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Cadmium Ion Biosorption by the Thermophilic Bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus and G. thermocatenulatus  

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This study reports surface complexation models (SCMs) for quantifying metal ion adsorption by thermophilic microorganisms. In initial cadmium ion toxicity tests, members of the genus Geobacillus displayed the highest tolerance to CdCl2 (as high as 400 to 3,200 ?M). The thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus and G. thermocatenulatus were selected for further electrophoretic mobility, potentiometric titration, and Cd2+ adsorption experiments to characterize Cd2+ co...

Hetzer, Adrian; Daughney, Christopher J.; Morgan, Hugh W.

2006-01-01

2

The l-Arabinan Utilization System of Geobacillus stearothermophilus?  

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Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a thermophilic soil bacterium that has a 38-kb gene cluster for the utilization of arabinan, a branched polysaccharide that is part of the plant cell wall. The bacterium encodes a unique three-component regulatory system (araPST) that includes a sugar-binding lipoprotein (AraP), a histidine sensor kinase (AraS), and a response regulator (AraT) and lies adjacent to an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) arabinose transport system (araEGH). The lipoprotein (AraP) sp...

Shulami, Smadar; Raz-pasteur, Ayelet; Tabachnikov, Orly; Gilead-gropper, Sarah; Shner, Itzhak; Shoham, Yuval

2011-01-01

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Substrate-Ligand Interactions in Geobacillus Stearothermophilus Nitric Oxide Synthase†  

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Ntric oxide synthase (NOS) generates NO via a sequential two-step reaction, L-arginine (L-Arg) ? N-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA) ? L-citrulline + NO. Each step of the reaction follows a distinct mechanism defined by the chemical environment introduced by each substrate bound to the heme active site. The dioxygen complex of the NOS enzyme from a thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus stearothermophilus (gsNOS), is unusually stable; hence it provides a unique model for the studies of the mechanist...

Kabir, Mariam; Sudhamsu, Jawahar; Crane, Brian R.; Yeh, Syun-ru; Rousseau, Denis L.

2008-01-01

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Isolation of Lipase Gene of the Thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus Strain-5  

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In earlier study a new thermophilic strain Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain-5 producing thermostable lipase was isolated and identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to geobacilli especially the thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus with optimal growth and lipolytic enzyme activity at 60°C and pH 7.0. In this study thermostable lipase gene from this bacterium was isolated by PCR using degenerate primers. The DNA...

Sifour, M.; Saeed, H. M.; Zaghloul, T. I.; Berekaa, M. M.; Abdel-fattah, Y. R.

2010-01-01

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The l-Arabinan Utilization System of Geobacillus stearothermophilus?  

Science.gov (United States)

Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a thermophilic soil bacterium that has a 38-kb gene cluster for the utilization of arabinan, a branched polysaccharide that is part of the plant cell wall. The bacterium encodes a unique three-component regulatory system (araPST) that includes a sugar-binding lipoprotein (AraP), a histidine sensor kinase (AraS), and a response regulator (AraT) and lies adjacent to an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) arabinose transport system (araEGH). The lipoprotein (AraP) specifically bound arabinose, and gel mobility shift experiments showed that the response regulator, AraT, binds to a 139-bp fragment corresponding to the araE promoter region. Taken together, the results showed that the araPST system appeared to sense extracellular arabinose and to activate a specific ABC transporter for arabinose (AraEGH). The promoter regions of the arabinan utilization genes contain a 14-bp inverted repeat motif resembling an operator site for the arabinose repressor, AraR. AraR was found to bind specifically to these sequences, and binding was efficiently prevented in the presence of arabinose, suggesting that arabinose is the molecular inducer of the arabinan utilization system. The expression of the arabinan utilization genes was reduced in the presence of glucose, indicating that regulation is also mediated via a catabolic repression mechanism. The cluster also encodes a second putative ABC sugar transporter (AbnEFJ) whose sugar-binding lipoprotein (AbnE) was shown to interact specifically with linear and branched arabino-oligosaccharides. The final degradation of the arabino-oligosaccharides is likely carried out by intracellular enzymes, including two ?-l-arabinofuranosidases (AbfA and AbfB), a ?-l-arabinopyranosidase (Abp), and an arabinanase (AbnB), all of which are encoded in the 38-kb cluster.

Shulami, Smadar; Raz-Pasteur, Ayelet; Tabachnikov, Orly; Gilead-Gropper, Sarah; Shner, Itzhak; Shoham, Yuval

2011-01-01

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The L-Arabinan utilization system of Geobacillus stearothermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a thermophilic soil bacterium that has a 38-kb gene cluster for the utilization of arabinan, a branched polysaccharide that is part of the plant cell wall. The bacterium encodes a unique three-component regulatory system (araPST) that includes a sugar-binding lipoprotein (AraP), a histidine sensor kinase (AraS), and a response regulator (AraT) and lies adjacent to an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) arabinose transport system (araEGH). The lipoprotein (AraP) specifically bound arabinose, and gel mobility shift experiments showed that the response regulator, AraT, binds to a 139-bp fragment corresponding to the araE promoter region. Taken together, the results showed that the araPST system appeared to sense extracellular arabinose and to activate a specific ABC transporter for arabinose (AraEGH). The promoter regions of the arabinan utilization genes contain a 14-bp inverted repeat motif resembling an operator site for the arabinose repressor, AraR. AraR was found to bind specifically to these sequences, and binding was efficiently prevented in the presence of arabinose, suggesting that arabinose is the molecular inducer of the arabinan utilization system. The expression of the arabinan utilization genes was reduced in the presence of glucose, indicating that regulation is also mediated via a catabolic repression mechanism. The cluster also encodes a second putative ABC sugar transporter (AbnEFJ) whose sugar-binding lipoprotein (AbnE) was shown to interact specifically with linear and branched arabino-oligosaccharides. The final degradation of the arabino-oligosaccharides is likely carried out by intracellular enzymes, including two ?-l-arabinofuranosidases (AbfA and AbfB), a ?-l-arabinopyranosidase (Abp), and an arabinanase (AbnB), all of which are encoded in the 38-kb cluster. PMID:21460081

Shulami, Smadar; Raz-Pasteur, Ayelet; Tabachnikov, Orly; Gilead-Gropper, Sarah; Shner, Itzhak; Shoham, Yuval

2011-06-01

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Isolation of Lipase Gene of the Thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus Strain-5  

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Full Text Available In earlier study a new thermophilic strain Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain-5 producing thermostable lipase was isolated and identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to geobacilli especially the thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus with optimal growth and lipolytic enzyme activity at 60°C and pH 7.0. In this study thermostable lipase gene from this bacterium was isolated by PCR using degenerate primers. The DNA fragment coding for lipase gene was cloned in the pCR 4-TOPO plasmid and the ligation products were transformed into Escherichia coli XL1-blue cells. Partial sequencing of the gene was carried out (accession number DQ923401. Analysis by BLAST program showed some sequence similarity to that, of several lipase genes from thermophilic Geobacillus and Bacillus submitted to Genbank.

M. Sifour

2010-01-01

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Isolation of Glucocardiolipins from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a  

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Glucose-substituted cardiolipins account for about 4 mol% of total phospholipid extracted from exponentially grown cells of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a. Individual glucocardiolipin species exhibited differences in fatty acid substitution, with iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0 prevailing. The compounds were purified to homogeneity by a novel protocol and precharacterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Scha?ffer, Christina; Beckedorf, Anke I.; Scheberl, Andrea; Zayni, Sonja; Peter-katalinic?, Jasna; Messner, Paul

2002-01-01

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Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores by High-Pressure Carbon Dioxide Treatment  

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High-pressure CO2 treatment has been studied as a promising method for inactivating bacterial spores. In the present study, we compared this method with other sterilization techniques, including heat and pressure treatment. Spores of Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus were subjected to CO2 treatment at 30 MPa and 35°C, to high-hydrostatic-pressure treatment at 200 MPa and 65°C, or to heat treatment at 0.1 MPa an...

Watanabe, Taisuke; Furukawa, Soichi; Hirata, Junichi; Koyama, Tetsuya; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Makari

2003-01-01

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Evolved ?-Galactosidases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus with Improved Transgalactosylation Yield for Galacto-Oligosaccharide Production? †  

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A mutagenesis approach was applied to the ?-galactosidase BgaB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus KVE39 in order to improve its enzymatic transglycosylation of lactose into oligosaccharides. A simple screening strategy, which was based on the reduction of the hydrolysis of a potential transglycosylation product (lactosucrose), provided mutant enzymes possessing improved synthetic properties for the autocondensation product from nitrophenyl-galactoside and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from...

Placier, Gae?l; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Rabiller, Claude; Mattes, Ralf

2009-01-01

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Crystal Structure of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus Carboxylesterase Est55 and Its Activation of Prodrug CPT-11  

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Several mammalian carboxylesterases were shown to activate the prodrug irinotecan (CPT-11) to produce SN-38, a topoisomerase inhibitor used in cancer therapy. However, the potential use of bacterial carboxylesterases, which have the advantage of high stability, has not been explored. We present the crystal structure of the carboxyesterase Est55 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus and evaluation of its enzyme activity on CPT-11. Crystal structures were determined at pH 6.2 and 6.8 and resoluti...

Liu, Ping; Ewis, Hosam E.; Tai, Phang C.; Lu, Chung-dar; Weber, Irene T.

2007-01-01

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Properties of Geobacillus stearothermophilus levansucrase as potential biocatalyst for the synthesis of levan and fructooligosaccharides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of levansucrase (LS) by thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus was investigated. LS production was more effective in the presence of sucrose (1%, w/v) than fructose, glucose, glycerol or raffinose. The results (Top 57°C; stable for 6 h at 47°C) indicate the high stability of the transfructosylation activity of G. stearothermophilus LS as compared with LSs from other microbial sources. Contrary to temperature, the pH had a significant effect on the selectivity of G. stearothermophilus LS-catalyzed reaction, favoring the transfructosylation reaction in the pH range of 6.0-6.5. The kinetic parameter study revealed that the catalytic efficiency of transfructosylation activity was higher as compared with the hydrolytic one. In addition to levan, G. stearothermophilus LS synthesized fructooligosaccharides in the presence of sucrose as the sole substrate. The results also demonstrated the wide acceptor specificity of G. stearothermophilus LS with maltose being the best fructosyl acceptor. This study is the first on the catalytic properties and the acceptor specificity of LS from G. stearothermophilus. PMID:23926090

Inthanavong, Lotthida; Tian, Feng; Khodadadi, Maryam; Karboune, Salwa

2013-01-01

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Thermal adaptation of dihydrofolate reductase from the moderate thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermal melting temperature of dihydrofolate reductase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (BsDHFR) is ~30 °C higher than that of its homologue from the psychrophile Moritella profunda. Additional proline residues in the loop regions of BsDHFR have been proposed to enhance the thermostability of BsDHFR, but site-directed mutagenesis studies reveal that these proline residues contribute only minimally. Instead, the high thermal stability of BsDHFR is partly due to removal of water-accessible thermolabile residues such as glutamine and methionine, which are prone to hydrolysis or oxidation at high temperatures. The extra thermostability of BsDHFR can be obtained by ligand binding, or in the presence of salts or cosolvents such as glycerol and sucrose. The sum of all these incremental factors allows BsDHFR to function efficiently in the natural habitat of G. stearothermophilus, which is characterized by temperatures that can reach 75 °C. PMID:24730604

Guo, Jiannan; Luk, Louis Y P; Loveridge, E Joel; Allemann, Rudolf K

2014-05-01

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Molecular Basis of S-layer Glycoprotein Glycan Biosynthesis in Geobacillus stearothermophilus*S?  

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The Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a possesses a cell wall containing an oblique surface layer (S-layer) composed of glycoprotein subunits. O-Glycans with the structure [?2)-?-l-Rhap-(1?3)-?-l-Rhap-(1?2)-?-l-Rhap-(1?]n = 13-18, a2-O-methyl group capping the terminal repeating unit at the nonreducing end and a ?2)-?-l-Rhap-[(1?3)-?-l-Rhap]n = 1-2(1?3)- adaptor are linked via a ?-d-Galp residue to distinct sit...

Steiner, Kerstin; Novotny, Rene?; Werz, Daniel B.; Zarschler, Kristof; Seeberger, Peter H.; Hofinger, Andreas; Kosma, Paul; Scha?ffer, Christina; Messner, Paul

2008-01-01

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A Group IIC-Type Intron Interrupts the rRNA Methylase Gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Strain 10?  

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Group IIC introns insert next to the stem-loop structure of rho-independent transcription terminators, thus avoiding intact genes. The insertion sites of 17 copies of the G.st.I1 intron from Geobacillus stearothermophilus were compared. One copy of the intron was found to interrupt an open reading frame (ORF) encoding an rRNA methylase.

Moretz, Samuel E.; Lampson, Bert C.

2010-01-01

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Structural Analysis of Xylanase from Marine Thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus in Tanjung Api, Poso, Indonesia  

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Full Text Available A xylanase gene, xynA, has been cloned from thermophilic strain Geobacillus stearothermophilus, which was isolated from marine Tanjung Api, Indonesia. The polymerase chain reaction product of 1266 bp of xynA gene consisted of 1221 bp open reading frame and encoded 407 amino acids including 30 residues of signal peptide. The sequence exhibited highest identity of 98.7% in the level of amino acid, with an extracellular endo-1,4-?-xylanase from G. stearothermophilus T-6 (E-GSX T-6 of the glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10. A comparative study between the local strain G. stearothermophilus (GSX L and E-GSX T-6 on homology of amino acid sequence indicated five differents amino acids in the gene. They were Threonine/Alanine (T/A, Asparagine/Aspartate (N/D, Lysine/Asparagine (K/N, Isoleucine/Methionine (I/M, Serine/Threonine (S/T at the position 220, 227, 228, 233, and 245, respectively. Protein structural analysis of those differences suggested that those amino acids may play role in biochemical properties such as enzyme stability, in particular its thermostability.

BUDI SAKSONO

2010-12-01

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Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus in canned food and coconut milk samples by addition of enterocin AS-48.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cyclic bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested on a cocktail of two Geobacillus stearothermophilus strains in canned food samples (corn and peas), and in coconut milk. AS-48 (7 microg/g) reduced viable cell counts below detection levels in samples from canned corn and peas stored at 45 degrees C for 30 days. In coconut milk, bacterial inactivation by AS-48 (1.75 microg/ml) was even faster. In all canned food and drink samples inoculated with intact G. stearothermophilus endospores, bacteriocin addition (1.75 microg per g or ml of food sample) rapidly reduced viable cell counts below detection levels and avoided regrowth during storage. After a short-time bacteriocin treatment of endospores, trypsin addition markedly increased G. stearothermophilus survival, supporting the effect of residual bacteriocin on the observed loss of viability for endospores. Results from this study support the potential of enterocin AS-48 as a biopreservative against G. stearothermophilus. PMID:19269571

Viedma, Pilar Martínez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

2009-05-01

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Quantitative assessment of the risk of microbial spoilage in foods. Prediction of non-stability at 55 °C caused by Geobacillus stearothermophilus in canned green beans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial spoilage of canned foods by thermophilic and highly heat-resistant spore-forming bacteria, such as Geobacillus stearothermophilus, is a persistent problem in the food industry. An incubation test at 55 °C for 7 days, then validation of biological stability, is used as an indicator of compliance with good manufacturing practices. We propose a microbial risk assessment model predicting the percentage of non-stability due to G. stearothermophilus in canned green beans manufactured by a French company. The model accounts for initial microbial contaminations of fresh unprocessed green beans with G. stearothermophilus, cross-contaminations in the processing chain, inactivation processes and probability of survival and growth. The sterilization process is modeled by an equivalent heating time depending on sterilization value F? and on G. stearothermophilus resistance parameter z(T). Following the recommendations of international organizations, second order Monte-Carlo simulations are used, separately propagating uncertainty and variability on parameters. As a result of the model, the mean predicted non-stability rate is of 0.5%, with a 95% uncertainty interval of [0.1%; 1.2%], which is highly similar to data communicated by the French industry. A sensitivity analysis based on Sobol indices and some scenario tests underline the importance of cross-contamination at the blanching step, in addition to inactivation due to the sterilization process. PMID:24334097

Rigaux, Clémence; André, Stéphane; Albert, Isabelle; Carlin, Frédéric

2014-02-01

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In situ investigation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spore germination and inactivation mechanisms under moderate high pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial spores are a major concern for food safety due to their high resistance to conventional preservation hurdles. Innovative hurdles can trigger bacterial spore germination or inactivate them. In this work, Geobacillus stearothermophilus spore high pressure (HP) germination and inactivation mechanisms were investigated by in situ infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and fluorometry. G. stearothermophilus spores' inner membrane (IM) was stained with Laurdan fluorescent dye. Time-dependent FT-IR and fluorescence spectra were recorded in situ under pressure at different temperatures. The Laurdan spectrum is affected by the lipid packing and level of hydration, and provided information on the IM state through the Laurdan generalized polarization. Changes in the -CH2 and -CH3 asymmetric stretching bands, characteristic of lipids, and in the amide I' band region, characteristic of proteins' secondary structure elements, enabled evaluation of the impact of HP on endospores lipid and protein structures. These studies were complemented by ex situ analyses (plate counts and microscopy). The methods applied showed high potential to identify germination mechanisms, particularly associated to the IM. Germination up to 3 log10 was achieved at 200 MPa and 55 °C. A molecular-level understanding of these mechanisms is important for the development and validation of multi-hurdle approaches to achieve commercial sterility. PMID:24750808

Georget, Erika; Kapoor, Shobhna; Winter, Roland; Reineke, Kai; Song, Youye; Callanan, Michael; Ananta, Edwin; Heinz, Volker; Mathys, Alexander

2014-08-01

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Tryptophan Oxidative Metabolism Catalyzed by Geobacillus Stearothermophilus: A Thermophile Isolated from Kuwait Soil Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons  

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Tryptophan metabolism has been extensively studied in humans as well as in soil. Its metabolism takes place mainly through kynurenine pathway yielding hydroxylated, deaminated and many other products of physiological significance. However, tryptophan metabolism has not been studied in an isolated thermophilic bacterium. Geobacillus stearothermophilus is a local thermophile isolated from Kuwait desert soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The bacterium grows well at 65 °C in 0.05 M p...

Al-hassan, Jassim M.; Al-awadi, Samira; Oommen, Sosamma; Alkhamis, Abdulaziz; Afzal, Mohammad

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Physicochemical characterization of tensio-active produced by Geobacillus stearothermophilus isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosurfactants are surface-active agents of microbial origin, and have a property of lowering the interfacial tension between two liquids. They act on the interface and are amphiphathic molecules; in with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions are present in the same molecule. However, the economics of producing biosurfactant has limited its commercial applications, and the costs can be reduced using cheap substrates or industrial waste. The present study showed the biosurfactant production using corn steep liquor and palm oil as carbon and nitrogen sources for reduction the costs of production. The biosurfactant production by Geobacillus stearothermophilus UCP 986 was carried out using optimized culture medium constituted by palm oil (7.5%) and corn steep liquor (4.5%) using Bioflo fermentor, at temperature of 45°C, during 32 h and agitation of 300 rpm. The biosurfactant showed a reduction of the water surface tension of 72-31 mN/m and interfacial tension of 0.3 mN/m. The biosurfactant was obtained from the net metabolic liquid by acetone precipitation corresponding to the yield of 2.3g/L. The isolate biosurfactant showed a CMC of 2.5% and non-ionic profile. The best emulsification index (E(24)) obtained was 87% using motor oil burned. The biosurfactant solution (2.5%) used in oil spreading test increases the viscosity of engine burning oil of 149.2% and 138.2% to vegetable fat post-frying, respectively. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer indicated at 29.52 min a molecular weight of 207 Da and eight peaks by FT-IR identified the chemical structure of the biosurfactant produced by G. stearothermophilus. PMID:23010035

Jara, Alícia M A T; Andrade, Rosileide F S; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

2013-01-01

22

Structure-Specificity Relationships of an Intracellular Xylanase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus  

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Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium that produces two selective family 10 xylanases which both take part in the complete degradation and utilization of the xylan polymer. The two xylanases exhibit significantly different substrate specificities. While the extracellular xylanase (XT6; MW 43.8 kDa) hydrolyzes the long and branched native xylan polymer, the intracellular xylanase (IXT6; MW 38.6 kDa) preferentially hydrolyzes only short xylo-oligosaccharides. In this study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of IXT6 is reported, as determined by X-ray crystallography. It was initially solved by molecular replacement and then refined at 1.45 {angstrom} resolution to a final R factor of 15.0% and an R{sub free} of 19.0%. As expected, the structure forms the classical ({alpha}/{beta}){sub 8} fold, in which the two catalytic residues (Glu134 and Glu241) are located on the inner surface of the central cavity. The structure of IXT6 was compared with the highly homologous extracellular xylanase XT6, revealing a number of structural differences between the active sites of the two enzymes. In particular, structural differences derived from the unique subdomain in the carboxy-terminal region of XT6, which is completely absent in IXT6. These structural modifications may account for the significant differences in the substrate specificities of these otherwise very similar enzymes.

Solomon,V.; Teplitsky, A.; Shulami, S.; Zolotnitsky, G.; Shoham, Y.; Shoham, G.

2007-01-01

23

Structure of a His170Tyr mutant of thermostable pNPPase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using directed evolution based on random mutagenesis and heat-treated selection, a thermostable His170Tyr mutant of Geobacillus stearothermophilus thermostable p-nitrophenylphosphatase (TpNPPase) was obtained. The temperature at which the His170Tyr mutant lost 50% of its activity (T1/2) was found to be 4.40?K higher than that of wild-type TpNPPase, and the melting temperature of the His170Tyr mutant increased by 2.39?K. The crystal structure of the His170Tyr mutant was then determined at 2.0?Å resolution in the presence of a sodium ion and a sulfate ion in the active site. The cap domain of chain B shows a half-closed conformation. The hydrophobic side chain of the mutated residue, the hydroxyphenyl group, forms a hydrophobic contact with the methyl group of Ala166. This hydrophobic interaction was found using the Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) web server with an interaction distance of 4.6?Å, and might be a key factor in the thermostabilization of the His170Tyr mutant. This study potentially offers a molecular basis for both investigation of the catalytic mechanism and thermostable protein engineering. PMID:24915075

Shen, Tiantian; Guo, Zheng; Ji, Chaoneng

2014-06-01

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The Geobacillus stearothermophilus V iscS Gene, Encoding Cysteine Desulfurase, Confers Resistance to Potassium Tellurite in Escherichia coli K-12  

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Many eubacteria are resistant to the toxic oxidizing agent potassium tellurite, and tellurite resistance involves diverse biochemical mechanisms. Expression of the iscS gene from Geobacillus stearothermophilus V, which is naturally resistant to tellurite, confers tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli K-12, which is naturally sensitive to tellurite. The G. stearothermophilus iscS gene encodes a cysteine desulfurase. A site-directed mutation in iscS that prevents binding of its pyridoxal pho...

Tantalea?n, Juan C.; Araya, Manuel A.; Saavedra, Claudia P.; Fuentes, Derie E.; Pe?rez, Jose? M.; Caldero?n, Iva?n L.; Youderian, Philip; Va?squez, Claudio C.

2003-01-01

25

A Two-Component System Regulates the Expression of an ABC Transporter for Xylo-Oligosaccharides in Geobacillus stearothermophilus?  

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Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 utilizes an extensive and highly regulated hemicellulolytic system. The genes comprising the xylanolytic system are clustered in a 39.7-kb chromosomal segment. This segment contains a 6-kb transcriptional unit (xynDCEFG) coding for a potential two-component system (xynDC) and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system (xynEFG). The xynD promoter region contains a 16-bp inverted repeat resembling the operator site for the xylose repressor, XylR. XylR was ...

Shulami, Smadar; Zaide, Galia; Zolotnitsky, Gennady; Langut, Yael; Feld, Geoff; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Shoham, Yuval

2007-01-01

26

Development of a Multiplex-PCR assay for the rapid identification of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Anoxybacillus flavithermus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of thermophilic bacilli in dairy products is indicator of poor hygiene. Their rapid detection and identification is fundamental to improve the industrial reactivity in the implementation of corrective and preventive actions. In this study a rapid and reliable identification of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Anoxybacillus flavithermus was achieved by species-specific PCR assays. Two primer sets, targeting the ITS 16S-23S rRNA region and the rpoB gene sequence of the target species respectively, were employed. Species-specificity of both primer sets was evaluated by using 53 reference strains of DSMZ collection; among them, 13 species of the genus Geobacillus and 15 of the genus Anoxybacillus were represented. Moreover, 99 wild strains and 23 bulk cells collected from 24 infant formula powders gathered from several countries worldwide were included in the analyses. Both primer sets were highly specific and the expected PCR fragments were obtained only when DNA from G. stearothermophilus or A. flavithermus was used. After testing their specificity, they were combined in a Multiplex-PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of the two target species. The specificity of the Multiplex-PCR was evaluated by using both wild strains and bulk cells. Every analysis confirmed the reliable identification results provided by the single species-specific PCR methodology. The easiness, the rapidity (about 4 h from DNA isolation to results) and the reliability of the PCR procedures developed in this study highlight the advantage of their application for the specific detection and identification of the thermophilic species G. stearothermophilus and A. flavithermus. PMID:24929881

Pennacchia, Carmela; Breeuwer, Pieter; Meyer, Rolf

2014-10-01

27

A unique octameric structure of Axe2, an intracellular acetyl-xylooligosaccharide esterase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 is a thermophilic, Gram-positive soil bacterium that possesses an extensive and highly regulated hemicellulolytic system, allowing the bacterium to efficiently degrade high-molecular-weight polysaccharides such as xylan, arabinan and galactan. As part of the xylan-degradation system, the bacterium uses a number of side-chain-cleaving enzymes, one of which is Axe2, a 219-amino-acid intracellular serine acetylxylan esterase that removes acetyl side groups from xylooligosaccharides. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that Axe2 belongs to the lipase GDSL family and represents a new family of carbohydrate esterases. In the current study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of Axe2 is reported, as determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the selenomethionine derivative Axe2-Se was initially determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction techniques at 1.70?Å resolution and was used for the structure determination of wild-type Axe2 (Axe2-WT) and the catalytic mutant Axe2-S15A at 1.85 and 1.90?Å resolution, respectively. These structures demonstrate that the three-dimensional structure of the Axe2 monomer generally corresponds to the SGNH hydrolase fold, consisting of five central parallel ?-sheets flanked by two layers of helices (eight ?-helices and five 310-helices). The catalytic triad residues, Ser15, His194 and Asp191, are lined up along a substrate channel situated on the concave surface of the monomer. Interestingly, the Axe2 monomers are assembled as a `doughnut-shaped' homo-octamer, presenting a unique quaternary structure built of two staggered tetrameric rings. The eight active sites are organized in four closely situated pairs, which face the relatively wide internal cavity. The biological relevance of this octameric structure is supported by independent results obtained from gel-filtration, TEM and SAXS experiments. These data and their comparison to the structural data of related hydrolases are used for a more general discussion focusing on the structure-function relationships of enzymes of this category. PMID:24531461

Lansky, Shifra; Alalouf, Onit; Solomon, Hodaya Vered; Alhassid, Anat; Govada, Lata; Chayen, Naomi E; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

2014-02-01

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Plasma sterilization of Geobacillus Stearothermophilus by O{mathsf2}:N{mathsf2} RF inductively coupled plasma  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work is to identify the main process responsible for sterilization of Geobacillus Stearothermophilus spores in O{2}:N{2} RF inductively coupled plasma. In order to meet this objective the sterilization efficiencies of discharges in mixtures differing in the initial O{2}/N{2} ratios are compared with plasma properties and with scanning electron microscopy images of treated spores. According to the obtained results it can be concluded that under our experimental conditions the time needed to reach complete sterilization is more related to O atom density than UV radiation intensity, i.e. complete sterilization is not related only to DNA damage as in UV sterilization but more likely to the etching of the spore.

Kylián, O.; Sasaki, T.; Rossi, F.

2006-05-01

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Geobacillus stearothermophilus LV cadA gene mediates resistance to cadmium, lead and zinc in zntA mutants of Salmonella entérica serovar Typhimurium  

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Salmonella entérica serovar Typhimurium cells expressing the cadA gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus LV exhibit a hypersensitive phenotype to cadmium chloride. Deletion of the ORF STM3576 from the Salmonella genome resulted in cadmium, lead and zinc sensitivity, confirming that this ORF is a homologue of the zntA gene. The observed sensitivity was reverted upon expression of the G. stearothermophilus LV cadA gene. These results indicate that the cadA gene product is involved in Cd, Pb an...

Pe?rez, Jose? M.; Praden?as, Gonzalo A.; Navarro, Claudio A.; Henri?quez, Daniel R.; Pichuantes, Sergio E.; Va?squez, Claudio C.

2006-01-01

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Cloning of araA Gene Encoding L-Arabinose Isomerase from Marine Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from Tanjung Api, Poso, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L-arabinose isomerase is an enzyme converting D-galactose to D-tagatose. D-tagatose is a potential sweetener-sucrose substitute which has low calorie. This research was to clone and sequence araA gene from marine bacterial strain Geobacillus stearothermophilus isolated from Tanjung Api Poso Indonesia. The amplified araA gene consisted of 1494 bp nucleotides encoding 497 amino acids. DNA alignment analysis showed that the gene had high homology with that of G. stearothermophilus T6. The enzyme had optimum activity at high temperature and alkalin condition.

DEWI FITRIANI

2010-06-01

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Effect of Dimer Dissociation on Activity and Thermostability of the ?-Glucuronidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus: Dissecting the Different Oligomeric Forms of Family 67 Glycoside Hydrolases  

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The oligomeric organization of enzymes plays an important role in many biological processes, such as allosteric regulation, conformational stability and thermal stability. ?-Glucuronidases are family 67 glycosidases that cleave the ?-1,2-glycosidic bond between 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid and xylose units as part of an array of hemicellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes. Currently, two crystal structures of ?-glucuronidases are available, those from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (AguA) and from C...

Shallom, Dalia; Golan, Gali; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval

2004-01-01

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Highly Stable l-Lysine 6-Dehydrogenase from the Thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from a Japanese Hot Spring: Characterization, Gene Cloning and Sequencing, and Expression  

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l-Lysine dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of l-lysine in the presence of NAD, was found in the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus UTB 1103 and then purified about 3,040-fold from a crude extract of the organism by using four successive column chromatography steps. This is the first report showing the presence of a thermophilic NAD-dependent lysine dehydrogenase. The product of the enzyme catalytic activity was determined to be ?1-piperideine-6-carbo...

Heydari, Mojgan; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Nunoura-kominato, Naoki; Sakuraba, Haruhiko

2004-01-01

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Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of GanB, a GH42 intracellular ?-galactosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium that contains a multi-enzyme system for the utilization of plant cell-wall polysaccharides, including xylan, arabinan and galactan. The bacterium uses a number of endo-acting extracellular enzymes that break down the high-molecular-weight polysaccharides into decorated oligosaccharides. These oligosaccharides enter the cell and are further hydrolyzed into sugar monomers by a set of intracellular glycoside hydrolases. One of these intracellular degrading enzymes is GanB, a glycoside hydrolase family 42 ?-galactosidase capable of hydrolyzing short ?-1,4-galactosaccharides to galactose. GanB and related enzymes therefore play an important part in the hemicellulolytic utilization system of many microorganisms which use plant biomass for growth. The interest in the biochemical characterization and structural analysis of these enzymes stems from their potential biotechnological applications. GanB from G. stearothermophilus T-6 has recently been cloned, overexpressed, purified, biochemically characterized and crystallized in our laboratory as part of its complete structure-function study. The best crystals obtained for this enzyme belong to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2?2?2?, with average crystallographic unit-cell parameters of a=71.84, b=181.35, c=196.57?Å. Full diffraction data sets to 2.45 and 2.50?Å resolution have been collected for both the wild-type enzyme and its E323A nucleophile catalytic mutant, respectively, as measured from flash-cooled crystals at 100?K using synchrotron radiation. These data are currently being used for the full three-dimensional crystal structure determination of GanB. PMID:24100561

Solomon, Hodaya V; Tabachnikov, Orly; Feinberg, Hadar; Govada, Lata; Chayen, Naomi E; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

2013-10-01

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How to Switch Off a Histidine Kinase: Crystal Structure of Geobacillus Stearothermophilus KinB with the Inhibitor Sda  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Entry to sporulation in bacilli is governed by a histidine kinase phosphorelay, a variation of the predominant signal transduction mechanism in prokaryotes. Sda directly inhibits sporulation histidine kinases in response to DNA damage and replication defects. We determined a 2.0-Angstroms-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the intact cytoplasmic catalytic core [comprising the dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer domain (DHp domain), connected to the ATP binding catalytic domain] of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus sporulation kinase KinB complexed with Sda. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that Sda binds to the base of the DHp domain and prevents molecular transactions with the DHp domain to which it is bound by acting as a simple molecular barricade. Sda acts to sterically block communication between the catalytic domain and the DHp domain, which is required for autophosphorylation, as well as to sterically block communication between the response regulator Spo0F and the DHp domain, which is required for phosphotransfer and phosphatase activities.

Bick, M.; Lamour, V; Rajashankar, K; Gordiyenko, Y; Robinson, C; Darst, S

2009-01-01

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Improving catalytic efficiency of endo-?-1, 4-xylanase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus by directed evolution and H179 saturation mutagenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endo-?-1, 4-xylanase was cloned from Geobacillus stearothermophilus 1A05583 by PCR. Enzymes with improved catalytic efficiency were obtained using error-prone PCR and a 96-well plate high-throughout screening system. Two variants 1-B8 and 2-H6 were screened from the mutant library containing 9000 colonies, which, when compared with the wild-type enzyme increased the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) by 25% and 89%, respectively, acting on beechwood xylan. By sequencing 1-B8 and 2-H6, an identical mutation point H179Y was detected and found to overlap in the active site cleft. Following the introduction of the remaining 19 amino acids into position 179 by site-saturation mutagenesis, the catalytic efficiency of H179F was found to be 3.46-fold that of the wild-type. When Whistidine was substituted by tryptophan, arginine, methionine or proline, the enzyme lost activity. Therefore, the position 179 site may play an important role in regulating the catalytic efficiency. PMID:24157442

Wang, Yan; Feng, Shiyu; Zhan, Tao; Huang, Zongqing; Wu, Guojie; Liu, Ziduo

2013-12-01

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Geobacillus stearothermophilus LV cadA gene mediates resistance to cadmium, lead and zinc in zntA mutants of Salmonella entérica serovar Typhimurium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Salmonella entérica serovar Typhimurium cells expressing the cadA gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus LV exhibit a hypersensitive phenotype to cadmium chloride. Deletion of the ORF STM3576 from the Salmonella genome resulted in cadmium, lead and zinc sensitivity, confirming that this ORF is a hom [...] ologue of the zntA gene. The observed sensitivity was reverted upon expression of the G. stearothermophilus LV cadA gene. These results indicate that the cadA gene product is involved in Cd, Pb and Zn resistance as a classical P-type ATPase and strongly suggest that the observed hypersensitive phenotype to these metals can be related to the function of the host ·zntA gene product

JOSÉ M, PÉREZ; GONZALO A, PRADEÑAS; CLAUDIO A, NAVARRO; DANIEL R, HENRÍQUEZ; SERGIO E, PICHUANTES; CLAUDIO C, VÁSQUEZ.

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Geobacillus stearothermophilus LV cadA gene mediates resistance to cadmium, lead and zinc in zntA mutants of Salmonella entérica serovar Typhimurium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salmonella entérica serovar Typhimurium cells expressing the cadA gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus LV exhibit a hypersensitive phenotype to cadmium chloride. Deletion of the ORF STM3576 from the Salmonella genome resulted in cadmium, lead and zinc sensitivity, confirming that this ORF is a homologue of the zntA gene. The observed sensitivity was reverted upon expression of the G. stearothermophilus LV cadA gene. These results indicate that the cadA gene product is involved in Cd, Pb and Zn resistance as a classical P-type ATPase and strongly suggest that the observed hypersensitive phenotype to these metals can be related to the function of the host ·zntA gene product

JOSÉ M PÉREZ

2006-01-01

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Strain Improvement of Bacillus coagulans and Geobacillus stearothermophilus for Enhanced Thermostable Cellulase Production and the Effect of Different Metal Ions on Cellulase Activity  

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The current study was focused on the strain improvement of Bacillus coagulans and Geobacillus stearothermophilus for thermostable cellulase production with higher enzyme activity. For strain improvement UV radiations, NTG and Sodium azide were used as mutagenic agents.NTG was found to be best mutagenic agent among all in term of highest cellulase activity. Mutant strain C11 exhibited the highest cellulase specific activity at 45 U/mg followed by C15 (39 U/mg) in case of B.coagulans while Muta...

2012-01-01

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The identification of the acid-base catalyst of alpha-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6, a family 51 glycoside hydrolase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 (AbfA T-6) belongs to the retaining family 51 glycoside hydrolases. The conserved Glu175 was proposed to be the acid-base catalytic residue. AbfA T-6 exhibits residual activity towards aryl beta-D-xylopyranosides. This phenomenon was used to examine the catalytic properties of the putative acid-base mutant E175A. Data from kinetic experiments, pH profiles, azide rescue, and the identification of the xylopyranosyl azide product provide firm support to the assignment of Glu175 as the acid-base catalyst of AbfA T-6. PMID:11943144

Shallom, Dalia; Belakhov, Valery; Solomon, Dmitry; Gilead-Gropper, Sara; Baasov, Timor; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval

2002-03-13

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Functional Characterization of the Initiation Enzyme of S-Layer Glycoprotein Glycan Biosynthesis in Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a?  

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The glycan chain of the S-layer glycoprotein of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a is composed of repeating units [?2)-?-l-Rhap-(1?3)-?-l-Rhap-(1?2)-?-l-Rhap-(1?], with a 2-O-methyl modification of the terminal trisaccharide at the nonreducing end of the glycan chain, a core saccharide composed of two or three ?-l-rhamnose residues, and a ?-d-galactose residue as a linker to the S-layer protein. In this study, we report the biochemical characterization of WsaP of the S-la...

Steiner, Kerstin; Novotny, Rene?; Patel, Kinnari; Vinogradov, Evgenij; Whitfield, Chris; Valvano, Miguel A.; Messner, Paul; Scha?ffer, Christina

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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New Insights into the Glycosylation of the Surface Layer Protein SgsE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a?  

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The surface of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a cells is covered by an oblique surface layer (S-layer) composed of glycoprotein subunits. To this S-layer glycoprotein, elongated glycan chains are attached that are composed of [?2)-?-l-Rhap-(1?3)-?-l-Rhap-(1?2)-?-L-Rhap-(1?] repeating units, with a 2-O-methyl modification of the terminal trisaccharide at the nonreducing end of the glycan chain and a core saccharide as linker to the S-layer protein. On sodium dodecyl sulfat...

Steiner, Kerstin; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Berkenkamp, Stefan; Messner, Paul; Peter-katalinic?, Jasna; Scha?ffer, Christina

2006-01-01

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GH52 xylosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus: characterization and introduction of xylanase activity by site?directed mutagenesis of Tyr509.  

Science.gov (United States)

A xylosidase gene, gsxyn, was cloned from the deep-sea thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus, which consisted of 2,118 bp and encoded a protein of 705 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 79.8 kDa. The GSxyn of glycoside hydrolase family 52 (GH52) displayed its maximum activity at 70 °C and pH 5.5. The K m and k cat values of GSxyn for ?NPX were 0.48 mM and 36.64 s?1, respectively. Interestingly, a new exo-xylanase activity was introduced into GSxyn by mutating the tyrosine509 into glutamic acid, whereas the resultant enzyme variant, Y509E, retained the xylosidase activity. The optimum xylanase activity of theY509E mutant displayed at pH 6.5 and 50 °C, and retained approximately 45 % of its maximal activity at 55 °C, pH 6.5 for 60 min. The K m and k cat values of the xylanase activity of Y509E mutant for beechwood xylan were 5.10 mg/ml and 22.53 s?1, respectively. The optimum xylosidase activity of theY509E mutant displayed at pH 5.5 and 60 °C. The K m and k cat values of the xylosidase activity of Y509E mutant for ?NPX were 0.51 mM and 22.53 s?1, respectively. This report demonstrated that GH52 xylosidase has provided a platform for generating bifunctional enzymes for industrially significant and complex substrates, such as plant cell wall. PMID:24122394

Huang, Zongqing; Liu, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Shaowei; Liu, Ziduo

2014-01-01

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Characterization of quinol-dependent nitric oxide reductase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus: Enzymatic activity and active site structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitric oxide reductase (NOR) catalyzes the reduction of nitric oxide to generate nitrous oxide. We recently reported on the crystal structure of a quinol-dependent NOR (qNOR) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus [Y. Matsumoto, T. Tosha, A.V. Pisliakov, T. Hino, H. Sugimoto, S. Nagano, Y. Sugita and Y. Shiro, Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 19 (2012) 238-246], and suggested that a water channel from the cytoplasm, which is not observed in cytochrome c-dependent NOR (cNOR), functions as a pathway transferring catalytic protons. Here, we further investigated the functional and structural properties of qNOR, and compared the findings with those for cNOR. The pH optimum for the enzymatic reaction of qNOR was in the alkaline range, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa cNOR showed a higher activity at an acidic pH. The considerably slower reduction rate, and a correlation of the pH dependence for enzymatic activity and the reduction rate suggest that the reduction process is the rate-determining step for the NO reduction by qNOR, while the reduction rate for cNOR was very fast and therefore is unlikely to be the rate-determining step. A close examination of the heme/non-heme iron binuclear center by resonance Raman spectroscopy indicated that qNOR has a more polar environment at the binuclear center compared with cNOR. It is plausible that a water channel enhances the accessibility of the active site to solvent water, creating a more polar environment in qNOR. This structural feature could control certain properties of the active site, such as redox potential, which could explain the different catalytic properties of the two NORs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference. PMID:24569054

Terasaka, Erina; Okada, Norihiro; Sato, Nozomi; Sako, Yoshihiko; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Tosha, Takehiko

2014-07-01

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??????: Geobacillus pallidus  

Full Text Available Bacteria Bacillaceae Geobacillus pallidus Bacillus pallidus (sp. nov. (VL)) DSMZ 773796 Geobacil us pallidus (synonym) NCBI 33936 Bacillus pallidus Scholz et al. 1988 (authority) NCBI 33936 Geobacillus pal (scientific name) NCBI 33936 Geobacillus pallidus (Scholz et al. 1988) Banat et al. 2004 (authority) NCBI 33

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Structural basis for thermostability revealed through the identification and characterization of a highly thermostable phosphotriesterase-like lactonase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new enzyme homologous to phosphotriesterase was identified from the bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus (GsP). This enzyme belongs to the amidohydrolase family and possesses the ability to hydrolyze both lactone and organophosphate (OP) compounds, making it a phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL). GsP possesses higher OP-degrading activity than recently characterized PLLs, and it is extremely thermostable. GsP is active up to 100 C with an energy of activation of 8.0 kcal/mol towards ethyl paraoxon, and it can withstand an incubation temperature of 60 C for two days. In an attempt to understand the thermostability of PLLs, the X-ray structure of GsP was determined and compared to those of existing PLLs. Based upon a comparative analysis, a new thermal advantage score and plot was developed and reveals that a number of different factors contribute to the thermostability of PLLs.

