Sample records for bacillus sphaericus cepa

  1. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis study of Bacillus sphaericus

    Viviane Zahner


    Full Text Available Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE has been used in the study of some Bacillus species. In this work we applied MLEE and numerical analysis in the study of the Bacillus sphaericus group. B. sphaericus can be distinguished from other entomopathogenic Bacillus by a unique allele (NP-4. Within the species, all insect pathogens were recovered in the same phenetic cluster and all of these strains have the same band position (electrophoresis migration on the agarose gel (ADH-2. The entomopathogenic group of B. sphaericus seems to be a clonal population, having two widespread frequent genotypes (zymovar 59 and zymovar 119.

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus biopesticides production.

    el-Bendary, Magda A


    The long residual action and toxicity of the chemical insecticides have brought about serious environmental problems such as the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in many species of vectors, mammalian toxicity, and accumulation of pesticide residues in the food chain. All these problems have highlighted the need for alternative biological control agents. Entomo-pathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) are two safe biological control agents. They have attracted considerable interest as possible replacements for the chemical insecticides. Although microbial insecticides based on Bt and Bs are available for use, their high cost makes large-scale application impracticable in developing countries. This review focuses on the economic production of these two microorganisms by submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation using agro-industrial by-products and other wastes. PMID:16598830

  3. Conjugation by Mosquito Pathogenic Strains of Bacillus sphaericus

    Correa Margarita


    Full Text Available A mosquito pathogenic strain of Bacillus sphaericus carried out the conjugal transfer of plasmid pAMß1 to other strains of its own and two other serotypes. However, it was unable to conjugate with mosquito pathogens from three other serotypes, with B. sphaericus of other DNA homology groups or with three other species of Bacillus. Conjugation frequency was highest with a strain having an altered surface layer (S layer. Conjugal transfer of pAMß1 was not detected in mosquito larval cadavers. B. sphaericus 2362 was unable to mobilize pUB110 for transfer to strains that had served as recipients of pAMß1. These observations suggest that it is unlikely that genetically engineered B. sphaericus carrying a recombinant plasmid could pass that plasmid to other bacteria

  4. Conjugation by Mosquito Pathogenic Strains of Bacillus sphaericus

    Correa Margarita; Yousten Allan A


    A mosquito pathogenic strain of Bacillus sphaericus carried out the conjugal transfer of plasmid pAMß1 to other strains of its own and two other serotypes. However, it was unable to conjugate with mosquito pathogens from three other serotypes, with B. sphaericus of other DNA homology groups or with three other species of Bacillus. Conjugation frequency was highest with a strain having an altered surface layer (S layer). Conjugal transfer of pAMß1 was not detected in mosquito larval cadavers. ...

  5. Transfer of the toxin protein genes of Bacillus sphaericus into Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their expression.

    Bourgouin, C.; Delécluse, A; La Torre, F.; Szulmajster, J


    The genes encoding the toxic determinants of Bacillus sphaericus have been expressed in a nontoxic and a toxic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. In both cases, the B. sphaericus toxin proteins were produced at a high level during sporulation of B. thuringiensis and accumulated as crystalline structures. B. thuringiensis transformants expressing B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins did not show a significant enhancement of toxicity against Aedes aegyp...

  6. EXAFS investigation of uranium(VI) complexes formed at Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sphaericus surfaces

    Uranium(VI) complex formation at vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sphaericus was studied using uranium LII-edge and LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. A comparison of the measured equatorial U-O distances and other EXAFS structural parameters of uranyl species formed at the Bacillus strains with those of the uranyl structure family indicates that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl complexes with phosphoryl residues. (orig.)

  7. Application of Bacillus sphaericus in the control of Culex fatigans

    A terminal spore bearing bacteria strain (ISPC-5) was isolated from the diseased larvae of Culex fatigans and identified as Bacillus sphaericus (WHO 2173). It was of the phage type IV and serotype H-26a and 26b. The LC50 for C. fatigans 2nd instar larvae was 1.7x104 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. Comparative toxicity studies made on ISPC-5, as well as on 1593 and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (H-14), revealed that this organism was pathogenic to laboratory reared non-resistant and chemical insecticide resistant species of the Culex genus, C. fatigans in particular. However, this organism was found to be non-pathogenic to Anopheline and Aedine larval instars. The spore stage of this bacillus is affected after exposure to sunlight for 6 hours and to UV germicidal radiation for 120 minutes at a dose of 108x103J/m2, and tolerates heat treatment at 60 deg. C for 30 minutes only. In all cases the viability and toxicity are drastically affected. It is non-toxic to Gambusia affinis. Small and large scale laboratory trials with C. fatigans larval instars produced good results. The field trials conducted in the Bombay suburbs in septic tanks with a concentration of 105 CFU/mL proved encouraging. Spores of this organism have a good shelf-life in a cold room (-10 deg. C) or at room temperature as lyophilized material. This indigenously isolated B. sphaericus (WHO 2173) can successfully be used per se in controlling C. fatigans or in integrated vector control programmes. (author). 18 refs, 5 tabs

  8. Recombinant Strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Producing Cyt1A, Cry11B, and the Bacillus sphaericus Binary Toxin

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Federici, Brian A.


    A novel recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain that produces the B. sphaericus binary toxin, Cyt1Aa, and Cry11Ba is described. The toxicity of this strain (50% lethal concentration [LC50] = 1.7 ng/ml) against fourth-instar Culex quinquefasciatus was higher than that of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis IPS-82 (LC50 = 7.9 ng/ml) or B. sphaericus 2362 (LC50 = 12.6 ng/ml).

  9. Efficient mosquitocidal toxin production by Bacillus sphaericus using cheese whey permeate under both submerged and solid state fermentations.

    El-Bendary, Magda A; Moharam, Maysa E; Foda, M S


    Whey permeate (WP) was used efficiently for production of mosquitocidal toxin by Bacillus sphaericus 2362 (B. sphaericus 2362) and the Egyptian isolate, B. sphaericus 14N1 (B. sphaericus 14N1) under both submerged and solid state fermentation conditions. Under submerged fermentation, high mosquitocidal activity was produced by B. sphaericus 2362 and B. sphaericus 14N1 at 50-100% and 25-70% WP, respectively. Initial pH of WP was a critical factor for toxin production by both tested organisms. The highest toxicity was obtained at initial pH 7. Egyptian isolate, B. sphaericus 14N1 was tested for growth and toxin production under solid state fermentation conditions (SSF) by using WP as moistening agent instead of distilled water. The optimum conditions for production of B. sphaericus 14N1 on wheat bran-WP medium were 10 g wheat bran/250 ml flask moistened with 10-70% WP at 50% moisture content, inoculum size ranged between 17.2x10(7) and 34.4x10(7) and 6 days incubation under static conditions at 30 degrees C. Preliminary pilot-scale production of B. sphaericus 14N1 under SSF conditions in trays proved that wheat bran-WP medium was efficient and economic for industrial production of mosquitocidal toxin by B. sphaericus. PMID:18258255

  10. Cyt1Ab1 and Cyt2Ba1 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Synergize Bacillus sphaericus against Aedes aegypti and Resistant Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Wirth, Margaret C.; Delécluse, Armelle; Walton, William E.


    The interaction of two cytolytic toxins, Cyt1Ab from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin and Cyt2Ba from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, with Bacillus sphaericus was evaluated against susceptible and resistant Culex quinquefasciatus and the nonsensitive species Aedes aegypti. Mixtures of B. sphaericus with either cytolytic toxin were synergistic, and B. sphaericus resistance in C. quinquefasciatus was suppressed from >17,000- to 2-fold with a 3:1 mixture of B. sphaericus and Cyt...

  11. Isolation of Bacillus sphaericus from Lombok Island, Indonesia, and Their Toxicity against Anopheles aconitus.

    Suryadi, Bambang Fajar; Yanuwiadi, Bagyo; Ardyati, Tri; Suharjono


    Malaria is endemic to Lombok Island, Indonesia. One approach to suppress malaria spread is to eliminate anopheline larvae in their habitat and the environmentally safe agent is bacteria, that is, Bacillus sphaericus. However, there is no information regarding local isolate of B. sphaericus that is toxic to mosquito larvae from Lombok. The aims of the study were to isolate B. sphaericus from soil in areas close to beach surrounding Lombok Island and to test their toxicity against 3rd instar Anopheles aconitus larvae. Soil samples were collected from 20 different sampling locations from Lombok Island and homogenized with sterile physiological salt solution. Suspension was heat-shocked at 80°C for 30 minutes and then spread onto antibiotic-supplemented NYSM solid medium. Colonies grown were characterized and subjected to initial toxicity test against anopheline larvae. Isolates with more than 50% killing percentage were subjected to bioassay testing against anopheline larvae. From 20 locations, 1 isolate showed mild toxicity (namely, isolate MNT) and 2 isolates showed high toxicity (namely, isolates SLG and TJL2) against An. aconitus. Those 3 isolates were potentially useful isolates, as they killed almost all larvae in 24 hours. The discovery of toxic indigenous isolates of B. sphaericus from Lombok Island opens opportunity to develop a biopesticide from local resources. PMID:26788061

  12. Hexavalent chromium reduction by immobilized cells of Bacillus sphaericus AND 303

    Arundhati Pal


    Full Text Available Bacillus sphaericus AND 303, a Cr(VI-resistant and reducing bacterium reported from serpentine outcrops of Andaman was evaluated for Cr(VI reduction using immobilized cells under batch culture. Screening of inert matrices for entrapment of whole cells indicated that polyvinyl alchohol-alginate was the most effective one reducing 87.5% of 20 µM Cr(VI in 24 h. The rate of chromate reduction was dependent on initial Cr(VI and biomass concentrations. The PVA cell beads were recycled three times without cell leakage and disintegration. The reduction efficiency was improved in the presence of glucose and glycerol as electron donors leading to complete reduction. However, the presence of additional metal ions was inhibitory to Cr(VI reduction. It could be emphasized that PVA-alginate immobilized cells of B. sphaericus AND 303 could be used as a continuous bioprocess in treating Cr(VI contaminated effluents.

  13. Recovery of Bacillus sphaericus spores by flocculation/sedimentation and flotation

    Christine Lamenha Luna; Carlos Edison Lopes; Giulio Massarani


    The aim of this work was use flocculation/sedimentation and flotation for recovery of spores of the Bacillus sphaericus. Microorganism was produced batchwise using culture medium based skimmed milk, corn steep liquor and mineral salts. The best results of flocculation were obtained using CaCl2.2H2O, FeCl3.6H2O, Al2(SO4)3 and tannin as flocculating agents, with optimal flocculation concentrations of 1,500, 3,000, 2,000 and 1,700ppm, respectively. Flocculent suspensions were characterized based...

  14. Polyhydroxybutyrate production using agro-industrial residue as substrate by Bacillus sphaericus NCIM 5149

    Nisha V. Ramadas


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB using agro- industrial residues as the carbon source. Seven substrates, viz., wheat bran, potato starch, sesame oil cake, groundnut oil cake, cassava powder, jackfruit seed powder and corn flour were hydrolyzed using commercial enzymes and the hydrolyzates assessed for selecting the best substrate for PHB production. Jackfruit seed powder gave the maximum production of PHB under submerged fermentation using Bacillus sphaericus (19% at the initial pH of 7.5.

  15. Hexavalent chromium reduction by immobilized cells of Bacillus sphaericus AND 303

    Arundhati Pal; Sudeshna Datta; Amal K. Paul


    Bacillus sphaericus AND 303, a Cr(VI)-resistant and reducing bacterium reported from serpentine outcrops of Andaman was evaluated for Cr(VI) reduction using immobilized cells under batch culture. Screening of inert matrices for entrapment of whole cells indicated that polyvinyl alchohol-alginate was the most effective one reducing 87.5% of 20 µM Cr(VI) in 24 h. The rate of chromate reduction was dependent on initial Cr(VI) and biomass concentrations. The PVA cell beads were recycled three tim...




    Abstract - The recovery of Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362 spores from fermented medium by batch flotation was tested under different conditions. Flotation kinetic studies were performed at 800 rpm and 3 l air/min. The pH values were adjusted at the following set of values: 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0. The results showed that the spore removal rate is influenced by the pH value. At pH equal to 5.0 we observe an adverse effect on the spore concentrate obtention. In this situation the maximum value of the...

  17. Bioaccumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead by Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis Bioacumulação de cobre, zinco, cádmio e chumbo por Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus e Bacillus subtilis

    Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa


    Full Text Available This work presents some results on the use of microbes from the genus Bacillus for uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead ions. Maximum copper bioaccumulations were 5.6 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 5.9 mol/g biomass for B. cereus and B. subtilis, and 6.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. Maximum zinc bioaccumulations were 4.3 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 4.6 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 4.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 5.0 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. Maximum cadmium bioaccumulations were 8.0 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 9.5 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis, 10.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 11.8 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus. Maximum lead biomaccumulations were 0.7 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 1.1 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 1.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 1.8 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. The different Bacillus strains tested presented distinct uptake capacities, and the best results were obtained for B. subtilis and B. cereus.Este trabalho apresenta resultados de acumulação dos íons metálicos cádmio, zinco, cobre e chumbo por bactérias do gênero Bacillus. A bioacumulação máxima de cobre foi 5,6 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 5,9 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus e B. subtilis, e 6,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp.. A bioacumulação máxima de zinco foi 4,3 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 4,6 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 4,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 5,0 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. A bioacumulação máxima de cádmio foi 8,0 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 9,5 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis, 10,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 11,8 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus. A bioacumulação máxima de chumbo foi 0,7 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 1,1 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 1,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 1,8 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. As distintas linhagens de Bacillus testadas apresentaram variáveis capacidades de carregamento de íons metálicos, sendo os

  18. Evolution of resistance toward Bacillus sphaericus or a mixture of B. sphaericus+Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis, in the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Wirth, Margaret C; Jiannino, Joshua A; Federici, Brian A; Walton, William E


    The 2362 strain of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) Neide is a highly mosquitocidal bacterium used in commercial bacterial larvicides primarily to control mosquitoes of the genus Culex. Unfortunately, Bs is at high risk for selecting resistance in mosquito populations, because its binary toxin apparently only binds to a single receptor type on midgut microvilli. A potential key strategy for delaying resistance to insecticidal proteins is to use mixtures of toxins that act at different targets within the insect, especially mixtures that interact synergistically. We tested this hypothesis for delaying the phenotypic expression of resistance by exposing Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae to Bs alone or in combination with Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Two laboratory lines of Cx. quinquefasciatus, one sensitive to Bs and the other containing Bs resistance alleles, were subjected to intensive selection pressure for 20 generations with either Bs 2362 or a 3:1 mixture of Bs 2362+Cyt1A. At the end of the study, the sensitive line had evolved >1000-fold resistance when selected with Bs alone, whereas the parallel line selected with Bs+Cyt1A exhibited only low resistance toward this mixture (RR95, 1.4). Similar results were observed in the lines containing Bs resistance alleles. Both lines selected with Bs+Cyt1A exhibited substantial resistance to Bs in the absence of Cyt1A. Although selection with Bs+Cyt1A did not prevent the underlying evolution of resistance to Bs, these results suggest that a mixture of Bs with other endotoxins, particularly one like Bs+Cyt1A in which the components interact synergistically, will provide longer lasting and more effective mosquito control than Bs alone. PMID:15766932

  19. Recovery of Bacillus sphaericus spores by flocculation/sedimentation and flotation

    Christine Lamenha Luna


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was use flocculation/sedimentation and flotation for recovery of spores of the Bacillus sphaericus. Microorganism was produced batchwise using culture medium based skimmed milk, corn steep liquor and mineral salts. The best results of flocculation were obtained using CaCl2.2H2O, FeCl3.6H2O, Al2(SO43 and tannin as flocculating agents, with optimal flocculation concentrations of 1,500, 3,000, 2,000 and 1,700ppm, respectively. Flocculent suspensions were characterized based on floc diameter and density. Settling tests were performed in batch at different concentrations of the cellular suspensions and revealed high recovery of the solids in suspension in all cases. Flotation tests were accomplished using a mechanical agitated flotation cell and the process was favoured by the increase of the system agitation and for the presence of a cationic collector.O trabalho aborda a recuperação de esporos da bactéria Bacillus sphaericus por floculação/sedimentação e flotação. O microrganismo foi produzido em batelada, utilizando-se meio de cultivo à base de leite desnatado, milhocina e sais minerais. Os melhores resultados de floculação foram obtidos com os floculantes CaCl2.2H2O, FeCl3.6H2O, Al2(SO43 e tanino, com concentrações ótimas de 1.500, 3.000, 2.000 e 1.700ppm, respectivamente. Os sistemas floculentos foram caracterizados através da determinação da densidade e do diâmetro médio dos flocos. Testes de sedimentação em batelada a diferentes concentrações das suspensões celulares revelaram elevados índices de recuperação dos sólidos em suspensão em todos os casos. Os ensaios de flotação foram realizados em célula de flotação mecânica, e o processo foi favorecido pelo aumento da agitação do sistema e pela presença de um coletor catiônico.


    Umi Widyastuti


    Full Text Available A biological larvicide spherifix containing Bacillus sphaericus VCRC B 42 was investigated against Anopheles sundaicus in Klaces hamlet, Cilacap regency. This study was conducted to determine the effectivity of spherifix on An. sundaicus larvae at a dosage of 2.5 kg/Ha. Observations were conducted one day before application of the larvicide, 24, 36, 48 hours, day 4, 7, and 14 after application. The larval reduction rates were calculated using the formula of Mulia et al, 1971, and a reduction of the results were 16.69 % after 24 hours, 20.95 % after 36 hours, 34.07 % after 48 hours, 65.08 % after 4 days, 85.98 % after 7 days, and 90.81 % after 14 days. B. sphaericus has capabilities to function as a biological larvicide.

  1. Stability of Culex quinquefasciatus resistance to Bacillus sphaericus evaluated by molecular tools.

    Amorim, Liliane Barbosa; de Barros, Rosineide Arruda; Chalegre, Karlos Diogo de Melo; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Regis, Lêda Narcisa; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo


    Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin action on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae relies on the binding to Cqm1alpha-glucosidases, which act as midgut receptors. Resistance of two laboratory-selected colonies is associated with the allele cqm1(REC) that prevents Cqm1 expression as membrane-bound molecules. This study evaluated stability of resistance after the interruption of selection pressure and introduction of susceptible individuals in these colonies. Bioassays showed that frequency of resistant larvae did not decrease throughout 11 generations, under these conditions, and it was associated to a similar frequency of larvae lacking the Cqm1alpha-glucosidase receptor, detected by in gel enzymatic assays. Direct screening of the cqm1(REC) allele, by specific PCR, showed that its frequency remained stable throughout 11 generations. Parental resistant colony did not display biological costs regarding fecundity, fertility and pupal weight and data from susceptibility assays, enzymatic assays and PCR screening showed that cqm1(REC) was not disfavored in competition with the susceptible allele and persisted in the progenies, in the lack of selection pressure. Characterization of molecular basis of resistance is essential for developing diagnostic tools and data have relevant implication for the establishment of strategies for resistance management. PMID:20211258

  2. Ultrastructural analysis of midgut cells from Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae resistant to Bacillus sphaericus.

    de Melo, Janaina Viana; Vasconcelos, Romero Henrique Teixeira; Furtado, André Freire; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo


    The larvicidal action of the entomopathogen Bacillus sphaericus towards Culex quinquefasciatus is due to the binary (Bin) toxin present in crystals, which are produced during bacterial sporulation. The Bin toxin needs to recognize and bind specifically to a single class of receptors, named Cqm1, which are 60-kDa alpha-glucosidases attached to the apical membrane of midgut cells by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. C. quinquefasciatus resistance to B. sphaericus has been often associated with the absence of the alpha-glucosidase Cqm1 in larvae midgut microvilli. In this work, we aimed to investigate, at the ultrastructural level, the midgut cells from C. quinquefasciatus larvae whose resistance relies on the lack of the Cqm1 receptor. The morphological analysis showed that midgut columnar cells from the resistant larvae are characterized by a pronounced production of lipid inclusions, throughout the 4th instar. At the end of this stage, resistant larvae had an increased size and number of these inclusions in the midgut cells, while only a small number were observed in the cells from susceptible larvae. The morphological differences in the midgut cells of resistant larvae found in this work suggested that the lack of the Cqm1 receptor, which also has a physiological role as being an alpha-glucosidase, can be related to changes in the cell metabolism. The ultrastructural effects of Bin toxin on midgut epithelial cells from susceptible and resistant larvae were also investigated. The cytopathological alterations observed in susceptible larvae treated with a lethal concentration of toxin included breakdown of the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial swelling, microvillar disruption and vacuolization. Some effects were observed in cells from resistant larvae, although those alterations did not lead to larval death, indicating that the receptor Cqm1 is essential to mediate the larvicidal action of the toxin. This is the first ultrastructural study to show differences

  3. Effect of Bacillus sphaericus Neide on Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae and associated insect fauna in fish ponds in the Amazon

    Francisco Augusto da Silva Ferreira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe analyzed the effects of Bacillus sphaericus on Anopheles larvae and on the associated insect fauna in fish farming ponds. Five breeding sites in the peri-urban area of the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were studied. Seven samples were collected from each breeding site and B. sphaericus was applied and reapplied after 15 days. The samples were made at 24 h before application, 24 h post-application and 5 and 15 days post-application. We determined abundance, larval reduction and larval density for Anopheles, and abundance, richness, Shannon diversity index and classified according to the functional trophic groups for associated insect fauna. A total of 904 Anopheles larvae were collected and distributed into five species. Density data and larval reduction demonstrated the rapid effect of the biolarvicide 24 h after application. A total of 4874 associated aquatic insects belonging to six orders and 23 families were collected. Regression analysis of diversity and richness indicated that the application of the biolarvicide had no influence on these indices and thus no effect on the associated insect fauna for a period of 30 days. B. sphaericus was found to be highly effective against the larvae of Anopheles, eliminating the larvae in the first days after application, with no effect on the associated insect fauna present in the fish ponds analyzed.

  4. Single nucleotide deletion of cqm1 gene results in the development of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Guo, Qing-yun; Cai, Quan-xin; Yan, Jian-ping; Hu, Xiao-min; Zheng, Da-sheng; Yuan, Zhi-ming


    The entomopathogen Bacillus sphaericus is one of the most effective biolarvicides used to control the Culex species of mosquito. The appearance of resistance in mosquitoes to this bacterium, however, remains a threat to its continuous use in integrated mosquito control programs. Previous work showed that the resistance to B. sphaericus in Culex colonies was associated with the absence of the 60-kDa binary toxin receptor (Cpm1/Cqm1), an alpha-glucosidase present in the larval midgut microvilli. In this work, we studied the molecular basis of the resistance developed by Culex quinquefasciatus to B. sphaericus C3-41. The cqm1 genes were cloned from susceptible (CqSL) and resistant (CqRL/C3-41) colonies, respectively. The sequence of the cDNA and genomic DNA derived from CqRL/C3-41 colony differed from that of CqSL one by a one-nucleotide deletion which resulted in a premature stop codon, leading to production of a truncated protein. Recombinant Cqm1S from the CqSL colony expressed in Escherichia coli specifically bound to the Bin toxin and had α-glucosidase activity, whereas the Cqm1R from the CqRL/C3-41 colony, with a deletion of three quarters of the receptor's C-terminal lost its α-glucosidase activity and could not bind to the binary toxin. Immunoblotting experiments showed that Cqm1 was undetectable in CqRL/C3-41 larvae, although the gene was correctly transcribed. Thus, the cqm1R represents a new allele in C. quinquefasciatus that confers resistance to B. sphaericus. PMID:23871751

  5. Evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus against Mansonia dyari larvae in phosphate lakes in Polk County, Florida.

    Floore, Tom; Wardz, Robert


    Effective Mansonia larval control is difficult to achieve in Polk County, Florida, because the larvae attach to the root and stem mass of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). This study evaluated 2 Bacillus sphaericus larvicides as possible control products in 3 phosphate lakes in 2 areas maintained by Polk County Mosquito Control. VectoLex WDG was applied at 56 kg/km2 and 170 kg/km2 and VectoLex CG at 560 kg/km2 and 1,100 kg/km2. One lake in each site was an untreated control. Larval collections were made by collecting water lettuce plants that were shaken, washed, and processed through a series of sieves to grade larvae as early (1st, 2nd) and late (3rd, 4th) instars. Pretreatment and posttreatment collections were made in each lake. More than 3,100 larvae were collected during the study. Approximately 65% of the larvae collected were Ist/2nd instars in both areas. The higher rate of VectoLex CG reduced the larval population 63% and the higher rate of VectoLex WDG by 44%. Against the Ist/2nd instar aggregate the higher rate of VectoLex CG was more effective (69%) than the VectoLex WDG. The VectoLex CG granules appeared to remain nearer the surface and the larvae than the WDG granules. Better effectiveness might have been attained if the entire lake had been treated. In this study, VectoLex CG appeared to be more effective than VectoLex WDG. PMID:19852221

  6. Purification and characterization of a novel UV lesion-specific DNA glycosylase/AP lyase from Bacillus sphaericus.

    Vasquez, D A; Nyaga, S G; Lloyd, R S


    The purification and characterization of a pyrimidine dimer-specific glycosylase/AP lyase from Bacillus sphaericus (Bsp-pdg) are reported. Bsp-pdg is highly specific for DNA containing the cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, displaying no detectable activity on oligonucleotides with trans-syn I, trans-syn II, (6-4), or Dewar photoproducts. Like other glycosylase/AP lyases that sequentially cleave the N--glycosyl bond of the 5' pyrimidine of a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, and the phosphodiester backbone, this enzyme appears to utilize a primary amine as the attacking nucleophile. The formation of a covalent enzyme-DNA imino intermediate is evidenced by the ability to trap this protein-DNA complex by reduction with sodium borohydride. Also consistent with its AP lyase activity, Bsp-pdg was shown to incise an AP site-containing oligonucleotide, yielding beta- and delta-elimination products. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of this 26 kDa protein revealed little amino acid homology to any previously reported protein. This is the first report of a glycosylase/AP lyase enzyme from Bacillus sphaericus that is specific for cis-syn pyrimidine dimers. PMID:10844244

  7. The receptor of Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) midgut: molecular cloning and expression.

    Darboux, I; Nielsen-LeRoux, C; Charles, J F; Pauron, D


    Culex pipiens larval midgut is the primary target of the binary toxin (Bin) present in parasporal inclusions of Bacillus sphaericus. Cpm1, a 60-kDa protein purified from brush border membranes, has been proposed as the receptor of the Bin toxin in the midgut epithelial cells of mosquitoes. We have cloned and characterized the corresponding cDNA from midgut of Culex pipiens larvae. The open reading frame predicted a 580 amino-acid protein with a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus and a putative GPI-anchoring signal at the C-terminus. The amino acid sequence of the cloned Cpm1 exhibited 39-43% identities with insect maltases (alpha-glucosidases and alpha-amylases). Recombinant Cpm1 expressed in E. coli specifically bound to the Bin toxin and had a significant alpha-glucosidase activity but no alpha-amylase activity. These results support the view that Cpm1 is an alpha-glucosidase expressed in Culex midgut where it constitutes the receptor for the Bin toxin. To date, this is the first component involved in the mosquitocidal activity of the Bacillus sphaericus Bin toxin to be characterized. Its identification provides a key step to elucidate the mode of action of the Bin toxin and the mechanisms of resistance developed against it by some mosquito strains. PMID:11483434

  8. Studies on larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Leucas aspera Willd. (Lamiaceae) and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus, against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)

    The efficacy of whole plant ethanolic extracts of Leucas aspera and of Bacillus sphaericus was determined for larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi. When larvae were exposed to one of five concentrations of plant extract (6%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14%) for 24 h, mortality in 4th instars ranged from 1...

