Sample records for b1 b2 b3

  1. Evaluation of FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Xiao, Jinhong; Xie, Yafeng; Xiao, Yongjian; Wang, Chuan; Kuang, Xingxing; Xu, Man; Li, Ranhui; Zeng, Tiebing; Liu, Shuanquan; Yu, Jian; Zhao, Feijun; Wu, Yimou


    Syphilis is a multistage disease caused by the invasive spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and accurate diagnosis is important for the prevention and treatment of syphilis. Here, to identify appropriate diagnostic antigens for serodiagnosis of syphilis, 6 recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, including flagellins (FlaB1 [Tp0868], FlaB2 [Tp0792], and FlaB3 [Tp0870]), Tp0463, Tp0751, and Tp1038. The sensitivities were determined by screening sera from individuals with primary (n=82), secondary (n=115), latent (n=105), and congenital (n=65) syphilis. The specificities were determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n=30) and potentially cross-reactive infections including Lyme disease (n=30), leptospirosis (n=5), and hepatitis B (n=30). Our data showed that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, Tp0463, and Tp1038 exhibited higher overall sensitivities and specificities for detecting IgG antibody, with 95.4% and 98.9%, 92.6% and 95.8%, 95.1% and 95.8%, 92.6% and 97.9%, and 95.9% and 98.9%, respectively. In contrast, Tp0751 demonstrated only an overall sensitivity of 39.2%. For comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of Architect Syphilis TP were determined to be 98.1% and 93.7%, respectively. In addition, FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 demonstrated excellent performance for detecting IgM antibody in primary and congenital syphilis, with sensitivities of 76.8% and 83.1%, 72.0% and 87.7%, 74.4% and 89.2%, and 64.6% and 75.3%, respectively. These results indicate that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 could be as novel diagnostic candidates for serodiagnosis of syphilis. PMID:26607421

  2. Simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 contaminants in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    The present work developed an analytical method for simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 residues in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and especially focused on the optimization of extraction, clean-up, UHPLC separation and MS/MS parameters. The method involves addition of fumonisins isotope internal standards, extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile and water and clean-up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges before UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. A single-laboratory method validation was conducted by testing three different spiking levels for repeatability and recovery according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) guidelines. The LOQ of FB1, FB2 and FB3 were 1.50, 1.65 and 0.4 μg kg-1, respectively, which were lower than the criteria of EU, USA and other countries regarding minimum residue limits of fumonisins in foods including baby foods and feedstuffs. Recoveries of three fumonisins ranged from 80.9% to 97.0% with RSD values of 2.4-11.1%.The advantages of this method include simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity, and it fulfills the requirements for food analysis with respect to minimum residue limits of fumonisins in various countries.

  3. Fate of the fusarium mycotoxins fumonisins B1, B2 and B3, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in maize flour and maize grits during extrusion cooking.

    Scudamore, Keith; Guy, Robin C, E; Kelleher, Brian; MacDonald, Susan


    Abstract Extrusion technology is used widely to manufacture a range of breakfast cereals and snacks for human consumption and animal feeds. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in cereals and cereal products and fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) in maize are controlled in the European Community by legislation with the objective of minimising consumer exposure to these mycotoxins. Relatively few studies have examined the losses of fusarium mycotoxins during processing. The be...

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Total Vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in Infant Formula and Related Nutritionals by Enzymatic Digestion and LC-MS/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.14.

    Salvati, Louis M; McClure, Sean C; Reddy, Todime M; Cellar, Nicholas A


    This method provides simultaneous determination of total vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in infant formula and related nutritionals (adult and infant). The method was given First Action for vitamins B1, B2, and B6, but not B3, during the AOAC Annual Meeting in September 2015. The method uses acid phosphatase to dephosphorylate the phosphorylated vitamin forms. It then measures thiamine (vitamin B1); riboflavin (vitamin B2); nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (vitamin B3); and pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine (vitamin B6) from digested sample extract by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A single-laboratory validation was performed on 14 matrixes provided by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) to demonstrate method effectiveness. The method met requirements of the AOAC SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirement for each of the three vitamins, including average over-spike recovery of 99.6 ± 3.5%, average repeatability of 1.5 ± 0.8% relative standard deviation, and average intermediate precision of 3.9 ± 1.3% relative standard deviation. PMID:27297842

  5. Screening survey of co-production of fusaric acid, fusarin C, and fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 by Fusarium strains grown in maize grains

    Han, Z.; Tangni, E. K.; Huybrechts, B.; Munaut, Françoise; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Wu, A.; A. Callebaut


    Fusarium species isolated from Belgian maize were screened for their ability to produce fusarin C, fusaric acid, fumonisins B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 in maize grains. First, cultivation of Fusarium species in Myro liquid medium allowed overcoming the shortage of the standard of fusarin C on the market. All Fusarium verticillioides produced much higher contents of mycotoxins in Myro compared to Fusarium graminearum or Fusarium venenatum. The optimization of the LC-MS/MS method resulted in low limi...