Hawwa, Renda; Aikens, John; Turner, Robert J.; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Mescar, Andrew D.; (Lybradyn Inc.); (UIC)

2009-08-31

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Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Gan1D, a GH1 6-phospho-?-galactosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geobacillus stearothermophilus T1 is a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium that contains an extensive system for the utilization of plant cell-wall polysaccharides, including xylan, arabinan and galactan. The bacterium uses a number of extracellular enzymes that break down the high-molecular-weight polysaccharides into short oligosaccharides, which enter the cell and are further hydrolyzed into sugar monomers by dedicated intracellular glycoside hydrolases. The interest in the biochemical characterization and structural analysis of these proteins originates mainly from the wide range of their potential biotechnological applications. Studying the different hemicellulolytic utilization systems in G. stearothermophilus T1, a new galactan-utilization gene cluster was recently identified, which encodes a number of proteins, one of which is a GH1 putative 6-phospho-?-galactosidase (Gan1D). Gan1D has recently been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized as part of its comprehensive structure-function study. The best crystals obtained for this enzyme belonged to the triclinic space group P1, with average crystallographic unit-cell parameters of a = 67.0, b = 78.1, c = 92.1 Å, ? = 102.4, ? = 93.5, ? = 91.7°. A full diffraction data set to 1.33 Å resolution has been collected for the wild-type enzyme, as measured from flash-cooled crystals at 100 K, using synchrotron radiation. These data are currently being used for the detailed three-dimensional crystal structure analysis of Gan1D. PMID:24637762

Lansky, Shifra; Zehavi, Arie; Dann, Roie; Dvir, Hay; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

2014-02-01

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The structure of DinB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus: a representative of a unique four-helix-bundle superfamily  

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The structure of DinB from G. stearothermophilus is described and compared with a number of recently reported structures of this unusual fold. Structural similarities are revealed that unite several distant protein families.

Cooper, David R.; Grelewska, Katarzyna; Kim, Chang-yub; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

2010-01-01

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Expression of the ubiE Gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus V in Escherichia coli K-12 Mediates the Evolution of Selenium Compounds into the Headspace of Selenite- and Selenate-Amended Cultures  

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The ubiE gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus V, with its own promoter, was cloned and introduced into Escherichia coli. The cloned gene complemented the ubiE gene deficiency of E. coli AN70. In addition, the expression of this gene in E. coli JM109 resulted in the evolution of volatile selenium compounds when these cells were grown in selenite- or selenate-amended media. These compounds were dimethyl selenide and dimethyl diselenide.

Swearingen, J. W.; Fuentes, D. E.; Araya, M. A.; Plishker, M. F.; Saavedra, C. P.; Chasteen, T. G.; Va?squez, C. C.

2006-01-01

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Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a family 43 ?-d-xylosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6  

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The crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a ?-d-xylosidase from G. stearothermophilus T-6, a family 43 glycoside hydrolase, is described. Native and catalytic inactive mutants of the enzymes were crystallized in two different space groups, orthorhombic P21212 and tetragonal P41212 (or the enantiomorphic space group P43212), using a sensitive cryoprotocol. The latter crystal form diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 2.2?Å.

Bru?x, Christian; Niefind, Karsten; Ben-david, Alon; Leon, Maya; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval; Schomburg, Dietmar

2005-01-01

50

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 51 glycoside hydrolase, the alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpha-l-arabinofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.55) are hemicellulases that cleave the glycosidic bond between l-arabinofuranoside side chains and various oligosaccharides. In this study, the first crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 (AbfA T-6), a family 51 glycoside hydrolase, is described. AbfA T-6 is a hexameric protein consisting of six identical subunits of 502 amino acids and with a calculated molecular mass of 57 218 Da. Purified recombinant native and selenomethionine-containing AbfA T-6 were crystallized by the sitting-drop method in two different space groups, P2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 100.8, b = 178.1, c = 196.2 A, beta = 96.1 degrees ) and R3 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 179.3, c = 100.4 A). The R3 crystals diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 1.8 A. PMID:12777810

Hövel, Klaus; Shallom, Dalia; Niefind, Karsten; Baasov, Timor; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval; Schomburg, Dietmar

2003-05-01

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Structural characterization of the acid-degraded secondary cell wall polymer of Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2, which is involved in the anchoring of the surface-layer protein to the bacterial cell wall layer, is composed of 2-amino-2-deoxy- and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-mannose, and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-mannuronic acid. The primary structure of the acid-degraded polysaccharideâ??liberated by HF-treatment from the cell wallâ??was determined by high-field NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry using N-acetylated and hydrolyzed polysaccharide derivatives as well as Smith-degradation. The polysaccharide was shown to consist of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit containing a pyruvic acid acetal at a side-chain 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-mannopyranosyl residue. Substoichiometric substitutions of the repeating unit were observed concerning the degree of N-acetylation of glucosamine residues and the presence of side-chain linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyl units:

Petersen, Bent O.; Sára, Margit

2008-01-01

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Genetics of thermophilic bacteria. [Bacillus stearothermophilus:a2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Organisms adapted to high temperature have evolved a variety of unique solutions to the biochemical problems imposed by this environment. Adaptation is commonly used to describe the biochemical properties of organisms which have become adapted to their environment (genetic adaptation). It can also mean the direct response-at the cellular level-of an organism to changes in temperature (physiological adaptation). Thermophilic bacilli (strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus) can exhibit a variety of biochemical adaptations in response to changes in temperature. These include changes in the composition and stability of the membrane, metabolic potential, the transport of amino acids, regulatory mechanisms, ribose methylation of tRNA, protein thermostability, and nutritional requirements. The objectives of the research were to develop efficient and reliable genetic systems to analyze and manipulate B. Stearothermophilus, and to use these systems initiate a biochemical, molecular, and genetic investigations of genes that are required for growth at high temperature.

Welker, N.E.

1991-01-01

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High-Affinity Interaction between the S-Layer Protein SbsC and the Secondary Cell Wall Polymer of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 Determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance Technology? †  

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Surface plasmon resonance studies using C-terminal truncation forms of the S-layer protein SbsC (recombinant SbsC consisting of amino acids 31 to 270 [rSbsC31-270] and rSbsC31-443) and the secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP) isolated from Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 confirmed the exclusive responsibility of the N-terminal region comprising amino acids 31 to 270 for SCWP binding. Quantitative analyses indicated binding behavior demonstrating low, medium, and high affinities.

Ferner-ortner, Judith; Mader, Christoph; Ilk, Nicola; Sleytr, Uwe B.; Egelseer, Eva M.

2007-01-01

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HIV-1 Gag p17 presented as virus-like particles on the E2 scaffold from Geobacillus stearothermophilus induces sustained humoral and cellular immune responses in the absence of IFN? production by CD4+ T cells  

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We have constructed stable virus-like particles displaying the HIV-1 Gag(p17) protein as an N-terminal fusion with an engineered protein domain from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E2. Mice immunized with the Gag(p17)-E2 60-mer scaffold particles mounted a strong and sustained antibody response. Antibodies directed to Gag(p17) were boosted significantly with additional immunizations, while anti-E2 responses reached a plateau. The isotype of the induced antibo...

Caivano, Antonella; Doria-rose, Nicole A.; Buelow, Benjamin; Sartorius, Rossella; Trovato, Maria; D’apice, Luciana; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Sutton, William F.; Haigwood, Nancy L.; Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

2010-01-01

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Protein engineering by random mutagenesis and structure-guided consensus of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Lipase T6 for enhanced stability in methanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The abilities of enzymes to catalyze reactions in nonnatural environments of organic solvents have opened new opportunities for enzyme-based industrial processes. However, the main drawback of such processes is that most enzymes have a limited stability in polar organic solvents. In this study, we employed protein engineering methods to generate a lipase for enhanced stability in methanol, which is important for biodiesel production. Two protein engineering approaches, random mutagenesis (error-prone PCR) and structure-guided consensus, were applied in parallel on an unexplored lipase gene from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6. A high-throughput colorimetric screening assay was used to evaluate lipase activity after an incubation period in high methanol concentrations. Both protein engineering approaches were successful in producing variants with elevated half-life values in 70% methanol. The best variant of the random mutagenesis library, Q185L, exhibited 23-fold-improved stability, yet its methanolysis activity was decreased by one-half compared to the wild type. The best variant from the consensus library, H86Y/A269T, exhibited 66-fold-improved stability in methanol along with elevated thermostability (+4.3°C) and a 2-fold-higher fatty acid methyl ester yield from soybean oil. Based on in silico modeling, we suggest that the Q185L substitution facilitates a closed lid conformation that limits access for both the methanol and substrate excess into the active site. The enhanced stability of H86Y/A269T was a result of formation of new hydrogen bonds. These improved characteristics make this variant a potential biocatalyst for biodiesel production. PMID:24362426

Dror, Adi; Shemesh, Einav; Dayan, Natali; Fishman, Ayelet

2014-02-01

56

HIV-1 Gag p17 presented as virus-like particles on the E2 scaffold from Geobacillus stearothermophilus induces sustained humoral and cellular immune responses in the absence of IFN? production by CD4+ T cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have constructed stable virus-like particles displaying the HIV-1 Gag(p17) protein as an N-terminal fusion with an engineered protein domain from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E2. Mice immunized with the Gag(p17)-E2 60-mer scaffold particles mounted a strong and sustained antibody response. Antibodies directed to Gag(p17) were boosted significantly with additional immunizations, while anti-E2 responses reached a plateau. The isotype of the induced antibodies was biased towards IgG1, and the E2-primed CD4+ T cells did not secrete IFN?. Using transgenic mouse model systems, we demonstrated that CD8+ T cells primed with E2 particles were able to exert lytic activity and produce IFN?. These results show that the E2 scaffold represents a powerful vaccine delivery system for whole antigenic proteins or polyepitope engineered proteins, evoking antibody production and antigen specific CTL activity even in the absence of IFN?-producing CD4+ T cells.

2010-11-25

57

Characterization of two novel plasmids from Geobacillus sp. 610 and 1121 strains.  

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We describe two cryptic low molecular weight plasmids, pGTD7 (3279bp) and pGTG5 (1540bp), isolated from Geobacillus sp. 610 and 1121 strains, respectively. Homology analysis of the replication protein (Rep) sequences and detection of ssDNA indicate that both of them replicate via rolling circle mechanism. As revealed by sequence similarities of dso region and Rep protein, plasmid pGTD7 belongs to pC194/pUB110 plasmid family. The replicon of pGTD7 was proved to be functional in another Geobacillus host. For this purpose, a construct pUCK7, containing a replicon of the analyzed plasmid, was created and transferred to G. stearothermophilus NUB3621R strain by electroporation. Plasmid pGTG5, based on Rep protein sequence similarity, was found to be related mostly to some poorly characterized bacterial plasmids. Rep proteins encoded by these plasmids contain conservative motifs that are most similar to those of Microviridae phages. This feature suggests that pGTG5, together with other plasmids containing the same motifs, could constitute a new family of bacterial plasmids. To date, pGTG5 is the smallest plasmid identified in bacteria belonging to the genus Geobacillus. The two plasmids described in this study can be used for the construction of new vectors suitable for biotechnologically important bacteria of the genus Geobacillus. PMID:24177015

Kananavi?i?t?, R?ta; Butait?, Elena; Citavi?ius, Donaldas

2014-01-01

58

Characterization of a Novel Thermostable Carboxylesterase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 Shows the Existence of a New Carboxylesterase Family?  

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The gene GK3045 (741 bp) from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 was cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). The deduced protein was a 30-kDa monomeric esterase with high homology to carboxylesterases from Geobacillus thermoleovorans NY (99% identity) and Geobacillus stearothermophilus (97% identity). This protein suffered a proteolytic cut in E. coli, and the problem was overcome by introducing a mutation in the gene (K212R) without affecting the activity. The ...

Montoro-garci?a, Silvia; Marti?nez-marti?nez, Irene; Navarro-ferna?ndez, Jose?; Takami, Hideto; Garci?a-carmona, Francisco; Sa?nchez-ferrer, A?lvaro

2009-01-01

59

Application of pheB as a Reporter Gene for Geobacillus spp., Enabling Qualitative Colony Screening and Quantitative Analysis of Promoter Strength  

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The pheB gene from Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM6285 has been exploited as a reporter gene for Geobacillus spp. The gene product, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O), catalyzes the formation of 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which can be readily assayed. The reporter was used to examine expression from the ldh promoter associated with fermentative metabolism.

Bartosiak-jentys, Jeremy; Eley, Kirstin; Leak, David J.

2012-01-01

60

Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus sp. Strain FW23, Isolated from a Formation Water Sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain FW23 was isolated from the Mehsana oil wells in Gujrat, India, during a screening for oil-degrading bacteria. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Geobacillus sp. FW23, which may help reveal the genomic differences between this strain and the earlier reported species of the genus Geobacillus. PMID:24812215

Pore, Soham D; Arora, Preeti; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus sp. Strain FW23, Isolated from a Formation Water Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain FW23 was isolated from the Mehsana oil wells in Gujrat, India, during a screening for oil-degrading bacteria. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Geobacillus sp. FW23, which may help reveal the genomic differences between this strain and the earlier reported species of the genus Geobacillus.

Pore, Soham D.; Arora, Preeti

2014-01-01

62

Effect of mercaptoethylamine on DNA degradation in thermophilic bacteria Bac. stearothermophilus exposed to ?-, UV-radiation or methylnitrosourea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of mercaptoethylamine (MEA) on degradation of DNA in thermophilic bacteria Bac. stear. exposed to ?-, UV-rays or methylnitrosourea (MNU) was studied. Using centrifugation on alkaline and neutral sucrose gradients, it was shown that MEA inhibits the accumulation of breaks in the DNA of Bac. stear. It also lowers the level of DNA degradation in toluene-treated cells of Bac. stear. under the action of the intrinsic nuclease, reduces the activity of the endonuclease specific for apurinic DNA, as well as that of S1-nuclease and DNase-I in vitro. The inhibition in the accumulation of DNA breaks is assumed to be due to a decrease of the endonuclease activity in the cells of thermophilic bacteria. (orig.)

1984-07-01

63

Enhancing the cellulose-degrading activity of cellulolytic bacteria CTL-6 (Clostridium thermocellum) by co-culture with non-cellulolytic bacteria W2-10 (Geobacillus sp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of a non-cellulolytic bacterium W2-10 (Geobacillus sp.) on the cellulose-degrading activity of a cellulolytic bacterium CTL-6 (Clostridium thermocellum) was determined using cellulose materials (paper and straw) in peptone cellulose solution (PCS) medium under aerobic conditions. The results indicated that in the co-culture, addition of W2-10 resulted in a balanced medium pH, and may provide the required anaerobic environment for CTL-6. Overall, addition of W2-10 was beneficial to CTL-6 growth in the adverse environment of the PCS medium. In co-culture with W2-10, the CTL-6 cellulose degradation efficiency of filter paper and alkaline-treated wheat straw significantly increased up to 72.45 and 37.79 %, respectively. The CMCase activity and biomass of CTL-6 also increased from 0.23 U ml(-1) and 45.1 ?g ml(-1) (DNA content) up to 0.47 U ml(-1) and 112.2 ?g ml(-1), respectively. In addition, co-culture resulted in accumulation of acetate and propionate up to 4.26 and 2.76 mg ml(-1). This was a respective increase of 2.58 and 4.45 times, in comparison to the monoculture with CTL-6. PMID:23975281

Lü, Yucai; Li, Ning; Yuan, Xufeng; Hua, Binbin; Wang, Jungang; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo; Cui, Zongjun

2013-12-01

64

Ribonucleic acid and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saunders, Grady F. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. Ribonucleic acid and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 91:332-339. 1966.-The ability of some thermophilic bacteria to grow at temperatures as high as 76 C emphasizes the remarkable thermal stability of their crucial macromolecules. An investigation of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus was conducted. Washed log-phase cells were disrupted either by sonic treatment or by alumina grinding in 10(-2)m MgCl(2)-10(-2)m tris-(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, pH 7.4 (TM buffer). Ultracentrifugal analysis revealed peaks at 72.5S, 101S, and 135S, with the 101S peak being the most prominent. By lowering the Mg(++) concentration to 10(-3)m, the ribosome preparation was dissociated to give 40S, 31S, and 54S peaks. These in turn were reassociated in the presence of 10(-2)m Mg(++) to give the larger 73S and 135S particles. When heated in TM buffer, Escherichia coli ribosomes began a gradual dissociation at 58 C, and at 70 C underwent a large hyperchromic shift with a T(m) at 72.8 C. In contrast, B. stearothermophilus ribosomes did not show a hyperchromic shift below 70 C; they had a T(m) of 77.9 C. The thermal denaturation curves of the 4S, 16S, and 23S RNA from both organisms were virtually identical. The gross amino acid composition of B. stearothermophilus ribosomes showed no marked differences from that reported for E. coli ribosomes. These data suggest that the unusual thermal stability of B. stearothermophilus ribosomes may reflect either an unusual packing arrangement of the protein to the RNA or differences in the primary structure of the ribosomal proteins. PMID:5903099

Saunders, G F; Campbell, L L

1966-01-01

65

Lantibiotics from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans  

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The lantibiotic nisin has been used as an effective food preservative to combat food-borne pathogens for over 40 y. Despite this successful use, nisin’s stability at pH 7 is limited. Herein, we describe a nisin analog encoded on the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2. This analog termed geobacillin I was obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and subsequent purification. Extensive NMR characterization demonstrated that geobacillin...

Garg, Neha; Tang, Weixin; Goto, Yuki; Nair, Satish K.; Donk, Wilfred A.

2012-01-01

66

Modelling of the acid base properties of two thermophilic bacteria at different growth times  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid-base titrations and electrophoretic mobility measurements were conducted on the thermophilic bacteria Anoxybacillus flavithermus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus at two different growth times corresponding to exponential and stationary/death phase. The data showed significant differences between the two investigated growth times for both bacterial species. In stationary/death phase samples, cells were disrupted and their buffering capacity was lower than that of exponential phase cells. For G. stearothermophilus the electrophoretic mobility profiles changed dramatically. Chemical equilibrium models were developed to simultaneously describe the data from the titrations and the electrophoretic mobility measurements. A simple approach was developed to determine confidence intervals for the overall variance between the model and the experimental data, in order to identify statistically significant changes in model fit and thereby select the simplest model that was able to adequately describe each data set. Exponential phase cells of the investigated thermophiles had a higher total site concentration than the average found for mesophilic bacteria (based on a previously published generalised model for the acid-base behaviour of mesophiles), whereas the opposite was true for cells in stationary/death phase. The results of this study indicate that growth phase is an important parameter that can affect ion binding by bacteria, that growth phase should be considered when developing or employing chemical models for bacteria-bearing systems.

Heinrich, Hannah T. M.; Bremer, Phil J.; McQuillan, A. James; Daughney, Christopher J.

2008-09-01

67

Ribonucleic Acid and Ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus1  

Science.gov (United States)

Saunders, Grady F. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. Ribonucleic acid and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 91:332–339. 1966.—The ability of some thermophilic bacteria to grow at temperatures as high as 76 C emphasizes the remarkable thermal stability of their crucial macromolecules. An investigation of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus was conducted. Washed log-phase cells were disrupted either by sonic treatment or by alumina grinding in 10?2m MgCl2–10?2m tris-(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, pH 7.4 (TM buffer). Ultracentrifugal analysis revealed peaks at 72.5S, 101S, and 135S, with the 101S peak being the most prominent. By lowering the Mg++ concentration to 10?3m, the ribosome preparation was dissociated to give 40S, 31S, and 54S peaks. These in turn were reassociated in the presence of 10?2m Mg++ to give the larger 73S and 135S particles. When heated in TM buffer, Escherichia coli ribosomes began a gradual dissociation at 58 C, and at 70 C underwent a large hyperchromic shift with a Tm at 72.8 C. In contrast, B. stearothermophilus ribosomes did not show a hyperchromic shift below 70 C; they had a Tm of 77.9 C. The thermal denaturation curves of the 4S, 16S, and 23S RNA from both organisms were virtually identical. The gross amino acid composition of B. stearothermophilus ribosomes showed no marked differences from that reported for E. coli ribosomes. These data suggest that the unusual thermal stability of B. stearothermophilus ribosomes may reflect either an unusual packing arrangement of the protein to the RNA or differences in the primary structure of the ribosomal proteins. Images

Saunders, Grady F.; Campbell, L. Leon

1966-01-01

68

Preconditioning with cations increases the attachment of Anoxybacillus flavithermus and Geobacillus species to stainless steel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preconditioning of Anoxybacillus flavithermus E16 and Geobacillus sp. strain F75 with cations prior to attachment often significantly increased (P ? 0.05) the number of viable cells that attached to stainless steel (by up to 1.5 log CFU/cm(2)) compared with unconditioned bacteria. It is proposed that the transition of A. flavithermus and Geobacillus spp. from milk formulations to stainless steel product contact surfaces in milk powder manufacturing plants is mediated predominantly by bacterial physiological factors (e.g., surface-exposed adhesins) rather than the concentrations of cations in milk formulations surrounding bacteria. PMID:23645192

Somerton, Ben; Flint, Steve; Palmer, Jon; Brooks, John; Lindsay, Denise

2013-07-01

69

PCR detection of thermophilic spore-forming bacteria involved in canned food spoilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophilic bacteria that form highly heat-resistant spores constitute an important group of spoilage bacteria of low-acid canned food. A PCR assay was developed in order to rapidly trace these bacteria. Three PCR primer pairs were designed from rRNA gene sequences. These primers were evaluated for the specificity and the sensitivity of detection. Two primer pairs allowed detection at the species level of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Moorella thermoacetica/thermoautrophica. The other pair allowed group-specific detection of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria of the genera Thermoanaerobacterium, Thermoanaerobacter, Caldanerobium and Caldanaerobacter. After a single enrichment step, these PCR assays allowed the detection of 28 thermophiles from 34 cans of spoiled low-acid food. In addition, 13 ingredients were screened for the presence of these bacteria. This PCR assay serves as a detection method for strains able to spoil low-acid canned food treated at 55°C. It will lead to better reactivity in the canning industry. Raw materials and ingredients might be qualified not only for quantitative spore contamination, but also for qualitative contamination by highly heat-resistant spores. PMID:20397018

Prevost, S; Andre, S; Remize, F

2010-12-01

70

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MANNANOLYTIC THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA FROM PALM OIL SHELL AND THEIR MANNANASE ENZYME PRODUCTION PROPERTIES  

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Full Text Available A mannanolytic thermophilic bacterium (L-07 was isolated from palm oil shell after 2 days of enrichment in liquid medium supplemented with 1% palm kernel meal as mannan source. Sequence analysis of 16S-rRNA indicated that L-07 was similar (98% to Geobacillus stearothermophilus, a species of thermophilic aerobi c bacteria. We found that G. stearothermophilus L-07 produced extracellular ? -1,4-mannanases, but no ? -manosidase and ? -galactosidase activities. The growth of L-07 reached its maximum (3.0 x 106 cell/ml at 12-20 hours, while the highest ? -mannanase activity (0.52 U/ml was observed in culture medium after 36 hours of cultivation at 60oC. The medium containing locust bean gum was the best for producing extracellular ? -1,4-mannanases compared with kolang kaling , konjak , and palm kernel meal. SDS-PAGE and zymogram analysis demonstrated that crude mannanase complex of L-07 from locust bean gum containing medium comprised three active bands with molecular weight of 85, 73 and 50 kDa.

T RESNAWATI P URWADARIA

2005-01-01

71

Thermophilic and Mesophilic Aminopeptidases from Bacillus Stearothermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various strains of B. stearothermophilus contain different proportions of three aminopeptidases. Obligately thermophilic strains contain more of the thermophilic enzyme; obligately mesophilic strains contain very little of it, and facultative strains cont...

H. Zuber G. Roncari

1974-01-01

72

Isobutanol production at elevated temperatures in thermophilic Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential advantages of biological production of chemicals or fuels from biomass at high temperatures include reduced enzyme loading for cellulose degradation, decreased chance of contamination, and lower product separation cost. In general, high temperature production of compounds that are not native to the thermophilic hosts is limited by enzyme stability and the lack of suitable expression systems. Further complications can arise when the pathway includes a volatile intermediate. Here we report the engineering of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius to produce isobutanol at 50°C. We prospected various enzymes in the isobutanol synthesis pathway and characterized their thermostabilities. We also constructed an expression system based on the lactate dehydrogenase promoter from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans. With the best enzyme combination and the expression system, 3.3g/l of isobutanol was produced from glucose and 0.6g/l of isobutanol from cellobiose in G. thermoglucosidasius within 48h at 50°C. This is the first demonstration of isobutanol production in recombinant bacteria at an elevated temperature. PMID:24721011

Lin, Paul P; Rabe, Kersten S; Takasumi, Jennifer L; Kadisch, Marvin; Arnold, Frances H; Liao, James C

2014-07-01

73

Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020, a thermophilic sporeformer associated with a dairy-processing environment  

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Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. We isolated the thermophilic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020 from a milk processing plant and report the complete genome of a dairy plant isolate consisting of a single chromosome of 3.75 Mb.

Zhao, Y.; Caspers, M. P.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R. J.; Kort, R.

2012-01-01

74

Complete Genome Sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020, a Thermophilic Sporeformer Associated with a Dairy-Processing Environment  

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Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. We isolated the thermophilic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidans TNO-09.020 from a milk processing plant and report the complete genome of a dairy plant isolate consisting of a single chromosome of 3.75 Mb.

Zhao, Yu; Caspers, Martien P.; Abee, Tjakko; Siezen, Roland J.; Kort, Remco

2012-01-01

75

The Geobacillus paradox: why is a thermophilic bacterial genus so prevalent on a mesophilic planet?  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Geobacillus comprises endospore-forming obligate thermophiles. These bacteria have been isolated from cool soils and even cold ocean sediments in anomalously high numbers, given that the ambient temperatures are significantly below their minimum requirement for growth. Geobacilli are active in environments such as hot plant composts, however, and examination of their genome sequences reveals that they are endowed with a battery of sensors, transporters and enzymes dedicated to hydrolysing plant polysaccharides. Although they appear to be relatively minor members of the plant biomass-degrading microbial community, Geobacillus bacteria have achieved a significant population with a worldwide distribution, probably in large part due to adaptive features of their spores. First, their morphology and resistance properties enable them to be mobilized in the atmosphere and transported long distances. Second, their longevity, which in theory may be extreme, enables them to lie quiescent but viable for long periods of time, accumulating gradually over time to achieve surprisingly high population densities. PMID:24085838

Zeigler, Daniel R

2014-01-01

76

Isolation and Characterization of a Bacteriocin-Like Substance Produced by Geobacillus toebii Strain HBB-247  

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A total of 201 thermophilic bacteria isolated from various thermal spring, mud and soil were tested for their antibacterial activity. Among the mostly active isolates, Geobacillus toebii HBB-247 was further examined. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) produced by strain HBB-247 was found to be stable up to 60°C, sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and effective against Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria sp., E. avium, Clostridium pasteurianum, Cellulomonas fimi and some thermophilic stra...

Bas?bu?lbu?l O?zdemir, Gamze; Biyik, Haci Halil

2012-01-01

77

Influence of mea on dna breaks accumulation in bac. stearothermophilus exposed to ?- and UV-radiation and treated with nitrosomethylurea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

?-Mercaptoethylamine (MEA) decreased the accumulation of enzymatic single- and double-strand breaks in DNA of thermophilic bacteria exposed to ?- and UV- radiation and treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea. The protective effect of MEA, as registered according to accumulation of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA of Bac. stearothermophilus immediately after irradiation and after 30 min postirradiation incubation, was similar

1983-01-01

78

Surface topography of the Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The surface topography of the intact 70S ribosome and free 30S and 50S subunits from Bacillus stearothermophilus strain 2,184 was investigated by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was employed to separate ribosomal proteins for analysis of their reactivity. Free 50S subunits incorporated about 18% more 125I than did 50S subunits derived from 70S ribosomes, whereas free 30S subunits and 30S subunits derived from 70S ribosomes incorporated similar amounts of 125I. Iodinated 70S ribosomes and subunits retained 62-78% of the protein synthesis activity of untreated particles and sedimentation profiles showed no gross conformational changes due to iodination. The proteins most reactive to enzymatic iodination were S4, S7, S10 and Sa of the small subunit and L2, L4, L5/9, L6 and L36 of the large subunit. Proteins S2, S3, S7, S13, Sa, L5/9, L10, L11 and L24/25 were labeled substantially more in the free subunits than in the 70S ribosome. Other proteins, including S5, S9, S12, S15/16, S18 and L36 were more extensively iodinated in the 70S ribosome than in the free subunits. The locations of tyrosine residues in some homologus ribosomal proteins from B. stearothermophilus and E. coli are compared. (orig.)

1976-03-01

79

Draft Genome Sequences of Geobacillus sp. Strains CAMR5420 and CAMR12739.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophilic Geobacillus spp. can efficiently hydrolyze hemicellulose polymers and are therefore of interest in biotechnological applications. Here we report the genome sequences of two hemicellulolytic strains, Geobacillus sp. CAMR12739 and CAMR5420. PMID:24903881

De Maayer, Pieter; Williamson, Carolyn E; Vennard, Christopher T; Danson, Michael J; Cowan, Don A

2014-01-01

80

How to Switch Off a Histidine Kinase: Crystal Structure of Geobacillus stearothermophilus KinB with the inhibitor Sda  

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Entry to sporulation in Bacilli is governed by a histidine kinase phosphorelay, a variation on the predominant signal transduction mechanism in prokaryotes. Sda directly inhibits sporulation histidine kinases in response to DNA damage and replication defects. We determined a 2.0 Å-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the intact cytoplasmic catalytic core (comprising the Dimerization and Histidine-phosphotransfer, or DHp, domain, connected to the ATP-binding Catalytic, or CA, domain) of the ...

Bick, Matthew J.; Lamour, Valerie; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Gordiyenko, Yuliya; Robinson, Carol V.; Darst, Seth A.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Preliminary Characterization of the Probiotic Properties of Candida Famata and Geobacillus Thermoleovorans  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance, producing metabolites which inhibit the colonization or growth of other microorganisms or by competing with them for resources such as nutrients or space. The aim of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of Candida famata and Geobacillus thermoleovorans.Material and Methods: In this study, yeast and bacterial strains isolated from pure oil waste were identified using Api 50 CHB and Api Candida Systems and their probiotic properties were studied through antimicrobial activity, biofilm production, adherence assay and enzymatic characterization.Results and Conclusion: According to biochemical analyses, these strains corresponded to Geobacillus thermoleovorans and Candida famata. Antagonism assay results showed that the tested strains have an inhibitory effect against tested pathogenic bacteria. The yeast Candida famata was unable to produce biofilm on Congo Red Agar (CRA, while the bacterial strain was a slime producer. Adherence assays to abiotic surfaces revealed that the investigated strains were fairly adhesive to polystyrene with values ranging from 0.18 to 0.34 at 595 nm. The enzymatic characterization revealed that the tested strains expressed enzymes such as phosphatase alkaline, esterase lipase (C8, amylase, lipase, lecitenase and caseinase. The obtained results may allow the isolated strains to be considered as having the potential to be candidate probiotics.

A Bakhrouf

2011-12-01

82

PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ALKALOTHERMOSTABLE, ORGANIC SOLVENT TOLERANT AND SURFACTANT TOLERANT ESTERASE PRODUCED BY A THERMOPHILIC BACTERIUM GEOBACILLUS SP. AGP-04, ISOLATED FROM BAKRESHWAR HOT SPRING, INDIA  

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A thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus sp. AGP-04, isolated from Surya Kund hot spring, Bakreshwar, West Bengal, India was studied in terms of capability of tributyrin hydrolysis and characterization of its thermostable esterase activity using p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB) as substrate. The extracellular crude preparation was characterized in terms of pH and temperature optima and stability, organic solvent tolerance capacity and stability, substrate specificity, surfactant tolerance capacity, ...

Amit Ghati; Kaushik Sarkar; Goutam Paul

2013-01-01

83

Characterization of aerobic spore-forming bacteria associated with industrial dairy processing environments and product spoilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to changes in the design of industrial food processing and increasing international trade, highly thermoresistant spore-forming bacteria are an emerging problem in food production. Minimally processed foods and products with extended shelf life, such as milk products, are at special risk for contamination and subsequent product damages, but information about origin and food quality related properties of highly heat-resistant spore-formers is still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the biodiversity, heat resistance, and food quality and safety affecting characteristics of aerobic spore-formers in the dairy sector. Thus, a comprehensive panel of strains (n=467), which originated from dairy processing environments, raw materials and processed foods, was compiled. The set included isolates associated with recent food spoilage cases and product damages as well as isolates not linked to product spoilage. Identification of the isolates by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular methods revealed a large biodiversity of spore-formers, especially among the spoilage associated isolates. These could be assigned to 43 species, representing 11 genera, with Bacillus cereus s.l. and Bacillus licheniformis being predominant. A screening for isolates forming thermoresistant spores (TRS, surviving 100°C, 20 min) showed that about one third of the tested spore-formers was heat-resistant, with Bacillus subtilis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus being the prevalent species. Strains producing highly thermoresistant spores (HTRS, surviving 125°C, 30 min) were found among mesophilic as well as among thermophilic species. B. subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were dominating the group of mesophilic HTRS, while Bacillus smithii and Geobacillus pallidus were dominating the group of thermophilic HTRS. Analysis of spoilage-related enzymes of the TRS isolates showed that mesophilic strains, belonging to the B. subtilis and B. cereus groups, were strongly proteolytic, whereas thermophilic strains displayed generally a low enzymatic activity and thus spoilage potential. Cytotoxicity was only detected in B. cereus, suggesting that the risk of food poisoning by aerobic, thermoresistant spore-formers outside of the B. cereus group is rather low. PMID:23973839

Lücking, Genia; Stoeckel, Marina; Atamer, Zeynep; Hinrichs, Jörg; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

2013-09-01

84

Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus thermopakistaniensis Strain MAS1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geobacillus thermopakistaniensis strain MAS1 was isolated from a hot spring located in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. The draft genome sequence was 3.5 Mb and identified a number of genes of potential industrial importance, including genes encoding glycoside hydrolases, pullulanase, amylopullulanase, glycosidase, and alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:24903880

Siddiqui, Masood Ahmed; Rashid, Naeem; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Whitman, William B

2014-01-01

85

Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus thermoleovorans Strain B23.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoleovorans strain B23, which was isolated from a deep subterranean petroleum reservoir in Japan. An array of genes related to unique long-chain alkane degradation pathways in G. thermoleovorans B23 has been identified by whole-genome analyses of this strain. PMID:24233591

Boonmak, Chanita; Takahasi, Yasunori; Morikawa, Masaaki

2013-01-01

86

Genome Sequence of a Thermophilic Bacillus, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM465.  

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Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2 encodes a LadA-mediated alkane degradation pathway, while G. thermodenitrificans DSM465 cannot utilize alkanes. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of G. thermodenitrificans DSM465, which may help reveal the genomic differences between these two strains in regards to the biodegradation of alkanes. PMID:24336381

Yao, Nana; Ren, Yi; Wang, Wei

2013-01-01

87

Organophosphonate Utilization by the Thermophile Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus T20  

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A strain of Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus from central heating system water could utilize a number of organophosphonates as the sole phosphorus source for growth at 60°C. During growth on glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonate release to the medium was observed, and in cell extracts, a glyphosate oxidoreductase-type activity, producing stoichiometric amounts of aminomethylphosphonate and glyoxylate from glyphosate, was detectable.

Obojska, Agnieszka; Ternan, Nigel G.; Lejczak, Barbara; Kafarski, Pawel; Mcmullan, Geoff

2002-01-01

88

Thermostable, Raw-Starch-Digesting Amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus  

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An endospore-forming thermophilic bacterium, which produced amylase and was identified as Bacillus stearothermophilus, was isolated from soil. The amylase had an optimum temperature of 70°C and strongly degraded wheat starch granules (93%) and potato starch granules (80%) at 60°C.

Kim, Jaeyoung; Nanmori, Takashi; Shinke, Ryu

1989-01-01

89

INDUCTION AND PROPERTIES OF A TEMPERATURE BACTERIOPHAGE FROM BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS.  

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Welker, N. E. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. Induction and properties of a temperate bacteriophage from Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 89:175-184. 1965.-Bacillus stearothermophilus 1503-4R growing at 55 C was induced to lyse either when 0.05 mug/ml of mitomycin C was added or when it was exposed to ultraviolet light for 30 sec. Lysis of the induced cultures occurred 45 to 60 min after induction. Phage were assayed on B. stearothermophilus 4S giving turbid plaques 0.05 to 0.3 cm in diameter. Noninduced cultures of 1503-4R spontaneously produced one phage per 2.8 x 10(6) bacterial cells. The optimal temperature for phage production and assay was found to be 55 C. B. stearothermophilus 1503-4R was immune to the isolated temperate phage (TP-1) and to a clear-plaque mutant phage (TP-1C), even when tested at phage mutliplicities of 100. TP-1 and TP-1C phage were identical morphologically having a head 65 mmu in diameter and a tail 240 mmu long and 12 mmu wide. TP-1C phage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) had an S(20,w) value of 24.1 and a calculated molecular weight of 1.21 x 10(7). DNA base compositions of TP-1 and TP-1C phage were identical (42% guanine + cytosine), but differed significantly from those of the lysogenic or indicator strains of B. stearothermophilus (50% guanine + cytosine). No unusual bases were detected in either the bacterial or phage DNA. PMID:14255659

WELKER, N E; CAMPBELL, L L

1965-01-01

90

Induction and Properties of a Temperate Bacteriophage from Bacillus stearothermophilus  

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Welker, N. E. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. Induction and properties of a temperate bacteriophage from Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 89:175–184. 1965.—Bacillus stearothermophilus 1503-4R growing at 55 C was induced to lyse either when 0.05 ?g/ml of mitomycin C was added or when it was exposed to ultraviolet light for 30 sec. Lysis of the induced cultures occurred 45 to 60 min after induction. Phage were assayed on B. stearothermophilus 4S giving turbid plaques 0.05 to 0.3 cm in diameter. Noninduced cultures of 1503-4R spontaneously produced one phage per 2.8 × 106 bacterial cells. The optimal temperature for phage production and assay was found to be 55 C. B. stearothermophilus 1503-4R was immune to the isolated temperate phage (TP-1) and to a clear-plaque mutant phage (TP-1C), even when tested at phage mutliplicities of 100. TP-1 and TP-1C phage were identical morphologically having a head 65 m? in diameter and a tail 240 m? long and 12 m? wide. TP-1C phage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) had an S20,w value of 24.1 and a calculated molecular weight of 1.21 × 107. DNA base compositions of TP-1 and TP-1C phage were identical (42% guanine + cytosine), but differed significantly from those of the lysogenic or indicator strains of B. stearothermophilus (50% guanine + cytosine). No unusual bases were detected in either the bacterial or phage DNA. Images

Welker, N. E.; Campbell, L. Leon

1965-01-01

91

Functional and Structural Characterization of Thermostable d-Amino Acid Aminotransferases from Geobacillus spp.†  

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d-Amino acid aminotransferases (d-AATs) from Geobacillus toebii SK1 and Geobacillus sp. strain KLS1 were cloned and characterized from a genetic, catalytic, and structural aspect. Although the enzymes were highly thermostable, their catalytic capability was approximately one-third of that of highly active Bacilli enzymes, with respective turnover rates of 47 and 55 s?1 at 50°C. The Geobacillus enzymes were unique and shared limited sequence identities of below 45% with d-AATs from mesophil...

Lee, Seung-goo; Hong, Seung-pyo; Song, Jae Jun; Kim, Su-jin; Kwak, Mi-sun; Sung, Moon-hee

2006-01-01

92

Protocatechuate 3,4- dioxygenase from thermophilic Geobacillus sp. Strain  

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Protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase ( EC 1.13.11.3 ) catalyses the ring cleavage step in catabolism of aromatic compounds through the protocatechuate branch of the b-ketoadipate pathway. The protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase was purified to homogeneity from the thermophilic Geobacillus strain grown on naphthalene for the first time. The enzyme was purified about 24-fold with a specific activity of 34.2 U mg of protein-1 by a purification procedure including ammonium sulfate fractionation and column...

Bubinas, A.; Giedraityte?, G.; Kale?diene?, L.

2007-01-01

93

Culture Conditions for Production of Thermostable Amylase by Bacillus stearothermophilus  

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Bacillus stearothermophilus grew better on complex and semisynthetic medium than on synthetic medium supplemented with amino acids. Amylase production on the complex medium containing beef extract or corn steep liquor was higher than on semisynthetic medium containing peptone (0.4%). The synthetic medium, however, did not provide a good yield of extracellular amylase. Among the carbohydrates which favored the production of amylase are, in order starch > dextrin > glycogen > cellobiose > malto...

Srivastava, R. A. K.; Baruah, J. N.

1986-01-01

94

Influence of temperature and organic load on chemical disinfection of Geobacillus steareothermophilus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis.  