  9. Efficacy and efficiency of new Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines in Western Kenya.

    Fillinger, Ulrike; Knols, Bart G J; Becker, Norbert


    We evaluated the efficacy of new water-dispersible granular (WDG) formulations of Bacillus thuringienis var. israelensis (Bti; VectoBac) and B. sphaericus (Bs; VectoLex), Valent BioScience Corp., Illinois, USA) for the control of larval Anopheles gambiae sensu lato Giles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area around Lake Victoria, Western Kenya. WDG and powder formulations were compared in laboratory bioassays and followed by efficiency and residual effect assessments of both WDG formulations in open field experiments. LC50 and LC95 values for the Bti/Bs strains and their formulations show high susceptibility of A. gambiae sensu stricto under laboratory conditions. The larvae proved more susceptible to Bs than to Bti and the WDG formulations were slightly superior to the powder formulations. High efficiency was also shown in the open field trials, and a minimum dosage of 200 g/ha Bti WDG, representing the LC95 of the laboratory tests, was sufficient to fully suppress emergence of mosquitoes when applied at weekly intervals. Bti WDG did not show a residual effect, irrespective of the concentration applied. The Bs WDG formulation, however, showed significant larval reductions up to 11 days post-treatment at application doses of either 1 or 5 kg/ha. We conclude that the main malaria vector in our study area is highly susceptible to these microbial control agents. Minimum effective dosages to achieve elimination of the larval population in a given habitat are extremely low and environmental impact is negligible. Microbial products for larval control have therefore great potential within Integrated Vector Management programmes and may augment control efforts against adult vector stages, such as the use of insecticide-treated bednets, in many parts of Africa. PMID:12535249

  10. Transposon-mediated resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in a field-evolved population of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Darboux, Isabelle; Charles, Jean-François; Pauchet, Yannick; Warot, Sylvie; Pauron, David


    The binary toxin is the major active component of Bacillus sphaericus, a microbial larvicide used for controlling some vector mosquito-borne diseases. B. sphaericus resistance has been reported in many part of the world, leading to a growing concern for the usefulness of this environmental friendly insecticide. Here we characterize a novel mechanism of resistance to the binary toxin in a natural population of the West Nile virus vector, Culex pipiens. We show that the insertion of a transposable element-like DNA into the coding sequence of the midgut toxin receptor induces a new mRNA splicing event, unmasking cryptic donor and acceptor sites located in the host gene. The creation of the new intron causes the expression of an altered membrane protein, which is incapable of interacting with the toxin, thus providing the host mosquito with an advantageous phenotype. As a large portion of insect genomes is composed of transposable elements or transposable elements-related sequences, this new mechanism may be of general importance to appreciate their significance as potent agents for insect resistance to the microbial insecticides. PMID:17394558

  11. [Biolarvicide Bacillus sphaericus-2362(GRISELESF) for the control of malaria in a health area of the Republic of Honduras].

    Castro, Sergio D Blanco; Colombi, Elide; Flores, Luis Nery; Canales, Daniel


    The results of the application of biolarvicide Bacillus sphaericus-2362(GRISELESF) for the reduction of larval densities of Anopheles albimanus as the impact on the epidemiological situation of the disease in health area 2, Sanitary Region 1 of the Ministry of Health Care of Honduras. The biolarvicide was applied in 1999 in five health units which were the most affected by this tropical disease (Ojo del Agua, Villa de San Francisco, San Juan de Flores, Moroceli and El Jicarito). The dose used was 10 ml per square meter of effective breeding area; larval densities were estimated during biological pre- and post-treatment phases. The product showed 100 % effectiveness and a lasting effect up to four months after treatment in the 11 monitored breeding sites. This entomological impact led to a significantly statistical reduction (p control of malarial vectors in the Republic of Honduras. PMID:15849940

  12. Dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus spores in urban catch basins after simultaneous application against mosquito larvae.

    Valeria Guidi

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Lsph are extensively used in mosquito control programs. These biocides are the active ingredients of a commercial larvicide. Quantitative data on the fate of both Bti and Lsph applied together for the control of mosquitoes in urban drainage structures such as catch basins are lacking. We evaluated the dynamics and persistence of Bti and Lsph spores released through their concomitant application in urban catch basins in southern Switzerland. Detection and quantification of spores over time in water and sludge samples from catch basins were carried out using quantitative real-time PCR targeting both cry4A and cry4B toxin genes for Bti and the binA gene for Lsph. After treatment, Bti and Lsph spores attained concentrations of 3.76 (± 0.08 and 4.13 (± 0.09 log ml(-1 in water, then decreased progressively over time, reaching baseline values. For both Bti and Lsph, spore levels in the order of 10(5 g(-1 were observed in the bottom sludge two days after the treatment and remained constant for the whole test period (275 days. Indigenous Lsph strains were isolated from previously untreated catch basins. A selection of those was genotyped using pulsed field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA, revealing that a subset of isolates were members of the clonal population of strain 2362. No safety issues related to the use of this biopesticide in the environment have been observed during this study, because no significant increase in the number of spores was seen during the long observation period. The isolation of native Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging to the same clonal population as strain 2362 from catch basins never treated with Lsph-based products indicates that the use of a combination of Bti and Lsph for the control of mosquitoes does not introduce non-indigenous microorganisms in this area.

  13. Operational Evaluation Of Vectomax® WSP (Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. israelensis+Bacillus sphaericus) Against Larval Culex pipiens in Septic Tanks (1).

    Cetin, Huseyin; Oz, Emre; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E


    The residual effectiveness of VectoMax® WSP (a water-soluble pouch formulation containing a combination of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain AM65-52 and B. sphaericus strain ABTS 1743) when applied to septic tanks against 3rd- and 4th-stage larvae of Culex pipiens L. was evaluated in this study. This formulation was evaluated at operational application rates of 1 pouch (10 g) and 2 pouches (20 g) per septic tank. Both application rates resulted in >96% control of larvae for 24 days. Operationally, VectoMax WSP has proven to be a useful tool for the nonchemical control of Culex species in septic tank environments. PMID:26181699

  14. STUDI KOMPARATIF EFEK RESIDUAL Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 DAN Bacillus sphaericus H-5a5b TERHADAP LARVA Aedes aegypti PADA BEBERAPA TIPE TEMPAT PENAMPUNG AIR

    Salamun Salamun


    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 and Bacillus sphaericus H-5a5b are microbial agents showing high potency for vector control. They are highly specific to target insect, and do not produce any adverse environmental impact. Such agents would be very promising agents for vector control, especially vector of dengue haemorrhagic fever in Indonesia.   The present studies aimed at observing the residual effects of B. thuringiensis H-14 (VCRC B17 and B. sphaericus H-5a5b (VCRC B42 on the larvae of Aedes aegypti in some types of water container.   Two steps of the studies were carried out under laboratory conditions. First steps were bioassays to determine of VCRC B17 and VCRC B42 potencies. Second steps were residual effect testings to determine of the residual activities of both VCRC Bl 7 and VCRC B42 in the cemented, clay, and plastic containers.   Bioassays of VCRC B17 and VCRC B42 on Ae. aegypti larvae showed that the Lethal Concentrations 50% were 117.9 ug/l and 790.6 ug/l respectively. Residual effect of VCRC B17 on Ae. aegypti larvae at the concentrations ranging from 1 to 125 mg per litres, in the cemented container was 34 to 91 days, in the clay container was 28 to 49 days, and in the plastic container was 21 to 66 days. Similar studies of VCRC B42 on the same species of mosquito larvae and the same concentration range, the residual effects were 3 to 26 days, 3 to 14 days, and 2 to 16 days respectively in the cemented, clay, and plastic containers.

  15. Eficiência e Persistência de Três Produtos Comerciais à Base de Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis e Bacillus sphaericus no controle de Culicidae (Diptera em Lagoas de Tratamento de Efluentes

    Jose Lopes


    Abstract. The hematofagic effect caused by females belonging to some species of Culicidae on humans and animals can be directly related to pathogen transmission, allergic reactions and uneasiness. The emergence of populations resistant to chemical insecticides has fostered the use of alternative methods, mainly biological control. The trials were conducted in three effluent treatment lagoons, on larvae of Culicidae to test the efficiency and persistence of commercial products whose active principles are based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner and Bacillus sphaericus Neide. The products tested were Vectolex (a granulated formulation of B. sphaericus, Sphaericus (a liquid formulation of B. sphaericus and Bt-horus (a liquid formulation of B. thuringiensis. The products were applied biweekly and evaluations were conducted 0, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hours after each application. The lagoons were colonized by Culex nigripalpus Theobald (1.5%, Culex saltanensis Dyar (2.25%, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (96.25%. Bt-horus reduced larvae by 89.06%, 83.97% and 89.96% at 24, 48 and 72 hours after product application, respectively. The granulated and the liquid formulations containing B. sphaericus reduced larvae by 98.89 % and 98.34% 24 hours after application, and by 99.79% and 99.78% after 48 hours, respectively. The products and the different formulations were effective in controlling larvae of all three Culicidae species in lagoons with high levels of organic matter, but the persistence was recorded in two and three days for products containing respectively B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis israelensis.

  16. Laboratory and simulated field evaluation of a new recombinant of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus against Culex mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Zahiri, Nayer S; Federici, Brian A; Mulla, Mir S


    In the laboratory, three microbial mosquito larvicidal products consisting of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis de Barjac (Bti), Bacillus sphaericus (Neide) (Bsph) (strain 2362), and the University of California Riverside (UCR) recombinant (producing toxins of both Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis) were bioassayed against larvae of Culex quinequefasciatus Say (susceptible and resistant to Bsph 2362), and Aedes aegypti (L.). Bti proved highly effective against Cx. Quinequefasciatus susceptible and resistant strains, with LC50 values of 0.009 and 0.011 ppm and LC90 values of 0.057 and 0.026 ppm for Bsph-susceptible and -resistant strains, respectively. Bti was also highly active against Ae. eagypti with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.014 and 0.055 ppm, respectively. The UCR recombinant was equally active against both Bsph-susceptible and -resistant strains of Cx. Quinquefasciatus; LC50 values were 0.005 and 0.009 and LC90 values were 0.030 and 0.043 ppm, respectively. Bti and the UCR recombinant essentially showed similar activity against Bsph-susceptible and -resistant strains. UCR recombinant showed high toxicity against Ae. eagypti with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.023 and 0.064 ppm, respectively. Bsph was highly active against susceptible strain of Cx. quinequefasciatus with LC50 and LC9o values of 0.006 and 0.024 ppm, respectively. Bsph exhibited little toxicity against Ae. eagypti larvae and also no toxicity to Bsph resistance. In the field, we evaluated four experimental corn grit formulations of Bti (VBC 60021), Bsph (VBC 60022), UCR recombinants VBC 60023 (7.89%), and VBC 60024 (1.87%) in simulated field (microcosms) against Bsph-susceptible Culex mosquitoes. Bti and low-concentrate UCR recombinant showed similar initial activity as well as persistence. Both materials provided high-to-moderate level of control for 2-7 d posttreatment at low treatment rates. At low dosages, residual activity of Bti and UCR recombinant lasted for

  17. Partial analysis of the central domain of the Bacillus sphaericus JG-A12 S-layer protein

    310 amino acids from the central domain of the B. sphaericus JG-A12 S-layer were analyzed. In contrast to the N-terminal domain of this protein, which possesses a unique structure, the part studied in this work shares a significant identity with the corresponding parts of several other B. sphaericus S-layers. (orig.)

  18. Polyhydroxybutyrate production using agro-industrial residue as substrate by Bacillus sphaericus NCIM 5149

    Nisha V. Ramadas; Sudheer Kumar Singh; Carlos Ricardo Soccol; Ashok Pandey


    The aim of this work was to study the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) using agro- industrial residues as the carbon source. Seven substrates, viz., wheat bran, potato starch, sesame oil cake, groundnut oil cake, cassava powder, jackfruit seed powder and corn flour were hydrolyzed using commercial enzymes and the hydrolyzates assessed for selecting the best substrate for PHB production. Jackfruit seed powder gave the maximum production of PHB under submerged fermentation using Bacillus...

  19. Ausencia de toxicidad/patogenicidad de una formulación de Bacillus sphaericus 2362 (Griselesf)

    A. Mancebo; B. González Navarro; L. Riera; S. Lugo; Y. González Torres; ME Arteaga; D. Fuentes


    Los insecticidas microbianos ofrecen alternativasefectivas para el control de muchas plagas de insectos, siendouno de sus mayores atractivos su especificidad. El Griselesf esun biolarvicida producido en Cuba, que contiene Bacillus spha-ericuscepa 2362 como ingrediente activo. Con el objetivo deevaluar su toxicidad/patogenicidad, se administró el Griselesf enuna dosis única de 5.6 x 108unidades formadoras de colonia porvía oral a ratas, y por vía dérmica a dos grupos de conejos albi-nos, uno r...

  20. Proteasas alcalinas de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico Proteasas alcalinas de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico

    A. Sáez Vega


    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de cuatro fuentes de nitrógeno sobre la actividad enzimática de proteasas alcalinas, secretadas por una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico, cultivada a diferentes concentraciones de LMF (Licor de Maíz Fermentado. El crecimiento de la cepa no es afectado por los pH de inoculación de 7,0; 8,5 y 9,5; en contraste con la actividad enzimática y producción de proteína verdadera, que tuvieron sus mejores resultados a pH inicial de 8,5. A este pH se evaluaron dos fuentes de nitrógeno orgánico (extracto de levadura y peptona y dos inorgánicos (NH4Cl y NaNO3The effect of four nitrogen sources on the enzymatic activity of alkaline proteases from a wild strain of Alkalophilic Bacillus sp cultivated to different concentrations from CSL (Corn Steep Liquor. was evaluated. The growth of the strain is not affected by pH of inoculation of 7,0, 8,5 and 9,5, in contrast to the enzymatic activity and true protein production, that had their better results to initial pH of 8,5. To this initial pH of 8,5; two organic nitrogen sources (yeast extract and peptone and two inorganic ones were evaluated (NH4Cl and NaNO3. With peptone the best enzymatic activity to a relation appeared to molar C/N between 1 and 2 was found. For the studied interval of % CSL (0,5 to 2% p/v the concentration of the CSL does not affect the enzymatic activity.

  1. Caracterización de un pigmento naranja producido por una cepa nativa de bacillus spp.

    Ana María Gómez-Marín


    Full Text Available Considerando la riqueza de especies y variedades microbianas de ciertos países, la búsqueda de cepas nativas con posible potencial biotecnológico y que produzcan compuestos de interés industrial es una forma de impulsar avances científicos, económicos y sociales dentro de las regiones. En este estudio se selecciona e identifica, morfológica y bioquímicamente mediante el juego de reactivos API CHB, una cepa nativa bacteriana del género Bacillus spp., la cual produce un pigmento naranja que es aislado, purificado y caracterizado utilizando diferentes pruebas físicas, químicas y espectrofotométricas. Los resultados indican que la cepa nativa se comporta como un Bacillus subtilis, probablemente el denominado Bacillus globigii según recientes reportes basados en técnicas de identificación molecular. El pigmento naranja producido fue caracterizado, parcialmente, como una melanina, más específicamente una alomelanina, dado su origen microbiano. Debe tenerse en cuenta que la clasificación de un material dentro de esta familia es difícil y ambigua. Se ha denominado melaninas a un conjunto de compuestos biológicos que poseen una serie de características comunes. No existe un método o análisis químico o físico satisfactorio que permita decidir claramente si una sustancia particular pertenece o no a este grupo; sin embargo, existen diferentes pruebas no definitivas, aunque algunas excluyentes, que permiten sospechar si un material bajo estudio puede pertenecer a esta familia de pigmentos. Estas sustancias poseen interesantes propiedades físicas y químicas que las convierte en materiales con potenciales aplicaciones tecnológicas.

  2. Ausencia de toxicidad/patogenicidad de una formulación de Bacillus sphaericus 2362 (Griselesf

    A. Mancebo


    Full Text Available Los insecticidas microbianos ofrecen alternativasefectivas para el control de muchas plagas de insectos, siendouno de sus mayores atractivos su especificidad. El Griselesf esun biolarvicida producido en Cuba, que contiene Bacillus spha-ericuscepa 2362 como ingrediente activo. Con el objetivo deevaluar su toxicidad/patogenicidad, se administró el Griselesf enuna dosis única de 5.6 x 108unidades formadoras de colonia porvía oral a ratas, y por vía dérmica a dos grupos de conejos albi-nos, uno recibiendo una dosis de Griselesf de 1.12 x 109unida-des formadoras de colonia por animal, y el otro una dosis de 8.4x 108unidades formadoras de colonia de Bacillus sphaericuscepa 2362 por animal. En ambos ensayos, las observaciones clí-nicas fueron diarias, y se evaluó el comportamiento del pesocorporal. Además, en el ensayo por vía oral se estimó el aclara-miento mediante recolección de las heces fecales, y se evaluó lainfectividad mediante toma de muestras de fluidos y órganos. Alfinal de los ensayos se realizó la necropsia a todos los animales.No ocurrieron mortalidades, ni evidencias de patogenicidad otoxicidad relacionada con el tratamiento en ninguno de los ensa-yos. En el ensayo de toxicidad/patogenicidad aguda oral, elmicroorganismo fue aclarado rápidamente sin provocar infec-ción significativa. Se concluyó que el Griselesf no es patogéni-co por las vías oral y dérmica

  3. Mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Family:Euphorbiaceae) andBacillus sphaericus against Anopheles stephensiListon. (Diptera:Culicidae)

    C Panneerselvam; K Murugan; K Kovendan; P Mahesh Kumar; J Subramaniam


    Objective:To explore the larvicidal and pupicidal activity ofEuphorbia hirta (E. hirta)leaf extract andBacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) against the malarial vector,Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods:The larvicidal and pupicidal activity was assayed againstAn. stephensiat various concentrations ranging from (75-375 ppm) under the laboratory as well as field conditions. TheLC50 andLC90value of theE. hirta leaf extract was determined by probit analysis.Results:The plant extract showed larvicidal effects after24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the methanol extract ofE. hirta against the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of valuesLC50=137.40,172.65,217.81,269.37 and332.39 ppm;B. sphaericusagainst the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of valuesLC50=44.29,55.83,68.51,82.19 and95.55 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values ofLC50=79.13,80.42,86.01,93.00 and98.12 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control.Conclusions:These results suggest methanol leaf extracts ofE. hirta andB. sphaericus have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the malarial vector,An. stephensi as target species of vector control programs. This study provides the first report on the combined mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of this plant crude extract and bacterial toxin againstAn. stephensimosquitoes.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the functional form of BinB binary toxin from Bacillus sphaericus

    The BinB subunit of mosquito-larvicidal binary toxin from B. sphaericus has been crystallized. The crystal could diffract to a resolution of 1.75 Å and belongs to space group P6222. The binary toxin from Bacillus sphaericus consists of two proteins, BinA and BinB, which work together to exert toxicity against mosquito larvae. BinB is proposed to be a receptor-binding domain and internalizes BinA into the midgut cells, resulting in toxicity via an unknown mechanism. The functional form of BinB has been successfully crystallized. The crystals of BinB diffracted to a resolution of 1.75 Å and belong to space group P6222, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.2, c = 154.9 Å. Selenomethionine-substituted BinB (SeMetBinB) was prepared and crystallized for experimental phasing. The SeMetBinB crystal data were collected at a wavelength of 0.979 Å and diffracted to a resolution of 1.85 Å

  5. Production and characterization of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from crude glycerol by Bacillus sphaericus NII 0838 and improving its thermal properties by blending with other polymers

    Raveendran Sindhu


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB under nitrogen limited conditions by Bacillus sphaericus NII 0838 using crude glycerol from biodiesel industry as sole carbon source. Effect of various process parameters on PHB production such as glycerol concentration, inoculum size and pH of the medium were optimized. Characterization of extracted PHB was carried out by FT-IR, ¹H and 13C NMR. Results showed that the bacterial culture accumulated about 31% PHB in crude glycerol medium. The extracted PHB was blended with other polymers to improve its physical characteristics. The thermal properties of the polymer like melting temperature (Tm and heat of fusion (ΔHf were determined using DSC.

  6. Toxicidad biológica de cepas nativas de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner en larvas de Tecia solanivora Povolny

    Paola Martínez; Wilson Martínez


    La biodiversidad microbiológica de los suelos del departamento de Boyacá aún no ha sido explorada en toda su magnitud y existen microorganismos, como en el caso de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt), que pueden emplearse para el desarrollo de estrategias biológicas de control de plagas en el futuro. Por lo anterior, el presente trabajo evaluó la actividad biológica, expresada como  toxicidad, de cepas nativas de B. thuringiensis en la Polilla Guatemalteca  de  la  papa  Tecia  solanivora Po...

  7. Larval control of Anopheles (Nyssorhinchus darlingi using granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus in abandoned gold-miners excavation pools in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Use of a Bacillus sphaericus based mosquito larvicide was evaluated as an intervention for malaria vector control at a mining site in Amapá, Brazil. Impacts on larval and adult densities of the primary vector Anopheles darlingi were measured over the course of a 52 week study period. METHODS: In Calçoene, State of Amapá, gold mining activity occurs in 19 mining sites in gold-miners of Lourenço. Large pools are formed in mining sites and naturally colonized by Anopheles darlingi. During one year, the impact of applications of VectoLex(r CG to these larval sources was evaluated. Applications of 20kg/ha were made as needed, based on 10 immature (3rd, 4th instars and pupae surveillance of health and established thresholds. RESULTS: One hundred percent initial control was observed 48h after each treatment. The pools received from 2-10 (5.3±1.6 treatments during the year. The average re-treatment interval in productive pools was 9.4±4.3 weeks. During weeks 3-52 of the study, mean density of late stage larvae was 78% and pupae were 93% lower in the treated pools than in untreated pools (p< 0.0001, n=51 while reduction of adult mosquitoes was 53% in comparison to the untreated area during the last five months of the study, which were the rainy season (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: VectoLex(r CG reduced immature Anopheles darlingi infestation levels during the entire study period, and reduced adult mosquito populations during the rainy season.

  8. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on growth and enzymatic activity of a native strain of Bacillus sp Efecto de la aflatoxina B1 sobre el crecimiento y actividad proteolítica de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp

    Márquez Edna Judith


    Full Text Available The effect of different aflatoxin B1 (AFAB1 concentrations on alkaline protease growth and enzymatic activity was evaluated; a native strain of alkalophilic Bacillus sp cultivated in CSL (Corn Steep Liquor was used. It was found that the effect of AFAB1 on the strain inhibited its growth and enzymatic activity to 1 ppm, showing that the strain is highly sensible to AFAB1, meaning that medium obtained f rom Colombian corn contaminated with this mycotoxin cannot be easily used. Concentrations less than 0.1 ppm did not affect growth and enzymatic activity. Key words: Bacillus, aflatoxin, alkaline proteases.Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de aflatoxina B1 (AFAB1 sobre el crecimiento y actividad enzimática de proteasas alcalinas de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico cultivada en LAM (Licor Agotado de Maíz. Se encontró que la cepa inhibe su crecimiento y actividad enzimática a 1 ppm, lo que demuestra una alta sensibilidad de la cepa evaluada a la AFAB1 e imposibilita utilizar fácilmente medios obtenidos de maíz nacional contaminado con esta micotoxina. Las concentraciones inferiores a 0.1 ppm no tienen ningún efecto sobre el crecimiento y la actividad enzimática. Palabras clave: Bacillus, aflatoxina, proteasas alcalinas.

  9. Evaluación de cepas de Bacillus subtilis bioantagonistas de hongos fitopatógenos del género Fusarium

    Pilar Villa


    Full Text Available Cada vez más aumentan las regulaciones y las restricciones en el uso de un gran número de plaguicidas por el efecto negativo que producen al ambiente y al hombre, por lo que como alternativa para la sustitución de éstos en el control de enfermedades de los cultivos agrícolas se emplean en los últimos años los microorganismos benéficos como las rhizobacterias, en especial las del género Bacillus subtilis que presentan amplias potencialidades para este fin. Se muestran los resultados de la evaluación de diferentes cepas de este género pertenecientes a la Colección de Cultivos del ICIDCA, como bioantagonistas de hongos fitopatógenos del género Fusarium, causantes de enfermedades en la semilla botánica de la caña de azúcar y de grandes pérdidas en la agricultura. Se evaluaron las cepas de Bacillus subtilis B/23-45-6, B/23- 44-7 y B/BL¿10 mediante cultivo dual frente a los hongos Fusarium solani 2000 C-29, Fusarium sporotrichois 2000 C-30 y Fusarium oxisporum Schlechtendahl. Se observó que los Bacillus subtilis evaluados disminuyen el crecimiento micelial de estos hongos entre el 50 y 60 % en comparación con el testigo por la excresión al medio de metabolitos antifúngicos. Los resultados obtenidos nos indican que se cuenta con tres cepas de Bacillus subtilis bioantagonistas de estos hongos, promisorias para el desarrollo de nuevos bioproductos que pueden sustituir los agroquímicos empleados en la desinfección de la semilla botánica de la caña de azúcar.

  10. Toxicidad biológica de cepas nativas de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner en larvas de Tecia solanivora Povolny

    Paola Martínez


    Full Text Available La biodiversidad microbiológica de los suelos del departamento de Boyacá aún no ha sido explorada en toda su magnitud y existen microorganismos, como en el caso de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt, que pueden emplearse para el desarrollo de estrategias biológicas de control de plagas en el futuro. Por lo anterior, el presente trabajo evaluó la actividad biológica, expresada como  toxicidad, de cepas nativas de B. thuringiensis en la Polilla Guatemalteca  de  la  papa  Tecia  solanivora Povolny, una de  las plagas más  limitantes en el cultivo de papa en la región andina colombiana. Esta  evaluación  se  realizó con  aislados de  Bt obtenidos y conservados por el Grupo de Manejo Biológico de Cultivos (GMBC en el Laboratorio de Control Biológico de la UPTC, colectados de muestras de  suelo en  la Provincia Centro de Boyacá y  previamente  caracterizados  macro  y microscópicamente.  La   toxicidad  se  evaluó mediante bioensayos con larvas de primer instar de  T.  solanivora,  utilizando  el método  decontaminación superficial de cubos de papa. Se evaluó  la mortalidad  ocho  días  después  de montado  el  bioensayo  y  se  determinó, igualmente,  la Concentración letal media (Cl 50 de las cepas que presentaron  la mayor actividad  tóxica en  los  bioensayos  iniciales.  Los  aislamientosGMBC-B054, GMBC-B071, GMBC-B076, GMBC- B098, GMBC-B111 y GMBC-B117 fueron  los más activos, con Cl 50 de 1.08x106, 4.24x106, 5.12x106, 4.36x103, 3.56x103  y  1.19x104  esporas  · mL-1,respectivamente.

  11. Selección de cepas nativas con actividad Quitino-Proteolítica de Bacillus sp. aisladas de suelos tropicales Selecting native

    Beatriz Adriana Rodas Junco


    Full Text Available Bacillus sp. strains having chitinolytic and proteolytic activity which have been isolated from tropical soils Resumen: El objetivo de este trabajo fue la selección de cepas nativas del género Bacillus con actividad quitinolítica y proteolítica, en suelo tropical en la costa de Oaxaca, México. Se aislaron 150 cepas, de las cuales 22 fueron seleccionadas por presentar actividad quitinolítica y proteolítica. Dicha actividad se evaluó por la formación de halo de hidrólisis alrededor de la colonia en medios de cultivo suplementados con quitina coloidal al 5% y leche descremada al 1% respectivamente. Las cepas LUM B001, B003, B013, B015 y B065 presentaron mayor actividad quitinolítica y proteolítica, por lo que tienen el potencial para ser evaluadas en control biológico de hongos fitopatógenos. Se encontró al género Bacillus distribuido en suelos cultivados y no cultivados, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticas según el cultivo establecido (PPalabras clave: método de hidrólisis; quitina coloidal; quitinasas; proteasas.  Abstract: This work was aimed at selecting native strains from the Bacillus genus having chitinolytic and proteolytic activity from soil from the tropical coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. 150 strains were isolated, 22 of which were selected as they presented chitinolytic and proteolytic activity. Such activity was assessed by the formation of a hydrolysis halo around the colony in culture media supplemented with 5% colloidal chitin and 1% skimmed milk. The LUM B001, B003, B013, B015 and B065-chitin strains presented higher quitinolytic and proteolytic activity, thereby having the potential for being evaluated in the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi. The Bacillus genus was found in cultivated and uncultivated soils; no statistical differences were found according to established crop (p Key words: Hydrolysis method; colloidal chitin; chitinases; proteases.

  12. In vitro effect of Bacillus thuringiensis strains and Cry proteins in phytopathogenic fungi of paddy rice-field Efeito in vitro de cepas e proteínas Cry de Bacillus thuringiensis em fungos fitopatogênicos da cultura do arroz irrigado

    Neiva Knaak; Angelise Ana Rohr; Lidia Mariana Fiuza


    Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac strains and proteins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis kurstaki were assessed in the following phytopathogens: Rhizoctonia solani,Pyricularia grisea,Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani, which had their micelial growth decreased after incubation in the presence of the bacterial strains. As to Cry proteins, there were no inhibition halo development in the assessed concentrations.As cepas e proteínas Cry1Ab e Cry1Ac sintetizadas por Bacillus ...

