have developed rapidly in recent years. Occupational therapists employ clinical reasoning in order to determine the most appropriate technology to meet the needs of individual clients. This paper describes a number of the drivers that may increase the adoption of information and communication technologies in the occupational therapy profession. It outlines case based reasoning as understood in the domains of expert systems and knowledge management and presents the preliminary results of an ongoing investigation into the potential of a prototype computer aided case based reasoning tool to support the clinical reasoning of community occupational therapists in the process of assisting clients to choose home electronic assistive or smart house technology. PMID:17576021
... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Division of Nursing, Public Health Nursing Community Based Model of...), Community Based Model of Public Health Nursing Case Management Services. This program is authorized under... IHS OCPS Public Health Nursing (PHN) Program serves as the primary source for national...
Purwaningsih, Anna; Pudianti, Anna; Surya, Reni Vita
Yogyakarta is the second tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali. It offers rural tourism as alternative tourist attractions in a natural and cultural heritage scheme which has been the mainstay of the local government . Rural tourism offer the tourist experience into a new way with direct involvement in the daily life of the rural community. The rural tourism is managed by the rural community itself (called as CBT-Community Based Tourism). This study aimed to measure the s...
BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective surveillance is a recognised approach for measuring death rates in humanitarian emergencies. However, there is limited evidence on how such surveillance should optimally be implemented and on how data are actually used by agencies. This case study investigates the implementation and utilisation of mortality surveillance data by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF in eastern Chad. We aimed to describe and analyse the community-based mortality surveillance system, trends in mortality data and the utilisation of these data to guide MSF’s operational response. Methods The case study included 5 MSF sites including 2 refugee camps and 3 camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs. Data were obtained through key informant interviews and systematic review of MSF operational reports from 2004–2008. Results Mortality data were collected using community health workers (CHWs. Mortality generally decreased progressively. In Farchana and Breidjing refugee camps, crude death rates (CDR decreased from 0.9 deaths per 10,000 person-days in 2004 to 0.2 in 2008 and from 0.7 to 0.1, respectively. In Gassire, Ade and Kerfi IDP camps, CDR decreased from 0.4 to 0.04, 0.3 to 0.04 and 1.0 to 0.3. Death rates among children under 5 years (U5DR followed similar trends. CDR and U5DR crossed emergency thresholds in one site, Kerfi, where CDR rapidly rose to 2.1 and U5DR to 7.9 in July 2008 before rapidly decreasing to below emergency levels by September 2008. Discussion Mortality data were used regularly to monitor population health status and on two occasions as a tool for advocacy. Lessons learned included the need for improved population estimates and standardized reporting procedures for improved data quality and dissemination; the importance of a simple and flexible model for data collection; and greater investment in supervising CHWs. Conclusions This model of community based mortality surveillance can be adapted and used by
Full Text Available Using a logistic regression model, this paper examines key factors that influence individual support for communal conservancies in Namibia. It tests the hypothesis that if individuals are compensated for their wildlife related losses, they are more likely to support community based wildlife management projects. Data for this study were collected from 472 members of five conservancies in the Caprivi Region of Namibia. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling. The key findings are that receiving meat, activity during the Annual General Meeting (AGM, and being a member of a specific conservancy are the key predictors of satisfaction with the conservancy among the respondents. On the other hand, cash and jobs have no significant impact on individual attitudes toward communal conservancies. Based on these findings, the paper argues that the focus on incentives omits broader factors that motivate individuals to participate in community-based conservation.
Challenge of wastewater management is increasing with rapid population growth in urban areas. Rivers are heavily polluted as more than 90 percent of wastewater is being discharged directly without any treatment in many developing countries. Urban centres of Nepal are facing the same problem. A community-based DEWATS (decentralized wastewater treatment system) as a pilot and demonstration project was initiated by an NGO in Madhyapur Thimi municipality with an attempt to tackle this situation. ...
Challenge of wastewater management is increasing with rapid population growth in urban areas. Rivers are heavily polluted as more than 90 percent of wastewater is being discharged directly without any treatment in many developing countries. Urban centres of Nepal are facing the same problem. A community-based DEWATS (decentralized wastewater treatment system) as a pilot and demonstration project was initiated by an NGO in Madhyapur Thimi municipality with an attempt to tackle this situation. ...
Abstract: A participatory action research case study employed mixed methods to examine student collaboration and engagement in a Community Based (Service) learning module. A quasi experimental testing of Coates (2007) typology of student engagement found low agreement between students and lecturers in assigning the terms, passive, intense, independent or collaborative to student postings to discussion fora. Evidence from this case study found greater student collaboration in discussion fora w...
BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention. PMID:22467637
Joia, Luiz Antonio
Demonstrates the use of a Web-based participative virtual learning environment for graduate students in Brazil enrolled in an electronic commerce course in a Masters in Business Administration program. Discusses learning communities; computer-supported collaborative work and collaborative learning; influences on student participation; the role of…
Full Text Available Tourism, managed constructively, can play a role in poverty alleviation and community development. This paper suggests ways in which Community-based tourism (CBT can be used as a strategy to develop poor communities. Looking at the specific social context of contemporary rural Mpondoland, which is characterised by high degrees of poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition and unemployment, the paper considers ways in which local culture itself can contribute towards positive CBT outcomes. Local culture is not only seen as a tourism attraction, but also a resource upon which CBT development can be built. This paper considers various ways in which the local cultural context can be linked to CBT development, thereby enhancing the CBT development process.
Full Text Available A fundamental component of initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+; will be the development of robust and cost-effective measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV instruments for national forest monitoring and safeguard information systems. It is increasingly recognized that community-based monitoring (CBM offers a positive model for greater participation and engagement of indigenous and forest-dependent communities within a REDD+ framework. Yet plans for CBM within REDD+ MRV systems remain limited, and there are currently relatively few concrete examples of CBM informing national forest monitoring systems. This paper outlines findings from a community MRV project with Amerindian communities in the North Rupununi, Guyana; and demonstrates that a CBM approach can enable key REDD+ requirements: in understanding local deforestation drivers and measuring carbon stocks; and for providing information on safeguards through social and environmental assessments. In addition, the authors discuss community capacity-building on smartphone technology for monitoring as a challenging yet viable pathway for scaling the use and adoption of indigenous knowledge and local skills for REDD+ programs.
The present paper has explored the policy planning and development in emerging tourism settings in Sitia. Comprehensively, this study, in the name of sustainable development, focused on the extent of collaborative and community-based planning. For that reason exploratory research has been used; the context and the structure of this paper aimed to uncover the socially constructed reality of Sitia's stakeholders, within the dynamic environment, and respond to and questions. Therein significant ...
Contreras, Antonio P.
In Balian, the presence of indigenous institutions borne by a well entrenched and historically rooted and highly developed sociopolitical arrangement has enabled the local community to effectively link their governance and production activities to the watershed resource, despite opposition from some local political interests. The core of this is the Samahan ng Balian para sa Pagpapauwi ng Tubig, Inc. (SBPTI), a barangay based people’s organization formed in 1926 with the goal of managing the ...
Andrew Lou L. Mungcal
This paper addressed the issue of sustainable coastal resource management through a successful Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM) Program in the Municipality of Mariveles, province of Bataan in the Philippines. The paper investigated how governance and institutional and legislative framework, and the concept of sustainable development complemented each other to promote good local eco-governance in the management and protection of finite local marine resources. Specifically, ...
Hijazzi, Norshamirra; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Sabri Muda, Rahsidi; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Che Muda, Zakaria; Ghazali, Azrul; Kamal Kadir, Ahmad; Hakimie, Hazlinda; Sahari, Khairul Salleh Mohamed; Hasini, Hasril; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Itam, Zarina; Fadhli Mohamad, Mohd; Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul
Dams, however significant their contributions are to the society, are not immune to failures and diminishing lifespan not unlike other structural elements in our infrastructure. Despite continuing efforts on design, construction, operation, and maintenance of dams to improve the safety of the dams, the possibility of unforeseen events of dam failures is still possible. Seeing that dams are usually integrated into close approximities with the community, dam failures may consequent in tremendous loss of lives and properties. The aims of formulation of Integrated Community Based Disaster Management (ICBDM) is to simulate evacuation modelling and emergency planning in order to minimize loss of life and property damages in the event of a dam-related disaster. To achieve the aim above, five main pillars have been identified for the formulation of ICBDM. A series of well-defined program inclusive of hydrological 2-D modelling, life safety modelling, community based EWS and CBTAP will be conducted. Finally, multiple parties’ engagement is to be carried out in the form of table top exercise to measure the readiness of emergency plans and response capabilities of key players during the state of a crisis.
French, Kim D; Desai, Neeraj R; Diamond, Edward; Kovitz, Kevin L
Interventional pulmonology (IP) is a field that uses minimally invasive techniques to diagnose, treat, and palliate advanced lung disease. Technology, formal training, and reimbursement for IP procedures have been slow to catch up with other interventional subspecialty areas. A byproduct of this pattern has been limited IP integration in private practice settings. We describe the key aspects and programmatic challenges of building an IP program in a community-based setting. A philosophical and financial buy-in by stakeholders and a regionalization of services, within and external to a larger practice, are crucial to success. Our experience demonstrates that a successful launch of an IP program increases overall visits as well as procedural volume without cannibalizing existing practice volume. We hope this might encourage others to provide this valuable service to their own communities. PMID:26836941
This paper presents the case study of an attempt to introduce tourism as a tool to alleviate poverty in a Balinese village. Despite a positive feasibility study in 2011, tourism has failed to develop. The case study describes the series of events which occurred before, during and after the feasibility study. It then reviews these events in light of themes uncovered during an extensive literature review of Pro-poor and Community-Based Tourism. The study concludes that that the failure to imp...
Manyara, Geoffrey; Jones, Eleri
As tourism continues to play a major role in the global economy, key international organisations, such as the United Nations World Tourism Organisation and the World Bank, have endorsed it as a tool for poverty alleviation particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this endorsement, local community involvement in tourism development is now urgent. The Local Agenda 21, for instance, advocates for participative and collaborative approaches in which the local communities play a significant r...
Full Text Available A strategic vision to ensure an adequate, safe and secure drinking water supply presents a challenge, particularly for such a small country as Jordan, faced with a critical supply-demand imbalance and a high risk of water quality deterioration. In order to provide sustainable and equitable long-term water management plans for the future, current and future demands, along with available adaptation options should be assessed through community engagement. An analysis of available water resources, existing demands and use per sector served to assess the nation’s historic water status. Taking into account the effect of both population growth and rainfall reduction, future per sector demands were predicted by linear temporal trend analysis. Water sector vulnerability and adaptation options were assessed by engaging thirty five stakeholders. A set of weighed-criterions were selected, adopted, modified, and then framed into comprehensive guidelines. A quantitative ratio-level approach was used to quantify the magnitude and likelihood of risks and opportunities associated with each proposed adaptation measure using the level of effectiveness and severity status. Prioritization indicated that public awareness and training programs were the most feasible and effective adaptation measures, while building new infrastructure was of low priority. Associated barriers were related to a lack of financial resources, institutional arrangements, and data collection, sharing, availability, consistency and transparency, as well as willingness to adapt. Independent community-based watershed-vulnerability analyses to address water integrity at watershed scale are recommended.
Andrew Lou L. Mungcal
Full Text Available This paper addressed the issue of sustainable coastal resource management through a successful Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM Program in the Municipality of Mariveles, province of Bataan in the Philippines. The paper investigated how governance and institutional and legislative framework, and the concept of sustainable development complemented each other to promote good local eco-governance in the management and protection of finite local marine resources. Specifically, it analyzed how the local fisherfolk community of Mariveles utilized efficiently their finite marine resources in the context of eco-governance. It also investigated how the cooperative efforts of various stakeholders: peoples’ organizations (POs, local government unit (LGU, and a non-government organization (NGO in Mariveles, Bataan affected their coastal resources against environmental degradation and exploitation. This paper would benefit POs, LGUs, and NGOs in their quest for sustainable management and conservation of their limited coastal resources. This paper yielded the following findings. First, POs and NGOs engage when NGOs can strengthen the POs’ capacity building through the transfer of skills and technology, when NGOs can enhance the POs’ indigenous knowledge, and when NGOs are more knowledgeable of formal venues of LGU participation. Second, LGUs, NGOs and POs engage when POs and NGOs can complement each other to strengthen their capacity building, and when NGOs can help implement environmental programs that are beneficial to the POs. Third, NGOs and POs engage when POs are threatened by elite power, and when NGOs want their environmental issues on LGU’s legislative agenda. Finally, NGOs and POs engage when they see possible LGU cooperation. Participant observation through focus group discussion (FGD and key informants’ interview of different stakeholders was a primary source of information in formulating the aforementioned conclusions
Full Text Available In Nigeria, human communities are found within or beside forest ecosystems, depending onthese ecosystems for survival. Their forest exploitation is considered a threat to conservation efforts,leading to constant conflicts between Government, law enforcement agencies and the communities. Thebest solution is a win-win system of participatory community-based forest resources management, inwhich the communities are regarded as stakeholders rather than as threats. This paper explains theadoption of this approach in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, where the communities weretrained in establishment and management of forest plantations with readily available market for theirtimber; employment for some of the community youths as well as community development projects.This paper calls for the adoption of this system in other protected areas in Nigeria, while theGovernment should provide basic amenities for the communities as alternatives to those forest products.Keywords: Community-based forest management, Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Protected areas, Nigeria.
In 1990's the government of Tanzania introduced Community Forest management (CBFM) as a solution towards sustainable forest management with the main objectives of improving forest condition and the livelihoods of the forest dependent communities. However in many cases the most emphasis has been on the improvement of the forest condition and less focus on the livelihood impact of CBFM to local communities. Livelihood aspect of forest management remains poorly defined and little awareness has b...
Huang; Ling; Liu; Yang; Xu; Jianfeng
With the transformation of the Chinese economy from an extensive growth to intensive development, city development is also gradually turning from incremental construction to stock management. Community, as a basic unit of human settlements, is an important platform to build and improve the social governance capability. In 2013, Shiyoulu Jiedao Offi ce of Yuzhong District led the 1st urban community development planning, which was a milestone of Chongqing’s city regeneration and governance innovation. This paper focuses on two key issues: how to understand the community values and make the community development planning based on the above, and how to integrate with the local forces so that the community development planning can be integrated into the action plan. Combined with the practice of Minlecun Community Development Planning, using the concept of asset-based community development, a comprehensive survey is conducted on community assets(including three aspects of physical, human, and social capital), and a community comprehensive planning strategy is formulated which covers two parts: the optimization of community spaces and the upgrading of community governance. The paper explores the local-based community planning theories and methods from such aspects as value attitude, public participation, role transformation of urban planners, and others.
Karen Saylors; Tue Ngo Tri; Toan Tran Khanh; Kiet Bach Tuan; Heiman FL Wertheim; Stephen Baker; Hoa Ngo Thi; Bryant, Juliet E
We initiated the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) research program to better understand the epidemiology of disease transmission at the human–animal interface in Vietnamese rural communities and to integrate One Health approaches to disease surveillance. We established a longitudinal community cohort study of individuals with occupational exposure to animals, which involves concurrent targeted sampling from domestic livestock species and follow-up monitoring of human clinic...
Huntley, Alyson L; Johnson, Rachel A; King, Anna J L; Morris, Richard; Purdy, Sarah
Objectives The aim of this systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled trials (NRCTs) is to investigate the effectiveness and related costs of case management (CM) for patients with heart failure (HF) predominantly based in the community in reducing unplanned readmissions and length of stay (LOS). Setting CM initiated either whilst as an inpatient, or on discharge from acute care hospitals, or in the community and then continuing on in the community. Participants A...
T.I. Borokini; Babalola, F. D.; T.O. Amusa; S.T. Ivande; Z.J. Wala; JEGEDE, O. O.; D. Tanko; J.O. Ihuma
In Nigeria, human communities are found within or beside forest ecosystems, depending onthese ecosystems for survival. Their forest exploitation is considered a threat to conservation efforts,leading to constant conflicts between Government, law enforcement agencies and the communities. Thebest solution is a win-win system of participatory community-based forest resources management, inwhich the communities are regarded as stakeholders rather than as threats. This paper explains theadoption o...
Dominico B. Kilemo
Full Text Available Community based forest management is one of the participatory forest management approaches practiced in Tanzania. This paper is based on the study conducted between November, 2008 and February, 2009 in selected villages of Morogoro district. It analyses the performance of community based forest management in selected villages, by considering both policy and practice. Five case study villages namely Fulwe, Kiwege, Muhungamkola, Bagilo and Tegetelo were selected. Six variables were assessed: cooperation; rule compliance; participation in decision making; rule satisfaction; credibility of monitors; and, success in rule enforcement. The study revealed that Muhungamkola and Tegetelo villages have succeeded in the management of village land forest reserves while Fulwe, Kiwege and Bagilo were found to have failed. Success observed in those two villages is attributed to a convincingly high level of peoples’ participation in rule formulation, cooperation, compliance with rules, credible monitors and a highly decreasing trend of illegal activities. The opposite accounts for the failure observed in the other three villages. The study ends with two conclusions: (1 The findings indicate that the performance of monitors differs across the villages depending on the level of commitment, enthusiasm and incentives; (2 The project approach employed in implementing CBFM activities has no far-reaching outcomes, thus is not a sustainable solution to the deforestation problem in Tanzania.