  6. Measurement of the $\\chi_b(3P)$ mass and of the relative rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ production

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Lespinasse, Mickael; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander


    The production of $\\chi_b$ mesons in proton-proton collisions is studied using a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$ TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$. The $\\chi_b$ mesons are identified through their decays to $\\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)\\gamma$ using photons that converted to $e^+e^-$ pairs in the detector. The $\\chi_b(3P)$ meson mass, and the relative prompt production rate of $\\chi_{b1}(1P)$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1P)$ mesons as a function of the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ transverse momentum in the $\\chi_b$ rapidity range 2.0< $y$<4.5, are measured. Assuming a mass splitting between the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ and the $\\chi_{b2}(3P)$ states of 10.5 MeV/$c^2$, the mass of the $\\chi_{b1}(3P)$ meson is \\begin{equation*} m(\\chi_{b1}(3P))= 10515.7^{+2.2}_{-3.9}(stat) ^{+1.5}_{-2.1}(syst) MeV/c^2. \\end{equation*}

  7. A new sample preparation and separation combination for precise, accurate, rapid, and simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, and B9 in infant formula and related nutritionals by LC-MS/MS.

    Cellar, Nicholas A; McClure, Sean C; Salvati, Louis M; Reddy, Todime M


    An improved method was developed for simultaneous determination of the fortified forms of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9) in infant formulas and related nutritionals. The method employed a simple, effective, and rapid sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It improved upon previous methodologies by offering facile and rugged sample preparation with improved chromatographic conditions, which culminated in a highly accurate and precise method for water-soluble vitamin determination in a wide range of formulas. The method was validated over six days in ten unique matrices with two analysts and on instruments in two different labs. Intermediate precision averaged 3.4 ± 2.6% relative standard deviation and over-spike recovery averaged 100.2 ± 2.4% (n = 160). Due to refinements in sample preparation, the method had high sample throughput capacity. PMID:27506358

  8. Observation and Properties of L=1 B_1 and B_2* Mesons

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, C; Clement, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutíerrez, P; Gutíerrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Polozov, P; Pompo, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Williams, M R J; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yu, C; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G


    Excited B mesons B_1 and B_2* are observed directly for the first time as two separate states in fully reconstructed decays to B+(*) pi-. The mass of B_1 is measured to be (5720.6 +- 2.4 +- 1.4) MeV/c^2 and the mass difference DeltaM between B_2* and B_1 is (26.2 +- 3.1 +- 0.9) MeV/c^2, giving the mass of the B_2* as (5746.8 +- 2.4 +- 1.7) MeV/c^2. The production rate for B_1 and B_2* mesons is determined to be a fraction (13.9 +- 1.9 +- 3.2)% of the production rate of the B+ meson.

  9. Impaired cortical neurogenesis in plexin-B1 and -B2 double deletion mutant.

    Daviaud, Nicolas; Chen, Karen; Huang, Yong; Friedel, Roland H; Zou, Hongyan


    Mammalian cortical expansion is tightly controlled by fine-tuning of proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors in a region-specific manner. How extrinsic cues interface with cell-intrinsic programs to balance proliferative versus neurogenic decisions remains an unsolved question. We examined the function of Semaphorin receptors Plexin-B1 and -B2 in corticogenesis by generating double mutants, whereby Plexin-B2 was conditionally ablated in the developing brain in a Plexin-B1 null mutant background. Absence of both Plexin-Bs resulted in cortical thinning, particularly in the caudomedial cortex. Plexin-B1/B2 double, but not single, mutants exhibited a reduced neural progenitor pool, attributable to decreased proliferation and an altered division mode favoring cell cycle exit. This resulted in deficient production of neurons throughout the neurogenic period, proportionally affecting all cortical laminae. Consistent with the in vivo data, cultured neural progenitors lacking both Plexin-B1 and -B2 displayed decreased proliferative capacity and increased spontaneous differentiation. Our study therefore defines a novel function of Plexin-B1 and -B2 in transmitting extrinsic signals to maintain proliferative and undifferentiated states of neural progenitors. As single mutants displayed no apparent cortical defects, we conclude that Plexin-B1 and -B2 play redundant or compensatory roles during forebrain development to ensure proper neuronal production and neocortical expansion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 882-899, 2016. PMID:26579598