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This study evaluated the influence of temperature and organic load on the effectiveness of domestic bleach (DB), Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, which are a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores. The spores were suspended in light or heavy organic preparations and the suspension was applied to stainless steel carrier disks. The dried spore inoculum was covered with the disinfectants and the disks were then incubated at various temperatures. At -20°C, the 3 disinfectants caused less than a 2.0 log10 reduction of spores in both organic preparations during a 24-h test period. At 4°C, the DB caused a 4.4 log10 reduction of spores in light organic preparations within 2 h, which was about 3 log10 higher than what was achieved with SDF or Virkon. In heavy organic preparations, after 24 h at 4°C the SDF had reduced the spore count by 4.5 log10, which was about 2 log10 higher than for DB or Virkon. In general, the disinfectants were most effective at 23°C but a 24-h contact time was required for SDF and Virkon to reduce spore counts in both organic preparations by at least 5.5 log10. Comparable disinfecting activity with DB only occurred with the light organic load. In summary, at temperatures as low as 4°C, DB was the most effective disinfectant, inactivating spores within 2 h on surfaces with a light organic load, whereas SDF produced the greatest reduction of spores within 24 h on surfaces with a heavy organic load. PMID:24082400

Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W; Rohonczy, Liz

2013-04-01

95

Characterization of a thermophilic bacteriophage for Bacillus stearothermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saunders, Grady F. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. Characterization of a thermophilic bacteriophage for Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 91:340-348. 1965.-The biological and physical-chemical properties of the thermophilic bacteriophage TP-84 were investigated. TP-84 was shown to be lytic for 3 of 24 strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus tested over the temperature range of 43 to 76 C. The latent period of TP-84 on B. stearothermophilus strain 10 was 22 to 24 min. TP-84 has a hexagonal head, 53 mmu in diameter and 30 mmu on a side; its tail is 130 mmu long and 3 to 5 mmu wide. The phage has an S(50) (20,w) of 436, and bands at a density of 1.508 g/cc in CsCl (pH 8.5). The diffusion coefficient of TP-84 was calculated to be 6.19 x 10(-8) cm(2)/sec. From the sedimentation and diffusion data, a particle molecular weight of 50 million daltons was calculated for TP-84. The phage DNA has a base composition of 42% guanine + cytosine, deduced from buoyant density and melting temperature measurements. PMID:5903101

Saunders, G F; Campbell, L L

1966-01-01

96

Characterization of a Thermophilic Bacteriophage for Bacillus stearothermophilus1  

Science.gov (United States)

Saunders, Grady F. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. Characterization of a thermophilic bacteriophage for Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 91:340–348. 1965.—The biological and physical-chemical properties of the thermophilic bacteriophage TP-84 were investigated. TP-84 was shown to be lytic for 3 of 24 strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus tested over the temperature range of 43 to 76 C. The latent period of TP-84 on B. stearothermophilus strain 10 was 22 to 24 min. TP-84 has a hexagonal head, 53 m? in diameter and 30 m? on a side; its tail is 130 m? long and 3 to 5 m? wide. The phage has an S5020,w of 436, and bands at a density of 1.508 g/cc in CsCl (pH 8.5). The diffusion coefficient of TP-84 was calculated to be 6.19 × 10?8 cm2/sec. From the sedimentation and diffusion data, a particle molecular weight of 50 million daltons was calculated for TP-84. The phage DNA has a base composition of 42% guanine + cytosine, deduced from buoyant density and melting temperature measurements. Images

Saunders, Grady F.; Campbell, L. Leon

1966-01-01

97

Complete genome sequence of the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5 is a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Malaysia. Here, we report the complete genome of G. thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5, which shows high similarity to the genome of Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA 426 in terms of synteny and orthologous genes. PMID:22328744

Muhd Sakaff, Muhd Khairul Luqman; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Yamin; Saito, Jennifer A; Hou, Shaobin; Alam, Maqsudul

2012-03-01

98

Complete Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5  

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Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5 is a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Malaysia. Here, we report the complete genome of G. thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5, which shows high similarity to the genome of Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA 426 in terms of synteny and orthologous genes.

Muhd Sakaff, Muhd Khairul Luqman; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Yamin; Saito, Jennifer A.; Hou, Shaobin; Alam, Maqsudul

2012-01-01

99

PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ALKALOTHERMOSTABLE, ORGANIC SOLVENT TOLERANT AND SURFACTANT TOLERANT ESTERASE PRODUCED BY A THERMOPHILIC BACTERIUM GEOBACILLUS SP. AGP-04, ISOLATED FROM BAKRESHWAR HOT SPRING, INDIA  

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Full Text Available A thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus sp. AGP-04, isolated from Surya Kund hot spring, Bakreshwar, West Bengal, India was studied in terms of capability of tributyrin hydrolysis and characterization of its thermostable esterase activity using p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB as substrate. The extracellular crude preparation was characterized in terms of pH and temperature optima and stability, organic solvent tolerance capacity and stability, substrate specificity, surfactant tolerance capacity, kinetic parameters and activation/inhibition behavior towards some metal ions and chemicals. Tributyrin agar assay exhibited that Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 secretes an extracellular esterase. The Vmax and Km values of the esterase were found to be 5099 U/Land 103.5µM, respectively in the presence of PNPB as substrate. The optimum temperature and pH, for Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 esterase was 60oC and 8.0, respectively. Although the enzyme activity was not significantly altered by incubating crude extract solution at 20-70oC for 1 hour, the enzyme activity was fully lost at 90oC for same incubation period. The pH stability profile showed that original crude esterase activity is stable at a broad range (pH 5.0-10.0. Moreover, the enzyme was highly organic solvent and surfactant tolerant. The effect of some chemical on crude esterase activity indicated that Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 produce an esterase which contains a serine residue in active site and for its activity -SH groups are essential. Besides, enzyme production was highly induced if fermentation medium contain polysaccharides and oil as carbon source.

Amit Ghati

2013-10-01

100

21 CFR 184.1012 - α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false ñ-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1012 α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus. (a) α-Amylase enzyme preparation is obtained...

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Heat shock affects permeability and resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores.  

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Heat shock of dormant spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 at 100 or 80 degrees C for short times, the so-called activation or breaking of dormancy, was investigated by separating the resulting spores by buoyant density centrifugation into a band at 1.240 g/ml that was distinct from another band at 1.340 g/ml, the same density as the original spores. The proportion of spores at 1.240 g/ml became larger when the original dormant spores were heated for a longer period of time, but in...

Beaman, T. C.; Pankratz, H. S.; Gerhardt, P.

1988-01-01

102

Nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase gene.  

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The nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase gene and its flanking regions was determined. An open reading frame was found, comprising a total of 1,647 base pairs (549 amino acids) and starting from a GUG codon as methionine. It was shown by NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis that the extracellular amylase consisted of 515 amino acid residues, which corresponded to a molecular weight of 58,779. Thus the NH2-terminal portion of the gene encodes 34 amino acid ...

Nakajima, R.; Imanaka, T.; Aiba, S.

1985-01-01

103

Crystal Structure of Bacillus stearothermophilus UvrA Provides Insight into ATP-modulated Dimerization, UvrB Interaction and DNA Binding  

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The nucleotide excision repair pathway corrects many structurally unrelated DNA lesions. Damage recognition in bacteria is performed by UvrA, a member of the ABC ATPase superfamily whose functional form is a dimer with four nucleotide-binding domains (NBD), two per protomer. In the 3.2-Å structure of UvrA from Bacillus stearothermophilus, we observe that the nucleotide-binding sites are formed in an intramolecular fashion and are not at the dimer interface as is typically found in other ABC ...

Pakotiprapha, Danaya; Inuzuka, Yoshihiko; Bowman, Brian R.; Moolenaar, Geri F.; Goosen, Nora; Jeruzalmi, David; Verdine, Gregory L.

2008-01-01

104

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PAPAYA LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA  

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Full Text Available It was reported that the extracts of papaya leaves could inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer. Antibacterial activity of Carica papaya leaf extracts on pathogenic bacteria was observed in this study. Papaya leaves were extracted by using maceration method and three kinds of solvents: ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane. Papaya leaf extracts were tested against Bacillus stearothermophilus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and Escherichia coli by agar diffusion method. The objectives of this study were to determine extract ability against pathogenic bacteria, to observe the influence of pH, NaCl, and heat on extracts ability, and to observe extract ability against B. stearothermophilus spores. The data showed that ethyl acetate extract could inhibit B. stearothermophilus, L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and E. coli. The extract activity was influenced by pH, and it was more effective in low pH. The extract activity was influenced by NaCl against B. stearothermophillus and E. coli. However, it was not influenced by NaCl in bioassay against L. monocytogenes and Pseudomonas sp. The extract activity was influenced by heating process against all the bacteria tested. The extracts inhibited B. stearothermophilus spores as well. Papaya leaves are potential natural anti-bacteria, which might be used in certain kinds of food.

Adolf Jan Nexson Parhusip

2011-11-01

105

INDUCTION OF ?-AMYLASE OF BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS BY MALTODEXTRINS1  

Science.gov (United States)

Welker, N. E. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio) and L. Leon Campbell. Induction of ?-amylase of Bacillus stearothermophilus by maltodextrins. J. Bacteriol. 86:687–691. 1963.—Technical-grade maltose contained 3.5% glucose, 0.5% maltotriose, and 2.5% of the higher molecular weight maltodextrins. The first five homologues (maltose being the first in the series) of the maltodextrin series were isolated and purified. Each member of the series was found to be chromatographically pure. The physical and chemical properties were determined. It was shown that the contaminating maltodextrins found in technical grade maltose were linear (1–4 linked) polymers of glucose, ranging from maltotriose to maltohexaose. The addition of maltose, maltotriose, maltohexaose, maltopentaose, and maltotetraose (all at 10?4m) to cultures growing in a chemically defined medium resulted in a stimulation in the differential rate of ?-amylase synthesis by 1.2, 1.6, 1.9, 2.3, and 3.0 times that of the sucrose control, while glucose had no effect. The induction data indicate that Bacillus stearothermophilus 1503–4 is a partial constitutive strain with respect to ?-amylase synthesis.

Welker, N. E.; Campbell, L. Leon

1963-01-01

106

INDUCTION OF ALPHA-AMYLASE OF BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS BY MALTODEXTRINS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Welker, N. E. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio) and L. Leon Campbell. Induction of alpha-amylase of Bacillus stearothermophilus by maltodextrins. J. Bacteriol. 86:687-691. 1963.-Technical-grade maltose contained 3.5% glucose, 0.5% maltotriose, and 2.5% of the higher molecular weight maltodextrins. The first five homologues (maltose being the first in the series) of the maltodextrin series were isolated and purified. Each member of the series was found to be chromatographically pure. The physical and chemical properties were determined. It was shown that the contaminating maltodextrins found in technical grade maltose were linear (1-4 linked) polymers of glucose, ranging from maltotriose to maltohexaose. The addition of maltose, maltotriose, maltohexaose, maltopentaose, and maltotetraose (all at 10(-4)m) to cultures growing in a chemically defined medium resulted in a stimulation in the differential rate of alpha-amylase synthesis by 1.2, 1.6, 1.9, 2.3, and 3.0 times that of the sucrose control, while glucose had no effect. The induction data indicate that Bacillus stearothermophilus 1503-4 is a partial constitutive strain with respect to alpha-amylase synthesis. PMID:14066462

WELKER, N E; CAMPBELL, L L

1963-10-01

107

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the phosphotriesterase-like lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus  

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Recombinant GK1506 from the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus kaustophilus has been expressed, purified and crystallized. A 2.6?Å resolution native data set was collected from a single flash-cooled crystal.

Zheng, Baisong; Yu, Shanshan; Zhang, Yu; Feng, Yan; Lou, Zhiyong

2011-01-01

108

Structural genes encoding the thermophilic alpha-amylases of Bacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus licheniformis.  

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The genes encoding the thermostable alpha-amylases of Bacillus stearothermophilus and B. licheniformis were cloned in Escherichia coli, and their DNA sequences were determined. The coding and deduced polypeptide sequences are 59 and 62% homologous to each other, respectively. The B. stearothermophilus protein differs most significantly from that of B. licheniformis in that it possesses a 32-residue COOH-terminal tail. Transformation of E. coli with vectors containing either gene resulted in t...

Gray, G. L.; Mainzer, S. E.; Rey, M. W.; Lamsa, M. H.; Kindle, K. L.; Carmona, C.; Requadt, C.

1986-01-01

109

Effect of mea on DNA degradation in permeable irradiated Bac. stearothermophilus cells  

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It was shown that DNA-degrading activity of permeable, intact and ?-irradiated cells of Bac. stearothermophilus decreased under the effect of ?-mercaptoethylamine (MEA). MEA decreased also a DNAase activity, in a crude acellular extract of Bac. stearothermophilus, and activities of S1-nuclease and DNAase. I. The data obtained prompt an assumption that MEA has an inhibitory action on the activity of endonucleases irrespective of their substrate specificity

1983-01-01

110

A commensal symbiotic interrelationship for the growth of Symbiobacterium toebii with its partner bacterium, Geobacillus toebii  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Symbiobacterium toebii is a commensal symbiotic thermophile that absolutely requires its partner bacterium Geobacillus toebii for growth. Despite development of an independent cultivation method using cell-free extracts, the growth of Symbiobacterium remains unknown due to our poor understanding of the symbiotic relationship with its partner bacterium. Here, we investigated the interrelationship between these two bacteria for growth of S. toebii using different cell-free extracts of G. toebii. Results Symbiobacterium toebii growth-supporting factors were constitutively produced through almost all growth phases and under different oxygen tensions in G. toebii, indicating that the factor may be essential components for growth of G. toebii as well as S. toebii. The growing conditions of G. toebii under different oxygen tension dramatically affected to the initial growth of S. toebii and the retarded lag phase was completely shortened by reducing agent, L-cysteine indicating an evidence of commensal interaction of microaerobic and anaerobic bacterium S. toebii with a facultative aerobic bacterium G. toebii. In addition, the growth curve of S. toebii showed a dependency on the protein concentration of cell-free extracts of G. toebii, demonstrating that the G. toebii-derived factors have nutrient-like characters but not quorum-sensing characters. Conclusions Not only the consistent existence of the factor in G. toebii during all growth stages and under different oxygen tensions but also the concentration dependency of the factor for proliferation and optimal growth of S. toebii, suggests that an important biosynthetic machinery lacks in S. toebii during evolution. The commensal symbiotic bacterium, S. toebii uptakes certain ubiquitous and essential compound for its growth from environment or neighboring bacteria that shares the equivalent compounds. Moreover, G. toebii grown under aerobic condition shortened the lag phase of S. toebii under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, suggests a possible commensal interaction that G. toebii scavengers ROS/RNS species and helps the initial growth of S. toebii.

Masui Ryoji

2011-10-01

111

Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78°C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5–99.2%. Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification. Results Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70°C and was also stable up to 60°C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T. Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T. Conclusion Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular thermostable lipase into culture medium. The strain T1T was identified as Geobacillus zalihae T1T as it differs from its type strains Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T and Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T on some physiological studies, cellular fatty acids composition, RiboPrint analysis, length of lipase gene and protein profile.

Salleh Abu

2007-08-01

112

A Group II Intron-Type Open Reading Frame from the Thermophile Bacillus (Geobacillus) stearothermophilus Encodes a Heat-Stable Reverse Transcriptase  

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The production of a stable cDNA copy of an unstable RNA molecule by reverse transcription is a widely used and essential technology for many important applications, such as the construction of gene libraries, production of DNA probes, and analysis of gene expression by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). However, the synthesis of full-length cDNAs is frequently inefficient, because the RT commonly used often produces truncated cDNAs. Synthesizing cDNA at higher temperatures, on the other hand...

Vellore, Jaishree; Moretz, Samuel E.; Lampson, Bert C.

2004-01-01

113

Effects of iron-reducing bacteria on carbon steel corrosion induced by thermophilic sulfate-reducing consortia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four thermophilic bacterial species, including the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacillus sp. G2 and the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfotomaculum sp. SRB-M, were employed to integrate a bacterial consortium. A second consortium was integrated with the same bacteria, except for Geobacillus sp. G2. Carbon steel coupons were subjected to batch cultures of both consortia. The corrosion induced by the complete consortium was 10 times higher than that induced by the second consortium, and the ferrous ion concentration was consistently higher in iron-reducing consortia. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis of the carbon steel surface showed mineral films colonized by bacteria. The complete consortium caused profuse fracturing of the mineral film, whereas the non-iron-reducing consortium did not generate fractures. These data show that the iron-reducing activity of Geobacillus sp. G2 promotes fracturing of mineral films, thereby increasing steel corrosion. PMID:24225375

Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José

2014-02-28

114

Biochemical Changes in Lysogenic Bacillus stearothermophilus After Bacteriophage Induction1  

Science.gov (United States)

Welker, N. E. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. Biochemical changes in lysogenic Bacillus stearothermophilus after bacteriophage induction. J. Bacteriol. 90:1129–1137. 1965.—Cultures of Bacillus stearothermophilus 1503-4R (TP-1) continued to grow at an unaltered rate after induction with mitomycin C (MC). MC-induced cultures exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in cell number before lysis occurred. Prior to lysis, cells were observed to elongate and to contain areas of lesser density. Protein synthesis was slightly inhibited in MC- or ultraviolet light (UV)-induced cultures for a period of 5 to 10 min, and then proceeded at a rate identical to that in the noninduced culture. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis was not affected by MC induction. UV induction caused RNA synthesis to occur in two stages: in the first stage, the rate of RNA synthesis was one-third that observed in the noninduced culture and lasted for a period of 15 min; the second stage of RNA synthesis then proceeded at a rate identical to that in the noninduced culture. The synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in an MC- or UV-induced culture occurred in two stages. In the first stage, DNA synthesis in induced cultures occurred at a rate of one-half (MC) and one-third (UV) of that observed in the noninduced culture. The first stage of DNA synthesis in MC- or UV-induced cultures lasted for 25 to 30 min and 15 to 20 min, respectively. In the second stage, the rate of DNA synthesis in MC- or UV-induced cultures occurred at a rate three times that of the noninduced culture. UV induction appeared to have a greater inhibitory effect than MC induction on protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis as well as phage yield. The differential rate (K) of inducible and constitutive ?-amylase synthesis was inhibited by 75 and 100%, respectively, for a period of 20 min after MC induction. After 20 min, the K values for ?-amylase synthesis were identical to those obtained in the absence of MC induction. The synthesis of TP-1 phage DNA occurred rapidly and was complete 25 min after MC induction, whereas bacterial DNA was degraded or its rate of synthesis was decreased. During the second stage of DNA synthesis, only bacterial DNA was synthesized, but at a rate greater than that found in the noninduced culture. Images

Welker, N. E.; Campbell, L. Leon

1965-01-01

115

Biochemical changes in lysogenic Bacillus stearothermophilus after bacteriophage induction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Welker, N. E. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. Biochemical changes in lysogenic Bacillus stearothermophilus after bacteriophage induction. J. Bacteriol. 90:1129-1137. 1965.-Cultures of Bacillus stearothermophilus 1503-4R (TP-1) continued to grow at an unaltered rate after induction with mitomycin C (MC). MC-induced cultures exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in cell number before lysis occurred. Prior to lysis, cells were observed to elongate and to contain areas of lesser density. Protein synthesis was slightly inhibited in MC- or ultraviolet light (UV)-induced cultures for a period of 5 to 10 min, and then proceeded at a rate identical to that in the noninduced culture. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis was not affected by MC induction. UV induction caused RNA synthesis to occur in two stages: in the first stage, the rate of RNA synthesis was one-third that observed in the noninduced culture and lasted for a period of 15 min; the second stage of RNA synthesis then proceeded at a rate identical to that in the noninduced culture. The synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in an MC- or UV-induced culture occurred in two stages. In the first stage, DNA synthesis in induced cultures occurred at a rate of one-half (MC) and one-third (UV) of that observed in the noninduced culture. The first stage of DNA synthesis in MC- or UV-induced cultures lasted for 25 to 30 min and 15 to 20 min, respectively. In the second stage, the rate of DNA synthesis in MC- or UV-induced cultures occurred at a rate three times that of the noninduced culture. UV induction appeared to have a greater inhibitory effect than MC induction on protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis as well as phage yield. The differential rate (K) of inducible and constitutive alpha-amylase synthesis was inhibited by 75 and 100%, respectively, for a period of 20 min after MC induction. After 20 min, the K values for alpha-amylase synthesis were identical to those obtained in the absence of MC induction. The synthesis of TP-1 phage DNA occurred rapidly and was complete 25 min after MC induction, whereas bacterial DNA was degraded or its rate of synthesis was decreased. During the second stage of DNA synthesis, only bacterial DNA was synthesized, but at a rate greater than that found in the noninduced culture. PMID:5847800

Welker, N E; Campbell, L L

1965-10-01

116

Influence of N- and/or C-terminal regions on activity, expression, characteristics and structure of lipase from Geobacillus sp. 95.  

Science.gov (United States)

GD-95 lipase from Geobacillus sp. strain 95 and its modified variants lacking N-terminal signal peptide and/or 10 or 20 C-terminal amino acids were successfully cloned, expressed and purified. To our knowledge, GD-95 lipase precursor (Pre-GD-95) is the first Geobacillus lipase possessing more than 80% lipolytic activity at 5 °C. It has maximum activity at 55 °C and displays a broad pH activity range. GD-95 lipase was shown to hydrolyze p-NP dodecanoate, tricaprylin and canola oil better than other analyzed substrates. Structural and sequence alignments of bacterial lipases and GD-95 lipase revealed that the C-terminus forms an ? helix, which is a conserved structure in lipases from Pseudomonas, Clostridium or Staphylococcus bacteria. This work demonstrates that 10 and 20 C-terminal amino acids of GD-95 lipase significantly affect stability and other physicochemical properties of this enzyme, which has never been reported before and can help create lipases with more specific properties for industrial application. GD-95 lipase and its modified variants GD-95-10 can be successfully applied to biofuel production, in leather and pulp industries, for the production of cosmetics or perfumes. These lipases are potential biocatalysts in processes, which require extreme conditions: low or high temperature, strongly acidic or alkaline environment and various organic solvents. PMID:24287927

Gudiukait?, Renata; Gegeckas, Audrius; Kazlauskas, Darius; Citavicius, Donaldas

2014-01-01

117

Cloning and expression of three ladA-type alkane monooxygenase genes from an extremely thermophilic alkane-degrading bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23.  

Science.gov (United States)

An extremely thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23, is capable of degrading a broad range of alkanes (with carbon chain lengths ranging between C11 and C32) at 70 °C. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that unlike most alkane-degrading bacteria, strain B23 does not possess an alkB-type alkane monooxygenase gene. Instead, it possesses a cluster of three ladA-type genes, ladA?B23, ladA?B23, and ladB B23, on its chromosome, whose protein products share significant amino acid sequence identities, 49.8, 34.4, and 22.7 %, respectively, with that of ladA alkane monooxygenase gene found on a plasmid of Geobacillus thermodetrificans NG 80-2. Each of the three genes, ladA?B23, ladA?B23, and ladB B23, was heterologously expressed individually in an alkB1 deletion mutant strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens KOB2?1. It was found that all three genes were functional in P. fluorescens KOB2?1, and partially restored alkane degradation activity. In this study, we suggest that G. thermoleovorans B23 utilizes multiple LadA-type alkane monooxygenases for the degradation of a broad range of alkanes. PMID:24682607

Boonmak, Chanita; Takahashi, Yasunori; Morikawa, Masaaki

2014-05-01

118

1H, 13C, and 15N backbone and side chain resonance assignments of thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus cyclophilin-A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cyclophilins catalyze the reversible peptidyl-prolyl isomerization of their substrates and are present across all kingdoms of life from humans to bacteria. Although numerous biological roles have now been discovered for cyclophilins, their function was initially ascribed to their chaperone-like activity in protein folding where they catalyze the often rate-limiting step of proline isomerization. This chaperone-like activity may be especially important under extreme conditions where cyclophilins are often over expressed, such as in tumors for human cyclophilins {Lee, 2010 #1167}, but also in organisms that thrive under extreme conditions, such as theromophilic bacteria. Moreover, the reversible nature of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerization reaction catalyzed by cyclophilins has allowed these enzymes to serve as model systems for probing the role of conformational changes during catalytic turnover {Eisenmesser, 2002 #20;Eisenmesser, 2005 #203}. Thus, we present here the resonance assignments of a thermophilic cyclophilin from Geobacillus kaustophilus derived from deep-sea sediment {Takami, 2004 #1384}. This thermophilic cyclophilin may now be studied at a variety of temperatures to provide insight into the comparative structure, dynamics, and catalytic mechanism of cyclophilins.

Holliday, Michael; Zhang, Fengli; Isern, Nancy G.; Armstrong, Geoffrey S.; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.

2014-04-01

119

1H, 13C, and 15N backbone and side chain resonance assignments of thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus cyclophilin-A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyclophilins catalyze the reversible peptidyl-prolyl isomerization of their substrates and are present across all kingdoms of life from humans to bacteria. Although numerous biological roles have now been discovered for cyclophilins, their function was initially ascribed to their chaperone-like activity in protein folding where they catalyze the often rate-limiting step of proline isomerization. This chaperone-like activity may be especially important under extreme conditions where cyclophilins are often over expressed, such as in tumors for human cyclophilins (Lee Archiv Pharm Res 33(2): 181-187, 2010), but also in organisms that thrive under extreme conditions, such as theromophilic bacteria. Moreover, the reversible nature of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerization reaction catalyzed by cyclophilins has allowed these enzymes to serve as model systems for probing the role of conformational changes during catalytic turnover (Eisenmesser et al. Science 295(5559): 1520-1523, 2002; Eisenmesser et al. Nature 438(7064): 117-121, 2005). Thus, we present here the resonance assignments of a thermophilic cyclophilin from Geobacillus kaustophilus derived from deep-sea sediment (Takami et al. Extremophiles 8(5): 351-356, 2004). This thermophilic cyclophilin may now be studied at a variety of temperatures to provide insight into the comparative structure, dynamics, and catalytic mechanism of cyclophilins. PMID:23138858

Holliday, Michael J; Zhang, Fengli; Isern, Nancy G; Armstrong, Geoffrey S; Eisenmesser, Elan Z

2014-04-01

120

Construction of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius cDNA library and analysis of genes expressed in response to heat stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophiles exhibit various kinds of molecular mechanisms to survive in extreme environment, but their behavioral responses to long duration stress is poorly understood until date. In the present study, we have prospected for the genes differentially expressed in response to long duration heat stress in thermophilic bacteria. A cDNA library was constructed from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius grown with a temperature upshift of 10 °C from optimum growth temperature of 45 °C for 16 h. A total of 451 clones from the library were sequenced with accurate base calling that generated 257 high quality sequences with an average read length of 350 bp. We queried our collection of single pass sequences against the NCBI non-redundant database using the BLASTX algorithm and obtained sequences that showed significant similarity (>60%) with heat shock proteins, metabolic proteins and hypothetical proteins. The expressed sequence tags (ESTs) expressed in response to heat stress were annotated that further commuted a strong interaction network among one another. The ESTs based on the best hits were validated by RT-PCR. Di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were also found to be associated with 17 genes involved in heat shock response, metabolism, transport and transcriptional regulation. The present results provide the novel identification of the putative genes responsible for imparting tolerance to bacteria under heat stress and unveil their role for survival of life in environmental extremes. PMID:24398554

Tripathy, S; Maiti, N K

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Modification of rock/fluid and fluid/fluid interfaces during MEOR processes, using two biosurfactant producing strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 and Enterobacter cloacae: A mechanistic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

During any microbial enhanced oil recovery process, both cells and the metabolic products of bacteria govern the tertiary oil recovery efficiency. However, very accurate examination is needed to find the functionality of these tiny creatures at different reservoir conditions. In this regard, the effect of cell structure on ultimate microbial recovery efficiency which is the most dominant mechanism based on the microorganism types (gram-negative or gram-positive) was systematically investigated. At the first stage, possible different active mechanisms using Bacillus stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 strain were tested using specially designed injection protocol, in situ and ex situ core flooding experiments, interfacial tension, viscosity, pH and Amott wettability index measurements. At the second stage, comparing functionality of B. stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 (a gram-positive type) with the previously examined strain namely Enterobacter cloacae as a gram-negative type, proposed this hypothesis that the cell structure significantly affects the interfacial behaviors. New designed protocols were utilized to check the individual effects of cells, bioproducts and interaction of these together on the oil/water and also fluids/rock interfaces. The final results showed that the cells of B. stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 adhere more into the oil/water interface compared to E. cloacae and change its rheological properties; e.g. its elastic properties which affect the ultimate microbial oil recovery efficiency. Eventually, contradicting results revealed that biosurfactant produced by E. cloacae was able to considerably reduce the interfacial tension and alter the wettability of the rock (to neutral conditions) while biosurfactant produced by B. stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 was not very effective. PMID:24373916

Sarafzadeh, Pegah; Zeinolabedini Hezave, Ali; Mohammadi, Sahar; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

2014-05-01

122

Crystal structure of a compact ?-amylase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans.  

Science.gov (United States)

A truncated form of an ?-amylase, GTA, from thermophilic Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5 was biochemically and structurally characterized. The recombinant GTA, which lacked both the N- and C-terminal transmembrane regions, functioned optimally at 70°C and pH 6.0. While enzyme activity was not enhanced by the addition of CaCl2, GTA's thermostability was significantly improved in the presence of CaCl2. The structure, in complex with an acarbose-derived pseudo-hexasaccharide, consists of the typical three domains and binds one Ca(2+) ion. This Ca(2+) ion was strongly bound and not chelated by EDTA. A predicted second Ca(2+)-binding site, however, was disordered. With limited subsites, two novel substrate-binding residues, Y147 and Y182, may help increase substrate affinity. No distinct starch-binding domain is present, although two regions rich in aromatic residues have been observed. GTA, with a smaller domain B and several shorter loops compared to other ?-amylases, has one of the most compact ?-amylase folds that may contribute greatly to its tight Ca(2+) binding and thermostability. PMID:23683704

Mok, Sook-Chen; Teh, Aik-Hong; Saito, Jennifer A; Najimudin, Nazalan; Alam, Maqsudul

2013-06-10

123

Cloning and characterization of a 4-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-Hydroxylase from the Thermophile Geobacillus sp. PA-9  

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A 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) hydroxylase-encoding gene, on a 2.7-kb genomic DNA fragment, was cloned from the thermophile Geobacillus sp. PA-9. The Geobacillus sp. PA-9 4-HPA hydroxylase gene, designated hpaH, encodes a protein of 494 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 56.269 Da. The deduced amino-acid sequence of the hpaH gene product displayed <30% amino-acid sequence identity with the larger monooxygenase components of the previously characterized two-component 4-HPA 3-...

Hawumba, J. F.; Brozel, V. S.; Theron, Jacques

2007-01-01

124

Purification and Characterization of a Thermostable Lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IBRL-nra  

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Thermostable lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IBRL-nra was purified and characterized. The production of thermostable lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IBRL-nra was carried out in a shake-flask system at 65°C in cultivation medium containing; glucose 1.0% (w/v); yeast extract 1.25% (w/v); NaCl 0.45% (w/v) olive oil 0.1% (v/v) with agitation of 200?rpm for 24 hours. The extracted extracellular crude thermostable lipase was purified to homogeneity by using ultrafiltratio...

Balan, Anuradha; Ibrahim, Darah; Abdul Rahim, Rashidah; Ahmad Rashid, Fatimah Azzahra

2012-01-01

125

Evidence for movement of the alpha-amylase gene into two phylogenetically distant Bacillus stearothermophilus strains.  

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The gene for an alpha-amylase cloned from strain DY-5 of Bacillus stearothermophilus was used to examine to what extent the corresponding genes are structurally similar in other B. stearothermophilus strains. The structure of the gene itself was almost identical in DY-5 and a group of strains represented by strain 799. The gene was not detected at all in strain DSM2334, which was phenotypically amylase deficient. Comparison of the structure of 5S rRNA and electrophoretic pattern of the riboso...

Satoh, H.; Nishida, H.; Isono, K.

1988-01-01

126

Bacillus stearothermophilus contains a plasmid-borne gene for alpha-amylase.  

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The gene for thermostable alpha-amylase from the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Each alpha-amylase-producing colony contained at least a 9.7-kilobase-pair (kb) chimeric plasmid composed of the vector pBR322 and a common 5.4-kb HindIII fragment of DNA. B. stearothermophilus contains four plasmids with sizes from 12 kb to over 108 kb. Restriction endonuclease analysis of these naturally occurring plasmids showed they also co...

Mielenz, J. R.

1983-01-01

127

DE NOVO SYNTHESIS OF ALPHA-AMYLASE BY BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Welker, N. E. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio and University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. De novo synthesis of alpha-amylase by Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 86:1202-1210. 1963.-The pH optimum for the synthesis of alpha-amylase by washed-cell suspensions was 6.7. alpha-Amylase synthesis began soon after the addition of the inducer (maltose, methyl-beta-d-maltoside, or phenyl-alpha-d-glucoside, at 10(-3)m), proceeded at a linear rate for 60 min, and then leveled off. Cell suspensions without inducer produced small amounts of alpha-amylase. The addition of glucose (2 x 10(-3)m), sucrose (10(-3)m), or glycerol (4 x 10(-3)m) to washed-cell suspensions failed to stimulate the production of alpha-amylase. Nitrogen starvation of washed cells for 60 min with fructose as a carbon source or by induction with pure maltose showed that the ability to produce alpha-amylase was lost. Examination of the amino acid pool at this time showed a general depletion of amino acids and the complete disappearance of tyrosine, phenyl-alanine, proline, and valine. Replenishment of the amino acid pool with casein hydrolysate (0.5%) restored the ability of the cells to produce alpha-amylase. Chloramphenicol and 8-azaguanine were shown to inhibit alpha-amylase synthesis. Inhibition was observed immediately upon the addition of chloramphenicol to cell suspensions preinduced for varying periods of time. Actinomycin D and mitomycin C also inhibited alpha-amylase synthesis when added to induced washed-cell suspensions. The amino acid analogues, norvaline, norleucine, and ethionine, inhibited alpha-amylase formation by 72, 53, and 38%, respectively. p-Fluorophenylalanine inhibited the synthesis of active alpha-amylase by 92% and the incorporation of proline-C(14) into alpha-amylase and cellular proteins by 95 and 74%, respectively. PMID:14086090

WELKER, N E; CAMPBELL, L L

1963-12-01

128

DE NOVO SYNTHESIS OF ?-AMYLASE BY BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS1  

Science.gov (United States)

Welker, N. E. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio and University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. De novo synthesis of ?-amylase by Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 86:1202–1210. 1963.—The pH optimum for the synthesis of ?-amylase by washed-cell suspensions was 6.7. ?-Amylase synthesis began soon after the addition of the inducer (maltose, methyl-?-d-maltoside, or phenyl-?-d-glucoside, at 10?3m), proceeded at a linear rate for 60 min, and then leveled off. Cell suspensions without inducer produced small amounts of ?-amylase. The addition of glucose (2 × 10?3m), sucrose (10?3m), or glycerol (4 × 10?3m) to washed-cell suspensions failed to stimulate the production of ?-amylase. Nitrogen starvation of washed cells for 60 min with fructose as a carbon source or by induction with pure maltose showed that the ability to produce ?-amylase was lost. Examination of the amino acid pool at this time showed a general depletion of amino acids and the complete disappearance of tyrosine, phenyl-alanine, proline, and valine. Replenishment of the amino acid pool with casein hydrolysate (0.5%) restored the ability of the cells to produce ?-amylase. Chloramphenicol and 8-azaguanine were shown to inhibit ?-amylase synthesis. Inhibition was observed immediately upon the addition of chloramphenicol to cell suspensions preinduced for varying periods of time. Actinomycin D and mitomycin C also inhibited ?-amylase synthesis when added to induced washed-cell suspensions. The amino acid analogues, norvaline, norleucine, and ethionine, inhibited ?-amylase formation by 72, 53, and 38%, respectively. p-Fluorophenylalanine inhibited the synthesis of active ?-amylase by 92% and the incorporation of proline-C14 into ?-amylase and cellular proteins by 95 and 74%, respectively.

Welker, N. E.; Campbell, L. Leon

1963-01-01

129

Structure of an aliphatic amidase from Geobacillus pallidus RAPc8.  

Science.gov (United States)

The amidase from Geobacillus pallidus RAPc8, a moderate thermophile, is a member of the nitrilase superfamily and catalyzes the conversion of amides to the corresponding carboxylic acids and ammonia. It shows both amide-hydrolysis and acyl-transfer activities and also exhibits stereoselectivity for some enantiomeric substrates, thus making it a potentially important industrial catalyst. The crystal structure of G. pallidus RAPc8 amidase at a resolution of 1.9 A was solved by molecular replacement from a crystal belonging to the primitive cubic space group P4(2)32. G. pallidus RAPc8 amidase is homohexameric in solution and its monomers have the typical nitrilase-superfamily alpha-beta-beta-alpha fold. Association in the hexamer preserves the eight-layered alpha-beta-beta-alpha:alpha-beta-beta-alpha structure across an interface which is conserved in the known members of the superfamily. The extended carboxy-terminal tail contributes to this conserved interface by interlocking the monomers. Analysis of the small active site of the G. pallidus RAPc8 amidase suggests that access of a water molecule to the catalytic triad (Cys, Glu, Lys) side chains would be impeded by the formation of the acyl intermediate. It is proposed that another active-site residue, Glu142, the position of which is conserved in the homologues, acts as a general base to catalyse the hydrolysis of this intermediate. The small size of the substrate-binding pocket also explains the specificity of this enzyme for short aliphatic amides and its asymmetry explains its enantioselectivity. PMID:17881822

Kimani, Serah W; Agarkar, Vinod B; Cowan, Donald A; Sayed, Muhammed F R; Sewell, B Trevor

2007-10-01

130

Detection and characterization of chlorinated-dioxin ether cleavage function in the bacterium geobacillus midousuji SH2B-J2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As of now, there are no dioxin degrading microorganism reported that can be applied to bioremediation. The reasons for this are that degrading function acquired from comprehensive screening of bacteria that can be grown with a single carbon source using non-chlorinated dioxin does not function against highly chlorinated dioxins, and that although white rot fungus capable of degrading lignin, a plant polyphenol substance, have been reported to reduce chlorinated dioxins, degrading enzyme remain unclear. Geobacillus midousuji SH2B-J2 (J2 strain) that have been separated by Hoshina et al. have shown to reduce highly chlorinated dioxins in incineration fly ash, as well as octa-chlorinated dioxins (OCDD). However, details of its degrading mechanisms remain unclear. Since the J2 strain is capable of reducing even OCDD, it was hypothesized that the initial degradation reaction is intramolecular ether bond cleavage, so J2 strain dioxin degradation mechanism was analyzed for verification.

Otsuka, Y.; Hoshina, S. [Jikei Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Laboratory Medicine; Nakamura, M.; Hishiyama, S. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Katayama, Y. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei (Japan)

2004-09-15

131

Catalytic Biomineralization of Fluorescent Calcite by the Thermophilic Bacterium Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius?  

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The thermophilic Geobacillus bacterium catalyzed the formation of 100-?m hexagonal crystals at 60°C in a hydrogel containing sodium acetate, calcium chloride, and magnesium sulfate. Under fluorescence microscopy, crystals fluoresced upon excitation at 365 ± 5, 480 ± 20, or 545 ± 15 nm. X-ray diffraction indicated that the crystals were magnesium-calcite in calcite-type calcium carbonate.

Yoshida, Naoto; Higashimura, Eiji; Saeki, Yuichi

2010-01-01

132

Complete Genome Sequence of Geobacillus sp. Strain GHH01, a Thermophilic Lipase-Secreting Bacterium  

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Geobacillus sp. strain GHH01 was isolated during a screening for producers of extracellular thermostable lipases. The completely sequenced and annotated 3.6-Mb genome encodes 3,478 proteins. The strain is genetically equipped to utilize a broad range of different substrates and might develop natural competence.

Wiegand, Sandra; Rabausch, Ulrich; Chow, Jennifer; Daniel, Rolf; Streit, Wolfgang R.; Liesegang, Heiko

2013-01-01

133

Complete Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degrader Geobacillus sp. Strain JF8 (NBRC 109937).  

Science.gov (United States)

Geobacillus sp. strain JF8 (NBRC 109937) utilizes biphenyl and naphthalene as sole carbon sources and degrades polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) at 60°C. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the JF8 genome (a 3,446,630-bp chromosome and a 39,678-bp plasmid). JF8 has the smallest genome among the known PCB degraders. PMID:24459274

Shintani, Masaki; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Fukuda, Kohei; Hosoyama, Akira; Ohji, Shoko; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka; Hatta, Takashi; Kimbara, Kazuhide

2014-01-01

134

Effect of Calcium in Assay Medium on D Value of Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 Spores  

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The D value of commercial biological indicator spore strips using Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 was increased by higher calcium concentrations in assay media. The calcium concentration in assay media varied among the manufacturers. The calcium concentration in assay media is an important factor to consider to minimize the variation of D value.

2000-01-01

135

PREFERENTIAL SYNTHESIS OF ?-AMYLASE BY BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS IN THE PRESENCE OF 5-METHYL-TRYPTOPHAN1  

Science.gov (United States)

Welker, N. E. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio), and L. Leon Campbell. Preferential synthesis of ?-amylase by Bacillus stearothermophilus in the presence of 5-methyl-tryptophan. J. Bacteriol. 87:828–831. 1964.—Washed-cell suspensions of Bacillus stearothermophilus induced with pure maltose preferentially synthesized ?-amylase in the presence of 5-methyl-tryptophan (5-MT). 5-MT did not inhibit the formation of active ?-amylase or the incorporation of proline-C14 into ?-amylase. In contrast, p-fluorophenylalanine inhibited the formation of active ?-amylase by 92% and the incorporation of proline-C14 into the enzyme by 95%. p-Fluorophenylalanine and 5-MT inhibited cellular protein synthesis, as measured by proline-C14 incorporation, by 74 and 72%, respectively.

Welker, N. E.; Campbell, L. Leon

1964-01-01

136

Preliminary Characterization of the Probiotic Properties of Candida Famata and Geobacillus Thermoleovorans  

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Background and Objective: Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance, producing metabolites which inhibit the colonization or growth of other microorganisms or by competing with them for resources such as nutrients or space. The aim of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of Candida famata and Geobacillus thermoleovorans.Material and Methods: In this study, yeast and bacterial strains...

Mahdhi, A.; Hmila, Z.; Behi, A.; Bakhrouf, A.

2011-01-01

137

Evaluation of a Bacillus stearothermophilus tube test as a screening tool for anticoccidial residues in poultry  

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A Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis C953 tube test was evaluated for its ability in detecting the residue of selected anticoccidial drugs in poultry, specically sulfamethazine, furazolidone, and amprolium. Various concentrations of each drug were injected into chicken liver and kidney tissues and these tissues were tested to determine the drug detection limits for each drug. The detection limit was defined as the drug concentration at which 95% of the test results were interpreted...

2006-01-01

138

Lipid composition and dynamics of cell membranes of Bacillus stearothermophilus adapted to amiodarone  

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Bacillus stearothermophilus, a useful model to evaluate membrane interactions of lipophilic drugs, adapts to the presence of amiodarone in the growth medium. Drug concentrations in the range of 1-2 [mu]M depress growth and 3 [mu]M completely suppresses growth. Adaptation to the presence of amiodarone is reflected in lipid composition changes either in the phospholipid classes or in the acyl chain moieties. Significant changes are observed at 2 [mu]M and expressed by a decrease of phosphatidyl...

Rosa, So?nia M. L. J.; Antunes-madeira, Maria Do Carmo; Matos, Manuel J.; Jurado, Ama?lia S.; Madeira, Vi?tor M. C.