Full Text Available As a major island destination in South-East Asia, Bali has won a global reputation as one of the last paradises on earth. As one of the largest industries in the world, global tourism is utilised by the governments of many developing countries as an agent for development and national integration. However, local communities level the criticism that mass tourism has not only brought economic growth but also caused ecological and social costs. In reaction to the excessive developments of the past decades, local Balinese have started to actively implement community-based tourism. The ecotourism village-network Jaringan Ekowisata Desa seeks a more sustainable approach to tourism through stronger ownership and the minimisation of negative ecological impacts. The case study presented is based on fieldwork which took place in 2010. It aims to find answers to the questions of whether and to what extent community-based ecotourism initiatives may constitute a sustainable alternative to the negative effects associated with mass tourism. --- Bali gilt innerhalb der Tourismusindustrie als Inbegriff von Exotik und als eines der letzen Paradiese auf Erden. Seit jeher werden die vielfältigen Auswirkungen des Tourismus auf der Insel kontrovers diskutiert. Während vornehmlich Eliten an der in nationalem Interesse forcierten Tourismusentwicklung der südostasiatischen Top-Destination profitieren, kritisiert die einheimische Bevölkerung unzureichende Mitspracherechte und die Vernachlässigung von Nachhaltigkeitskriterien. In Reakti- on wurden seitens der Balinesen Projekte des gemeindebasierten Tourismus ins Leben gerufen. Das Ökotourismus-Dorf-Netzwerk Jaringan Ekowisata Desa ist eine solche Initiative, die sich der lokalen Eigentümerschaft und der Minimierung negativer ökologischer Folgen verschreibt. Anhand der hier präsentierten Fallstudie zu dem zivilgesellschaftlichen Projekt soll beantwortet werden, inwiefern gemeindebasierter Ökotourismus eine
Bergeron, Natasha; Welsh, Paul
Illustrates the contribution that the Student Case Competition of the Canadian Evaluation Society can make to agencies with evaluation needs by describing the experience of an addiction and family services program whose gambling addiction treatment program used as the case in the qualifying round of the 1998 competition. (SLD)
Paunlagui, M.M.; Rola, Agnes C.; Nguyen, M.R.
This presentation seeks to address whether building social capital through policy and other incentives can affect the state of the environment. "Social capital" is operationalized into measurements of level of trust, membership in associations/ organizations, reciprocity and collective action applied in a survey in Lantapan. Conclusions reached are: social capital and environmental degradation are found to be non-linear in nature; if there were good relations between the community and the vil...
Hammouri Nezar; Al-Qinna Mohammad; Salahat Mohammad; Adamowski Jan; Prasher Shiv O.
A strategic vision to ensure an adequate, safe and secure drinking water supply presents a challenge, particularly for such a small country as Jordan, faced with a critical supply-demand imbalance and a high risk of water quality deterioration. In order to provide sustainable and equitable long-term water management plans for the future, current and future demands, along with available adaptation options should be assessed through community engagement. An analysis of available water resources...
Shahmirzadi, Esmaeil Khasar
One of the critical issues regarding mass tourism is that communities have not been necessarily part of the decision making process in its development; therefore, have not been necessarily a beneficiary of its social and economic benefits. Most of the tourism development projects have designed without those communities’ consent and mostly disregarded the community’s involvement and not benefited from community’s immense knowledge and cooperation. However, there has been a shift in the general...
Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash
Introduction Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries most affected by high disease burden, aggravated by a shortage and imbalance of human resources, geographical distance, and socioeconomic factors. In 2004, the government introduced the Health Extension Program (HEP), a primary care delivery strategy, to address the challenges and achieve the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) within a context of limited resources. Case description The health system was refor...
Ji-Hyuk Park; Hwa Jung Kim; Geun-Yong Kwon; Jin Gwack; Young-Joon Park; Seung-Ki Youn; Jun-Wook Kwon; Byung-Guk Yang; Moo-Song Lee; Miran Jung; Hanyi Lee; Byung-Yool Jun; Hyun-Sul Lim
Backgrounds An outbreak of lung injury among South Korean adults was examined in a hospital-based case-control study, and the suspected cause was exposure to humidifier disinfectant (HD). However, a case-control study with community-dwelling controls was needed to validate the previous study’s findings, and to confirm the exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury. Methods Each case of lung injury was matched with four community-dwelling controls, according to age (±3 years), s...
Wongchaisuwat, Papis; Klabjan, Diego; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R
Community-based Question Answering (CQA) sites play an important role in addressing health information needs. However, a significant number of posted questions remain unanswered. Automatically answering the posted questions can provide a useful source of information for online health communities. In this study, we developed an algorithm to automatically answer health-related questions based on past questions and answers (QA). We also aimed to understand information embedded within online heal...
Pratihast, A.K.; M. Herold; Avitabile, V.; Bruin, de, R.J.; Bartholomeus, H; Souza Jr., C.M.; Ribbe, L.
Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challengin...
Carlos M. Souza Jr.; Lars Ribbe; Harm Bartholomeus; Sytze de Bruin; Valerio Avitabile; Martin Herold; Arun Kumar Pratihast
Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challengin...
Ranaboldo, Matteo; Domenech, Bruno; Reyes, Gustavo Alberto; Ferrer Martí, Laia; Pastor Moreno, Rafael; García Villoria, Alberto
Despite various institutional efforts, about 22% of the total Nicaraguan population still do not have access to electricity. Due to the dispersed nature of many rural inhabitants, off-grid electrification systems that use renewable energy sources are a reliable and sustainable option to provide electricity to isolated communities. In this study, the design of an off-grid electrification project based on hybrid wind-photovoltaic systems in a rural community of Nicaragua is developed. Firstly t...
Nyato Daniel J
Full Text Available Abstract Background New malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania have led to the large-scale deployment of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®, popularly known as ALu or dawa mseto. Very little is known about how people in malaria endemic areas interpret policy makers' decision to replace existing anti-malarials, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP with "new" treatment regimens, such as ALu or other formulations of ACT. This study was conducted to examine community level understandings and interpretations of ALu's efficacy and side-effects. The paper specifically examines the perceived efficacy of ALu as articulated by the mothers of young children diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Methods Participant observation, six focus group discussions in two large villages, followed by interviews with a random sample of 110 mothers of children less than five years of age, who were diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Additionally, observations were conducted in two village dispensaries involving interactions between mothers/caretakers and health care providers. Results While more than two-thirds of the mothers had an overall negative disposition toward SP, 97.5% of them spoke favourably about ALu, emphasizing it's ability to help their children to rapidly recover from malaria, without undesirable side-effects. 62.5% of the mothers reported that they were spending less money dealing with malaria than previously when their child was treated with SP. 88% of the mothers had waited for 48 hours or more after the onset of fever before taking their child to the dispensary. Mothers' knowledge and reporting of ALu's dosage was, in many cases, inconsistent with the recommended dosage schedule for children. Conclusion Deployment of ALu has significantly changed community level perceptions of anti-malarial treatment. However, mothers continue to delay seeking care before accessing ALu, limiting the impact of highly subsidized rollout of the drug
Mengistie Bezatu; Berhane Yemane; Worku Alemayehu
Abstract Background Rehydration therapy is a critical intervention to save the lives of children during the episodes of diarrhea. However, millions of children die every year due to failure to replace fluid effectively. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea. Method A community based unmatched case control study was conducted in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia, in February, 2011. The cases were 241 un...
Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo
Observational studies on circulating fatty acid (FA) and primary prevention of hypertension have yielded inconsistent results, and the association among the Chinese population is not fully clear. The aim of the study was to discern important FAs that can discriminate hypertensive patients from normotensive persons, and investigate associations between the important FAs and risk of hypertension.We conducted a case-control study nested within a community-based cohort of 2447 Chinese participants aged 35 to 79 years who completed a baseline assessment between October 2012 and April 2013. In all, 480 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension were identified at baseline and 480 normotensive individuals were randomly selected as matched normotensive controls. Controls were individually matched to cases by age (±2 y), sex, and recruitment center, with a 1:1 case-to-control ratio. Serum FA profile was compared between cases and controls by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for newly diagnosed hypertension was estimated by a conditional logistical analysis.After adjustment for body mass index, education, profession, family history of hypertension, salt intake, heart rate, blood lipids, and fasting glucose levels, serum FA profile in hypertensive patients was typically characterized by higher 16:0 and 16:1n-7, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, compared with normotensive controls. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) were identified as the important FA contributing most to the intergroup separations. When comparing the highest and lowest quartile of FA composition, newly diagnosed hypertension was negatively associated with 22:6n-3 (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.93; P for trend = 0.02), but positively associated with 16:1n-7 (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46-3.12; P for trend < 0.001). The associations remained pronounced after multiple adjustments and in further stratified analyses
Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roe; Portengen, Lutzen; Olsson, Ann; Kendzia, Benjamin; Vincent, Raymond; Savary, Barbara; Lavoue, Jerome; Cavallo, Domenico; Cattaneo, Andrea; Mirabelli, Dario; Plato, Nils; Fevotte, Joelle; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans
We describe an empirical model for exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) to create a quantitative job-exposure matrix (JEM) for community-based studies. Personal measurements of exposure to RCS from Europe and Canada were obtained for exposure modelling. A mixed-effects model was elaborate
This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.
This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a 'snapshot' or 'base case' look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future
Full Text Available While community-based active case finding (ACF for tuberculosis (TB holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers.Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively.Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs.TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential in mitigating barriers
In the last years, Community-Based Tourism has created expectations in many latin american rural communities as an strategy to increase their income and to diversify the sources of this income. But it is an activity that is not free of risks. From a specific case (Amantaní Island, Titikaka Lake, Peru), the article studies one of these risks: the impact of tourism in the socio-economical communitarian cohesion.En los últimos años, el turismo rural comunitario se ha presentado como un instrumen...
Rudel Ruthann A
Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.
Greenhalgh, PM; Jackson, C.; Shaw, S; Janaiman, T
Context Co-creation – collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders – reflects a ‘Mode 2’ relationship (knowledge production rather than knowledge translation) between universities and society. Co-creation is widely believed to increase research impact. Methods We undertook a narrative review of different models of co-creation relevant to community-based health services. We contrasted their diverse disciplinary roots and highlighted their commo...
Khanal, Narayan Prasad
Community-based seed production system is considered to supply diversified rice varieties in rural areas in a cost effective way. Development agencies have been promoting this concept to address poverty, food security and climate change adaptation issues. However, how this system could continue is a contested issue among the researchers and policy makers due to handling of seed production and marketing activities by resource poor farmers without business skills. Very limited studies have been...
Guzman Figueroa, Nathaly
This thesis focuses on the study of the stakeholder relations of PHAST Ujenzi, a community-based organization (CBO) that provides sanitation services in a slum area of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. My research aims at describing how this CBO has established and maintained relations with different stakeholders, and it looks for highlighting interests, benefits, and challenges in such collaborations. Additionally, my study aims at contributing to the Stakeholder Theory literature, by providing relev...
Manan, A; Ibrahim, M
In this paper we explain the current condition of the Bau-Bau River, examine community participation for management of the river system, and consider options for improving the institutional capacity for a community-based approach. This assessment is based on a research project with the following objectives: (1) analyse the biophysical and socio-economic condition of the river as a basis for future planning; (2) identify current activities which contribute waste or pollution to the river; (3) assess the status and level of pollution in the river; (4) analyse community participation related to all stages of river management; and (5) identify future river management needs and opportunities. Due to the increasing population in Bau-Bau city, considerable new land is required for housing, roads, agriculture, social facilities, etc. Development in the city and elsewhere has increased run-off and erosion, as well as sedimentation in the river. In addition, household activities are generating more solid and domestic waste that causes organic pollution in the river. The research results show that the water quality in the upper river system is still good, whilst the quality of water in the vicinity of Bau-Bau city, from the mid-point of the watershed to the estuary, is not good, being contaminated with heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and organic pollutants. However, the levels of those pollutants are still below regulatory standards. The main reasons for pollution in the river are mainly lack of management for both liquid and solid wastes, as well as lack of community participation in river management. The government of Bau-Bau city and the community are developing a participatory approach for planning to restore and conserve the Bau-Bau River as well as the entire catchment. The activities of this project are: (1) forming institutional arrangements to support river conservation; (2) implementing extension initiatives to empower the community; (3) identifying a specific location to
Full Text Available An outbreak of lung injury among South Korean adults was examined in a hospital-based case-control study, and the suspected cause was exposure to humidifier disinfectant (HD. However, a case-control study with community-dwelling controls was needed to validate the previous study's findings, and to confirm the exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury.Each case of lung injury was matched with four community-dwelling controls, according to age (±3 years, sex, residence, and history of childbirth since 2006 (for women. Environmental risk factors, which included type and use of humidifier and HD, were investigated using a structured questionnaire during August 2011. The exposure to HD was calculated for both cases and controls, and the corresponding risks of lung injury were compared.Among 28 eligible cases, 16 patients agreed to participate, and 60 matched controls were considered eligible for this study. The cases were more likely to have been exposed to HD (odds ratio: 116.1, 95% confidence interval: 6.5-2,063.7. All cases were exposed to HDs containing polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate, and the risk of lung injury increased with the cumulative exposure, duration of exposure, and exposure per day.This study revealed a statistically significant exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury. Therefore, continuous monitoring and stricter evaluation of environmental chemicals' safety should be conducted.
Williams, C M; Petrelli, J; Murphy, M
This article discusses how the development of a longitudinal geriatric assessment form facilitated a case management program in identifying high-risk frail elders within a military family practice clinic. A careful review of geriatric assessment tools was performed. From this review, a model geriatric assessment form was developed. A "SWOT" (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of the family medicine department was completed to determine if the environment was ready for case management. Analysis of the SWOT data revealed that the environment was favorable for a population-based approach to case management. Results of this initial study are encouraging. The new longitudinal geriatric assessment form has assisted family practice residents in organizing problems and data while seeing elderly patients. As a direct result, higher-risk frail elders have been identified for closer evaluation and follow-up. Future goals are to measure outcomes-based data and to refine the geriatric assessment process. PMID:11143424
Ahebwa, W.M.; Duim, van der V.R.
In developing countries, communities neighboring protected areas continue to bear a disproportionate amount of the costs associated with conservation. Traditional community livelihood strategies such as hunting, logging, and plant harvesting are seen as major threats to protected areas. Therefore, p
Lawrence, K. F.
This thesis describes a case study online community: online amateur authors. Taking this case study community as a base, this thesis considers how the concept of community is applied within the Semantic Web domain. Considering the community structures that can be demonstrated through the case study, this thesis makes the case for the recognition of a specific type of social network structure, one that fulfils the traditional definitions of ‘community’. We argue that this sub-type occupies an ...
Design, and participant enrollment, of a randomized controlled trial evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management intervention, for patients suffering from COPD
Sørensen, Sabrina Storgaard; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla Møller;
Background: Case management interventions are recommended to improve quality of care and reduce costs in chronic care, but further evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is needed. The objective of this study is the reporting of the design and participant enrollment of a randomized...... controlled trial, conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management model for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With a focus on support for self-care and care coordination, the intervention was hypothesized to result...... patients were randomized into two groups: the case-managed group and the usual-care group. Participant characteristics were obtained at baseline, and measures on effectiveness and costs were obtained through questionnaires and registries within a 12-month follow-up period. In the forthcoming analysis...
Sørensen, Sabrina Storgaard; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla Møller; Ehlers, Lars Holger
Background: Case management interventions are recommended to improve quality of care and reduce costs in chronic care, but further evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is needed. The objective of this study is the reporting of the design and participant enrollment of a randomized...... controlled trial, conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management model for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With a focus on support for self-care and care coordination, the intervention was hypothesized to result in a......, effectiveness will be evaluated on COPD-related hospital admissions, mortality, health- related quality of life, and self-care. An economic evaluation will examine the cost-effectiveness of case management against current usual care from the perspective of the health care sector. Results: Baseline...
Degenholtz, H; Kane, R A; Kivnick, H Q
This article describes the development and implementation of a brief values assessment protocol to be used by case managers working in community-based long-term care (LTC) for the elderly and presents data on the values and preferences of 790 LTC clients at two locations. The importance that clients placed on selected issues related to their care (e.g., privacy, daily routines, activities, involvement of family in care, the trade-off between freedom and safety) varied as did the specific content of those issues. Associations were found between the content and strength of preferences. The work has implications for research and practice. PMID:9432993
Kjeldsen, Chris; Noe, Egon; Laursen, Klaus Brønd
The Food Communities was chosen as a case for HealthyGrowth because they constitute a major novelty within the Danish foodscape. As indicated in section 3, the Food 2 Communities have emerged as the latest incarnation of a series of attempts to forge alternative food networks operating beyond the supermarket system. Denmark is distinguished by a large market share of organic food being sold via supermarkets, but The Food Communities are a novelty due to two factors, (1) they have experienced ...
The deployment of previous wireless standards has provided more benefits for urban dwellers than rural dwellers. 5G deployment may not be different. This paper identifies that Community Based Networks as carriers that deserve recognition as potential 5G providers may change this. The argument is...... hinged on a research aimed at understanding how and why Community Based Networks deploy telecom and Broadband infrastructure. The study was a qualitative study carried out inductively using Grounded Theory. Six cases were investigated.Two Community Based Network Mobilization models were identified. The...... findings indicate that 5G connectivity can be extended to rural areas by these networks, via heterogenous networks. Hence the delivery of 5G data rates delivery via Wireless WAN in rural areas can be achieved by utilizing the causal factors of the identified models for Community Based Networks....
Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Pottegård, Anton; Laursen, Christian B;
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to estimate risk factors for hospitalization due to sepsis and to determine whether these risk factors vary by age and gender. METHODS: We performed a population-based case-control study of all adult patients admitted to a medical ED from September 2010.......3%) were male. 621 (36.3%) patients were admitted with sepsis, 1071 (62.5%) with severe sepsis and 21 (1.2%) with septic shock. Episodes with sepsis of any severity were associated with older age (85+ years adjusted OR 6.02 [95%CI: 5.09-7.12]), immunosuppression (4.41 [3.83-5.09]), alcoholism...
Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda
This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…
Understanding fluctuation of users help stakeholders to provide a better support to communities. Below we present an experiment where we detect communities, their evolution and based on the data characterize users that stay, leave or join a community. Using a resulted feature set and logistic regression we operate with models of users that are joining and users that are staying in a community. In the related work we emphasize a number of features we will include in our future experiments to enhance train accuracy. This work represents a ?first from a series of experiments devoted to user fluctuation in communities.
Haouchine, Mohamed-Karim; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine
Case base Maintenance is an active Case Based Reasoning research area. The main stream focuses on the method for reducing the size of the case-base while maintaining case-base competence. This paper gives an overview of these works, and proposes a case deletion strategy based on competence criteria using a novel approach. The proposed method, even if inspired from existing literature, combines an algorithm with a Competence Metric (CM). A series of tests are conducted using two standards data...
Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.
Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.
As a major island destination in South-East Asia, Bali has won a global reputation as one of the last paradises on earth. As one of the largest industries in the world, global tourism is utilised by the governments of many developing countries as an agent for development and national integration. However, local communities level the criticism that mass tourism has not only brought economic growth but also caused ecological and social costs. In reaction to the excessive developments of the pas...
Coggan, C.; Disley, B.; P Patterson
Design—Case study, based on a community action model and formative evaluation. This involved: a community profile on adolescent risk taking behaviour; interviews with service providers; dissemination of research findings to local policy makers; development and implementation of a community action plan to address adolescent risk taking; and assessment of its impact.
An original goal of Chicano Studies was to promote improvement of social and economic conditions in the community, with Chicana and Chicano scholars at the forefront of community struggles. Within this perspective, research is problem-based and part of the community action process. Chicano community groups want to work with researchers and…
Full Text Available In the last years, Community-Based Tourism has created expectations in many latin american rural communities as an strategy to increase their income and to diversify the sources of this income. But it is an activity that is not free of risks. From a specific case (Amantaní Island, Titikaka Lake, Peru, the article studies one of these risks: the impact of tourism in the socio-economical communitarian cohesion.En los últimos años, el turismo rural comunitario se ha presentado como un instrumento adecuado para aumentar la renta de la población campesina y diversificar sus fuentes de ingresos. Pero se trata de una actividad económica que no está exenta de riesgos. A partir de un caso específico (la isla peruana de Amantaní, en el Lago Titicaca el artículo estudia uno de ellos: el impacto del turismo en la cohesión socioeconómica comunitaria.
Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination. The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known a
Design, and participant enrollment, of a randomized controlled trial evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management intervention, for patients suffering from COPD
Full Text Available Sabrina Storgaard Sørensen,1 Kjeld Møller Pedersen,1 Ulla Møller Weinreich,2,3 Lars Holger Ehlers,1 1Danish Center for Healthcare Improvements, Faculty of Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences, Aalborg University, Aalborg East, Denmark; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 3The Clinical Institute, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark Background: Case management interventions are recommended to improve quality of care and reduce costs in chronic care, but further evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is needed. The objective of this study is the reporting of the design and participant enrollment of a randomized controlled trial, conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management model for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. With a focus on support for self-care and care coordination, the intervention was hypothesized to result in a reduced number of COPD-related hospital admissions. Patients and methods: The design was a randomized controlled trial conducted from 2012 to 2014 with randomization and intervention at patient level. The study took place in Aalborg Municipality, a larger municipality in Denmark. A total of 150 COPD patients were randomized into two groups: the case-managed group and the usual-care group. Participant characteristics were obtained at baseline, and measures on effectiveness and costs were obtained through questionnaires and registries within a 12-month follow-up period. In the forthcoming analysis, effectiveness will be evaluated on COPD-related hospital admissions, mortality, health- related quality of life, and self-care. An economic evaluation will examine the cost-effectiveness of case management against current usual care from the perspective of the health care sector. Results: Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups except for the
Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closest cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions whe
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rehydration therapy is a critical intervention to save the lives of children during the episodes of diarrhea. However, millions of children die every year due to failure to replace fluid effectively. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea. Method A community based unmatched case control study was conducted in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia, in February, 2011. The cases were 241 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had received Oral Rehydration Therapy while the controls were 253 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had not received Oral Rehydration Therapy. The cases and the controls were compared to find out the factors that were associated with the utilization of Oral Rehydration Therapy. Result The study revealed that caregivers’ previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI = 2.63–6.22, seeking advice or treatment from health facilities, (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI = 2.06–5.11 and knowledge of Oral Rehydration Therapy (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.97–4.85 were found to be the positive determinants of Oral Rehydration Therapy use. Perception of teething as a cause of diarrhea was negatively associated with the utilization of Oral rehydration Therapy (AOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98. Conclusion Health education should be strengthened on the benefit, preparation, early initiation of Oral Rehydration Therapy and the causes of diarrhea. Attention should be given to those who do not have previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use and have less frequent contacts with the health facilities.
Mendes, Rosilda; Plaza, Veronica; Wallerstein, Nina
Health promotion programs are commonly viewed as value-free initiatives which seek to improve health, often through behavior change. An opposing view has begun to emerge that health promotion efforts, especially ones seeking to impact health policy and social determinants of health, are vulnerable to political contexts and may depend on who is in power at the time. This community-based participatory research study attempts to understand these interactions by applying a conceptual model focused on the power context, diverse stakeholder roles within this context, and the relationship of political levers and other change strategies to the sustainability of health promotion interventions aimed at health policy change. We present a case study of a health promotion coalition, New Mexico for Responsible Sex Education (NMRSE), as an example of power dynamics and change processes. Formed in 2005 in response to federal policies mandating abstinence-only education, NMRSE includes community activists, health promotion staff from the New Mexico Department of Health, and policy-maker allies. Applying an adapted Mayer's 'power analysis' instrument, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews and triangulated political-context analyses from the perspective of the stakeholders.We identified multiple understandings of sustainability and health promotion policy change, including: the importance of diverse stakeholders working together in coalition and social networks; their distinct positions of power within their political contexts; the role of science versus advocacy in change processes; the particular challenges for public sector health promotion professionals; and other facilitators versus barriers to action. One problem that emerged consisted of the challenges for state employees to engage in health promotion advocacy due to limitations imposed on their activities by state and federal policies. This investigation's results include a refined conceptual model, a power
Terry van Gevelt
Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito and S. Imai) Singer commercialisation provides significant economic benefits to rural communities, mainly in China, Japan and South Korea. Recently, a growing body of research has questioned the impact of commercialization on harvesting behavior and the supply of matsutake. One key question arising from this literature is whether or not community-based management (CBM) has a positive impact on matsutake supply. I surveyed nine mountain villages in Gangwon and Nort...
Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin
Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.
Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin
Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.
Mladovsky, Philipa; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart
Continued low rates of enrolment in community-based health insurance (CBHI) suggest that strategies proposed for scaling up are unsuccessfully implemented or inadequately address underlying limitations of CBHI. One reason may be a lack of incorporation of social and political context into CBHI policy. In this study, the hypothesis is proposed that values and power relations inherent in social networks of CBHI stakeholders can explain levels of CBHI coverage. To test this, three case studies constituting Senegalese CBHI schemes were studied. Transcripts of interviews with 64 CBHI stakeholders were analysed using inductive coding. The five most important themes pertaining to social values and power relations were: voluntarism, trust, solidarity, political engagement and social movements. Analysis of these themes raises a number of policy and implementation challenges for expanding CBHI coverage. First is the need to subsidize salaries for CBHI scheme staff. Second is the need to develop more sustainable internal and external governance structures through CBHI federations. Third is ensuring that CBHI resonates with local values concerning four dimensions of solidarity (health risk, vertical equity, scale and source). Government subsidies is one of the several potential strategies to achieve this. Fourth is the need for increased transparency in national policy. Fifth is the need for CBHI scheme leaders to increase their negotiating power vis-à-vis health service providers who control the resources needed for expanding CBHI coverage, through federations and a social movement dynamic. Systematically addressing all these challenges would represent a fundamental reform of the current CBHI model promoted in Senegal and in Africa more widely; this raises issues of feasibility in practice. From a theoretical perspective, the results suggest that studying values and power relations among stakeholders in multiple case studies is a useful complement to traditional health
Through the analysis of the international definition and classification of slums,this paper explores the development of China’s social housing system and the renovation of the Old City of Kashgar.It argues that one of the issues in China’s social housing system is to solve the problems of the scarcity of spatial elements and the lack of developmental driving force in large mixed communities of the Han and minority nationalities.Then it examines the elements of renovation and approaches based on a survey of the local residents in different parts of Kashgar City.Comparing the international development of traditional residential quarters and block-based communities,the paper points out that the block-based community is preferred for its impartiality and sustainability,and applies this mode to the renovation of the Old City of Kashgar in the form of design guidelines.
Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter;
is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs...... under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community......As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart...
Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination. The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known as the village committee approach by a collaborative agroforestry programme between the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and the World Agrofore...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio remains unacceptably high at 578/100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage of antenatal care (96%, only 44% of deliveries take place within the formal health services. Still, "Ensure skilled attendant at birth" is acknowledged as one of the most effective interventions to reduce maternal deaths. Exploring the potential of community-based interventions in increasing the utilization of obstetric care, the study aimed at developing, testing and assessing a community-based safe motherhood intervention in Mtwara rural District of Tanzania. Method This community-based intervention was designed as a pre-post comparison study, covering 4 villages with a total population of 8300. Intervention activities were implemented by 50 trained safe motherhood promoters (SMPs. Their tasks focused on promoting early and complete antenatal care visits and delivery with a skilled attendant. Data on all 512 deliveries taking place from October 2004 to November 2006 were collected by the SMPs and cross-checked with health service records. In addition 242 respondents were interviewed with respect to knowledge on safe motherhood issues and their perception of the SMP's performance. Skilled delivery attendance was our primary outcome; secondary outcomes included antenatal care attendance and knowledge on Safe Motherhood issues. Results Deliveries with skilled attendant significantly increased from 34.1% to 51.4% (ρ Conclusion The study has demonstrated the effectiveness of community-based safe motherhood intervention in promoting the utilization of obstetric care and a skilled attendant at delivery. This improvement is attributed to the SMPs' home visits and the close collaboration with existing community structures as well as health services.
Community-based ecotourism (CBET) is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encoun...
Roberge, Pasquale; Fournier, Louise; Brouillet, Hélène; Hudon, Catherine; Houle, Janie; Provencher, Martin D.; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric
Background Anxiety and depressive disorders are increasingly recognized as a health care policy priority. Reducing the treatment gap for common mental disorders requires strengthening the quality of primary mental health care. We developed a knowledge application program designed to improve the organization and delivery of care for anxiety and depression in community-based primary mental health care teams in Quebec, Canada. The principal objectives of the study are: to implement and evaluate ...
Zhan Zhang; Shushu Li; Lu Liu; Li Wang; Xue Xiao; Zhenzhen Sun; Xichen Wang; Chao Wang; Meilin Wang; Lei Li; Qiujin Xu; Weimin Gao; Shou-Lin Wang
Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based stu...
Lupala, Z. J.; Lusambo, L. P.; Y. M. Ngaga; Makatta, Angelingis A.
In Tanzania, miombo woodland is the most significant forest vegetation with both ecological and socioeconomic importance. The vegetation has been threatened from land use and cover change due to unsustainable utilization. Over the past two decades, community based forest management (CBFM) has been practiced to address the problem. Given the current need to mitigate global climate change, little is known on the influence of CBFM to the land use and cover change in miombo woodlands and therefor...
Junping; QIU; Feifei; WANG; Houqiang; YU
Sciencenet.cn is the leading online portal serving the Chinese scientific community.This paper intends to analyze the interdisciplinary and intradisciplinary knowledge communication patterns based on friends-list links in the blog community at Sciencenet.cn by using hyperlink analysis and social network analysis.The major findings are:1)More bloggers have an academic background in management science and life science;2)there are some core actors in co-inlink network and co-outlink network,who take the lead in engaging with knowledge exchange activities and produce a great influence on interdisciplinary communication;3)interactive relationships commonly exist between a blogger and those on his/her friends list,and the most linked-to blogs usually play a key role in generating interactive communication;4)management science has the highest co-inlink count with life science or information science and it has the highest co-outlink count with life science or mathematical and physical science;5)management science and life science have the greatest impact on information science and the interdisciplinary knowledge communication will also produce relatively significant influence on the development of information science discipline.It is our hope that this research can serve as a reference source for the future studies of academic virtual communities,and the development of mechanisms for facilitating increased engagement in knowledge exchange activities in academic virtual communities.
Baticados, Didi B; Agbayani, Renato F; Quinitio, Emilia T
Finding aquaculture development approaches to open up livelihood opportunities for the rural poor and in mainstreaming smallholder fish farmers to reduce poverty remain a challenge. This paper examines the community-based technology transfer mechanism of mudcrab nursery in ponds and its socioeconomic impacts on smallholder mudcrab growers in Northern Samar, Philippines. Results indicated that the technology is a viable enterprise done by a straight culture system method, which is the rearing of crablets from technology adoption hinges on many factors like area ownership, farm distance from household, and market including the type of strategy needed to enhance technology uptake. Collaboration among research and development institutions and local partners is critical in training and empowering rural communities to adopt aquaculture technologies. PMID:24817087
Kim Anh, Nguyen Thi
The open access fisheries regime has led to the degradation of marine resources and to conflicts in sharing them and the fishing grounds in Tam Giang Cau Hai lagoon in Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam. In 2003, community-based fisheries management (CBFM), particularly through Fisheries Associations (FA), was introduced and established. As of 2011, there were 62 local FAs. It means that local FAs have played an important role in the implementation of CBFM and as a major partner of the Government in pro...
Li Qianxiang; Kennedy N.logbokwe; Li Jiayong
Community-based watershed management is different from the traditional natural resources management. Traditional natural resources management is a way from up to bottom, but the community-based watershed management is from bottom to up. This approach focused on the joining of different stakeholders in integrated watershed management, especially the participation of the community who has been ignored in the past. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the important basic definitions, concepts and operational framework for initiating community-based watershed management projects and programs as well as some successes and practical challenges associated with the approach.
Henderson, Paul, Ed.; Francis, David, Ed.
This book contains 10 case studies of rural community development in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Catalonia, as seen from the perspective of community-work practitioners. Development projects encompassed such activities as promotion of tourism, establishment of community centers, vocational training for school dropouts, adult community…
Langhout, Regina Day; Rappaport, Julian; Simmons, Doretha
Culturally relevant, ongoing project-based learning was facilitated in a predominantly African American urban elementary school via a community garden project. The project involved teachers, students, university members, and community members. This article evaluates the project through two classroom-community collaboration models, noting common…
and strategic planning and systemic planning displaced. Strategy means having central long term aims and thinking about their access methods. Strategic planning is a systematic planning method in making continuity among priority action by considering pros and cons (abilities and resources of organization and opportunities and threats (outer factors and affective cases on organization with essential procedure to reach organization mission. This study tries to reply three following questions:-. Where are we now?-. Where do we want to go?-. How do we reach that?Various models are introduced for strategic planning procedure, but their communal property is their cycling and planning process, at this manner that they begin from inner and outer periphery recognition and after underpinning the strategies lead to executive phase and all phases evaluate and feedback affects are checked. SWOT model in terms of date consequence is last model in underpinning strategic planning that is one of the most efficient among qualitative models. From this model᾿s point of view, an appropriate strategy makes strengths and opportunities extreme and weaknesses and threats at least. In executive phase of SWOT avoiding of weaknesses and threats is necessary and must consider the weaknesses as potential to making strength and threats as a power to making opportunity.2-2- Community DevelopmentOne of the negative effects of traditional comprehensive plans is gravitating toward totalism and incorporating the methods and solutions and for reaction to compensate this basic deficient, the strategic planning trends to planning and designing in small scales and human tangible subjects in community domain. Thus, nowadays urban planning and management attention assigned to lower and more objective levels of urban life, community is most appropriate base to access to urban sustainable development, cause ecologic relationships to general experiences and under community covenant and stakeholder moral
Terry van Gevelt
Full Text Available Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito and S. Imai Singer commercialisation provides significant economic benefits to rural communities, mainly in China, Japan and South Korea. Recently, a growing body of research has questioned the impact of commercialization on harvesting behavior and the supply of matsutake. One key question arising from this literature is whether or not community-based management (CBM has a positive impact on matsutake supply. I surveyed nine mountain villages in Gangwon and North Gyeongsang provinces in South Korea. Four villages were found to have begun CBM of matsutake in the mid-1980s to early-1990s. All four villages continued to engage in CBM as of September 2013. Data suggest that CBM has had a positive impact on matsutake supply, although the exact magnitude and explanatory power of CBM is uncertain. Analysis of the nine villages suggests that CBM may not be a feasible strategy in all villages due to existing property rights regimes and that an external catalyst may be required in villages where harvesters do not perceive any economic benefit to CBM.