  13. Cinética de degradación del naftaleno por células inmovilizadas húmedas de Bacillus alcalophilus cepa IDO-225

    Roberto Rafael Núñez Moreira


    Full Text Available Numerosas han sido las investigaciones sobre el estudio de la biorremediación para su aplicación en la lucha para combatir la contaminación ambiental por hidrocarburos. El Instituto de Oceanología del Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología y Ambiente, ha trabajado desde 1988 en el aislamiento y conservaci ón de bacterias marinas que sean capaces de degradar el petróleo. Actualmente, cuenta con cuatro bioproductos degradadores de petróleo en medio marino denominados BIOIL, K-BIOIL, BIOIL-FC e IDO-225. En el presente trabajo, se demuestra por Espectroscopia Infrarroja de las muestras extraídas a los 3, 6, 9, 12 y 15 d de contacto de las células húmedas inmovilizadas de Bacillus alcalophilus cepa IDO-225 en el medio de degradación con el naftaleno, un hidrocarburo del petróleo, que estas son capaces de degradar el naflateno como única fuente de carbono y energía. La degradación de este hidrocarburo por las células inmovilizadas de esta cepa se lleva a cabo mediante un mecanismo que se basa en un modelo cinético de segundo orden correspondiente a un mecanismo de metil-oxidación y b-oxidación, al igual que las células libres de dicha cepa, pero con la diferencia de que en el caso de las células inmovilizadas, el término cuadrático (metil-oxidación es mayor y el término lineal (b-oxidación es menor que en las células libres. En este mecanismo se produce acetil-CoA, el cual se incorpora al ciclo de los acidos tricarboxílicos para formar dióxido de carbono, agua y coenzimas reducidas, las cuales se dirigen a la cadena de transporte electrónica para obtener energía en forma de ATP y garantizar la síntesis de compuestos esenciales y la obtención de energía.

  14. Properties of the Bacillus Cereus strain used in probiotic CenBiot Propriedades da cepa de Bacillus cereus utilizada no probiótico CenBiot

    Carlos Gil-Turnes; Andrea Freitas dos Santos; Flávia Weykamp da Cruz; Alegani Vieira Monteiro


    Bacillus cereus CenBiot fulfilled the requirements to be used as probiotic. The spores showed D80 of 14 hs, inhibited Escherichia coli and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis after 24 hs in associative culture, were innocuous for suckling and adult mice and were not inhibited by antibiotics at low concentrations.Bacillus cereus CenBiot possui as características necessárias para ser utilizada como probiótico. Os esporos apresentaram D80 de 14 hs, inibiram Escherichia coli e Yersinia pseudotuberculosis...

  15. LSSP-PCR para la identificación de polimorfismos en el gen cry1B en cepas nativas de Bacillus thuringiensis

    Martha Ilce Orozco Mera


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: LSSP-PCR to identify polymorphisms in the gene cry1B of Bacillus thuringiensis native strain Resumen: Se estandarizó la técnica LSSP-PCR (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con un único oligonucleótido en condiciones de baja astringencia, para identificar polimorfismos del gen cry1B en aislamientos nativos de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Se evaluaron 164 aislamientos nativos colombianos identificándose el gen cry1Ba en 11 de estos aislamientos. Los 11 fragmentos amplificados, junto con el de la cepa de referencia Bt subsp. aizawai HD137, se analizaron por LSSP-PCR y los patrones electroforéticos obtenidos se compararon cualitativamente. Con los productos amplificados mediante el oligonucleótido directo se construyó un dendrograma utilizando UPGMA que  mostró tres agrupamientos con similitud de 83, 79 y 68%. La agrupación con 68% de similaridad correspondió al aislamiento nativo BtGC120 que presentó el patrón de bandas más variable. Con el oligonucleótido reverso el aislamiento BtGC120 mostró una menor variabilidad (43%. La secuencia nucleotidica obtenida de este fragmento de 806 pares de bases mostró una identidad de 93% con la secuencia de los genes cry1Bc1 de Bt morrisoni y cry1Bb1 de la cepa BT-EG5847. Se predijo del marco de lectura +3 una proteína de 268 residuos aminoácidicos, con 88% de identidad con la proteína Cry1Bc. Esta  secuencia reveló dos dominios, una endotoxina N implicada en la formación del poro y otra endotoxina M relacionada en el reconocimiento del receptor. La evaluación biológica del aislamiento BtGC120 sobre larvas de primer instar del insecto plaga Spodoptera frugiperda, mostró una CL50 de 1,896 ng de proteína total por cm2. Este estudio muestra que la LSSP-PCR es una técnica que permite identificar de una manera específica variaciones en las secuencias de los genes cry de Bt, con potencialidad

  16. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase production by new Bacillus sp. strains isolated from brazilian soil Produção de ciclodextrina glicosiltransferase por novas cepas de Bacillus sp. isoladas de solo brasileiro

    Vivian Menocci


    Full Text Available Three strains of Bacillus sp. (BACRP, BACNC-1 and BACAR were isolated from soil adhered to cassava husk. CGTase specific activity for the three isolated strains was higher when cultivated at 40ºC. Potato starch, cassava starch, maltodextrin and glucose were used as carbon source and growth temperatures varied from 25 to 55ºC. The three isolates presented higher CGTase specific activity when cultivated with potato starch at 40ºC. Isolated BACRP and BACAR presented specific activity of 4.0x10-3 and 2.2x10-3 U/mg prot at pH 7.0, respectively, when cultivated in mediums added with NaCl 2%; at pH 10,0 their activities were of 3.4x10-3 and 3.0x10-3 U/mg prot, respectively, in the same concentration of NaCl. On the other hand, the isolated BACNC-1 presented activity specific of 2.4x10-3 U/mg prot when cultivated at pH 7.0 added of NaCl 1%, and at pH 10.0 the specific activity was of 3.4x10-3 U/mg prot without NaCl addition. This work also showed the presence of cyclodextrins formed during fermentation process and that precipitation with acetone or lyophilization followed by dialysis was efficient at removing CDs (cyclodextrins, thus, eliminating interference in the activity assays. The enzyme produced by the BACAR strain was partially purified and β-CD was liberated as a reaction product.Três linhagens de Bacillus sp (BACRP, BACNC- 1 e BACAR foram isoladas a partir de solo aderido em casca de mandioca. Foram utilizados amido de batata, amido de mandioca, maltodextrina e glicose como fonte de carbono, e temperaturas de crescimento de 25-55ºC, sendo que os três isolados apresentaram maior atividade específica de CGTase quando cultivados com amido de batata a 40ºC. Em pH 7,0 os isolados BACRP e BACAR apresentaram atividade específica de 4,0x 10-3 e 2,2x10-3 U/mg prot, respectivamente, quando cultivados em meios acrescidos de 2% de NaCl; em pH 10,0 suas atividades foram de 3,4x10-3 e 3,0x10-3 U/mg prot na mesma concentração de NaCl. Por outro

  17. Ocorrência de Bacillus cereus em leite integral e capacidade enterotoxigênica das cepas isoladas Occurrence of Bacillus cereus in Whole milk and enterotoxigenic potential of the isolated strains

    N.C.M. Rezende-Lago


    Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se a presença de Bacillus cereus e a produção de enterotoxinas produzidas por esses microrganismos em 120 amostras de diversos tipos de leite. Bacillus cereus foi isolado e identificado em 22 (73,3%, 15 (50,0%, 29 (96,7% e quatro (13,3% amostras de leite em pó, cru, pasteurizado e UAT (longa vida, respectivamente. Para a detecção de enterotoxinas pela técnica da alça ligada de coelho, foram positivos, respectivamente, três (13,6%, um (7,1% e 10 (35,7% microrganismos isolados das amostras de leite em pó, leite cru e leite pasteurizado. Pelo teste de aumento de permeabilidade vascular, dois (9,1%, um (7,1%, um (3,6% e um (4,0% microrganismos isolados de leite em pó, cru, pasteurizado e UAT apresentaram-se enterotoxigênicos, respectivamente. O uso da técnica de aglutinação passiva em látex demonstrou a produção da toxina diarréica por três (33,3%, sete (63,6%, quatro (30,8% e oito (80,0% microrganismos isolados, respectivamente, de leite em pó, cru, pasteurizado e UAT. Os resultados indicam um risco potencial, podendo colocar em risco a saúde dos consumidores desses produtos.A hundred and twenty samples of different types of milk were examined to the presence of Bacillus cereus and the enterotoxigenic potential of the isolated strains. Bacillus cereus was isolated and identified in 22 (73.0%, 15 (50.0%, 29 (96.7% and four (13.3% samples of powder, raw, pasteurized and UHT milk, respectively. The enterotoxigenicity detection using the rabbit ileal loop assay showed positive, respectively, three (13.6%, one (7.1% and 10 (35.7% isolated strains from powder, raw and pasteurized milk. Using vascular permeability activity assay two (9.1%, one (7.1%, one (3.6% and one (4.0% isolated strains from powder, raw, pasteurized and UHT milk were positive, respectively. The reversed passive latex agglutination test showed diarrheal toxin production by three (33.3%, seven (63.6%, four (30.8% and eight (80.0% strains isolated from

  18. Evaluación de Cepas Nativas de Bacillus thuringiensis Como una Alternativa de Manejo Integrado de la Polilla del Tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae en Chile Evaluation of Native Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis as an Alternative of Integrated Management of the Tomato Leaf Miner (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in Chile

    Lorena Niedmann Lolas


    Full Text Available La polilla del tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es la plaga más devastadora del cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. en Chile, produciendo pérdidas del 60 al 100% en campos no tratados con insecticidas. Puesto que las plagas de insectos están desarrollando niveles de resistencia a los insecticidas convencionales, existe interés por estrategias de control que incluyen el empleo de biopesticidas. En el presente trabajo se estudió el potencial de aislados nativos de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt con actividad tóxica contra esta plaga. Los aislados de Bt fueron colectados de muestras de suelo provenientes de la VII Región del país, y fueron caracterizados empleando diferentes criterios: morfología de la colonia y de la inclusión paraesporal, electroforesis en condiciones desnaturantes, análisis Western y bioensayos contra larvas de T. absoluta. Usando la técnica Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR se obtuvo una clasificación del contenido génico utilizando partidores específicos. Todas las cepas nativas seleccionadas poseían genes de la familia cry1. Dos aislados mostraron una actividad tóxica relevante contra la larva de T. absoluta y podrían constituir una alternativa para el control de esta plaga. Estas cepas resultaron ser más efectivas que el aislado obtenido desde el producto comercial Dipel (B.thuringiensis var. kurstaki The tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is the most devastating insect pest of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. crops in Chile, producing losses from 60 to 100% in non-insecticide treated fields. Because pests are evolving to resistance levels to convencional insecticides, there is interest for alternative strategies including the use of biopesticides. In this work the insecticidal potential of native Bacillusthuringiensis (Bt strains against this plague was studied. Bt isolates were collected from soil samples of the VII Region of Chile

  19. Pectic Enzyme Activities of Bacteria Associated with Rotted Onions (Allium cepa)

    Obi, Samuel K. C.; Umezurike, Gabriel M.


    The aerobic bacteria associated with soft rot in onions (Allium cepa) were isolated and identified as a Vibrio sp., Micrococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas cepacia, an Acinetobacter sp., a Xanthomonas sp., Bacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium. With the cup-plate assay method, no pectin hydrolase could be detected from any of these isolates when they were cultured in pectin medium, but lyase and pectinesterases were detectable. Onion tissue cultures showed pectin hydrolase activity for P. c...

  20. Identification of entomopathogenic Bacillus isolated from Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae larvae and adults

    Cavados CFG


    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic bacteria isolated from Simulium larvae and adults from breeding sites in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were identified as 18 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and one of B. sphaericus. Most of these strains were serotyped according to their flagellar antigens. However, nine of the B. thuringiensis samples, could not be serotyped and were designated as "autoagglutinating"; they were also shown to be toxic in preliminary tests against Aedes aegypti larvae. Additionally, B. sphaericus was also shown to be toxic towards Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

  1. Complete genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of functionally diverse Lysinibacillus sphaericus III(3)7.

    Rey, Andrés; Silva-Quintero, Laura; Dussán, Jenny


    Lysinibacillus sphaericus III(3)7 is a native Colombian strain, the first one isolated from soil samples. This strain has shown high levels of pathogenic activity against Culex quinquefaciatus larvae in laboratory assays compared to other members of the same species. Using Pacific Biosciences sequencing technology we sequenced, annotated (de novo) and described the genome of strain III(3)7, achieving a complete genome sequence status. We then performed a comparative analysis between the newly sequenced genome and the ones previously reported for Colombian isolates L. sphaericus OT4b.31, CBAM5 and OT4b.25, with the inclusion of L. sphaericus C3-41 that has been used as a reference genome for most of previous genome sequencing projects. We concluded that L. sphaericus III(3)7 is highly similar with strain OT4b.25 and shares high levels of synteny with isolates CBAM5 and C3-41. PMID:27419068

  2. Some environmental and biological factors influencing the activity of entomopathogenic Bacillus on mosquito larvae in Brazil

    R. A. G. B Consoli


    Full Text Available The influence of environmental and biological factors on the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and B. sphaericus as mosquito larvicides are reviewed. The importance of strain dependence, cultivating media/methods, mosquito species/specificity, formulations and their relation to mosquito feeding habits, as well as temperature, solar exposure, larval density and concomitant presence of other aquatic organisms are addressed with reference to the present status of knowledge in Brazil.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Larvicidal Bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus Strain OT4b.25

    Rey, Andrés; Silva-Quintero, Laura


    Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.25 is a native Colombian strain isolated from coleopteran larvae in an oak forest near Bogotá D.C.; this strain has shown high levels of pathogenic activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in laboratory assays compared to that of other members of the same species. Using Pacific Biosciences sequencing technology, we propose a chromosomal contig of 4,665,775 bp that, according to comparative analysis, is highly similar to that of reference strain L. sphaericus C3-41. PMID:27151786

  4. Complex formation of U(VI) with Bacillus-isolates from a uranium mining waste pile

    Accumulation studies with vegetative cells and spores of three Bacillus isolates (JG-A 30, JG-A 12, JG-A 22, classified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus megaterium) from a uranium mining waste pile (Johanngeorgenstadt, Saxony) and their corresponding reference strains have shown that Bacilli accumulate high amounts of U(VI) in the concentration range examined (11-214 mg/L). Information on the binding strength and the reversibility were obtained from extraction studies with different extractants. With 0.01 M EDTA solution the uranium bound to the biomass was released almost quantitatively. The characterization of the bacterial-UO22+-complexes by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) showed the formation of inner-sphere complexes with phosphate groups of the biomass. The results lead to the conclusion that the cell wall components with phosphate residues e.g., polysaccharides, teichoic and teichuroic acids or phospholipide layers of the membranes are responsible for the uranium binding. The spectroscopic studies of the U(VI)-complexes with isolated bacterial cell walls and isolated surface-layer proteins of the strain Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602 after cell fractionation have shown that the complexation of U(VI) with intact cells (vegetative cells or spores) is different from the coordination with isolated cell wall components, especially with the S-layer proteins. For all Bacillus strains studied in this work, a significant contribution of the S-layer proteins to the binding of uranyl to living cells can be excluded. (orig.)

  5. CEPA:物流业的机遇%CEPA:opportunities for logistics industry


    @@ The Chinese mainland/Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA) became effective from zero hour Thursday, January 1,2004, with the support of the central government and joint efforts of the industry and commerce circles on both sides.

  6. Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis on microbial functional groups in sorghum rhizosphere Efeito do Bacillus thuringiensis sobre grupos funcionais de microrganismos na rizosfera de sorgo

    Carlos Brasil; Leopoldo Sussumu Matsumoto; Marco Antonio Nogueira; Flavia Regina Spago; Luís Gustavo Rampazo; Marcio Ferreira Cruz; Galdino Andrade


    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on sorghum rhizosphere microorganisms. The strains were HD1, that produces the bioinsecticidal protein, and 407, that is a mutant non-producer. The strains do not influence microbial population, but reduce plant growth and improve mycorrhizal colonization and free living fixing N2 community.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de duas cepas de Bacillus thuringiensis var. kursta...

  7. Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis on microbial functional groups in sorghum rhizosphere Efeito do Bacillus thuringiensis sobre grupos funcionais de microrganismos na rizosfera de sorgo

    Carlos Brasil


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effect of two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on sorghum rhizosphere microorganisms. The strains were HD1, that produces the bioinsecticidal protein, and 407, that is a mutant non-producer. The strains do not influence microbial population, but reduce plant growth and improve mycorrhizal colonization and free living fixing N2 community.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de duas cepas de Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki sobre microrganismos na rizosfera do sorgo. As cepas foram a HD1, produtora do cristal bioinseticida, e a 407, uma mutante não-produtora. As duas cepas não influenciam a comunidade microbiana, mas reduzem o crescimento da planta. A colonização micorrízica e a população de fixadores de N2 de vida livre aumentaram.

  8. CEPA--opportunities for logistics industry


    The Chinese mainland/HongKong CloserEconomic Partnership Arrangement(CEPA)became effective from zero hour Thursday,January 1,2004,with the support of the cen-tral government and joint efforts of the indus-try and commerce circles on both sides.

  9. Identification of multiple putative S-layer genes partly expressed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-B53.

    Lederer, Franziska L; Weinert, Ulrike; Günther, Tobias J; Raff, Johannes; Weiß, Stephan; Pollmann, Katrin


    Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-B53 was isolated from the uranium mining waste pile Haberland near Johanngeorgenstadt, Germany. Previous studies have shown that many bacteria that have been isolated from these heavy metal contaminated environments possess surface layer (S-layer) proteins that enable the bacteria to survive by binding metals with high affinity. Conversely, essential trace elements are able to cross the filter layer and reach the interior of the cell. This is especially true of the S-layer of L. sphaericus JG-B53, which possesses outstanding recrystallization and metal-binding properties. In this study, S-layer protein gene sequences encoded in the genome of L. sphaericus JG-B53 were identified using next-generation sequencing technology followed by bioinformatic analyses. The genome of L. sphaericus JG-B53 encodes at least eight putative S-layer protein genes with distinct differences. Using mRNA analysis the expression of the putative S-layer protein genes was studied. The functional S-layer protein B53 Slp1 was identified as the dominantly expressed S-layer protein in L. sphaericus JG-B53 by mRNA studies, SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing. B53 Slp1 is characterized by square lattice symmetry and a molecular mass of 116 kDa. The S-layer protein B53 Slp1 shows a high similarity to the functional S-layer protein of L. sphaericus JG-A12, which was isolated from the same uranium mining waste pile Haberland and has been described by previous research. These similarities indicate horizontal gene transfer and DNA rearrangements between these bacteria. The presence of multiple S-layer gene copies may enable the bacterial strains to quickly adapt to changing environments. PMID:23579690

  10. Establishment of Chydorus sphaericus (O.F. Muller, 1785) (Crustacea: Cladocera) in Australia: consequences of mass fish stocking from Northern Europe?

    Pranay Sharma; Kotov, Alexey A


    There are 11 species of genus Chydorus Leach, 1816 (Cladocera: Chydoridae) in Australia, including populations of Chydorus sphaericus (O.F. Müller, 1785) morphologically undistinguishable from European ones. Our genetic study of C. sphaericus from two large artificial water bodies in the Adelaide region of South Australia led us to conclude the taxon was introduced to Australia from Europe by human activity, at least in the two studied water bodies. To provide a comprehensive sister-taxa cove...

  11. Bacillus coagulans

    ... and, as a result, is often misclassified as lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacillus. In fact, some commercial products ... sporogenes or "spore-forming lactic acid bacterium." Unlike lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacillus or bifidobacteria, Bacillus coagulans forms ...

  12. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet


    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  13. A new allele conferring resistance to Lysinibacillus sphaericus is detected in low frequency in Culex quinquefasciatus field populations

    Menezes, Heverly Suzany Gouveia; Chalegre, Karlos Diogo de Melo; Romão, Tatiany Patrícia; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; de-Melo-Neto, Osvaldo Pompílio; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo


    Background The Cqm1 α-glucosidase of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae acts as the midgut receptor for the binary toxin of the biolarvicide Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Mutations within the cqm1 gene can code for aberrant polypeptides that can no longer be properly expressed or bind to the toxin, leading to insect resistance. The cqm1 REC and cqm1 REC-2 alleles were identified in a laboratory selected colony and both displayed mutations that lead to equivalent phenotypes of refractoriness to L. sph...

  14. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil

    Ashutosh Bahuguna; Madhuri K. Lily; Ashok Munjal; Ravindra N. Singh; Koushalya Dangwal


    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil.The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No.GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis.The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively.The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT.However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation.The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7.In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT.Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  15. Phylogeny in aid of the present and novel microbial lineages: diversity in Bacillus.

    Shalini Porwal

    Full Text Available Bacillus represents microbes of high economic, medical and biodefense importance. Bacillus strain identification based on 16S rRNA sequence analyses is invariably limited to species level. Secondly, certain discrepancies exist in the segregation of Bacillus subtilis strains. In the RDP/NCBI databases, out of a total of 2611 individual 16S rDNA sequences belonging to the 175 different species of the genus Bacillus, only 1586 have been identified up to species level. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus anthracis (153 strains, B. cereus (211 strains, B. thuringiensis (108 strains, B. subtilis (271 strains, B. licheniformis (131 strains, B. pumilus (83 strains, B. megaterium (47 strains, B. sphaericus (42 strains, B. clausii (39 strains and B. halodurans (36 strains were considered for generating species-specific framework and probes as tools for their rapid identification. Phylogenetic segregation of 1121, 16S rDNA sequences of 10 different Bacillus species in to 89 clusters enabled us to develop a phylogenetic frame work of 34 representative sequences. Using this phylogenetic framework, 305 out of 1025, 16S rDNA sequences presently classified as Bacillus sp. could be identified up to species level. This identification was supported by 20 to 30 nucleotides long signature sequences and in silico restriction enzyme analysis specific to the 10 Bacillus species. This integrated approach resulted in identifying around 30% of Bacillus sp. up to species level and revealed that B. subtilis strains can be segregated into two phylogenetically distinct groups, such that one of them may be renamed.

  16. Adsorption of Toxic Metals and Control of Mosquitos-borne Disease by Lysinibacillus sphaericus:Dual Benefits for Health and Environment

    Javier Edo.Vargas; Jenny Dussán


    Objective Assessment of the bacteriumL. sphaericusas a dual-action candidate for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases and bioremediation of toxic metals. Methods Larvae of the mosquito,C. quinquefasciatus, were first evaluated for metal tolerance and then exposed to 5 ppm cadmium, chromium, arsenic, and lead in assays together with seven strains of L. sphaericus. A probit regression analysis was used to estimate the LC50 of Cd, Cr, As, and Pb toC. quinquefasciatus.An analysis of covariance and multifactorial ANOVA examined the metal biosorption and larvicidal properties of the seven strains of L. sphaericus. Results We found that L. sphaericus adsorbed the toxic metal ions and was toxic against mosquito larvae. The L. sphaericus strain Ⅲ(3)7 resulted in a larvae mortality of over 80% for all the tested metals. This strain also exhibited the capacity to adsorb 76% of arsenic, 32% of lead, 25% of chromium, and 7%of cadmium. Conclusion This study found combined metal adsorption and larval toxicity associated with three strains ofL. sphaericus[Ⅲ(3)7, OT4b.31, and CBAM5]. This suggests that a combination of these strains shows strong dual potential forbiological control of mosquitosin heavy metal-contaminated areas and remediate the heavy metal contamination as well.

  17. Interaction between mosquito-larvicidal Lysinibacillus sphaericus binary toxin components: analysis of complex formation.

    Kale, Avinash; Hire, Ramesh S; Hadapad, Ashok B; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Kumar, Vinay


    The two components (BinA and BinB) of Lysinibacillus sphaericus binary toxin together are highly toxic to Culex and Anopheles mosquito larvae, and have been employed world-wide to control mosquito borne diseases. Upon binding to the membrane receptor an oligomeric form (BinA2.BinB2) of the binary toxin is expected to play role in pore formation. It is not clear if these two proteins interact in solution as well, in the absence of receptor. The interactions between active forms of BinA and BinB polypeptides were probed in solution using size-exclusion chromatography, pull-down assay, surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, and by chemically crosslinking BinA and BinB components. We demonstrate that the two proteins interact weakly with first association and dissociation rate constants of 4.5×10(3) M(-1) s(-1) and 0.8 s(-1), resulting in conformational change, most likely, in toxic BinA protein that could kinetically favor membrane translocation of the active oligomer. The weak interactions between the two toxin components could be stabilized by glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The cross-linked complex, interestingly, showed maximal Culex larvicidal activity (LC50 value of 1.59 ng mL(-1)) reported so far for combination of BinA/BinB components, and thus is an attractive option for development of new bio-pesticides for control of mosquito borne vector diseases. PMID:23974012

  18. Highly efficient in vitro biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Lysinibacillus sphaericus MR-1 and their characterization

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in diverse fields due to their superior properties. Currently the biosynthesis of AgNPs is in the limelight of modern nanotechnology because of its green properties. However, relatively low yield and inefficiency diminish the prospect of applying these biosynthesized AgNPs. In this work, a rapid mass AgNP biosynthesis method using the cell-free extract of a novel bacterial strain, Lysinibacillus sphaericus MR-1, which has been isolated from a chemical fertilizer plant, is reported. In addition, the optimum synthesis conditions of AgNPs were investigated. The optimum pH, temperature, dosage, and reaction time were 12, 70 °C, 20 mM AgNO3, and 75 min, respectively. Finally, AgNPs were characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy, zeta potential and size distribution analysis, x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results revealed that these biosynthesized AgNPs were bimolecular covered, stable, well-dispersed face centered cubic (fcc) spherical crystalline particles with diameters in the range 5–20 nm. The advantages of this approach are its simplicity, high efficiency, and eco-friendly and cost-effective features. (paper)

  19. Bacillus anthracis


    The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointe...

  20. Bacillus anthracis

    BOSERET, GÉRALDINE; Linden, Annick; Mainil, Jacques


    The literature describes several methods for detection of Bacillus anthracis based on application of specific bacteriophages. The following methods of pahoinpitely are used to identify the causative agent of anthrax: the reaction of bacteriophage titer growth (RBTG), the reaction of phage adsorption (RPA), fagoterapii method (FTM) and fluorescentserological method (FSM). The essence of RBTG consists in the following: if there is the researchform of bacteria presents in the test material, then...

  1. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  2. Establishment of Chydorus sphaericus (O.F. Muller, 1785 (Crustacea: Cladocera in Australia: consequences of mass fish stocking from Northern Europe?

    Pranay Sharma


    Full Text Available There are 11 species of genus Chydorus Leach, 1816 (Cladocera: Chydoridae in Australia, including populations of Chydorus sphaericus (O.F. Müller, 1785 morphologically undistinguishable from European ones. Our genetic study of C. sphaericus from two large artificial water bodies in the Adelaide region of South Australia led us to conclude the taxon was introduced to Australia from Europe by human activity, at least in the two studied water bodies. To provide a comprehensive sister-taxa coverage and survey of intraspecific variation, our data were complemented by sequences on Chydorus sphaericus-group from GenBank and Barcode of Life Data Systems website. We speculate that it was related to a mass stocking of introduced species of fishes from Europe. To confirm whether C. sphaericus is an invasive species due to human-mediated introductions, or whether it is a native Australian taxon, further extensive molecular studies (involving nuclear genes and detailed morphological comparisons are needed. This is a first report on the invasion of a non-daphniid species of Cladocera to Australia. Its significance for Australian ecosystems needs special future studies.

  3. Antimutagenic potential of curcumin on chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa



    Turmeric has long been used as a spice and food colouring agent in Asia. In the present investigation, the antimutagenic potential of curcumin was evaluated in Allium cepa root meristem cells. So far there is no report on the biological properties of curcumin in plant test systems. The root tip cells were treated with sodium azide at 200 and 300 μg/ml for 3 h and curcumin was given at 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml for 16 h, prior to sodium azide treatment. The tips were squashed after colchicine treatment and the cells were analyzed for chromosome aberration and mitotic index. Curcumin induces chromosomal aberration in Allium cepa root tip cells in an insignificant manner, when compared with untreated control. Sodium azide alone induces chromosomal aberrations significantly with increasing concentrations. The total number of aberrations was significantly reduced in root tip cells pretreated with curcumin. The study reveals that curcumin has antimutagenic potential against sodium azide induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa root meristem cells. In addition, it showed mild cytotoxicity by reducing the percentage of mitotic index in all curcumin treated groups, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. The antimutagenic potential of curcumin is effective at 5 μg/ml in Allium cepa root meristem cells.