  10. Human infections caused by Brevibacterium casei, formerly CDC groups B-1 and B-3.

    Gruner, E; Steigerwalt, A G; Hollis, D G; Weyant, R S; Weaver, R E; Moss, C W; M Daneshvar; J. M. Brown; Brenner, D J


    Forty-one clinical strains of CDC coryneform groups B-1 and B-3 were compared biochemically, by analysis of cell wall sugars, amino acids, and cellular fatty acids, and by DNA relatedness to the type strains of Brevibacterium casei, Brevibacterium epidermidis, and Brevibacterium linens. Twenty-two strains were shown to be B. casei, while five other strains formed a phenotypically inseparable genomospecies in the same genus. The remaining isolates were genetically heterogeneous, and most are p...

  11. Evidence for the eta_b(2S) and observation of h_b(1P) -> eta_b(1S) gamma and h_b(2P) -> eta_b(1S) gamma

    Mizuk, R; Bondar, A; Pedlar, T K; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Bay, A; Belous, K; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Bischofberger, M; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, I -S; Cho, K; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Fast, J E; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Jaegle, I; Julius, T; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kawasaki, T; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Ko, B R; Koblitz, S; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lange, J S; Lee, S -H; Li, J; Libby, J; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Louvot, R; Matvienko, D; McOnie, S; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Muramatsu, N; Mussa, R; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Ng, C; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nitoh, O; Nozaki, T; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Onuki, Y; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Pestotnik, R; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Röhrken, M; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Schneider, O; Schwanda, C; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tanida, K; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yuan, C Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V


    We report the first evidence for the eta_b(2S) using the h_b(2P)->eta_b(2S)gamma transition and the first observation of the h_b(1P)->eta_b(1S)gamma and h_b(2P)->eta_b(1S)gamma transitions. The mass and width of the eta_b(1S) and eta_b(2S) are measured to be m_etab(1S)=(9402.4+-1.5+-1.8)MeV/c^2, m_etab(2S)=(9999.0+-3.5 +2.8-1.9)MeV/c^2 and Gamma_etab(1S)=(10.8 +4.0-3.7 +4.5-2.0)MeV. We also update the h_b(1P) and h_b(2P) mass measurements. We use a 133.4/fb data sample collected at energies near the Upsilon(5S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider.

  12. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra characteristics of vitamin B1, B2, and B6

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun


    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locates at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  13. Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B-1, B-2 and sterigmatocystin

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Smedsgaard, Jørn


    To report on aflatoxin B-1 and B-2 production from a species of Emericella. Methods and Results: Aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and confirmed by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. Among 30 known species of...

  14. Pressure dependent elastic and structural (B3-B1) properties of Ga based monopnictides

    By formulating an effective interionic interaction potential that incorporates the long-range Coulomb, the covalency effects, the charge transfer caused by the deformation of the electron shells of the overlapping ions, the Hafemeister and Flygare type short-range overlap repulsion extended up to the second neighbour ions and the van der Waals (vdW) interaction, the pressure dependent elastic and thermodynamical properties of the III-V semiconductors as GaY (Y = N, P, As) are studied. The estimated values of phase transition pressure of GaY (Y = N, P, As) are in reasonably good agreement with the available data on the phase transition pressures (Pt = 41, 22, 17 GPa). The vast volume discontinuity in pressure-volume phase diagram identifies a structural phase transition from zinc-blende (B3) to rock salt (B1) structure. Later on, the Poisson's ratio ν, the ratio RS/B of S (Voigt averaged shear modulus) over B (bulk modulus), elastic anisotropy parameter, elastic wave velocity, average wave velocity and Debye temperature as functions of pressure is calculated. From Poisson's ratio and the ratio RS/B it is inferred that GaY (Y = N, P, As) is brittle [ductile] in zinc-blende (B3) [Sodium Chloride (B1)] phase. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the pressure dependence of ductile (brittle) nature of GaY compounds and still awaits experimental confirmations.

  15. Occurrence of fumonisins B1 and B2 in broa, typical Portuguese maize bread

    Lino, C. M.; Silva, L. J. G.; Pena, A.; Fernández, M; J. Mañes


    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) are mycotoxins mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium proliferatum, fungi species most commonly isolated from maize. The natural occurrence of FB1 and FB2 in broa, typical Portuguese maize bread, was evaluated in 30 samples. Twenty five were found positive with levels ranging from 142 to 550 [mu]g kg- 1. The limit established by the European regulations was exceeded by 27% of the samples. The tolerable daily intake for fumonisin B1,...