Minich, Lisa; Howe, Steven; Langmeyer, Daniel; Corcoran, Kevin
One of the challenges facing nonprofit organizations today is the demand for measurable results. Increasingly, these organizations are focusing less on program outputs and program outcomes in favor of community outcomes or changes demonstrated in the larger community. Success by 6(R) is a popular United Way initiative that emphasizes defining and measuring community outcomes. In this paper, we describe our work with 24 Success by 6(R) initiatives around the country. It is clear that not all of these initiatives are measuring community outcomes. Of those initiatives that are experiencing some success measuring community outcomes, similar measurement strategies are reported. Additionally, our experience suggests several United Way employees express dissatisfaction with the logic model as a framework for defining and measuring community outcomes although no preferred alternative model is identified. Evaluators working with community-wide initiatives must find ways to communicate the differences between program and community outcomes to key stakeholders and funders. PMID:17004126
Full Text Available Background: Community involvement is one of the crucial principles in the implementation of successful community-based education programmes. However, a gap continues to exist between the rhetoric of this principle and the reality of involving or engaging communities in the education of health professionals. Objectives: This study investigated the experiences of a community regarding its involvement in a community-based education programme offered by a university nursing school in Durban, South Africa. Methods: An interpretive existentialist-phenomenological design was employed for its richness in extracting human experiences. Individual interviews were held with school teachers and coordinators from non-government organisations, whilst focus groups were used for school children and community health workers. Although focus group discussions are not well suited for phenomenological studies, they can promote active participation and reduce possible intimidation by providing support through group interaction. Analysis of data was guided by Schweitzer’s model for analysing phenomenological data. Results: Themes that emerged from the data include: (1 Community experience of unmet expectations; (2 Benefits to the community from its involvement in the University Nursing School community-based education programme; (3 Existing partnership between the community and the university; (4 Sharing in the case-based learning activities; (5 Awareness of available services, human rights and self-reliance. Conclusion: The researched community indeed benefited in its participation in the University Nursing School (UNS CBE programme. However, there is a need to improve the communication between partners to make the partnership more sustainable through close relationships and interaction. There is also a need for further research on related aspects of the community’s involvement.
Ntombizodwa S.B. Linda
Full Text Available Background: Community involvement is one of the crucial principles in the implementation of successful community-based education programmes. However, a gap continues to exist between the rhetoric of this principle and the reality of involving or engaging communities in the education of health professionals. Objectives: This study investigated the experiences of a community regarding its involvement in a community-based education programme offered by a university nursing school in Durban, South Africa.Methods: An interpretive existentialist-phenomenological design was employed for its richness in extracting human experiences. Individual interviews were held with school teachers and coordinators from non-government organisations, whilst focus groups were used for school children and community health workers. Although focus group discussions are not well suited for phenomenological studies, they can promote active participation and reduce possible intimidation by providing support through group interaction. Analysis of data was guided by Schweitzer’s model for analysing phenomenological data.Results: Themes that emerged from the data include: (1 Community experience of unmet expectations; (2 Benefits to the community from its involvement in the University Nursing School community-based education programme; (3 Existing partnership between the community and the university; (4 Sharing in the case-based learning activities; (5 Awareness of available services, human rights and self-reliance.Conclusion: The researched community indeed benefited in its participation in the University Nursing School (UNS CBE programme. However, there is a need to improve the communication between partners to make the partnership more sustainable through close relationships and interaction. There is also a need for further research on related aspects of the community’s involvement.
熊云云; 赵倩华; 郭起浩; 罗剑锋; 丁玎; 洪震
目的 调查社区糖尿病患者痴呆患病率,计算年龄别、性别患病率,并与非糖尿病组相比较.方法 对上海市某社区50岁以上常住居民中糖尿病患者及与其年龄、性别相匹配1:1对照的非糖尿病患者进行调查.运用问卷采集人口学及病史资料,MMSE筛查认知功能.对于文盲≤19分、小学≤21分、初中及以上文化程度≤24分者,进一步给予成套神经心理学量表检查,依据DSM-Ⅳ诊断痴呆.结果 糖尿病患者中痴呆患病率[4.75%(23/484),95%CI:3.03%～7.04%]高于非糖尿病患者[2.24%(11/490),95%CI:1.13%～3.98% X~2=4.54,P=0.03].糖尿病组60～69、70～79和80岁以上各年龄段的痴呆患病率分别为1.94%(2/103)、4.43%(9/203)和14.12%(12/85)(趋势X~2=18.04,P<0.01);非糖尿病组相应年龄段痴呆患病率分别为1.43%(2/140)、2.86%(6/210)和5.00%(3/60,趋势X~2=4.58,P:0.03).糖尿病组女性和男性痴呆患病率分别为6.55%(19/290)和2.06%(4/194,X~2=5.18,P=0.02);非糖尿病组女性和男性痴呆患病率分别为3.01%(9/299)和1.05%(2/191).结论 糖尿病患者中痴呆患病率显著高于非糖尿病患者,2组痴呆患病率均随年龄增大而升高,并且女性痴呆患病率高于男性.%Objective To determine prevalence of dementia in diabetics and non-diabetics, and in different age and gender groups. Methods A case-control study was conducted among participants aged 50 and over in Jing' an temple community in Shanghai. Subjects in diabetics group were matched to non-diabetics groups for age and sex with 1:1 matching. Personal information and case history were collected through questionnaire. The subjects were screened for dementia using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects that screened positively (indicated by an MMSE score below 19, 21 and 24 among those with illiteracy, elementary school and above junior middle school education, respectively) were subsequently examined by a series of neuropsychological tests. Based
Hoeft, Theresa J.; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B.; James, Rosalina D.; Boyer, Bert B.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR proje...
Mc Donnell, Claire
Students have been involved in several chemistry research projects with communities: breath and urine testing for alcohol with the Garda Road Safety Unit; a long-term study of soil Quality for a Grangegorman Community Garden; and work placements with Wells for Zoe, a charity based in Malawi, including soil and water testing, and development of teaching materials for science.
Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka
Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations. PMID:24556796
Highlights: • We estimated energy demand of building groups in a town using an in-house tool. • We developed an operation simulator to match supply–demand processes of energy. • Detailed technological information to operate the CES is provided by the simulation. • LNG demand is forecasted for the expansion of the CES up to 14 years in the future. - Abstract: We analyzed energy consumption by a newly constructed part of a city in Korea to forecast the LNG demand for 14 years. The electricity, heating, cooling, and hot-water demands for a cogeneration-based CES (Community Energy System) accommodating 86,000 people in 29,000 houses are estimated using load models developed through direct measurements and statistical surveys. Based on published occupancy rates and forecasts of the rate of increase in energy consumption by third parties through independent study, the energy demands were driven in the form of 8760-h time series for each of the 14 years. Next, we simulate the demand–supply matching processes of a specifically chosen cogeneration engine for the CES to forecast the LNG consumption and the electricity trade for each year. We simulated the demand–supply matching processes with an automation tool specifically developed for this study. The methodology we established in this study can be applied to similar problems which may arise anywhere in the world
Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka
Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.
Griffin, S L; Schryver, D L
This case study highlights the problems confronting a clinical practice corporation affiliated with a major medical school, and the business realizations it made in the acquisition of a community-based clinic. Launching a financially viable enterprise requires careful planning, determination of formal goals and expectations, an appropriate mix of physicians and services, a specific marketing campaign and community support. PMID:11010507
Day, Andrew; Hardcastle, Lesley; Birgden, Astrid
Case management is commonly regarded as the foundation of effective service provision across a wide range of human service settings. This article considers the case management that is offered to clients of community corrections, identifying the distinctive features of case management in this particular setting, and reviewing the empirical evidence…
van Woerden Hugo Cornelis
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is emerging evidence for the presence of an extensive microbiota in human lungs. It is not known whether variations in the prevalence of species of microbiota in the lungs may have aetiological significance in respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of the study was to undertake semi-quantitative analysis of the differences in fungal species in pooled sputum samples from asthma patients and controls. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected in a case control study of asthma patients and control subjects drawn from the community in Wandsworth, London. Samples from both groups were pooled and then tested for eukaryotes. DNA was amplified using standard PCR techniques, followed by pyrosequencing and comparison of reads to databases of known sequences to determine in a semi-quantitative way the percentage of DNA from known species in each of the two pooled samples. Results A total of 136 fungal species were identified in the induced sputum samples, with 90 species more common in asthma patients and 46 species more common in control subjects. Psathyrella candolleana, Malassezia pachydermatis, Termitomyces clypeatus and Grifola sordulenta showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of asthma patients and Eremothecium sinecaudum, Systenostrema alba, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Vanderwaltozyma polyspora showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of control subjects. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of fungi that were present in the respective samples was demonstrated using the Phylogenetic (P test (P Conclusion This study is novel in providing evidence for the widespread nature of fungi in the sputum of healthy and asthmatic individuals. Differences in the pattern of fungi present in asthma patients and controls merit further investigation. Of particular interest was the presence of Malassezia pachydermatis, which is known to be associated with atopic dermatitis.
Ding, Zhuanlian; Zhang, Xingyi; Sun, Dengdi; Luo, Bin
Community detection in complex network has become a vital step to understand the structure and dynamics of networks in various fields. However, traditional node clustering and relatively new proposed link clustering methods have inherent drawbacks to discover overlapping communities. Node clustering is inadequate to capture the pervasive overlaps, while link clustering is often criticized due to the high computational cost and ambiguous definition of communities. So, overlapping community detection is still a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new overlapping community detection algorithm based on network decomposition, called NDOCD. Specifically, NDOCD iteratively splits the network by removing all links in derived link communities, which are identified by utilizing node clustering technique. The network decomposition contributes to reducing the computation time and noise link elimination conduces to improving the quality of obtained communities. Besides, we employ node clustering technique rather than link similarity measure to discover link communities, thus NDOCD avoids an ambiguous definition of community and becomes less time-consuming. We test our approach on both synthetic and real-world networks. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach both in computation time and accuracy compared to state-of-the-art algorithms.
Objective of the Study: The objective of the study is to explore different communicative actions the case organization can use in a private online customer community YIT Plus. The focus is on the challenges of the customer community that may prevent engagement as well as on the specific features, which can in turn enhance customer engagement by providing after-sale added value. The study also seeks to explore the privacy aspect of the online community and changing stakeholder roles in a t...
Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.
Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…
Full Text Available Japan is facing a bio-diversity crisis as a result of rapid industrialisation. The Japanese Ministry of the Environment formulated a National Biodiversity Strategy based on the Convention on Biological Diversity signed at the Earth Summit in 1992. After an amendment in 2002, the National Biodiversity Strategy addressed three crises in biodiversity: over-exploitation and development that destroys habitats, underutilisation (the satoyama problem and artificially introduced factors (chemicals, alien species and so on. This paper focuses on the second problem. Secondary natural environments called satoyama have been created and maintained over the centuries by human activity. Because natural environments in Japan have been affected by human-induced disturbances for 35,000 years, many species have evolved in response to these disturbances. If the human activities cease, many of the species that have evolved to survive in managed environments become threatened. Many satoyama have been managed as commonage or common lands, called iriai in Japan. One natural resource system created by commoners is semi-natural grassland, and economic modernisation has led to abandonment of traditional management practices on these grasslands – one of the more evident changes in Japanese iriai practices. Before industrialisation, semi-natural grasslands were managed as a source of green manure, as a harvest for roofing materials (thatch and as pasture for animals. After industrialisation, however, introduction of chemical fertilizers, changes in building practices and importation of animal feeds rapidly decreased the use value of these grasslands for local residents. On the other hand, their value as public goods – as historical, cultural landscapes and places of biodiversity – which concern a much broader population than the local community – became relatively more important. The resulting problem is how to manage this resource with its new value for new
Shaker H. El-Sappagh
Full Text Available Case Based Reasoning (CBR is an important technique in artificial intelligence, which has been applied to various kinds of problems in a wide range of domains. Selecting case representation formalism is critical for the proper operation of the overall CBR system. In this paper, we survey and evaluate all of the existing case representation methodologies. Moreover, the case retrieval and future challenges for effective CBR are explained. Case representation methods are grouped in to knowledge-intensive approaches and traditional approaches. The first group overweight the second one. The first methods depend on ontology and enhance all CBR processes including case representation, retrieval, storage, and adaptation. By using a proposed set of qualitative metrics, the existing methods based on ontology for case representation are studied and evaluated in details. All these systems have limitations. No approach exceeds 53% of the specified metrics. The results of the survey explain the current limitations of CBR systems. It shows that ontology usage in case representation needs improvements to achieve semantic representation and semantic retrieval in CBR system.
Full Text Available Community-based ecotourism (CBET is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encounters both positive and negative impacts of transformation. However, unintended impacts of the CBET operation lay embedded in the transformation of relationships among the community members. The study identifies that close relationships among the villagers has been initially transformed to loose relationships due to forgotten communal goals; CBET has transformed from being a conservation tool to being a business-oriented goal which causes conflicts of interest among local people and alters traditional social structure. The study also agrees with the notion of social exchange theory for villagers to enhance environmental sustainability, and proposes that slight inequalities of benefits received from CBET causes social transformation at the local level.
Ganatra, B R; Coyaji, K J; Rao, V N
A total of 121 maternal deaths, identified through multiple-source surveillance in 400 villages in Maharashtra, were prospectively enrolled during 1993-95 in a population-based case-control study, which compared deaths with the survivors of similar pregnancy complications. The cases took significantly longer to seek care and to make the first health contact after the decision to seek care was taken. They also travelled significantly greater distances through a greater number of health facilities before appropriate treatment was started. Multivariate analysis showed the negative effect of excessive referrals and the protective effect of the following: residing in and not away from the village; presence of a resident nurse in the village; having an educated husband and a trained attendant at delivery; and being at the woman's parents' home at the time of illness. Other significant findings showed that deaths due to domestic violence were the second-largest cause of deaths in pregnancy, that more than two-thirds of maternal deaths were underreported in official records, and that liveborn infants of maternal deaths had a markedly higher risk of dying in the first year of life. This study points to the need for information-education-communication (IEC) efforts to increase family (especially male) preparedness for emergencies, decentralized obstetric management with effective triage, and a restructuring of the referral system. PMID:10191555
O'Mara, Ben; Gill, Gurjeet K.; Babacan, Hurriyet; Donahoo, Daniel
Objective: To report the processes and outcomes of a case study on digital technology, diabetes and culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities. Design: The qualitative study was based on a literature review, consultations and testing of a framework through workshops and an interactive information session. Setting: Consultations,…
Huang, Maoyi; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Ren, Huiying; Liu, Ying; Swiler, Laura P.
The Community Land Model (CLM) has been widely used in climate and Earth system modeling. Accurate estimation of model parameters is needed for reliable model simulations and predictions under current and future conditions, respectively. In our previous work, a subset of hydrological parameters has been identified to have significant impact on surface energy fluxes at selected flux tower sites based on parameter screening and sensitivity analysis, which indicate that the parameters could potentially be estimated from surface flux observations at the towers. To date, such estimates do not exist. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of applying a Bayesian model calibration technique to estimate CLM parameters at selected flux tower sites under various site conditions. The parameters are estimated as a joint probability density function (PDF) that provides estimates of uncertainty of the parameters being inverted, conditional on climatologically-average latent heat fluxes derived from observations. We find that the simulated mean latent heat fluxes from CLM using the calibrated parameters are generally improved at all sites when compared to those obtained with CLM simulations using default parameter sets. Further, our calibration method also results in credibility bounds around the simulated mean fluxes which bracket the measured data. The modes (or maximum a posteriori values) and 95% credibility intervals of the site-specific posterior PDFs are tabulated as suggested parameter values for each site. Analysis of relationships between the posterior PDFs and site conditions suggests that the parameter values are likely correlated with the plant functional type, which needs to be confirmed in future studies by extending the approach to more sites.
Mayo, L. A.
Astronomy in K-12 formal education is still largely underrepresented as a science. Yet, it is arguably one of the most engaging and entertaining of the physical sciences. Many school systems have been slow to adopt curriculum frameworks that include astronomy. Even when astronomy is required either as a distinct subject or hidden within the catagory of "Earth science", many teachers spend little time on it in their classrooms since they have no formal training in this subject. A community based, informal astronomy education model that encorporates resources from government agencies, industry, local colleges, science centers and planetariums, families, civic groups, schools, and amateur astronomy clubs can provide a solution and be highly effective in creating sustained learning environments in this discipline as well as fostering an atmosphere of general acceptance and promotion of astronomy by whole communities. In addition, the opportunity exists to reinforce the teaching of astronomy in schools through the involvement of these groups in an informal education setting. This paper will discuss a Community Based Astronomy program that has been implemented in Montgomery County, Maryland. The tie-in to formal education through both schools and systemic reform initiatives will be presented. In addition, detailed guidelines for running astronomy clubs in conjunction with family astronomy nights will be provided.