  4. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion (Allium cepa L.) yields

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  5. Valorización de residuos agroindustriales para la obtención de liquenisina por Bacillus licheniformis AL 1.1

    Coronel León, Jonathan


    [spa] La cepa bacteriana AL 1.1 se aisló de una muestra de suelo de la isla Decepción del continente Antártico. Inicialmente se observó que dicha cepa tenía la capacidad de reducir la tensión superficial del medio, por lo que fue seleccionada para realizar la presente tesis doctoral. Después de confirmar la identificación del aislado como un Bacillus licheniformis se caracterizó el biotensioactivo (BT) producido como liquenisina (LchAL1.1). El estudio de las propiedades físico-químicas de la ...

  6. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE CEPAS DE Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus

    Yoania Ríos Rocafull


    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus es un microorganismo endófito que presenta, dentro de sus características, mecanismos directos e indirectos de estimulación del crecimiento vegetal. A pesar de sus grandes perspectivas para constituir el principio activo de un bioproducto de uso agrícola, en Cuba no existe ninguno elaborado a partir de esta especie bacteriana. El aislamiento de cepas del microorganismo y su caracterización constituyen pasos importantes para la obtención de un biopreparado, pues permiten la selección inicial de cepas que tengan características adecuadas para la estimulación del crecimiento. En la presente investigación se purificaron 85 aislados de microorganismos endófitos, a partir de los diferentes órganos de 24 especies vegetales. Cuatro de ellos fueron identificados como Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, al comparar sus características con las de cepas patrones de la especie bacteriana. Los microorganismos seleccionados provenían de frutos de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. y mango (Mangifera indica L., así como de tallos de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. y remolacha (Beta vulgaris L.. Se destacó la presencia del microorganismo en los dos primeros cultivos para Cuba y el aislamiento en la guayaba a nivel internacional. Las cuatro cepas mostraron diferencias en su capacidad de solubilizar fósforo, producir ácido indol acético y en su actividad antagonista frente a Fusarium moniliforme y Fusarium incarnatum. Al agruparse las cepas por sus características, se diferenciaron los microorganismos provenientes de mango y remolacha, los que se consideran promisorios para realizar estudios en condiciones in vivo del efecto de su interacción con otros cultivos.

  7. CEPA - Changing of the guard and 1998 in review



    Appointment of Celine Belanger as president of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) was announced, effective June 1, 1999. The occasion was also used to review the organisation`s activities during 1998/1999. During this period CEPA has led a number of initiatives that have established the Canadian pipeline industry as a world leader in operational safety and integrity. Major achievements included: developing the industry`s first set of recommended practices for managing stress corrosion cracking; collaborating with international groups in a $ 5.3 million U.S. research project aimed at developing a state-of-the-art internal inspection tool; creating the industry`s first database to record incidents and findings on stress corrosion cracking; evaluating new ways of streamlining existing economic and facility regulations to enable the industry to respond to increasing customer demand for flexible, low-cost, competitive transportation services; developing an enhanced Landowner Participation Process and mediation mechanism to provide the public with greater access to industry planning processes and to avoid the need for intervener funding legislation; providing input to the Alberta Special Places 2000 Project, and to the review of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and Endangered Species Protection legislation. CEPA also provided the federal government with valuable information about the effects of various climate change measures on the pipeline industry and the Canadian economy; presented a seminar at the Banff Centre for Management on relationship building with Aboriginal communities and Canada`s resource sector; and advised CEPA members on Y2K problems. True to its original mandate, CEPA also continued to promote greater understanding of the role played by Canada`s pipeline companies in the Canadian economy.

  8. Fenoloxidasa Modificada: Clave para identificar cepas de Cryptococcus neoformans

    Carlos Canelo D


    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans es la única levadura patógena capaz de sintetizar pigmentos como la melanina mediante la actividad de su enzima llamada fenoloxidasa. El objetivo del presente estudio fue implementar y estandarizar la prueba de la fenoloxidasa, como técnica complementaria en la identificación de cepas de C. neoformans. Se estudiaron 21 cepas, identificadas previamente con métodos convencionales. La prueba de la fenoloxidasa fue modificada debido a que su empleo originaba 9,6% (2/21 de falsa negatividad. Esta prueba modificada se optimizó a 28°C a partir de un medio con baja concentración de glucosa. Ningún aislamiento falso negativo fue encontrado luego de repetir tres veces el ensayo, y el pigmento melanina fue detectado con mayor rapidez.

  9. CEPA and interrelationship between Chinese yuan and Hong Kong dollar


    In order to explore the interrelated impacts of the economical communications between China and Hong Kong SAR, especially after the closer economic partnership arrangement (CEPA) and the Chinese yuan offshore financial business in Hong Kong banks in 2004, the exchange rates of the Chinese yuan and the Hong Kong dollar are investigated as well-performing market signals that should reflect this historical transformation. With vector autoregressive models (VAR), the Johansen cointegration test and the Granger ...

  10. Environmental emergency planning regulations under section 200 of CEPA, 1999

    The federal government is under pressure to adopt adequate emergency management programs which are in agreement with international standards and best practices to address incidents of any kind. It is expected that regulations will be put into effect in early 2003 by the federal government under section 200 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 (CEPA 1999). These regulations would require the development and implementation of Environmental Emergency Plans covering 174 substances (with their associated thresholds) that could harm human health or environmental quality if released. Sixteen of the substances are already in the List of Toxic Substances under CEPA 1999 or proposed for addition to the List. As work is concluded on the assessment of the remaining CEPA toxics and other hazardous substances, amendments will be submitted to the regulations. The intent and development process of this regulation was reviewed by the author. The requirements for Canadian facilities that would be subjected to the proposed regulation concerning environmental emergency prevention, preparedness, response and recovery (PPRR) plans were also outlined. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Evaluación de la capacidad de producción de antibióticos por la cepa Streptomyces diastaticus SQF108 modificada genéticamente

    Caridad Rodríguez Valdés


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se evaluó la capacidad productiva de la cepa Streptomyces diastaticus SQF108 modificada genéticamente. La cepa produce dos compuestos con marcada actividad antifúngica contra Candidas y hongos filamentosos: uno identificado como rimocidina y otro aun no reportado. Ambos compuestos son caracterizados como macrólidos poliénicos pertenecientes al grupo de los poliquétidos. Debido a la necesidad de obtener elevados rendimientos en la fermentación de ellos y además, mayor cantidad del no reportado, se modificó la cepa genéticamente mediante el proceso de la conjugación con el que se introdujo un plasmidio con potencialidades para activar rutas biosintéticas de compuestos poliquétidos. Además, se empleó un medio selectivo que favoreció la producción del compuesto no reportado. Para evaluar el comportamiento de la producción de los antibióticos, se realizó una cinética de fermentación en medio líquido, en análisis comparativo de las cepas exconjugantes con respecto a la cepa original. A los caldos obtenidos en la cinética de fermentación, se les realizaron ensayos microbiológicos de actividad antibiótica frente a Bacillus subtillis y antifúngica frente a Aspergillus niger. Los resultados evidenciaron un aumento notable de la producción de los metabolitos con actividad antifúngica en la cepa exconjugativa S. diastaticus SQF108/ pRKT-1 a las 72 h con respecto a su producción en la cepa original y controles, lo cual permitió aumentar los niveles de producción mediante la modificación genética. Además, el medio ensayado resultó selectivo para el principio activo no reportado.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis Bacillus_subtilis_L.png Bacillus_subtilis_NL.png Bacillus..._subtilis_S.png Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=S

  13. Interaction of Natural Dye (Allium cepa with Ionic Surfactants

    Shalini Chandravanshi


    Full Text Available Allium cepa is a natural dye that has been extracted from onion skin with the help of soxhlet apparatus. The pigment in the dye pelargonidin was found to be 2.25%. The interaction of the dye with ionic surfactants, namely, cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and anionic (sodium lauryl sulphate has been studied by spectrophotometrically, conductivity, and surface tension measurements. The thermodynamic and surface parameters have been evaluated for the interaction process. The results indicate {surfactant-dye} complex formation and domination of adsorption in comparison to micellization.

  14. Selección de una cepa bacteriana y un medio de cultivo industrial para la producción de poli 3-hidroxibutirato

    Arianna Núñez-Caraballo


    Full Text Available Se realizó un diseño estadístico de experimentos 32 con réplica en cada punto, con el objetivo de seleccionar una cepa y un medio de cultivo para la obtención de Poli 3- hidroxibutirato (PHB. Los resultados indicaron la selección de la cepa de Bacillus subtilis B/ 23-44-4 y un medio de cultivo compuesto por miel final de caña al 1 %, hidrolizado de levadura 1 g/l y sal común 2,5 g/l para la producción de poli-β-hidroxibutirato, con el que se logra la reducción de los costos de producción casi 6 veces por concepto de materias primas, a través de la sustitución de las fuentes de carbono y nitrógeno que hasta ahora se habían empleado.

  15. Avances en el desarrollo de formulaciones insecticidas a base de bacillus thuringiensis

    Rosas-García, Ninfa María


    El desarrollo de las formulaciones insecticidas elaboradas a base de la bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis es una tecnología centenaria que ha recibido un fuerte impacto en décadas recientes. La mezcla de esporas y cristales, que es el principio activo de estas preparaciones, ha sido objeto de estudio constante y en ello se destaca la búsqueda de cepas cada vez más potentes o mejoradas. Así mismo, los materiales utilizados incluyen una amplia variedad de ingredientes completamente biodegradables...

  16. Radiation induction of multiaberrant cells in Allium cepa L

    'Rogue' cells determined by human geneticists as the cells with many chromosome aberrations. The main enigma of this phenomenon is its levels are unexpected higher in many studies. Frequently, these cells emergence in human are linked with radiation or viruses. 'Rogue' cells supposed to be very important in mutagenesis, oncogenesis and even in evolution process. We use plant assay (Allium cepa L.) to analyze the induction of cells with many chromosome aberration of different types. Cytogenetic damage of gamma-irradiation as frequency of multiaberrant cells in the root tip cells of Allium was determined. The empiric numbers of cells with many aberrations were compared with those expected in theoretical distributions (Poisson, geometric and Pascal). The frequency of multiaberrant cells in root tip cells was increased up to 83,33 ± 10,76 % under gamma-irradiation in various doses. Gamma-irradiation induced more multiaberrant cells in A. cepa meristems than expected in theoretical distributions. We supposed dependency of chromosome aberrations origin in the same cell after irradiation. The data obtained elucidate that under gamma-irradiation accumulation of aberrations in aberrant cells are not random, the appearance of one aberration in cell induced the appearance of others in the same cell. (author)

  17. Tracking Environmental Crime Through CEPA: Canada's Environment Cops or Industry's Best Friend?

    April L. Girard


    Full Text Available This paper examines shifts in the regulation and governance of environmental crime over the twenty-year period since the passage of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA in 1988, tracing its history, policies, and enforcement record from 1989–2008. Documents assessed include Environment Canada’s enforcement data, Annual Reports, reports on its Plans and Priorities,the Senate and House of Commons five-year reviews of CEPA 1988 and CEPA 1999 and the government’s response to these reviews. The purpose of the paperis to document the process and compromises that have shaped federal environmental protection, and explore the policy paralysis this has produced.

  18. Ecotoxicity studies of antifungal metabolites of Bacillus sp. IBA 33.

    MA Gordillo


    Full Text Available El incremento de enfermedade s de plantas causado por la proliferación de patógenos resis tentes a fungicidas intensificó la investigación de nuevos metabo litos activos contra ellos. El es tudio de métodos biológicos como una a lternativa al control químico h a alcanzado relevancia en años r ecientes. Se ha sugerido que el u so de metabolitos de Bacillus , es una alternativa o un método suplementario a la protección química de las plantas, siempre y cuando ellos no sean tóxicos para los consumidores y sean amiga bles para el medio ambiente. Se ha ev aluado la toxicidad de diferent es concentraciones de metabolito s antifúngicos producidos por Bacillus sp. IBA33. Se investigó su capacidad para inducir efectos citotóxicos mediante diferentes tests como hemólisis e inmovilización de Artemia salina y Allium cepa L. Con 2.56 mg/ml de metabolitos antifúngicos la hemólisis alcanzó 24.07%, para 1 .28 mg/ml fue 14%. La HC 50 fue 10.41 mg/ml. Nauplios de Artemia salina expuestos a 3.2; 1.6 y 0.8 mg/ml de metabolitos antifúngicos mostraron 80; 20 y 10% de morta lidad respectivamente después d e 24 h de tratamiento; la LD 50 fue 2.24 mg/ml. En el test de Allium cepa L después de 72 h de tratamien to, la longitud de las raíces fueron 8.75; 10.35 y 23.75 mm con 3.2; 1.6 y 0.8 mg/ml de metabolitos antifúngicos respectivamente, con una EC 50 de 0.078 mg/ml. Después de 144 h la EC 50 fue 4.11 mg/ml. Solamente con 3.2 mg/ml de metabolitos fue ron observadas aberraciones cromosómicas, vacualización y descentralización de los núcleos en las células de Allium cepa L. No se observaron micronúcleos. Bajo las condiciones experimentales, las concentraciones de metaboli tos antifúngicos ensayadas son consideradas no tóxicas.

  19. BacillusRegNet

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard;


    interactions. There is a need to develop new platform technologies that can be applied to the investigation of whole-genome datasets in an efficient and cost-effective manner. One such approach is the transfer of existing knowledge from well-studied organisms to closely-related organisms. In this paper, we...... associated BacillusRegNet website (

  20. Repairing Effect of Allium Cepa on Testis Degeneration Caused by Toxoplasma Gondii in The Rat

    Yagoob Garedaghi; Seyed Razi Bahavarnia


    Objectives: Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, infectS a large proportion of the world population yearly. This study was investigated to evaluate the remedial effects of allium cepa on testis degeneration in male rats infected by T.gondii, RH strain. Materials and Methods: Wistar male rats (n=40) divided into control (n=10) and experimental (n=30) groups. The experimental groups were divided into two groups; allium cepa group (n=10) received 1cc of fresh onion juice daily and th...

  1. Chromosomal and Nuclear Alterations in Root Tip Cells of Allium Cepa L. Induced by Alprazolam

    Nefic, Hilada; Musanovic, Jasmin; Metovic, Azra; Kurteshi, Kemajl


    ABSTRACT Introduction: Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine used in panic disorders and other anxiety states. Target organ of Alprazolam is CNS, causing depression of respiration and consciousness. Aim: This study aimed to estimate the genotoxic potential of Alprazolam using Allium cepa test. Methods: Allium cepa is one of the most suitable plants for detecting different types of xenobiotics. The test enables the assessment of different genetic endpoints making possible damage to the DNA of...

  2. Cepas nativas del bacterioneuston marino y su actividad inhibitoria de bacterias ictiopatógenas

    Jorge León


    Full Text Available En la literatura científica, las bacterias marinas han sido consideradas con frecuencia como productores de sustancias antibacterianas. En este estudio, se investigó el potencial de actividad antibiótica in vitro de cepas nativas de bacterioneuston marino aisladas de las pozas intermareales de Montemar, Bahía de Valparaiso, Chile. Se aislaron 71 cepas neustónicas antagonistas a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 11632. Veinticinco de ellas, productoras de sustancias fuertemente inhibitorias, fueron evaluadas por su antagonismo frente a una colección de 15 bacterias ictiopatógenas. Aplicando métodos clásicos para bacterias marinas, se caracterizaron fenotípicamente orientados a la identificación. Los resultados de antibiosis indican que la totalidad cle las ictiopatógenas en prueba son susceptibles a la actividad inhibitoria de las cepas neustónicas, siendo V anguillarum NCMB 2133, V ordalii 84/2559 y V tubiashii EX1 las más sensibles. Entre las cepas aisladas del neuston se identificaron miembros de los géneros Vibrio spp. (28%, Flavobacterium spp. (12%, Alteromonas-Marinomonas (12%, Pseudomonas spp (8% y Micrococcus spp, (4%. Nueve cepas (36% no fueron identificadas. Los resultados de actividades inhibitorias frente a ictiopatógenos sugieren que dichas cepas o sus productos pudieran ser útiles en actividades de cultivos intensivos de maricultura de peces, moluscos y crustáceos.

  3. Compatibilidad entre nueve cepas de Biomphalaria glabrata de áreas endémicas y no endémicas y una cepa de Schistosoma mansoni venezolanas

    Pino Luz A.


    Full Text Available Se infectaron experimentalmente 9 lotes de 32 caracoles B. glabrata (de 5 a 7mm de diámetro con miracidios de la cepa C5 de Schistosoma mansoni a razón de 5 miracidios por caracol, pertenecientes a las siguientes cepas: En el área endémica de transmisión de Esquistosomiasis mansoni a Sector Puerta Negra, Lago Valencia, b Cagua c Ingenio Bolívar (Estado Aragua d Mariara e Caserío El 25 f Güigüe (Estado Carabobo. Fuera del área endémica de transmisión g Anzoátegui (Estado Lara, h Chabasquén (Estado Portuguesa, i Sector La Elvira, Caripe (Estado Monagas. El período prepatente intramolusco, osciló entre 23 y 25 días, para las 9 cepas evaluadas. La duración total de la infección fue muy variable desde 20 días para la cepa Chabasquén, hasta 93 días para la de Güigüe.La producción total promedio de cercarias al tercer día de iniciada la emisión varió desde X = 74,4 para la cepa de Mariara, hasta X = 591,7 para la cepa de Chabasquén. Se evidenció la existencia de diferencias estadísticamente significativas (H = 97,4, P < 0,05 en la producción total de cercarias al tercer día de iniciada la emisión, detectándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas para casi todas las 36 combinaciones, excepto para las cuatro siguientes: Mariara/Ingenio Bolívar, Cagua/Caserío El 25, Lago de Valencia/Güigüe y Güigüe/Caripe.En lo que respecta al porcentaje de caracoles que presentaron cura espontánea, los valores mas elevados se obtuvieron en las cepas del Lago de Valencia (88,8%, Cagua (85,2%, Chabasquén (82,6%, Caripe (82,6% y Anzoátegui (80%. Mientras que el porcentaje mas bajo se obtuvo para la cepa de Güigüe (21,4%.

  4. Efeito fungistático de Bacillus thuringiensis e de outras bactérias sobre alguns fungos fitopatogênicos Fungistatic effect of Bacillus thuringiensis and of other bacteria on some plant pathogenic fungi

    Carlos Brasil Batista Junior; Ulisses Brigatto Albino; Alexandre Martin Martines; Dennis Panayotes Saridakis; Leopoldo Sussumu Matsumoto; Marco Antonio Avanzi; Galdino Andrade


    Quatro isolados bacterianos da rizosfera de Drosera villosa var. villosa (B1, B2, B3, B4) e dois isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis (B5 e B6), sendo B6 produtor da toxina bioinseticida Cry1Ab, foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de inibir os fungos fitopatogênicos Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, Fusarium oxysporum e Colletotrichum sp. A cepa mais efetiva foi B1 que inibiu o crescimento dos quatro fungos até o 26º dia. B. thuringiensis inibiu o crescimento de ...

  5. The Diversity and Abundance of Small Arthropods in Onion, Allium cepa, Seed Crops, and their Potential Role in Pollination

    Walker, M.K.; Howlett, B. G.; Wallace, A.R.; Mccallum, J. A.; Teulon, D.A.J.


    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that sma...

  6. Infectividad de Metarhizium anisopliae en contra de cepas de garrapata Boophilus microplus sensible y resistente a los organofosforados

    Manuel Fernández-Ruvalcaba; Elyes Zhioua; Zeferino García-Vázquez


    La infectividad del hongo entomopatogénico Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) fue probada en contra de una cepa de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) sensible, y otra resistente a los organofosforados, por medio de un ensayo in vitro con hembras ingurgitadas de B. microplus recién desprendidas del bovino, utilizando la cepa ECS1 de M. anisopliae. El micromiceto M. anisopliae demostró ser altamente infectivo, tanto para la cepa sensible como para la resistente a los organofosforados a la conc...

  7. Sobrevivencia de células vegetativas de Bacillus thuringiensis en la espermosfera/rizosfera de frijol

    M. A. Medrano Gonz\\u00E1lez; H. A. Luna Olvera; J. J. Pe\\u00F1a Cabriales; J. M. S\\u00E1nchez Y\\u00E1\\u00F1ez


    El control biológico con Bacillus thuringienses (B. th) de plagas que atacan el sistema radical de las plantas es de interés, porque disminuye la aplicación de pesticidas que pueden causar contaminación ambiental, aunque es necesario conocer el comportamiento de las células vegetativas de la bacteria en la espermósfera-rizósfera de las plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la sobrevivencia de células vegetativas de B. th cepa GM-2 subespecie coahuilense ...

  8. Identification and characterization of the Sudanese Bacillus thuringiensis and related bacterial strains for their efficacy against Helicoverpa armigera and Tribolium castaneum.

    Gorashi, N E; Tripathi, M; Kalia, V; Gujar, G T


    Forty-four isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis like bacteria from various sources in different locations from Sudan were tested for their insecticidal activity. The toxicity of these isolates ranged from 6.6 to 70% to the neonates of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera at 10 ppm concentration. The most effective ones are Kb-29, St-6 and Wh-1 comparable with HD-1. Toxicity of isolates to larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum ranged from 20 to 100%. Isolates St-2 and St-23 gave 100% larval mortality within 15 days of exposure and were at par with Ab-8, Ab-12, Kb-26, Kb-30, Om-4, Po-2, Po-5, Po-7, Sa-8 and Wh-5 and were also comparable with E. coli clone expressing Cry3 toxin. The most effective five isolates viz., Kb-29, St-2, St-6, St-23 and Wh-1 belonged to B. thuringiensis. The St-6 isolate, which also showed high toxicity to T. castaneum larvae, had cry1 genes along with coleopteran active cry28 genes, but not cry3 genes. Of the 25 isolates characterized with 16s DNA sequencing, seven belonged to Paenibacillus spp., one Lysinibacillus sphaericus, one Bacillus pumilus, four Bacillus spp., and rest 12 belonged to B. thuringiensis. Biochemical characterization in each species showed variation. The present study shows potential of some isolates like Kb-29, St-2, St-6, St-23 and Wh-1 as promising bioinsecticides. PMID:24956895

  9. Potencial probiótico de cepas nativas para uso como aditivos en la alimentación avícola

    Cecilia Lara Mantilla


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Título en ingles: Probiotic potential of native strains, for as feed additives for poultry Resumen: Se evaluó in vitro el potencial probiótico de cepas nativas aisladas de las heces de pollos asilvestrados (Gallus gallus pertenecientes a los géneros Lactobacillus sp, Bacillus sp y levaduras tipo saccharomyces sp; se determinó la actividad probiótica mediante pruebas de resistencia al ácido (pH  3, 4, 5, 6, 7, sales de bilis (0,05, 0,1, 0,15, 0.3 %, tolerancia al NaCl (2, 4, 7, 10 %, actividad antagónica (Salmonella sp, E. coli, determinación del tipo de fermentación, crecimiento a temperaturas (28,37,43°C y capacidad de crecimiento. Las cepas con mayor tolerancia se identificaron a través de pruebas bioquímicas y fermentación de carbohidratos. Como resultado se observó que tres microorganismos: Saccharomyces sp. (3, Bacillus sp. (7 y Lactobacillus sp. (14 poseen propiedades probióticas. Palabras claves: Gallus gallus; Saccharomyces sp.;  Bacillus sp.; Lactobacillus sp.; aditivos  microbianos. Abstract: Was evaluated in vitro the probiotic potential of native strains isolated from feces of wild chickens (Gallus gallus belonging to the genera Lactobacillus sp., Bacillus sp. and

  10. Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis—One Species on the Basis of Genetic Evidence

    Helgason, Erlendur; Økstad, Ole Andreas; Dominique A. Caugant; Johansen, Henning A.; Fouet, Agnes; Mock, Michéle; Hegna, Ida; Kolstø, Anne-Brit


    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are members of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, demonstrating widely different phenotypes and pathological effects. B. anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax and is a potential biological weapon due to its high toxicity. B. thuringiensis produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide number of insect larvae and is the most commonly used biological pesticide worldwide. B. cereus is a probably ubiquitous so...

  11. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    Marinangeli, Pablo


    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation. PMID:23179710

  12. CEPA calculations on open-shell molecules. Pt. 11

    Ab initio calculations at SCF and CEPA levels using large Gaussian basis sets have been performed for the two lowest electronic states, X2Σ+ and A2Π, of HeAr+. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects have been added using a semiempirical treatment. The resulting potential curves for the three states X, A1, and A2 have been used to evaluate molecular constants such as vibrational intervals ΔG(υ+1/2) and rotational constants Bυ as well as - by means of a Dunham expansion - equilibrium constants such as Re, ωe, Be etc. Comparison with the experimental data from UV emission spectroscopy shows that the calculated potential curves are slightly too shallow and have too large equilibrium distances: De=242 cm-1 and Re=2.66 A compared to the experimental values of 262 cm-1 and 2.585 A, respectively, for the X2Σ+ ground state. However, the ab initio calculations yield more bound vibrational levels than observed experimentally and allow for a more complete Dunham analysis, in particular for the A2 state. The experimental value of 154 cm-1 for the dissociation energy De of this state is certainly too low; our best estimate is 180±5 cm-1. For the A1 state our calculations are predictions since this state has not yet been observed experimentally. (orig.)

  13. Inactivation of Spores of Bacillus anthracis Sterne, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis by Chlorination

    Rice, E W; Adcock, N. J.; Sivaganesan, M; Rose, L. J.


    Three species of Bacillus were evaluated as potential surrogates for Bacillus anthracis for determining the sporicidal activity of chlorination as commonly used in drinking water treatment. Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were found to be an appropriate surrogate for spores of B. anthracis for use in chlorine inactivation studies.

  14. Caracterización de tres cepas bacterianas capaces de fijar nitrógeno y biodegradar hidrocarburos aisladas de un suelo de la Patagonia

    A.J. Acuña


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar tres microorganismos capaces de biodegradar hidrocarburos en ausencia de nitrógeno aislados a partir de un suelo de la Patagonia con una larga historia de contaminación por petróleo y sus derivados. Para ello se aislaron tres cepas bacterianas de un suelo patagónico con baja concentración de nitrógeno y contaminado con hidrocarburos. Estos fueron identificados por ARNr 16S y ácidos grasos de membrana. También se estudiaron sus perfiles de biodegradación de hidrocarburos en presencia y en ausencia de nitrógeno con hidrocarburos alifáticos, cíclicos, aromáticos y poliaromáticos. La capacidad de realizar fijación biológica de nitrógeno se estudió por reducción de acetileno y detección del gen nifD. Por otro lado, se realizó un estudio por desarrollo en cultivo líquido para conocer la adaptación a diferentes pH, entre 5 y 9, temperatura, de 15 a 65 °C, y concentraciones crecientes de NaCl entre 0 y 3M. Los microorganismos aislados correspondieron a los géneros Pseudomonas, Bacillus y Gordonia, todos con capacidad de fijar nitrógeno. Las cepas biodegradaron casi la totalidad de los hidrocarburos ensayados en presencia y ausencia de nitrógeno y tuvieron una buena adaptación a los cambios de pH, temperatura y concentración de NaCl, demostrando una buena adaptación a los principales factores de estrés en los suelos patagónicos.


    Raúl Poutou P


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar preliminarmente in vitro algunas propiedades probióticas de dos cepas nativas de S.cerevisiae. Materiales y métodos. Las cepas fueron utilizadas en ensayos de tolerancia a sales biliares, pH, temperatura, adherencia a Salmonella spp., E.coli y Shigella spp., y antagonismo. Se realizó un diseño factorial 33 x 3, con tres niveles de cada factor (cepa, pH y concentración inicial de sustrato por triplicado, para establecer las condiciones de cultivo de cada cepa. Como control se empleó una cepa comercial (B. La cepa seleccionada se empleó para la producción en biorreactor de 2L; la biomasa fue sometida a secado por temperatura; al producto resultante se le determinó concentración de N2 y la viabilidad celular. Resultados. La cepa A (obtenida de caña de azúcar, toleró pH 3 ± 0.2, 0.3% (p/v de sales biliares y 42oC. El ANOVA del diseño factorial reportó diferencias significativas entre los 27 ensayos (p£0.05, el análisis de superficies reportó que la interacción entre los factores cepa y Sustrato (S0 son significativos, sugiriendo para la optimización la cepa A y concentraciones crecientes de S0. Los resultados se reprodujeron en biorreactor con mx 0.31h-1, td 2.18h y Y(x/s 0.126g/g; la biomasa seca obtenida fue viable y reportó entre 6.3 y 6.9% N2/g. Conclusiones. Se identificaron levaduras nativas con propiedades probióticas como tolerancia a pH, sales biliares, temperatura y adherencia a Salmonella spp., E.coli y Shigella spp.