2000-01-01

139

Biotransformation of eugenol via protocatechuic acid by thermophilic Geobacillus sp. AY 946034 strain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic pathway of eugenol degradation by thermophilic Geobacillus sp. AY 946034 strain was analyzed based on the lack of data about eugenol degradation by thermophiles. TLC, GC-MS, and biotransformation with resting cells showed that eugenol was oxidized through coniferyl alcohol, and ferulic and vanillic acids to protocatechuic acid before the aromatic ring was cleaved. The cell-free extract of Geobacillus sp. AY 946034 strain grown on eugenol showed a high activity of eugenol hydroxylase, feruloyl-CoA synthetase, vanillate-O-demethylase, and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. The key enzyme, protocatechuate 3,4- dioxygenase, which plays a crucial role in the degradation of various aromatic compounds, was purified 135-fold to homogeneity with a 34% overall recovery from Geobacillus sp. AY 946034. The relative molecular mass of the native enzyme was about 450 ± 10 kDa and was composed of the non-identical subunits. The pH and temperature optima for enzyme activity were 8 and 60°C, respectively. The half-life of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase at the optimum temperature was 50 min. PMID:24375415

Giedraityte, Gražina; Kal?dien?, Lilija

2014-04-01

140

Structure based protein engineering of Bacillus stearothermophilus ?-amylase: toward a new substrate specificity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text. Structural similarity is observed in all members of ?-amylase family but different products are generated during hydrolysis of starch due to different affinities for intermediate dextrins. In order to understand the structural determinants for this property and to introduce different specificity to ?-amylase of Bacillus stearothermophilus we intend to solve the three dimensional structure by X-ray crystallography of the native protein by using synchrotron radiation at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Protein was over expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallization experiments were carried out by using sparse matrix Crystal Screen and Crystal Screen II from Hampton Research (Laguna Hills, CA, USA). Several condition have produced crystals with some defined characteristic: MDP seems to be important to the crystallization: the preferential pH is around 7.5 with organic buffer (HEPES); organic solvent as 2-propanol seems to be also important for the crystallization. On those condition crystals appeared as cluster of needles or small crystals with high number of nucleation. New conditions are being prepared to improve the site and quality of crystals. Data collection of native of Bacillus stearothermophilus ?-amylase will e done at Protein Crystallography Station at LNLS. Crystal structure of mutated ?-amylase bu site direct mutagenesis of residues suggested by the native crystal structure will be obtained. Co-crystallization of Bacillus stearothermophilus ?-amylase and oligosaccharide will be carried out to identify residues involved in the binding site to plan new mutation. In another series of mutation the putative binding site residues, once identified, will be mutated to residues observed in TAKA amylase to confer different specificity to ?-amylase. Based on the available TAKA amylase structure, in the primary sequence homology and in the three dimensional model of Bacillus stearothermophilus ?-amylase (using Bacillus licheniformis crystal structure as initial model) it seems that Bacillus stearothermophilus ?-amylase binding site is more complex with and insertion of 40 residues. Therefore the three dimensional structure is crucial to understand the specificity of the substrate of this enzyme which will be used to drive the design of mutation to introduce new properties for industrial purpose. (author)

1996-11-13

 
 
 
 
141

Thermoadaptation trait revealed by the genome sequence of thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus  

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We present herein the first complete genome sequence of a thermophilic Bacillus-related species, Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426, which is composed of a 3.54 Mb chromosome and a 47.9 kb plasmid, along with a comparative analysis with five other mesophilic bacillar genomes. Upon orthologous grouping of the six bacillar sequenced genomes, it was found that 1257 common orthologous groups composed of 1308 genes (37%) are shared by all the bacilli, whereas 839 genes (24%) in the G.kaustophilus gen...

Takami, Hideto; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Chee, Gab-joo; Nishi, Shinro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroko; Matsui, Satomi; Uchiyama, Ikuo

2004-01-01

142

Influence of Cations on Growth of Thermophilic Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus flavithermus in Planktonic Culture  

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Free ions of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ influenced the optical density of planktonic cultures of thermophilic bacilli. Anoxybacillus flavithermus E16 and Geobacillus sp. strain F75 (milk powder manufacturing plant isolates) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641 and G. thermoleovorans DSM 5366 were studied. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were associated with increases in optical density more so than Na+ and K+. Overall, it appeared that Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ was required for the production of protein in thermophilic bacilli, a...

Somerton, Ben; Palmer, Jon; Brooks, John; Smolinski, Edward; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve

2012-01-01

143

Influence of cations on growth of thermophilic Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus flavithermus in planktonic culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free ions of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) influenced the optical density of planktonic cultures of thermophilic bacilli. Anoxybacillus flavithermus E16 and Geobacillus sp. strain F75 (milk powder manufacturing plant isolates) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641 and G. thermoleovorans DSM 5366 were studied. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were associated with increases in optical density more so than Na(+) and K(+). Overall, it appeared that Ca(2+) and/or Mg(2+) was required for the production of protein in thermophilic bacilli, as shown by results obtained with A. flavithermus E16, which was selected for further study. PMID:22287005

Somerton, Ben; Palmer, Jon; Brooks, John; Smolinski, Edward; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve

2012-04-01

144

Discrimination between Right and Wrong Purine dNTPs by DNA Polymerase I from Bacillus stearothermophilus  

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We used a series of dATP and dGTP analogues to determine how DNA polymerase I from Bacillus stearothermophilus (BF), a prototypical A family polymerase, uses N-1, N2, N-3, and N6 of purine dNTPs to differentiate between right and wrong nucleotide incorporation. Altering any of these nitrogens had two effects. First, it decreased the efficiency of correct incorporation of the resulting dNTP analogue, with the loss of N-1 and N-3 having the most severe effects. Second, it dramatically increased...

Trostler, Michael; Delier, Alison; Beckman, Jeff; Urban, Milan; Patro, Jennifer N.; Spratt, Thomas E.; Beese, Lorena S.; Kuchta, Robert D.

2009-01-01

145

[Regulation of nitrogen metabolism in gram-positive bacteria].  

Science.gov (United States)

We searched for new members of the TnrA and GlnR regulons controlling assimilation of nitrogen in gram-positive bacteria. We identified the regulatory signals for these transcription factors with consensuses ATGTNAWWWWWWWTNACAT for GlnR and TGTNAWWWWWWWTNACA for TnrA. We described the structure and found new potential members for the TnrA/GlnR regulons in Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis, Geobacillus kaustophilus, Oceanobacillus iheyensis, for the TnrA regulon in B. halodurans and for the GlnR regulons in Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. mutans, S. agalactiae, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and St. epidermidis. PMID:17086994

Doroshchuk, N A; Gel'fand, M S; Rodionov, D A

2006-01-01

146

Engineering pyruvate decarboxylase-mediated ethanol production in the thermophilic host Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the expression, purification, and kinetic characterization of a pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) from Gluconobacter oxydans. Kinetic analyses showed the enzyme to have high affinity for pyruvate (120 ?M at pH 5), high catalytic efficiency (4.75?×?10(5) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 5), a pHopt of approximately 4.5 and an in vitro temperature optimum at approximately 55 °C. Due to in vitro thermostablity (approximately 40 % enzyme activity retained after 30 min at 65 °C), this PDC was considered to be a suitable candidate for heterologous expression in the thermophile Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius for ethanol production. Initial studies using a variety of methods failed to detect activity at any growth temperature (45-55 °C). However, the application of codon harmonization (i.e., mimicry of the heterogeneous host's transcription and translational rhythm) yielded a protein that was fully functional in the thermophilic strain at 45 °C (as determined by enzyme activity, Western blot, mRNA detection, and ethanol productivity). Here, we describe the first successful expression of PDC in a true thermophile. Yields as high as 0.35?±?0.04 g/g ethanol per gram of glucose consumed were detected, highly competitive to those reported in ethanologenic thermophilic mutants. Although activities could not be detected at temperatures approaching the growth optimum for the strain, this study highlights the possibility that previously unsuccessful expression of pdcs in Geobacillus spp. may be the result of ineffective transcription/translation coupling. PMID:24276622

Van Zyl, L J; Taylor, M P; Eley, K; Tuffin, M; Cowan, D A

2014-02-01

147

Effect of ionization and nisin on the Bacillus strains and Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated Stearothermophilus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antimicrobial effect of nisin (at 1000UI/g), and irradiation (at 1, 3 and 5kGy), against the growth of Salmonella enteritidis (106 ufc/ml) and Bacillus Stearothermophilus (106 ufc/ml), inoculated in turkey salami, was studied during storage at 4 degree for 21 days. Treatment of turkey salami with nisin at 1000UI/g did not show any antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis with 6.7 pour cent and 0.8 pour cent of reduction after 0 and 21 days of storage respectively, and seems to be insufficient to inhibit B. Stearothermophilus with 23 pour cent and 21 pour cent of reduction after 0 and 21 days of storage respectively. Antimicrobial activities of irradiation were better and proportional to irradiation doses; it shows a reduction of 27 pour cent, 55 pour cent and 67 pour cent by D1, D2 and D3 respectively. The combination of nisin with irradiation at 5kGy showed stronger antimicrobial activities than those obtained by its combination with the first and the second irradiation dose.

2010-01-01

148

EFFECT OF CARBON SOURCES ON FORMATION OF ?-AMYLASE BY BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS1  

Science.gov (United States)

Welker, N. E. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio) and L. Leon Campbell. Effect of carbon sources on formation of ?-amylase by Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 86:681–686. 1963.—A chemically defined medium was devised for use in ?-amylase induction studies. The addition of 0.1% casein hydrolysate to the chemically defined medium permitted growth on fructose, and with glucose, sucrose, maltose, starch, and glycerol it shortened the lag period and increased both the growth rate and the total enzyme produced. Growth did not occur when gluconate, acetate, or succinate were used as carbon sources. ?-Amylase was produced during the logarithmic phase of growth; the amount produced was inversely proportional to the rate of growth. The poorer the carbon source for growth (glycerol, k = 0.24; glucose, k = 0.26; sucrose, k = 0.42), the higher was the amount of enzyme produced (glycerol, 109 units/ml; glucose, 103 units/ml; sucrose, 45 units/ml). Cells grown on technical-grade maltose (k = 0.26) or starch (k = 0.42) did not conform to this relationship in that unusually large amounts of ?-amylase were produced (362 and 225 units/ml, respectively). Cells grown on fructose or sucrose had the same growth rate (k = 0.42), but smaller amounts of ?-amylase were produced on fructose (fructose, 0 to 4 units/ml; sucrose, 45 units/ml). An intracellular ?-amylase was not detected in Bacillus stearothermophilus.

Welker, N. E.; Campbell, L. Leon

1963-01-01

149

Use of a Mixture of Surrogates for Infectious Bioagents in a Standard Approach to Assessing Disinfection of Environmental Surfaces ?  

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We used a mixture of surrogates (Acinetobacter baumannii, Mycobacterium terrae, hepatitis A virus, and spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus) for bioagents in a standardized approach to test environmental surface disinfectants. Each carrier containing 10 ?l of mixture received 50 ?l of a test chemical or saline at 22 ± 2°C. Disinfectant efficacy criteria were ?6 log10 reduction for the bacteria and the spores and ?3 log10 reduction for the virus. Peracetic acid (1,000 ppm) was effe...

Sabbah, Safaa; Springthorpe, Susan; Sattar, Syed A.

2010-01-01

150

Crystal structure of the single-stranded RNA binding protein HutP from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans.  

Science.gov (United States)

RNA binding proteins control gene expression by the attenuation/antitermination mechanism. HutP is an RNA binding antitermination protein. It regulates the expression of hut operon when it binds with RNA by modulating the secondary structure of single-stranded hut mRNA. HutP necessitates the presence of l-histidine and divalent metal ion to bind with RNA. Herein, we report the crystal structures of ternary complex (HutP-l-histidine-Mg(2+)) and EDTA (0.5M) treated ternary complex (HutP-l-histidine-Mg(2+)), solved at 1.9Å and 2.5Å resolutions, respectively, from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans. The addition of 0.5M EDTA does not affect the overall metal-ion mediated ternary complex structure and however, the metal ions at the non-specific binding sites are chelated, as evidenced from the results of structural features. PMID:24650662

Thiruselvam, Viswanathan; Sivaraman, Padavattan; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri; Ponnuswamy, Mondikalipudur Nanjappagounder

2014-04-18

151

Evaluation of a Bacillus stearothermophilus tube test as a screening tool for anticoccidial residues in poultry  

Science.gov (United States)

A Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis C953 tube test was evaluated for its ability in detecting the residue of selected anticoccidial drugs in poultry, specically sulfamethazine, furazolidone, and amprolium. Various concentrations of each drug were injected into chicken liver and kidney tissues and these tissues were tested to determine the drug detection limits for each drug. The detection limit was defined as the drug concentration at which 95% of the test results were interpreted as positive. The limits of detection in liver tissue were 0.35 µg/ml for furazolidone, 0.70 µg/ml for sulfamethazine and 7.80 µg/ml for amprolium. In kidney tissues, they were 0.30 µg/ml for furazolidone, 0.54 µg/ml for sulfamethazine, and 7.6 µg/ml for amprolium. It was concluded that this tube test could be used to screen for the residue of these three drugs in poultry.

Oketch, Aila; Mahungu, Symon

2006-01-01

152

Evaluation of a Bacillus stearothermophilus tube test as a screening tool for anticoccidial residues in poultry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis C953 tube test was evaluated for its ability in detecting the residue of selected anticoccidial drugs in poultry, specially sulfamethazine, furazolidone, and amprolium. Various concentrations of each drug were injected into chicken liver and kidney tissues and these tissues were tested to determine the drug detection limits for each drug. The detection limit was defined as the drug concentration at which 95 % of the test results were interpreted as positive. The limits of detection in liver tissue were 0.35 microgram/ml for furazolidone, 0.70 microgram/ml for sulfamethazine and 7.80 microgram/ml for amprolium. In kidney tissues, they were 0.30 microgram/ml for furazolidone, 0.54 microgram/ml for sulfamethazine, and 7.6 microgram/ml for amprolium. It was concluded that this tube test could be used to screen for the residue of these three drugs in poultry. PMID:16645344

Shitandi, Anakalo; Oketch, Aila; Mahungu, Symon

2006-06-01

153

EFFECT OF CARBON SOURCES ON FORMATION OF ALPHA-AMYLASE BY BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Welker, N. E. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio) and L. Leon Campbell. Effect of carbon sources on formation of alpha-amylase by Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 86:681-686. 1963.-A chemically defined medium was devised for use in alpha-amylase induction studies. The addition of 0.1% casein hydrolysate to the chemically defined medium permitted growth on fructose, and with glucose, sucrose, maltose, starch, and glycerol it shortened the lag period and increased both the growth rate and the total enzyme produced. Growth did not occur when gluconate, acetate, or succinate were used as carbon sources. alpha-Amylase was produced during the logarithmic phase of growth; the amount produced was inversely proportional to the rate of growth. The poorer the carbon source for growth (glycerol, k = 0.24; glucose, k = 0.26; sucrose, k = 0.42), the higher was the amount of enzyme produced (glycerol, 109 units/ml; glucose, 103 units/ml; sucrose, 45 units/ml). Cells grown on technical-grade maltose (k = 0.26) or starch (k = 0.42) did not conform to this relationship in that unusually large amounts of alpha-amylase were produced (362 and 225 units/ml, respectively). Cells grown on fructose or sucrose had the same growth rate (k = 0.42), but smaller amounts of alpha-amylase were produced on fructose (fructose, 0 to 4 units/ml; sucrose, 45 units/ml). An intracellular alpha-amylase was not detected in Bacillus stearothermophilus. PMID:14066461

WELKER, N E; CAMPBELL, L L

1963-10-01

154

Counterselection System for Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 through Disruption of pyrF and pyrR  

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Counterselection systems facilitate marker-free genetic modifications in microbes by enabling positive selections for both the introduction of a marker gene into the microbe and elimination of the marker from the microbe. Here we report a counterselection system for Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426, established through simultaneous disruption of the pyrF and pyrR genes. The pyrF gene, essential for pyrimidine biosynthesis and metabolization of 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA) to toxic metabolites, ...

Suzuki, Hirokazu; Murakami, Ayano; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

2012-01-01

155

Two Thimet Oligopeptidase-Like Pz Peptidases Produced by a Collagen- Degrading Thermophile, Geobacillus collagenovorans MO-1  

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A collagen-degrading thermophile, Geobacillus collagenovorans MO-1, was found to produce two metallopeptidases that hydrolyze the synthetic substrate 4-phenylazobenzyloxycarbonyl-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-d-Arg (Pz-PLGPR), containing the collagen-specific sequence -Gly-Pro-X-. The peptidases, named Pz peptidases A and B, were purified to homogeneity and confirmed to hydrolyze collagen-derived oligopeptides but not collagen itself, indicating that Pz peptidases A and B contribute to collagen degradation...

Miyake, Ryoma; Shigeri, Yasushi; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Yumoto, Noboru; Umekawa, Midori; Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Matsui, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kunihiko

2005-01-01

156

Experimental fossilisation of the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus SP7A: a long duration preservation study.  

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Recent experiments to fossilise microorganisms using silica have shown that the fossilisation process is far more complex than originally thought; microorganisms not only play an active role in silica precipitation but may also remain alive while silica is precipitating on their cell wall. In order to better understand the mechanisms that lead to the preservation of fossilised microbes in recent and ancient rocks, we experimentally silicified a Gram-positive bacterium, Geobacillus SP7A, over ...

Orange, Franc?ois; Dupont, Samuel; Le Goff, Olivier; Bienvenu, Nade?ge; Disnar, Jean-robert; Westall, Frances; Le Romancer, Marc

2013-01-01

157

Production, Partial Characterization and Cloning of Thermostable ?-amylase of a Thermophile Geobacillus thermoleovorans YN  

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In a molecular screening program to select a potent thermostable amylase from a previously isolated thermophiles, a locally isolated, thermophilic lipase-producing Geobacillus thermoleovorans YN (accession number AF385083), was shown to secrete a thermostable ?-amylase constitutively. The optimal enzyme activity was measured at 75°C, where 90% of the activity was retained at 80°C after one hour of incubation. A catabolite repression due to the addition of glucose to the basal salt m...

Berekaa, Mahmoud M.; Soliman, Nadia A.; Abdel-fattah, Yasser R.

2007-01-01

158

PREFERENTIAL SYNTHESIS OF ALPHA-AMYLASE BY BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS IN THE PRESENCE OF 5-METHYL-TRYPTOPHAN.  

Science.gov (United States)

Welker, N. E. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio), and L. Leon Campbell. Preferential synthesis of alpha-amylase by Bacillus stearothermophilus in the presence of 5-methyl-tryptophan. J. Bacteriol. 87:828-831. 1964.-Washed-cell suspensions of Bacillus stearothermophilus induced with pure maltose preferentially synthesized alpha-amylase in the presence of 5-methyl-tryptophan (5-MT). 5-MT did not inhibit the formation of active alpha-amylase or the incorporation of proline-C(14) into alpha-amylase. In contrast, p-fluorophenylalanine inhibited the formation of active alpha-amylase by 92% and the incorporation of proline-C(14) into the enzyme by 95%. p-Fluorophenylalanine and 5-MT inhibited cellular protein synthesis, as measured by proline-C(14) incorporation, by 74 and 72%, respectively. PMID:14137620

WELKER, N E; CAMPBELL, L L

1964-04-01

159

Stringent response of Bacillus stearothermophilus: evidence for the existence of two distinct guanosine 3',5'-polyphosphate synthetases.  

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Bacillus stearothermophilus reacted to pseudomonic acid-induced inhibition of isoleucine-transfer ribonucleic acid (RNA) acylation and to energy downshift caused by alpha-methylglucoside addition with accumulation of guanosine 3',5'-polyphosphates [(p)ppGpp] and restriction of RNA synthesis. In vitro studies indicated that (p)ppGpp was synthesized by two different enzymes. One enzyme, (p)ppGpp synthetase I, was present in the ribosomal fraction, required the addition of a ribosome-messenger R...

Fehr, S.; Richter, D.

1981-01-01

160

Thermophilic fermentation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol by a novel Geobacillus strain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are two important biorefinery platform chemicals. They are currently fermented below 40°C using mesophilic strains, but the processes often suffer from bacterial contamination. Results This work reports the isolation and identification of a novel aerobic Geobacillus strain XT15 capable of producing both of these chemicals under elevated temperatures, thus reducing the risk of bacterial contamination. The optimum growth temperature was found to be between 45 and 55°C and the medium initial pH to be 8.0. In addition to glucose, galactose, mannitol, arabionose, and xylose were all acceptable substrates, enabling the potential use of cellulosic biomass as the feedstock. XT15 preferred organic nitrogen sources including corn steep liquor powder, a cheap by-product from corn wet-milling. At 55°C, 7.7?g/L of acetoin and 14.5?g/L of 2,3-butanediol could be obtained using corn steep liquor powder as a nitrogen source. Thirteen volatile products from the cultivation broth of XT15 were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and their derivatives including a novel metabolite 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylheptan-4-one, accounted for a total of about 96% of all the volatile products. In contrast, organic acids and other products were minor by-products. ?-Acetolactate decarboxylase and acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase in XT15, the two key enzymes in acetoin metabolic pathway, were found to be both moderately thermophilic with the identical optimum temperature of 45°C. Conclusions Geobacillus sp. XT15 is the first naturally occurring thermophile excreting acetoin and/or 2,3-butanediol. This work has demonstrated the attractive prospect of developing it as an industrial strain in the thermophilic fermentation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol with improved anti-contamination performance. The novel metabolites and enzymes identified in XT15 also indicated its strong promise as a precious biological resource. Thermophilic fermentation also offers great prospect for improving its yields and efficiencies. This remains a core aim for future work.

Xiao Zijun

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

The HPr Proteins from the Thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus Can Form Domain-swapped Dimers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study of proteins from extremophilic organisms continues to generate interest in the field of protein folding because paradigms explaining the enhanced stability of these proteins still elude us and such studies have the potential to further our knowledge of the forces stabilizing proteins. We have undertaken such a study with our model protein HPr from a mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, and a thermophile, Bacillus stearothermophilus. We report here the high-resolution structures of the wild-type HPr protein from the thermophile and a variant, F29W. The variant proved to crystallize in two forms: a monomeric form with a structure very similar to the wild-type protein as well as a domain-swapped dimer. Interestingly, the structure of the domain-swapped dimer for HPr is very different from that observed for a homologous protein, Crh, from B. subtilis. The existence of a domain-swapped dimer has implications for amyloid formation and is consistent with recent results showing that the HPr proteins can form amyloid fibrils. We also characterized the conformational stability of the thermophilic HPr proteins using thermal and solvent denaturation methods and have used the high-resolution structures in an attempt to explain the differences in stability between the different HPr proteins. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the solution properties of the HPr proteins using a variety of biochemical and biophysical methods.

Sridharan, Sudharsan; Razvi, Abbas; Scholtz, J. Martin; Sacchettini, James C. (TAM)

2010-07-20

162

Thermostable alanine racemase of Bacillus stearothermophilus. Construction and expression of active fragmentary enzyme.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited proteolysis studies on alanine racemase suggested that the enzyme subunit is composed of two domains (Galakatos, N. G., and Walsh, C. T. (1987) Biochemistry 26, 8475-8480). We have constructed a mutant gene that tandemly encodes the two polypeptides of the Bacillus stearothermophilus enzyme subunit cleaved at the position corresponding to the predicted hinge region. The mutant gene product purified was shown to be composed of two sets of the two polypeptide fragments and was immunologically identical to the wild-type enzyme. The mutant enzyme, i.e. the fragmentary alanine racemase, was active in both directions of the racemization of alanine. The maximum velocity (Vmax) was about half that of the wild-type enzyme, and the Km value was about double. Absorption and circular dichroism spectra of the fragmentary enzyme were similar to those of the wild-type enzyme. An attempt was made to separately express in Escherichia coli a single polypeptide corresponding to each domain, but no protein reactive with the antibody against the wild-type alanine racemase was produced. Therefore, it is suggested that the two polypeptide fragments can fold into an active structure only when they are co-translated and that they correspond to structural folding units in the parental polypeptide chain. PMID:1906880

Toyama, H; Tanizawa, K; Yoshimura, T; Asano, S; Lim, Y H; Esaki, N; Soda, K

1991-07-25

163

Discrimination between right and wrong purine dNTPs by DNA polymerase I from Bacillus stearothermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

We used a series of dATP and dGTP analogues to determine how DNA polymerase I from Bacillus stearothermophilus (BF), a prototypical A family polymerase, uses N-1, N(2), N-3, and N(6) of purine dNTPs to differentiate between right and wrong nucleotide incorporation. Altering any of these nitrogens had two effects. First, it decreased the efficiency of correct incorporation of the resulting dNTP analogue, with the loss of N-1 and N-3 having the most severe effects. Second, it dramatically increased the rate of misincorporation of the resulting dNTP analogues, with alterations in either N-1 or N(6) having the most severe impacts. Adding N(2) to dNTPs containing the bases adenine and purine increased the degree of polymerization opposite T but also tremendously increased the degree of misincorporation opposite A, C, and G. Thus, BF uses N-1, N(2), N-3, and N(6) of purine dNTPs both as negative selectors to prevent misincorporation and as positive selectors to enhance correct incorporation. Comparing how BF discriminates between right and wrong dNTPs with both B family polymerases and low-fidelity polymerases indicates that BF has chosen a unique solution vis-a-vis these other enzymes and, therefore, that nature has evolved at least three mechanistically distinct solutions. PMID:19348507

Trostler, Michael; Delier, Alison; Beckman, Jeff; Urban, Milan; Patro, Jennifer N; Spratt, Thomas E; Beese, Lorena S; Kuchta, Robert D

2009-06-01

164

Structure of a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase involved in bioethanol generation in Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bifunctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADHE) enzymes are found within many fermentative microorganisms. They catalyse the conversion of an acyl-coenzyme A to an alcohol via an aldehyde intermediate; this is coupled to the oxidation of two NADH molecules to maintain the NAD(+) pool during fermentative metabolism. The structure of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) domain of an ADHE protein from the ethanol-producing thermophile Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius has been determined to 2.5?Å resolution. This is the first structure to be reported for such a domain. In silico modelling has been carried out to generate a homology model of the aldehyde dehydrogenase domain, and this was subsequently docked with the ADH-domain structure to model the structure of the complete ADHE protein. This model suggests, for the first time, a structural mechanism for the formation of the large multimeric assemblies or `spirosomes' that are observed for this ADHE protein and which have previously been reported for ADHEs from other organisms. PMID:24100328

Extance, Jonathan; Crennell, Susan J; Eley, Kirstin; Cripps, Roger; Hough, David W; Danson, Michael J

2013-10-01

165

Novel thermostable endo-xylanase cloned and expressed from bacterium Geobacillus sp. WSUCF1.  

Science.gov (United States)

A gene encoding a GH10 endo-xylanase from Geobacillus sp. WSUCF1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant endo-xylanase (37kDa) exhibited high specific activity of 461.0U/mg of protein. Endo-xylanase was optimally active on birchwood xylan at 70°C and pH 6.5. The endo-xylanase was found to be highly thermostable at 50 and 60°C, retaining 82% and 50% of its original activity, respectively, after 60h. High xylan conversions (92%) were obtained with oat-spelt xylan hydrolysis. Higher glucan and xylan conversions were obtained on AFEX-treated corn stover with an enzyme cocktail containing WSUCF1 endo-xylanase (71% and 47%) as compared to enzyme cocktail containing commercial fungal endo-xylanase (64% and 41%). High specific activity, active at high pH's, wide substrate specificity, and higher hydrolytic activity on recalcitrant lignocellulose, make this endo-xylanase a suitable candidate for biofuel and bioprocess industries. PMID:24725385

Bhalla, Aditya; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Balan, Venkatesh; Sani, Rajesh K

2014-08-01

166

Thermostable lipase from Geobacillus sp. Iso5: Bioseparation, characterization and native structural studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extracellular thermoalkaline lipase from Geobacillus sp. Iso5 was purified to homogeneity by ultrafiltration, 6% cross-linked agarose and Phenyl spehrose HIC column chromatography. The final purified lipase resulted in 8.7-fold with 6.2% yield. The relative molecular weight of the enzyme was determined to be a monomer of 47?kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS/MS spectroscopy. The purified enzyme exhibit optimum activity at 70?°C and pH 8.0. The enzyme retained above 90% activity at temperatures of 70?°C and about 35% activity at 85?°C for 2?h. However, the stability of the enzyme decreased at the temperature over 90?°C. The enzyme activity was promoted in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and strongly inhibited by HgCl2 , PMSF, DTT, K(+) , Co(2+) , and Zn (2+) . EDTA did not affect the enzyme activity. The secondary structure of purified lipase contains 36% ?-helix and 64% ?-sheet which was determined by Circular dichromism, FTIR, and Raman Spectroscopy. PMID:23775834

Mahadevan, Gurumurthy D; Neelagund, Shivayogeeswar E

2014-05-01

167

Polysaccharide-degrading thermophiles generated by heterologous gene expression in Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophiles have important advantages over mesophiles as host organisms for high-temperature bioprocesses, functional production of thermostable enzymes, and efficient expression of enzymatic activities in vivo. To capitalize on these advantages of thermophiles, we describe here a new inducible gene expression system in the thermophile Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426. Six promoter regions in the HTA426 genome were identified and analyzed for expression profiles using ?-galactosidase reporter assay. This analysis identified a promoter region upstream of a putative amylose-metabolizing gene cluster that directed high-level expression of the reporter gene. The expression was >280-fold that without a promoter and was further enhanced 12-fold by maltose addition. In association with a multicopy plasmid, this promoter region was used to express heterologous genes. Several genes, including a gene whose product was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli, were successfully expressed as soluble proteins, with yields of 0.16 to 59 mg/liter, and conferred new functions to G. kaustophilus strains. Remarkably, cellulase and ?-amylase genes conferred the ability to degrade cellulose paper and insoluble starch at high temperatures, respectively, generating thermophiles with the potential to degrade plant biomass. Our results demonstrate that this novel expression system expands the potential applications of G. kaustophilus. PMID:23793634

Suzuki, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

2013-09-01

168

Production, Partial Characterization and Cloning of Thermostable ?-amylase of a Thermophile Geobacillus thermoleovorans YN  

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Full Text Available In a molecular screening program to select a potent thermostable amylase from a previously isolated thermophiles, a locally isolated, thermophilic lipase-producing Geobacillus thermoleovorans YN (accession number AF385083, was shown to secrete a thermostable ?-amylase constitutively. The optimal enzyme activity was measured at 75°C, where 90% of the activity was retained at 80°C after one hour of incubation. A catabolite repression due to the addition of glucose to the basal salt medium was demonstrated, while 4 folds increase in volumetric production was achieved in LB and starch-supplemented basal salt media and presented in SDS-PAGE and zymogram. A blunt end PCR fragment (2146 bp was amplified from genomic DNA using a designed set of primers and ligated to Bluescript —II KS(+ vector, transformed to E. coli DH5-? competent cells by electroporation and screened on LB-agar plates induced with IPTG. Nucleotide sequencing of selected clone revealed two ORFs, the first was (GTG with a molecular size 1649 nucleotides encoding 549aa residues of a predicted molecular weight 62.592 kD and the second (ATG with a molecular size 1613 nucleotides encoding 537aa residues of a predicted molecular weight 61.04 kD.

Mahmoud M. Berekaa

2007-01-01

169

Nucleotide sequence and cloning in Bacillus subtilis of the Bacillus stearothermophilus pleiotropic regulatory gene degT.  

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The regulatory gene (degT) from Bacillus stearothermophilus NCA1503 which enhanced production of extracellular alkaline protease (Apr) was cloned in Bacillus subtilis with pTB53 as a vector. When B. subtilis MT-2 (Npr- [deficiency of neutral protease] Apr+) was transformed with the recombinant plasmid, pDT145, the plasmid carrier produced about three times more alkaline protease than did the wild-type strain. In contrast, when B. subtilis DB104 (Npr- Apr-) was used as a host, the transformant...

Takagi, M.; Takada, H.; Imanaka, T.

1990-01-01

170

Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression in Escherichia coli of the Bacillus stearothermophilus peroxidase gene (perA).  

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The gene encoding a thermostable peroxidase was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of Bacillus stearothermophilus IAM11001 in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of the 3.1-kilobase EcoRI fragment containing the peroxidase gene (perA) and its flanking region was determined. A 2,193-base-pair open reading frame encoding a peroxidase of 731 amino acid residues (Mr, 82,963) was observed. A Shine-Dalgarno sequence was found 9 base pairs upstream from the translational starting site. The deduce...

Loprasert, S.; Negoro, S.; Okada, H.

1989-01-01

171

INDUCED BIOSYNTHESIS OF ?-AMYLASE BY GROWING CULTURES OF BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS1  

Science.gov (United States)

Welker, N. E. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio), and L. Leon Campbell. Induced biosynthesis of ?-amylase by growing cultures of Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 86:1196–1201. 1963.—The maximal differential rate (K) of ?-amylase synthesis was usually two to three times that of the sucrose control culture, over an inducer concentration range of 5 × 10?4 to 1 × 10?3m. With maltotetraose, higher concentrations decreased the K value, whereas higher concentrations of maltose were needed to obtain maximal K values. Glucose, in concentrations from 10?5 to 10?2m, had no effect on the differential rate of enzyme synthesis. Cultures growing on maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, and maltohexaose exhibited the same growth rate (k) and differential rate of ?-amylase synthesis over a concentration range of 2.92 × 10?4 to 1.46 × 10?2m. Growth of cultures in various concentrations of pure maltose revealed that with concentrations of maltose ranging from 2.92 × 10?3 to 1.46 × 10?2m the K value for ?-amylase production increased 18-fold. The amount of maltose utilized, during the growth period, at each concentration of maltose, was constant. Diauxic type growth was observed when maltose was used in addition to another carbon source (i.e., glucose, glycerol, fructose, or sucrose). Maltose was not utilized until the other carbon source had been metabolized. Phenyl-, methyl-, and ethyl-?-d-glucoside and methyl-?-d-maltoside were good inducers of ?-amylase and would not serve as a carbon source in a chemically defined medium supplemented with 0.1% casein hydrolysate. These compounds were therefore gratuitous inducers of ?-amylase. Isomaltose, panose, butyl-?-d-glucoside, and methyl-?-d-maltotetraoside were not effective as inducers of ?-amylase. Fructose had an inhibitory effect on constitutive (41%) and inducible (55%) ?-amylase formation; glucose had no effect.

Welker, N. E.; Campbell, L. Leon

1963-01-01

172

Self-assembly and catalytic activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex from Bacillus stearothermophilus.  

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The pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex from Bacillus stearothermophilus was reconstituted in vitro from recombinant proteins derived from genes over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Titrations of the icosahedral (60-mer) dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) core component with the pyruvate decarboxylase (E1, alpha2beta2) and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3, alpha2) peripheral components indicated a variable composition defined predominantly by tight and mutually exclusive binding of E1 and E3 with the peripheral subunit-binding domain of each E2 chain. However, both analysis of the polypeptide chain ratios in complexes generated from various mixtures of E1 and E3, and displacement of E1 or E3 from E1-E2 or E3-E2 subcomplexes by E3 or E1, respectively, showed that the multienzyme complex does not behave as a simple competitive binding system. This implies the existence of secondary interactions between the E1 and E3 subunits and E2 that only become apparent on assembly. Exact geometrical distribution of E1 and E3 is unlikely and the results are best explained by preferential arrangements of E1 and E3 on the surface of the E2 core, superimposed on their mutually exclusive binding to the peripheral subunit-binding domain of the E2 chain. Correlation of the subunit composition with the overall catalytic activity of the enzyme complex confirmed the lack of any requirement for precise stoichiometry or strict geometric arrangement of the three catalytic sites and emphasized the crucial importance of the flexibility associated with the lipoyl domains and intramolecular acetyl group transfer in the mechanism of active-site coupling. PMID:10583411

Domingo, G J; Chauhan, H J; Lessard, I A; Fuller, C; Perham, R N

1999-12-01

173

Domain C of thermostable ?-amylase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans mediates raw starch adsorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene (1,542 bp) encoding thermostable Ca(2+)-independent and raw starch hydrolyzing ?-amylase of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans encodes for a protein of 50 kDa (Gt-amyII) with 488 amino acids. The enzyme is optimally active at pH 7.0 and 60 °C with a t 1/2 of 19.4 h at 60 and 4 h at 70 °C. Gt-amyII hydrolyses corn and tapioca raw starches efficiently and therefore finds application in starch saccharification at industrial sub-gelatinisation temperatures. The starch hydrolysis is facilitated following adsorption of the enzyme to starch at the C-terminal domain, as confirmed by the truncation analysis. The adsorption rate constant of Gt-amyII to raw corn starch is 37.6-fold greater than that for the C-terminus truncated enzyme (Gt-amyII-T). Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic analysis in terms of equilibrium parameter (K R) suggested that the adsorption of Gt-amyII to corn starch is more favourable than that of Gt-amyII-T. Thermodynamics of temperature inactivation indicated a decrease in thermostabilisation of Gt-amyII upon truncation of its C-terminus. The addition of raw corn starch increased t 1/2 of Gt-amyII, but it has no such effect on Gt-amyII-T. It can, therefore, be stated that Gt-amyII binds to raw corn starch via C-terminal region that contributes to its thermostability. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that starch binding region of Gt-amyII is, in fact, the non-catalytic domain C, and not the typical SBD of CBM families. The role of domain C in raw starch binding throws light on the evolutionary path of the known SBDs. PMID:24413972

Mehta, Deepika; Satyanarayana, T

2014-05-01

174

?-D-xylosidase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans IT-08: biochemical characterization and bioinformatics of the enzyme.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene encoding a thermostable ?-D-xylosidase (GbtXyl43B) from Geobacillus thermoleovorans IT-08 was cloned in pET30a and expressed in Escherichia coli; additionally, characterization and kinetic analysis of GbtXyl43B were carried out. The gene product was purified to apparent homogeneity showing M r of 72 by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme exhibited an optimum temperature and pH of 60 °C and 6.0, respectively. In terms of stability, GbtXyl43B was stable at 60 °C at pH 6.0 for 1 h as well as at pH 6-8 at 4 °C for 24 h. The enzyme had a catalytic efficiency (k cat/K M) of 0.0048 ± 0.0010 s(-1) mM(-1) on p-nitrophenyl-?-D-xylopyranoside substrate. Thin layer chromatography product analysis indicated that GbtXyl43B was exoglycosidase cleaving single xylose units from the nonreducing end of xylan. The activity of GbtXyl43B on insoluble xylan was eightfold higher than on soluble xylan. Bioinformatics analysis showed that GbtXyl43B belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 43 contained carbohydrate-binding module (CBM; residues 15 to 149 forming eight antiparallel ?-strands) and catalytic module (residues 157 to 604 forming five-bladed ?-propeller fold with predicted catalytic residues to be Asp287 and Glu476). CBM of GbtXyl43B dominated by the Phe residues which grip the carbohydrate is proposed as a novel CBM36 subfamily. PMID:23797510

Ratnadewi, Anak Agung Istri; Fanani, Muchzainal; Kurniasih, Sari Dewi; Sakka, Makiko; Wasito, Eddy Bagus; Sakka, Kazuo; Nurachman, Zeily; Puspaningsih, Ni Nyoman Tri

2013-08-01

175

Structural and functional characterization of the Geobacillus copper nitrite reductase: involvement of the unique N-terminal region in the interprotein electron transfer with its redox partner.  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystal structures of copper-containing nitrite reductase (CuNiR) from the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 and the amino (N)-terminal 68 residue-deleted mutant were determined at resolutions of 1.3Å and 1.8Å, respectively. Both structures show a striking resemblance with the overall structure of the well-known CuNiRs composed of two Greek key ?-barrel domains; however, a remarkable structural difference was found in the N-terminal region. The unique region has one ?-strand and one ?-helix extended to the northern surface of the type-1 copper site. The superposition of the Geobacillus CuNiR model on the electron-transfer complex structure of CuNiR with the redox partner cytochrome c551 in other denitrifier system led us to infer that this region contributes to the transient binding with the partner protein during the interprotein electron transfer reaction in the Geobacillus system. Furthermore, electron-transfer kinetics experiments using N-terminal residue-deleted mutant and the redox partner, Geobacillus cytochrome c551, were carried out. These structural and kinetics studies demonstrate that the region is directly involved in the specific partner recognition. PMID:24440558

Fukuda, Yohta; Koteishi, Hiroyasu; Yoneda, Ryohei; Tamada, Taro; Takami, Hideto; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Nojiri, Masaki

2014-03-01

176

Taguchi's experimental design for optimizing the production of novel thermostable polypeptide antibiotic from Geobacillus pallidus SAT4.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polypeptide antimicrobials used against topical infections are reported to obtain from mesophilic bacterial species. A thermophilic Geobacillus pallidus SAT4 was isolated from hot climate of Sindh Dessert, Pakistan and found it active against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus subtilis NCTC 10400 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 49189. The current experiment was designed to optimize the production of novel thermostable polypeptide by applying the Taguchi statistical approach at various conditions including the time of incubation, temperature, pH, aeration rate, nitrogen, and carbon concentrations. There were two most important factors that affect the production of antibiotic including time of incubation and nitrogen concentration and two interactions including the time of incubation/pH and time of incubation/nitrogen concentration. Activity was evaluated by well diffusion assay. The antimicrobial produced was stable and active even at 55°C. Ammonium sulphate (AS) was used for antibiotic recovery and it was desalted by dialysis techniques. The resulted protein was evaluated through SDS-PAGE. It was concluded that novel thermostable protein produced by Geobacillus pallidus SAT4 is stable at higher temperature and its production level can be improved statistically at optimum values of pH, time of incubation and nitrogen concentration the most important factors for antibiotic production. PMID:24374431

Muhammad, Syed Aun; Ahmed, Safia; Ismail, Tariq; Hameed, Abdul

2014-01-01

177

Thermostable hemicellulases of a bacterium, Geobacillus sp. DC3, isolated from the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota.  