Edmar Silva Oliveira
Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate to the infestation of Aedes aegypti and dengue cases that occurred in the rural communities covered by the municipality of Assis Chateaubriand – PR. The survey was conducted during 2009, divided into two stages, to survey the infestation was used to house infestation (IIP. Five communities were considered positive when the presence of Aedes aegypti infestation levels of communities was higher Charmed the West, Newfoundland, Nice. These data showed that higher rates will be higher infestation rate risk of people being affected by the mosquito. Dengue cases occurred more frequently in communities that had high rates of infestation. The population through prevention and awareness is one way to prevent the spread of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti in rural communities.
The shift in the site of service delivery from inpatient and institutional to ambulatory and community settings has been prompted by concerns over cost and the prospect for improving the quality of life. In response to these concerns, Medicare has implemented several demonstrations that emphasize ambulatory and community-based services. In this issue, articles are presented on four demonstrations, which focus on the extent to which coordinated care models reduce health care costs, and the cos...
Stockdale, Susan E; Tang, Lingqi; Pudilo, Esmeralda; Lucas-Wright, Anna; Chung, Bowen; Horta, Mariana; Masongsong, Zoe; Jones, Felica; Belin, Thomas R; Sherbourne, Cathy; Wells, Kenneth
The inclusion of community partners in participatory leadership roles around statistical design issues like sampling and randomization has raised concerns about scientific integrity. This article presents a case study of a community-partnered, participatory research (CPPR) cluster-randomized, comparative effectiveness trial to examine implications for study validity and community relevance. Using study administrative data, we describe a CPPR-based design and implementation process for agency/program sampling, recruitment, and randomization for depression interventions. We calculated participation rates and used cross-tabulation to examine balance by intervention status on service sector, location, and program size and assessed differences in potential populations served. We achieved 51.5% agency and 89.6% program participation rates. Programs in different intervention arms were not significantly different on service sector, location, or program size. Participating programs were not significantly different from eligible, nonparticipating programs on community characteristics. We reject claims that including community members in research design decisions compromises scientific integrity. This case study suggests that a CPPR process can improve implementation of a community-grounded, rigorous randomized comparative effectiveness trial. PMID:26384926
Lerbaek, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup; Buus, Niels
Assertive community treatment (ACT) case managers provide healthcare services to people with severe and persistent mental illness. These case managers take on generic roles in multidisciplinary teams and provide all-around services in the clients' private homes. This focus group study aimed to gain...... sustain interpersonal relationships with clients were an important part of their service. Basic nursing tasks were described as an important part of their everyday work, and even though such tasks were not distinctive for ACT case managers, the representations of their work seemed to give them a sense of...... worth as professionals and legitimized a unique role in the community mental healthcare services....
Full Text Available Currently, the community structure algorithms proposed by most scholars are contraposing un-weighted network, while there still lacks research on the discovery of weighted network community. In un-weighted networks, the relation between the nodes is simplified as two states, which will neglect too much valuable information. To construct more actual structure of mined community, a novel discovery algorithm for weighted network community is put forward. The social network technology is implemented to a music forum. It can find out the social relation and interactive behavior of users in the music forum, to help the music resource to find suitable consumers. The music community system using social network mining is based on extracted replying and quoting information of users. For the user social network and topic social network of forum, two social network mining methods are proposed: One is applied to the user social network mining, which can find out the use groups who have similar interest in network; The other is applied to the topic social network mining, based on merging idea of weighted network community, and it can find out the similar groups of hot topics. Finally the mining process of network relationship in a certain music forum is described in detail as an example and it has verified the effectiveness of mining results
Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don
This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities, we offer…
The discovery of chemosynthesis-based communities in late 1970s was probably one of the biggest surprises in the marine biology of 20th century. There are three basic types of locations where such communities may develop: hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, and vertebrate falls. Also sunken wood communities are partially chemosynthetically fueled. Reports of these unusual aggregation of benthic animals in the deep sea prompted a quest for their counterparts in the fossil record. Soon it has been revealed that a number of exotic carbonate rocks rich in fossils in otherwise siliciclastic deep water facies could easily be interpreted as a result of ancient cold seeps' activity. Later on also numerous hot vent, whale fall, and sunken wood associations have been described from the geological past. The earliest-known chemosynthesis-based association containing metazoan animals has been described from Silurian of Ural Mountains. This and the other Paleozoic chemosynthesis-based associations are dominated by worm tubes, mollusks (monoplacophorans, bivalves, and gastropods), and brachiopods. Nothing is known from the period encompassing Permian and Triassic and the Mesozoic record of chemosynthesis-based communities starts in Jurassic. The Lower Jurassic hydrothermal vent association from California consists of worm tubes, gastropods, and brachiopods which are not really comparable to their counterparts from Recent chemosynthesis-based communities. First associations composed of fossils recollecting animals from the Recent chemosynthesis-based communities appear in Late Jurassic. Oxfordian cold seep deposits from France are dominated by lucinid bivalves and similar deposits from Tithonian of Alexander Island in the Antarctic are known to contain lucinids and mass aggregations of hokkaidoconchids-extinct group of gastropods related to Recent Provannidae. Early Cretaceous is an epoch of rhynchonellide brachiopod Peregrinella which occurs worldwide abundantly at hydrocarbon seep
Liefferink, Simone Laila
In order for an economy to survive and thrive it requires resources. Water is a resource that not only the economy is dependent on but also ecological and human communities. The deteriorated state of South African rivers suggests the intensive use of the country’s freshwater reserves by the population and industry. Such a source of freshwater is the Wonderfonteinspruit. It flows through an area that requires water for gold mining that has taken place in the area for more than 1...
Domingo, Jermy B; Davis, Elise L; Allison, Amanda L; Braun, Kathryn L.
This article describes the activities performed by cancer patient navigators in community-based and hospital settings. The case study demonstrates the depth and breadth of navigation activities and illustrates how hospital-based and community-based navigators work together to help individuals access cancer care and complete cancer treatment.
Community-based adaptation aims to empower local people to cope with and plan for the impacts of climate change. In a world where knowledge equals power, you could be forgiven for thinking that enabling this type of adaptation boils down to providing local people with information. Conventional approaches to planning adaptation rely on 'expert' advice and credible 'science' from authoritative information providers such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. But to truly support the needs of local communities, this information needs to be more site-specific, more user-friendly and more inclusive of traditional knowledge and existing coping practices.
Tedrow, Virginia A.; Carla E Zelaya; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Morin, Stephen F; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael D.; Celentano, David D.
As community-level interventions become more common in HIV prevention, processes such as community mobilization (CM) are increasingly utilized in public health programs and research. Project Accept, a multi-site community randomized controlled trial, is testing the hypothesis that CM coupled with community-based mobile voluntary counseling and testing and post-test support services will alter community norms and reduce the incidence of HIV. By using a multiple-case study approach, this qualit...
This case study demonstrates the role of community organizing as a vehicle for enhancing individual and community-level empowerment. Building on social support theory, Freire's "education for critical consciousness," and the principles and strategies of community organization practice, the 12-year-old Tenderloin Senior Organizing Project reflects the World Health Organization definition of health promotion as a means of helping individuals and communities to take increasing control over the factors influencing their health. Through the Project, low-income elders have successfully identified and addressed shared problems in such areas as crime and safety, undernutrition, and tenants rights. They further have developed ongoing tenants' associations and other community-based organizations that have provided continuity over time and contributed to the development of a "competent community." Problems in areas such as funding, evaluation, and volunteer burnout are discussed, as are the potentials for project replication in other settings. PMID:1601548
Moreno, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Michael A; Lopez, Glenn A; Bholat, Michelle A; Dowling, Patrick T
Acknowledging the growing disparities in health and health care that exist among immigrant families and minority populations in large urban communities, the UCLA Department of Family Medicine (DFM) sought a leadership role in the development of family medicine training and community-based participatory research (CBPR). Performing CBPR requires that academic medicine departments build sustainable and long-term community partnerships. The authors describe the eight-year (2000-2008) process of building sustainable community partnerships and trust between the UCLA DFM and the Sun Valley community, located in Los Angeles County.The authors used case studies of three research areas of concentration (asthma, diabetes prevention, and establishing access to primary care) to describe how they established community trust and sustained long-term community research partnerships. In preparing each case study, they used an iterative process to review qualitative data.Many lessons were common across their research concentration areas. They included the importance of (1) having clear and concrete community benefits, (2) supporting an academic-community champion, (3) political advocacy, (4) partnering with diverse organizations, (5) long-term academic commitment, and (6) medical student involvement. The authors found that establishing a long-term relationship and trust was a prerequisite to successfully initiate CBPR activities that included an asthma school-based screening program, community walking groups, and one of the largest school-based primary care clinics in the United States.Their eight-year experience in the Sun Valley community underscores how academic-community research partnerships can result in benefits of high value to communities and academic departments. PMID:19881437
Full Text Available We present an approach (and a corresponding system design for supporting regionally bound hybrid learning communities (i.e., communities which combine traditional face-to-face elements with web based media such as online community platforms, e-mail and SMS newsletters. The goal of the example community used to illustrate the approach was to support and motivate (especially hard-to-reach underprivileged parents in the education of their young children. The article describes the design process used and the challenges faced during the socio-technical system design. An analysis of the community over more than one year indicates that the hybrid approach works better than the two separated “traditional” approaches separately. Synergy effects like advertising effects from the offline trainings for the online platform and vice versa occurred and regular newsletters turned out to have a noticeable effect on the community.
van Woerden Hugo Cornelis; Gregory Clive; Brown Richard; Marchesi Julian Roberto; Hoogendoorn Bastiaan; Matthews Ian Price
Abstract Background There is emerging evidence for the presence of an extensive microbiota in human lungs. It is not known whether variations in the prevalence of species of microbiota in the lungs may have aetiological significance in respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of the study was to undertake semi-quantitative analysis of the differences in fungal species in pooled sputum samples from asthma patients and controls. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected in a case cont...
Tasmania Univ., Launceston (Australia). Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia.
This report presents the second phase of a 4-year study commissioned by the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) to examine the dynamics of Vocational Education and Training (VET). Ten case studies, most involving rural or indigenous communities, are presented, each illustrating an aspect of VET. Twenty-six findings and implications for…
Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA was applied to evaluate environmental impacts contributed by 2 community composting systems, consisting of powder and granular compost production. The main raw materials of these composts were waste from agricultural and agro industrial activities, including animal manures, and solid waste from palm oil mills and rice mills. Data from field operations of both of the composting systems were collected and analyzed. Both composting systems were classified into 5 sub systems, consisting of raw material collection, composting process, electricity consumption, material transfer, and distribution of the compost product to consumers. Impact assessments of both composting systems revealed that the composting process sub system was the main contributor on impact categories of acidification potential (AP, eutrophication potential (EP, global warming potential (GWP, and photochemical oxidation potential (POP, while on human toxicity potential (HTP the distribution sub system was the main contributor. In comparing both systems, it was found that granular compost systems contributed a higher impact than powder compost systems, at 1.1 times on GWP, while the remaining sub systems had almost similar impacts. In order to improve composting systems, it is recommended that compost blanket and fuel substitution be applied, to enable gaseous emission reduction to the composting process and transportation operations.
Full Text Available Background: Community engagement is an increasingly important requirement of public health research and plays an important role in the informed consent and recruitment process. However, there is very little guidance about how it should be done, the indicators for assessing effectiveness of the community engagement process and the impact it has on recruitment, retention, and ultimately on the quality of the data collected as part of longitudinal cohort studies. Methods: An instrumental case study approach, with data from field notes, policy documents, unstructured interviews, and focus group discussions with key community stakeholders and informants, was used to explore systematically the implementation and outcomes of the community engagement strategy for recruitment of an entire community into a demographic and health surveillance site in Malaysia. Results: For a dynamic cohort, community engagement needs to be an ongoing process. The community engagement process has likely helped to facilitate the current response rate of 85% in the research communities. The case study highlights the importance of systematic documentation of the community engagement process to ensure an understanding of the effects of the research on recruitment and the community. Conclusions: A critical lesson from the case study data is the importance of relationships in the recruitment process for large population-based studies, and the need for ongoing documentation and analysis of the impact of cumulative interactions between research and community engagement.
This exploratory case study examines the social, economic, and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities. This work is one of a series planned to broaden knowledge of the effects of large energy generating facilities upon the social structure of local communities. Its primary objectives are to investigate and assess social and economic impacts resulting from construction and operation of nuclear power plants and to generate hypotheses about such impacts for future testing. The study concludes that construction impacts were minor due to a dispersed commuting pattern by construction workers and that the only significant construction impact that can be identified retrospectively is construction-worker traffic. The primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was the massive increase in property tax payments paid to the local communities by the utilities and the option chosen by each community to maintain the existing tax rate while using the additional revenue to significantly increase and enhance the public service delivery systems and facilities within the community. Second-order consequences of the direct, first-order economic impact were: (1) changes in community land use policies, (2) increase in salience of growth issues, and (3) alteration of both inter- and intra-community relationships. The majority of residents in both communities express favorable attitudes toward the nuclear plants, primarily because of the substantial increase in the tax base of their communities
Murphy, John W; Franz, Berkeley A; Callaghan, Karen A
Community-based projects have become popular as a method to address various community problems. Specifically important is that community members take an active role in these interventions resulting in sustainable social change. Although considerable literature exists on the dynamics of small group interaction, this article addresses how group processes differ in community-based projects. Instead of constructing a static model for group interaction, this discussion focuses on experiences from a recent community-based health project on the island of Grenada. Because community-based projects are directed by a diverse group of community members, maturity is described as a process of negotiation rather than consensus. PMID:27050809
Treue, Thorsten; Nathan, Iben
This technical note is the product of a long process of consultation with a wide range of resource persons who have over the years been involved in the Danish support to Community Based Natural Resource Management. It gives a brief introduction to community-based natural resource management (CBNRM......) and how this concept may be used as a development strategy. CBNRM has the triple objective of poverty reduction, natural resource conservation and good governance. The opportunity and challenge is to pursue these objectives simultaneously, as they are not, by default, mutually supportive. Lessons......, resource conservation and good governance, and whether other resource management systems would be better will always be subject to context analysis and political debate. Accordingly, CBNRM is rather a development process and constant power struggle. Thus, even after years of implementation, donors are...
Winton, Sue; Evans, Michael P.
Grounded in critical policy theories and democratic conceptions of research, case studies of three community-based organizations, one in Canada and two in the U.S., were analyzed to determine if and how the groups engaged with research in their efforts to influence education policy. The findings demonstrate that the community-based organizations…
Findley, Sally; Rosenthal, Michael; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Damitz, Maureen; Lara, Marielena; Mansfield, Carol; Matiz, Adriana; Nourani, Vesall; Peretz, Patricia; Persky, Victoria W; Valencia, Gilberto Ramos; Uyeda, Kimberly; Viswanathan, Meera
Care coordination programs have been used to address chronic illnesses, including childhood asthma, but primarily via practice-based models. An alternative approach employs community-based care coordinators who bridge gaps between families, health care providers, and support services. Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. (MCAN) sites developed community-based care coordination approaches for childhood asthma. Using a community-based care coordination logic model, programs at each site are described along with program operational statistics. Four sites used three to four community health workers (CHWs) to provide care coordination, whereas one site used five school-based asthma nurses. This school-based site had the highest caseload (82.5 per year), but program duration was 3 months with 4 calls or visits. Other sites averaged fewer cases (35 to 61 per CHW per year), but families received more (7 to 17) calls or visits over a year. Retention was 43% to 93% at 6 months and 24% to 75% at 12 months. Pre-post cross-site data document changes in asthma management behaviors and outcomes. After program participation, 93% to 100% of caregivers had confidence in controlling their child's asthma, 85% to 92% had taken steps to reduce triggers, 69% to 100% had obtained an asthma action plan, and 46% to 100% of those with moderate to severe asthma reported appropriate use of controller medication. Emergency department visits for asthma decreased by 36% to 63%, and asthma-related hospitalizations declined by 26% to 78%. More than three fourths had fewer school absences. In conclusion, MCAN community-based care coordination programs improved management behaviors and decreased morbidity across all sites. PMID:22068360
There are many similarities, and some differences, between community-based coastal resource management (CBCRM) and co-management. When CBCRM is considered an integral part of co-management, there is a new category of co-management which can be called community-based co-management. Community-based co-management is people-centered, community-oriented, resources-based and partnership-based. The implementation of community-based co-management has four components: resources management, community a...
Ling Weiqing; Yan Junwei; Wang Jian; Xie Youbai
The current method of case-based design (CBD) can be well practiced for configuration design in which design experience knowledge is involved.However, since the design case is confined to a certain application domain, it is difficult for CBD to be applied to conceptual design process that develops concepts to meet design specifications.Firstly, a function factor description space is erected to provide an exhibition room for all functions of design cases.Next, the approach for identifying the space state of function factor in description space is proposed, including the determination of the similarities between function factors of design case.And then a general object-oriented representation for design case is presented by bringing the class of function and in-out flow into the current case representation.Finally, a living example for electro-pet design that illustrates the implementation of the method for case-based conceptual design based on distributed design case repositories is described.