  16. Aislamiento e identificación de una cepa de levadura con efecto killer

    Xiomara Alvarez


    Full Text Available La Colección de Microorganismos ICIDCA brinda, entre otros, servicios de aislamiento, identificación y guardería de cepas de interés industrial. La carencia de sistemas de enfriamientos en la mayoría de las destilerías cubanas y las elevadas temperaturas impuestas por nuestro clima tropical, aumentan el interés por la utilización de cepas de naturaleza termófila, de mayor viabilidad bajo estas condiciones. Se aisló, a partir de un cultivo de cachaza a 50 °C, una cepa de levadura termófila identificada como Saccharomyces cerevisiae la cual fue nombrada XI. Se realizaron corridas, a escala de banco, para la producción de etanol a partir de miel clarificada con la cepa aislada. Se obtuvieron valores de 5.4 y 5.0 % de etanol, rendimientos del 43.5 y 42 % y eficiencia de 67.4 y 65.0 %, a 37 y 40 °C respectivamente. Estos resultados se comparan con los reportados por nuestras destilerías. Otro aspecto importante que presenta esta cepa es el carácter killer, factor que puede ser de interés en la fermentación alcohólica ya que impediría el desarrollo de microorganismos no deseados en dicho proceso.

  17. Testicular toxicity and sperm quality following cadmium exposure in rats: Ameliorative potentials of Allium cepa

    Serah F Ige


    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Allium cepa crude extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6. Group 1 was used as control, group 2 was administered 0.3 mg/kgBW of cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 intraperitoneally for 3 days, group 3 was pretreated with 1 ml/100 g BW of Allium cepa (AcE for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal administration of 0.3 mg/kgBW of CdSO 4 in the last 3 days of experiment, and group 4 was administered 1 ml/100 g BW of AcE throughout the experiment. Testicular weight and semen analysis revealing the sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology was carried out. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation status were also carried out in testes. Results: The study demonstrated that Allium cepa ameliorated CdSO 4 -induced alteration in testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. It also showed that Allium cepa attenuated the derangement of lipid peroxidation profile in testicular tissues caused by CdSO 4 exposure. Conclusions: The findings in the study showed that pre-treatment of rat model with Allium cepa extract prevented CdSO 4 -induced reproductive toxicity by improving sperm quality and enhancing testicular lipid peroxidation status.


    Riyaz Shaik et al


    Full Text Available In the present study, we have chosen a plant named Allium cepa Linn (Liliaceae to evaluate its hepatoprotective activity in experimental animals. Different pharmacological activities are reported with different parts of this plant. Some of its medicinal properties reported are as stimulant, diuretic, anti-tubercular, anthelmintic, and used for various diseases like diabetes, skin diseases, rheumatism, asthma, nausea and constipation. From the literature we found that A. cepa has also been traditionally indicated for treatment of hepatic disorders. This prompt us to select bulb extracts of this plant for the study of hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals. Phytochemical screening of A. cepa revealed the presence of Saponins, carbohydrate, steroids, Flavonoids. The present study was made to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Allium cepa in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatic injury in experimental animals. Hepatoprotective activity of A. cepa was studied by estimating the serum levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, direct and total bilirubin. The treatment with AEAC and AQEAC showed significant reduction of CCl4 and paracetamol induced elevated serum enzyme and pigment levels. Histopathology of liver shows hepatoprotective effect of these extracts.

  19. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of penicillin V acylase from Bacillus subtilis

    Rathinaswamy, Priya; Pundle, Archana V.; Prabhune, Asmita A.; SivaRaman, Hepzibah [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008 (India); Brannigan, James A., E-mail:; Dodson, Guy G. [Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of York, York YO10 5YW (United Kingdom); Suresh, C. G., E-mail: [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008 (India)


    An unannotated protein reported from B. subtilis has been expressed in E. coli and identified as possessing penicillin V acylase activity. The crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of this penicillin V acylase is presented. Penicillin acylase proteins are amidohydrolase enzymes that cleave penicillins at the amide bond connecting the side chain to their β-lactam nucleus. An unannotated protein from Bacillus subtilis has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and confirmed to possess penicillin V acylase activity. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 4 M sodium formate in 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.2. Diffraction data were collected under cryogenic conditions to a spacing of 2.5 Å. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.0, b = 308.0, c = 56.0 Å. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 3.23 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 62% solvent content. The structure has been solved using molecular-replacement methods with B. sphaericus penicillin V acylase (PDB code 2pva) as the search model.

  20. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    S.J. Zheng


    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A. sativum ), leek ( A. porrum ) and bunching onion ( A. fistulosum ) are very important vegetable crops on a worldwide scale. A. cepa is cultivated mainly as a biennial but some types are treated as perennials. It is propagated by seeds, bulbs, or sets (small bulbs). TThe bulbs of common onion are large, ...

  1. Comparison of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus

    Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related, spore forming soil bacteria. B. thuringiensis produces insecticidal crystal proteins during sporulation and these toxins are the most important biopesticides in the world today. Genomes of the B. thuringiensis and B. cereus strains were analysed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis after treatment of the DNA with the restriction enzyme NotI. The NotI fingerprint patterns varied both within the B. thuringiensis and the B. cereus strains. The size of the fragments varied between 15 and 1350 kb. When physical maps of the B. thuringiensis and B. cereus strains were compared, B. thuringiensis appeared to be as closely related to B. cereus as the B. cereus strains were to each other. Nine out of 12 B. thuringiensis strains and 18 out of 25 B. cereus strains produced enterotoxins. The close relationship between B. thuringiensis and B. cereus should be taken into consideration when B. thuringiensis is used as a biopesticide. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  2. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  3. Biodiversity in Bacillus cereus

    Pielaat A; Fricker M; Nauta MJ; Leusden FM van; MGB


    Experiments have been performed by different partners to identify variability in properties of Bacillus cereus strains that contribute to the extent of their virulence as part of an EU project. To this end, 100 B. cereus strains were selected and screened for biological properties, such as toxin pro

  4. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    Zheng, S.J.


    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A. sativum ), leek ( A. porrum ) and bunching onion ( A. fistulosum ) are very important vegetable crops on a

  5. Biodegradación de DDT por dos cepas nativas de hongos de la podredumbre blanca

    Osmel Domínguez


    Trametes maxima MUCL 44155, las cuales producen elevados niveles de las enzimas lacasa y MnP en el medio Kimura suplementado con diferentes concentraciones de DDT (5, 10 and 15 mg.L-1. El hecho de que nuestras cepas excreten estas enzimas es un resultado importante dado que las mismas presentan una estrecha relación con la degradación de DDT. La cromatografía gaseosa realizada a las muestras de DDT tratadas con ambas cepas confirmó la transformación del DDT y la aparición de productos de degradación en el tratamiento con la cepa B-18.

  6. Enterotoxigenicidade de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes pontos do fluxograma de abate bovino

    Rossi Júnior O.D.; Amaral L.A.; Nader Filho A; Schocken-Iturrino R.P.


    Com o objetivo de verificar a capacidade enterotoxigênica de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes produtos e locais no fluxograma de abate bovino, foram testadas 102 cepas (18 da espécie A. hydrophila, 65 da espécie A. caviae e 19 atípicas) ante os testes de inoculação intragástrica em camundongo lactente e em alça intestinal ligada de coelho. Revelaram-se como produtoras de enterotoxinas três (16,7%) cepas da espécie A. hydrophila, originárias das mãos do manipulador antes que ele i...

  7. Evaluación en modelos animales de cepas vivas atenuadas de vibrio cholerae O139

    Talena Ledón


    Full Text Available CRC3222 y CRC3241 son mutantes mshA derivados de una cepa salvaje de Vibrio cholerae O139, estos fueron obtenidos mediante una serie de modificaciones genéticas que incluyó la deleción de los genes del fago CTXfi. Dichos clones además están marcados con el gen heterólogo celA, el cual se insertó en el locus de hapA. Estudios previos han demostrado que estas cepas poseen características adecuadas para ser empleadas como vacunas vivas contra cólera; la virulencia y capacidad colonizadora de CRC3222 y CRC3241 fueron estudiadas en el modelo de ratón lactante. En este trabajo se evalúa su desempeño en el modelo de conejo adulto, el cual se utilizó para estudiar el potencial inmunogénico de estas cepas. Luego de la inoculación intraduodenal con una simple dosis de 109 UFC de CRC3222, CRC3241 y sus cepas parentales, se determinó tanto el título de anticuerpos IgG anti-LPS O139, como el de anticuerpos con actividad vibriocida presentes en el suero de los conejos inmunizados. Estos estudios indicaron que ambas cepas generaron una buena respuesta inmune, ya que se detectó un incremento de más de cuatro veces en los títulos de anticuerpos bactericidas de todos los conejos vacunados, con relación al suero pre-inmune. No se detectaron diferencias significativas en la respuesta de los mutantes mshA, con relación a sus cepas parentales, independientemente de su fenotipo de motilidad. Este experimento demostró que CRC3222 y CRC3241 son potenciales candidatos vacunales contra la infección con Vibrio cholerae O139.

  8. An Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentials of Onion (Allium cepa L. on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rabbits

    G.G. Akunna


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism whose prevalence is raising globally, especially the resource -starved countries such as Nigeria. Since antiquity, diabetes has been treated with plant medicines. Several investigations have confirmed the efficacy of many of these traditional preparations, some of which have proven efficacy. In the present study, the hypoglycemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (A.cepa aqueous extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 15 adult male rabbits, using 200 mg kg-1 of alloxan monohydrate as a single intraperitoneal injection. These alloxan -diabetic rabbits were then divided into three groups; one group was administered aqueous extract of A. cepa 100 mg Kg-1 b.wt. orally daily for 30 days, another group received A. Cepa 300 mg kg-1 b.wt. orally daily for 30 days and the last group of diabetic rabbits received peanut oil (the vehicle instead of A. cepa to serve as the diabetic control. There were also five rabbits which received neither alloxan nor A. cepa (the negative control group. All the liver histological derangements caused by diabetes were attenuated in the A. cepa-treated group. Increasing dosages of A. cepa aqueous extract produced a dose-dependent significant reduction in the blood glucose levels. Additionally, A. cepa remarkably improved the reduction of antioxidant parameters-Superoxide dismutase, catalase (SOD, catalase (CAT Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx , Reduced Glutathione (GSH and increased malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation. It is concluded based on these findings that A. cepa may be effective in ameliorating diabetics related hepatotoxicity and alterations of biochemical parameters.

  9. Configuration of nucleolarDNA in situ in nucleolus ofAllium cepa cells


    The location and configuration of nucleolar DNA have not beendetermined for a long time. In this paper, we have observed the nucleolar ultrastructure and the character of nucleolar DNA in Allium cepa cells by conventional electron microscopy and the cytochemical NAMA-Ur DNA specific staining method. Furthermore, we have properly improved the NAMA-Ur method so as to analyze the location and configuration of nucleolar DNA in situ. Our results indicated that the nucleolar DNA in Allium cepa cells is mainly located at the border between fibrillar centers and dense fibrillar component, especially distributed in the configuration of encircling the fibrillar centers.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma


    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  11. The cepa project: a new model for community-based program planning.

    Buchanan, D; Apostol, E; Balfour, D; Claudio, C; Marinoff, J; O'Hare, N; Rodriguez, M; Santiago, C


    The article describes a new model of community-based program planning developed by the Centro de Educacion, Prevencion y Accion (CEPA) project, an HIV prevention program for Puerto Ricans located in Holyoke, Massachusetts. Based on models of critical thinking, empowerment and participatory education, the basic philosophy of the CEPA project is to narrow the gap between program developers and program recipients to the greatest extent possible. The article discusses the successes and challenges encountered in approaching this ideal. The article concludes with recommendations for public health professionals considering the use of community-based approaches to address public health issues. PMID:20841236

  12. Evaluación del antagonismo de Trichoderma sp. y Bacillus subtilis contra tres patógenos del ajo

    Karina Astorga-Quirós


    Full Text Available La producción y calidad del cultivo del ajo criollo (Allium sativum se ven limitadas por diversas enfermedades de origen fungoso y bacterial, que llevan al productor a aplicar estrategias de control químico y en algunos casos abandonar la actividad por un incremento en las pérdidas. El control biológico es una estrategia útil para combatir este tipo de microorganismos. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en evaluar el antagonismo in vitro de Trichoderma sp. y Bacillus subtilis contra tres de los principales patógenos del ajo: Sclerotium cepivorum, Penicillium sp. y Pseudomonas marginalis. Las especies mencionadas se aislaron e identificaron con pruebas bioquímicas y claves taxonómicas respectivamente y se determinó su actividad antagónica y efecto inhibitorio utilizando el crecimiento en platos duales. La cepa de B. subtilis mostró un potencial con valores bajos de PICR: 14,087 ante S. cepivorum y 3,328 ante Penicillium sp., por lo que se clasifica como un mal biocontrolador. Por su parte, Trichoderma presentó un potencial muy alto, con valores de PICR de 40,210 frente a S. cepivorum y de 45,034 ante Penicillium sp., lo que indica que es un muy buen controlador. Los resultados apoyan el potencial de las cepas de Trichoderma sp. como agentes de control biológico frente a la pudrición causada por Penicillium del ajo, la bacteriosis por P. marginalis y la pudrición blanca por S. cepivorum. No así Bacillus subtilis, pues la cepa aislada demostró poco potencial como biocontrolador.


    Alicia FONSECA G.; Guadalupe PEÑA CH.; Adriana G. TREJO L.; Laura P. LINA G.; Luis Á. RODRÍGUEZ B.; Víctor M. HERNÁNDEZ V.


    La caña de azúcar representa uno de los cultivos industriales más importantes en México, diversos insectos se alimentan de ésta, provocando pérdidas económicas considerables. Para el estado de Morelos se reporta la presencia de los barrenadores Diatraea magnifactella y Eoreuma loftini. Para su control se han usado insecticidas químicos, a la fecha no existen bioinsecticidas a base de bacterias entomopatógenas. Existen reportes de evaluaciones in vitro y en campo contra otras especies de barre...

  14. Potencial de la cepa CPA-8 de Bacillus subtilis como agente de biocontrol de enfermedades de postcosecha de fruta

    Yánez Mandizábal, Viviana del Rocío


    La limitació en l’ús de fungicides per al control de malalties en postcollita de fruita és una problemàtica d’elevada magnitud en el sector fructícola actual. Degut a això l’ús d’estratègies alternatives com el control biològic microbià són fonamentals per a la producció de fruita de qualitat. Malgrat tot, el desenvolupament de programes de biocontrol eficaços requereix d’un coneixement profund de la capacitat de control i els mecanismes d’acció utilitzats per l’agent microbià ...

  15. Indicadores fisiológicos de la respuesta al estrés en cepas Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcholeras

    Roxana García


    Full Text Available El fenómeno de tolerancia cruzada en levaduras se ha propuesto como indicador fisiológico útil en estudios de selección de cepas S. cerevisiae para la obtención de etanol. Se evalúa para cinco cepas de esta especie la relación entre resistencia a H2O2 3,2 M y a presiones hidrostáticas de 200 MPa durante 30 minutos y la actividad enzimática alcohol deshidrogenasa (ADH en presencia de etanol y glucosa. Solo el mutante auxótrofo XA3-1 no muestra un crecimiento apreciable ante el estrés oxidativo. Su cepa salvaje A3 es la única capaz de crecer hasta la mayor dilución a altas presiones hidrostáticas. Las cepas CM y 373 muestran patrones similares de actividad ADH en presencia de glucosa o etanol, mientras que las cepas A3 y su mutante presentan niveles de ADH superiores en presencia de 5% (v/v de etanol. Los resultados indican una estrecha vinculación entre la resistencia a estreses no necesariamente propios de la fermentación alcohólica y el comportamiento fermentativo en cepas S. cerevisiae, lo cual abre la posibilidad de emplear estos criterios para estudios de selección de cepas alcoholeras dirigidos a futuras estrategias de mejoramiento genético.

  16. Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

    Hill, Karen K.; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Okinaka, Richard T.; Asay, Michelle; Blair, Heather; Bliss, Katherine A.; Laker, Mariam; Pardington, Paige E.; Richardson, Amber P.; Tonks, Melinda; Beecher, Douglas J.; Kemp, John D.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Wong, Amy C. Lee; Keim, Paul


    DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates representing 36 serovars or subspecies were from the U.S. D...

  17. Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Han, Cliff S.; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, Michael R.; Bhotika, Smriti S.; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana


    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspicuous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the B. cereus group, B. thuringiensis 97-27 subsp. konkukian sero...

  18. Factors influencing induction, propagation and regeneration of mature zygotic embryo-derived callus from Allium cepa.

    Zheng, S.; Henken, B.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.


    A systematic study on the effects of subspecies, cultivar, basal medium, sucrose concentration and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentration on callus induction, propagation and subsequent plant regeneration in Allium cepa has been carried out. Mature zygotic embryos from two onion (cvs. Sturon a

  19. Corn gluten meal as a preemergence herbicide for spring-transplanted onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas. Corn gluten meal is a certified organic material used for preemergence or preplant incorporated weed control. In 2002 and 2003 field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Lane, OK) to determine the ...

  20. Efeito fungistático de Bacillus thuringiensis e de outras bactérias sobre alguns fungos fitopatogênicos

    Batista Junior Carlos Brasil; Albino Ulisses Brigatto; Martines Alexandre Martin; Saridakis Dennis Panayotes; Matsumoto Leopoldo Sussumu; Avanzi Marco Antonio; Andrade Galdino


    Quatro isolados bacterianos da rizosfera de Drosera villosa var. villosa (B1, B2, B3, B4) e dois isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis (B5 e B6), sendo B6 produtor da toxina bioinseticida Cry1Ab, foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de inibir os fungos fitopatogênicos Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, Fusarium oxysporum e Colletotrichum sp. A cepa mais efetiva foi B1 que inibiu o crescimento dos quatro fungos até o 26º dia. B. thuringiensis inibiu o crescimento de ...

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis: legado para el siglo XXI Bacillus thuringiensis: the legacy to the XXI century

    Orduz S.


    Full Text Available

    Los insecticidas basados en la bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis son el principal renglón productivo del mercado mundial de biopesticidas. La investigación dedicada a esta área, promovida por la urgente necesidad de resolver problemas agrícolas y de salud pública, ha dado lugar a un conocimiento exhaustivo de su biología. La diversidad de cepas diferentes de B. thuringiensis ha permitido desarrollar productos principalmente, pero no exclusivamente, para el control de insectos. Con los nuevos desarrollos de la biología molecular, se ha logrado comprender su mecanismo de acción a nivel molecular y también se ha logrado extender sus capacidades entomopatógenas. Como producto de su amplio uso en muchos países, se han presentado casos de resistencia en poblaciones de insectos susceptibles. Con esta revisión se pretende elaborar un contexto teórico del estado actual de la investigación sobre B. thuringiensis, describiendo brevemente el conocimiento sobre esta bacteria, haciendo hincapié en los fenómenos biológicos que subyacen su actividad tóxica y la problemática que se avecina en el próximo siglo con los fenómenos de resistencia cada vez más comunes, todo esto analizado desde una perspectiva biotecnológica.

    Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticides are the main production line of the biopesticides world market. The research devoted to this area, promoted by the necessity to solve problems in agriculture and public health has resulted in an exhaustive knowledge of its biology. The diversity of the B. thuringiensis strains has permitted to develop several products mainly, but not exclusively, for insect control. With the new developments in the field of molecular biology, it has been possible to understand the molecular basis of the mode of action and to increase the range of activity as well. As a result

  2. Resistencia a penicilina G y oxacilina, de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus aisladas de mastitis bovina subclínica

    Michael Zschöck; Amr El-Sayed; Nawara Eissa; Christoph Lämmler; Hugo Castañeda-Vazquez


    De 530 diferentes cepas de S. aureus aisladas de casos de mastitis subclínica bovina, se seleccionaron 68 cepas de S. aureus procedentes de Alemania (n = 26), Indonesia (n = 16), México (n = 16) y Brasil (n = 10), para estudiarlas en la presente investigación. Las cepas fueron analizadas fenotípica y genotípicamente para observar su resistencia a penicilina G y oxacilina. Para una identificación inicial se utilizó el sistema Api 32 Staph y la prueba de coagulasa. El resultado se confirmó por ...

  3. Identificación de la cepa vacunal Brucella abortus S19 en muestras de leche de vaca

    Luary Carolina Martínez Chavarría; Antonio Verdugo Rodríguez; Rigoberto Hernández Castro


    La brucelosis es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa de origen bacteriano que afecta tanto al humano como a diferentes especies animales domésticas y silvestres. En la década pasada, la vacuna que se usaba ampliamente en los bovinos era la cepa vacunal B. abortus S19, que tiene una deleción en dos de los genes del operón ery que participa en el catabolismo del eritritol. En México, desde 1997 se aprobó la cepa B. abortus RB51 como vacuna para el ganado. Esta cepa presenta una secuencia de inserc...

  4. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P


    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided. PMID:27030978

  5. 76 FR 14289 - Bacillus thuringiensis


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption From the... permissible level for residues of Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn. The temporary tolerance... Register of January 21, 2011 (76 FR 3885) (FRL-8855- 4), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section...

  6. 75 FR 34040 - Bacillus thuringiensis


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption from the... Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn under the FFDCA. The temporary tolerance exemption expires...) 305-5805. II. Background and Statutory Findings In the Federal Register of September 30, 2009 (74...

  7. Efecto de la inoculación en maíz con cepas nativas de Azospirillum sp

    L. Villa-Castro; N Mayek-Pérez; J. G. García-Olivares; J. L. Hernández-Mendoza


    En condiciones de invernadero se evaluó el efecto de tres cepas de Azospirillum sp (Patrón 9, IPN-33, IPN-35) aisladas de suelos cultivados con sorgo, en el norte de Tamaulipas; en el crecimiento de híbridos de maíz (30P49® y 30F52®). Las cepas de Azospirillum mostraron efectos diferentes en la producción de biomasa, así como también el testigo. La cepa Patrón 9 incrementó significativamente el peso seco de la planta. Dicha cepa, Patrón 9, muestra potencial para utilizarse como inoculante en ...

  8. GC-MS Investigation of Essential oil and antioxidant activity of Egyptian White Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Eman Ahmed El-Wakil; Mortada Mohamed El-Sayed; Ezzat El-Sayed Abdel-Lateef


    Objectives: This study carried out to investigate the chemical constituents of white onion (Allium cepa L.) essential oil as well as evaluate the antioxidant activities, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of their different extracts. Methods: The Essential oil of white onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs were extracted by hydro distillation method and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to determine the chemical composition of the volatile compounds. The an...

  9. Evaluation of Green Manure Amendments for the Management of Fusarium Basal Rot (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae) on Shallot

    Assefa Sintayehu; Seid Ahmed; Chemeda Fininsa; Sakhuja, P. K.


    Shallot (Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum) is the most traditional vegetable crop in Ethiopia. Shallot is susceptible to a number of diseases that reduce yield and quality, among which fusarium basal rot (FBR) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae (Foc) is one of the most important yield limiting factors in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Brassica crops for the management of shallot FBR on shallot. The experiments were carried out at Debre Zeit Agri...

  10. Potential therapeutic effect of Allium cepa L. and quercetin in a murine model of Blomia tropicalis induced asthma

    Oliveira, Tatiane Teixeira; Campos, Keina Maciele; Cerqueira-Lima, Ana Tereza; Cana Brasil Carneiro, Tamires; da Silva Velozo, Eudes; Ribeiro Melo, Ingrid Christie Alexandrino; Figueiredo, Eugênia Abrantes; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; de Vasconcelos, Darizy Flávia Silva Amorim; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina


    Background Asthma is an inflammatory condition characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and chronic inflammation. The resolution of inflammation is an essential process to treat this condition. In this study we investigated the effect of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) and quercetin (Qt) on cytokine and on smooth muscle contraction in vitro and its therapeutic potential in a murine model of asthma. Methods AcE was obtained by maceration of Allium cepa L. and it was standardized in terms of qu...

  11. Pruebas de sensibilidad frente a agentes antimicrobianos en cepas de brachyspira pilosicoli aisladas a partir de ponedoras comerciales en colombia

    Alvarez Mira, Diana Marcela; Pulido Landinez, Martha; Figueroa Ramìrez, Judith


    Las espiroquetas intestinales del género Brachyspira ocasionan enfermedades importantes en porcinos y aves. Se ha evidenciado un problema de incremento en la presentación de cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos utilizados normalmente para tratar las espiroquetosis intestinales en porcinos, y esto podría ser aplicable a los aislamientos de aves. Hay muy pocos reportes de sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Brachyspira spp. Aisladas en aves. En este estudio se evaluó la sensibil...

  12. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes with Bacillus subtilis

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch, Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri


    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-...

  13. Genotypic Diversity among Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Strains

    Carlson, Cathrine Rein; Caugant, Dominique A; Kolstø, Anne-Brit


    Twenty-four strains of Bacillus cereus were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared with 12 Bacillus thuringiensis strains. In addition, the 36 strains were examined for variation in 15 chromosomal genes encoding enzymes (by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis [MEE]). The genome of each strain had a distinct NotI restriction enzyme digestion profile by PFGE, and the 36 strains could be assigned to 27 multilocus genotypes by MEE. However, neither PFGE nor MEE analysis co...

  14. Prevalência de sorotipos e resistência antimicrobiana de cepas invasivas do Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Mantese Orlando C.


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil de sorotipos e a susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae obtidas em espécimes clínicos de pacientes com doença invasiva, bem como suas implicações na formulação de vacinas pneumocócicas. MÉTODOS: Cepas de pneumococo isoladas no Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia a partir de amostras clínicas de pacientes com doença invasiva foram identificadas e enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo para confirmação da identificação, sorotipagem e determinação da susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: De abril de 1999 a março de 2003, foram isoladas 148 cepas invasivas de pneumococo, sendo 84 (56,7% provenientes de pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade variou de um dia a 88,83 anos, com média de 21,33+25,82 anos e mediana de 4,42 anos. Os diagnósticos clínicos mais comuns foram pneumonia (91 casos; 61,4%, meningite (32 casos; 21,6% e bacteremia sem foco evidente (15 casos; 10,1%. As principais fontes de recuperação foram sangue (76 amostras; 51,3%, líquido pleural (39; 26,3% e liquor (30; 20,2%. No total, foram identificados 23 diferentes sorotipos entre 143 amostras testadas, sendo os mais comuns os seguintes: 14, 3, 1, 5, 6A, 6B e 18C. Dentre 30 (20,2% cepas oxacilina-resistentes, 23 (15,5% confirmaram a resistência à penicilina (12,8% com nível intermediário e 2,7%, com nível pleno, que esteve restrita aos sorotipos 14, 23F, 19A e 6B, predominando em indivíduos com até dois anos de idade (p = 0,0008. Foi detectada susceptibilidade diminuída ao cotrimoxazol (63,4%, à eritromicina (8,3%, à clindamicina (8,7% e à ofloxacina (0,8%. A resistência à cefotaxima foi detectada em três das 30 cepas testadas (2% das 148, todas elas com resistência confirmada à penicilina. Não foi observada resistência a cloranfenicol, rifampicina ou vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: A resistência

  15. Huringiensis strategy to culture media design for the fermentation of bacillus thuringiensis Estrategia para el diseño de un medio de cultivo para la fermentación con bacillus

    Moreno N.