Science.gov (United States)

A thermophilic strain, Geobacillus sp. DC3, capable of producing hemicellulolytic enzymes was isolated from the 1.5-km depth of the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota. The DC3 strain expressed a high level of extracellular endoxylanase at 39.5 U/mg protein with additional hemicellulases including ?-xylosidase (0.209 U/mg) and arabinofuranosidase (0.230 U/mg), after the bacterium was grown in xylan for 24 h. Partially purified DC3 endoxylanase exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 43 kDa according to zymography with an optimal pH of 7 and optimal temperature of 70 °C. The kinetic constants, K m and V max, were 13.8 mg/mL and 77.5 ?mol xylose/min·mg xylan, respectively. The endoxylanase was highly stable and maintained 70 % of its original activity after 16 h incubation at 70 °C. The thermostable properties and presence of three different hemicellulases of Geobacillus sp. DC3 strain support its potential application for industrial hydrolysis of renewable biomass such as lignocelluloses. PMID:24549802

Bergdale, Terran E; Hughes, Stephen R; Bang, Sookie S

2014-04-01

178

INDUCED BIOSYNTHESIS OF ALPHA-AMYLASE BY GROWING CULTURES OF BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Welker, N. E. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio), and L. Leon Campbell. Induced biosynthesis of alpha-amylase by growing cultures of Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 86:1196-1201. 1963.-The maximal differential rate (K) of alpha-amylase synthesis was usually two to three times that of the sucrose control culture, over an inducer concentration range of 5 x 10(-4) to 1 x 10(-3)m. With maltotetraose, higher concentrations decreased the K value, whereas higher concentrations of maltose were needed to obtain maximal K values. Glucose, in concentrations from 10(-5) to 10(-2)m, had no effect on the differential rate of enzyme synthesis. Cultures growing on maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, and maltohexaose exhibited the same growth rate (k) and differential rate of alpha-amylase synthesis over a concentration range of 2.92 x 10(-4) to 1.46 x 10(-2)m. Growth of cultures in various concentrations of pure maltose revealed that with concentrations of maltose ranging from 2.92 x 10(-3) to 1.46 x 10(-2)m the K value for alpha-amylase production increased 18-fold. The amount of maltose utilized, during the growth period, at each concentration of maltose, was constant. Diauxic type growth was observed when maltose was used in addition to another carbon source (i.e., glucose, glycerol, fructose, or sucrose). Maltose was not utilized until the other carbon source had been metabolized. Phenyl-, methyl-, and ethyl-alpha-d-glucoside and methyl-beta-d-maltoside were good inducers of alpha-amylase and would not serve as a carbon source in a chemically defined medium supplemented with 0.1% casein hydrolysate. These compounds were therefore gratuitous inducers of alpha-amylase. Isomaltose, panose, butyl-alpha-d-glucoside, and methyl-alpha-d-maltotetraoside were not effective as inducers of alpha-amylase. Fructose had an inhibitory effect on constitutive (41%) and inducible (55%) alpha-amylase formation; glucose had no effect. PMID:14086089

WELKER, N E; CAMPBELL, L L

1963-12-01

179

Transglycosylation reactions of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase with acarbose and various acceptors  

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It was observed that Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase cleaved the first glycosidic bond of acarbose to produce glucose and a pseudotrisaccharide (PTS) that was transferred to C-6 of the glucose to give an {alpha}-(1-6) glycosidic linkage and the formation of isoacarbose. The addition of a number of different carbohydrates to the digest gave transfer products in which PTS was primarily attached {alpha}-(1-6) to d-glucose, d-mannose, d-galactose, and methyl {alpha}-d-glucopyranoside. With d-fructopyranose and d-xylopyranose, PTS was linked {alpha}-(1-5) and {alpha}-(1-4), respectively. PTS was primarily transferred to C-6 of the nonreducing residue of maltose, cellobiose, lactose, and gentiobiose. Lesser amounts of {alpha}-(1-3) and/or {alpha}-(1-4) transfer products were also observed for these carbohydrate acceptors. The major transfer product to sucrose gave PTS linked {alpha}-(1-4) to the glucose residue. {alpha},{alpha}-Trehalose gave two major products with PTS linked {alpha}-(1-6) and {alpha}-(1-4). Maltitol gave two major products with PTS linked {alpha}-(1-6) and {alpha}-(1-4) to the glucopyranose residue. Raffinose gave two major products with PTS linked {alpha}-(1-6) and {alpha}-(1-4) to the d-galactopyranose residue. Maltotriose gave two major products with PTS linked {alpha}-(1-6) and {alpha}-(1-4) to the nonreducing end glucopyranose residue. Xylitol gave PTS linked {alpha}-(1-5) as the major product and d-glucitol gave PTS linked {alpha}-(1-6) as the only product. The structures of the transfer products were determined using thin layer-chromatography, high-performance ion chromatography, enzyme hydrolysis, methylation analysis and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. The best acceptor was gentiobiose, followed closely by maltose and cellobiose, and the weakest acceptor was d-glucitol. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

Hwa Park, K.; Jeong Kim, M.; Seob Lee, H.; Kim, D. [Department of Food Science and Technology and Research Center for New Bio-Materials in Agriculture, Seoul National University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Soo Han, N.; Robyt, J.F. [Laboratory for Carbohydrate Chemistry and Enzymology, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)

1998-12-15

180

l-Ribose Production from l-Arabinose by Using Purified l-Arabinose Isomerase and Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans?  

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Two enzymes, l-arabinose isomerase and mannose-6-phosphate isomerase, from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans produced 118 g/liter l-ribose from 500 g/liter l-arabinose at pH 7.0, 70°C, and 1 mM Co2+ for 3 h, with a conversion yield of 23.6% and a volumetric productivity of 39.3 g liter?1 h?1.

Yeom, Soo-jin; Kim, Nam-hee; Park, Chang-su; Oh, Deok-kun

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Genotyping of Present-Day and Historical Geobacillus Species Isolates from Milk Powders by High-Resolution Melt Analysis of Multiple Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Loci  

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Spores of thermophilic Geobacillus species are a common contaminant of milk powder worldwide due to their ability to form biofilms within processing plants. Genotyping methods can provide information regarding the source and monitoring of contamination. A new genotyping method was developed based on multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) in conjunction with high-resolution melt analysis (MLV-HRMA) and compared to the currently used method, randomized amplified polymor...

Seale, R. Brent; Dhakal, Rajat; Chauhan, Kanika; Craven, Heather M.; Deeth, Hilton C.; Pillidge, Christopher J.; Powell, Ian B.; Turner, Mark S.

2012-01-01

182

Characteristic Features in the Structure and Collagen-Binding Ability of a Thermophilic Collagenolytic Protease from the Thermophile Geobacillus collagenovorans MO-1  

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A collagen-degrading thermophile, Geobacillus collagenovorans MO-1, extracellularly produces a collagenolytic protease with a large molecular mass. Complete nucleotide sequencing of this gene after gene cloning revealed that the collagenolytic protease is a member of the subtilisin family of serine proteases and consists of a signal sequence for secretion, a prosequence for maturation, a catalytic region, 14 direct repeats of 20 amino acids at the C terminus, and a region with unknown functio...

Itoi, Yuichi; Horinaka, Mano; Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Matsui, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kunihiko

2006-01-01

183

Mathematical Models for the Effects of pH, Temperature, and Sodium Chloride on the Growth of Bacillus stearothermophilus in Salty Carrots  

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Estimating the shelf life and safety of any food product is an important part of food product development. Predictive food microbiology reduces the time and expense associated with conventional challenge and shelf life testing. The purpose of this study was to characterize and model germination, outgrowth, and lag (GOL) time and the exponential growth rate (EGR) of Bacillus stearothermophilus in salty carrot medium (SCM) as a function of pH, temperature, and NaCl concentration. B. stearotherm...

Ng, T. M.; Schaffner, D. W.

1997-01-01

184

Cloning and sequencing of a cellobiose phosphotransferase system operon from Bacillus stearothermophilus XL-65-6 and functional expression in Escherichia coli.  

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Cellulolytic strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus were isolated from nature and screened for the presence of activities associated with the degradation of plant cell walls. One isolate (strain XL-65-6) which exhibited strong activities with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (MUG) and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-cellobiopyranoside (MUC) was used to construct a gene library in Escherichia coli. Clones degrading these model substrates were found to encode the cellobiose-specific gene...

1993-01-01

185

Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost  

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Full Text Available Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile at day 7 treatment were 58.3, 8.1 and 65.5°C, respectively. The morphological analysis of the isolated microbes was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Gram stain method. The congo red test was conducted in order to detect 1% CMC agar degradation activities. Total genomic DNAs were extracted from approximately 1.0 g of mixed compost and amplified by using PCR primers. The PCR product was sequent to identify the nearest relatives of 16S rRNA genes. The localization of bacteria chromosomes was determined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis. Results: Single isolated bacteria species was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME compost at thermophilic stage. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the DNAs coding for the 16S rRNAs with the phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated bacteria from EFB-POME thermophilic compost gave the highest homology (99% with similarity to Geobacillus pallidus. The strain was spore forming bacteria and able to grow at 60°C with pH 7. Conclusion: Thermophilic bacteria strain, Geobacillus pallidus was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mil Effluent (POME compost and characterized.

Azhari S. Baharuddin

2010-01-01

186

Surface plasmon resonance-enabled antibacterial digital versatile discs  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the achievement of effective sterilization of exemplary bacteria including Escherichia coli and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on a digital versatile disc (DVD). The spiral arrangement of aluminum-covered pits generates strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption of near-infrared light, leading to high surface temperature that could even damage the DVD plastics. Localized protein denaturation and high sterilization efficiency have been demonstrated by using a fluorescence microscope and cell cultures. Numerical simulations have also been conducted to model the SPR properties and the surface temperature distribution of DVDs under laser illumination. The theoretical predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental results.

Dou, Xuan; Chung, Pei-Yu; Jiang, Peng; Dai, Jianli

2012-02-01

187

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of L-arabinose isomerase from thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

L-arabinose isomerase (AI), which catalyzes the isomerization of L-arabinose to L-ribulose, can also convert D-galactose to D-tagatose, a natural sugar replacer, which is of commercial interest in the food and healthcare industries. Intriguingly, mesophilic and thermophilic AIs showed different substrate preferences and metal requirements in catalysis and different thermostabilities. However, the catalytic mechanism of thermophilic AIs still remains unclear. Therefore, thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus AI (GKAI) was overexpressed, purified and crystallized, and a preliminary X-ray diffraction data set was obtained. Diffraction data were collected from a GKAI crystal to 2.70?Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 224.12, b = 152.95, c = 91.28?Å, ? = 103.61°. The asymmetric unit contained six molecules, with a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.25?Å(3)?Da(-1) and a solvent content of 45.39%. The three-dimensional structure determination of GKAI is currently in progress by molecular replacement and model building. PMID:24419630

Cao, Thinh-Phat; Choi, Jin Myung; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Sung-Keun; Jun, Youngsoo; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Sung Haeng

2014-01-01

188

Large Scale Dynamics of the Michaelis Complex in B. stearothermophilus Lactate Dehydrogenase Revealed by Single Tryptophan Mutants Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Large scale dynamics within the Michaelis complex mimic of Bacillus stearothermophilus thermophylic lactate dehydrogenase, bsLDH•NADH•oxamate, were studied with site specific resolution by laser induced temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy having a time resolution of 20 ns. NADH emission and Trp emission from the wild type and a series of single-tryptophan bsLDH mutants, with the tryptophan positions at different distances from the active site, were used as reporters of evolving structure in response to the rapid change in temperature. Several distinct dynamical events were observed on the ms - ?s time-scale involving motion of atoms spread over the protein, some occurring concomitantly or nearly concomitantly with structural changes at the active site. This suggests that a large portion of the protein-substrate complex moves in a rather concerted fashion to bring about catalysis. The catalytically important surface loop undergoes two distinct movements, both needed for a competent enzyme. Our results also suggest that what is called `loop motion' is not just localized to the loop and active site residues. Rather, it involves the motion of atoms spread over the protein, even some quite distal from the active site. How these results bear on catalytic mechanism of bsLDH is discussed.

Nie, Beining; Deng, Hua; Desamero, Ruel; Callender, Robert

2013-01-01

189

Large scale dynamics of the Michaelis complex in Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase revealed by a single-tryptophan mutant study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large scale dynamics within the Michaelis complex mimic of Bacillus stearothermophilus thermophilic lactate dehydrogenase, bsLDH·NADH·oxamate, were studied with site specific resolution by laser-induced temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy with a time resolution of 20 ns. NADH emission and Trp emission from the wild type and a series of single-tryptophan bsLDH mutants, with the tryptophan positions different distances from the active site, were used as reporters of evolving structure in response to the rapid change in temperature. Several distinct dynamical events were observed on the millisecond to microsecond time scale involving motion of atoms spread over the protein, some occurring concomitantly or nearly concomitantly with structural changes at the active site. This suggests that a large portion of the protein-substrate complex moves in a rather concerted fashion to bring about catalysis. The catalytically important surface loop undergoes two distinct movements, both needed for a competent enzyme. Our results also suggest that what is called "loop motion" is not just localized to the loop and active site residues. Rather, it involves the motion of atoms spread over the protein, even some quite distal from the active site. How these results bear on the catalytic mechanism of bsLDH is discussed. PMID:23428201

Nie, Beining; Deng, Hua; Desamero, Ruel; Callender, Robert

2013-03-19

190

Combined impact of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic alpha-amylase and surfactants on starch pasting and gelation properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

In baking applications involving starch gelatinisation, surfactants such as sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) and Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic alpha-amylase (BStA) can be used jointly. We here showed that SSL but not MAG delays wheat starch hydrolysis by BStA. The effects were explained in terms of different degrees of adsorption of the surfactants on the starch granule surface, retarded and/or decreased water uptake and delayed availability of gelatinised starch for hydrolysis by BStA. Additional experiments with waxy maize starch led to the conclusion that SSL impacts swelling power and carbohydrate leaching more by covering the starch granule surface than by forming amylose-lipid complexes. SSL postponed starch hydrolysis by BStA, but this did not influence subsequent starch gelation. Finally, when adding SSL or MAG on top of BStA to starch suspensions, the effect of the surfactants on gel strength predominated over that of BStA. PMID:23561216

Van Steertegem, Bénédicte; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

2013-08-15

191

Bacteria Transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

Illustrates the beginning stages of gene cloning. This animation shows how plasmids become recombinant and are inserted into bacteria cells. This is the second of four animations detailing the gene cloning process. To begin at the beginning, see Making a Recombinant Plasmid. (To see the next animation, go to Making a Gene Library.)

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Production of l-Ribose from l-Ribulose by a Triple-Site Variant of Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A triple-site variant (W17Q N90A L129F) of mannose-6-phosphate isomerase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans was obtained by combining variants with residue substitutions at different positions after random and site-directed mutagenesis. The specific activity and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) for l-ribulose isomerization of this variant were 3.1- and 7.1-fold higher, respectively, than those of the wild-type enzyme at pH 7.0 and 70°C in the presence of 1 mM Co2+. The triple-site variant pr...

Lim, Yu-ri; Yeom, Soo-jin; Oh, Deok-kun

2012-01-01

193

Improvement of Thermal Stability via Outer-Loop Ion Pair Interaction of Mutated T1 Lipase from Geobacillus zalihae Strain T1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mutant D311E and K344R were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis to introduce an additional ion pair at the inter-loop and the intra-loop, respectively, to determine the effect of ion pairs on the stability of T1 lipase isolated from Geobacillus zalihae. A series of purification steps was applied, and the pure lipases of T1, D311E and K344R were obtained. The wild-type and mutant lipases were analyzed using circular dichroism. The Tm for T1 lipase, D311E lipase and K344R lipase were ap...

Rudzanna Ruslan; Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd. Rahman; Thean Chor Leow; Mohd Shukuri Mohamad Ali; Mahiran Basri; Abu Bakar Salleh

2012-01-01

194

Genome and proteome of long-chain alkane degrading Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2 isolated from a deep-subsurface oil reservoir  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2, a thermophilic bacillus isolated from a deep oil reservoir in Northern China, consists of a 3,550,319-bp chromosome and a 57,693-bp plasmid. The genome reveals that NG80-2 is well equipped for adaptation into a wide variety of environmental niches, including oil reservoirs, by possessing genes for utilization of a broad range of energy sources, genes encoding various transporters for efficient nutrient uptake and detoxifi...

Feng, Lu; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Jiansong; Ren, Yi; Zhao, Guang; Gao, Chunxu; Tang, Yun; Liu, Xueqian; Han, Weiqing; Peng, Xia; Liu, Rulin; Wang, Lei

2007-01-01

195

Biotransformation of Acetamide to Acetohydroxamic Acid at Bench Scale Using Acyl Transferase Activity of Amidase of Geobacillus pallidus BTP-5x MTCC 9225  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The bioprocess employing acyl transferase activity of intracellular amidase of Geobacillus pallidus BTP-5x MTCC 9225 was harnessed for the synthesis of pharmaceutically important acetohydroxamic acid. G. pallidus BTP-5x exhibited highest acyl transferase activity with acetamide: hydroxylamine in ratio of 1:5 in 0.1 M NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 7.5) at 65°C. In one liter fed-batch reaction containing 1:5 ratio of two substrates total of eight feedings of 0.05 M/20 min of acetamide were mad...

Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand; Bhalla, Tek Chand

2012-01-01

196

Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068573  

Full Text Available AK068573 J013155L16 At5g63290.1 coproporphyrinogen oxidase-related low similarity to coproporphy rinogen III oxidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus [GI:2104798]; contains Pfam pro

197

Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066873  

Full Text Available AK066873 J013079B12 At5g63290.1 coproporphyrinogen oxidase-related low similarity to coproporphy rinogen III oxidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus [GI:2104798]; contains Pfam pro

198

GenBank blastx search result: AK110738  

Full Text Available AK110738 002-170-F05 AB103384.1 Geobacillus stearothermophilus ptb, leudh, bk genes for phosphoy tansbutyrylase, leucine dehydrogenase, butyrate kinase, partial and complete cds.|BCT BCT 2e-23 +2

199

Efficient synthesis and secretion of a thermophilic alpha-amylase by protein-producing Bacillus brevis 47 carrying the Bacillus stearothermophilus amylase gene.  

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Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus brevis 47-5, carrying the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase gene on pUB110 (pBAM101), synthesized the same alpha-amylase as the donor strain as determined by the enzyme's thermal stability and NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. Regardless of the host, the 34-amino acid signal peptide of the enzyme was processed at exactly the same site between two alanine residues. B. brevis 47-5(pBAM101) secreted the enzyme most efficiently of the hosts examined, 100, 15...

1985-01-01

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Isolation and characterization of a thermotolerant ene reductase from Geobacillus sp. 30 and its heterologous expression in Rhodococcus opacus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhodococcus opacus B-4 cells are adhesive to and even dispersible in water-immiscible hydrocarbons owing to their highly lipophilic nature. In this study, we focused on the high operational stability of thermophilic enzymes and applied them to a biocatalytic conversion in an organic reaction medium using R. opacus B-4 as a lipophilic capsule of enzymes to deliver them into the organic medium. A novel thermo- and organic-solvent-tolerant ene reductase, which can catalyze the enantioselective reduction of ketoisophorone to (6R)-levodione, was isolated from Geobacillus sp. 30, and the gene encoding the enzyme was heterologously expressed in R. opacus B-4. Another thermophilic enzyme which catalyzes NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol was identified from the gene-expression library of Thermus thermophilus and the gene was coexpressed in R. opacus B-4 for cofactor regeneration. While the recombinant cells were not viable in the mixture due to high reaction temperature, 634 mM of (6R)-levodione could be produced with an enantiopurity of 89.2 % ee by directly mixing the wet cells of the recombinant R. opacus with a mixture of ketoisophorone and cyclohexanol at 50 °C. The conversion rate observed with the heat-killed recombinant cells was considerably higher than that obtained with a cell-free enzyme solution, demonstrating that the accessibility between the substrates and enzymes could be improved by employing R. opacus cells as a lipophilic enzyme capsule. These results imply that a combination of thermophilic enzymes and lipophilic cells can be a promising approach for the biocatalytic production of water-insoluble chemicals. PMID:24927695

Tsuji, Naoto; Honda, Kohsuke; Wada, Mayumi; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered Thermophilic and Ethanol-Tolerant Geobacillus Strain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A recently discovered thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius M10EXG, ferments a range of C5 (e.g., xylose) and C6 sugars (e.g., glucose) and istolerant to high ethanol concentrations (10percent, v/v). We have investigated the central metabolism of this bacterium using both in vitro enzyme assays and 13C-based flux analysis to provide insights into the physiological properties of this extremophile and explore its metabolism for bio-ethanol or other bioprocess applications. Our findings show that glucose metabolism in G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG proceeds via glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle; the Entner?Doudoroff pathway and transhydrogenase activity were not detected. Anaplerotic reactions (including the glyoxylate shunt, pyruvate carboxylase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) were active, but fluxes through those pathways could not be accuratelydetermined using amino acid labeling. When growth conditions were switched from aerobic to micro-aerobic conditions, fluxes (based on a normalized glucose uptake rate of 100 units (g DCW)-1 h-1) through the TCA cycle and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway were reduced from 64+-3 to 25+-2 and from 30+-2 to 19+-2, respectively. The carbon flux under micro-aerobic growth was directed formate. Under fully anerobic conditions, G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG used a mixed acid fermentation process and exhibited a maximum ethanol yield of 0.38+-0.07 mol mol-1 glucose. In silico flux balance modeling demonstrates that lactate and acetate production from G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG reduces the maximum ethanol yieldby approximately threefold, thus indicating that both pathways should be modified to maximize ethanol production.

Tang, Yinjie J.; Sapra, Rajat; Joyner, Dominique; Hazen, Terry C.; Myers, Samuel; Reichmuth, David; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

2009-01-20

202

Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low-pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated the inactivation characteristics of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores under different plasma exposure conditions using low-pressure microwave plasma in nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated (N2:O2=4:1) gas mixture. The microwave-excited surface-wave plasma discharges were produced at low pressure by a large volume device. The directly plasma-exposed spores, up to 106 populations, were successfully inactivated within 15, 10 and 5 min of surface-wave plasma treatment using nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated gas mixture, respectively, as working gases within the temperature of 75 °C. The contribution of different inactivation factors was evaluated by placing different filters (e.g. a LiF plate, a quartz plate and a Tyvek® sheet) as indirect exposure of spores to the plasma. It was observed that optical emissions (including vacuum UV (VUV)/UV) play an important role in the inactivation process. To further evaluate the effect of VUV/UV photons, we placed an evacuated isolated chamber, inside which spores were set, into the main plasma chamber. The experimental results show that the inactivation time by VUV/UV photons alone, without working gas in the immediate vicinity of the spores, is longer than that with working gas. This suggests that the VUV/UV emission is responsible not only for direct UV inactivation of spores but also for generation of reactive neutral species by photoexcitation. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed significant changes in the morphology of directly plasma-exposed spores but no change in the spores irradiated by VUV/UV photons only.

Singh, M. K.; Ogino, A.; Nagatsu, M.

2009-11-01

203

Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low-pressure microwave plasmas in an N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gas mixture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, we investigated the inactivation characteristics of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores under different plasma exposure conditions using low-pressure microwave plasma in nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated (N{sub 2}:O{sub 2}=4:1) gas mixture. The microwave-excited surface-wave plasma discharges were produced at low pressure by a large volume device. The directly plasma-exposed spores, up to 10{sup 6} populations, were successfully inactivated within 15, 10 and 5 min of surface-wave plasma treatment using nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated gas mixture, respectively, as working gases within the temperature of 75 deg. C. The contribution of different inactivation factors was evaluated by placing different filters (e.g. a LiF plate, a quartz plate and a Tyvek (registered) sheet) as indirect exposure of spores to the plasma. It was observed that optical emissions (including vacuum UV (VUV)/UV) play an important role in the inactivation process. To further evaluate the effect of VUV/UV photons, we placed an evacuated isolated chamber, inside which spores were set, into the main plasma chamber. The experimental results show that the inactivation time by VUV/UV photons alone, without working gas in the immediate vicinity of the spores, is longer than that with working gas. This suggests that the VUV/UV emission is responsible not only for direct UV inactivation of spores but also for generation of reactive neutral species by photoexcitation. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed significant changes in the morphology of directly plasma-exposed spores but no change in the spores irradiated by VUV/UV photons only.

Singh, M K; Ogino, A; Nagatsu, M [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Johoku 3-5-1, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)], E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

2009-11-15

204

Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low-pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, we investigated the inactivation characteristics of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores under different plasma exposure conditions using low-pressure microwave plasma in nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated (N2:O2=4:1) gas mixture. The microwave-excited surface-wave plasma discharges were produced at low pressure by a large volume device. The directly plasma-exposed spores, up to 106 populations, were successfully inactivated within 15, 10 and 5 min of surface-wave plasma treatment using nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated gas mixture, respectively, as working gases within the temperature of 75 deg. C. The contribution of different inactivation factors was evaluated by placing different filters (e.g. a LiF plate, a quartz plate and a Tyvek (registered) sheet) as indirect exposure of spores to the plasma. It was observed that optical emissions (including vacuum UV (VUV)/UV) play an important role in the inactivation process. To further evaluate the effect of VUV/UV photons, we placed an evacuated isolated chamber, inside which spores were set, into the main plasma chamber. The experimental results show that the inactivation time by VUV/UV photons alone, without working gas in the immediate vicinity of the spores, is longer than that with working gas. This suggests that the VUV/UV emission is responsible not only for direct UV inactivation of spores but also for generation of reactive neutral species by photoexcitation. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed significant changes in the morphology of directly plasma-exposed spores but no change in the spores irradiated by VUV/UV photons only.

2009-11-01

205

A mixed-species microarray for identification of food spoilage bacilli  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Failure of food preservation is frequently caused by thermostable spores of members of the Bacillaceae family, which show a wide spectrum of resistance to cleaning and preservation treatments. We constructed and validated a mixed-species genotyping array for 6 Bacillus species, including Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus coagulans, and 4 Geobacillus species, including Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillu...

Caspers, M. P. M.; Schuren, F. H. J.; Zuijlen, A. C. M.; Brul, S.; Montijn, R. C.; Abee, T.; Kort, R.

2011-01-01

206

Screening of plant growth-promoting traits in arsenic-resistant bacteria isolated from agricultural soil and their potential implication for arsenic bioremediation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve arsenic (As)-resistant bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 10 to 30mM and 150 to 320mM for As(III) and As(V), respectively) were isolated from the agricultural soil of the Chianan Plain in southwestern Taiwan using enrichment techniques. Eight isolates capable of oxidizing As(III) (rate of oxidation from 0.029 to 0.059?Mh(-1) 10(-9) cell) and exhibiting As(III)-oxidase enzyme activity belong to Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Klebsiella and Comamonas genera, whereas four isolates that did not show As(III)-oxidizing activity belong to Geobacillus, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Enterobacter genera. Assessment of the parameters of plant growth promotion revealed that Pseudomonas sp. ASR1, ASR2 and ASR3, Geobacillus sp. ASR4, Bacillus sp. ASR5, Paenibacillus sp. ASR6, Enterobacter sp. ASR10 and Comamonas sp. ASR11, and ASR12 possessed some or all of the studied plant growth-promoting traits, including phosphate-solubilization, siderophore, IAA-like molecules and ACC deaminase production. In addition, the ability of As-resistant isolates to grow over wide ranges of pH and temperatures signify their potential application for sustainable bioremediation of As in the environment. PMID:24685527

Das, Suvendu; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep; Chou, Mon-Lin; Chen, Chien-Yen

2014-05-15

207

Expression of genes encoding the E2 and E3 components of the Bacillus stearothermophilus pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the stoichiometry of subunit interaction in assembly in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genes encoding the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3) components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) multienzyme complex from Bacillus stearothermophilus were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The E2 component was purified as a large soluble aggregate (molecular mass > 1 x 10(6) Da) with the characteristic 532 symmetry of an icosahedral (60-mer) structure, and the E3 as a homodimer with a molecular mass of 110 kDa. The recombinant E2 component in vitro was capable of binding either 60 E3(alpha2) dimers or 60 heterotetramers (alpha2beta2) of the pyruvate decarboxylase (E1) component (also the product of B. stearothermophilus genes overexpressed in E. coli). Assembling the E2 polypeptide chain into the icosahedral E2 core did not impose any restriction on the binding of E1 or E3 to the peripheral subunit-binding domain in each E2 chain. This has important consequences for the stoichiometry of the assembled complex in vivo. The lipoyl domain of the recombinant E2 protein was found to be unlipoylated, but it could be correctly post-translationally modified in vitro using a recombinant lipoate protein ligase from E. coli. The lipoylated E2 component was able to bind recombinant E1 and E3 components in vitro to generate a PDH complex with a catalytic activity comparable with that of the wild-type enzyme. Reversible unfolding of the recombinant E2 and E3 components in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride was possible in the absence of chaperonins, with recoveries of enzymic activities of 95% and 85%, respectively. However, only 26% of the E1 enzyme activity was recovered under the same conditions as a result of irreversible denaturation of both E1alpha and E1beta. This represents the first complete post-translational modification and assembly of a fully active PDH complex from recombinant proteins in vitro. PMID:9874216

Lessard, I A; Domingo, G J; Borges, A; Perham, R N

1998-12-01

208

Evaluation of peracetic acid sanitizers efficiency against spores isolated from spoiled cans in suspension and on stainless steel surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the inactivation effect of industrial formulations of peracetic acid biocides on bacterial spores adhering to stainless steel surfaces. A standardized protocol was used to validate biocide activity against spores in suspension. To validate sporicidal activity under practical conditions, we developed an additional protocol to simulate industrial sanitization of stainless steel surfaces with a foam sanitizer. Spores of three spore-forming bacteria, Clostridium sporogenes PA3679, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Moorella thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica, were sprayed onto stainless steel as bioaerosols. Sporicidal activity was high against the C. sporogenes spore suspension, with more than 5 log CFU ml(-1) destroyed at all liquid biocide contact times. Sporicidal activity also was high against G. stearothermophilus and M. thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica spores after 30 min of contact, but we found no population reduction at the 5-min contact time for the highest sporicide concentration tested. The foam biocide effectively inactivated C. sporogenes spores adhered to stainless steel but had a reduced decontamination effect on other species. For G. stearothermophilus spores, sanitization with the foam sporicide was more efficient on horizontal steel than on vertical steel, but foam sanitization was ineffective against M. thermoacetica/thermoautotrophica whatever the position. These results highlight that decontamination efficiency may differ depending on whether spores are suspended in an aqueous solution or adhered to a stainless steel surface. Biocide efficiency must be validated using relevant protocols and bacteria representative of the microbiological challenges and issues affecting each food industry. PMID:22289600

André, S; Hédin, S; Remize, F; Zuber, F

2012-02-01

209

Cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in association with contaminates bacteria of alcoholic fermentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to study the influence of the bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus, as well as their metabolic products, in reduction of cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when in mixed culture of yeast and active and treated bacteria. Also was to evaluated an alternative medium (MCC) for the cultivation of bacteria and yeast, constituted of sugarcane juice diluted to 5 deg Brix and supplemented with yeast extract and peptone. The bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were cultivated in association with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain Y-904) for 72 h on 32 deg C, under agitation. The cellular viability, budding rate and population of S. cerevisiae, the total acidity, volatile acidity and pH of culture were determined from 0, 24, 48 e 72 h of mixed culture. Also were determined the initial and final of microorganism population across the pour plate method, in traditional culture medium (PCA for Bacillus, MRS-agar for Lactobacillus and YEPD-agar for yeast S. cerevisiae) and in medium constituted of sugarcane juice. The bacteria cultures were treated by heat sterilization (120 deg C for 20 minutes), antibacterial agent (Kamoran HJ in concentration 3,0 ppm) or irradiation (radiation gamma, with doses of 5,0 kGy for Lactobacillus and 15,0 kGy for Bacillus). The results of the present research showed that just the culture mediums more acids (with higher concentrations of total and volatile acidity, and smaller values of pH), contaminated with active bacteria L. fermentum and B. subtilis, caused reduction on yeast cellular viability. Except the bacteria B. subtilis treated with radiation, the others bacteria treated by different procedures (heat, radiation e antibacterial) did not cause reduction on yeast cellular viability and population, indicating that the isolated presence of the cellular metabolic of theses bacteria was not enough to reduce the percentage of the yeast live cells and a density population. For all microorganisms, the counts obtained with the cultivation medium constituted of sugarcane juice were similar obtained in traditional mediums, probably because the alternative medium simulate the composition of sugarcane must, that the bacteria were isolated in industrial process of ethanol yield. However, the culture medium constituted of sugarcane juice could be replacing traditional culture mediums of yeast and bacteria tested in this work. (author)

2005-01-01

210

Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90 days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40 days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified. PMID:24012093

Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

2013-11-01

211

Identificación de genes codificantes de enzimas de interés industrial en una cepa de bacteria termofílica aislada de aguas termanles de Salta (Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se aislaron dos bacterias termofílicas a partir de aguas termales de la provincia de Salta, Argentina. Estudios filogenéticos permitieron caracterizar los aislamientos como pertenecientes a los géneros Thermus y Geobacillus. Se determinó la secuencia nucleotídica parcial del genoma de Thermus sp. 2.9 con un equipo de secuenciación masiva de ADN de tecnología Roche 454. Se generaron 215.557 lecturas que proveen una cobertura aproximada de 40 veces el tamaño del genoma. Se realizó un análisis preliminar de las secuencias obtenidas para la identificación de regiones codificantes. Mediante el mismo se identificaron y caracterizaron genes que codifican enzimas utilizadas en procesos de transformación de alimentos y relacionadas con la degradación de polímeros, tales como xilanasas, proteasas, esterasas, lipasas, catalasas y galactosidasas. Este primer paso indica que este microorganismo es un potencial productor de enzimas termofílicas que podrían ser aplicadas en la industria alimentaria.

Navas, L.E.

2014-04-01

212

Bacteria Inactivation During Lithotripsy  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of extracorporeal and intracorporeal lithotripsy on the viability of bacteria contained inside artificial kidney stones was investigated in vitro. Two different bacteria were exposed to the action of one extracorporeal shock wave generator and four intracorporeal lithotripters.

Del Sol Quintero, María; Mora, Ulises; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Mues, Enrique; Castaño, Eduardo; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

2006-09-01

213

Identification of thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria and fungi in Esfahan (Iran) municipal solid waste compost.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermophilic and mesophilic microbiota in compost produced from Esfahan municipal solid waste were examined at different stages of composting process from day zero to 28 days and was conducted in four different seasons. Some of the mesophilic bacteria observed in initial stages of composting process were gram negative Escherichia, Klebsiella, Aeromonas and Alcaligenes, and gram positive Enterococcus and Bacillus species. After 20 days of the composting process lower species diversity of mesophiles (only Bacillus species) were isolated, which was most likely due to the high temperature (60-68 degrees C) condition. Some of the observed thermophilic bacteria at later stages of the process are: Bacillus subtilis, B. polymyxa, B. pumilus, B. sphaericus, and B. licheniformis from thermotolerants, and B. stearothermophilus, B. acidocaldarius, and B. schleglii from thermophiles. Among the mesophilic fungi, at the initial stages of composting process some types of yeasts and molds were isolated, but after day 20 due to high temperature condition (60-68 degrees C), no mesophilic fungi were obtained. On the 15th day of composting the highest diversity of thermotolerant fungi such as Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Rhizopus, and Absidiae spp. were observed. The results indicated that, in order to obtain a sanitary product in cold seasons, the composting process needs a longer duration and fewer turnings. PMID:11699859

Ghazifard, A; Kasra-Kermanshahi, R; Far, Z E

2001-06-01

214

Identificación de genes codificantes de enzimas de interés industrial en una cepa de bacteria termofílica aislada de aguas termales de Salta (Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se aislaron dos bacterias termofílicas a partir de aguas termales de la provincia de Salta, Argentina. Estudios filogenéticos permitieron caracterizar los aislamientos como pertenecientes a los géneros Thermus y Geobacillus. Se determinó la secuencia nucleotídica parcial del genoma de Thermus sp. 2. [...] 9 con un equipo de secuenciación masiva de ADN de tecnología Roche 454. Se generaron 215.557 lecturas que proveen una cobertura aproximada de 40 veces el tamaño del genoma. Se realizó un análisis preliminar de las secuencias obtenidas para la identificación de regiones codificantes. Mediante el mismo se identificaron y caracterizaron genes que codifican enzimas utilizadas en procesos de transformación de alimentos y relacionadas con la degradación de polímeros, tales como xilanasas, proteasas, esterasas, lipasas, catalasas y galactosidasas. Este primer paso indica que este microorganismo es un potencial productor de enzimas termofílicas que podrían ser aplicadas en la industria alimentaria. Abstract in english Two thermophilic bacteria were isolated from a hot spring in Salta, northwest Argentina. Phylogenic analysis indicates that the isolates belong to the Thermus and Geobacillus genera. We have undertaken the DNA sequencing of the complete genome from the isolate Thermus sp. 2.9 using Roche 454 technol [...] ogy. Two hundred and fifteen thousand readings were obtained providing approximately 40 fold coverage of the genome. A first round of analysis of the contigs was made to identify proteins coded in the genome. We report the identification and characterization of several genes coding for enzymes related to the degradation of polymers such as xylanases, proteases, esterases, lipases, catalase and galactosidases. These enzymes may be useful in processes to transform commodities from agriculture and valuable tools in the food industry.

L.E, Navas; A.F, Amadío; I, Fuxan; R.O, Zandomeni.

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Viabilidade celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivada em associação com bactérias contaminantes da fermentação alcoólica Cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in association with contaminant bacteria of alcoholic fermentation  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência de bactérias dos gêneros Bacillus e Lactobacillus, bem como de seus produtos metabólicos, na redução da viabilidade celular de leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As bactérias Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum e Lactobacillus plantarum foram cultivadas em associação com a levedura S. cerevisiae (cepa Y-904 por 72 horas a 32 °C, sob agitação. A viabilidade celular, a taxa de brotamento e a população de células de S. cerevisiae e a acidez total, a acidez volátil e o pH dos meios de cultivos foram determinados às 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas do cultivo misto. As culturas de bactérias foram tratadas através do calor, de agente antimicrobiano e de irradiação. Os resultados mostraram que apenas os meios de cultivo mais acidificados, contaminados com as bactérias ativas L. fermentum e B. subtilis, provocaram redução na viabilidade celular de S. cerevisiae. Excetuando a bactéria B. subtilis tratada com radiação gama, as demais bactérias tratadas pelos diferentes processos (calor, irradiação e antimicrobiano não causaram diminuição da viabilidade celular e da população de S. cerevisiae, indicando que a presença isolada dos metabólitos celulares dessas bactérias não foi suficiente para reduzir a porcentagem de células vivas de S. cerevisiae.The aim of this project was to study the influence of the bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus, as well as their metabolic products to decrease the cellular viability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were cultivated in association with yeast S. cerevisiae (strain Y-904 for 72 hours at 32 ºC under agitation. The cellular viability, budding rate and population of S. Cerevisiae and the total acidity, volatile acidity and pH of culture medium were determined at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation of the mixed culture. The bacteria cultures were treated by heat sterilization, antibacterial agent and irradiation. The results showed that only the more acidified culture medium, contaminated with active bacteria L. fermentum and B. subtilis, caused a reduction in the yeast cellular viability. Except for the bacteria B. subtilis treated for radiation, the other bacteria treated by the different procedures (heat, radiation and antibacterial did not cause a reduction in the cellular viability of S. cerevisiae, indicating that the isolated presence of the cellular metabolic of these bacteria was not enough to reduce the percentage of the living yeast cells.

Thais de Paula Nobre

2007-03-01

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Geobacillus thermoleovorans immobilized on Amberlite XAD-4 resin as a biosorbent for solid phase extraction of uranium (VI) prior to its spectrophotometric determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp stromboliensis, was immobilized on an Amberlite XAD-4 ion exchanger and used as a solid phase extractant for the preconcentration of U(VI) ions prior to their determination by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Parameters affecting the preconcentration (such as the pH value of the sample solution, the concentration of U(VI), the volume and type of eluent, the flow rate and the effect of potentially interfering ions) were studied. The optimum pH for the sorption of U(VI) was found to be pH 5.0. 5.0 mL of 1 M hydrochloric acid were used to eluate the U(VI) from the column. The loading capacity is 11 mg g-1. The limits of detection and quantification are 2.7 and 9.0 ?g L-1, respectively, and relative standard deviations are <10 %. The method was applied to the determination of U(VI) in a certified reference sample (NCS ZC-73014; tea leaves) and in natural water samples. (author)

2012-09-01

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A novel ?-xylosidase structure from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius: the first crystal structure of a glycoside hydrolase family GH52 enzyme reveals unpredicted similarity to other glycoside hydrolase folds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius is a thermophilic bacterium that is able to ferment both C6 and C5 sugars to produce ethanol. During growth on hemicellulose biomass, an intracellular ?-xylosidase catalyses the hydrolysis of xylo-oligosaccharides to the monosaccharide xylose, which can then enter the pathways of central metabolism. The gene encoding a G. thermoglucosidasius ?-xylosidase belonging to CAZy glycoside hydrolase family GH52 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme has been characterized and a high-resolution (1.7 Å) crystal structure has been determined, resulting in the first reported structure of a GH52 family member. A lower resolution (2.6 Å) structure of the enzyme-substrate complex shows the positioning of the xylobiose substrate to be consistent with the proposed retaining mechanism of the family; additionally, the deep cleft of the active-site pocket, plus the proximity of the neighbouring subunit, afford an explanation for the lack of catalytic activity towards the polymer xylan. Whilst the fold of the G. thermoglucosidasius ?-xylosidase is completely different from xylosidases in other CAZy families, the enzyme surprisingly shares structural similarities with other glycoside hydrolases, despite having no more than 13% sequence identity. PMID:24816105

Espina, Giannina; Eley, Kirstin; Pompidor, Guillaume; Schneider, Thomas R; Crennell, Susan J; Danson, Michael J

2014-05-01

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Secretory expression of thermostable alkaline protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus FI by using native signal peptide and ?-factor secretion signal in Pichia pastoris.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermostable alkaline protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus F1 has high potential for industrial applications, and attempt to produce the enzyme in yeast for higher yield was undertaken. Secretory expression of F1 protease through yeast system could improve enzyme's capability, thus simplifying the purification steps. Mature and full genes of F1 protease were cloned into Pichia pastoris expression vectors (pGAPZ?B and pPICZ?B) and transformed into P. pastoris strains (GS115 and SMD1168H) via electroporation method. Recombinant F1 protease under regulation constitutive GAP promoter revealed that the highest expression was achieved after 72 h cultivation. While inducible AOX promoter showed that 0.5% (v/v) methanol was the best to induce expression. It was proven that constitutive expression strategy was better than inducible system. The ?-secretion signal from the plasmid demonstrated higher secretory expression level of F1 protease as compared to native Open Reading Frame (ORF) in GS115 strain (GE6GS). Production medium YPTD was found to be the best for F1 protease expression with the highest yield of 4.13 U/mL. The protein was expressed as His-tagged fusion protein with a size about 34 kDa. PMID:23832300

Latiffi, Amaliawati Ahmad; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Oslan, Siti Nurbaya; Basri, Mahiran

2013-01-01

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Interspecies communication in bacteria  

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Until recently, bacteria were considered to live rather asocial, reclusive lives. New research shows that, in fact, bacteria have elaborate chemical signaling systems that enable them to communicate within and between species. One signal, termed AI-2, appears to be universal and facilitates interspecies communication. Many processes, including virulence factor production, biofilm formation, and motility, are controlled by AI-2. Strategies that interfere with communication in bacteria are bein...