Margolis Harold S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The average annual reported dengue incidence in Cambodia is 3.3/1,000 among children Methods In 2006, active fever surveillance was conducted among a cohort of 6,694 children aged ≤ 15 years in 16 villages in Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Subsequently, a case-control study was performed by individually assigning one non-dengue febrile control from the cohort to each laboratory-confirmed dengue case. Parents of cases and controls were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to determine household-level, illness-related expenditures for medical and non-medical costs, and estimated income loss (see Additional file 1. The household socio-economic status was determined and its possible association with health seeking behaviour and the ability to pay for the costs of a febrile illness. Additional File 1 2006 cost study survey questionnaire, Cambodia. the questionnaire represents the data collection instrument that was developed and used during the present study. Click here for file Results Between September and November 2006, a total of 60 household heads were interviewed: 30 with dengue-positive and 30 with dengue-negative febrile children. Mean total dengue-related costs did not differ from those of other febrile illnesses (31.5 vs. 27.2 US$, p = 0.44. Hospitalization almost tripled the costs of dengue (from 14.3 to 40.1 US$ and doubled the costs of other febrile illnesses (from 17.0 to 36.2 US$. To finance the cost of a febrile illness, 67% of households incurred an average debt of 23.5 US$ and higher debt was associated with hospitalization compared to outpatient treatment (US$ 23.1 vs. US$ 4.5, p Conclusion In Cambodia, dengue and other febrile illnesses pose a financial burden to households. A possible reason for a lower rate of hospitalization among children from poor households could be the burden of higher illness-related costs and debts.
Sylvie PARENT; Klein, Juan-Luis; Jolin, Louis
According to the authors of this paper, mass tourism does not generate the development of local communities but rather their devitalization. This paper presents a cross-literature survey on community-based tourism and local community development. It proposes some links between these two approaches and asserts that community-based tourism can be a strategy to trigger local community development. It address the conditions under which the convergence of these two approaches may allow the launchi...
Des Jardins, Terrisca R
Community-based health information exchanges (HIEs) and efforts to consolidate and house data are growing, given the advent of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) under the Affordable Care Act and other similar population health focused initiatives. The Southeast Michigan Beacon Community (SEMBC) can be looked to as one case study that offers lessons learned, insights on challenges faced and accompanying workarounds related to governance and stakeholder engagement. The SEMBC case study employs an established Data Warehouse Governance Framework to identify and explain the necessary governance and stakeholder engagement components, particularly as they relate to community-wide data sharing and data warehouses or repositories. Perhaps the biggest lesson learned through the SEMBC experience is that community-based work is hard. It requires a great deal of community leadership, collaboration and resources. SEMBC found that organizational structure and guiding principles needed to be continually revisited and nurtured in order to build the relationships and trust needed among stakeholder organizations. SEMBC also found that risks and risk mitigation tactics presented challenges and opportunities at the outset and through the duration of the three year pilot period. Other communities across the country embarking on similar efforts need to consider realistic expectations about community data sharing infrastructures and the accompanying and necessary governance and stakeholder engagement fundamentals. PMID:25848612
Extension professionals play an increasingly central role in supporting community garden and other community-based agriculture projects. With growing interest in community gardens as tools to improve community health and vitality, the best strategies for supporting these projects should be explored. Due to the importance of inter-personal networks…
Full Text Available The population in the most Mediterranean countries, particularly in Algeria, is concentrated to the urban communities, cities with more or less importance, urban and coastal regions. This trend of rapid growth of the urban communities leads to multiple consequences both economically and socially on the use of resources and their distribution. The urban is the area where cross the resources, the population and the production activities and yours management. To analyze the corruption as a phenomenon triple (economic, social and institutional through an urban community (as Annaba’s case in this research it may well prove very fruitful in terms of lessons on this central phenomenon and its impacts in the North African countries.
Full Text Available Background: Elderly prefer to be in their own homes rather than being in hospital or residential homes. Communication between elderly and community nurses is essential in caring and mutual interaction andmodern technologies like MELCO provides the elderly the feeling of independence and safety.Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the social community model within the objectives of the MELCO project and its application within the community.Methodology: Three axes were taken in consideration: a ontology, b ecological theory and c social network and information systems analyses for the development of the social community model. Fourelderly women participated as a case study in piloting the mobile virtual system. The participants also responded to a short closed ended questionnaire.Results: The analysis of the questionnaire and the discussions with the participants showed that elders found the mobile system useful, easy to use and expressed the actual use of this would help them maintain active. Participants concern of social isolation or dependency on others seems to be trounced through the use of the mobile technology.Conclusions: MELCO social community model is a centric network that enables effective management and collaboration of social and health care teams around the elderly in the community. The teams arevirtual, dynamic and collaborative.
Hamisu M. Salihu; Abraham A. Salinas-Miranda; Arnut Paothong; Wei Wang,; Lindsey M. King
This paper outlines how to compute community priority indices in the context of multicriteria decision making in community settings. A simple R function was developed and validated with community needs assessment data. Particularly, the first part of this paper briefly overviews the existing methods for priority setting and reviews the utility of a multicriteria decision-making approach for community-based prioritization. The second part illustrates how community priority indices can be calcu...
Arocha José F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The "applied" nature distinguishes applied sciences from theoretical sciences. To emphasize this distinction, we begin with a general, meta-level overview of the scientific endeavor. We introduce the knowledge spectrum and four interconnected modalities of knowledge. In addition to the traditional differentiation between implicit and explicit knowledge we outline the concepts of general and individual knowledge. We connect general knowledge with the "frame problem," a fundamental issue of artificial intelligence, and individual knowledge with another important paradigm of artificial intelligence, case-based reasoning, a method of individual knowledge processing that aims at solving new problems based on the solutions to similar past problems. We outline the fundamental differences between Medical Informatics and theoretical sciences and propose that Medical Informatics research should advance individual knowledge processing (case-based reasoning and that natural language processing research is an important step towards this goal that may have ethical implications for patient-centered health medicine. Discussion We focus on fundamental aspects of decision-making, which connect human expertise with individual knowledge processing. We continue with a knowledge spectrum perspective on biomedical knowledge and conclude that case-based reasoning is the paradigm that can advance towards personalized healthcare and that can enable the education of patients and providers. We center the discussion on formal methods of knowledge representation around the frame problem. We propose a context-dependent view on the notion of "meaning" and advocate the need for case-based reasoning research and natural language processing. In the context of memory based knowledge processing, pattern recognition, comparison and analogy-making, we conclude that while humans seem to naturally support the case-based reasoning paradigm (memory of past experiences
Dyer, J; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Leventon, J; Nshimbi, M; Chama, F; Kafwifwi, A; Muledi, J I; Kaumbu, J-M K; Falcao, M; Muhorro, S; Munyemba, F; Kalaba, G M; Syampungani, S
The emphasis on participatory environmental management within international development has started to overcome critiques of traditional exclusionary environmental policy, aligning with shifts towards decentralisation and community empowerment. However, questions are raised regarding the extent to which participation in project design and implementation is meaningful and really engages communities in the process. Calls have been made for further local-level (project and community-scale) research to identify practices that can increase the likelihood of meaningful community engagement within externally initiated projects. This paper presents data from three community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) project case studies from southern Africa, which promote Joint Forest Management (JFM), tree planting for carbon and conservation agriculture. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, community-level meetings, focus groups and interviews. We find that an important first step for a meaningful community engagement process is to define 'community' in an open and participatory manner. Two-way communication at all stages of the community engagement process is shown to be critical, and charismatic leadership based on mutual respect and clarity of roles and responsibilities is vital to improve the likelihood of participants developing understanding of project aims and philosophy. This can lead to successful project outcomes through community ownership of the project goals and empowerment in project implementation. Specific engagement methods are found to be less important than the contextual and environmental factors associated with each project, but consideration should be given to identifying appropriate methods to ensure community representation. Our findings extend current thinking on the evaluation of participation by making explicit links between the community engagement process and project outcomes, and by
Wit, M.A.S. de; Kortbeek, L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Jager, C.J. de; Wannet, W.J.B.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van
We compared gastroenteritis cases that consulted a general practitioner (GP) with those who did not in a community-based study and also with those in a GP-based study. We aimed to identify factors associated with consultation, and with inclusion of cases by GPs, and secondly to study the effects on
Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S.; Mangione, Carol M.
Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic-community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study…
Burgos, Daniel; Hummel, Hans; Tattersall, Colin; Brouns, Francis; Kurvers, Hub; Koper, Rob
Burgos, D., Hummel, H., Tattersall, C., Brouns, F., Kurvers, H., & Koper, R. (2006). Influence of face-to-face meetings on virtual community activity: the case of Learning Network for Learning Design. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Web Based Communities 2006. February, 16-18,2006, San
Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.
This special issue of the American Journal of Community Psychology is the result of a 18-year partnership with Alaska Native communities using collaborative field based research methods. Its goal is to provide a case study fulfilling the spirit of ecological inquiry, offering a detailed and nuanced description of a community intervention. The articles describe the nature of our work, including some of our successes, as well as challenges, dilemmas, and even disappointments we experienced alon...
Mc Donnell, Claire; Ennis, Patricia; Shoemaker, Leslie
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of student learning from community engagement by critically assessing the implementation of this pedagogical approach in the context of teaching and learning chemistry and also evaluating the role of personal development in student-community engagement. Design/methodology/approach – A case study on the implementation since 2007 of community-based learning (also called service-learning) projects in an academic departm...
Bastida, Elena M.; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard
Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues r...
Urban farm education programs can provide opportunities for community members to acquire skills and knowledge related to agriculture, food production, and nutrition. This project proposed a case study focusing on the Common Good City Farm’s Green Tomorrows program, an urban agriculture and nutrition education program for residents of Washington D.C., which aims to increase participant level of food security, ability to grow crops in urban locations, and knowledge of nutrition, food preparatio...
Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been acknowledged as the best approach to empower the socio-economic development of rural communities in various countries. Lenggong Valley is in its first phase of tourism development and entrepreneurship of local community is still under studied in Lenggong. By looking at various business activities that could be generated by the development, their involvement in business would contribute to a better economic return. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the entrepreneurship of local community in Lenggong Valley. Based on quantitative face to face survey conducted on 500 residents in Lenggong Valley, the finding indicates that some of the local communities in Lenggong are already involved in entrepreneurship activities; however their business survivability should be a concern as they face limited financial sources and support. Furthermore, the majority of them are still involve in agricultural related activities making an indication that major effort is required to transform their life-style from agriculture to entrepreneurship. The finding provides a suggestion to the government on the needs to implement various entrepreneurship related programme in Lenggong Valley. Strategies to increase their involvement could be done through innovative programs, awareness, preparedness, and education on future entrepreneurs. Having newly declared as a world heritage site, this paper demonstrates the preliminary result on the need for a deeper examination on local community entrepreneurship in Lenggong Valley.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume of Home- and Community-Based Services and Time to Nursing-Home Placement The purpose of this study was to determine whether the volume of Home and Community...
Tulloch, Olivia; Theobald, Sally; Morishita, Fukushi; Datiko, Daniel G.; Asnake, Girum; Tesema, Tadesse; Jamal, Habiba; Markos, Paulos; Cuevas, Luis E.; Yassin, Mohammed A.
Background The Ethiopian TB control programme relies on passive case finding of TB cases. The predominantly rural-based population in Ethiopia has limited access to health facilities creating barriers to TB services. An intervention package aimed to bring TB diagnosis and treatment services closer to communities has been implemented through partnership with health extension workers (HEWs). They undertook advocacy, communication and social mobilization (ACSM) activities, identified symptomatic...
Filiposka, Sonja; Juiz, Carlos
The communication infrastructure is a critical component of a large-scale cloud data center. It needs to provide the best performance available while keeping overprovisioning and, lately even more important, power consumption, to the minimum. Aiming to provide a unified solution that will have high performance together with economical benefits and power consumption reduction, in this paper, we propose a new community-based scale-free model for data center network architecture. By comparing the proposed model to other similar solutions we show that the performance of the network in terms of average path length, bandwidth and resilience is similar to the state-of-the-art models. In our presented detailed analysis of the model properties, our focus is set on exploring how heterogeneity in terms of different type of network equipment influences the basic network properties. We also present solutions and network metrics that can be used in conjunction to the introduced community structure in order to additionally increase the performance.
Mehpare Tokay ARGAN
Full Text Available Today, like in all areas, the Internet has had an important effect in the area of health as well. With the development of the Internet many new and different applications have developed and one of the most important of these are probably virtual communities. Virtual communities, which are used as a tool for providing information and word of mouth communication, have become a widely used marketing tool in the area of healthcare services in recent years. A virtual community is a group that does not depend on space and time to maintain ties or participation in the group whose members share the same interest and to maintain closeness, that is based on internet communications and whose membership is based on free will. In these kinds of communities whose services are provided on a membership basis, health services of various kinds are offered to the members. In virtual communities, virtual interactive communications established between the members can be an important determining factor when choosing a product, service or doctor.
Chishakwe, Nyasha; Murray, Laurel; Chambwera, Muyeye
This publication, produced in collaboration with WWF Southern Africa, looks at how community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) can inform and contribute to climate change adaptation at the community level, specifically to community-based adaptation (CBA) to climate change. It provides a framework for analysing the two approaches at conceptual and practical levels. Using case studies from southern Africa, the publication demonstrates the synergies between CBA and CBNRM, most important of which are the adaptation co-benefits between the two. While local incentives have driven community action in CBNRM, it is the evolution of an enabling environment in the region, in the form of institutions, policies, capacity and collaboration which characterises the scaling up of CBNRM to national and regional levels.
Yunjing Wang; Leonardo Marzagalia
Currently, the community structure algorithms proposed by most scholars are contraposing un-weighted network, while there still lacks research on the discovery of weighted network community. In un-weighted networks, the relation between the nodes is simplified as two states, which will neglect too much valuable information. To construct more actual structure of mined community, a novel discovery algorithm for weighted network community is put forward. The social network technology is implemen...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community partnerships are defined as groups working together with shared goals, responsibilities, and power to improve the community. There is growing evidence that these partnerships contribute to the success and sustainability of community-based education and service programs (COBES, facilitating change in community actions and attitudes. Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS is forging itself as a transformational institution in Uganda and the region. The College is motivated to improve the health of Ugandans through innovative responsive teaching, provision of service, and community partnerships. Evaluating the COBES program from the community perspective can assist the College in refining an innovative and useful model that has potential to improve the health of Ugandans. Methods A stratified random sample of 11 COBES sites was selected to examine the community’s perception of the program. Key Informant Interviews of 11 site tutors and 33 community members were completed. The data was manually analyzed and themes developed. Results Communities stated the students consistently engaged with them with culturally appropriate behaviour. They rated the student’s communication as very good even though translators were frequently needed. Half the community stated they received some feedback from the students, but some communities interpreted any contact after the initial visit as feedback. Communities confirmed and appreciated that the students provided a number of interventions and saw positive changes in health and health seeking behaviours. The community reflected that some programs were more sustainable than others; the projects that needed money to implement were least sustainable. The major challenges from the community included community fatigue, and poor motivation of community leaders to continue to take students without compensation. Conclusions Communities hosting Makerere students valued the
Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph
The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…
Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas
Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...... zooplankton in ecosystem models. Characterizing zooplankton traits and trade-offs will also be helpful in understanding the selection pressures and diversity patterns that emerge in different ecosystems along major environmental gradients. Zooplankton traits can be characterized according to their function...... and type. Some traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for...
Fischer, Gerhard; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, Volker
Traditionally, universities focus primarily on instructionist teaching. Such an understanding has been criticized from theoretical and practical points of view. We believe that sociocultural theories of learning and the concepts of social capital and social creativity hold considerable promise as a theoretical base for the repositioning of universities in the knowledge society. To illustrate our assumption, we provide case studies from the University of Colorado and the University of Siegen. These cases indicate how approaches to community-based learning can be integrated into a curriculum of applied computer science. We also discuss the role these didactical concepts can play within a practice-oriented strategy of regional innovation.
Meléndez i Frigola, Joaquim; Colomer Llinàs, Joan; Rosa, Josep Lluís de la
The paper focuses on taking advantage of large amounts of data that are systematically stored in plants (by means of SCADA systems), but not exploited enough in order to achieve supervisory goals (fault detection, diagnosis and reconfiguration). The methodology of case base reasoning (CBR) is proposed to perform supervisory tasks in industrial processes by re-using the stored data. The goal is to take advantage of experiences, registered in a suitable structure as cam, avoiding the tedious ta...
Full Text Available According to the authors of this paper, mass tourism does not generate the development of local communities but rather their devitalization. This paper presents a cross-literature survey on community-based tourism and local community development. It proposes some links between these two approaches and asserts that community-based tourism can be a strategy to trigger local community development. It address the conditions under which the convergence of these two approaches may allow the launching of development initiatives liable to counter the devitalization and impoverishment process which characterizes certain mass tourism oriented places.
Full Text Available This action research project started from an analysis of the competitiveness potential of community enterprises based on Porter’s Diamond Model. The SWOT analysis and TOWS Matrix are employed to determine the development plans including strategies, programmes, and details of various projects for all targeted enterprises in the five Southern border provinces of Thailand. The performances of the selected pilot projects are in line with the key performance indicators. Furthermore, all the targeted community enterprises initiating their medium-term development plans during the fiscal year 2013 to 2017 have received more revenue since project implementation. All enterprises have also expanded distribution channels, have more involvement with their communities, and the participant members of all enterprises are satisfied with the project implementation and performance at a high level.