    Full Text Available In this work was studied the culture medium for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation, the purpose was the production of biopesticide using as active ingredient native strains. The culture was developed in flasks of 1000 ml containing 100ml of culture medium, which was inoculated with 10ml of the bacteria, incubated at 29 ºC and 200 rpm. In this study we used an experimental design model for the strain HD1 of Bacillus thuringiensis, with glucose as carbon source, evaluating the concentration of mineral source in the culture medium. Additionally we evaluated the ratio of organic-inorganic nitrogen source in the culture medium, with the purpose of improving the insecticide crystal protein (ICP for a native strain.En este trabajo se estudio el medio de cultivo para la fermentación con Bacillus thuringiensis tendiente a la producción del ingrediente activo de un biopesticida que emplea cepas nativas de esta bacteria. Se realizaron fermentaciones en matraz de 1000 mL de volumen total con 100 mL de volumen de fermentación, utilizando 10 mL de inóculo bacteriano, una temperatura de 29ºC y una velocidad de agitación de 200 revoluciones por minuto (rpm. El estudio se realizó empleando un modelo de diseño experimental con glucosa como fuente de carbono evaluando la concentración de las fuentes de minerales en el medio de cultivo para la cepa HD1. También se evaluó la relación óptima entre el nitrógeno orgánico y el nitrógeno inorgánico en el medio de cultivo, para la producción de  proteína asociada al cristal para la cepa nativa Instituto de Biotecnología de la Universidad Nacional (IBUN 28.5.

  16. Suscetibilidade de biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a diferentes cepas de schistosoma mansoni

    Luiz Candido de Souza Dias


    Full Text Available Em condições experimentais foi estudada a suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a quatro linhagens humanas (MAP, PTH, UPH, e OuH e duas de roedores silvestres (PTR e VPR do Schistosoma mansoni. Grupos de 50 moluscos foram expostos individualmente a 10 miracídios e observados durante 70 dias. Avaliou-se a suscetibilidade dos moluscos ao parasito por meio da % de animais com esporocistos, % de moluscos que eliminavam cercárias e mortalidade conjunta dos animais expostos e infectados. Exemplares de B. glabrata mineira infectaram-se com cepa simpátrica (MAP e com 5 alopátricas do Estado de São Paulo (PTH, VPH, OuH, PTR e VPR. B. glabrata paulista mostrou altas taxas de infecção com as cepas MAP, VPR e OuH do trematódeo. Quatro % dos exemplares B. straminea de São Paulo eliminavam cercárias de cepas simpátricas; com cepa mineira apenas 4% apresentaram esporocistos na vigência de 20 miracídios por molusco; as menores taxas de mortalidade foram registradas com essa espécie de molusco, não sendo maior do que 20%. B. tenagophila paulista foi suscetível apenas às linhagens simpáticas sendo 6% a maior taxa de moluscos que eliminaram cercárias. Os resultados indicam que os movimentos populacionais humanos dentro do território paulista e para fora dele são importantes na disseminação da esquistossomose mansônica.

  17. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won


    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent ligh...

  18. El consumo de oxigeno de cepas de uta y espundia (Leishmania) con monosacáridos

    Margarita Aurazo R.; Inés Gárate C.; César Náquira V


    Se ha realizado un estudio comparativo de la respiración, y la acción de los monosacáridos (glucosa, fructosa, galactosa y manosa) sobre el consumo de oxigeno entre dos cepas de Leishmania provenientes de casos clínicos de leishmaniosis cutánea pura (uta) y de leishmaniosis cutáneo-mucosa (espundia) del Perú.

  19. Modulating effect of Allium cepa on kidney apoptosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii

    Yaghub gharadaghi; Saeedeh Shojaee; Arash Khaki; Amir Hatef; Hamid Reza Ahmadi Ashtiani; Hossin Rastegar; Fatemeh Fathiazad


    Purpose: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects a broad range of warm blooded animals as well as humans. The present study was investigated to evaluate the effects of allium cepa on renal failur in male rats which experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii, RH strain. Methods: Wistar male rat (n=40) were allocated into four groups, group one that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip) (n=10), group two that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip), plus fresh onion ...

  20. Content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in selected varieties of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Petra Kavalcová; Judita Bystrická; Pavol Trebichalský; Miriama Kopernická; Miroslava Hrstková; Marianna Lenková


    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops widely consumed in the world. The bulb onion is grown as fresh shoots and as bulbs for consuming uncooked, cooked, and pickled or production of seed and sets. They can be eaten raw, boiled, steamed and roasted. Onion has high nutritional value. Onions are a good source of vitamins, minerals and major component like polyphenols, flavonoids, fructooligosaccharides, thiosulfinates and other sulfur compounds. Polyphen...


    Petra Kavalcová; Judita Bystrická; Tomáš Tóth; Beáta Volnová; Miriama Kopernická; Ľuboš Harangozo


    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme). In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of to...

  2. Genotoxic evaluation of infusions of Urera baccifera leaves and roots in Allium cepa cells

    Amanda L. Gindri; Ana Paula D. Coelho; Solange B. Tedesco; Athayde, Margareth L.


    Context: The aqueous extracts of Urera baccifera Wedd. leaves and roots are used to inflammatory and infectious diseases in Brazilian folk medicine. Oxalic acid, a substance co-related with toxicity and stinging, was already quantified in this plant. Aims: To evaluate the action of leaves and roots infusions (1, 30, 75 g/L) and the oxalic acid standard on mitosis as indicative of presumably antimitotic and genotoxic actions, using the Allium cepa test. Methods: Oxalic acid was quanti...

  3. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa)

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak; Harlene Hatterman-Valenti


    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND), USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa) to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage) as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA...

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)


    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  5. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.;


    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to...... cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...

  6. Chromosomal and Nuclear Alterations in Root Tip Cells of Allium Cepa L. Induced by Alprazolam

    Nefic, Hilada; Musanovic, Jasmin; Metovic, Azra; Kurteshi, Kemajl


    ABSTRACT Introduction: Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine used in panic disorders and other anxiety states. Target organ of Alprazolam is CNS, causing depression of respiration and consciousness. Aim: This study aimed to estimate the genotoxic potential of Alprazolam using Allium cepa test. Methods: Allium cepa is one of the most suitable plants for detecting different types of xenobiotics. The test enables the assessment of different genetic endpoints making possible damage to the DNA of humans to be predicted. Results: Alprazolam induced chromosomal (anaphase bridges, breaks, lagging and stickiness, abnormal spiralisation, multipolarity and polyploidy) and cytological aberrations, especially nuclear alterations (nuclear buds, fragmented nucleus and apoptotic bodies, cells without nucleus, binucleated and micronucleated cells), morphological alterations in shape and size of cells, spindle disturbance and polar deviation in root tip meristem cells of Allium cepa at all tested concentrations. Alprazolam also caused significant inhibition of mitotic index in these cells. Conclusion: These changes in cells are indicators of genotoxic potential of Alprazolam suggesting a need for further in vitro studies on animal and human lymphocytes as well as in vivo studies. PMID:25568504




    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de etanol, el crecimiento celular y el consumo de sustrato de tres cepas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae: CBS8066 (control y dos recombinantes desarrolladas en la Unidad de Biotecnología Vegetal de CIB, GG570-CIBI y GG570-CIBII. Dichas cepas estuvieron bajo el efecto de dos concentraciones de sacarosa (170 y 250g/L y dos sustratos (industrial con melaza caña azúcar y sintético con sacarosa. Durante la fermentación en sustrato industrial se obtuvo mayor producción de etanol a concentración de 250g sacarosa/L. Bajo estas condiciones, la cepa GG570-CIBII produjo en promedio 2,34g etanol/L mas con respecto a la cepa control y en adición, a las 10h, produjo 8,02g/L por encima de la cepa control. Por otro lado, la cepa GG570- CIBI produjo 3,46g etanol/L menos que la cepa control. De esta forma, se encontró que la cepa GG570-CIBII es tolerante a alta concentración de sacarosa, y además, es capaz de producir una concentración mayor de etanol con respecto a la cepa control en melaza caña azúcar con 250g/L sacarosa.

  8. Plasmidotipia y evaluación in vitro de la virulencia de cepas de Salmonella enteritidis de origen aviar

    Rubén Darío Toro


    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar a nivel biológico y molecular cepas de Salmonella entérica, subespecie entérica serotipo Enteritidis (Salmonella enteritidis se obtuvieron y confirmaron bioquímica y serológicamente treinta cepas aisladas de aves clínicamente sanas. Las cepas fueron evaluadas mediante plasmidotipia y determinación de virulencia in vitro evaluando susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, actividad hemaglutinante manosa resistente y manosa sensible como indicativo de la presencia de adhesinas fimbriales y capacidad de sobrevivencia en el interior de macrófagos. La extracción de plásmidos se realizó por la técnica de lisis alcalina. Se obtuvieron perfiles de restricción con las enzimas PstI y SmaI. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se determinó por la prueba de difusión de disco en agar. La actividad hemaglutinante en presencia y en ausencia de manosa fue evaluada frente a glóbulos rojos de ave, bovino, equino, humano (A+ y ovino. La capacidad de sobrevivencia en el interior de macrófagos se determinó valorando la viabilidad de las cepas 24 horas después de la ingestión por macrófagos de línea de origen murino. Veintinueve cepas (96.6% mostraron un plasmido cuyo tamaño corresponde al plasmido de virulencia asociado a serotipo. Veintisiete cepas (90% mostraron dos o más plasmidos. Perfiles de restricción realizados con las enzimas Pst I y Sma I permitieron establecer una alta asociación entre las cepas. Se determinó resistencia a uno o más antimicrobianos en catorce cepas de S. enteritidis (46.6%, se observó resistencia a oxitetraciclina, sulfatrimetroprim, estreptomicina y cloranfenicol. Ninguna cepa mostró resistencia a gentamicina y kanamicina. Se detectó actividad hemaglutinante manosa sensible como indicativo de adhesinas fimbriales tipo I en once cepas (36.6% de las treinta evaluadas. La totalidad de las cepas sobrevivieron en el interior de macrófagos de línea J774A.1 y fueron viables 24 horas después de la

  9. Characterization of intracellular palladium nanoparticles synthesized by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus benzeovorans

    Omajali, Jacob B., E-mail:, E-mail:; Mikheenko, Iryna P. [University of Birmingham, Unit of Functional Bionanomaterials, School of Biosciences, Institute of Microbiology and Infection (United Kingdom); Merroun, Mohamed L. [University of Granada, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences (Spain); Wood, Joseph [University of Birmingham, School of Chemical Engineering (United Kingdom); Macaskie, Lynne E. [University of Birmingham, Unit of Functional Bionanomaterials, School of Biosciences, Institute of Microbiology and Infection (United Kingdom)


    Early studies have focused on the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles within the periplasmic layer or on the outer membrane of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and on the S-layer protein of Bacillus sphaericus. However, it has remained unclear whether the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles also takes place in the bacterial cell cytoplasm. This study reports the use of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high-angle annular dark field detector and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry attachment to investigate the intracellular synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs). We show the intracellular synthesis of Pd NPs within cells of two anaerobic strains of D. desulfuricans and an aerobic strain of B. benzeovorans using hydrogen and formate as electron donors. The Pd nanoparticles were small and largely monodispersed, between 0.2 and 8 nm, occasionally from 9 to 12 nm with occasional larger nanoparticles. With D. desulfuricans NCIMB 8307 (but not D. desulfuricans NCIMB 8326) and with B. benzeovorans NCIMB 12555, the NPs were larger when made at the expense of formate, co-localizing with phosphate in the latter, and were crystalline, but were amorphous when made with H{sub 2,} with no phosphorus association. The intracellular Pd nanoparticles were mainly icosahedrons with surfaces comprising {111} facets and about 5 % distortion when compared with that of bulk palladium. The particles were more concentrated in the cell cytoplasm than the cell wall, outer membrane, or periplasm. We provide new evidence for synthesis of palladium nanoparticles within the cytoplasm of bacteria, which were confirmed to maintain cellular integrity during this synthesis.

  10. Genome Differences That Distinguish Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Radnedge, Lyndsay; Agron, Peter G.; Hill, Karen K.; Jackson, Paul J.; Ticknor, Lawrence O; Keim, Paul; Andersen, Gary L.


    The three species of the group 1 bacilli, Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis, are genetically very closely related. All inhabit soil habitats but exhibit different phenotypes. B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and is phylogenetically monomorphic, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are genetically more diverse. An amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis described here demonstrates genetic diversity among a collection of non-anthrax-causing Bacillus speci...


    Berto Tejera-Hern\\u00E1ndez


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la capacidad de bacterias del género Bacillus pro- venientes del cultivo del arroz (Oryza sativa L. en solubilizar fosfatos. Los aislamientos se obtuvieron utilizando el modelo Microcosmos de los cultivares Iacuba 30 y Perla, en el año 2008 en Bauta, La Habana, Cuba. Hubo 58 aislados, tanto rizosféricos como endófitos de la raíz y de la parte aérea, que presentaban características distintivas del género Bacillus, como respuesta positiva a la tinción de Gram, forma bacilar y formación de endospora. Se realizó la detección cualitativa en cuanto a la capacidad de solubilización de fosfatos. Solo 19 aislamientos mostraron solubilización en medio sólido NBRIP y en algunos casos cambiaron la coloración del medio de azul a amarillo, lo que indica la producción de ácidos. Se seleccionaron los positivos para la cuantificación en medio líquido. Las cepas mostraron un comportamiento diferente cuando se midió el fosfato solubilizado a distintos tiempos, variando el máximo de solubilización.

  12. Utilization of proteinaceous materials for power generation in a mediatorless microbial fuel cell by a new electrogenic bacteria Lysinibacillus sphaericus VA5.

    Nandy, Arpita; Kumar, Vikash; Kundu, Patit P


    In this study, a bacterial strain, Lysinibacillus sphaericus which is relatively new in the vast list of biocatalysts known to produce electricity has been tested for its potential in power production. It is cited from the literature that the organism is deficient in some sugar or polysaccharide processing enzymes and thus is tested for its ability to utilize substrates mainly rich in protein components like beef extract and with successive production of electricity. The particular species has been found to generate a maximum power density of 85mW/m(2) and current density of ≈270mA/m(2) using graphite felt as electrode. The maximum Open Circuit Voltage and current has been noted as 0.7Vand 0.8mA during these operational cycles. Cyclic voltammetry studies indicate the presence of some electroactive compounds which can facilitate electron transfer from bacteria to electrode. The number of electrogens able to generate electricity in mediator free conditions are few, and the study introduces more divergence to that population. Substrate specificity and electricity generation efficacy of the strain in treating wastewater, specially rich in protein content has been reported in the study. As the species has been found to be efficient in utilizing proteinaceous material, the technique can be useful to treat specific type of wastewaters like wastewater from slaughterhouses or from meat packaging industry. Treating them in a more economical way which generates electricity as a outcome must be preferred over the conventional aerobic treatments. Emphasizing on substrate specificity, the study introduces this novel Lysinibacillus strain as a potent biocatalyst and its sustainable role in MFC application for bioenergy generation. PMID:24034433

  13. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    Kuhn, H; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J. O.


    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  14. Report on the CEPA activities [Consorcio Educativo para la Proteccion Ambiental/Educational Consortium for Environmental Preservation] [Final report of activities from 1998 to 2002

    Cruz, Miriam


    This report compiles the instances of scientific, educational, and institutional cooperation on environmental issues and other activities in which CEPA was engaged during the past five years, and includes several annual reports and meeting summaries. CEPA is a collaborative international consortium that brings together higher education institutions with governmental agencies, research laboratories, and private sector entities. CEPA's mission is to strengthen the technical, professional, and educational environmental infrastructure in the United States and Latin America. The CEPA program includes curriculum development, student exchange, faculty development, and creation of educational materials, joint research, and other cooperative activities. CEPA's goals are accomplished by actively working with Hispanic-serving institutions of higher education in the United States, in collaboration with institutions of higher education in Latin America and other Consortium members to deliver competitive environmental programs.


    Yanelis Acebo


    Full Text Available El arroz es fuente de alimento y empleo para una gran parte de la población mundial. Como parte de la estrategia de agricultura sostenible para aumentar el rendimiento y sustituir los fertilizantes químicos, son utilizados actualmente inoculantes microbianos elaborados a partir de rizobacterias. En particular, el género Azospirillum ha sido utilizado como agente promotor del crecimiento vegetal, debido a su capacidad para fijar nitrógeno atmosférico y producir auxinas del tipo ácido indolacético. Se emplearon cepas nativas aisladas y de referencia, a las que se les determinó su capacidad de producir compuestos indólicos mediante la técnica colorimétrica derivada de Salkowski y la capacidad de fijación de nitrógeno, mediante el ensayo de reducción de acetileno. Se obtuvieron resultados positivos para todas las cepas, que resultaron productoras de compuestos indólicos en un rango de 2,75-8.6 ¿g.mL-1 y con una capacidad de fijar nitrógeno de 164.17-384.9 nmol.h-1·5 mL-1. Se llevó a cabo además un bioensayo destinado a evaluar la aplicación de estas cepas, como agentes promotores del crecimiento vegetal en el cultivo del arroz (variedad J-104. Se obtuvo un incremento notable en los parámetros de crecimiento de la planta con respecto al control.

  16. Propiedades hemaglutinantes de cepas de Escherichia coli aisladas de corderos diarreicos y su relación con su toxicidad



    Full Text Available Se examinó el contenido intestinal de 107 corderos neonatos muertos con el objeto de aislar cepas de E. coli productoras de toxina termoestable (ST y verotoxina (VT y también comprobar su capacidad hemaglutinante. Se aislaron 84 (78.5% cepas de E. coli, 70 (83.3% de ellas fueron hemaglutinantes de eritrocitos de diversas especies de animales, preferentemente de gallina, la mayoría de las cuales resultaron ser manosa resistentes (HAMR. A su vez, se logró el aislamiento de 18 cepas elaboradoras de ST y de 11 de VT, todas ellas con capacidad hemaglutinante, predominando las de tipo HAMR. Se recomienda hacer la prueba de hemaglutinación y posteriormente pesquisar la estructura antigénica y capacidad enterotóxicas de las cepas aisladas, particularmente cuando se analiza un gran número de cepas, con la finalidad de disminuir los costos de diagnóstico, logrando una información preliminar de cepas presumiblemente patógenasThe intestinal content of 107 neonatal dead lambs was examined in order to isolate producers of thermostable toxin (ST and verotoxin (VT E. coli strains. Besides, the hemagglutinating properties were also tested. Eighty four (78.5% strains of E. coli were isolated, 70 (83.3% of which were hemagglutinating to red blood cells of different animal species, mainly hen; most of them proved mannose resistent (MRHA. Also, 18 strains ST producers and 11 VT producers were isolated, all of them with agglutinating activity; the MRHA type predominating. It is recommended to run the hemagglutination test and secondly to study the antigenic structure and enterotoxic capacity of the isolated strain, particulary when a big number of strains is analized, in order to decrease the diagnostic costs and to obtain preliminary information on presumably, pathogenous strains

  17. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    Renata Wojciechowska; Anna Kołton


    The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador...

  18. Genotoxicity and toxicity evaluations of ECF cellulose bleaching effluents using the Allium cepa L. test.

    Roa, O; Yeber, M C; Venegas, W


    Toxicity and genotoxicity tests were performed on root cells of Allium cepa in order to evaluate wastewater quality following an ECF cellulose bleaching process. The results revealed a toxic effect of the effluent, with inhibition of meristem growth and generally lower values of metaphase, anaphase and telophase indices at pH 10.5 than pH 7 for all effluent concentrations. The genotoxicity effect was different from the toxic effect given that the micronucleus and the chromosomal aberration tests in anaphase-telophase cells were low over all ranges of the studied effluent concentrations. PMID:22990817

  19. Tipificación de cepas de Mycobacterium bovis. Revisión

    Rosalinda Acosta-Salinas; Ciro Estrada-Chávez; Feliciano Milián-Suazo


    La tuberculosis bovina es una zoonosis que produce grandes pérdidas a la economía de muchos países y constituye un problema de salud pública. Su epidemiología resulta muy compleja debido a que se trata de una bacteria de lento crecimiento, que puede permanecer de forma latente y afectar a diversas especies animales, incluyendo fauna silvestre que funge como reservorio. Por este motivo en todo el mundo existe la necesidad de genotipificar de manera precisa las cepas de M. bovis y rastrear el o...

  20. Screening antibiotics : industrial research by CEPA and Merck in the 1950s

    Santesmases, María Jesús


    This article is an account of a screening programme in search of new antibiotics established by CEPA (Compañia Española de Penicilinas y Antibióticos) and Merck in Madrid in 1954. An exploration of the genealogy for such a programme, its narratives and practices, shows that the main inspiration for this programme was the factory system of production, on the one hand, and Selman Waksman’s research agenda on microorganisms of the soil, on the other. In this article, the relationship between ind...


    Eka Fibayani Imaniar


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify thedamage of onion’s(AlliumcepaL. chromosomes causedbyethidiumbromide submersion for 6and12hoursat 500ppm. The methodused to study chromosome damage of onionroot tip wassquash technique. The result showed several types of chromosomedamagesuch as the formation of, micronuclei, nuclear buds and chromosome bridges. At 6 hours submersion,the average percentageof chromosomal damage was 2.99 %, while in submersion for 12 hours, the average percentage of chromosomal damage was 6.81 %. Keywords:Ethidium bromide, chromosome damage, Allium cepa L.

  2. Cytotoxicity of Aloe vera gel extracts on Allium cepa root tip cells

    İLBAŞ, Ali İrfan; GÖNEN, Umut; YILMAZ, Semih; DADANDI, Mehmet Yaşar


    Aloe vera L. is a valuable medicinal plant and is currently used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries worldwide. In the present study, the effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera leaf gel extracts was investigated on mitotic and phase indexes of Allium cepa L. root tip cells for 24 and 48 h durations. The EC50 value of gel extracts was found to be 20% and was used to determine the experimental concentrations. The results indicated that the mitotic index and root growth rate ...

  3. Riesgo de aparición de cepas Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina en pacientes hospitalarios de un hospital del Perú, 2008

    A. Giancarlo Alvarado-Gamarra


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el riesgo de aparición de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina (VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA y cepas de Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina (VRE. Diseño: Análisis bivariado de datos de un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo. Lugar: Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue de Lima-Perú. Participantes: pacientes hospitalizados durante el año 2008. Intervenciones: Formato de registro del laboratorio del hospital. Principales medidas de resultados: Frecuencias relativas y absolutas para variables cualitativos, y medianas para variables cuantitativos, grado de asociación evaluado con odds ratio (OR con un intervalo de confianza al 95%. Resultados: Se encontró un 82,8% de cepas MRSA, mientras que en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI se encontró un 92,1% de ellas. No se que halló cepas VRSA. El aislamiento de cepas MRSA se asoció con la procedencia de la UTI (OR=3,38, con la procedencia de Neonatología (OR=0,19, con ser paciente adulto (OR=2,87 y con la muestra de tipo sanguinea (OR=0,35. El tiempo de permanencia de los pacientes con aislamientos de cepas MRSA fue mayor que en los pacientes con cepas sensibles (p<0,007. Conclusiones: No existe riesgo de aparición de cepas VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas MRSA y VRE en los pacientes hospitalarios de este nosocomio.

  4. Transmisión de cepas atenuadas de babesia bigemina y babesia bovis por garrapatas rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Edmundo E. Rojas Ramírez; Juan J. Mosqueda Gualito; Jesús A. Álvarez Martínez; Rubén Hernández Ortíz; Juan A. Ramos Aragón; Carmen Rojas Martínez; Germinal J. Cantó Alarcón; Carlos A. Vega y Murguía; Julio V. Figueroa Millán


    Para evaluar la transmisión por garrapatas Rhipicephalus microplus (R. microplus) de una clona atenuada de Babesia bovis (BOR) y una cepa atenuada de Babesia bigemina (BIS), doce bovinos se dividieron en cuatro grupos e infestados de forma escalonada con larvas de R. microplus libres de Babesia spp. Un becerro de cada grupo se inoculó con 1x108 eritrocitos infectados (EI) con BIS, BOR, y cepas virulentas de B. bigemina y B. bovis, respectivamente. Se realizaron dos inoculaciones seriadas adic...

  5. Evaluación de doce materiales de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. para deshidratación

    Sandoval A. Héctor L.


    Full Text Available El objetivo del ensayo fue la introducción de materiales de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. de día corto para la deshidratación. Se realizaron observaciones de campo y análisis de laboratorio para determinar sus cualidades industriales.The objective of this assay was the introduction of materials of bulb's onion (Allium cepa L., for short day, to dehydrate. Observations to determinate their field behavior, and laboratories analysis to determinate their industrial characteristics were realized.

  6. Phages preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: past, present and future.

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques


    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

  7. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Annika Gillis


    Full Text Available Many bacteriophages (phages have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here.

  8. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae procesadas en el instituto nacional de salud, Lima, Perú. 1998-1999

    José Portilla C


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de susceptibilidad y resistencia in vitro de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, aisladas en el Laboratorio de Bacterias de Transmisión Sexual del Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú, frente a los antimicrobianos de uso actual en el tratamiento de la infección por el gonococo; asimismo, conocer la frecuencia con que se presentan las cepas de N. gonorrhoeae productoras de beta-lactamasas. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo. En el Laboratorio de Bacterias de Transmisión Sexual del Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú, se recibieron 130 cepas de N. gonorrhoeae (49 en 1998 y 81 en 1999, procedentes de diferentes localidades del país para confirmación bacteriológica. El método de estudio de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana usado fue el de Concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM frente a la penicilina, espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima, ciprofloxacina y azitromicina. Resultados: La frecuencia de la resistencia de las cepas de N. gonorrhoeae in vitro a la penicilina fue en 15/49 cepas en el año 1998 y 15/81 cepas en el año 1999. Asimismo, la resistencia a la tetraciclina fue en 31/49 cepas en el año 1998 y 51/81 cepas en 1999. El 100% de las cepas estudiadas fueron sensibles a la espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima y ciprofloxacina. En el país, se reporta en 9/81 cepas de N. gonorrhoeae de susceptibilidad disminuida a la azitromicina. Entre los años 1998 y 1999, se reportaron 21/52 y 6/85, respectivamente de cepas de N. gonorrhoeae productoras de beta-lactamasas. Conclusiones: Se encontró resistencia in vitro de cepas de N. gonorrhoeae frente a la penicilina y tetraciclina. Los antibióticos que se deben usar para el tratamiento de la infección son: espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima y ciprofloxacina. Por primer vez se reporta en el país, cepas de susceptibilidad disminuida a la azitromicina.


    Petra Kavalcová


    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa L. is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme. In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wave length against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the spectrophotometer. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 505.6 mg GAE/kg ±25.18 to 621.49 mgGAE/kg ±13.41. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 32.20 %± 0.58 to 44.67 % ±0.68.

  10. Chromosomal aberrations induced by Glycidol in Allium cepa L root meristem cells



    Full Text Available Glycidol is used as a stabilizer in the manufacture of vinyl polymers and natural oils and as an intermediate in the synthesis of glycerol, glycidyl ethers, and amines. It is also used as an alkylating agent,demulsifier, and dye-leveling agent and for sterilizing milk of magnesia. Glycidol is an alkylating agent which reacts readily with glutathione; it causes a decrease in glutathione content in rat liver, probably reflecting its binding to glutathione. It is a suspected reproductive toxicant and exposure to it has the potential to negatively affect the human reproductive system. The study investigated the cytotoxic effects of glycidol in Allium cepa L root meristem cells. Different concentrations of glycidol ranging 10, 20, 40 and 50μg/ml for 1, 2, 3 and 5h were treated with root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. Fuelgen squash technique was used to determine the aberrations in root tip cells. For each concentration 3000 well-spread cells were scored and cytological abnormalities such as break, gap, exchange, multiple breaks and chromosome fragments were observed. One way analysis of variance was used the study the significant different control and treatment exposed root tip cells.Significant difference between control and glycidol exposed cells were observed. Increasing concentrations increased the number of chromosomal aberrations.

  11. RBE of d(50)-Be neutrons for induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots

    RBE/absorbed dose relationship of d(50)-Be neutrons was determined for the induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots. Neutrons are produced at the cyclotron 'Cyclone' by bombarding a thick beryllium target with 50 MeV deuterons. Two biological criteria were selected: (1) mean number of aberrations (mainly breaks) per cell in anaphase and telophase, (2) fraction of intact cells in anaphase and telophase. For the two criteria, RBE increases continuously from about 7 to 12 as the neutron absorbed dose decreases from 0.4 to 0.1 Gy. RBE values for the first criterion are slightly higher than for the second one. This observation is interpreted in terms of the analysis of the distribution of the aberrations in the cells. In logarithmic coordinates, RBE/absorbed dose relationships for the two criteria are almost linear with a slope close to - 1/2. RBE values observed for induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa are higher than those generally observed for biological effects related to mammalian cell lethality. (orig.)