  16. Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B-1, B-2 and sterigmatocystin

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Smedsgaard, Jørn


    To report on aflatoxin B-1 and B-2 production from a species of Emericella. Methods and Results: Aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and confirmed by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. Among 30 known species of...... Emericella only one species produced aflatoxin. Strains originating from the same geographical source material had different patterns of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin production on different media, indicating that epigenetic factors may be involved in the regulation of aflatoxin production. However, two...... cultures from the same original genet were very similar. Conclusions: Emericella astellata can produce small amounts of sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B-1 and B-2. Significance and Impact of the Study: Emericella has been used extensively in genetic studies and therefore the isolates producing aflatoxin...

  17. First-principles study of B1 to B2 phase transition in PbS

    Bhambhani, P.; Munjal, N.; Sharma, G.; Vyas, V.; Sharma, B. K.


    The high pressure structural phase transition in PbS has been studied by means of first-principles total energy calculations which are based on linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method within local density approximation (LDA). In the present study, the exchange scheme of Becke and correlation functional of von-Barth-Hedin (VBH) are employed. It is observed that more stable phase for PbS is NaCl type (B1) and PbS transforms to the CsCl type (B2) structure under high pressure (22.8 GPa). The calculated value of transition pressure (Pt) from B1 to B2 structure is found in good agreement with the earlier experimental and theoretical investigations.

  18. Final characterization report for the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory

    This report is a compilation of the characterization data collected from the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and the 104-B-2 Trillium Laboratory. The characterization activities were organized and implemented to evaluate the radiological status and identify any hazardous materials. The data contained in this report reflects the current conditions and status of the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory. This information is intended to be utilized in support of future building decontamination and demolition, to allow for proper disposal of the demolition debris as required by the Washington Administrative Code, WAC 173-303, the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, WHC-EP-0063, and the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria, BHI-00139. Based on the historical information and facility inspections, the only hazardous materials sampling and analysis activities necessary were to identify lead paint and asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and the 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory. Asbestos samples were obtained from the outer boundary of the roof areas to confirm the presence and type of asbestos containing fibers. Lead paint samples were obtained to confirm the presence and quantity of lead paint on the roof trim, doors and vents

  19. Antioxidant/oxidant status and cardiac function in bradykinin B(1)- and B(2)-receptor null mice.

    Delemasure, S; Blaes, N; Richard, C; Couture, R; Bader, M; Dutartre, P; Girolami, J-P; Connat, J-L; Rochette, L


    Kinin-vasoactive peptides activate two G-protein-coupled receptors (R), B(1)R (inducible) and B(2)R (constitutive). Their complex role in cardiovascular diseases could be related to differential actions on oxidative stress. This study investigated impacts of B(1)R or B(2)R gene deletion in mice on the cardiac function and plasma antioxidant and oxidant status. Echocardiography-Doppler was performed in B(1)R (B(1)R(-/-)) and B(2)R (B(2)R(-/-)) deficient and wild type (WT) adult male mice. No functional alteration was observed in B(2)R(-/-) hearts. B(1)R(-/-) mice had significantly lowered fractional shortening and increased isovolumetric contraction time. The diastolic E and A waves velocity ratio was similar in all mice groups. Thus B(1)R(-/-) mice provide a model of moderate systolic dysfunction, whereas B(2)R(-/-) mice displayed a normal cardiac phenotype. Plasma antioxidant capacity (ORAC) was significantly decreased in both B(1)R(-/-) and B(2)R(-/-) mice whereas the vitamin C levels were decreased in B(2)R(-/-) mice only. Plasma ascorbyl free radical was significantly higher in B(1)R(-/-) compared to WT and B(2)R(-/-) mice. Therefore, the oxidative stress index, ascorbyl free radical to vitamin C ratio, was increased in both B(1)R(-/-) and B(2)R(-/-) mice. Hence, B(1)R and B(2)R deficiency are associated with increased oxidative stress, but there is a differential imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense. The interrelationship between the differential B(1)R and B(2)R roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases remain to be investigated. PMID:24020815