CAI Wei-Ming; YAO Huai-Ying; FENG Wei-Lin; JIN Qun-Li; LIU Yue-Yan; LI Nan-Yi; ZHENG Zhong
The culturable bacterial population and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)profile of casing soil were investigated at different mushroom (Agaricus bisporusI cropping stages.The change in soil bacterial PLFAs was always accompanied by a change in the soil culturable bacterial population in the first flush.Comparatively higher culturable bacterial population and bacterial PLFAs were found in the casing soil at the primordia formation stage of the first flush.There was a significant increase in the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs during mushroom growth.Multivariate analysis of PLFA data demonstrated that the mushroom cropping stage could considerably affect the microbial community structure of the casing soil.The bacterial population increased significantly from casing soil application to the primordia formation stage of the first flush.Casing soil application resulted in an increase in the ratio of gram-negative bacterial PLFAs to gram-positive bacterial PLFAs,suggesting that some gram-negative bacteria might play an important role in mushroom sporophore initiation.
Bryant, Carol A; Brown, Kelli R McCormack; McDermott, Robert J; Forthofer, Melinda S; Bumpus, Elizabeth C; Calkins, Susan A; Zapata, Lauren B
This article describes the application and refinement of community-based prevention marketing (CBPM), an example of community-based participatory research that blends social marketing theories and techniques and community organization principles to guide voluntary health behavior change. The Florida Prevention Research Center has worked with a community coalition in Sarasota County, Florida to define locally important health problems and issues and to develop responsive health-promotion interventions. The CBPM framework has evolved as academic and community-based researchers have gained experience applying it. Community boards can use marketing principles to design evidence-based strategies for addressing local public health concerns. Based on 6 years of experience with the "Believe in All Your Possibilities" program, lessons learned that have led to revision and improvement of the CBPM framework are described. PMID:16923844
Arthur Frederick Hoole
Full Text Available Namibia’s community-based natural resource management program (CBRNM and communal conservancies have gained international acclaim for rural poverty alleviation and wildlife conservation on the commons. Community-based ecotourism enterprise development has played a central role in the generation of community revenues, employment and additional benefits. The place of community-based ecotourism enterprises in the evolution of Namibia’s conservancies is examined. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA approach was conducted in Namibia as part of recent doctoral research in 2006 and 2007, featuring participant observation, semi-structured key informant interviews and structured communal villager interviews. Findings demonstrate some tangible successes of community-based ecotourism enterprise development, as well as emerging issues in related benefits distribution and power brokering. The case of the Torra Conservancy is profiled as a leading model for success in partnerships between conservancies, as community-based conservation institutions, and tourism enterprises. The experience of Ehi-rovipuka Conservancy is also detailed, to illuminate challenges and prospects for replicating the Torra model. Power relationships between and among private enterprise, community, and the state are elucidated. Ecotourism enterprise development can contribute successfully to community-based conservation. But, issues of power sharing, governance and competition necessitate the further evolution of commons institutions to capture future, sustainable benefits from community-based conservation premised on wildlife and related ecotourism development.
Puett, Chloe; Sadler, Kate; Alderman, Harold; Coates, Jennifer; Fiedler, John L; Myatt, Mark
This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding the community-based management of severe acute malnutrition (CMAM) to a community-based health and nutrition programme delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in southern Bangladesh. The cost-effectiveness of this model of treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of the 'standard of care' for SAM (i.e. inpatient treatment), augmented with community surveillance by CHWs to detect cases, in a neighbouring area. An activity-based cost model was used, and a societal perspective taken, to include all costs incurred in the programme by providers and participants for the management of SAM in both areas. Cost data were coupled with programme effectiveness data. The community-based strategy cost US$26 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, compared with US$1344 per DALY averted for inpatient treatment. The average cost to participant households for their child to recover from SAM in community treatment was one-sixth that of inpatient treatment. These results suggest that this model of treatment for SAM is highly cost-effective and that CHWs, given adequate supervision and training, can be employed effectively to expand access to treatment for SAM in Bangladesh. PMID:22879522
Bødker, Susanne; Korsgaard, Henrik; Saad-Sulonen, Joanna
In this paper, we present a case study of an urban organic food community and examine the way the community shapes its artifact ecology through a combination of appropriation of freely or cheaply available tools, and the long-term effort of building the community's own website. Based on...
Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Patka, Mazna; Adams, Monica; Morello, Taylor
Two primary outlets for community psychology research, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" and the "Journal of Community Psychology", were assessed to rank institutions based on publication frequency and scientific influence of publications over a 32-year period. Three specific periods were assessed (1973-1983, 1984-1994, 1995-2004).…
S Arunachallam; AC Botes; A Gmeiner
As community-based health care delivery is now a prominent feature of the health care system in South Africa, nursing curricula are being challenged to prepare student nurses for community based nursing roles and responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to describe guidelines for a community-based curriculum in psychiatric nursing science for a nursing college in KwaZulu-Natal. A qualitative, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was employed. To reach the purpos...
Allender, Steven; Owen, Brynle; Kuhlberg, Jill; Lowe, Janette; Nagorcka-Smith, Phoebe; Whelan, Jill; Bell, Colin
Introduction Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity. Methods Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12) built a community model that progressed from connec...
This paper aims to flesh out women capacity for creating community resilience and practices of sustainable post disaster reconstruction in Bantul district Central Java Indonesia. Based on case study, the findings show women grassroots organizations have insight, information, experience, networks and resources vital within earthquake reconstruction as such capacities increasing resilience. During reconstruction women demonstrated their capacity as income-earners, producers and managers of food...
Moreno-Peñaranda, Raquel; Egelyng, Henrik
This paper presents the findings of a case study of a Brazilian community pursuing a livelihood strategy based on certified organic agriculture. Using the sustainable rural livelihoods framework, the paper identifies three different organic livelihood strategies involving varying degrees of capitals. The paper concludes that understanding the implications of these different organic strategies and their rationales is a prerequisite for policy-makers to tailor policies and programmes aiming to ...
Riesbeck, Christopher K
Introducing issues in dynamic memory and case-based reasoning, this comprehensive volume presents extended descriptions of four major programming efforts conducted at Yale during the past several years. Each descriptive chapter is followed by a companion chapter containing the micro program version of the information. The authors emphasize that the only true way to learn and understand any AI program is to program it yourself. To this end, the book develops a deeper and richer understanding of the content through LISP programming instructions that allow the running, modification, and
Vaughan, Dina Agnone; DeBiase, Christina B.; Gibson-Howell, Joan C.
A survey investigated the extent of use of case-based learning in 141 dental hygiene programs. A majority of responding schools use the approach, most frequently in clinical dental hygiene, community dental health, and dental science courses. Proportion of instructional time was greatest in the content areas of special needs, ethics, medical…
This action research project started from an analysis of the competitiveness potential of community enterprises based on Porter’s Diamond Model. The SWOT analysis and TOWS Matrix are employed to determine the development plans including strategies, programmes, and details of various projects for all targeted enterprises in the five Southern border provinces of Thailand. The performances of the selected pilot projects are in line with the key performance indicators. Furthermore, all the target...
Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077
Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen
Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the
Carter, Jennifer; Hill, Greg
The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources. PMID:17175093
Full Text Available It is acknowledged by academics and development practitioners alike that many common strategies addressing community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation duplicate each other. Thus, there is a strong push to integrate the two fields to enhance aid effectiveness and reduce confusion for communities. Examples of community based disaster risk reduction (DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA projects are presented to highlight some of the ways these issues are tackled in the Pacific. Various approaches are employed but all aim to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change and disasters. By focusing on three case studies, elements of best practice are drawn out to illustrate how DRR and CCA can be integrated for enhanced aid effectiveness, and also look at ways in which these two often overlapping fields can be better coordinated in ongoing and future projects. Projects that address vulnerability holistically, and target the overall needs and capacity of the community are found to be effective in enhancing the resilience of communities. By strategically developing a multi-stakeholder and multi-sector approach, community projects are likely to encapsulate a range of experience and skills that will benefit the community. Furthermore, by incorporating local knowledge, communities are far more likely to be engaged and actively participate in the project. From selected case studies, commonly occurring best practice methods to integrate DRR and CCA are identified and discussed and recommendations on how to overcome the common challenges also presented.
Tine, Roger Ck; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndour, Cheikh T;
Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken...... to assess whether combining the interventions would be an acceptable approach to malaria control for community health workers (CHWs)....
Emge, Donald R.
Base Christian communities (also know as base-level ecclesial communities or CEBs) are small groups of Christians, mainly Catholics and mainly in Latin America, that come together for scripture study, prayer, and fellowship. They frequently turn their attention toward social ills and address problems existing within society. The origin of CEBs can…
Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, JE.; Duran, B.; Tafoya, G.; Baker, EA.; CHAN, D; Chang, C.; Greene-Moton, E.; Kelley, M.; Wallerstein, Nina
A national community based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual/logic model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus-building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nation-wide. Participants val...
Paula Diab; Penny Flack
Background: Community-based education (CBE) is utilised by health science facultiesworldwide to provide a relevant primary care experience for students and a service tounderserved communities and, hopefully, to affect student career choices. The benefits totraining institutions and students are well documented, but it may well be that communities,too, will be able to benefit from a more balanced partnership, where they are consulted in theplanning of such training programmes.Method: An explo...
Jokirinne, Jari; Johnsen, Kristin
This research was a client-based qualitative research with a deep background research on therapeutic community end community education. The basis of the empirical research is Häkkinen Juvenile Home in Jyväskylä, which is an educative community that specializes in youth with drug with drug experimenting and addictive behavior. The idea of the research came from the researchers’ common interest in youth work and substance care, as well as an interest in deepening own knowledge about therapeuti...
Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated by successes made in non-disease specific community-based early warning systems with a view to identify opportunities for developing similar systems for malaria. This article reviewed the existing community-based early warning systems documented in literature. The types of disasters that are addressed by these systems and the methodologies utilised in the development of the systems were identified. The review showed that most of the documented community-based early warning systems focus on natural disasters such as floods, drought, and landslides. Community-based early warning systems for human diseases are very few, even though such systems exist at national and regional and global levels. There is a clear gap in terms of community-based malaria early warning systems. The methodologies for the development of the community-based early warning systems reviewed mainly derive from the four elements of early warning systems; namely risk knowledge, monitoring, warning communication and response capability. The review indicated the need for the development of community based early warning systems for human diseases.Keywords: community; early warning; disaster; hazards
Florano, Ebinezer R.
This research aims to investigate the role of communities in disaster recovery and in building resilience to answer the questions: "What is the role of community in the disaster recovery process? What roles do various stakeholders play in community-led disaster recovery? Is community-based disaster recovery affected by exposure to hazards and disasters, or by the community`s level of socioeconomic development?" To answer these questions, five hypotheses were tested in the 12 barangays from Ta...
Bonham, Vence L; Citrin, Toby; Modell, Stephen M; Franklin, Tené Hamilton; Bleicher, Esther W B; Fleck, Leonard M
Engaging communities of color in the genetics public policy conversation is important for the translation of genetics research into strategies aimed at improving the health of all. Implementing model public participation and consultation processes can be informed by the Communities of Color Genetics Policy Project, which engaged individuals from African American and Latino communities of diverse socioeconomic levels in the process of "rational democratic deliberation" on ethical and policy issues stretching from genome research to privacy and discrimination concerns to public education. The results of the study included the development of a participatory framework based on a combination of the theory of democratic deliberation and the community-based public health model which we describe as "community-based dialogue." PMID:19451407
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a fuzzy case-based reasoning system, using a case-based reasoning (CBR system that learns from experience to solve problems. Different from a traditional case-based reasoning system that uses crisp cases, our system works with fuzzy ones. Specifically, we change a crisp case into a fuzzy one by fuzzifying each crisp case element (feature, according to the maximum degree principle. Thus, we add the “vague” concept into a case-based reasoning system. It is these somewhat vague inputs that make the outcomes of the prediction more meaningful and accurate, which illustrates that it is not necessarily helpful when we always create accurate predictive relations through crisp cases. Finally, we prove this and apply this model to practical weather forecasting, and experiments show that using fuzzy cases can make some prediction results more accurate than using crisp cases.
AUSTIN, SANDRA A.; CLAIBORNE, NANCY
Community-based participatory action research was utilized to form a collaboration that developed a Health Ministry program in four Northeastern urban Black Churches, in which they designed and implemented a culturally competent Type II Diabetes self management education program. Minister sponsorship and a program coordinator synchronized the four Health Ministries’ development and diabetes program planning. A case study design, and participant observations and a focus group methodology were ...
Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…
Paris, Howard S.; And Others
Chronicles the efforts of North Carolina's James Sprunt Community College to improve the quality of life for residents of its service area through the use of community-based programming (C-BP). Reviews the C-BP process utilized at the college, highlighting the formation of three planning teams charged with developing coalitions, strategic plans,…
Samarakoon, J.I.; Nightingale, Maeve; Hermes, Rudi; Joseph, B.L.; Salagrama, V.
Conclusions and recommendations of the report were based upon eighteen case studies of community-based Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) in Bangladesh, India, Maldives and Sri Lanka. These include empowerment of coastal communities; failure of imposed fishery co-operatives; and the application of territorial use rights in fisheries(TURF).
Ratnayake, Ruwan; Crowe, Samuel J; Jasperse, Joseph; Privette, Grayson; Stone, Erin; Miller, Laura; Hertz, Darren; Fu, Clementine; Maenner, Matthew J; Jambai, Amara; Morgan, Oliver
In 2015, community event-based surveillance (CEBS) was implemented in Sierra Leone to assist with the detection of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. We assessed the sensitivity of CEBS for finding EVD cases during a 7-month period, and in a 6-week subanalysis, we assessed the timeliness of reporting cases with no known epidemiologic links at time of detection. Of the 12,126 CEBS reports, 287 (2%) met the suspected case definition, and 16 were confirmed positive. CEBS detected 30% (16/53) of the EVD cases identified during the study period. During the subanalysis, CEBS staff identified 4 of 6 cases with no epidemiologic links. These CEBS-detected cases were identified more rapidly than those detected by the national surveillance system; however, too few cases were detected to determine system timeliness. Although CEBS detected EVD cases, it largely generated false alerts. Future versions of community-based surveillance could improve case detection through increased staff training and community engagement. PMID:27434608
Zhang, Xia; Xia, Zhengyou; Xu, Shengwu; Wang, J. D.
Timely and cost-effective analytics over social network has emerged as a key ingredient for success in many businesses and government endeavors. Community detection is an active research area of relevance to analyze online social network. The problem of selecting a particular community detection algorithm is crucial if the aim is to unveil the community structure of a network. The choice of a given methodology could affect the outcome of the experiments because different algorithms have different advantages and depend on tuning specific parameters. In this paper, we propose a community division model based on the notion of game theory, which can combine advantages of previous algorithms effectively to get a better community classification result. By making experiments on some standard dataset, it verifies that our community detection model based on game theory is valid and better.
Full Text Available This article explores the implementation and results of a service learning based Urban Studies program course, the student expectations at the beginning of the course, and the student feedback at the end of the course. Through detailed explanation and examples of the live community needs, in multiple communities, addressed in this course and the resulting student projects, this article presents the case for service learning as a vibrant, efficient, and effective pedagogy for use within Urban Studies programs. Specifically, this article explores service learning pedagogy as, perhaps, a uniquely effective and satisfying tool that enhances the educative process for students and communities alike. Additionally, this article explores the enhanced project effectiveness and external outreach realized by partnering not only with communities, but also with multiple institutions of higher education, simultaneously, in order to achieve project(s success. This article also includes, and explores, the results of the pre and post course student experience surveys, as well as community feedback, and presents comparative data in which multiple curriculum formats, including lecture and workshops, are weighed against service learning curriculum prepared and presented in the course examined in this article. KEYWORDSService Learning, Higher Education, Urban Studies, Outreach
Naiqi Song; Jin-Tun Zhang
Functional diversity in plant communities is a key driver of ecosystem processes. The effective methods for measuring functional diversity are important in ecological studies. A new method based on neural network, self-organizing feature map (SOFM index), was put forward and described. A case application to the study of functional diversity of Phellodendron amurense communities in Xiaolongmen Forest Park of Beijing was carried out in this paper. The results showed that SOFM index was an effec...
Newcomer, R; Spitalny, M; Fox, P.; Yordi, C
STUDY QUESTION: Did the Medicare Alzheimer's Disease Demonstration with its case management and community service waivers affect the use of community-based long-term care services among people with dementia and their primary caregivers? DATA SOURCES: Baseline and periodic caregiver interviews. Measures include client and caregiver attributes and self-reported service use. STUDY DESIGN: The demonstration randomly assigned voluntary applicants into treatment and control groups. Treatment group ...
Kilamo, Terhi; Aaltonen, Timo; Heinimäki, Teemu J.
Up to date information on the associated developer community plays a key role when a company working with open source software makes business decisions. Although methods for getting such information have been developed, decisions are often based on scarce information. In this paper a measuring model for open source communities, BULB, is introduced. BULB provides a way of collecting relevant information and relates it to the well-known onion model of open source communities.
White, Geoffry D.