  12. In vitro antibacterial activity of onion (allium cepa) against clinical isolates of vibrio cholera

    Background: Cholera is a major public health problem in developing countries of the world. Bacterial resistance, lack of surveillance data and proper microbiological facilities are major problems regarding diagnosis of cholera. The spread of microbial drug resistance is a global public health challenge that results in increased illness and death rate. Newer antimicrobials or agents are urgently required to overcome this problem. This work was therefore done to investigate the antimicrobial potential of onion against thirty-three clinical isolates of Vibrio cholera. Methods: The extract was prepared by reflux extraction method. Antibacterial screening of clinical isolates of V. cholerae was done by agar well diffusion method. Agar dilution method was used to assess the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Results: All tested strains of V. cholerae were sensitive to onion (Allium cepa) extracts of two types (purple and yellow). Purple type of extract had MIC range of 19.2-21.6 mg/ml. The extract of yellow type onion had an MIC range of 66-68.4 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results indicated that onion (Allium cepa) has an inhibitory effect on V. cholerae. Keeping in view the anti-bacterial activity of this compound can be exploited as a therapeutic agent in an animal model. This finding is a positive point for further investigation of this herb of traditional medicine. (author)

  13. Otimização das condições de cultivo para a produção de amilases pelo termofílico Bacillus sp. e hidrólise de amidos pela ação da enzima Optimization of culture conditions for the production of amylases by thermophilic Bacillus sp. and hydrolysis of starches by the action of the enzymes

    Raquel Vieira de Carvalho; Thamy Lívia Ribeiro Corrêa; Júlia Caroline Matos da Silva; Alexandre Pio Viana; Meire Lelis Leal Martins


    A otimização das condições de cultivo para a produção de α-amilase por um termofílico Bacillus sp. cepa SMIA-2 foi realizada. Além disso, a hidrólise enzimática do amido, proveniente de várias fontes tais como batata, mandioca e milho, foi também investigada. A produção de α-amilase por Bacillus sp. SMIA-2, cultivado em meio líquido contendo amido (5 g.L-1) como fonte de carbono e suplementado com 0,5 g.L-1 de proteínas do soro de leite e 2 g.L-1 de peptona, alcançou o máximo em 32 ...

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Plant Probiotic Bacillus Strains.

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Park, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Keun


    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of four Bacillus strains that exhibit plant probiotic activities. Three of them are the type strains of Bacillus endophyticus, "Bacillus gaemokensis," and Bacillus trypoxylicola, and the other, Bacillus sp. strain KCTC 13219, should be reclassified into a species belonging to the genus Lysinibacillus. PMID:27174273

  15. Disponibilidade hídrica e germinação de sementes de cebola (Allium cepa L. Water availability and germination of onion seeds (Allium cepa L.

    Z. Piana


    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência do teor de água do substrato na germinação de sementes de cebola (Allium cepa L., conduziu-se um ensaio sob condições de ambiente de laboratório. Os efeitos de cinco níveis de água no substrato solo x areia (3:1, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% da capacidade de retenção foram avaliados através da porcentagem de emergência no 14° dia da semeadura e pesos da matéria verde e seca das plântulas normais. Para tanto, 200 sementes do cultivar Pira Ouro por tratamento, em quatro repetições de 50, foram semeadas a 1,5 cm de profundidade, mantendo-se constantes os níveis de água no substrato. Os resultados possibilitaram concluir que os níveis de umidade do solo indicados para germinação de sementes de cebola são de 40% e 60% da capacidade de retenção do substrato, por possibilitarem uma melhor emergência, peso da matéria verde e seca das plântulas.One essay was conducted under laboratory conditions, in order to verify the influence of substrate water content on the germination of onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. The effect of five water levels in the medium soil x sand (3:1 - 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% retention capacity-were evaluated through the emergence percentage 14 days after seedling and the weight of fresh and dry matters of normal seedlings. For that purpose, 200 treated seeds of Pira Ouro cultivar were sown 1.5 cm deep in four replicátions of 50, with a constant water content in the medium. The best results showed that the soil moisture levels suggested for the germination of onion seeds were 40% to 60% of the substrate retention capacity, once they provide better emergence, weight of the fresh and dry matters of seedlings.

  16. Immunolcocalization of actin in intact and DNA—and histone—depleted nuclei and chromosomes of allium cepa



    The presence of actin in eukaryotic nuclei and chromosomes,and especially in higher plant nuclei and chromosomes,has not been well established.We detected actin in meristematic cells of Allium cepa with indirect immunofluorescence technique and observed bright fluorescence in the intact nuclei and chromosomes,indicating that actin is present in the nuclei and chromosomes of the higher plant.We labeld sections of the meristematic cells of A.cepa with immunogold technique,gold parti cles were concentrated in condensed chromatin and nucleoli,confirming the results of the immunofluoresence observations.We traeated the nuclei and chromosomes of A.cepa with DNase I and 2M NaCl and obtained DNA-and histone-depleted nuclei and chromosomes.Indirect immunofluorescence tests showed that the DNA-and histonedepleted nuclei and chromosomes reacted positively with the anti-actin antibodies.These results demonstrate that the anti-actin antibodies.These results demonstrate that actin exists not only in intact nuclei and chromosomes,but also in DNA-and histone-depleted nuclei and chrmosomes of the plant.In addition,our immuno-fluorescence tests indicate that tropomyosin is present in the nuclei and chromosomes of A.cepa.

  17. Inhibitive and Adsorption Properties of Ethanolic Extract of Allium Cepa for the Corrosion of -?Brass in HNO3 Solutions

    Fouda, Abd El-Aziz S.; Nofal, Ashraf M.; Maher, Reham


    Ethanol extract of allium cepa has been evaluated as a green corrosion inhibitor for ?-brass in HNO3 solutions using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that this extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the extract concentration, but decreases with raising the temperature. The adsorpt...

  18. Comportamento da cepa LE de Schistosoma mansoni, após passagem em hospedeiro humano infectado acidentalmente

    Neusa Araújo


    Full Text Available Uma auxiliar de laboratório infectou-se acidentalmente, com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni, cepa LE, mantida rotineiramente em nossos laboratórios. Decorridos 5 meses, o exame parasitológico de fezes revelou 108 ovos/g . A pacientefoi tratada com oxamniquine, porém a infecção continuou ativa (6 ovos/g. Foi então obtido o isolado SSF mantido no modelo Biomphalaria glabrata - camundongo albino. Os resultados obtidos no estudo comparativo, entre o isolado SSF e a cepa LE, que lhe deu origem, mostraram que a duração do período pré-patente e o índice de infectividade em camundongos, bem como a resposta aos agentes esquistossomicidas (hycanthone, oxamniquine epraziquantel não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Por outro lado, o número de miracídios obtidos dos intestinos e fígados dos camundongos infectados foi o dobro com a cepa LE, quando comparados com aquele do isolado SSF. Também a variação do peso dos animais foi bastante diferente. Concluiu-se que apenas uma passagem pelo hospedeiro humano não mudou substancialmente as características da cepa estudada.

  19. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis--a comparative evaluation.

    Lata S; Saxena K; Bhasin V; Saxena R; Kumar A; Srivastava V


    Oral administration of petroleum ether extract of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and ethylacetate extract of Commiphora mukul in albino rats significantly prevented rise in serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride level, caused by atherogenic diet. All the three agents were also found to confer significant protection against atherogenic diet induced atherosclerosis.

  20. Expression of an endotoxin-free S-layer/allergen fusion protein in gram-positive Bacillus subtilis 1012 for the potential application as vaccines for immunotherapy of atopic allergy

    Egelseer Eva


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic fusion of the major birch pollen allergen (Bet v1 to bacterial surface-(S-layer proteins resulted in recombinant proteins exhibiting reduced allergenicity as well as immunomodulatory capacity. Thus, S-layer/allergen fusion proteins were considered as suitable carriers for new immunotherapeutical vaccines for treatment of Type I hypersensitivity. Up to now, endotoxin contamination of the fusion protein which occurred after isolation from the gram-negative expression host E. coli had to be removed by an expensive and time consuming procedure. In the present study, in order to achieve expression of pyrogen-free, recombinant S-layer/allergen fusion protein and to study the secretion of a protein capable to self-assemble, the S-layer/allergen fusion protein rSbpA/Bet v1 was produced in the gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis 1012. Results The chimaeric gene encoding the S-layer protein SbpA of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 as well as Bet v1 was cloned and expressed in B. subtilis 1012. For that purpose, the E. coli-B. subtilis shuttle vectors pHT01 for expression in the B. subtilis cytoplasm and pHT43 for secretion of the recombinant fusion protein into the culture medium were used. As shown by western blot analysis, immediately after induction of expression, B. subtilis 1012 was able to secret rSbpA/Bet v1 mediated by the signal peptide amyQ of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Electron microscopical investigation of the culture medium revealed that the secreted fusion protein was able to form self-assembly products in suspension but did not recrystallize on the surface of the B. subtilis cells. The specific binding mechanism between the N-terminus of the S-layer protein and a secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP, located in the peptidoglycan-containing sacculi of Ly. sphaericus CCM 2177, could be used for isolation and purification of the secreted fusion protein from the culture medium. Immune reactivity of rSbpA/Bet v1

  1. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores

    Wood, Joseph P.; Meyer, Kathryn M.; Kelly, Thomas J.; Choi, Young W.; Rogers, James V.; Riggs, Karen B.; Willenberg, Zachary J.


    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially. PMID:26372011

  2. Caracterización fisiológica y molecular de cepas vínicas Saccharomyces sp. Influencia en su comportamiento durante la vinificación.

    Zuzuarregui Miró, Aurora


    RESUMEN La transformación del mosto de uva en vino es un proceso microbiológico complejo aunque la fermentación alcohólica es llevada a cabo generalmente por cepas de Saccharomyces. El uso de inóculos de cepas preseleccionadas es frecuente en bodega dado que la cepa iniciadora se impone sobre las indígenas proporcionando ventajas encaminadas a una mayor producción y a una mejora de la calidad. El empleo de cultivos iniciadores hace necesario el establecimiento de criterios de selecci...

  3. Nuevas cepas de duganella aisladas de la rizosfera de olivo silvestre y cultivado y su uso en la producción de violaceína

    Landa, Blanca B.; Aranda Ocampo, Sergio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Castillo, Pablo


    [ES] La presente invención se refiere a unas cepas bacterianas de Duganella spp. obtenidas de la rizosfera de olivos silvestres y cultivados. Preferentemente las cepas son CECT 7779, CECT 7780 y CECT 7781 y más preferentemente la cepa bacteriana es CECT 7780. Además, la presente invención se refiere a sus combinaciones con otros microorganismos y a las composiciones que comprenden los productos anteriores, así como a un procedimiento para la producción de violaceína y a la violaceína produ...

  4. Nuevas cepas de duganella aisladas de la rizosfera de olivo silvestre y cultivado y su uso en la producción de violaceína

    Landa, Blanca B.; Aranda Ocampo, Sergio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Castillo Castillo, Miguel


    La presente invención se refiere a unas cepas bacterianas de Duganella spp. obtenidas de la rizosfera de olivos silvestres y cultivados. Preferentemente las cepas son CECT 7779, CECT 7780 y CECT 7781 y más preferentemente la cepa bacteriana es CECT 7780. Además, la presente invención se refiere a sus combinaciones con otros microorganismos y a las composiciones que comprenden los productos anteriores, así como a un procedimiento para la producción de violaceína y a la violaceína producida par...

  5. Selección de cepas de hongos entomopatógenos para el manejo de anastrepha obliqua (macquart, 1835) (diptera: tephritidae) en colombia

    Osorio-Fajardo, Armando; Nelson A Canal


    Se evaluaron 15 cepas de los hongos entomopatógenos Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae sobre adultos de un día de edad de la mosca de la fruta Anastrepha obliqua. El trabajo se realizó con el fin de seleccionar las cepas más virulentas al insecto y estudiar el efecto sobre los adultos jóvenes cuando el hongo era aplicado antes de la emergencia. Mediante un screening con una concentración de 1x107 conidias/mL se seleccionaron las tres cepas más virulentas, siendo dos de ellas de Beauv...

  6. Avaliação in vitro de uma cepa de campo de Boophilus microplus (Acari : Ixodidae resistente à amitraz

    Santamaría Vargas Minerva


    Full Text Available O uso dos acaricidas químicos ainda se constitui no principal instrumento de controle do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus. No sul do Brasil, o amitraz aplicado por imersão e aspersão é o ingrediente ativo mais utilizado, nos últimos anos, contra as cepas de carrapatos resistentes aos organofosforados (OF e piretróides sintéticos (PS. Em conseqüência, torna-se importante a realização de investigações que possam contribuir para prolongar a vida útil desse ixodicida. No presente estudo, foi analisado o comportamento toxicológico de uma cepa de B. microplus colhida na localidade de Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, usando-se químicos da família dos OF, PS, misturas OF/PS, além do amitraz. Os resultados indicaram que a cepa denominada "Santa Luiza" apresentou fatores de resistência (FR que variaram entre 2,3 e 3,95 para OF, 23,3 e 147,56 para PS e de 3,76 a 21.57 para amitraz em testes realizados com larvas de carrapatos. A caracterização e purificação de uma cepa de B. microplus resistente ao amitraz permitem seu uso como cepa de referência para a avaliação biológica de ixodicidas alternativos, além de padronizar e validar métodos de diagnósticos toxicológicos que possam detectar resistência frente a esse acaricida.

  7. Dissection of Trichoderma longibrachiatum-induced defense in onion (Allium cepa L.) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa by target metabolite profiling.

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma; El-Sayed, Magdi; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan


    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts that can cause substantial changes in the metabolism of host plants, thereby increasing plant growth and activating plant defense to various diseases. Target metabolite profiling approach was selected to demonstrate that Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolated from desert soil can confer beneficial agronomic traits to onion and induce defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (FOC), through triggering a number of primary and secondary metabolite pathways. Onion seeds primed with Trichoderma T1 strain displayed early seedling emergence and enhanced growth compared with Trichoderma T2-treatment and untreated control. Therefore, T1 was selected for further investigations under greenhouse conditions, which revealed remarkable improvement in the onion bulb growth parameters and resistance against FOC. The metabolite platform of T1-primed onion (T1) and T1-primed onion challenged with FOC (T1+FOC) displayed significant accumulation of 25 abiotic and biotic stress-responsive metabolites, representing carbohydrate, phenylpropanoid and sulfur assimilation metabolic pathways. In addition, T1- and T1+FOC-treated onion plants showed discrete antioxidant capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) compared with control. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of T. longibrachiatum to the accumulation of key metabolites, which subsequently leads to the improvement of onion growth, as well as its resistance to oxidative stress and FOC. PMID:26993243

  8. Efeito fungistático de Bacillus thuringiensis e de outras bactérias sobre alguns fungos fitopatogênicos Fungistatic effect of Bacillus thuringiensis and of other bacteria on some plant pathogenic fungi

    Carlos Brasil Batista Junior


    Full Text Available Quatro isolados bacterianos da rizosfera de Drosera villosa var. villosa (B1, B2, B3, B4 e dois isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis (B5 e B6, sendo B6 produtor da toxina bioinseticida Cry1Ab, foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de inibir os fungos fitopatogênicos Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, Fusarium oxysporum e Colletotrichum sp. A cepa mais efetiva foi B1 que inibiu o crescimento dos quatro fungos até o 26º dia. B. thuringiensis inibiu o crescimento de três destes, o que indica que possui atividade antifúngica e abre um novo campo de estudo para a utilização do B. thuringiensis.Four bacteria isolates from the rhizosphere of Drosera villosa var. villosa (B1, B2, B3, B4 and two Bacillus thuringiensis isolates (B5 e B6, being B6 a bioinsecticidal Cry1Ab protein producer, were tested for their capacity to inhibit phytopathogenic fungi such as Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum sp. The B1 isolate was highly effective and inhibited all fungi up to the 26th day. B. thuringiensis inhibited the growth of three fungi, and this result opens a new area to study and test B. thuringiensis.

  9. Bacillus subtilis Deoxyribonucleic Acid Gyrase

    Sugino, A; Bott, K F


    Bacillus subtilis 168 was shown to contain a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gyrase activity which closely resembled those of the enzymes isolated from Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus in its enzymatic requirements, substrate specificity, and sensitivity to several antibiotics. The enzyme was purified from the wild type and nalidixic acid-resistant and novobiocin-resistant mutants of B. subtilis and was functionally characterized in vitro. The genetic loci nalA and novA but not novB were s...

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna


    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:27318800

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the storage and vitamin C concentration of allium cepa onion samples

    This study was done to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storage, germination and vitamin C concentration of local onion (Allium cepa). 5 onion samples were irradiated with 5 different radiation doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 k Gray) using cobalt-60 irradiator (Nor din) compared to non irradiated samples as controls. The irradiated and control onions were stored at room temperature for three months. The results of this study showed that the non irradiated samples were either deteriorated or grown while all the irradiated samples were not. Regarding the concentration of vitamin C it was clear that it decreased with the dose increase from 30.53 to 14.44 mg/100 g. This study concluded that the irradiation is very effective in prevention of spoilage, elongation of germination period and decrease of vitamin C concentration.(Author)

  12. Establecimiento de un medio de cultivo sumergido para una cepa nativa de un hongo poliporal

    Peña Serna Carolina; Sierra Cadavid Andrea; Sáez Vega Alex Armando; Rojano Benjamín Alberto


    Se evaluó el efecto de dos velocidades de agitación (80 y 100 rpm), dos fuentes de carbono (glucosa y sacarosa) y tres pH iniciales (5.5, 6.0 y 6.5) sobre la producción de fenoles totales, la actividad antioxidante, el crecimiento micelial y el consumo de sustrato de una cepa nativa de un hongo perteneciente al orden Poliporal en cultivo sumergido.El mayor crecimiento micelial se obtuvo al día 3 con un valor de 10 g/L a una velocidad de agitación de 80 rpm, sacarosa como fuente de carbono y p...

  13. Effect of 5-Aminouracil on mitotic cell division in Allium cepa Efeito de 5-Aminouracil na divisão mitótica de células de Allium cepa

    Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini


    Full Text Available A exposição de células meristemáticas de Allium cepa por dois ciclos de divisões (48 horas, em soluções contendo concentrações mais baixas de 5-aminouracil (50, 100 e 150μM do que as usualmente empregadas para proceder à sincronização da proliferação celular, mostrou que as concentrações usadas causam anormalidades cromossômicas e formação de micronúcleos, mas não bloqueiam a entrada destas células em mitose. As células em mitose e com micronúcleos podem prosseguir em divisão e assim contribuir para o crescimento das raízes de A. cepa expostas às concentrações de 5-aminouracil estudadas. As células meristemáticas da raiz de A. cepa parecem suportar um certo nível de danos não reparados no DNA, os quais não impedem a divisão celular e o conseqüente crescimento dos tecidos. Esta flexibilidade genética do genoma de vegetais deve se constituir numa resposta metabólica adaptativa para sustentar condições ambientais adversas.Cytological preparations of Allium cepa meristematic cells were examined under a light microscope to evaluate the effect of prolonged exposure (at least two-cell cycle to 5-aminouracil (5-AU on mitotic cell division in the roots. The results are a cytological demonstration that a lower concentration of 5-AU than usually employed for synchronizing proliferating cells in A. cepa root meristems induces chromosomal abnormalities and formation of micronucleus but does not fully block the cell flow into mitosis, and that micronucleated cells can proceed in mitosis and contribute to the enhancement of root length values reported by other authors. A. cepa root tip cells seems to support a certain damage level in DNA (around 10% of micronucleated cells in mitosis without having any negative effect on cellular proliferation and growth of the roots. This genetic flexibility of vegetable genomes may permit an attenuation of the adaptative metabolic-response to sustained adverse environmental conditions.

  14. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa

    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan


    Full Text Available Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7 with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231 with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis and Hd3a (rice, with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day, LD (long-day, and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101 and LM (late maturation, 36122. The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines.

  15. Repairing Effect of Allium Cepa on Testis Degeneration Caused by Toxoplasma Gondii in The Rat

    Yagoob Garedaghi


    Full Text Available Objectives: Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, infectS a large proportion of the world population yearly. This study was investigated to evaluate the remedial effects of allium cepa on testis degeneration in male rats infected by T.gondii, RH strain. Materials and Methods: Wistar male rats (n=40 divided into control (n=10 and experimental (n=30 groups. The experimental groups were divided into two groups; allium cepa group (n=10 received 1cc of fresh onion juice daily and the toxoplasmose infected group (n =20 were subdivided into two groups of 10. One of the toxoplasma groups also received 1cc of fresh onion juice daily; however, control group just received distilled water. Animals were kept in a standard condition. On day 30 after inducing Toxoplasmosis infection, 5 ml blood sample of each rat was taken to measure serum protein and total antioxidant capacity (TAC levels. IgG and IgM were tested by the ELISA method. Testicular tissue of each Rat was removed and sperms were collected from the epididymis for analysis. Results: Serum proteins and testis weight were significantly decreased in the T.gondii groups compared with the control and onion groups. Testis degeneration significantly increased in toxoplasmosis group compared with the control group (P<0.05. TAC level was significantly increased in the groups that received onion juice (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study showed T. gondii has diverse effects on serum proteins, TAC, and testis. Results confirmed fresh onion juice could significantly modify harmful effects and increase the sperm number, viability, and motility so it seems eating onion is useful in toxoplasmosis infection.

  16. Resistencia a drogas de segunda línea en cepas peruanas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrogorresistentes

    Francesca Barletta


    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar los perfiles de resistencia de las quinolonas; ciprofloxacina (Cpx, ofloxacina (Ofx, gatifloxacina (Gfx y moxifloxacina (Mfx, y de los inyectables; kanamicina (Km, amikacina (Am y capreomicina (Cm en cepas multidrogorresistente (MDR. Se buscó la presencia de mutaciones en los genes rrs,tlyA y gyrA/B, y su posible asociación con la resistencia a inyectables y quinolonas. Materiales y métodos. En este estudio piloto descriptivo se seleccionaron cepas MDR aisladas durante junio a diciembre de 2004, que fueron criopreservadas en el banco de muestras del Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humboldt" en Lima, Perú. Se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI para Cpx, Ofx, Gfx, Mfx, Km, Am y Cm. Se investigó las mutaciones presentes en los genes rrs, tlyA y gyrA/B a través de un PCR convencional y posterior secuenciamiento de los productos obtenidos. Resultados. Cuatro de los once aislados presentaron resistencia contra los inyectables y en todas se observó una alta CMI; >120 μg/mL para Km y >160 μg/mL para Am y Cm. Solo dos aislados presentaron resistencia a Ofx con un CMI = 4 μg/mL. Los resultados de secuenciamiento sugirieron que la mutación A1401T en rrs podría ser la causa molecular de resistencia a los inyectables; mientras que en este estudio no se halló ninguna mutación en tlyA ni en gyrA/B asociada a resistencia. Conclusiones. Este estudio sugiere una posible asociación entre la mutación en A1401G y la resistencia a los antibióticos inyectables.

  17. Resistencia a drogas de segunda línea en cepas peruanas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrogorresistentes

    Francesca Barletta


    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar los perfiles de resistencia de las quinolonas; ciprofloxacina (Cpx, ofloxacina (Ofx, gatifloxacina (Gfx y moxifloxacina (Mfx, y de los inyectables; kanamicina (Km, amikacina (Am y capreomicina (Cm en cepas multidrogorresistente (MDR. Se buscó la presencia de mutaciones en los genes rrs,tlyA y gyrA/B, y su posible asociación con la resistencia a inyectables y quinolonas. Materiales y métodos. En este estudio piloto descriptivo se seleccionaron cepas MDR aisladas durante junio a diciembre de 2004, que fueron criopreservadas en el banco de muestras del Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humboldt" en Lima, Perú. Se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI para Cpx, Ofx, Gfx, Mfx, Km, Am y Cm. Se investigó las mutaciones presentes en los genes rrs, tlyA y gyrA/B a través de un PCR convencional y posterior secuenciamiento de los productos obtenidos. Resultados. Cuatro de los once aislados presentaron resistencia contra los inyectables y en todas se observó una alta CMI; >120 μg/mL para Km y >160 μg/mL para Am y Cm. Solo dos aislados presentaron resistencia a Ofx con un CMI = 4 μg/mL. Los resultados de secuenciamiento sugirieron que la mutación A1401T en rrs podría ser la causa molecular de resistencia a los inyectables; mientras que en este estudio no se halló ninguna mutación en tlyA ni en gyrA/B asociada a resistencia. Conclusiones. Este estudio sugiere una posible asociación entre la mutación en A1401G y la resistencia a los antibióticos inyectables.

  18. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos

    Rodolfo Notario


    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.

  19. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems.

    Moura, A G; Santana, G M; Ferreira, P M P; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P


    Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion) are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05). No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic. PMID:26959949

  20. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Annika Gillis; Jacques Mahillon


    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages inf...

  1. Optimizing the Utility of Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum (sibuyas Tagalog for the Allium Test by Elucidating its Mitotic Periodicity and Rhythmicity Under Varying Light Conditions

    Ambrocio Melvin A. Matias


    Full Text Available The occurrence of pattern of mitotic activity has long been studied in different plants; in the onion Allium cepa, determination of its mitotic activity has led to its utilization in the Allium test for cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of test substances. In this study, the pattern of mitotic activity of A. cepa var. aggregatum and the effect of light exposure on mitotic activity were determined to test the utility of A. cepa L. var. aggregatum as an alternative to the common onion, A. cepa, for the Allium test. Bulblets of A. cepa var. aggregatum were allowed to root for three days in tap water under three different set-ups: constant light exposure set-up (Light, constant dark set-up (Dark and 12 hours light-12 hours dark set-up (Light-Dark. The root tips from the bulblets were then excised and subjected to microscopic observation for the mitotic index (MI every hour after the third day. The results showed no significant difference observed across the three set-ups. However, MI for the Dark and Light set-ups were periodic, showing peaks or maxima of MI falling between 11 AM and 12 PM, whereas that of Light-Dark set-up was rhythmic, having an hourly fluctuation, but also showed maximum between 11 AM and 12 PM. It is recommended that A. cepa var. aggregatum root tips be excised between 11 AM and 12 PM for the Allium test.

  2. Plasmid-mediated transformation in Bacillus megaterium.

    Brown, B. J.; Carlton, B C


    A transformation system was developed for Bacillus megaterium by using antibiotic resistance plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid molecules derived from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Lysozyme-generated protoplasts of B. megaterium allowed uptake of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid in the presence of polyethylene glycol. Transformants expressed the antibiotic resistance determinants present on the plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid, and reisolated plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid yielded restrictio...