  20. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

    Basić Zorica


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the characteristics of the process (saturability, reversibility and competitivness. Methods. The specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescent detector was used for determination of vitamins B1, B2 and B6. Analyte separation and detection were carried out by applying the reverse-phase method on column C18. An in vitro experiment was done by testing the influence of pH value (2 and 7, concentration of vitamin solution (1, 2 and 5 mg/L, the lenght of contact with zeolite (10-180 min and cation competitiveness on the exchange capacity, which is achieved by media and zeolite contact, as well as a possible vitamins desorption through changing pH value of the solution at 37°C. Jon competitiveness was examined by adding commercial feed mixture (grower with a defined content of the examined vitamines in zeolite solutions the pH = 2 and pH = 7. Results. Vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were stable in both pH=2 and pH = 7 solutions at 37°C, in the defined time intervals. In acid solution concentrations of vitamins significantly declined in the first 10 min, with no significant decline in further 30 min for all the three concentrations testch. In neutral solution, after the addition of 1% zeolite, decrease in vitamins concentrations was slightly lower than in acid solution, but also significant in the first 10 min of the contact with zeolite. It was found that zeolite, which adsorbed vitamins in acid solution, transferred in the neutral one released a significant quantity of adsorbed

  1. The pressure-induced transformation B1 to B2 in actinide compounds

    The phase transformation from NaCl structure (B1) to CsCl structure (B2) in actinide compounds has been studied using X-ray powder diffraction in the pressure range up to about 60 GPa. It is shown that the transition is sluggish, has a strong hysteresis and is accompanied with a volume change in the range 8-12%. These features are similar to those of the corresponding transition in the alkali halides and other compounds, indicating a common mechanism for the transformation as concerns the lattice geometry. (orig.)

  2. Tingiv kõneviis eesti B1- ja B2-taseme kirjalikus õppijakeeles kui keeleoskuse arengu näitaja



    Full Text Available Kirjeldan artiklis tingiva kõneviisi kasutamist eesti keele kui teise keele täiskasvanud õppijate B1- ja B2-taseme kirjalikes eksamitekstides. Artikli aluseks olnud uuring on osa suuremast uuringust, mille eesmärk on luua Euroopa Keeleõppe Raamdokumendi (CEFR 2007 B1- ja B2-keeleoskustaseme funktsionaalsete keelekirjelduste juurde lingvistilised kirjeldused. Selleks on kavas leida mõlemal tasemel tüüpiliselt kasutatavad lingvistilised kategooriad, kirjeldada nende kasutuse sagedust, analüüsida kategooriate keerukust ja täpsust (Housen jt 2012, leida nende seosed suhtlusfunktsioonidega ning tuua välja tasemeid eristavad deskriptorid. Et tingiva kõneviisi kasutussagedus on B2-tasemel võrreldes B1-tasemega palju suurem (Kitsnik 2014, on tingiv kõneviis üks B1- ja B2-taset eristav kategooria, mis vajab detailsemat uurimist. Artiklis kajastatava uuringu tulemused näitavad, et nii B1- kui ka B2-tasemel kasutatakse ainult tingiva kõneviisi isikulise tegumoe olevikuvorme. B1-tasemel esineb tingiv kõneviis koos kaheksa eri verbiga, neist sagedamini kahe verbiga, milleks on tahtma ja saama. B2-tasemel esineb tingiv kõneviis 23 eri verbiga, neist sagedamini kuue verbiga: tahtma, olema, võima, pidama, soovima, soovitama. B2-tasemel kasutatakse tingivat kõneviisi lisaks B1-tasemel esinenud ainsuse esimese ja kolmanda pöörde vormidele ka teistes morfoloogilistes vormides ning lisaks B1-tasemel esinenud konstruktsioonile “verb tingivas kõneviisis + infinitiiv” ka teistes konstruktsioonides (objektiga, öeldistäitega ja liitlause pea- ning kõrvallauses. Suhtlusfunktsioonidest kasutatakse tingivat kõneviisi nii B1- kui ka B2-tasemel peamiselt viisakuse väljendamiseks. Keeleline täpsus suureneb B2-tasemel neis konstruktsioonides, mis on kasutusel ka B1-tasemel.

  3. Neuregulin-1-mediated ErbB2-ErbB3 signalling protects human trophoblasts against apoptosis to preserve differentiation.