A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…
Elias, Abdallah F; Chaussee, Michael S; McDowell, Emily J; Huntington, Mark K
This article describes a community-based intervention to manage an outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin infections in a midwestern county jail. A systematic investigation conducted by a family medicine residency program identified 64 total cases and 19 MRSA cases between January 1 and December 31, 2007. Factors contributing to MRSA transmission included inadequate surveillance, lack of antibacterial soap, and a defective laundry process. All 19 isolates were CA-MRSA and all seven tested by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were USA300. Four of the seven isolates showed variation of their PFGE patterns. A primary care approach using community-based resources effectively reduced the number of cases in this heterogeneous outbreak of CA-MRSA, with the last MRSA being isolated in October 2007. PMID:20466702
McDaid, Aaron F; Friel, Nial; Hurley, Neil J
In the model-based clustering of networks, blockmodelling may be used to identify roles in the network. We identify a special case of the Stochastic Block Model (SBM) where we constrain the cluster-cluster interactions such that the density inside the clusters of nodes is expected to be greater than the density between clusters. This corresponds to the intuition behind community-finding methods, where nodes tend to clustered together if they link to each other. We call this model Stochastic Community Finding (SCF) and present an efficient MCMC algorithm which can cluster the nodes, given the network. The algorithm is evaluated on synthetic data and is applied to a social network of interactions at a karate club and at a monastery, demonstrating how the SCF finds the 'ground truth' clustering where sometimes the SBM does not. The SCF is only one possible form of constraint or specialization that may be applied to the SBM. In a more supervised context, it may be appropriate to use other specializations to guide...
Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna
Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…
Edwards, Joellen B.; Alley, Nancy M.
The East Tennessee State University nursing school's transition to a community-based nursing curriculum was built on five key concepts: (1) relevance and accountability to health and social needs; (2) meeting of basic health needs through teaching and learning; (3) community experiences throughout the curriculum; (4) interdisciplinary…
D'Aquin, Mathieu; Badra, Fadi; Lafrogne, Sandrine; Lieber, Jean; Napoli, Amedeo; Szathmary, Laszlo
In case-based reasoning, the adaptation step depends in general on domain-dependent knowledge, which motivates studies on adaptation knowledge acquisition (AKA). CABAMAKA is an AKA system based on principles of knowledge discovery from databases. This system explores the variations within the case base to elicit adaptation knowledge. It has been successfully tested in an application of case-based decision support to breast cancer treatment.
Sun, Li; Ling, Ximan; He, Kun; Tan, Qian
Large structure in complex networks can be studied by dividing it into communities or modules. Urban traffic system is one of the most critical infrastructures. It can be abstracted into a complex network composed of tightly connected groups. Here, we analyze community structure in urban traffic zones based on the community detection method in network science. Spectral algorithm using the eigenvectors of matrices is employed. Our empirical results indicate that the traffic communities are variant with the travel demand distribution, since in the morning the majority of the passengers are traveling from home to work and in the evening they are traveling a contrary direction. Meanwhile, the origin-destination pairs with large number of trips play a significant role in urban traffic network's community division. The layout of traffic community in a city also depends on the residents' trajectories.
Engels, M.; Heinse, R.
On small low islands with limited freshwater resources, terrestrial plant communities play a large role in moderating freshwater availability. Freshwater demands of vegetative communities are variable depending on the composition of the community. Hence, changes to community structure from production crop introductions, non-native species invasions, and climate change, may have significant implications for freshwater availability. Understanding how vegetative community changes impact freshwater availability will allow for better management and forecasting of limited freshwater supplies. To better understand these dynamics, we investigated three small tropical atolls in the Phoenix Island Protected Area, Kiribati. Despite their close proximity, these islands receive varying amounts of rainfall, are host to different plant communities and two of the islands have abandoned coconut plantations. Using electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar, soil samples, climate and satellite data, we present preliminary estimates of vegetative water demand for different tropical plant communities.
responsible entities for physical planning, can hold a key role in transforming energy systems towards carbon-neutrality, based on renewable energies. The implementation should be approached at community scale, which has advantages compared to only focusing on buildings or cities. But community energy...... settings. The current case study presents a community energy concept for the inner-city of Elmshorn. By estimating the energy demand, consideration of local energy saving potentials, and available energy potentials within the community, it was possible to develop several energy system variants that...... planning can be a complex and time-consuming process. Many municipalities hesitate to initiate such a process, because of missing guidelines and uncertainty about possible energy potentials. Case studies help to understand applied methodologies and could show available energy potentials in different local...
Fixture is an important manufacturing activity. A fixture design system based on case-based reasoning (CBR) is proposed in this paper. A new method of case representation on the basis of fixture function is presented, where the case representation is constituted of workpiece knowledge, processing feature knowledge, and fixture feature knowledge. Running the prototype system shows that the knowledge representation method, using cases, is a better way to transform and explain the design knowledge.
Xia, Ruiping; Stone, John R; Hoffman, Julie E; Klappa, Susan G
In physical therapy, there is increasing focus on the need at the community level to promote health, eliminate disparities in health status, and ameliorate risk factors among underserved minorities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is the most promising paradigm for pursuing these goals. Community-based participatory research stresses equitable partnering of the community and investigators in light of local social, structural, and cultural elements. Throughout the research process, the CBPR model emphasizes coalition and team building that joins partners with diverse skills/expertise, knowledge, and sensitivities. This article presents core concepts and principles of CBPR and the rationale for its application in the management of health issues at the community level. Community-based participatory research is now commonly used to address public health issues. A literature review identified limited reports of its use in physical therapy research and services. A published study is used to illustrate features of CBPR for physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to promote an understanding of how physical therapists could use CBPR as a promising way to advance the profession's goals of community health and elimination of health care disparities, and social responsibility. Funding opportunities for the support of CBPR are noted. PMID:26251479
Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.
GUI Yan-li; FANG Yan-gang; LIU Ji-sheng
This paper introduces a new concept of community-based ecotourism (CBET) that originated in foreign countries.Then it analyzes the significance ofCBET development in nature reserve (NR).The authors think that community participation is the evitable choice of nature reserve's conservation and development.CBET,as the self-improved model of ecotourism,can promote tourism community sustainable development.Based on the stakeholder analysis of CBET in NRs,this paper addresses the reality,especially the problem of CBET development in NRs of China.In order to develop CBET in NRs of China,this paper takes some suggestions to promote the community participation:1)gradual political empowerment,2) deep level economic incentive,3) widespread educational support,4) impartial distribution of community benefits,and 5) stakeholders cooperation.
Malinen, Tiina; Mikkonen, Teemu; Tienvieri, Vesa; Vadén, Tere
Based on a survey, we describe the demographic and motivational structure of one open source hardware (OSH) community and compare it to open source software (OSS) communities. Taken separately, both the demographics and the motivational structure of the OSH community fall clearly within the typology of OSS communities, but when the two are taken together the OSH community forms a type of its own. We also discuss bottlenecks in OSH development revealed by the survey and subsequent interviews.
Argan, Mehpare Tokay; Argan, Metin; Suher, Idil K.
Like in all areas, virtual communities make their presence felt in the area of healthcare too. Virtual communities play an important role in healthcare in terms of gathering information on healthcare, sharing of personal interests and providing social support. Virtual communities provide a way for a group of peers to communicate with each other.…
A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.
Xavier Úcar Martínez
Full Text Available Introduction: Participatory evaluation (PE is a hybrid methodology that can be used simultaneously to investigate and act in groups and communities. It can generate new knowledge about reality, but italso allows changes in the participants and their sociocultural context. This research project, developed over three years, aims to find out whether PE processes are useful and appropriate to evaluate community actionsand to generate learning that contribute to the empowerment of people who develop them.Method: The methodological structure of the research process design Participatory Evaluation processes that are applied in three selected communities-cases, over one year. The steering groups in each caseevaluated four dimensions of Community Development Plans: context, evolution, performance and results, using different techniques and group dynamics. Throughout this process, participants identify the acquiredknowledge and this is linked to indicators of empowerment, using questionnaires, content analysis and semi-structured interviews.Results: The development PE process in the three analyzed cases confirmed that PE is a useful strategy to assess participatory community actions of a territory; to report them to the people of the community; andto make shared decisions, about initiatives in order to improve community actions. The obtained results also verify that, throughout PE, there has been learning in the participants.Conclusions: The involvement of community members in the evaluation makes it more useful, fairer and more valid, but also a fourth positive consequence of PE is empowerment. From the process and the resultsof these cases of Participatory Evaluation, we consider that community EP is social transformation.
María Luisa Burneo; Anahí Chaparro Ortiz de Zevallos
This paper analyzes changes in community governance in the contextof negotiations with a mining company. We focus on three issues:the role played by the community government on the regulation ofcommunity resources and territory, the diverse and complex intereststhat emerge in the presence of mining activity; and, the communityas a political institution confronting external pressures over its land.We develop a study case focusing on the negotiation process betweenthe Michiquillay peasant commu...
Upadhya, Devesh; Moll, Anthony P; Brooks, Ralph P; Friedland, Gerald; Shenoi, Sheela V
Despite substantial progress in implementing HIV testing, challenges remain in achieving widespread uptake particularly in rural resource-limited settings. We sought to understand motivations for HIV testing in a community-based HIV testing programme in rural South Africa. We conducted a questionnaire survey in participants undergoing voluntary HIV testing within an ongoing community-based integrated HIV/tuberculosis intensive case finding programme at congregate rural settings. Participants responded to a six-item non-mutually exclusive motivations survey which included the topics of feeling ill, recent HIV exposure, risky lifestyle, illness in a family member, and pregnancy. Among 2068 respondents completing the survey, 1393 (67.4%) were women, median age was 40 years (IQR 19-56), and 1235 (59.7%) were first-time testers. Among all testers, 142 (6.9%) were HIV-positive with median CD4 count was 346 cells/mm(3) (IQR 218-542). Community-based testing for HIV is acceptable and meets the needs of community members in rural South Africa. Motivations for HIV testing at the community level are complex and differ according to gender, age, site of community testing, and HIV status. These differences can be utilised to improve the focus and yield of community-based HIV screening. PMID:26134323
Cai Kui; Du Juan; Dai Cong; Hu Huabin
A three-year study over the Bai, Jingpo and Huayaodai communities in Yunnan Province reveals that the community development is significantly influenced in various ways by such cultural factors as the concepts of development; concepts and traditions of inter-community relationships, consumption, marriage and gender; patterns of decision-making and production, resource and income allocation; as well as the role of information dissemination systems, religion and ritual. Based on the analysis over the interactive relevance between each factor and community development, some strategies and methods for dealing with such a cultural relevance in development projects are recommended.
Seixas, Cristiana Simão; Berkes, Fikret
Community-based institutions used to be driven by local needs, but in recent decades, some of them have been responding to national and global economic opportunities. These cases are of interest because they make it possible to investigate how local institutions can evolve in response to new challen
Grauer, Kit; Castro, Juan Carlos; Lin, Ching-Chiu
Community-based new media programs offer a distinct place of arts learning in the larger learning and media ecologies that teens and young adults navigate. As part of a 3-year case study of new media programs, the Gulf Islands Film and Television School (GIFTS) presents pedagogical and curricular insights that are relevant to both out-of- and…
West, Richard E.; Williams, Greg; Williams, David
In this case study, we researched one cohort from the Center for Animation, a higher education teaching environment that has successfully fostered group creativity and learning outcomes through problem-based learning. Through live and videotaped observations of the interactions of this community over 18 months, in addition to focused interviews…
Kong, Luis J.
In this chapter, the author will explore the significance of race from a social constructionist perspective. He will focus on immigration laws and on examples of legal cases that have set the stage for current definitions of whiteness and racial identification. A community-based transformational organizing model will be presented. The model will…
Wang, Zuxi; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yao
To improve the hyperbolic mapping methods both in terms of accuracy and running time, a novel mapping method called Community and Hyperbolic Mapping (CHM) is proposed based on community information in this paper. Firstly, an index called Community Intimacy (CI) is presented to measure the adjacency relationship between the communities, based on which a community ordering algorithm is introduced. According to the proposed Community-Sector hypothesis, which supposes that most nodes of one community gather in a same sector in hyperbolic space, CHM maps the ordered communities into hyperbolic space, and then the angular coordinates of nodes are randomly initialized within the sector that they belong to. Therefore, all the network nodes are so far mapped to hyperbolic space, and then the initialized angular coordinates can be optimized by employing the information of all nodes, which can greatly improve the algorithm precision. By applying the proposed dual-layer angle sampling method in the optimization procedure, CHM reduces the time complexity to O(n2) . The experiments show that our algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
Case-based reasoning is a methodology with a long tradition in artificial intelligence that brings together reasoning and machine learning techniques to solve problems based on past experiences or cases. Given a problem to be solved, reasoning involves the use of methods to retrieve similar past cases in order to reuse their solution for the problem at hand. Once the problem has been solved, learning methods can be applied to improve the knowledge based on past experiences. In spite of being a broad methodology applied in industry and services, case-based reasoning has often been forgotten in
Yi, Shen; Gang, Ren; Yang, Liu; Jia-Li, Xu
In this paper, we propose a local fuzzy method based on the idea of “p-strong” community to detect the disjoint and overlapping communities in networks. In the method, a refined agglomeration rule is designed for agglomerating nodes into local communities, and the overlapping nodes are detected based on the idea of making each community strong. We propose a contribution coefficient to measure the contribution of an overlapping node to each of its belonging communities, and the fuzzy coefficients of the overlapping node can be obtained by normalizing the to all its belonging communities. The running time of our method is analyzed and varies linearly with network size. We investigate our method on the computer-generated networks and real networks. The testing results indicate that the accuracy of our method in detecting disjoint communities is higher than those of the existing local methods and our method is efficient for detecting the overlapping nodes with fuzzy coefficients. Furthermore, the local optimizing scheme used in our method allows us to partly solve the resolution problem of the global modularity. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51278101 and 51578149), the Science and Technology Program of Ministry of Transport of China (Grant No. 2015318J33080), the Jiangsu Provincial Post-doctoral Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 1501046B), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. Y0201500219).
Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, JE.; Duran, B.; Tafoya, G.; Baker, EA.; Chan, D.; Chang, C.; Greene-Moton, E.; Kelley, M.; Wallerstein, Nina
A national community based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual/logic model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus-building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nation-wide. Participants validated and expanded upon existing model constructs and identified new constructs based on “real-world” praxis, resulting in a revised model. Four cross-cutting constructs were identified: trust development, capacity, mutual learning, and power dynamics. By empirically testing the model, we found community face validity and capacity to adapt the model to diverse contexts. We recommend partnerships use and adapt the CBPR model and its constructs, for collective reflection and evaluation, to enhance their partnering practices and achieve their health and research goals. PMID:25361792
Most studies on adaptive networks concentrate on the properties of steady state, but neglect transient dynamics. In this study, we pay attention to the emergence of community structure in the transient process and the effects of community-based control strategies on epidemic spreading. First, by normalizing the modularity, we investigate the evolution of community structure during the transient process, and find that a strong community structure is induced by the rewiring mechanism in the early stage of epidemic dynamics, which, remarkably, delays the outbreak of disease. We then study the effects of control strategies started at different stages on the prevalence. Both immunization and quarantine strategies indicate that it is not ‘the earlier, the better’ for the implementation of control measures. And the optimal control effect is obtained if control measures can be efficiently implemented in the period of a strong community structure. For the immunization strategy, immunizing the susceptible nodes on susceptible–infected links and immunizing susceptible nodes randomly have similar control effects. However, for the quarantine strategy, quarantining the infected nodes on susceptible–infected links can yield a far better result than quarantining infected nodes randomly. More significantly, the community-based quarantine strategy performs better than the community-based immunization strategy. This study may shed new light on the forecast and the prevention of epidemics among humans. (paper)
Cynthia Agumanu McOliver
Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research.
Kramer, Benjamin G.
The number of U.S. homeschooled students has steadily risen from the 1980's to the present, and many eventually choose to attend community colleges (Cogan, 2010; Mason, 2004; Ray, 2004a; Sorey & Duggan, 2008a). Homeschoolers who make community colleges their first structured educational setting outside the home do so for various reasons:…
Audrey Ballantine, Manuela Cirilli, Evangelia Dimovasili, Manjit Dosanjh, Seamus Hegarty
The European hadron therapy community gathered in Stockholm from 3 to 5 September for the annual ENLIGHT workshops. Three of the four EC-funded projects born under the umbrella of ENLIGHT (see box) were discussed in the prestigious Nobel Forum at the Karolinska Institutet. Souvenir photo from the ENLIGHT workshops On its second birthday, the PARTNER Initial Training Network was especially under the spotlight, as the European Commission conducted a formal project review bringing together the institutes, companies and young researchers involved. The 21 PARTNER researchers experienced the thrill of presenting their work in this privileged setting. During the coffee breaks, they joked about this being their only chance in life to speak in the Nobel Forum – but who knows what these brilliant young minds will achieve! They certainly impressed the European Commission’s Project Officer Gianluca Coluccio and Expert Reviewer Kaisa Hellevuo, who stated that PARTNER is a showcase proj...
Santosh Kumar Swain
Full Text Available We present a comprehensive test case generation technique from UML models. We use the features in UML 2.0 sequence diagram including conditions, iterations, asynchronous messages and concurrent components. In our approach, test cases are derived from analysis artifacts such as use cases, their corresponding sequence diagrams and constraints specified across all these artifacts. We construct Use case Dependency Graph (UDG from use case diagram and Concurrent Control Flow Graph (CCFG from corresponding sequence diagrams for test sequence generation. We focus testing on sequences of messages among objects of use case scenarios. Our testing strategy derives test cases using full predicate coverage criteria. Our proposed test case generation technique can be used for integration and system testing accommodating the object message and condition information associated with the use case scenarios. The test cases thus generated are suitable for detecting synchronization and dependency of use cases and messages, object interaction and operational faults. Finally, we have made an analysis and comparison of our approach with existing approaches, which are based on other coverage criterion through an example.
Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.
Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).