  3. Physical map of the Bacillus cereus chromosome.

    Kolstø, A B; Grønstad, A; Oppegaard, H


    A physical map of the Bacillus cereus chromosome has been constructed by aligning 11 NotI fragments, ranging in size from 200 to 1,300 kilobases. The size of the chromosome is about 5.7 megabases. This is the first Bacillus genome of which a complete physical map has been described.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of surfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis R14 against multidrug-resistant bacteria Atividade antimicrobiana de surfactantes produzidos por Bacillus subtilis R14 frente a bacterias multidroga-resistentes

    Paulo André Vicente Fernandes


    Full Text Available Lipopeptides represent a class of microbial surfactants with increasing scientific, therapeutic and biotechnological interests. The genus Bacillus is a producer of these active compounds, and among them B. subtilis produces surfactin, the most potent biosurfactant known. These compounds can act as antibiotics, antivirals, antitumorals, immunomodulators and enzyme inhibitors. In this work, the antimicrobial activity of biosurfactants obtained by cultivation of B. subtilis R14 was investigated against multidrug-resistant bacteria. During cultivation in defined medium, the surface tension of the medium was reduced from 54 mN/m in the beginning of the microbial growth to 30 mN/m after 20 hours. A crude surfactant concentration of 2.0 g/L was obtained after 40 hours of cultivation. A preliminary characterization suggested that two surfactants were produced. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of these compounds was carried out against 29 bacteria. Enterococcus faecalis (11 strains, Staphylococcus aureus (6 strains and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7 strains and Escherichia coli CI 18 (1 strain displayed a profile of well defined drug resistance. All strains were sensitive to the surfactants, in particular Enterococcus faecalis. The results demonstrated that lipopeptides have a broad spectrum of action, including antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles.Os lipopeptídeos representam uma classe de surfactantes microbiológicos com crescente interesse científico, terapêutico e biotecnológico. O gênero Bacillus é um dos maiores produtores destes compostos ativos. Dentre as espécies produtoras de biossurfactante, B. subtilis produz surfactina um dos mais conhecidos. Estes compostos atuam como antibióticos, antivirais, agente antitumorais, imunomoduladores e inibidores enzimáticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a atividade antimicrobiana de biossurfactantes, obtidos pelo cultivo de B. subtilis R

  5. Antigenos "particulares" a cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi: demonstracao por imunoeletroforese bidimensional Antigens particular to strains of Trypanosoma cruzi: demonstration by bidimensional immunoelectrophoresis

    Mariza Gonçalves Morgado


    Full Text Available Os extratos solúveis das cepas Y, São Felipe e Colombiana do Trypanosoma cruzi foram analisados contra seus antissoros homólogos e heterólogos por imunoeletroforese bidimensional e imunoeletroforese bidimensional com gel intermediário. Os resultados revelaram a existência de pelo menos 35 linhas de precipitação na cepa Y (32 de migração anódica e três de migração catódica, 24 linhas de precipitação anódica na cepa São Felipe e 22 na cepa Colombiana. Estas duas últimas cepas não apresentaram antígenos de migração catódica. Estes antígenos de migração catódica foram considerados "particulares" a cepa Y uma vez que quando testados contra antissoros heterólogos não observamos linhas de precipitação. Através do uso da imunoeletroforese bidimensional com gel intermediário foram evidenciados cinco antígenos particulares à cepa Y quando comparada à São Felipe e oito quando comparada à cepa Colombiana. A cepa São Felipe mostrou um único antígeno particular quando comparada à cepa Colombiana porém, não se evidenciou nenhum antígeno particular quando a cepa São Felipe foi analisada contra o antissoro da cepa Y. A cepa Colombiana não demonstrou nenhum antígeno particular nem quando comparada à cepa Y nem à São Felipe. Nossos resultados revelam que cepas pertencentes a diferentes tipos quanto ao comportamento morfobiológico e histopatológico também demonstram uma acentuada diferença quanto a seus componentes antigênicos.Soluble extracts of Y, São Felipe and Colombian strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were analyzed against their homologous and heterologous antisera by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed immunoelectrophoresis with intermediate gel. In the homologous system, the results showed 35 precipitin lines for Y strain (32 anodic, 3 cathodic, 24 precipitin lines for SãoFelipe strain and 22 for Colombian strain. No cathodic antigen was observed for these last two strains which were consequently

  6. What sets Bacillus anthracis apart from other Bacillus species?

    Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Tourasse, Nicolas J; Økstad, Ole Andreas


    Bacillus anthracis is the cause of anthrax, and two large plasmids are essential for toxicity: pXO1, which contains the toxin genes, and pXO2, which encodes a capsule. B. anthracis forms a highly monomorphic lineage within the B. cereus group, but strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. cereus exist that are genetically closely related to the B. anthracis cluster. During the past five years B. cereus strains that contain the pXO1 virulence plasmid were discovered, and strains with both pXO1 and pXO2 have been isolated from great apes in Africa. Therefore, the presence of pXO1 and pXO2 no longer principally separates B. anthracis from other Bacilli. The B. anthracis lineage carries a specific mutation in the global regulator PlcR, which controls the transcription of secreted virulence factors in B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Coevolution of the B. anthracis chromosome with its plasmids may be the basis for the successful development and uniqueness of the B. anthracis lineage. PMID:19514852

  7. Presence and significance of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins associated with the Andean weevil Premnotrypes vorax (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    SilvioAlejandro López-Pazos


    Full Text Available The Andean weevil Premnotrypes vorax represents an important cause of damage to Colombian potato crops. Due to the impact of this plague on the economy of the country, we searched for new alternatives for its biological control, based on the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. A total of 300 B. thuringiensis strains obtained from potato plantations infested with P. vorax were analyzed through crystal morphology, SDS-PAGE, PCR and bioassays. We used site- directed mutagenesis to modify the Cry3Aa protein. Most of the B. thuringiensis isolates had a bipyramidal crystal morphology. SDS-PAGE analyses had seven strains groups with σ-endotoxins from 35 to 135 kDa. The genes cry 2 and cry 1 were significantly more frequent in the P. vorax habitat (PCR analyses. Three mutant toxins, 1 (D354E, 2 (R345A, ∆Y350, ∆Y351, and 3 (Q482A, S484A, R485A, were analyzed to assess their activity against P. vorax larvae. Toxicity was low, or absent, against P. vorax for isolates, wild type cry 3Aa and cry 3Aa mutants. The genetic characterization of the collection provides opportunities for the selection of strains to be tested in bioassays against other insect pests of agricultural importance, and for designing Cry proteins with improved insecticidal toxicity. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1235-1243. Epub 2009 December 01.El gorgojo andino Premnotrypes vorax es una causa importante de daño en los cultivos colombianos de este tubérculo. Debido al impacto que esta plaga tiene sobre la economía del país, nos interesamos en buscar alternativas nuevas para el control biológico de P. vorax, basadas en la bacteria entomopatógena Bacillus thuringiensis. Se recolectaron un total de 300 cepas de B. thuringiensis a partir de plantaciones de papa infestadas con P. vorax, las cuales fueron analizadas por medio de la morfología del cristal, SDS-PAGE, PCR y ensayos biológicos. La mayoría de los aislamientos de B. thuringiensis presentaron cristales

  8. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J


    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic. PMID:25501210

  9. Seleccion de cepas de rizobios en suelos promisorios para el cultivo de la soya (Glycine max (L Merril en Colombia

    Sylvester Bradley Rosemary


    Full Text Available En el invernadero se evaluó la efectividad de las cepas preseleccionadas de B. japonicum (CIAT 199,209,3778,3874 y 3876 de la recomendada (CIAT51 y una de Rhizobium spp (CIAT 3779. En el suelo Fluventic Haplustoll, de reacción casi neutra, se presentó respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación. El tratamiento fertilizado con 150 kg de N/ha produjo el mayor rendimiento de N. Las cepas más efectivas fueron CIAT 3778 y 51, que también presentaron el mayor indice de efectividad a la inoculación (IEI. En el suelo Typic Pellustert,de reacción alcalina, se presentó respuesta significativa a la inoculación. El mayor rendimiento de N se obtuvo con las cepas CIAT 3778 y 51, que fueron además estadísticamente iguales a las cepas CIAT 199 y 3876 en cuanto al IEI. En el suelo Arenic Haplustalf, de reacción ligeramente ácida, hubo respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación y la cepa más efectiva fue la CJAT 199. En el suelo Fluventic Ustropept, de reacci6n ligeramente ácida, se presentaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados. El mayor rendimiento de N se presentó en el tratamiento fertilizado con N. Las mejores cepas fueron CIAT 3778,3779 y 209. En el suelo Vertic Ustropept, de reacción alcalina, se presentó respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación. En cuanto al rendimiento de N no se encontraron diferencias entre el tratamiento fertilizado con N y las cepas CIAT 51, 209 y CIAT 3778, siendo también las más efectivas en cuanto al IEI, junto oon la cepa CIAT 199. En los suelos Tropentic Haplorthox y Typic Tropudult no se enoontró respuesta a la inoculación.Screening of Rhizobium strains in soils apt for soybean (Glycine max (L Merril cultivation in Colombia. Under greenhouse conditions were evaluated the effectivity of the preselected strains of the preselected strains of B. japonicum (CIAT 199, 209, 3778, 3874 and 3876, in addition to the recommended strain (CIAT 51 and one of

  10. Lesões cardíacas em ratos wistar inoculados com diferentes cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi

    E. Chapadeiro


    Full Text Available Ratos albinos Wistar infectados com diferentes inóculos das cepas Y, Colombiana (COL e São Felipe (12SF do Trypanosoma cruzi desenvolveram parasitemia elevada entre 14e21 dias, a qual tomou-se desprezível ou desapareceu completamente ao final da 4ª semana. As lesões do coração foram avaliadas, semiquantitativamente, pelo sistema de "scores", conforme a intensidade e a extensão da inflamação, nas diferentes estruturas do órgão, tendo sido observado que: a na fase inicial (aguda da infecção, os animais mortos espontaneamente ou em conseqüência de acidente anestésico apresentaram cardite de intensidade moderada à acentuada, não havendo diferença em relação às cepas utilizadas; as diferentes estruturas do coração estavam uniformemente comprometidas; b na fase crônica da infecção observou-se cardite degrau leve a moderado e as lesões foram mais freqüentes e intensas quanto maior o inoculo empregado; no entanto, inóculos baixos só produziram lesões quando a cepa utilizada foi a Colombiana. Trombose mural nos átrios e dilatação da ponta do ventrículo esquerdo foram observadas em 20% dos animais, independentemente da cepa. Na fase crônica 15% dos animais apresentaram miocardite crônica com fibrose, associada à hipertrofia das miocélulas. Os AA confirmam ser o rato albino suscetível à infecção chagásica e, portanto, um modelo útil no estudo das manifestações cardíacas da Doença de Chagas.


    María Vanegas L; Lina González G; Aida Martínez L; Francisco Buitrago


    Objetivo. Caracterizar cepas de Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxigénicos provenientes de quesos distribuidos en supermercados, tiendas y en ventas callejeras en la ciudad de Bogota, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se ecolectaron muestras de quesos provenientes de tiendas, supermercados y ventas callejeras. Se detectó la presencia del gen para enterotoxina A usando un set de primers reportado en estudios previos. Un total de 50 quesos fueron analizados, 13 comercializados en tien...

  12. In Vitro Study of Berberis vulgaris, Actinidia deliciosa and Allium cepa L. Antibacterial Effects on Listeria monocytogenes

    Anzabi Younes


    Objective: One control method of pathogenic microorganisms is using synthetic chemical preservatives and antibiotics. Because of being generally recognized as safe, antibacterial compounds with organic origin are considered important for health. This study was done in order to investigate the antibacterial effects of methanol extracts of the Berberis vulgaris (Barberry), Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwi) and Allium cepa L. (Onions) on the standard strain (ATCC:19114) of Listeria monocytogenes (L. mo...

  13. Caracterización de las glicoproteínas de una cepa de virus respiratorio sincicial aislada en Cali.

    Beatriz Parra


    Full Text Available Se empleó un aislado de virus respiratorio sincicial de un niño de dos meses de edad que presentó el primer episodio de infección aguda en un estudio longitudinal efectuado en Cali (1986-1990, para caracterizar molecular y antigénicamente las glicoproteínas virales que son importantes en los mecanismos de inmunopatogénesis en la infección respiratoria aguda generada por este tipo de virus. La caracterización electroforética de proteínas radiomarcadas in vitro con [3H]-Glucosamina permitió evidenciar las bandas de 98, 70, 30 kd como glicoproteínas que hacen parte de la envoltura del virus. La gp 70 es importante en la inmunopatogénesis porque aparece como efecto de protección de tipo IgG transmitida pasivamente por la madre. Se pudieron localizar dos sitios para la proteasa V8 en la gp70 aislada de ambas cepas. La F1 es una de las subunidades comprometidas en la generación de una respuesta inmune de tipo neutralizante determinada en sueros de la fase aguda y en hiperinmunes de conejo. Se demostró la similitud antigénica y estructural de la cepa Cali-0015 con la cepa de referencia Long.

  14. Ability of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity and mutagenicity evaluation.

    de Rainho, Claudia R; Kaezer, Andréa; Aiub, Claudia A F; Felzenszwalb, Israel


    N-nitroso compounds, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), can be formed by the reaction of secondary amines with nitrosating agents, and are suspected to be involved in tumors in humans. NDEA has been considered a weak carcinogen in genotoxic assays probably due to the inefficient nitrosamine activation system that is used and/or to the efficient repair system. In this work, we evaluated the sensibility of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH) using Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea for NDEA (0.1; 0.5; 5 and 25 mM) genotoxicity and mutagenicity induction. Allium cepa L. was treated with different NDEA concentrations for 3h, for 3 consecutive days, including negative control (distilled water) and positive control maleic hydrazide (MH 30 mg/mL). After treatment, the roots were hydrolyzed, squashed, and the mitotic index (MI) and cytological abnormalities were scored. The results revealed a cytostatic effect of NDEA (0.5 and 5mM), showing a significant reduction in the MI. Chromosome stickiness suggests a NDEA toxic effect. T. pallida purpurea did not respond to mutagens with a dose-dependent pattern. In conclusion, our study indicates that the root tips of Allium cepa L. have sensibility to detect NDEA genotoxicity, but not for Trad-SH test. PMID:21152767

  15. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (Ptreatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants. PMID:22239909

  16. In Vivo Cytogenotoxicity of Electronic Waste Leachate from Iloabuchi Electronic Market, Diobu, Rivers State, Nigeria on Allium Cepa

    Bolaji Babatunde


    Full Text Available The human and environmental impact of electronic waste is increasing due to its careless disposal. Cytogenotoxicity of electronic waste from Iloabuchi electronic market, Diobu, Rivers State was investigated using the Allium cepa bioassay comprised of the root elongation and chromosome aberration tests. Leachate samples of e-waste analysed were above maximum permissible limits. Toxicity to root growth of A. cepa was evaluated at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% showed root growth inhibition at all concentrations of the samples compared to the control and root growth inhibition was concentration dependent. An effective concentration (EC50 at which root growth amounted to 50 % of control for the sample was 37.5%. Various morphological defects of the onion roots were observed including short, crochet roots, C-tumor roots and severe toxic effects where no growth was observed. In the in vivo genotoxity assay, all samples lowered the frequency of mitotic cells in the meristematic region of the roots at statistically significant levels (P < 0.05 compared to the control and mitotic inhibition was also concentration dependent. There was significant induction of aberrations at all concentrations tested compared to control. The high metal content of the e-waste leachate may be responsible for observed cytotoxicity in A. cepa roots cells.

  17. Production of Cellulases, Xylanase, Pectinase, alpha-amylase and Protease Enzymes Cocktail by Bacillus spp. and Their Mixed Cultures with Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula glutinis under Solid State Fermentation

    A group of twelve locally isolated Bacillus species, B.megaterium (MAI and MA II), B.licheniformis (MLI and ML II); B. circulans, B. stearothermophilis, B.cereus, B.sphaericus, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. coagulans and B. pantothenticus, were examined for the production of cellulases, xylanase, pectinase, alpha-amylase and protease enzymes cocktail on wheat bran under solid state fermentation (SSF). All species were found to be potent hydrolyzing enzymes producers and the superior producing species were B. megaterium MAI and B. licheniformis. On the other hand, both of them still produced highest enzyme titres when mixed with Candida tropicalis or Rhodotorula glutinis, yeast strains. The two superior bacterial strains produced the highest enzymatic activities when coculturing with C. tropicalis compared with coculturing with R. glutinis only or with both C. tropicalis and R. glutinis in combination. The inferior activities of cocultures (B. megaterinm MAI and R. glutinis) were enhanced in carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), filter paper cellulase (FPase), avecilase, xylanase, pectinase, -amylase and protease by gamma irradiation at dose 1.0 kGy with percent increase 8 %, 20 %, 10 %, 4 %, 31 %, 22 % and 34 %, respectively as compared with un-irradiated cocultures

  18. Actividad "In Vitro" del Propoaromiel contra Cepas Aisladas de Muestras Clínicas.

    Olga A. Echemendía Arana


    Full Text Available La resistencia de los microorganismos a los antibacterianos es un problema mundial de salud, por lo que se hace necesario la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas terapéuticas las cuales van encaminadas a las fuentes naturales.El Propoaromiel (PAM, es una formulación que se obtiene mediante la unión de miel, propóleos y aceites esenciales. Nuestro trabajo nos propusimos demostrar, la actividad antibacteriana ¿in vitro¿ del PAM frente a 239 microorganismos de muestras clínicas: S. aureus (N= 53; S. pneumoniae (N = 37 y S. B. hemoliticcus (N = 49 N. meningitidis (N= 42; M. catarrhalis (N=5. P.aeruginosa (N= 37; E. coli (N=5; Salmonella sp (N=8; Proteus sp (N=2; Hafnia (N=1. Se utilizó el método de dilución en agar según las normas establecidas por el Comité Nacional de Estándares para Laboratorios Clínicos (NCCLS. Todas las suspensiones de los microorganismos fueron ajustados a un patrón de turbidez 0.5 MacFarland. Se prepararon diluciones dobles del PMA desde 5.07 a 650 mg/mL para determinar la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI capaz de inhibir el crecimiento bacteriano. Se utilizó Agar Mueller- Hinton suplementado con sangre de carnero desfibrinada al 5%. Las placas se incubaron a 37 OC y atmósfera húmeda de CO2 al 5 %. La lectura se realizó a las 24 horas de incubación. Las cepas con mayor susceptibilidad al PAM fueron las de N. meningitidis y S. pneumoniae (CMI90 30,4 mg/mL mientras que el S.aureus (CMI90 243,7 mg/mL. y los bacilos Gram negativos (CMI90 243,7mg/mL fueron más resistentes a la acción del PAM. El propoaromiel fue capaz de inhibir todas las cepas estudiadas.

  19. La cepa de yogur en leche de vaca y cabra como suplemento en corderos de levante

    Nubia E. Flechas-F.


    Full Text Available La  obtención de  productos pecuarios  inocuos para la salud humana cobra cada vez más fuerza. Por esta razón surge la tendencia al empleo de probióticos  que  administrados  a  los  animales provocan  efectos  benéficos  mediante modificaciones en  la población microbiana de su tracto digestivo. Se realizó un estudio con 25 corderos en etapa de  levante, con el  fin de evaluar el  efecto  de  el  uso  de  la  cepa  de  yogur (Lactobacillus  bulgaricus  y  Streptococcus thermophylus  preparado  en  leche  de  vaca  y leche de cabra sobre el crecimiento y  la ganancia de peso, con una duración de 30 días, la dieta estuvo  conformada  por  forraje  a  voluntad  y suplementación  con maíz  y  concentrado.  Los tratamientos  fueron:  yogur a base de  leche de vaca, dosis de 10 y 20 cm3; yogur a base de  leche de cabra, dosis 10 y 20 cm3 y control agua como placebo, 10 cm3. Se suministro  la cepa cada 3 días  y  se  pesaron  los  animales  una  vez  por semana, se realizó química sanguínea al inicio y al  final del ensayo. El peso para  los diferentes

  20. A methodology for determining environmental threshold quantities for substances covered by CEPA's Environmental Emergency Regulation

    Sections 199 and 200 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) 1999 oblige persons who own or manage specified toxic and hazardous substances to develop and implement environmental emergency plans. This paper discussed the methodology for determining how a chemical is assessed for recommending an environmental emergency plan. For Section 199, once substances are declared toxic, each chemical is assessed to determine whether it requires a plan or not. For Section 200, any chemical can be added under the E2 regulations, as long as it can be ascertained that the substance is toxic according to the following criteria: it has an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity; it constitutes a danger to the environment on which human life depends; and/or it constitutes a danger in Canada to human life or health. An overview of the risk evaluation framework was provided, including details of the pre-assessment filter. Summaries of trigger criteria were presented, as well as environmental hazard ratings and details of persistence of organic chemicals in the environment and bioaccumulation. Aquatic toxicity and ingestion toxicity details were also provided. Human hazard ratings included carcinogenicity, inhalation toxicity, dermal toxicity, rabbit and rat toxicity and corrosion and skin irritation ratings. Issues concerning vapour cloud explosions were examined. A reactivity table was presented with hazard descriptions. European Union Threshold quantities were examined, as well as a list of comparisons of selected substances of CEPA with the European Union. It was concluded that the Environmental Emergency Branch (EEB) has created environmental thresholds by first examining how other countries have protected the environment. Substance thresholds for the United States have focused on protecting humans, while Europe has established threshold quantities that work for their countries. The EEB has selected classification tables

  1. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker Specific for the Bacillus cereus Group Is Diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara; Frova, Giuseppe; Gallo, Romina; Mori, Elena; Fani, Renato; Sorlini, Claudia


    Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a pu...

  2. Cinética de degradación del naftaleno por células inmovilizadas húmedas de Bacillus alcalophilus cepa IDO-225

    Roberto Rafael Núñez Moreira; Yoania Cabranes Campos; Eudalyz Ortiz Guilarte; Rolando Gondres; Cossette Martínez Tristá; Jorge Martínez


    Numerosas han sido las investigaciones sobre el estudio de la biorremediación para su aplicación en la lucha para combatir la contaminación ambiental por hidrocarburos. El Instituto de Oceanología del Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología y Ambiente, ha trabajado desde 1988 en el aislamiento y conservaci ón de bacterias marinas que sean capaces de degradar el petróleo. Actualmente, cuenta con cuatro bioproductos degradadores de petróleo en medio marino denominados BIOIL, K-BIOIL, BIOIL-FC e IDO-2...

  3. Detection irradiated shallot (Allium Cepa) and spices using technique of Photo Stimulated Luminescence (PSL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of Photo Stimulated Luminescence (PSL) in detecting the food that has been irradiated qualitatively and quantitatively. The samples used were onions (Allium Cepa) and spices. The shallots which are from India and Thailand was irradiated using Gamma Cell at dose of 0 kGy, 0.2 kGy, 0.4 kGy and 1.0. While for the spices, there were 10 types of spices used such as powder of paprika, parsley, turmeric, tarragon, coriander, mint leaves, basil, rosemary flower, chives and herbs mixture which was irradiated at the dose of 0 kGy and 8.7 kGy respectively. The result shows that the PSL method could differentiate samples which are irradiated and not irradiated. Even though the PSL value increases proportionally to the radiation dose, the relationship between these two means are not that clearly clarified and needed to be studied furthermore.(author)

  4. Leaf cavity CO2 concentrations and CO2 exchange in onion, Allium cepa L.

    Byrd, G T; Loboda, T; Black, C C; Brown, R H


    Onion (Allium cepa L.) plants were examined to determine the photosynthetic role of CO2 that accumulates within their leaf cavities. Leaf cavity CO2 concentrations ranged from 2250 μL L(-1) near the leaf base to below atmospheric (CO2 concentrations with minimum values near midday and maximum values at night. Conductance to CO2 from the leaf cavity ranged from 24 to 202 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and was even lower for membranes of bulb scales. The capacity for onion leaves to recycle leaf cavity CO2 was poor, only 0.2 to 2.2% of leaf photosynthesis based either on measured CO2 concentrations and conductance values or as measured directly by (14)CO2 labeling experiments. The photosynthetic responses to CO2 and O2 were measured to determine whether onion leaves exhibited a typical C3-type response. A linear increase in CO2 uptake was observed in intact leaves up to 315 μL L(-1) of external CO2 and, at this external CO2 concentration, uptake was inhibited 35.4±0.9% by 210 mL L(-1) O2 compared to 20 mL L(-1) O2. Scanning electron micrographs of the leaf cavity wall revealed degenerated tissue covered by a membrane. Onion leaf cavity membranes apparently are highly impermeable to CO2 and greatly restrict the refixation of leaf cavity CO2 by photosynthetic tissue. PMID:24307095

  5. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Hemalatha Rajkumar

    Full Text Available Allium cepa (onion is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb. Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  6. Cytogenetic damage in shallot ( Allium cepa) root meristems induced by oil industry "high-density brines".

    Vidaković-Cifrek, Z; Pavlica, M; Regula, I; Papes, D


    Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride, calcium bromide (densities 1.30 kg x dm(-3) and 1.61 kg x dm(-3), respectively) and their 1:1 mixture have been commonly used as oil industry "high-density brines." In our experiment they were added to tap water in amounts appropriate to achieve concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) to study their cytotoxic effect on the root tip cells of shallot ( Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum). All tested solutions in concentrations of 0.075 and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) caused significant inhibition of shallot root growth. CaBr (2) showed this effect in concentration 0.05 mol x dm(-3). The investigated solutions in all concentrations applied decreased mitotic activity in root tip cells. The most of mitotic abnormalities were the consequence of spindle failure and chromosome stickiness. Furthermore, the cell microtubules were investigated by indirect immunofluorescence to confirm that most abnormalities observed were the consequence of spindle failure. The present study, as well as previously done Lemna tests and Chlorella tests showed that investigated samples have certain effects on plants, so constant control of their presence in the environment is needed. PMID:12202923

  7. Biomphalaria straminea no Peru e sua suscetibilidade a cepas brasileiras de Schistosoma mansoni

    C.A. Cuba Cuba


    Full Text Available Em Maio de 1973, um dos autores (C.A.C. coletou na localidade de Imacita, Província de Bagua, Departamento de Amazonas, vários espécimes de Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848, uma espécie que, até então, não havia sido assinalada no Peru. Descendentes destes indivíduos foram submetidos a provas de suscetibilidade às cepas BH e SJ de Schistosoma mansoni que, em condições naturais, evoluem em B. glabrata de Belo Horizonte e B. tenagophila de São José dos Campos, respectivamente. Oitenta espécimens foram expostos à cepa BH dos quais em 13 ou 16,2% a infecção evoluiu caracteristicamente até a formação de esporocistos secundários sem haver, contudo, eliminação de cercárias, mesmo no indivíduo que apresentou uma sobrevivência de 88 dias após a exposição. Não se verificou cura espontânea neste lote. Entre as 40 B. straminea expostas à cepa SJ 9 ou 22,5% infectaram-se, sendo que apenas duas eliminaram poucas cercárias aos 57 e 77 dias após a exposição, por dois dias consecutivos, tendo uma morrido e uma se curado espontaneamente. A cura espontânea do parasitismo foi notado em mais dois indivíduos, nos quais a infecção foi observada através da concha. Cortes histológicos seriados de 9 caramujos, expostos individualmente a 50 miracídios da cepa BH e fixados entre 6 e 120 horas após a exposição, mostraram esporocistos em desenvolvimento e esporocistos invadidos por amebócitos, sem formação de granulomas por parte do hospedeiro, fato assinalado em caramujos suscetíveis. A população estudada comportou-se experimentalmente de modo semelhante a outras populações de B. straminea testadas em laboratório, isto é, com baixa suscetibilidade, embora tal comportamento não afaste a possibilidade dela vir a manter o ciclo do parasita em sua área de distribuição.In May 1973 one of the Authors (C.A.C. collected specimens of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker 1848 at imacita, Bagua Province, Amazonas, Pem. This

  8. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection

    Mona Mohamed Mantawy


    Full Text Available The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

  9. Screening antibiotics: industrial research by CEPA and Merck in the 1950s.

    Jesús Santesmases, María


    This article is an account of a screening programme in search of new antibiotics established by CEPA (Comparñia Española de Penicilinas y Antibióticos) and Merck in Madrid in 1954. An exploration of the genealogy for such a programme, its narratives and practices, shows that the main inspiration for this programme was the factory system of production, on the one hand, and Selman Waksman's research agenda on microorganisms of the soil, on the other. In this article, the relationship between industrial production of antibiotics and the research program aimed at identifying new candidate drugs is examined. I suggest that this screening program in search of new antibiotics was organised like industrial manufacturing. The research objects and tools came, both materially and conceptually, from industrial production: a line of artisanship put together in order to obtain a product with the collaboration of every member of the production line. Following the style developed by Selman Waksman in Rutgers, the screening program evaluated samples manually, and the microbiological skills were enhanced with every test. The Madrid team's practice of applying instructions for use led to circulation of knowledge and practices, including research material and microbiological methods. PMID:22332466

  10. Evaluation of the cytogenotoxicity of textile effluents using Allium cepa L.

    Sandro Barbosa


    Full Text Available The cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the raw (EB and treated (ET effluents of two textile mills located in south of Minas Gerais State that have their effluents treated at the same Effluent Treatment Plant was investigated using the Allium cepa test system. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the root elongation and mitotic index (MI endpoints and the genotoxicity was assessed by de determination of chromosome aberrations (CA.The effluent samples were tested at the concentrations 0 (ultrapure water, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % (v/v. A Completely Randomized Design with four replicates of 30 seeds was used. The effluent samples in almost all tested concentrations promoted an increase in root elongation compared to the negative control and this effect was probably related to nutrients levels and organic matter in effluent samples. A lower MI at all concentrations of ET compared to EB. The highest MI was observed at 100% (v/v concentration of both effluents. The highest rates of CA occurred at concentrations 75% (v/v of EB and 100% (v/v of both effluents. The effluent samples showed no cytotoxic effect, but cell division occurred disorderly, leading to increase rate of AC, revealing a genetoxic effect. Improvements in the wastewater treatment are needed to reduce environmental impacts.