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Draxler, Peter; Otti, Gerlinde Regina; Fiala, Christian; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen


    During placentation, foetal trophoblasts invade deeply into maternal tissue to establish a foeto-maternal circulation. We have previously shown that extravillous trophoblast (EVT) lineage cells express ErbB2 and ErbB3, of which the potential as an oncogenic unit is well established. However, a physiological function of this receptor combination in humans remains a puzzling question. Here, we demonstrate neuregulin 1 (NRG1) expression and secretion by human decidual stromal cells. Stimulation of human primary trophoblasts with exogenous NRG1 induced phosphorylation of ErbB2, ErbB3 and related downstream effectors. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the formation of ErbB2-ErbB3 dimers upon ligand engagement. Along this line, receptor knockdown and ErbB3 neutralization strongly diminished NRG1-dependent activation of the signalling complex. Functional studies revealed that NRG1 promotes EVT formation in placental explant cultures. Although, in the presence of NRG1, basal and camptothecin-induced trophoblast apoptosis was significantly repressed, this effect was abolished upon ErbB3 inhibition. Notably, camptothecin provoked a strong reduction of trophoblast cell column size, whereas NRG1-treated explants were refractory to the compound. Taken together, our findings newly identify a physiological function of the NRG1-ErbB2-ErbB3 axis in trophoblast survival during human placental development. PMID:26490994

  4. Bridging η2 -BO in B2(BO)3(-) and B3(BO)3(-) clusters: boronyl analogs of boranes.

    Zhai, Hua-Jin; Guo, Jin-Chang; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng


    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical calculations are combined to probe the structures and chemical bonding of two boron-rich oxide clusters, B(5)O(3)(-) and B(6)O(3)(-), which are shown to be appropriately formulated as B(2)(BO)(3)(-) and B(3)(BO)(3)(-), respectively. The anion clusters are found to each possess a bridging η(2)-BO group, as well as two terminal BO groups and are analogs of B(2)H(3)(-) and B(3)H(3)(-). This finding advances the boronyl chemistry and helps establish the isolobal analogy between boron-rich oxide clusters and boranes. PMID:21954002

  5. Theoretical study of the pressure-induced B3-B1 phase transition in Cd1-xMnxTe

    Hao, Jun-Hua; Wang, Yu-Fang; Jin, Qing-Hua


    The high pressure phase transition in Cd1-xMnxTe (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5), which is from the cubic zinc-blende structure (B3) to the NaCl structure (B1), is investigated by using first principles spin-polarized LCAO calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) formalism. The calculations indicate that the transition pressure of the B3-to-B1 structural phase transformation depends on the Mn content of the sample. This result is consistent with the expectation that the substitution of Cd by Mn in CdTe tends to perturb the tetrahedral coordination geometry and thereby to destabilize the B3 structure. Several structural properties (equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus, transition pressure, etc.) of Cd1-xMnxTe (x = 0.0, 0.25 and 0.5) CdTe have been calculated, which are in agreement with the previous results.

  6. Scintillation characteristics of LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4 single crystals

    LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4 single crystals have been grown by the top seeded solution growth technique. The optical characteristics and scintillation parameters of the grown single crystals have been tested and discussed

  7. Organic anion transporter 3- and organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport of catalposide

    Jeong HU


    Full Text Available Hyeon-Uk Jeong,1 Mihwa Kwon,2 Yongnam Lee,3 Ji Seok Yoo,3 Dae Hee Shin,3 Im-Sook Song,2 Hye Suk Lee1 1College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743, Korea; 2College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea; 3Central R&D Institute, Yungjin Pharm Co., Ltd., Suwon 443-270, Korea Abstract: We investigated the in vitro transport characteristics of catalposide in HEK293 cells overexpressing organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1, OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, OCT2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. The transport mechanism of catalposide was investigated in HEK293 and LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing the relevant transporters. The uptake of catalposide was 319-, 13.6-, and 9.3-fold greater in HEK293 cells overexpressing OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters, respectively, than in HEK293 control cells. The increased uptake of catalposide via the OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters was decreased to basal levels in the presence of representative inhibitors such as probenecid, furosemide, and cimetidine (for OAT3 and cyclosporin A, gemfibrozil, and rifampin (for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. The concentration-dependent OAT3-mediated uptake of catalposide revealed the following kinetic parameters: Michaelis constant (Km =41.5 µM, maximum uptake rate (Vmax =46.2 pmol/minute, and intrinsic clearance (CLint =1.11 µL/minute. OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated catalposide uptake also showed concentration dependency, with low CLint values of 0.035 and 0.034 µL/minute, respectively. However, the OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, and BCRP transporters were apparently not involved in the uptake of catalposide into cells. In addition, catalposide inhibited the transport activities of OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 83, 200, and 235 µ