Federle, Michael J.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2003-01-01

220

Bacteria-Antagonists  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Development of Biological Control Agents Through Use of Recombinant Antagonistic Bacteria Possessing Variable Mechanisms of Antagonisms, High Colonizing Capacity and Marker Traits for their Monitoring in Nature

 
 
 
 
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Stereospecific production of the herbicide phosphinothricin (glufosinate): purification of aspartate transaminase from Bacillus stearothermophilus, cloning of the corresponding gene, aspC, and application in a coupled transaminase process.  

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We have isolated and characterized an aspartate transaminase (glutamate:oxalacetate transaminase, EC 2.6.1.1) from the thermophilic microorganism Bacillus stearothermophilus. The purified enzyme has a molecular mass of 40.5 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel analysis, a temperature optimum of 95 degrees C, and a pH optimum of 8.0. The corresponding gene, aspC, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant glutamate:oxalacetate transaminase protein was used in immobilized fo...

Bartsch, K.; Schneider, R.; Schulz, A.

1996-01-01

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Improvement of Thermal Stability via Outer-Loop Ion Pair Interaction of Mutated T1 Lipase from Geobacillus zalihae Strain T1  

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Full Text Available Mutant D311E and K344R were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis to introduce an additional ion pair at the inter-loop and the intra-loop, respectively, to determine the effect of ion pairs on the stability of T1 lipase isolated from Geobacillus zalihae. A series of purification steps was applied, and the pure lipases of T1, D311E and K344R were obtained. The wild-type and mutant lipases were analyzed using circular dichroism. The Tm for T1 lipase, D311E lipase and K344R lipase were approximately 68.52 °C, 70.59 °C and 68.54 °C, respectively. Mutation at D311 increases the stability of T1 lipase and exhibited higher Tm as compared to the wild-type and K344R. Based on the above, D311E lipase was chosen for further study. D311E lipase was successfully crystallized using the sitting drop vapor diffusion method. The crystal was diffracted at 2.1 Å using an in-house X-ray beam and belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 with the unit cell parameters a = 117.32 Å, b = 81.16 Å and c = 100.14 Å. Structural analysis showed the existence of an additional ion pair around E311 in the structure of D311E. The additional ion pair in D311E may regulate the stability of this mutant lipase at high temperatures as predicted in silico and spectroscopically.

Mahiran Basri

2012-01-01

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Purification studies on a thermo-active amidase of Geobacillus pallidus BTP-5x MTCC 9225 isolated from thermal springs of Tatapani (Himachal Pradesh).  

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An intracellular aliphatic amide degrading inducible thermo-active amidase produced by Geobacillus pallidus BTP-5x MTCC 9225 was purified to apparent homogeneity using anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, giving a yield of 6.7 % and a specific activity of 30.49 units mg(-1). The purified protein migrated as a single band of estimated molecular mass of 158 kDa (homo-tetramer) in 8 % polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ?38.5 kDa in 12 % sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Optima of pH and temperature varied widely in broad pH range (pH 6-9) and temperature range (45-70 °C). The purified amidase was stable up to 6 h at 50 °C, with a t (1/2) of 7 h at 55 °C. The multimeric nature of the holozyme (tetramer) contributed to protection of the enzyme against thermal denaturation. The enzyme showed resistance to metal chelating agents (EDTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and sodium azide), explaining its non-metallic nature, and is strongly inhibited by thiol reagents that means cysteine is involved in catalysis. The amidase of G. pallidus BTP-5x preferentially hydrolyzed only small aliphatic amides and has a narrow substrate spectrum. The K (M) value for acrylamide is 10.54 mM, V (max) 45.19 ?mol(-1)?min(-1)?mg(-1) protein, and k (cat) 4.29 min(-1). The sequence of amino acids of the purified enzyme MRHGDISSSHDTVGI appears similar to thermophilic amidases. Sequence analysis of the amidase gene showed that the enzyme is 347 amino-acid-long with a molecular weight of 38.4 kDa (as observed in SDS-PAGE), theoretical pI 5.38, and show strong similarity to thermostable amidases, possessing unique restriction sites. PMID:23096998

Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand; Bhalla, Tek Chand

2013-01-01

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Interactions of the peripheral subunit-binding domain of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase component in the assembly of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus.  

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The enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase (E1) and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3) bind tightly but in a mutually exclusive manner to the peripheral subunit-binding domain (PSBD) of dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase in the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus. The use of directed mutagenesis, surface plasmon resonance detection and isothermal titration microcalorimetry revealed that several positively charged residues of the PSBD, most notably Arg135, play an important part in the interaction with both E1 and E3, whereas Met131 makes a significant contribution to the binding of E1 only. This indicates that the binding sites for E1 and E3 on the PSBD are overlapping but probably significantly different, and that additional hydrophobic interactions may be involved in binding E1 compared with E3. Arg135 of the PSBD was also replaced with cysteine (R135C), which was then modified chemically by alkylation with increasingly large aliphatic groups (R135C -methyl, -ethyl, -propyl and -butyl). The pattern of changes in the values of DeltaG degrees, DeltaH degrees and TDeltaS degrees that were found to accompany the interaction with the variant PSBDs differed between E1 and E3 despite the similarities in the free energies of their binding to the wild-type. The importance of a positive charge on the side-chain at position 135 for the interaction of the PSBD with E3 and E1 was apparent, although lysine was found to be an imperfect substitute for arginine. The results offer further evidence of entropy-enthalpy compensation ('thermodynamic homeostasis') - a feature of systems involving a multiplicity of weak interactions. PMID:14622277

Jung, Hyo-Il; Cooper, Alan; Perham, Richard N

2003-11-01

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Sites of limited proteolysis in the pyruvate decarboxylase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus and their role in catalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The E1 component (pyruvate decarboxylase) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus is a heterotetramer (alpha2beta2) of E1alpha and E1beta polypeptide chains. The domain structure of the E1alpha and E1beta chains, and the protein-protein interactions involved in assembly, have been studied by means of limited proteolysis. It appears that there may be two conformers of E1alpha in the E1 heterotetramer, one being more susceptible to proteolysis than the other. A highly conserved region in E1alpha, part of a surface loop at the entrance to the active site, is the most susceptible to cleavage in E1 (alpha2beta2). As a result, the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate catalysed by E1 in the presence of dichlorophenol indophenol as an artificial electron acceptor is markedly enhanced, but the reductive acetylation of a free lipoyl domain is unchanged. The parameters of the interaction between cleaved E1 and the peripheral subunit-binding domain of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase E2 component are identical to those of the wild-type E1. However, a pyruvate dehydrogenase complex assembled in vitro with cleaved E1p exhibits a markedly lower overall catalytic activity than that assembled with untreated E1. This implies that active site coupling between the E1 and E2 components has been impaired. This has important implications for the way in which a tethered lipoyl domain can interact with E1 in the assembled complex. PMID:11106427

Chauhan, H J; Domingo, G J; Jung, H I; Perham, R N

2000-12-01

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??????? (Bacteria???????): Pseudomonas syringae  

Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae ATCC 19310 = PD 184 Janse, J.D., J.H.J. Derks, B.E. Spit, and W.R. van der Tuin. 1992. Classification of fluorescent soft rot Pseudomononas bacteria, including P. marginali

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??????? (Bacteria???????): Pseudomonas cichorii  

Full Text Available Pseudomonas cichorii PD 377,PD 468 Janse, J.D., J.H.J. Derks, B.E. Spit, and W.R. van der Tuin. 1992. Classification of fluorescent soft rot Pseudomononas bacteria, including P. marginali

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??????? (Bacteria???????): Pseudomonas cichorii  

Full Text Available Pseudomonas cichorii ATCC 10857 Janse, J.D., J.H.J. Derks, B.E. Spit, and W.R. van der Tuin. 199 2. Classification of fluorescent soft rot Pseudomononas bacteria, including P. marginali

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??????? (Bacteria???????): Pseudomonas viridiflava  

Full Text Available Pseudomonas viridiflava NCPPB 635 Janse, J.D., J.H.J. Derks, B.E. Spit, and W.R. van der Tuin. 1 992. Classification of fluorescent soft rot Pseudomononas bacteria, including P. marginali

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??????? (Bacteria???????): Pseudomonas tolaasii  

Full Text Available Pseudomonas tolaasii NCPPB 2192 = PD 210 Janse, J.D., J.H.J. Derks, B.E. Spit, and W.R. van der Tuin. 1992. Classification of fluorescent soft rot Pseudomononas bacteria, including P. marginali

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Cultivation Media for Bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

Common bacteriological culture media (tryptic soy agar, chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin agar, MacConkey agar, eosin-methylene blue agar, hektoen agar, mannitol salt agar, and sheep blood agar) are shown uninoculated and inoculated with bacteria.

American Society For Microbiology;

2009-12-08

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??????? (Bacteria???????): Capnocytophaga canimorsus  

Full Text Available Capnocytophaga canimorsus Daneshvar, M.I., D.G. Hollis, and C.W. Moss. 1991. Chemical characteri zation of clinical isolates which are similar to CDC group DF-3 bacteria. J. Clin. Micro

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A modeling study by response surface methodology and artificial neural network on culture parameters optimization for thermostable lipase production from a newly isolated thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain ARM  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermostable bacterial lipases occupy a place of prominence among biocatalysts owing to their novel, multifold applications and resistance to high temperature and other operational conditions. The capability of lipases to catalyze a variety of novel reactions in both aqueous and nonaqueous media presents a fascinating field for research, creating interest to isolate novel lipase producers and optimize lipase production. The most important stages in a biological process are modeling and optimization to improve a system and increase the efficiency of the process without increasing the cost. Results Different production media were tested for lipase production by a newly isolated thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain ARM (DSM 21496 = NCIMB 41583. The maximum production was obtained in the presence of peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen sources, olive oil as carbon source and lipase production inducer, sodium and calcium as metal ions, and gum arabic as emulsifier and lipase production inducer. The best models for optimization of culture parameters were achieved by multilayer full feedforward incremental back propagation network and modified response surface model using backward elimination, where the optimum condition was: growth temperature (52.3°C, medium volume (50 ml, inoculum size (1%, agitation rate (static condition, incubation period (24 h and initial pH (5.8. The experimental lipase activity was 0.47 Uml-1 at optimum condition (4.7-fold increase, which compared well to the maximum predicted values by ANN (0.47 Uml-1 and RSM (0.476 Uml-1, whereas R2 and AAD were determined as 0.989 and 0.059% for ANN, and 0.95 and 0.078% for RSM respectively. Conclusion Lipase production is the result of a synergistic combination of effective parameters interactions. These parameters are in equilibrium and the change of one parameter can be compensated by changes of other parameters to give the same results. Though both RSM and ANN models provided good quality predictions in this study, yet the ANN showed a clear superiority over RSM for both data fitting and estimation capabilities. On the other hand, ANN has the disadvantage of requiring large amounts of training data in comparison with RSM. This problem was solved by using statistical experimental design, to reduce the number of experiments.

Basri Mahiran

2008-12-01

234

Dicty_cDB: SSA675  

Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSA675 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U03270-1 SSA675E (Link to Original comp... 45 0.001 AM886060_16( AM886060 |pid:none) Geobacillus stearothermophilus pl... 43 0.007 BA000043_2663( B A000043 |pid:none) Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426... 42 0.020 BA000043_1944( BA0

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Dicty_cDB: SSG748  

Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSG748 (Link to dictyBase) - G20993 DDB0187766 Contig-U03270-1 SSG748E (Lin nts: (bits) Value AM886060_16( AM886060 |pid:none) Geobacillus stearothermophilus pl... 45 0.004 CP001230_922( CP omp... 43 0.012 BA000043_2663( BA000043 |pid:none) Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426... 43 0.012 BA000043_1944( BA0

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Backbone resonance assignments of the homotetrameric (48 kD) copper sensor CsoR from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans in the apo- and Cu(I)-bound states: insights into copper-mediated allostery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prokaryotes are highly susceptible to exogenous copper and employ metalloregulatory proteins to control the intracellular concentration. CsoR (copper-sensitive operon repressor) is one such protein that represses transcription of a Cu(I)-effluxing ATPase in its apo form. Cu(I)-binding leads to transcriptional derepression and cellular copper resistance. Herein, we present substantially complete backbone (H(N), N, C', C?, C?) resonance assignments of tetrameric (48 kD) Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (Gt) CsoR in its apo- and Cu(I)-saturated states. These data provide the first spectroscopic evidence that Cu(I)-binding induces an interruption in the long ?2 helix of CsoR. PMID:23001947

Coyne, H Jerome; Giedroc, David P

2013-10-01

237

?????H15 (Bacteria??????? - ???????): Methanol-utilizing bacteria, groups 6 & 10  

Full Text Available Methanol -utilizing bacteria, groups 6 & 10 Urakami, T., and K. Komagata. 1987. Cellular fatty ac existence of hydroxy fatty acids in gram-negative methanol -, methane-, and methylamine-utilizing bacteria. J.

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??????? (Bacteria???????): Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens LMG 10434 12:00 10:0 12:0 16:1 16:0 17:0cyc Vanbrabant, J., P. De Vos, M erotrophic bacteria from an autrohydropgenotrophic pilot -plant for denitrification of drinking water. Syst.

239

Immunity to intracellular bacteria  

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Immunity to intracellular bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium leprae, and Listeria monocytogenes depends on specific T cells. Evidence to be described suggests that CD4 (alpha/beta)T cells which interact with each other and with macrophages contribute to acquired resistence against as well as pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections.

Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Follows, George A.; Munik, Martin E.

1992-01-01

240

Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Can bacteria save the planet?  

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Bacteria might just hold the key to preserving the environment for our great grandchildren. Philip Hunter explores some of the novel ways in which systems biology and biotechnology are harnessing bacteria to produce renewable energy and clean up pollution.

Hunter, Philip

2010-01-01

242

Denitrification by extremely halophilic bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

Extremely halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of extremely halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.

Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

1985-01-01

243

Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and ?-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

2011-01-01

244

Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria  

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Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

Vreeland, Russell H. (West Chester University)

2002-01-09

245

Cheek Cells and Bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Brett Finlay enlists a student volunteer to show the surprisingly high amount of bacteria found in his own mouth. This resource is also featured on the DVD 2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace, available free from HHMI. This video is one minute and 27 seconds in length, and available in MOV (8 MB) and WMV (12 MB). All Infectious Disease videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/disease/video.html.

Dr. Brett Finlay (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2007-03-27

246

Communication among Oral Bacteria  

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Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Dire...

Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

2002-01-01

247

Bacteria are not Lamarckian  

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Instructive influence of environment on heredity has been a debated topic for centuries. Darwin's identification of natural selection coupled to chance variation as the driving force for evolution, against a formal interpretation proposed by Lamarck, convinced most scientists that environment does not specifically instruct evolution in an oriented direction. This is true for multicellular organisms. In contrast, bacteria were long thought of as prone to receive oriented influences from their ...

Danchin, Antoine

1993-01-01

248

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

This week's Topic In Depth is about antibiotic resistant bacteria.The first site is a recent news report from BBC news (1) that describes some recent research on resistant strains of two "of the world's most dangerous bacteria. Next is a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) page (2) with a brief background on antibiotic resistance and how to prevent it. A much more in-depth report is provided by the Select Committee on Science and Technology of the British House of Lords (3). There has been some public concern over the use of antibiotic resistant bacteria strains as markers in genetically modified food crops. The next two resources present information specific to this topic. The first is from the European Federation of Biotechnology (4), and the second is a shorter report from the Council for Biotechnology Information (5). The Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics (6) has a consumer and patient information section that explains what individuals can do to help prevent the problem from increasing. Readers who need a brief primer on antibiotics may appreciate this Web site from the University of Edinburgh (7). The last site is a "bugs in the news" feature from the University of Kansas (8), which is an easy-to-read explanation of "what the heck" antibiotic resistance is.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

249

Pepsin homologues in bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidase family A1, to which pepsin belongs, had been assumed to be restricted to eukaryotes. The tertiary structure of pepsin shows two lobes with similar folds and it has been suggested that the gene has arisen from an ancient duplication and fusion event. The only sequence similarity between the lobes is restricted to the motif around the active site aspartate and a hydrophobic-hydrophobic-Gly motif. Together, these contribute to an essential structural feature known as a psi-loop. There is one such psi-loop in each lobe, and so each lobe presents an active Asp. The human immunodeficiency virus peptidase, retropepsin, from peptidase family A2 also has a similar fold but consists of one lobe only and has to dimerize to be active. All known members of family A1 show the bilobed structure, but it is unclear if the ancestor of family A1 was similar to an A2 peptidase, or if the ancestral retropepsin was derived from a half-pepsin gene. The presence of a pepsin homologue in a prokaryote might give insights into the evolution of the pepsin family. Results Homologues of the aspartic peptidase pepsin have been found in the completed genomic sequences from seven species of bacteria. The bacterial homologues, unlike those from eukaryotes, do not possess signal peptides, and would therefore be intracellular acting at neutral pH. The bacterial homologues have Thr218 replaced by Asp, a change which in renin has been shown to confer activity at neutral pH. No pepsin homologues could be detected in any archaean genome. Conclusion The peptidase family A1 is found in some species of bacteria as well as eukaryotes. The bacterial homologues fall into two groups, one from oceanic bacteria and one from plant symbionts. The bacterial homologues are all predicted to be intracellular proteins, unlike the eukaryotic enzymes. The bacterial homologues are bilobed like pepsin, implying that if no horizontal gene transfer has occurred the duplication and fusion event might be very ancient indeed, preceding the divergence of bacteria and eukaryotes. It is unclear whether all the bacterial homologues are derived from horizontal gene transfer, but those from the plant symbionts probably are. The homologues from oceanic bacteria are most closely related to memapsins (or BACE-1 and BACE-2, but are so divergent that they are close to the root of the phylogenetic tree and to the division of the A1 family into two subfamilies.

Bateman Alex

2009-09-01

250

Sterilization of single-use helical stone baskets: an experimental study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To experimentally evaluate the efficacy of a standard sterilization protocol employed during reuse of disposable helical stone baskets. Methods: Study performed on 20 helical stone baskets: 10 were used in the initial validation process, contaminated with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and imprinted on Müeller-Hinton media; 10 catheters were contaminated with Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, processed, inoculated in TSB and incubated in a water bath at a temperature of 55ºC. Bacterial growth was evaluated after 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. After sterilization, stone baskets were also opened and closed 40 times to check for functional problems. All plastic and basket parts were carefully checked for damages. Results: After the 72-hour incubation period, there was growth of E. coli ATCC 25922 in 100% of imprints. After the sterilization process and up to 7 days incubation period on a blood agar plate, there was no growth of G. stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 or any other bacteria. There were no functional problems or damage to baskets after the sterilization process. Conclusion: The ethylene oxide system is efficacious and safe for sterilization of disposable helical stone baskets. However, further clinical studies are required and should provide more safety information.

Cely Barreto da Silva

2011-03-01

251

Dicty_cDB: SSL570  

Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSL570 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16247-1 SSL570Z (Link to Original |AF328862.1 Geobacillus stearothermophilus surface layer glycoprotein SgsE precursor (sgsE) gene, complete

252

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of two thermostable ?-galactosidases from glycoside hydrolase family 36  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ?-galactosidases AgaA, AgaB and AgaA A355E mutant from Geobacillus stearothermophilus have been overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals of AgaB and AgaA A355E have been obtained by the vapour-diffusion method and synchrotron data have been collected to 2.0 and 2.8?Å resolution, respectively.

Foucault, M.; Watzlawick, H.; Mattes, R.; Haser, R.; Gouet, P.

2006-01-01

253

Trail following by gliding bacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Slime trails, which are deposited on surfaces by gliding bacteria and which serve as preferential pathways for gliding motility, were tested for the species specificity of their support of movement. Among the pairs of bacteria tested, a variety of gliding bacteria and a flagellated bacterium moved along trails of unrelated species. Thus, the trails did not serve as pheromones. Rather, they may have guided gliding elasticotactically. Some biological implications of this finding are considered.

Burchard, R. P.

1982-01-01

254

Bacteria transport under unsaturated conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this work was to study the bacteria transport behaviour in different conditions using an unsaturated porous media. A column based system able to keep the unsaturated conditions was designed and developed to perform the experiments. Two bacteria strains Deinococcus radiodurans and Rhodococcus rhodochrous strongly different in hydrophobicity were employed. During the experiments the bacteria concentration in the outflow was continuously on-line measured and after the experiment the c...

2006-01-01

255

Geobacillus thermodenitrificans YjbH recognizes the C-terminal end of Bacillus subtilis Spx to accelerate Spx proteolysis by ClpXP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Proteolytic control can govern the levels of specific regulatory factors, such as Spx, a transcriptional regulator of the oxidative stress response in Gram-positive bacteria. Under oxidative stress, Spx concentration is elevated and upregulates transcription of genes that function in the stress response. When stress is alleviated, proteolysis of Spx catalysed by ClpXP reduces Spx concentration. Proteolysis is enhanced by the substrate recognition factor YjbH, which possesses a His–Cys-rich ...

Chan, Chio Mui; Garg, Saurabh; Lin, Ann A.; Zuber, Peter

2012-01-01

256

Extracellular communication in bacteria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Populations of bacterial cells often coordinate their responses to changes in their local environmental conditions through "quorum sensing", a cell-to-cell communication system employing small diffusible signal molecules. While there is considerable diversity in the chemistry of such signal molecules, in different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria they control pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production, biofilm differentiation, DNA transfer and bioluminescence. The development of biosensors for the detection of these signal molecules has greatly facilitated their subsequent chemical analysis which in turn has resulted in significant progress in understanding the molecular basis of quorum sensing-dependent gene expression. Consequently, the discovery and characterisation of natural molecules which antagonize quorum sensing-mediated responses has created new opportunities for the design of novel anti-infective agents which control infection through the attenuation of bacterial virulence.

Givskov, Michael Christian

2005-01-01

257

RNA localization in bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria localize proteins and DNA regions to specific subcellular sites, and several recent publications show that RNAs are localized within the cell as well. Localization of tmRNA and some mRNAs indicates that RNAs can be sequestered at specific sites by RNA binding proteins, or can be trapped at the location where they are transcribed. Although the functions of RNA localization are not yet completely understood, it appears that one function of RNA localization is to regulate RNA abundance by controlling access to nucleases. New techniques for visualizing RNAs will likely lead to increased examination of spatial control of RNAs and the role this control plays in the regulation of gene expression and bacterial physiology. PMID:21354362

Keiler, Kenneth C

2011-04-01

258

L-Ribose production from L-arabinose by immobilized recombinant Escherichia coli co-expressing the L-arabinose isomerase and mannose-6-phosphate isomerase genes from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans.  

Science.gov (United States)

L-Ribose is an important precursor for antiviral agents, and thus its high-level production is urgently demanded. For this aim, immobilized recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing the L-arabinose isomerase and variant mannose-6-phosphate isomerase genes from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans were developed. The immobilized cells produced 99 g/l L-ribose from 300 g/l L-arabinose in 3 h at pH 7.5 and 60 °C in the presence of 1 mM Co(2+), with a conversion yield of 33 % (w/w) and a productivity of 33 g/l/h. The immobilized cells in the packed-bed bioreactor at a dilution rate of 0.2 h(-1) produced an average of 100 g/l L-ribose with a conversion yield of 33 % and a productivity of 5.0 g/l/h for the first 12 days, and the operational half-life in the bioreactor was 28 days. Our study is first verification for L-ribose production by long-term operation and feasible for cost-effective commercialization. The immobilized cells in the present study also showed the highest conversion yield among processes from L-arabinose as the substrate. PMID:24078190

Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Seo, Eun-Sun; Oh, Deok-Kun

2014-01-01

259

Amidase activity of some bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The amidase activity of bacteria possessing a high nitrilase activity was found to display the same spectrum although the bacteria may belong to different taxonomic groups, Bacillus, Bacteridium, Micrococcus, Brevibacteriun. The spectrum of amidase activity, although very broad, is more restricted than that of nitrilase activity. Internal amides as well as vinyl-bound amides are not hydrolyzed. PMID:947836

Arnaud, A; Galzy, P; Jallageas, J C

1976-01-01

260

Sampling bacteria with a laser  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We also compared these data to samples of usual collection and filtering. The results of these laser measurements are very promising.

Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

?????H15 (Bacteria??????? - ???????): Pseudomonas cichorii  

Full Text Available Pseudomonas cichorii ATCC 10857 Type Janse, J.D., J.H.J. Derks, B.E. Spit, and W.R. van der Tuin . 1992. Classification of fluorescent soft rot Pseudomononas bacteria, including P. marginali

262

?????H15 (Bacteria??????? - ???????): Pseudomonas cichorii  

Full Text Available Pseudomonas cichorii PD 377,PD 468 Janse, J.D., J.H.J. Derks, B.E. Spit, and W.R. van der Tuin. 1992. Classification of fluorescent soft rot Pseudomononas bacteria, including P. marginali

263

?????H15 (Bacteria??????? - ???????): Pseudomonas viridiflava  

Full Text Available Pseudomonas viridiflava NCPPB 635 Type Janse, J.D., J.H.J. Derks, B.E. Spit, and W.R. van der Tu in. 1992. Classification of fluorescent soft rot Pseudomononas bacteria, including P. marginali

264

[Nitrilase activity in several bacteria].  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen strains of Bacteria from the genus Bacillus, Bacteridium, Micrococcus and Brevibacterium were isolated. They have a very general nitrilase activity that acts on all the substrates with nitrile function. PMID:825308

Arnaud, A; Galzy, P; Jallageas, J C

1976-09-20

265

Symbiosis in Marine Luminous Bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work indicates that the distribution and abundance of a class of marine microorganisms, the symbiotic luminous bacteria, are controlled by the dynamics of their relationship with their host. Such a conclusion constitutes the first time that the ecolo...

E. G. Ruby

1993-01-01

266

Antifungal activity of rhizospheric bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescent Pseudomonad spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere of potato plants (Algeria) by serial dilutions of rhizosphere soils on Kings B medium and were tested for their antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of the Pseudomonas isolated from Potatoes rhizosphere was tested against Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum in dual culture with bacteria on PDA. The Petri dish was divided into tow, on one the bacteria was spread and on the opposite side fungal plugs were inoculated and incubated for one week. Fourteen bacteria were isolated; only one isolate inhibited the growth of Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani; Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici with inhibition zones of 39.9, 33.7, 30.8, 19.9 and 22.5 mm respectively. PMID:21534477

Mezaache, S; Guechi, A; Zerroug, M M; Strange, R N; Nicklin, J

2010-01-01

267

Isolation of an indigenous imidacloprid-degrading bacterium and imidacloprid bioremediation under simulated in situ and ex situ conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bacterial community structure and its complexity of the enrichment culture during the isolation and screening of imidacloprid-degrading strain were studied using denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. The dominant bacteria in the original tea rhizosphere soil were uncultured bacteria, Rhizobium sp., Sinorhizobium, Ochrobactrum sp., Alcaligenes, Bacillus sp., Bacterium, Klebsiella sp., and Ensifer adhaerens. The bacterial community structure was altered extensively and its complexity reduced during the enrichment process, and four culturable bacteria, Ochrobactrum sp., Rhizobium sp., Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Alcaligenes faecalis, remained in the final enrichment. Only one indigenous strain, BCL-1, with imidacloprid-degrading potential, was isolated from the sixth enrichment culture. This isolate was a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium and identified as the genus Ochrobactrum based on its morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties and its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The degradation test showed that approximately 67.67% of the imidacloprid (50 mg/l) was degraded within 48 h by strain BCL-1. The optimum conditions for degradation were a pH of 8 and 30°C. The simulation of imidacloprid bioremediation by strain BCL-1 in soil demonstrated that the best performance in situ (tea soil) resulted in the degradation of 92.44% of the imidacloprid (100 mg/g) within 20 days, which was better than those observed in the ex situ simulations that were 64.66% (cabbage soil), 41.15% (potato soil), and 54.15% (tomato soil). PMID:23985542

Hu, Guiping; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Bo; Song, Fengqing; You, Minsheng

2013-11-28

268

Spatial relationships between bacteria and localized corrosion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spatial relationships between bacteria and polarization were examined using microbiological and surface analytical techniques. Corrosion products produced by well-established artificial crevices in 304 stainless steel in abiotic seawater were associated with large numbers of bacteria after brief exposures to natural seawater. The presence of bacteria did not alter the distribution or composition of the corrosion products. Cathodic polarization increased the number of viable marine bacteria and extracellular debris on 304 stainless steel. Bacterial colonization and metabolism can fix anodes and cathodes; however, abiotic polarization can influence the number and types of bacteria associated with the surface. Spatial relationships between bacteria and localized corrosion cannot independently be interpreted as causal.

Little, B.J.; Wagner, P.A.; Hart, K.R.; Ray, R.I. [Naval Research Lab., Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)

1996-12-01

269

?????H15 (Bacteria??????? - ???????): Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens LMG 10434 Type 12:0 10:0 12:0 16:1 16:0 17:0cyc Vanbrabant, J., P. De Vo erotrophic bacteria from an autrohydropgenotrophic pilot -plant for denitrification of drinking water. Syst.

270

Enzymatic Studies on Thermophilic Bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the research were (1) to prepare crystalline alpha-amylase from thermophilic bacteria and to study the physical and chemical properties of the preparations in order to obtain data relative to the problem of thermal stability; (2) to stud...

L. L. Campbell

1964-01-01

271

Automated radiometric detection of bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new radiometric method called BACTEC, used for the detection of bacteria in cultures or in supposedly sterile samples, was discussed from the standpoint of methodology, both automated and semi-automated. Some of the results obtained so far were reported and some future applications and development possibilities were described. In this new method, the test sample is incubated in a sealed vial with a liquid culture medium containing a 14C-labeled substrate. If bacteria are present, they break down the substrate, producing 14CO2 which is periodically extracted from the vial as a gas and is tested for radioactivity. If this gaseous radioactivity exceeds a threshold level, it is evidence of bacterial presence and growth in the test vial. The first application was for the detection of bacteria in the blood cultures of hospital patients. Data were presented showing typical results. Also discussed were future applications, such as rapid screening for bacteria in urine industrial sterility testing and the disposal of used 14C substrates. (Mukohata, S.)

1974-08-01

272

Hydrocarbon degradation by antarctic bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bacterial cultures obtained from sediment samples collected during a trial oil spill experiment conducted at Airport beach, Eastern Antarctica were selectively enriched for n-alkane-degrading and phenanthrenedegrading bacteria. Samples were collected from a control site and sites treated with different hydrocarbon mixtures - Special Antarctic blend (SAB), BP-Visco and orange roughy oils. One set of replicate sites was also treated with water from Organic Lake which had previously been shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. No viable bacteria were obtained from samples collected from sites treated with orange roughy oil. Extensive degradation of n-alkanes by enrichment cultures obtained from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco occurred at both 25{degrees}C and 10{degrees}C. Extensive degradation of phenanthrene also occurred in enrichment cultures from these sites grown at 25{degrees}C. Concurrent increases of polar lipid in these cultures were also observed. The presence of 1,4-naphthaquinone and 1-naphthol during the growth of the cultures on phenanthrene is unusual and warrants further investigation of the mechanism of phenanthrene-degradation by these Antarctic bacteria.

Cavanagh, J.A.E.; Nichols, P.D.; McMeekin, T.A.; Franzmann, P.D. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)] [and others

1996-12-31

273

Magnetite in freshwater magnetotactic bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

A previously undescribed magnetotactic spirillum isolated from a freshwater swamp was mass cultured in the magnetic as well as the nonmagnetic state in chemically defined culture media. Results of Mossbauer spectroscopic analysis applied to whole cells identifies magnetite as a constituent of these magnetic bacteria. PMID:17780480

Frankel, R B; Blakemore, R P; Wolfe, R S

1979-03-30

274

Antagonism of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Phytopathogenic Bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A variety of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from plant surfaces and plant-associated products, were found to be antagonistic to test strains of the phytopathogens Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. Effective “in vitro” inhibition was found both on agar plates and in broth cultures. In pot trials, treatment of bean plants with a Lactobacillus plantarum strain before inoculation with P. syringae caused a significant reduction of the disease incidence.

Visser, Rone?l; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Bezuidenhout, Johannes J.; Kotze?, Johannes M.

1986-01-01

275

Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

2014-05-06

276

Magnetotactic bacteria at the geomagnetic equator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetotatic bacteria are observed in freshwater and marine sediments of Fortaleza, Brazil, situated close to the geomagnetic equator. Both South-seeking and North-seeking bacteria are present in roughly equal numbers in the same samples. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the vertical component of the geomagnetic field selects the predominant polarity type among magnetotactic bacteria in natural environments. (Author)

1981-01-01

277

Effect of Nitric Oxide on Anammox Bacteria?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of nitrogen oxides on anammox bacteria are not well known. Therefore, anammox bacteria were exposed to 3,500 ppm nitric oxide (NO) in the gas phase. The anammox bacteria were not inhibited by the high NO concentration but rather used it to oxidize additional ammonium to dinitrogen gas under conditions relevant to wastewater treatment.

2010-01-01

278

Drosophila lifespan enhancement by exogenous bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We researched the lifespan of Drosophila under axenic conditions compared with customary procedure. The experiments revealed that the presence of bacteria during the first week of adult life can enhance lifespan, despite unchanged food intake. Later in life, the presence of bacteria can reduce lifespan. Certain long-lived mutants react in different ways, indicating an interplay between bacteria and longevity-enhancing genes.

Brummel, Ted; Ching, Alisa; Seroude, Laurent; Simon, Anne F.; Benzer, Seymour

2004-01-01

279

Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03270-1  

Full Text Available Contig-U03270-1 no gap 1310 5 1054687 1053374 MINUS 3 3 U03270 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Show nts: (bits) Value AM886060_16( AM886060 |pid:none) Geobacillus stearothermophilus pl... 45 0.008 CP001230_922( CP omp... 43 0.022 BA000043_2663( BA000043 |pid:none) Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426... 43 0.022 BA000043_1944( BA0

280

Dissipative Shocks behind Bacteria Gliding  

CERN Document Server

Gliding is a means of locomotion on rigid substrates utilized by a number of bacteria includingmyxobacteria and cyanobacteria. One of the hypotheses advanced to explain this motility mechanism hinges on the role played by the slime filaments continuously extruded from gliding bacteria. This paper solves in full a non-linear mechanical theory that treats as dissipative shocks both the point where the extruded slime filament comes in contact with the substrate, called the filament's foot, and the pore on the bacterium outer surface from where the filament is ejected. We prove that kinematic compatibility for shock propagation requires that the bacterium uniform gliding velocity (relative to the substrate) and the slime ejecting velocity (relative to the bacterium) must be equal, a coincidence that seems to have already been observed.

Virga, Epifanio G

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Swimming bacteria power microscopic gears.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whereas the laws of thermodynamics prohibit extraction of useful work from the Brownian motion of particles in equilibrium, these motions can be 'rectified' under nonequilibrium conditions, for example, in the presence of asymmetric geometrical obstacles. Here, we describe a class of systems in which aerobic bacteria Bacillus subtilis moving randomly in a fluid film power submillimeter gears and primitive systems of gears decorated with asymmetric teeth. The directional rotation is observed only in the regime of collective bacterial swimming and the gears angular velocities depend on and can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to the bacteria. The ability to harness and control the power of collective motions appears an important requirement for further development of mechanical systems driven by microorganisms.

Sokolov, A.; Apodaca, M. M.; Grzybowski, B. A.; Aranson, I. S.; Materials Science Division; Princeton Univ.; Northwestern Univ.

2010-01-19

282

Viability of bacteria in peatlands  

Science.gov (United States)

The viability of bacteria in oligotrofic bogs and fens was determined by the luminescent microscopy method with the help of a two-component fluorescent dye (L7012 LIVE/DEAD). Living bacterial cells were found in the entire peat profiles. Their portion was maximal (up to 60%) in the upper layers and did not exceed 25% in the lower layers. The portion of dead bacterial cells varied from 3 to 19%, and dormant cells constituted 25 to 95% of the total number of bacterial cells. The numbers of dormant cells increased down the profiles irrespectively of the peat type. The portion of nanoforms did not exceed 5% of the total. The cells of the nanoforms, unlike the bacteria of typical sizes, were characterized by their high viability (93-98%).

Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Lysak, L. V.; Glukhova, T. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

2014-04-01

283

Aggregation Patterns in Stressed Bacteria  

CERN Document Server

We study the formation of spot patterns seen in a variety of bacterial species when the bacteria are subjected to oxidative stress due to hazardous byproducts of respiration. Our approach consists of coupling the cell density field to a chemoattractant concentration as well as to nutrient and waste fields. The latter serves as a triggering field for emission of chemoattractant. Important elements in the proposed model include the propagation of a front of motile bacteria radially outward form an initial site, a Turing instability of the uniformly dense state and a reduction of motility for cells sufficiently far behind the front. The wide variety of patterns seen in the experiments is explained as being due the variation of the details of the initiation of the chemoattractant emission as well as the transition to a non-motile phase.

Tsimring, L S; Aranson, I S; Ben-Jacob, E; Cohen, I; Shochet, O; Tsimring, Lev; Levine, Herbert; Aranson, Igor; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Cohen, Inon; Shochet, Ofer

1995-01-01

284

Swimming bacteria power microscopic gears  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whereas the laws of thermodynamics prohibit extraction of useful work from the Brownian motion of particles in equilibrium, these motions can be “rectified” under nonequilibrium conditions, for example, in the presence of asymmetric geometrical obstacles. Here, we describe a class of systems in which aerobic bacteria Bacillus subtilis moving randomly in a fluid film power submillimeter gears and primitive systems of gears decorated with asymmetric teeth. The directional rotation is observ...

Sokolov, Andrey; Apodaca, Mario M.; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.; Aranson, Igor S.

2010-01-01

285

Implications of Aging in Bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motivated by recent research of aging in E. coli, we explore the effects of aging on bacterial fitness. The disposable soma theory of aging was developed to explain how differences in lifespans and aging rates could be linked to life history trade-offs. Although generally applied for multicellular organisms, it is also useful for exploring life history strategies of single celled organisms such as bacteria. Starting from the Euler-Lotka equation, we propose a mathematical mo...

Johnson, Leah R.; Mangel, Marc

2005-01-01

286

Box-shaped halophilic bacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three morphologically similar strains of halophilic, box-shaped procaryotes have been isolated from brines collected in the Sinai, Baja California (Mexico), and southern California (United States). Although the isolates in their morphology resemble Walsby's square bacteria, which are a dominant morphological type in the Red Sea and Baja California brines, they are probably not identical to them. The cells show the general characteristics of extreme halophiles and archaebacteria. They contain ...

Javor, B.; Requadt, C.; Stoeckenius, W.

1982-01-01

287

Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus r...

Ollivier, B.; Caumette, P.; Garcia, J. L.; Mah, R. A.

1994-01-01

288

Taxonomy of Bacteria Nodulating Legumes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the years, the term “rhizobia” has come to be used for all the bacteria that are capable of nodulation and nitrogen fixation in association with legumes but the taxonomy of rhizobia has changed considerably over the last 30 year. Recently, several non- rhizobial species belonging to alpha and beta subgroup of Proteobacteria have been identified as nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts. Here we provide an overview of the history of the rhizobia and the widespread phylogenetic diversity of ...

Rivas, Ra Uacute L.; Paula García-Fraile; Encarna Velázquez

2009-01-01

289

Clinical microbiology of coryneform bacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coryneform bacteria are aerobically growing, asporogenous, non-partially-acid-fast, gram-positive rods of irregular morphology. Within the last few years, there has been a massive increase in the number of publications related to all aspects of their clinical microbiology. Clinical microbiologists are often confronted with making identifications within this heterogeneous group as well as with considerations of the clinical significance of such isolates. This review provides comprehensive info...

Funke, G.; Von Graevenitz, A.; Clarridge, J. E.; Bernard, K. A.

1997-01-01

290

Bacteria Allocation Using Monte Carlo  

Science.gov (United States)

This applet, created by David Hill and Lila Roberts, uses the Monte Carlo technique to simulate a count of bacteria that are present as a result of a certain sampling process. This simulation could be modified to perform other experiments. This experiment is geared towards high school calculus students or probability courses for mathematics majors in college. Students must possess a basic understanding of probability concepts before performing this experiment. Overall, it is a nice activity for a mathematics classroom.

Hill, David R.; Roberts, Lila F.

2009-11-24

291

Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-typ...

Rossi, Maddalena; Amaretti, Alberto; Raimondi, Stefano

2011-01-01

292

Virulence properties of cariogenic bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The importance of Streptococcus mutans in the etiology of dental caries has been well documented. However, there is growing recognition that the cariogenic potential of dental plaque may be determined by the composite interactions of the total plaque bacteria rather than solely the virulence properties of a single organism. This study will examine how the interactions of S. mutans with other biofilm constituents may influence the cariogenicity of plaque sa...

Kuramitsu Howard K; Wang Bing-Yan

2006-01-01

293

Relevant factors affecting microbial surface decontamination by pulsed light.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulsed Light (PL) uses intense flashes of white light rich in ultraviolet (UV) light for decontamination. A log-reduction higher than 5 was obtained in one flash and at fluences lower than 1.8J/cm(2) on spores of a range of spore-forming bacteria, of vegetative cells of non-spore-forming bacteria and on yeasts spread on agar media. Vegetative cells were more sensitive than spores. The inactivation by PL of Bacillus subtilis, B. atrophaeus, B. cereus, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Aspergillus niger spores sprayed on polystyrene was similar. The inactivation by PL of B. subtilis and A. niger spores sprayed on glass was slightly lower than on polystyrene. No alteration of the spore structures was detected by scanning electron microscopy for both PL treated B. subtilis and A. niger spores. The inactivation of spores of B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus, B. cereus and B. pumilus by PL or by continuous UV-C at identical fluences was not different, and was much higher by PL for A. niger spores. The increase in the input voltage of the lamps (which also increases the UV-C %) resulted in a higher inactivation. There was no correlation between the resistance to heat and the resistance to PL. The relative effect of UV-C radiations and light thermal energy on PL inactivation was discussed. PMID:21924512

Levy, Caroline; Aubert, Xavier; Lacour, Bernard; Carlin, Frédéric

2012-01-16

294

Bacteria and vampirism in cinema.  