  8. Equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM due to fumonisins B1 and B2 in Argentina

    Federico Giannitti


    Full Text Available In August 2007 an outbreak of neurological disease and sudden death in Arabian horses occurred in a farm located in Coronel Rosales County, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The animals were on a pasture of native grasses and supplemented ad libitum with corn kernels and wheat bran. Three horses were observed having acute neurologic signs including blindness, four leg ataxia, hyperexcitability, aimless walking and circling, followed by death in two of them. Four other horses were found dead overnight without a history of neurologic signs. The morbidity, mortality and lethality rates were 11.6%, 10% and 85.7%, respectively. Grossly, the brain showed focal areas of hemorrhage, brown-yellow discoloration and softening of the sub-cortical white matter. The microscopic brain lesions consisted of extensive areas of malacia within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum, characterized by rarefaction of the white matter with cavitations filled with proteinaceous edema, multifocal hemorrhages and mild infiltration by neutrophils, and rare eosinophils. Swollen glial cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, distinct cell borders, intracytoplasmic deeply eosinophilic globules and eccentric, hyperchromatic, occasionally pyknotic nucleus were present throughout the areas of rarefaction hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. The feed supplements contained 12,490µg/kg of fumonisin B1 and 5,251µg/ kg of fumonisin B2. This is the first reported outbreak of ELEM associated with consumption of feed supplements containing high concentrations of fumonisins in Argentina.

  9. Discovery of the magnetic field of the B1/B2V star \\sigma Lupi

    Henrichs, H F; Plaggenborg, B; Marsden, S C; Waite, I A; Landstreet, J; Grunhut, J; Oksala, M; Wade, G


    In our search for new magnetic massive stars we use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of UV stellar wind lines occurring in a velocity range symmetric around zero. Our aim is to obtain follow-up spectropolarimetry to search for a magnetic field in magnetic candidate stars. We quantify UV wind line variability, and analyse its time behaviour. The B1/B2V star sigma Lup emerged as a new magnetic candidate star. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained. The stellar wind line variations of sigma Lup are similar to what is known in magnetic B stars, but no periodicity could be determined. We detected a longitudinal magnetic field with varying strength and amplitude of about 100 G with error bars of typically 20 G, which supports an oblique magnetic-rotator configuration. The equivalent width variations of the UV lines, the magnetic and the optical line variations are consistent with the well-known photometric period of 3.02 days, whi...

  10. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxin fumonisin B1 and B2 in animal feeds in Korea.

    Seo, Dong-Geun; Phat, Chanvorleak; Kim, Dong-Ho; Lee, Chan


    The objective of this study was to monitor the occurrence and levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) in animal feeds distributed in South Korea in 2011. The contamination levels of FB1 and FB2 were investigated in 150 samples of compound feeds and in 40 samples of feed ingredients. The contamination rate of feed ingredients with FB1 and FB2 was 50 and 40%, respectively. FB2 was only found in samples contaminated with FB1. Of the compound feeds, 85% were contaminated by FB1 and 47% were contaminated by FB2. The highest contamination rate of FBs was observed in compound feeds for cattle (FB1: 100%; FB2: 80%), followed by poultry feed (FB1: 78%; FB2: 40%) and swine feed (FB1: 76%; FB2: 22%). The highest contamination level (14,600 ng/g) for FB1 were found in poultry broiler feed (early feeding period) samples, which had 82% contamination rate (9/11), and the highest level of FB2 (2,280 ng/g) was found in feed for fatting calves,which had a contamination rate of 100%. PMID:23807416

  11. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in agricultural products consumed in South Korea: an exposure assessment.

    Seo, Eunkyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Kyeongyeol; Shim, Won-Bo; Kuzmina, Nina; Oh, Keum-Soon; Lee, Jong-Ok; Kim, Dong-Sul; Suh, Junghyuck; Lee, Soo-Hyung; Chung, Kee-Hey; Chung, Duck-Hwa


    To survey fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) in agricultural products consumed in South Korea and provide an exposure assessment, ground samples were extracted (80% MeOH), filtered (0.2 microm), and cleaned up. After evaporation, dry residues were reconstituted in 50% MeOH, and a 50-micro1 aliquot of this sample was mixed with 200 micro1 of o-phthaldialdehyde for derivatization. The derivatives were analyzed with a high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with a fluorescence detector. For validation of the detection procedure, linearity, accuracy, precision, detection limit, and quantification limit were determined. The validated detection method was then used to survey fumonisins in white rice, brown rice, barley, barley tea, beer, wheat flour, millet, dried corn, corn flour, corn tea, canned corn, popcorn, and breakfast cereal. Retention times for FB1 and FB2 standards were 7 and 18 min, respectively. Linearity (R2 = 0.99995 to 0.99998), accuracy (81.47 to 108.83%), precision (2.35 to 5.77), detection limit (25 ng/g or ng/ml), and quantification limit (37 ng/g or ng/ml) indicated that this procedure is capable of quantifying fumonisins in agricultural products. Only FB1-positive samples (5.12%, three dried corn samples and five corn flour samples) were found at 90.89 to 439.67 ng/g. According the survey results, an estimated daily intake of FB1 and FB2 in Korea was 0.087 ng/kg of body weight per day. These results indicate that continuous monitoring of these mycotoxins is necessary to establish appropriate risk assessment, and the maximum tolerable daily intake of fumonisins in Korea is lower than the 2 microg/kg set by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization-World Health Organization Expert Committee. PMID:19350995