Science.gov (United States)

A vampire is a non-dead and non-alive chimerical creature, which, according to various folklores and popular superstitions, feeds on blood of the living to draw vital force. Vampires do not reproduce by copulation, but by bite. Vampirism is thus similar to a contagious disease contracted by intravascular inoculation with a suspected microbial origin. In several vampire films, two real bacteria were staged, better integrated than others in popular imagination: Yersinia pestis and Treponema pallidum. Bacillus vampiris was created for science-fiction. These films are attempts to better define humans through one of their greatest fears: infectious disease. PMID:23916557

Castel, O; Bourry, A; Thévenot, S; Burucoa, C

2013-09-01

295

Genetics of thermophilic bacteria. Final progress report, May 1, 1984--April 30, 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Organisms adapted to high temperature have evolved a variety of unique solutions to the biochemical problems imposed by this environment. Adaptation is commonly used to describe the biochemical properties of organisms which have become adapted to their environment (genetic adaptation). It can also mean the direct response-at the cellular level-of an organism to changes in temperature (physiological adaptation). Thermophilic bacilli (strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus) can exhibit a variety of biochemical adaptations in response to changes in temperature. These include changes in the composition and stability of the membrane, metabolic potential, the transport of amino acids, regulatory mechanisms, ribose methylation of tRNA, protein thermostability, and nutritional requirements. The objectives of the research were to develop efficient and reliable genetic systems to analyze and manipulate B. Stearothermophilus, and to use these systems initiate a biochemical, molecular, and genetic investigations of genes that are required for growth at high temperature.

Welker, N.E.

1991-12-31

296

Methylation of ribosomal proteins in bacteria: evidence of conserved modification of the eubacterial 50S subunit.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methylation of the 50S ribosomal proteins from Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus subtilis, Alteromonas espejiana, and Halobacterium cutirubrum was measured after the cells were grown in the presence of [1-14C]methionine or [methyl-3H]methionine or both. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis revealed, in general, similar relative electrophoretic mobilities of the methylated proteins from each eubacterium studied. Proteins known to be structurally and functionally homo...

Amaro, A. M.; Jerez, C. A.

1984-01-01

297

Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

2014-03-11

298

The passage of bacteria through surgical drapes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The passage of bacteria through surgical drapes is a potential cause of wound infection. Previous studies have shown that liquids and human albumin penetrate certain types of drapes. We studied the passage of bacteria through seven different types of surgical drape and an operating tray. Bacteria easily penetrated all the woven re-usable fabrics within 30 min. The disposable non-woven drapes proved to be impermeable, as did the operating tray. We recommend the use of non-woven disposable drap...

2000-01-01

299

Bacterias, fuente de energía para el futuro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a family of bacteria called Geobacter that have the ability to produce power as a renewable source in a microbial fuel cell. These bacteria can completely oxidize organic compounds using different elements or substances as electron acceptors. The paper addresses key features of the bacteria, the mechanisms used to harness the electricity generated and an approximation of the system required to become a competitive source of renewable energy. The results show a comparative ...

2012-01-01

300

Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10 cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus pseudintermedius alone (n=5) or in combination with Malassezia pachydermatis (n=5). Some coryneform isolates displayed resistance to fusidic acid or enrofloxacin, two antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. The frequency of isolation of coryneform bacteria was 16% among 55 cases of canine otitis externa examined at the Danish hospital during 2007. In contrast, detectable levels of coryneform bacteria were not demonstrated in samples from the acustic meatus of 35 dogs with apparently healthy ears, attending the hospital during the same year. On basis of the current knowledge, these coryneform bacteria should be regarded as potential secondary pathogens able to proliferate in the environment of an inflamed ear canal.

Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in drinking water.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyzed drinking water from seven communities for multiply antibiotic-resistant (MAR) bacteria (bacteria resistant to two or more antibiotics) and screened the MAR bacterial isolates obtained against five antibiotics by replica plating. Overall, 33.9% of 2,653 standard plate count bacteria from treated drinking waters were MAR. Two different raw water supplies for two communities carried MAR standard plate count bacteria at frequencies of 20.4 and 18.6%, whereas 36.7 and 67.8% of the stan...

Armstrong, J. L.; Shigeno, D. S.; Calomiris, J. J.; Seidler, R. J.

1981-01-01

302

Bioenergetics of photoheterotrophic bacteria in the oceans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photoheterotrophic microbes, such as proteorhodopsin (PR)-based phototrophic (PRP) and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, are well known to be abundant in the oceans, potentially playing unique roles in biogeochemical cycles. However, the contribution of phototrophy to the energy requirements of these bacteria has not been quantitatively examined to date. To better understand the implications of photoheterophy in the oceans, we calculated energy benefits and costs of phototrophy and compared net benefits with maintenance costs. Benefits depend on the number of photosynthetic units (PSUs), absorption cross-section area of each PSU as function of wavelength, the in situ light quality, and the energy yield per absorbed photon. For costs we considered the energy required for the synthesis of pigments, amino acids and proteins in each PSU. Our calculations indicate that AAP bacteria harvest more light energy than do PRP bacteria, but the costs of phototrophy are much higher for AAP bacteria. Still, the net energy gained by AAP bacteria is often sufficient to meet maintenance costs, while that is not the case for PRP bacteria except with high light intensities and large numbers of proteorhodopsin molecules per cell. The low costs and simplicity of PR-based phototrophy explain the high abundance of proteorhodopsin genes in the oceans. However, even for AAP bacteria, the net energy yield of phototrophy is apparently too low to influence the distribution of photoheterotrophic bacteria among various marine systems. PMID:23584962

Kirchman, David L; Hanson, Thomas E

2013-04-01

303

Bacterias, fuente de energía para el futuro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a family of bacteria called Geobacter that have the ability to produce power as a renewable source in a microbial fuel cell. These bacteria can completely oxidize organic compounds using different elements or substances as electron acceptors. The paper addresses key features of the bacteria, the mechanisms used to harness the electricity generated and an approximation of the system required to become a competitive source of renewable energy. The results show a comparative analysis of sources of conventional and unconventional energy with respect to the Geobacter family of bacteria.

Alba Ayde Romero Mejía

2012-06-01

304

Clean-Test self-contained biological indicator performance used to steam sterilization process validation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clean-Test self-contained biological indicators are used to monitor steam sterilization cycles. Each biological indicator has a minimum population of 105 or 106 UFC bacterial spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953. The purpose of this work was to study the behavior of Clean-Test self-contained biological indicator used to monitor and validate steam sterilization systems, in relation to the incubation time (24, 48 h...

Thiago José Pelissari; Heron Oliveira dos Santos Lima; Mirela Vanin dos Santos Lima

2012-01-01

305

Identification of a microscopically selected microorganism in milk samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of unwanted microbial contaminants microscopically observed in food products is challenging due to their low abundance in a complex matrix, quite often containing other microorganisms. Therefore, a selective identification method was developed using laser capture microdissection in combination with direct-captured cell PCR. This procedure was validated with Geobacillus stearothermophilus and further used to identify microbial contaminants present in some industrial milk samples. The microscopically observed contaminants were identified as mainly Methylobacterium species. PMID:24290827

Bracke, Nathalie; Van Poucke, Mario; Baert, Bram; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Bels, Lobke; Den Broeck, Wim Van; Peelman, Luc; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

2014-02-01

306

Gating NO Release from Nitric Oxide Synthase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have investigated the kinetics of NO escape from Geobacillus stearothermophilus nitric oxide synthase (gsNOS). Previous work has indicated that NO release was gated at position 223 in mammalian enzymes; our kinetics experiments include mutants at that position along with measurements on the wild type enzyme. Employing stopped flow UV-vis methods, reactions were triggered by mixing reduced enzyme/N-hydroxy-L-arginine complex with aerated buffer solution. NO release kinetics were obtained fo...

Whited, Charlotte A.; Warren, Jeffrey J.; Lavoie, Katherine D.; Weinert, Emily E.; Agapie, Theodor; Winkler, Jay R.; Gray, Harry B.

2012-01-01

307

Validation of a wide spectrum microbiological tube test, the EXPLORER test, for the detection of antimicrobials in muscle from different animal species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract EXPLORERâ is a simple and fast new kit for detection of inhibitory substances in raw meat. The test, a 96-well microtiter plate, is based on the inhibition of microbial growth (Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores). The Explorerâ test was validated in accordance with the decision 2002/657/EC (EC 2002). Specificity, detection capabilities for 5 compounds from major antimicrobials families and robustness were studied. Specificity of the test was tested with 4 diffe...

2009-01-01

308

Snapshots of Catalysis in the E1 Subunit of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Multienzyme Complex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme assembly (PDH) generates acetyl coenzyme A and reducing equivalents from pyruvate in a multiple-step process that is a nexus of central metabolism. We report crystal structures of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus PDH E1p subunit with ligands that mimic the prereaction complex and the postdecarboxylation product. The structures implicate residues that help to orient substrates, nurture intermediates, and organize surface loops so that they can engage a ...

Pei, Xue Yuan; Titman, Christopher M.; Frank, Rene? A. W.; Leeper, Finian J.; Luisi, Ben F.

2008-01-01

309

MICROBIOLOGY: How Bacteria Change Gear  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Many species of bacteria form biofilms, slimy carpets a fraction of a millimeter thick that appear on rocks, leaves, pipes, teeth--pretty much any place that has a supply of nutrients and water. Cells must first attach to a surface, which in many species requires swimming propelled by rotating helical flagella (1). Two things typically happen next. Cells stop expressing genes that encode components of the flagellum, and they secrete a sticky matrix of polysaccharides that holds them together on the surface (2). Once at a surface, swimming may be a hindrance rather than a help, and an inverse relationship between swimming and attachment has been seen in many diverse species (3). Bacterial motility is arrested when a protein that acts as a clutch disables rotation of the flagellar motor.

Richard M. Berry (University of Oxford;Department of Physics, Clarendon Lab); Judith P. Armitage (University of Oxford;Department of Biochemistry & Oxford Centre for Integrative Systems Biology)

2008-06-20

310

Antimicrobial action of AXOL on periodontopathic bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial action of AXOL was tested against a panel of periodontopathic bacteria, which included Treponema denticola, Treponema vincentii, Treponema sp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The AXOL commercial solution (undiluted) was effective in inhibiting some of the bacteria but not all. The rational for the use of antimicrobials is discussed. PMID:8180485

Bretz, W A; Salvador, S L

1993-01-01

311

Resuscitation effects of catalase on airborne bacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Catalase incorporation into enumeration media caused a significant increase (greater than 63%) in the colony-forming abilities of airborne bacteria. Incubation for 30 to 60 min of airborne bacteria in collection fluid containing catalase caused a greater than 95% increase in colony-forming ability. However, catalase did not have any effects on enumeration at high relative humidities (80 to 90%).

1991-01-01

312

An overview of lactic acid bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are renowned for the potential of producing antimicrobial compound and other value added products. Undeniable to concern these probiotic has contributed to the importance of human life. Deserving an attention for its capabilities, this paper will discuss on the general description of lactic acid bacteria, genetics, metabolism and its application to the industries.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

2011-06-01

313

Hydrogen metabolism of photosynthetic bacteria and algae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The metabolism, metabolic pathways and biochemistry of hydrogen in photosynthetic bacteria and algae are reviewed. Detailed information on the occurrence and measurement of hydrogenase activity is presented. Hydrogen production rates for different species of algae and bacteria are presented. 173 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

Kumazawa, S.; Mitsui, A.

1982-01-01

314

Predator vs aliens: bacteria interactions with Acanthamoeba.  

Science.gov (United States)

By interactions with other microbes, free-living amoebae play a significant role in microbiology, environmental biology, physiology, cellular interactions, ecology and evolution. Here, we discuss astonishing interactions of bacteria and amoebae, in the light of evolution and functional aspects impacting human health. In favourable environmental conditions, the interaction of Acanthamoeba with non-virulent bacteria results in lysis of the bacteria. However, the interaction with weak-virulent bacteria results in a symbiotic relationship or amoebal lysis may occur. The microbial survival of amoebae in harsh environments, ability to interact with bacteria, and their ability to aid transmission to susceptible hosts is of great concern to human, animal and ecosystem health. PMID:24512693

Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah

2014-06-01

315

HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

2006-08-15

316

Oxidized magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single domain magnetite particles formed in chain assemblies by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are taken as proxy in inferring environmental and Earth's magnetism. The reliable use of magnetosomes in MTB, or their fossil remains (magnetofossils), requires that they are unaffected by oxidation. Here we present experimental data from saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy (FMR) between room temperature and 10 K, which were applied to detect oxidation in intact MTB. The distinction of non-oxidized from oxidized MTB-assemblies is based mainly on two different characteristic physical properties: (i) the intrinsic Verwey transition in pure magnetite, and (ii) blocking of spins of nano-sized products formed during oxidation at the surface or the interior of the magnetosomes. Suppression of the Verwey transition due to oxidation prevents the shift of the anisotropy axes, which in turn conserves the anisotropic properties at room temperature down to low temperature. The presented methodology assures a distinction between non- and oxidized magnetite assemblies, with pronounced certainty, unlike standard dc methods.

Gehring, Andreas U., E-mail: agehring@erdw.ethz.ch [Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Charilaou, Michalis, E-mail: michalis.charilaou@erdw.ethz.ch [Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Garcia-Rubio, Ines, E-mail: garciarubio@phys.chem.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

2012-04-15

317

Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue.

AbelardoMargolles

2013-07-01

318

Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue.

Gueimonde, Miguel; Sanchez, Borja; G. de los Reyes-Gavilan, Clara; Margolles, Abelardo

2013-01-01

319

Decreased bacteria density on nanostructured polyurethane.  

Science.gov (United States)

As is well known, medical device infections are a growing clinical problem with no clear solution due to previous failed attempts of using antibiotics to decrease bacteria functions for which bacteria quickly develop a resistance toward. Because of their altered surface energetics, the objective of the present in vitro study was to create nanoscale surface features on polyurethane (PU) by soaking PU films in HNO3 and to determine bacteria (specifically, S. epidermidis, E. coli, and P. mirabilis) colony forming units after 1 h. Such bacteria frequently infect numerous medical devices. Results provided the first evidence that without using antibiotics, S. epidermidis density decreased by 5 and 13 times, E. coli density decreased by 6 and 20 times, and P. mirabilis density decreased by 8 and 35 times compared to conventional PU and a tissue engineering control small intestine submucosa (SIS), respectively. Material characterization studies revealed significantly greater nanoscale roughness and hydrophobicity for the HNO3 -treated nanostructured PU compared to conventional PU (albeit, still hydrophilic) which may provide a rationale for the observed decreased bacteria responses. In addition, significantly greater amounts of fibronectin adsorption from serum were measured on nanorough compared conventional PU which may explain the decreased bacteria growth. In summary, this study provides significant promise for the use of nanostructured PU to decrease bacteria functions without the use of antibiotics, clearly addressing the wide spread problem of increased medical device infections observed today. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 1823-1828, 2014. PMID:23784968

Yao, Chang; Webster, Thomas J; Hedrick, Matthew

2014-06-01

320

Membrane damage of bacteria by silanols treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Antimicrobial action of silanols, a new class of antimicrobials, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and fluorescent dye studies. Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis were trea [...] ted by silanols at concentration of less than 0.2 wt% for one hour. Membrane damage of the bacteria by the silanol treatment was clearly observed by transmission electron microscopy. Separation of the cytoplasmic membrane from the outer membrane for E. coli and disorganized cytoplasmic membrane of the Gram-positive bacteria were observed when compared to the control. Fluorescent dyes, green-fluorescent nucleic acid stain (Syto 9) and the red-fluorescent nucleic acid stain (Propidium iodide), were used to monitor membrane damage of the bacteria by Confocal microscopy and Spectrophotometer. A reduction of the green fluorescent emission was detected for silanol treated bacteria indicating membrane damage of the bacteria and supporting the hypothesis that their viability loss may be due to their membrane damage analogus to alcohols

Kim, Yun-mi; Farrah, Samuel; Baney, Ronald H.

 
 
 
 
321

Bacteria classification using Cyranose 320 electronic nose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An electronic nose (e-nose, the Cyrano Sciences' Cyranose 320, comprising an array of thirty-two polymer carbon black composite sensors has been used to identify six species of bacteria responsible for eye infections when present at a range of concentrations in saline solutions. Readings were taken from the headspace of the samples by manually introducing the portable e-nose system into a sterile glass containing a fixed volume of bacteria in suspension. Gathered data were a very complex mixture of different chemical compounds. Method Linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA method was able to classify four classes of bacteria out of six classes though in reality other two classes were not better evident from PCA analysis and we got 74% classification accuracy from PCA. An innovative data clustering approach was investigated for these bacteria data by combining the 3-dimensional scatter plot, Fuzzy C Means (FCM and Self Organizing Map (SOM network. Using these three data clustering algorithms simultaneously better 'classification' of six eye bacteria classes were represented. Then three supervised classifiers, namely Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP, Probabilistic Neural network (PNN and Radial basis function network (RBF, were used to classify the six bacteria classes. Results A [6 × 1] SOM network gave 96% accuracy for bacteria classification which was best accuracy. A comparative evaluation of the classifiers was conducted for this application. The best results suggest that we are able to predict six classes of bacteria with up to 98% accuracy with the application of the RBF network. Conclusion This type of bacteria data analysis and feature extraction is very difficult. But we can conclude that this combined use of three nonlinear methods can solve the feature extraction problem with very complex data and enhance the performance of Cyranose 320.

Gardner Julian W

2002-10-01

322

Cyclic Lipodepsipeptides Produced by Pseudomonas spp. Naturally Present in Raw Milk Induce Inhibitory Effects on Microbiological Inhibitor Assays for Antibiotic Residue Screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Pseudomonas strains, identified as closely related to Pseudomonas tolaasii, were isolated from milk of a farm with frequent false-positive Delvotest results for screening putative antibiotic residues in raw milk executed as part of the regulatory quality programme. Growth at 5 to 7°C of these isolates in milk resulted in high lipolysis and the production of bacterial inhibitors. The two main bacterial inhibitors have a molecular weight of 1168.7 and 1140.7 Da respectively, are heat-tolerant and inhibit Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis, the test strain of most of the commercially available microbiological inhibitor tests for screening of antibiotic residues in milk. Furthermore, these bacterial inhibitors show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis and also interfere negatively with yoghurt production. Following their isolation and purification with RP-HPLC, the inhibitors were identified by NMR analysis as cyclic lipodepsipeptides of the viscosin group. Our findings bring to light a new challenge for quality control in the dairy industry. By prolonging the refrigerated storage of raw milk, the keeping quality of milk is influenced by growth and metabolic activities of psychrotrophic bacteria such as pseudomonads. Besides an increased risk of possible spoilage of long shelf-life milk, the production at low temperature of natural bacterial inhibitors may also result in false-positive results for antibiotic residue screening tests based on microbial inhibitor assays thus leading to undue production loss. PMID:24853676

Reybroeck, Wim; De Vleeschouwer, Matthias; Marchand, Sophie; Sinnaeve, Davy; Heylen, Kim; De Block, Jan; Madder, Annemieke; Martins, José C; Heyndrickx, Marc

2014-01-01

323

Cold atmospheric air plasma sterilization against spores and other microorganisms of clinical interest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical cold atmospheric surface microdischarge (SMD) plasma operating in ambient air has promising properties for the sterilization of sensitive medical devices where conventional methods are not applicable. Furthermore, SMD plasma could revolutionize the field of disinfection at health care facilities. The antimicrobial effects on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of clinical relevance, as well as the fungus Candida albicans, were tested. Thirty seconds of plasma treatment led to a 4 to 6 log(10) CFU reduction on agar plates. C. albicans was the hardest to inactivate. The sterilizing effect on standard bioindicators (bacterial endospores) was evaluated on dry test specimens that were wrapped in Tyvek coupons. The experimental D(23)(°)(C) values for Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus atrophaeus, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus were determined as 0.3 min, 0.5 min, 0.6 min, and 0.9 min, respectively. These decimal reduction times (D values) are distinctly lower than D values obtained with other reference methods. Importantly, the high inactivation rate was independent of the material of the test specimen. Possible inactivation mechanisms for relevant microorganisms are briefly discussed, emphasizing the important role of neutral reactive plasma species and pointing to recent diagnostic methods that will contribute to a better understanding of the strong biocidal effect of SMD air plasma. PMID:22582068

Klämpfl, Tobias G; Isbary, Georg; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Li, Yang-Fang; Zimmermann, Julia L; Stolz, Wilhelm; Schlegel, Jürgen; Morfill, Gregor E; Schmidt, Hans-Ulrich

2012-08-01

324

Cyclic Lipodepsipeptides Produced by Pseudomonas spp. Naturally Present in Raw Milk Induce Inhibitory Effects on Microbiological Inhibitor Assays for Antibiotic Residue Screening  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Pseudomonas strains, identified as closely related to Pseudomonas tolaasii, were isolated from milk of a farm with frequent false-positive Delvotest results for screening putative antibiotic residues in raw milk executed as part of the regulatory quality programme. Growth at 5 to 7°C of these isolates in milk resulted in high lipolysis and the production of bacterial inhibitors. The two main bacterial inhibitors have a molecular weight of 1168.7 and 1140.7 Da respectively, are heat-tolerant and inhibit Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis, the test strain of most of the commercially available microbiological inhibitor tests for screening of antibiotic residues in milk. Furthermore, these bacterial inhibitors show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis and also interfere negatively with yoghurt production. Following their isolation and purification with RP-HPLC, the inhibitors were identified by NMR analysis as cyclic lipodepsipeptides of the viscosin group. Our findings bring to light a new challenge for quality control in the dairy industry. By prolonging the refrigerated storage of raw milk, the keeping quality of milk is influenced by growth and metabolic activities of psychrotrophic bacteria such as pseudomonads. Besides an increased risk of possible spoilage of long shelf-life milk, the production at low temperature of natural bacterial inhibitors may also result in false-positive results for antibiotic residue screening tests based on microbial inhibitor assays thus leading to undue production loss.

Reybroeck, Wim; De Vleeschouwer, Matthias; Marchand, Sophie; Sinnaeve, Davy; Heylen, Kim; De Block, Jan; Madder, Annemieke; Martins, Jose C.; Heyndrickx, Marc

2014-01-01

325

Acidophilic, Heterotrophic Bacteria of Acidic Mine Waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obligately acidophilic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated both from enrichment cultures developed with acidic mine water and from natural mine drainage. The bacteria were grouped by the ability to utilize a number of organic acids as sole carbon sources. None of the strains were capable of chemolithotrophic growth on inorganic reduced iron and sulfur compounds. All bacteria were rod shaped, gram negative, nonencapsulated, motile, capable of growth at pH 2.6 but not at pH 6.0, catalase and ...

1981-01-01

326

The Microworld of Marine-Bacteria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microsensor studies show that the marine environment in the size scale of bacteria is physically and chemically very different from the macroenvironment. The microbial world of the sediment-water interface is thus dominated by water viscosity and steep diffusion gradients. Because of the diverse metabolism types, bacteria in the mostly anoxic sea floor play an important role in the major element cycles of the ocean. The communities of giant, filamentous sulfur bacteria that live in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents or along the Pacific coast of South America are presented here as examples.

JÃ?RGENSEN, BB

1995-01-01

327

Threats and opportunities of plant pathogenic bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant pathogenic bacteria can have devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. Nevertheless, because these often soil-dwelling bacteria have evolved to interact with eukaryotes, they generally exhibit a strong adaptivity, a versatile metabolism, and ingenious mechanisms tailored to modify the development of their hosts. Consequently, besides being a threat for agricultural practices, phytopathogens may also represent opportunities for plant production or be useful for specific biotechnological applications. Here, we illustrate this idea by reviewing the pathogenic strategies and the (potential) uses of five very different (hemi)biotrophic plant pathogenic bacteria: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes, Rhodococcus fascians, scab-inducing Streptomyces spp., and Pseudomonas syringae. PMID:24216222

Tarkowski, Petr; Vereecke, Danny

2014-01-01

328

Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-type lactobacilli cannot synthesize folate, generally require it for growth, and provide a negative contribution to folate levels in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes an exception among lactobacilli, since it is capable of folate production in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA and deserves to be used in animal trials to validate its ability to produce the vitamin in vivo. On the other hand, several folate-producing strains have been selected within the genus Bifidobacterium, with a great variability in the extent of vitamin released in the medium. Most of them belong to the species B. adolescentis and B. pseudocatenulatum, but few folate producing strains are found in the other species as well. Rats fed a probiotic formulation of folate-producing bifidobacteria exhibited increased plasma folate level, confirming that the vitamin is produced in vivo and absorbed. In a human trial, the same supplement raised folate concentration in feces. The use of folate-producing probiotic strains can be regarded as a new perspective in the specific use of probiotics. They could more efficiently confer protection against inflammation and cancer, both exerting the beneficial effects of probiotics and preventing the folate deficiency that is associated with premalignant changes in the colonic epithelia.

Stefano Raimondi

2011-01-01

329

Effects of thermoradiation on bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 60Co source was used to determine the effects of thermoradiation on Achromobacter aquamarinus, Staphylococcus aureus, and vegetative and spore cells of Bacillus subtilis var. globigii. The rate of inactivation of these cultures, except vegetative-cell populations of B. subtilis, was exponential and in direct proportion to temperature. The D10 (dose that inactivates 90 percent of the microbial population) value for A. aquamarinus was 8.0 Krad at 25 degrees C and 4.9 Krad at 35 degrees C. For S. aureus, D10 was 9.8 and 5.3 Krad at 35 and 45 degrees C, respectively. Vegetative cells of B. subtilis demonstrated a rapid initial inactivation followed by a steady but decreased exponential rate. The D10 at 25 degrees C was 10.3 Krad, but at 35 and 45 degrees C this value was 6.2 and 3.8 Krad, respectively. Between 0 and 95 Krad, survival curves for B. subtilis spores at 75 degrees C showed slight inactivation, increasing in rat at and above 85 degrees C. The D10 values for spores at 85 and 90 degrees C were 129 and 92 Krad, respectively. Significant synergism between heat and irradiation was noted at 35 degrees C for A. aquamarinus and 45 degrees C for S. aureus. The presence of 0.1 mM cysteine in suspending media afforded protection to both cultures at these critical temperatures. On the other hand, cysteine sensitized B. subtilis spores at radiation doses greater than 100 Krad. The combined effect of heat and irradiation was more destructive to bacteria than either method alone

1976-01-01

330

?????H15 (Bacteria??????? - ???????): Pseudomonas gladioli pv. gladioli  

Full Text Available Pseudomonas gladioli pv. gladioli NCPPB 1891 Janse, J.D., J.H.J. Derks, B.E. Spit, and W.R. van der Tuin. 1992. Classification of fluorescent soft rot Pseudomononas bacteria, including P. marginali

331

?????H12 (Bacteria???????1) : Methanol utilizing bacterium  

Full Text Available Methanol utilizing bacterium TK 1110=Na-7 Q-8 Urakami, T., and K. Komagata. 1986. Occurrence of isoprenoid compounds in Gram-negative methanol -, methane-, and methylamine-utilizing bacteria. J.

332

?????H12 (Bacteria???????1) : Methanol utilizing bacterium  

Full Text Available Methanol utilizing bacterium TK 0146,TK 0207 Q-8 Urakami, T., and K. Komagata. 1986. Occurrence of isoprenoid compounds in Gram-negative methanol -, methane-, and methylamine-utilizing bacteria. J.

333

?????H12 (Bacteria???????1) : Methanol utilizing bacterium  

Full Text Available Methanol utilizing bacterium TK 0421=V-54,TK 0431=V-301 Q-9 Urakami, T., and K. Komagata. 1986. ccurrence of isoprenoid compounds in Gram-negative methanol -, methane-, and methylamine-utilizing bacteria. J.

334

?????H12 (Bacteria???????1) : Methanol utilizing bacterium  

Full Text Available Methanol utilizing bacterium TK 1004=O-17 Q-10 Urakami, T., and K. Komagata. 1986. Occurrence of isoprenoid compounds in Gram-negative methanol -, methane-, and methylamine-utilizing bacteria. J.

335

?????H12 (Bacteria???????1) : Methanol utilizing bacterium  

Full Text Available Methanol utilizing bacterium TK 0510=BY-4,TK 0513=BY-7 Q-10 Urakami, T., and K. Komagata. 1986. ccurrence of isoprenoid compounds in Gram-negative methanol -, methane-, and methylamine-utilizing bacteria. J.

336

Barbecue Bliss: Keeping Bacteria at Bay  

Science.gov (United States)

... Biologics Articulos en Espanol Barbecue Bliss: Keeping Bacteria at Bay Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer ... hands Wash hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds before and after handling food. ...

337

?????H15 (Bacteria??????? - ?????) : Flavobacterium-Cytophaga complex  

Full Text Available Flavobacterium-Cytophaga complex Lo1, Lo16 MK-6 Poen, E., M. Aufderheide, H. Diekmann, and M. Kr oppensted. 1984. Taxonomic studies on filamentous bacteria from sewage belonging to t

338

?????H15 (Bacteria??????? - ???????): Flavobacterium-Cytophaga complex  

Full Text Available Flavobacterium-Cytophaga complex 008M, B23, La1, Lo1, Lo16 Poen, E., M. Aufderheide, H. Diekmann , and M. Kroppensted. 1984. Taxonomic studies on filamentous bacteria from sewage belonging to t

339

?????H15 (Bacteria??????? - ?????) : Flavobacterium-Cytophaga complex  

Full Text Available Flavobacterium-Cytophaga complex 008M, B23, La1 MK-7 Poen, E., M. Aufderheide, H. Diekmann, and M. Kroppensted. 1984. Taxonomic studies on filamentous bacteria from sewage belonging to t

340

?????H15 (Bacteria???????1) : Thermotoga petrophila  

Full Text Available Thermotoga petrophila RKU-1 = DSM 13995 = JCM 10881 T 46.6 HPLC TAKAHATA, Y., NISHIJIMA, M., HOA two hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Kubiki oil reservoir in Niigata, Japan. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.,

 
 
 
 
341

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Thermotoga petrophila  

Full Text Available Thermotoga petrophila RKU-1 = DSM 13995 = JCM 10881 T 46.6 HPLC TAKAHATA (Y.), NISHIJIMA (M.), H two hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Kubiki oil reservoir in Niigata, Japan. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.,

342

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Thermotoga naphthophila  

Full Text Available Thermotoga naphthophila RKU-10 = DSM 13996 = JCM 10882 T 46.1 HPLC TAKAHATA, Y., NISHIJIMA, M., two hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Kubiki oil reservoir in Niigata, Japan. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.,

343

?????H15 (Bacteria???????1) : Thermotoga naphthophila  

Full Text Available Thermotoga naphthophila RKU-10 = DSM 13996 = JCM 10882 T 46.1 HPLC TAKAHATA, Y., NISHIJIMA, M., two hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Kubiki oil reservoir in Niigata, Japan. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.,

344

A taxa-area relationship for bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

A positive power-law relationship between the number of species in an area and the size of that area has been observed repeatedly in plant and animal communities. This species-area relationship, thought to be one of the few laws in ecology, is fundamental to our understanding of the distribution of global biodiversity. However, such a relationship has not been reported for bacteria, and little is known regarding the spatial distribution of bacteria, relative to what is known of plants and animals. Here we describe a taxa-area relationship for bacteria over a scale of centimetres to hundreds of metres in salt marsh sediments. We found that bacterial communities located close together were more similar in composition than communities located farther apart, and we used the decay of community similarity with distance to show that bacteria can exhibit a taxa-area relationship. This relationship was driven primarily by environmental heterogeneity rather than geographic distance or plant composition. PMID:15592412

Horner-Devine, M Claire; Lage, Melissa; Hughes, Jennifer B; Bohannan, Brendan J M

2004-12-01

345

Placenta Might Have Its Own Helpful Bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

... The new research, published May 21 in Science Translational Medicine , did find that the bacteria in the placenta ... Luke's, New York City; May 21, 2014, Science Translational Medicine HealthDay Copyright (c) 2014 HealthDay . All rights reserved. ...

346

Impacts of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partial Contents: Summary, Conclusions, Issues and Options; Introduction; Antibiotic Use and Resistance in the Community (Populations Susceptible to Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, Factors in the Emergence of Bacterial Diseases, Changes in Disease Patterns...

1995-01-01

347

Effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leukocyte extracts, trypsin, and lysozyme are all capable of releasing the bulk of the LPS from S. typhi, S. typhimurium, and E. coli. Bacteria which have been killed by heat, ultraviolet irradiation, or by a variety of metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics which affect protein, DNA, RNA, and cell wall synthesis no longer yield soluble LPS following treatment with the releasing agents. On the other hand, bacteria which are resistant to certain of the antibiotics yield nearly the full amount of soluble LPS following treatment, suggesting that certain heatabile endogenous metabolic pathways collaborate with the releasing agents in the release of LPS from the bacteria. It is suggested that some of the beneficial effects of antibiotics on infections with gram-negative bacteria may be the prevention of massive release of endotoxin by leukocyte enzymes in inflammatory sites

1979-01-01

348

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Acetobacter aceti  

Full Text Available Acetobacter aceti ATCC 14818 T 58.3 HPLC Yamada Y, Hosono R, Lisdyanti P, Widyastuti Y, Saono S, entification of acetic acid bacteria isolated from Indonesian sources, especially of isolates classified in the

349

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Gluconobacter asaii  

Full Text Available Gluconobacter asaii NRIC 0230 T 58.1 HPLC Yamada Y, Hosono R, Lisdyanti P, Widyastuti Y, Saono S entification of acetic acid bacteria isolated from Indonesian sources, especially of isolates classified in the

350

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Gluconobacter oxydans  

Full Text Available Gluconobacter oxydans IFO 14819 T 61.7 HPLC Yamada Y, Hosono R, Lisdyanti P, Widyastuti Y, Saono entification of acetic acid bacteria isolated from Indonesian sources, especially of isolates classified in the

351

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Gluconobacter frateurii  

Full Text Available Gluconobacter frateurii NRIC 0228 T 58.0 HPLC Yamada Y, Hosono R, Lisdyanti P, Widyastuti Y, Sao entification of acetic acid bacteria isolated from Indonesian sources, especially of isolates classified in the

352

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Gluconobacter cerinus  

Full Text Available Gluconobacter cerinus NRIC 0229 T 58.1 HPLC Yamada Y, Hosono R, Lisdyanti P, Widyastuti Y, Saono entification of acetic acid bacteria isolated from Indonesian sources, especially of isolates classified in the

353

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Propionibacter pelophilus  

Full Text Available Propionibacter pelophilus asp 66 = CIP 106101 = DSM 12018 T 60.8 Unknown MEIJER (W.G.), NIENHUIS ANSEN (T.A.): Fermentative bacteria from estuarine mud : phylogenetic position of Acidaminobacter hydrogen

354

?????H15 (Bacteria???????1) : Propionibacter pelophilus  

Full Text Available Propionibacter pelophilus asp 66 = CIP 106101 = DSM 12018 T 60.8 Unknown MEIJER, W.G., NIENHUIS- HANSEN, T.A.: Fermentative bacteria from estuarine mud : phylogenetic position of Acidaminobacter hydrogen

355

Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and animals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Horizontal gene transfer is increasingly described between bacteria and animals. Such transfers that are vertically inherited have the potential to influence the evolution of animals. One classic example is the transfer of DNA from mitochondria and chloroplasts to the nucleus after the acquisition of these organelles by eukaryotes. Even today, many of the described instances of bacteria to animal transfer occur as part of intimate relationships like those of endosymbionts and their invertebra...

Dunning Hotopp, Julie C.

2011-01-01

356

Polyamine Effects on Antibiotic Susceptibility in Bacteria?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biogenic polyamines (e.g., spermidine and spermine) are a group of essential polycationic compounds found in all living cells. The effects of spermine and spermidine on antibiotic susceptibility were examined with gram-negative Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteria and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and with gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Exogenous spermine exerted a dose-dependent in...

Kwon, Dong-hyeon; Lu, Chung-dar

2007-01-01

357

Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes). In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I), industrial waste water (group II), sewage treatment hub (group III), unorganized collected waste water (group IV) and old residential waste colle...

2012-01-01

358

Response of Subgingival Bacteria to Smoking Cessation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been demonstrated that smoking cessation alters the subgingival microbial profile; however, the response of individual bacteria within this ecosystem has not been well studied. The aim of this investigation, therefore, was to longitudinally examine the effect of smoking cessation on the prevalence and levels of selected subgingival bacteria using molecular approaches for bacterial identification and enumeration. Subgingival plaque was collected from 22 smokers at the baseline and 12 mo...

2010-01-01

359

Rapid methods for detection of bacteria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods: Measurements of Adosine Triphosphate and BactiQuantTM have shown promising results as new monitoring tools, which gives the result within minutes/hours.

Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ã?.

2006-01-01

360

Bacteria under SOS evolve anticancer phenotypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The anticancer drugs, such as DNA replication inhibitors, stimulate bacterial adhesion and induce the bacterial SOS response. As a variety of bacterial mutants can be generated during SOS, novel phenotypes are likely to be selected under the drug pressure. Presentation of the hypothesis Bacteria growing with cancer cells in the presence of the replication inhibitors undergo the SOS response and evolve advantageous phenotypes for the bacteria ...

Dallo Shatha F; Weitao Tao

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Oligonucleotide Recombination in Gram-Negative Bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report describes several key aspects of a novel form of RecA-independent homologous recombination. We found that synthetic single stranded DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced into bacteria by transformation can site-specifically recombine with bacterial chromosomes in the absence of any additional phage encoded functions. Oligo recombination was tested in four genera of Gram-negative bacteria and in all cases evidence for recombination was apparent. The experiments presented here we...

Swingle, Bryan; Markel, Eric; Costantino, Nina; Bubunenko, Mikhail G.; Cartinhour, Samuel; Court, Donald L.

2010-01-01

362

Low-temperature sensors in bacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacteria are ubiquitous colonizers of various environments and host organisms, and they are therefore often subjected to drastic temperature alterations. Temperature alterations set demands on these colonizers, in that the bacteria need to readjust their biochemical constitution and physiology in order to survive and resume growth at the new temperature. Furthermore, temperature alteration is also a main factor determining the expression or repression of bacterial virulence functions. To cope...

Eriksson, Sofia; Hurme, Reini; Rhen, Mikael

2002-01-01

363

Self-engineering capabilities of bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Under natural growth conditions, bacteria can utilize intricate communication capabilities (e.g. quorum-sensing, chemotactic signalling and plasmid exchange) to cooperatively form (self-organize) complex colonies with elevated adaptability—the colonial pattern is collectively engineered according to the encountered environmental conditions. Bacteria do not genetically store all the information required for creating all possible patterns. Instead, additional information is cooperatively gene...

Ben-jacob, Eshel; Levine, Herbert

2006-01-01

364

Airborne non-sporeforming anaerobic bacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A large proportion of postoperative infections after clean surgery are thought to be exogenous. For aerobic bacteria different routes of transmission have been thoroughly studied. Airborne infection has been considered very important in infections after total hip replacement (Charnley, 1972). Anaerobic non-sporing bacteria have been found in deep late infections after total hip replacement (Kamme et al. 1974; Schwan et al. 1977; Petrini, Nord & Welin-Berger, 1978). However, infections caused ...

1980-01-01

365

Bacteria Aggregation in a Steady Vortical Flow  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between microorganisms and flow field is an important, yet complicated topic that affects the design of biological reactors, marine ecological processes, and biofilm formation in porous media. Vortical structures and secondary flows are inherently present in porous media despite small Reynolds numbers. Our experimental results show that bacteria in a steady vortical flow aggregate and subsequently form biofilm streamers in a microfluidic system. The combined effects of shape, motility and the vortical background flow contribute to this fast bacteria aggregation.

Yazdi, Shahrzad; Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ardekani, Arezoo

2011-11-01

366

Bacteria dispersal by hitchhiking on zooplankton  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microorganisms and zooplankton are both important components of aquatic food webs. Although both inhabit the same environment, they are often regarded as separate functional units that are indirectly connected through nutrient cycling and trophic cascade. However, research on pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria has shown that direct association with zooplankton has significant influences on the bacteria's physiology and ecology. We used stratified migration columns to study vertical dispers...

Grossart, Hans-peter; Dziallas, Claudia; Leunert, Franziska; Tang, Kam W.

2010-01-01

367

Molecular approaches to study probiotic bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Functional foods comprising probiotic bacteria are receiving increasing attention from the scientific community and science funding agencies [1]. An essential aspect relating to the functionality of probiotic-based foods is to develop molecular methods to determine the presence, activity and viability of probiotic bacteria in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract [2]. The GI tract is composed of a complex ecosystem of various microbial habitats colonized by numerous different commensal micro-...

2000-01-01

368

Isolation of estuarine biosurfactant-producing bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bioremediation has proven to be an effective strategy in the recuperation of oil contaminated ecosystems. However most bacteria used in this processes, while being able to degrade a wide range of the oil hydrocarbons, have limited action due to the low water solubility of these compounds. Hence, a possible solution for this problem would be the use of biosurfactant-producing bacteria, since the presence of surfactants help improve the hydrocarbons dispersal, solubilization a...

Domingues, Patri?cia Maia

2011-01-01

369

Intracellular bacteria and adverse pregnancy outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review considers the role of intracellular bacteria in adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as miscarriage, stillbirths, and preterm labour. The cause of miscarriage, stillbirth and preterm labour often remains unexplained. Intracellular bacteria that grow either poorly or not at all on media used routinely to detect human pathogens could be the aetiological agents of these obstetric conditions. For example, Listeria monocytogenes and Coxiella burnetti are intracellular bacteria that have a predilection for the fetomaternal unit and may induce fatal disease in the mother and/or fetus. Both are important foodborne or zoonotic pathogens in pregnancy. Preventive measures, diagnostic tools and treatment will be reviewed. Moreover, we will also address the importance in adverse pregnancy outcomes of other intracellular bacteria, including Brucella abortus and various members of the order Chlamydiales. Indeed, there is growing evidence that Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections may also result in adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans and/or animals. Moreover, newly discovered Chlamydia-like organisms have recently emerged as new pathogens of both animals and humans. For example, Waddlia chondrophila, a Chlamydia-related bacterium isolated from aborted bovine fetuses, has also been implicated in human miscarriages. Future research should help us to better understand the pathophysiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by intracellular bacteria and to determine the precise mode of transmission of newly identified bacteria, such as Waddlia and Parachlamydia. These emerging pathogens may represent the tip of the iceberg of a large number of as yet unknown intracellular pathogenic agents. PMID:21884294

Baud, D; Greub, G

2011-09-01

370

A Review of Some Bacteria Diseases in Africa Culture Fisheries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcosis, Infectious Abdominal Dropsy of Carp, Furunculousis, Motile Aeromonad Disease, Vibrosis, Columnaris disease, Bacteria kidney disease, Peduncle disease (fin rot), Bacteria gill disease, Pasteurellosis, Aeromonas hydrophila and other ubiquitous facultative bacteria, Myxobacterial infections - gill and fin rot, Mycobacteriosis of fishes, Epitheliocystis are some bacteria diseases reviewed to educate fish culturist on some likely challenges and solutions in culture fisheries. Bact...

2011-01-01

371

Nutritional Interdependence Among Rumen Bacteria During Cellulose Digestion In Vitro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study has been made of the promoting effect of starch on cellulose digestion by mixed rumen bacteria in a cellulose-urea medium. Starch supplementation of the medium promoted the growth of bacteria that required neither amino acids (AA) nor branched-chain fatty acids (BrFA). The growth of these bacteria was followed by the growth of AA-dependent bacteria, AA- or BrFA-dependent bacteria, BrFA-producing bacteria, and finally, BrFA-dependent cellulolytic bacteria. Population changes of these b...

Miura, Hideki; Horiguchi, Masaaki; Ogimoto, Keiji; Matsumoto, Tatsuro

1983-01-01

372

Dispersal of non-sporeforming anaerobic bacteria from the skin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dispersal of non-sporeforming anaerobic bacteria was studied. Skin samples were taken from the subjects, and dispersed from different parts of the body was examined. The number of anaerobic bacteria dispersed was not correlated to their density on the surface of skin area exposed. The highest density of anaerobic bacteria on the skin was found in the face and upper trunk, but the highest yield of anaerobic bacteria dispersed came from the lower trunk. The dominant anaerobic bacteria dispersed...

1982-01-01

373

The growth of bacteria on organic compounds in drinking water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth ("regrowth") of bacteria In drinking water distribution systems results in a deterioration of the water quality. Regrowth of chemoheterotrophic bacteria depends on the presence of organic. compounds that serve as a nutrient source for these bacteria. A batch-culture technique was developed to study the growth of bacteria in drinking water. The maximum colony counts of selected pure cultures of bacteria grown in drinking water were used as a measure for the concentration of easily assim...

Kooy, D.

1984-01-01

374

Bacteria dispersal by hitchhiking on zooplankton  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microorganisms and zooplankton are both important components of aquatic food webs. Although both inhabit the same environment, they are often regarded as separate functional units that are indirectly connected through nutrient cycling and trophic cascade. However, research on pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria has shown that direct association with zooplankton has significant influences on the bacteria's physiology and ecology. We used stratified migration columns to study vertical dispersal of hitchhiking bacteria through migrating zooplankton across a density gradient that was otherwise impenetrable for bacteria in both upward and downward directions (conveyor-belt hypothesis). The strength of our experiments is to permit quantitative estimation of transport and release of associated bacteria: vertical migration of Daphnia magna yielded an average dispersal rate of 1.3 x 10(5) x cells x Daphnia(-1) x migration cycle(-1) for the lake bacterium Brevundimonas sp. Bidirectional vertical dispersal by migrating D. magna was also shown for two other bacterial species, albeit at lower rates. The prediction that diurnally migrating zooplankton acquire different attached bacterial communities from hypolimnion and epilimnion between day and night was subsequently confirmed in our field study. In mesotrophic Lake Nehmitz, D. hyalina showed pronounced diel vertical migration along with significant diurnal changes in attached bacterial community composition. These results confirm that hitchhiking on migrating animals can be an important mechanism for rapidly relocating microorganisms, including pathogens, allowing them to access otherwise inaccessible resources.

Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dziallas, Claudia

2010-01-01

375

Bacteria-induced sexual isolation in Drosophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commensal bacteria can induce sexual isolation between populations of Drosophila. This phenomenon has implications for speciation, and raises questions about its behavioral and developmental mechanisms, which are not yet known. In this Extra View, we discuss related work by others, bearing directly on these issues, and we speculate about how bacteria might influence fly behavior. There are many reports of interaction between Drosophila and their microbiota that significantly impacts mating preferences. Sexual isolation can be enhanced or reduced by altering the culture media, or the microbiota inhabiting those media. More dramatically, the endoparasite Wolbachia has induced strong mate preferences in some instances. While a sudden, ecologically induced shift in mating preferences falls far short of the changes required for speciation, it might be a first step in that direction. We hypothesize that bacteria-induced sexual isolation is caused by chemosensory cues. In our experiments, bacteria altered the profile of cuticular hydrocarbons, which function as sex pheromones. Commensal bacteria may act directly on these hydrocarbons, or they may affect their synthesis. Alternatively, bacterial metabolites might perfume the flies in ways that affect mate choice. In that event, habituation or conditioning likely plays a role. PMID:21525789

Ringo, John; Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel

2011-01-01

376

Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by aerobic bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are not readily decomposed by microorganisms in the environment. To the best of our knowledge, there are no known microbial species that use PCBs as a sole carbon source for growth. However, recent evidence indicates that bacteria which can utilize biphenyl as a growth substrate, are able to cometabolize PCBs to chlorobenzoates and other dead-end products. These products in turn are cometabolized or utilized as growth substrates by other bacteria. Thus, mineralization of PCBs can be demonstrated in soil by the mixed microflora upon the addition of biphenyl or in vitro by axenic co-cultures of bacteria containing the complementary parts of the total catabolic pathway. Combining the genes from parental strains containing the complete catabolic pathway into a single bacterial strain, that can utilize one or more PCB congeners as growth substrates, may also be a viable genetic approach to the destruction of PCBs.

Adriaens, P.; Focht, D.D. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

1990-01-01

377

Microgravity effects on pathogenicity of bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microgravity is one of the important environmental conditions during spaceflight. A series of studies have shown that many kinds of bacteria could be detected in space station and space shuttle. Space environment or simulated microgravity may throw a certain influence on those opportunistic pathogens and lead to some changes on their virulence, biofilm formation and drug tolerance. The mechanism of bacteria response to space environment or simulated microgravity has not been defined. However, the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq has been identified as a likely global regulator involved in the bacteria response to this environment. In addition, microgravity effects on bacterial pathogenicity may threaten astronauts' health. The present paper will focus on microgravity-induced alterations of pathogenicity and relative mechanism in various opportunistic pathogens.

Ya-juan WANG

2013-01-01

378

Linking genome content to biofuel production yields: a meta-analysis of major catabolic pathways among select H2 and ethanol-producing bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermentative bacteria offer the potential to convert lignocellulosic waste-streams into biofuels such as hydrogen (H2 and ethanol. Current fermentative H2 and ethanol yields, however, are below theoretical maxima, vary greatly among organisms, and depend on the extent of metabolic pathways utilized. For fermentative H2 and/or ethanol production to become practical, biofuel yields must be increased. We performed a comparative meta-analysis of (i reported end-product yields, and (ii genes encoding pyruvate metabolism and end-product synthesis pathways to identify suitable biomarkers for screening a microorganism’s potential of H2 and/or ethanol production, and to identify targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel yields. Our interest in H2 and/or ethanol optimization restricted our meta-analysis to organisms with sequenced genomes and limited branched end-product pathways. These included members of the Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, and Thermotogae. Results Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the absence of genes encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE in Caldicellulosiruptor, Thermococcus, Pyrococcus, and Thermotoga species coincide with high H2 yields and low ethanol production. Organisms containing genes (or activities for both ethanol and H2 synthesis pathways (i.e. Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis, Ethanoligenens harbinense, and Clostridium species had relatively uniform mixed product patterns. The absence of hydrogenases in Geobacillus and Bacillus species did not confer high ethanol production, but rather high lactate production. Only Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus produced relatively high ethanol and low H2 yields. This may be attributed to the presence of genes encoding proteins that promote NADH production. Lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate:formate lyase are not conducive for ethanol and/or H2 production. While the type(s of encoded hydrogenases appear to have little impact on H2 production in organisms that do not encode ethanol producing pathways, they do influence reduced end-product yields in those that do. Conclusions Here we show that composition of genes encoding pathways involved in pyruvate catabolism and end-product synthesis pathways can be used to approximate potential end-product distribution patterns. We have identified a number of genetic biomarkers for streamlining ethanol and H2 producing capabilities. By linking genome content, reaction thermodynamics, and end-product yields, we offer potential targets for optimization of either ethanol or H2 yields through metabolic engineering.

Carere Carlo R

2012-12-01

379

Bacteria in crude oil survived autoclaving and stimulated differentially by exogenous bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). However, it is not entirely clear if "endogenous" bacteria (e.g., spores) in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the "exogenous" bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six exogenous bacterial strains (three Dietzia strains, two Acinetobacter strains, and one Pseudomonas strain). The survival of the spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus and the non-spore-forming mesophilic Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Alcaligenes, and Microbacterium was detected using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. However, neither bacteria nor bacterial activity was detected in three controls consisting of non-inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium. These results suggest that detection of endogenous bacteria was stimulated by the six inoculated strains. In addition, inoculation with Acinetobacter spp. stimulated detection of Bacillus, while inoculation with Dietzia spp. and Pseudomonas sp. stimulated the detection of more Pseudomonas. In contrast, similar exogenous bacteria stimulated similar endogenous bacteria at the genus level. Based on these results, special emphasis should be applied to evaluate the influence of bacteria capable of surviving autoclaving on the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of exogenous bacteria, in particular, with regard to bioaugmentation and MEOR. Bioaugmentation and MEOR technologies could then be developed to more accurately direct the growth of specific endogenous bacteria that may then improve the efficiency of treatment or recovery of crude oil. PMID:23028421

Gong, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Ze-Shen; Guo, Peng; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Chen, Jian; Wang, Xing-Biao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Chun-Zhong

2012-01-01

380

Bacteria Isolated from Post-Partum Infections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken with an aim to determine bacterial species involved in post partum infections and also their abundance in patients admitted to at Khanevadeh hospital. In this study out of three different kinds of postpartum infections (i.e. genital, breast and urinary tract, only genital infection is considered."nMaterials and Methods: Post partum infection among 6077 patients (inpatients and re-admitted patients of Khanevadeh hospital from 2003 till 2008 was studied in this descriptive study. Samples were collected from patients for laboratory diagnosis to find out the causative organisms."nResults: Follow up of mothers after delivery revealed 7.59% (461 patients had post partum infection, out of which 1.03% (63 patients were re-hospitalized. "nInfection was more often among younger mothers. Bacteria isolated and identified were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora of the site of infection. Though, some pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis,were also the causative agents. The commonest infection was infection at the site of episiotomy. "nConclusion: Puerperal infection was detected in of 7.59% mothers. Bacteria isolated were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora. However; some pathogenic bacteria were isolated.

Aghdas Safari

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

?????H15 (Bacteria???????1) : Marinobacterium georgiense  

Full Text Available Marinobacterium georgiense KW-40 = ATCC 700074 T 54.9 HPLC GONZ_LEZ, J.M., MAYER, F., MORAN, M.A se gen. nov., sp. nov., two marine bacteria from a lignin -rich pulp mill waste enrichment community.

382

?????H15 (Bacteria???????1) : Microbulbifer hydrolyticus  

Full Text Available Microbulbifer hydrolyticus ATCC 700072 T 57.7 HPLC GONZ_LEZ, J.M., MAYER, F., MORAN, M.A., HODSO se gen. nov., sp. nov., two marine bacteria from a lignin -rich pulp mill waste enrichment community.

383

?????H15 (Bacteria???????1) : Marinobacterium georgiense  

Full Text Available Marinobacterium georgiense KW-40 = ATCC 700074 T 54.6 GONZ_LEZ, J.M., MAYER, F., MORAN, M.A., HO se gen. nov., sp. nov., two marine bacteria from a lignin -rich pulp mill waste enrichment community.

384

?????H15 (Bacteria???????1) : Microbulbifer hydrolyticus  

Full Text Available Microbulbifer hydrolyticus IRE-31 = ATCC 700072 T 57.6 GONZ_LEZ, J.M., MAYER, F., MORAN, M.A., H se gen. nov., sp. nov., two marine bacteria from a lignin -rich pulp mill waste enrichment community.

385

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens LMG 10434 T 16:1 16:0 17:0cyc 12:0 10:0 12:0 Vanbrabant, J., P. De Vos, erotrophic bacteria from an autrohydropgenotrophic pilot -plant for denitrification of drinking water.

386

?????H12 (Bacteria???????1) : Methanol utilizing bacterium  

Full Text Available Methanol utilizing bacterium TK 0702=I-2,TK 0703=T-101,TK 0704=EC-1 Q-10 Urakami, T., and K. Kom ccurrence of isoprenoid compounds in Gram-negative methanol -, methane-, and methylamine-utilizing bacteria. J.

387

?????H12 (Bacteria???????1) : Methanol utilizing bacterium  

Full Text Available Methanol utilizing bacterium TK 1001=O-3,TK 1008=O-75,TK-1015=O-100 Q-10 Urakami, T., and K. Kom ccurrence of isoprenoid compounds in Gram-negative methanol -, methane-, and methylamine-utilizing bacteria. J.

388

?????H12 (Bacteria???????1) : Methanol utilizing bacterium  

Full Text Available Methanol utilizing bacterium TK 0601=B-40,TK 0602=BT-21,TK 0603=BT-101,TK 0604=BT-149 Q-10 Uraka ccurrence of isoprenoid compounds in Gram-negative methanol -, methane-, and methylamine-utilizing bacteria. J.

389

STUDIES OF METHANOGENIC BACTERIA IN SLUDGE  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanogenic bacteria were isolated from mesophilic anaerobic digesters. The isolates were able to utilize H2 and CO2 acetate, formate and methanol, but were not able to metabolize propionate and butyrate. It was shown the propionate and butyrate are not substrates for methanogen...

390

Probiotics Bacteria in Fermented Dairy Products  

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Full Text Available The nutritional value of diary based product that contains probiotic bacteria on the gastrointestinal health and functions have been investigated in this study. Both probiotic Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus species, contribute to the formation of yogurt as a result of anaerobic fermentation of lactic acid in the milk. The benefits of yogurt consumption on the gastrointestinal function mediated through the gut micro flora, bowel transit and the enhancement of gastrointestinal immune responses. Numerous studies suggested beneficial therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria in the yogurt and other fermented dairy products on the gut health. Certain disease with gastrointestinal tract such as, lactose intolerance, diarrhea, colon Cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and other bacterial infection were inhibited through high consumption of yogurt. Probiotic bacteria can protect against enteric infection and inhibit chemically Carcinogens induce tumorization in the gastrointestinal tract. Modulation of the gut microflora and the enhancement of mucosal immunity of the gut are both mechanisms of probiotic function potentially influence gut function. Combination of Probiotic active culture and prebiotics non digestible food ingredient, beneficially affect the host by improving the survival of live microbial dietary supplement through its transit in the gut and by stimulating the activity of colon bacteria, specially Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli genera. Further well-designed, controlled animal studies are needed to confirm the effects of different sources of probiotic strains used in the diary products, on gut health and function.

Omer Turki Mamdoh Ershidat

2009-01-01

391

Atypical Bacteria and Macrolides in Asthma  

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Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are common pathogens causing acute illness in both the upper and lower airways. Several observations are supportive of a possible causative role of these pathogens in asthma; however, more evidence is required before this becomes meaningful in clinical practice. Atypical bacteria can enhance airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, both of which have been associated with exacerbations in patients with preexisting...

2008-01-01

392

Radiographic markers - A reservoir for bacteria?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Introduction: Amongst the most frequently handled objects in the radiology department are radiographic markers. They are personal accessories used with every patient, and are kept in the radiographers pockets when not utilised. Upon enquiry it was discovered that many radiographers disregarded the potential of these accessories to become a vector for cross-contamination thus never or rarely clean them. The aims of this study were therefore to identify if radiographic markers are a reservoir for bacteria and to establish an effective cleaning method for decontaminating them. Methodology: 25 radiographers/student radiographers were selected for this study. Swabbing of their markers prior and post cleaning took place. The microbiology laboratory subsequently analyzed the results by quantifying and identifying the bacteria present. The participants also completed a closed questionnaire regarding their markers (e.g. frequency of cleaning and type of marker) to help specify the results gained from the swabbing procedure. Results: From the sample swabbed, 92% were contaminated with various organisms including Staphylococcus and Bacillus species, the amount of bacteria present ranged from 0 to >50 CFU. There were no significant differences between disinfectant wipes and alcohol gel in decontaminating the markers. Both successfully reduced their bacterial load, with 80% of the markers post cleaning having 0 CFU. Conclusion: The results indicated that radiographic markers can become highly contaminated with various organisms thus serve as a reservoir for bacteria. In addition, the markers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, with either disinfectant wipes or alcohol gel to reduce their bacterial load.

Tugwell, Jenna, E-mail: jenna.tugwell@googlemail.co [Department of Radiology, Ysbyty Gwynedd Hospital, Bangor, North Wales (United Kingdom); Maddison, Adele [Nuffield Health, Shrewsbury Hospital (United Kingdom)

2011-05-15

393

Automated detection of bacteria in urine  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for detecting the presence of bacteria in urine was developed which utilizes the bioluminescent reaction of adenosine triphosphate with luciferin and luciferase derived from the tails of fireflies. The method was derived from work on extraterrestrial life detection. A device was developed which completely automates the assay process.

Fleig, A. J.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Kelbaugh, B. N.

1972-01-01

394

Automatic bio-sample bacteria detection system  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromechanical device analyzes urine specimens in 15 minutes and processes one sample per minute. Instrument utilizes bioluminescent reaction between luciferase-luciferin mixture and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to determine number of bacteria present in the sample. Device has potential application to analysis of other body fluids.

Chappelle, E. W.; Colburn, M.; Kelbaugh, B. N.; Picciolo, G. L.

1971-01-01

395

Genetic exchange between bacteria in the environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nucleotide sequence analysis, and more recently whole genome analysis, shows that bacterial evolution has often proceeded by horizontal gene flow between different species and genera. In bacteria, gene transfer takes place by transformation, transduction, or conjugation and this review examines the roles of these gene transfer processes, between different bacteria, in a wide variety of ecological niches in the natural environment. This knowledge is necessary for our understanding of plasmid evolution and ecology, as well as for risk assessment. The rise and spread of multiple antibiotic resistance plasmids in medically important bacteria are consequences of intergeneric gene transfer coupled to the selective pressures posed by the increasing use and misuse of antibiotics in medicine and animal feedstuffs. Similarly, the evolution of degradative plasmids is a response to the increasing presence of xenobiotic pollutants in soil and water. Finally, our understanding of the role of horizontal gene transfer in the environment is essential for the evaluation of the possible consequences of the deliberate environmental release of natural or recombinant bacteria for agricultural and bioremediation purposes. PMID:10489325

Davison, J

1999-09-01

396

Crohn's disease: the case for bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the present time, there is no convincing indication that Crohn's disease is a bacterial disease, although an association with mycobacteria has been hypothesised for many years. The hypothesis that bacteria could be the cause, or at least an important concause of Crohn's disease is supported by several experimental and clinical observations: animals kept in a germ-free environment fail to develop intestinal inflammation; bacteria are the cause of human and animal intestinal diseases similar to Crohn's disease; luminal content is necessary for causing gut lesions; and, moreover, antibiotics are successfully used in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Bradford Hill criteria recently used to assess a causal relationship for Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer can be applied for establishing or excluding a causality between mycobacteria and Crohn's disease. Of these criteria, only biological plausibility, coherence and analogy are satisfied. However, failure to identify a specific pathogen does not exclude a possible role for bacteria in causing Crohn's disease lesions and symptoms. Pathogenic or commensal enteric bacteria could overinfect the primary lesions, leading to chronic intestinal inflammation in genetically susceptible hosts. Another possibility is that components of the normal intestinal flora could acquire pathogenic characteristics. PMID:10379488

Prantera, C; Scribano, M L

1999-04-01

397

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Ralstonia basilensis  

Full Text Available Ralstonia basilensis 16:0,18:1 16:0,18:1 GORIS (J.), DE VOS (P.), COENYE (T.), HOSTE (B.), JANSS tal-resistant bacteria from industrial biotopes as Ralstonia campinensis sp. nov., Ralstonia metallidurans sp. nov. and Ralstonia basilensis Steinle et al. 1998 emend. Int. J. Syst

398

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Ralstonia campinensis  

Full Text Available Ralstonia campinensis WS2 = CCUG 44526 = LMG 19282 T 66.6 HPLC 16:0,18:1 14:0,18:1 GORIS (J.), D tal-resistant bacteria from industrial biotopes as Ralstonia campinensis sp. nov., Ralstonia metallidurans sp. nov. and Ralstonia basilensis Steinle et al. 1998 emend. Int. J. Syst

399

Tolerance of anaerobic bacteria to chlorinated solvents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation. PMID:24441515

Koenig, Joanna C; Groissmeier, Kathrin D; Manefield, Mike J

2014-01-01

400

Molecular evolution in bacteria: cell division  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Molecular evolution in bacteria is examined with an emphasis on the self-assembly of cells capable of primitive division and growth during early molecular evolution. Also, the possibility that some type of encapsulation structure preceeded biochemical pathways and the assembly of genetic material is examined. These aspects will be considered from an evolutionary perspective.

Trevors J.T.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Probiotic Bacteria May Become Dormant during Storage  

Science.gov (United States)

The determination of bacterial viability in probiotic products is of economic, technological, and clinical significance. We compared four methods to enumerate three Bifidobacterium strains in fermented oat products during storage. A subpopulation of nonculturable cells retained a functional cell membrane typical of viable cells, indicating that probiotic bacteria become dormant during storage.

Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Gueimonde, Miguel; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Reinikainen, Johanna P.; Salminen, Seppo J.

2005-01-01

402

Metabolic engineering of bacteria for ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technologies are available which will allow the conversion of lignocellulose into fuel ethanol using genetically engineered bacteria. Assembling these into a cost-effective process remains a challenge. The authors` work has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of enteric bacteria using a portable ethanol production pathway. Genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase have been integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B to produce strain KO11 for the fermentation of hemicellulose-derived syrups. This organism can efficiently ferment all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 has been genetically engineered in a similar manner to produce strain P2 for ethanol production from cellulose. This organism has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes. The optimal pH for cellulose fermentation with this organism is near that of fungal cellulases. The general approach for the genetic engineering of new biocatalysts has been most successful with enteric bacteria thus far. However, this approach may also prove useful with gram-positive bacteria which have other important traits for lignocellulose conversion. Many opportunities remain for further improvements in the biomass to ethanol processes.

Ingram, L.O.; Gomez, P.F.; Lai, X.; Moniruzzaman, M.; Wood, B.E.; Yomano, L.P.; York, S.W. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science

1998-04-20

403

Distribution of polyamines in methanogenic bacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Members of all four families of methanogenic bacteria were analyzed for polyamine concentrations. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of dansylated cell extracts revealed typical polyamine patterns for each family. Members of Methanobacteriaceae (family I) were characterized by very low polyamine concentrations; members of Methanococcaceae (family II) were characterized by putrescine and high spermidine concentrations; members of Methanomicrobiaceae (family III) were characterized...

Scherer, P.; Kneifel, H.

1983-01-01

404

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Thiomicrospira crunogena  

Full Text Available Thiomicrospira crunogena Q-8 44.4 HPLC BRINKHOFF (T.), MUYZER (G.), WIRSEN (C.O.) and KUEVER (J. fur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from an intertidal mud flat . Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 385-392

405

?????H15 (Bacteria???????2) : Thiomicrospira pelophila  

Full Text Available Thiomicrospira pelophila Q-8 45.7 HPLC BRINKHOFF (T.), MUYZER (G.), WIRSEN (C.O.) and KUEVER (J. fur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from an intertidal mud flat . Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 385-392

406

Lactic acid bacteria from fresh fruit and vegetables as biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the efficacy of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables as biocontrol agents against the phytopathogenic and spoilage bacteria and fungi, Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia laxa, and Botrytis cinerea. The antagonistic activity of 496 LAB strains was tested in vitro and all tested microorganisms except P. expansum were inhibited by at least one isolate. The 496 isolates were also analyzed for the inhibit...

Trias Mansilla, Rosalia; Ban?eras Vives, Llui?s; Montesinos Segui?, Emilio; Badosa Roman?o?, Esther

2008-01-01

407

Bacteria in Crude Oil Survived Autoclaving and Stimulated Differentially by Exogenous Bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). However, it is not entirely clear if “endogenous” bacteria (e.g., spores) in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the “exogenous” bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium w...

Gong, Xiao-cui; Liu, Ze-shen; Guo, Peng; Chi, Chang-qiao; Chen, Jian; Wang, Xing-biao; Tang, Yue-qin; Wu, Xiao-lei; Liu, Chun-zhong

2012-01-01

408

Assessment of the Levels of Airborne Bacteria, Gram-Negative Bacteria, and Fungi in Hospital Lobbies  

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Aims: We assessed the levels of airborne bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), and fungi in six hospital lobbies, and investigated the environmental and hospital characteristics that affected the airborne microorganism levels. Methods: An Andersen single-stage sampler equipped with appropriate nutrition plate agar was used to collect the samples. The three types of microorganisms were repeatedly collected at a fixed location in each hospital (assumed to be representative of the entire hospi...

2013-01-01

409

Protein Creates Partition between Bacteria and the Gut  

Science.gov (United States)

... distance. Image courtesy of Shipra Vaishnava and Lora Hooper. Protein Creates Partition between Bacteria and the Gut ... between bacteria and host is maintained. Dr. Lora Hooper of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center ...

410

The three domain system: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya  

Science.gov (United States)

The domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya represent three very different kinds of organisms. Bacteria and Archaea are single-celled prokaryotes. The domain Eukarya includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-10

411

THE ECOLOGY OF BACTERIA IN THE ALFRESCO ATMOSPHERE  

Science.gov (United States)

This MiniReview is concerned with the sources,flux and the spacial and temporal distributions of culturable airborne bacteria; how meteorological conditions modulate these distributions; and how death, culture media, and experimental devices relate to measuring airborne bacteria....

412

New Insight on the Response of Bacteria to Fluoride  

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Fluoride has been used for decades to prevent caries and it is well established that this anion can inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, the precise effects that fluoride has on bacteria and the mechanisms that bacteria use to overcome fluoride toxicity have largely remained unexplored. Recently, my laboratory reported the discovery of biological systems that bacteria use to sense fluoride and reduce fluoride toxicity. These sensors and their associated genes are very widespread in biolog...

Breaker, R. R.

2012-01-01

413

High abundance of virulence gene homologues in marine bacteria  

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Marine bacteria can cause harm to single-celled and multicellular eukaryotes. However, relatively little is known about the underlying genetic basis for marine bacterial interactions with higher organisms. We examined whole-genome sequences from a large number of marine bacteria for the prevalence of homologues to virulence genes and pathogenicity islands known from bacteria that are pathogenic to terrestrial animals and plants. As many as 60 out of 119 genomes of marine bacteria, with no kno...

Persson, Olof P.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Riemann, Lasse; Marklund, Britt-inger; Rhen, Mikael; Normark, Staffan; Gonza?lez, Jose? M.; Hagstro?m, A?ke

2009-01-01

414

A Guide to the Natural History of Freshwater Lake Bacteria†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Summary: Freshwater bacteria are at the hub of biogeochemical cycles and control water quality in lakes. Despite this, little is known about the identity and ecology of functionally significant lake bacteria. Molecular studies have identified many abundant lake bacteria, but there is a large variation in the taxonomic or phylogenetic breadths among the methods used for this exploration. Because of this, an inconsistent and overlapping naming structure has developed for freshwater bacteria, cr...

Newton, Ryan J.; Jones, Stuart E.; Eiler, Alexander; Mcmahon, Katherine D.; Bertilsson, Stefan

2011-01-01

415

BioNLP Shared Task - The Bacteria Track  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background We present the BioNLP 2011 Shared Task Bacteria Track, the first Information Extraction challenge entirely dedicated to bacteria. It includes three tasks that cover different levels of biological knowledge. The Bacteria Gene Renaming supporting task is aimed at extracting gene renaming and gene name synonymy in PubMed abstracts. The Bacteria Gene Interaction is a gene/protein interaction extraction task from individual sentences. The interactions have been...

Bossy Robert; Jourde Julien; Manine Alain-Pierre; Veber Philippe; Alphonse Erick; van de Guchte Maarten; Bessières Philippe; Nédellec Claire

2012-01-01

416

Human Occupancy as a Source of Indoor Airborne Bacteria  

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Exposure to specific airborne bacteria indoors is linked to infectious and noninfectious adverse health outcomes. However, the sources and origins of bacteria suspended in indoor air are not well understood. This study presents evidence for elevated concentrations of indoor airborne bacteria due to human occupancy, and investigates the sources of these bacteria. Samples were collected in a university classroom while occupied and when vacant. The total particle mass concentration, bacterial ge...

2012-01-01

417

Comparative Genomics of Green Sulfur Bacteria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole-genome gene family and single gene sequence comparisons yielded similar phylogenetic trees of the sequenced chromosomes indicating a concerted vertical evolution of large gene sets. Chromosomal synteny of genes is not preserved in the phylum Chlorobi. The accessory genome is characterized by anomalous oligonucleotide usage and endows the strains with individual features for transport, secretion, cell wall, extracellular constituents, and a few elements of the biosynthetic apparatus. Giant genes are a peculiar feature of the genera Chlorobium and Prosthecochloris. The predicted proteins have a huge molecular weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment.

Ussery, David

2010-01-01

418

Bacteria-Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular bacterial lipases are particularly abundant at sites of infection. Herein it is shown how active or proactive compounds attached to polymeric surfaces using lipase�sensitive linkages, such as fatty acid esters or anhydrides, may be released in response to infection. Proof�of�concept of the responsive material is demonstrated by the bacteria�triggered release of antibiotics to control bacterial populations and signaling molecules to modulate quorum sensing. The self�regulating system provides the basis for the development of device�relevant polymeric materials, which only release antibiotics in dependency of the titer of bacteria surrounding the medical device.

Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen-Chi

2014-01-01

419

Resistant bacteria in stem cell transplant recipients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacterial infections account for most infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. While early mortality reduced dramatically with the introduction of the concept of empirical antibiotic therapy in neutropenic patients, no effect of prophylaxis on the mortality was observed in many studies. On the other hand, antibiotic prophylaxis has resulted in the emergence of resistance among bacteria. In addition, the choice of the antibiotic regimen for empirical therapy and the practices of antibiotic therapy during neutropenia may result in a significant shift in the pattern of bacterial infections. The use of quinolones and vancomycin as prophylaxis, and of carbapenems and vancomycin in the empirical antibiotic therapy, are associated with the appearance of resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, hematologists must be aware of the impact of these practices on the emergence of infections due to multi-resistant pathogens, since these infections may be associated with increased mortality.

Nucci Marcio

2002-01-01

420

Mechanism of transcriptional bursting in bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transcription of highly expressed genes has been shown to occur in stochastic bursts. But the origin of such ubiquitous phenomenon has not been understood. Here, we present the mechanism in bacteria. We developed a high-throughput, in vitro, single-molecule assay to follow transcription on individual DNA templates in real time. We showed that positive supercoiling buildup on a DNA segment by transcription slows down transcription elongation and eventually stops transcription initiation. Transcription can be resumed upon gyrase binding to the DNA segment. Furthermore, using single-cell mRNA counting fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we found that duty cycles of transcriptional bursting depend on the intracellular gyrase concentration. Together, these findings prove that transcriptional bursting of highly expressed genes in bacteria is primarily caused by reversible gyrase dissociation from and rebinding to a DNA segment, changing the supercoiling level of the segment. PMID:25036631

Chong, Shasha; Chen, Chongyi; Ge, Hao; Xie, X Sunney

2014-07-17

 
 
 
 
421

Effect of Essential Oils on Pathogenic Bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing resistance of microorganisms to conventional chemicals and drugs is a serious and evident worldwide problem that has prompted research into the identification of new biocides with broad activity. Plants and their derivatives, such as essential oils, are often used in folk medicine. In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of plants. Essential oils contain a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are capable of inhibiting or slowing the growth of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Essential oils and their components have activity against a variety of targets, particularly the membrane and cytoplasm, and in some cases, they completely change the morphology of the cells. This brief review describes the activity of essential oils against pathogenic bacteria.

Filomena Nazzaro

2013-11-01

422

Mucolytic bacteria with increased prevalence in IBD mucosa augment in vitro utilization of mucin by other bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: Mucosa-associated bacteria are increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which suggests the possibility of an increased source of digestible endogenous mucus substrate. We hypothesized that mucolytic bacteria are increased in IBD, providing increased substrate to sustain nonmucolytic mucosa-associated bacteria. METHODS: Mucolytic bacteria were characterized by the ability to degrade human secretory mucin (MUC2) in pure and mixed anaerobic cultures. Real-time PCR was used t...

Png, C. W.; Linden, S. K.; Gilshenan, K. S.; Zoetendal, E. G.; Mcsweeney, C. S.; Sly, L. I.; Mcguckin, M. A.; Florin, T. H.

2010-01-01

423

Replication–transcription conflicts in bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DNA replication and transcription use the same template and occur concurrently in bacteria. The lack of temporal and spatial separation of these two processes leads to their conflict, and failure to deal with this conflict can result in genome alterations and reduced fitness. In recent years major advances have been made in understanding how cells avoid conflicts between replication and transcription and how such conflicts are resolved when they do occur. In this Review, we summarize these fi...

Merrikh, Houra; Zhang, Yan; Grossman, Alan D.; Wang, Jue D.

2012-01-01

424

Replication-transcription conflicts in bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DNA replication and transcription use the same template and occur concurrently in bacteria. The lack of temporal and spatial separations of these two processes leads to their conflict. Failure to deal with these conflicts can result in genome alterations and reduced fitness. In recent years, significant advances have been made in understanding how cells avoid conflicts between replication and transcription, and how conflicts are resolved when they do occur. In this review, we summarize these ...

Merrikh, Houra; Zhang, Yan; Grossman, Alan D.; Wang, Jue D.

2012-01-01

425

Cold atmospheric plasma decontamination against nosocomial bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nosocomial pathogens are a considerable public threat. In order to limit their spread, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was investigated as new alternative to common decontamination strategies. During my work I developed a Surface micro-discharge (SMD) electrode system, characterized the CAP generated at ambient air conditions, studied its decontaminating behavior against nosocomial bacteria such as Clostridium difficile endospores and revealed factors influencing the decontamination. A...

Kla?mpfl, Tobias Gabriel

2014-01-01

426

Flagella and motility behaviour of square bacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Square bacteria are shown to have right-handed helical (RH) flagella. They swim forward by clockwise (CW), and backwards by counterclockwise (CCW) rotation of their flagella. They are propelled by several or single filaments arising at several or single points on the cell surface. When there are several filaments a stable bundle is formed that does not fly apart during the change from clockwise to counterclockwise rotation or vice versa. In addition to the flagella attached to the cells, larg...

Alam, M.; Claviez, M.; Oesterhelt, D.; Kessel, M.

1984-01-01

427

Pyrite oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The kinetic model of pyrite particle dissolution by the action of bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in a shaken Erlenmeyer flask was presented. The model agreed well with the experimental data for the extracted iron and the number of cells in the liquid phase. The specific growth rate of the adsorbed cells was evaluated (?A = 1,6 d-1) by fitting the experimental data to the model curve. Also, the relevance of the two proposed mechanisms for the bacterial dissolution of sulphide (direct...

Savi? Dragiša S.; Lazi? Miodrag L.; Veljkovi? Vlada B.; Vrvi? Miroslav M.

2005-01-01

428

Modeling of spatiotemporal patterns in bacterias colonies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A diffusion-reaction model for the growth of bacterial colonies is presented. The often observed cooperative behavior developed by bacteria which increases their motility in adverse growth conditions is here introduced as a nonlinear diffusion term. The presence of this mechanism depends on a response which can present hysteresis. By changing only the concentrations of agar and initial nutrient, numerical integration of the proposed model reproduces the different patterns shown by...

Lacasta Palacio, Ana Mari?a; Rodri?guez Cantalapiedra, Inma; Auguet Sangra?, Carlota E.; Pen?aranda Ayllo?n, Angelina; Rami?rez La Piscina Milla?n, Laureano

1999-01-01

429

Genetics of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From a historical perspective, the study of both the biochemistry and the genetics of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis began with the enteric bacteria. These organisms have again come to the forefront as the blocks of genes involved in LPS synthesis have been sequenced and analyzed. A number of new and unanticipated genes were found in these clusters, indicating a complexity of the biochemical pathways which was not predicted from the older studies. One of the most dramatic areas of LPS res...

Schnaitman, C. A.; Klena, J. D.

1993-01-01

430

Nitrogen uptake of saprotrophic basidiomycetes and bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saprotrophic basidiomycetes decompose wood in aerobic environments and can cause economic damage. The availability of nitrogen is determining for decomposition, and diazotrophic bacteria might enhance the nitrogen availability by fixation of atmospheric N2. Simultaneous decomposition by basidiomycetes and diazotrophs may intensify decomposition, because N2 fixation requires ATP, which could be provided during cellulose decomposition. In this study, the interaction was analysed by measurements...

Weißhaupt, Petra

2012-01-01

431

Study of fatty acid-bacteria interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. During our work we investigated fatty acid-bacteria interactions. The antibacterial property of fatty acids was reported by several authors. Despite of them there is not reassuring explanation about the mechanism of the antibacterial activity of these compounds. An effect can considerably change in case of different structured fatty acids. Our earlier studies conduct that small changes in the structures can modify changes in their behavior towards bacteria. The stearic acid does not cause any antibacterial effects during the first few hours of the investigation, may even help the bacterial growth. However, linolic acid (C18:2) shows a strong antibacterial effect during the first hours. After 24 hours this effect wears out and the bacteria have adapted to the stress. We studied the antibacterial activity using direct bioautography. This method has the advantage to allow examining lipophilic compounds. The linoleic acid decomposes in time under different physiological conditions creating numerous oxidized molecules. This may be the reason of its antimicrobial effect. For studying this phenomenon we used infrared and mass spectroscopic methods. We applied infrared spectroscopy for indicating any changes in the spectra of the fatty acids after the interaction of fatty acids with bacteria. So we are able to deduct on what could happen during these process. We paid great attention towards the changes of double bonds, on methylation and demethylation processes. Using mass spectroscopy we searched for oxidized products that may play important role in this process. These studies are only part of our more widespreading investigations, dealing with the antimicrobial properties of fatty acids.

2009-09-03

432

Plague Bacteria Target Immune Cells During Infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague bacteria are thought to inject effector Yop proteins into host cells via the type III pathway. The identity of the host cells targeted for injection during plague infection is unknown. We found, using Yop ?-lactamase hybrids and fluorescent staining of live cells from plague-infected animals, that Y. pestis selected immune cells for injection. In vivo, dendritic cells, macrophages, and neutrophils were injected most frequently, wh...

Marketon, Melanie M.; Depaolo, R. William; Debord, Kristin L.; Jabri, Bana; Schneewind, Olaf

2005-01-01

433

Catecholate Siderophores Protect Bacteria from Pyochelin Toxicity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Bacteria produce small molecule iron chelators, known as siderophores, to facilitate the acquisition of iron from the environment. The synthesis of more than one siderophore and the production of multiple siderophore uptake systems by a single bacterial species are common place. The selective advantages conferred by the multiplicity of siderophore synthesis remains poorly understood. However, there is growing evidence suggesting that siderophores may have other physiological roles...

Adler, Conrado; Corbala?n, Natalia S.; Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad; Pomares, Mari?a Fernanda; Cristo?bal, Ricardo E.; Clardy, Jon C.; Kolter, Roberto Guillermo; Vincent, Paula A.

2012-01-01

434

Toward a Census of Bacteria in Soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For more than a century, microbiologists have sought to determine the species richness of bacteria in soil, but the extreme complexity and unknown structure of soil microbial communities have obscured the answer. We developed a statistical model that makes the problem of estimating richness statistically accessible by evaluating the characteristics of samples drawn from simulated communities with parametric community distributions. We identified simulated communities with rank-abundance distr...

Schloss, Patrick D.; Handelsman, Jo

2006-01-01

435

Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

Morrissey, David

2012-01-31

436

Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms...

Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaqui?n J.; Oren, Aharon

1998-01-01

437

Magnesium and Manganese Content of Halophilic Bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnesium and manganese contents were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bacteria of several halophilic levels, in Vibrio costicola, a moderately halophilic eubacterium growing in 1 M NaCl, Halobacterium volcanii, a halophilic archaebacterium growing in 2.5 M NaCl, Halobacterium cutirubrum, an extremely halophilic archaebacterium growing in 4 M NaCl, and Escherichia coli, a nonhalophilic eubacterium growing in 0.17 M NaCl. Magnesium and manganese contents varied with the growt...

Me?dicis, Eveline; Paquette, Jean; Gauthier, Jean-jacques; Shapcott, Dennis

1986-01-01

438

Aztreonam selective agar for gram positive bacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aztreonam blood agar, a new selective medium for Gram positive aerobic bacteria, was evaluated in comparison with conventional media for skin swabs. Aztreonam agar increased the number of isolates of Staphylococcus aureus by 17%. By producing purer growths on primary isolation, it significantly speeded up the identification and sensitivity testing of staphylococci and streptococci. All major Gram positive aerobic pathogens grow on this medium. Aztreonam agar is now an established addition to ...

Wood, W.; Harvey, G.; Olson, E. S.; Reid, T. M.

1993-01-01

439

Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge on the antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria is still limited, possibly because of the large numbers of genera and species encountered in this group, as well as variances in their resistance spectra. The EFSA considers antibiotic resistances, especially transferable resistances, an important decision criterion for determining a strain's QPS status. There are no approved standards for the phenotypic or genotypic evaluation of antibiotic resistances in food isolates. Also, the...

Bulaji? Snežana; Mija?evi? Zora; Savi?-Radovanovi? Radoslava

2008-01-01

440

Polycations sensitize enteric bacteria to antibiotics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polymyxin B nonapeptide, a polymyxin B derivative which lacks the fatty acyl part and the bactericidal activity of polymyxin, was shown to sensitize smooth encapsulated Escherichia coli (O18:K1) and smooth Salmonella typhimurium to hydrophobic antibiotics (novobiocin, fusidic acid, erythromycin, clindamycin, nafcillin, and cloxacillin). The polymyxin B nonapeptide-treated bacteria were as sensitive to these antibiotics as are deep rough mutants. A lysine polymer with 20 lysine residues (lysin...

Vaara, M.; Vaara, T.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Natural Selection of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity (p.3-4 of PDF), learners learn about disease transmission and antibiotic resistance. In this activity, an educator shows what could happen if one learner has not washed his/her hands properly before lunch and becomes ill as a result.