  12. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Park, Changyong; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin


    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03-13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Qeff) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Qeff is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Qeff with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed.

  13. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Park, Changyong; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin, E-mail: [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)


    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03–13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Q{sub eff}) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Q{sub eff} is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Q{sub eff} with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed.

  14. Natural occurrence of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn in four provinces of China.

    Wei, Tiesong; Zhu, Weifang; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao


    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) are the most abundant fumonisins (FBs) occurring worldwide in maize, infected mainly by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. A total of 307 corn kernel samples were collected from 45 districts of Gansu, Shandong, Ningxia and the Inner Mongolia provinces of the north and northwest China. The samples were analysed for FB1 and FB2 by high-performance liquid chromatography. The FBs (FB1+ FB2) incidence rate in samples from Gansu, Shandong, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia were 31.5%, 81.1%, 46.2% and 53.6%, respectively. Average FBs concentration was 703 μg/kg and the concentrations ranged from ≤11 to 13,110 μg kg(-1). Results were compared with the European Commission (EC) regulation for FB1+ FB2 in unprocessed maize for human consumption of 4 mg kg(-1). Contamination in 17 samples was higher than these levels. More than 80% of the samples from Liaocheng county, which is located in the Shandong province, were contaminated with FBs, with a mean total FB concentration of 2496 μg/kg. The result was significantly different from that of the Inner Mongolia (1399 μg/kg), Ningxia (373 μg/kg) and Gansu (175 μg/kg). Average exposure to FBs (0.12 μg/kg body weight/day) is within the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2.0 mg/kg of body weight set by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:24779936

  15. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03–13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Qeff) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Qeff is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Qeff with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed

  16. ErbB2, but not ErbB1, reinitiates proliferation and induces luminal repopulation in epithelial acini

    Muthuswamy, Senthil K; Li, Dongmei; Lelievre, Sophie; Bissell, Mina J; Brugge, Joan S


    Both ErbB1 and ErbB2 are overexpressed or amplified in breast tumors. To examine the effects of activating ErbB receptors in a context that mimics polarized epithelial cells in vivo, we activated ErbB1 and ErbB2 homodimers in preformed, growth-arrested mammary acini cultured in three-dimensional basement membrane gels. Activation of ErbB2, but not that of ErbB1, led to a reinitiation of cell proliferation and altered the properties of mammary acinar structures. These altered structures share several properties with early-stage tumors, including a loss of proliferative suppression, an absence of lumen, retention of the basement membrane and a lack of invasive properties. ErbB2 activation also disrupted tight junctions and the cell polarity of polarized epithelia, whereas ErbB1 activation did not have any effect. Our results indicate that ErbB receptors differ in their ability to induce early stages of mammary carcinogenesis in vitro and this three-dimensional model system can reveal biological activities of oncogenes that cannot be examined in vitro in standard transformation assays.




    Full Text Available A method that involved the gravimetric measurement of the amounts of feed protein B2 (feed protein that is insoluble in borate phosphate buffer but soluble in neutral detergent solution and protein B3 (feed protein that is insoluble in neutral detergent solution but soluble in acid detergent solution that remain after each in situ incubation period, was used to obtain the degradation rates of these protein pools in six different feeds. These degradation rates were then compared with degradation rates provided by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System for nominally similar feeds in order to establish the extent of agreement between these sets of data. Curve peeling technique was also used on the in situ results of this experiment to generate degradation rates for comparison with the gravimetric and the Cornell values. The study showed that the gravimetric, the curve peeling and the Cornell values were not statistically different for the degradation rates of protein B2 even though the gravimetric estimates were the highest followed by curve peeling and then the Cornell values. For protein B3, the degradation rate estimated with the gravimetric method was highest followed by the curve peeling method and then the Cornell values (P<0.01. The degradation rates assigned to protein B3 in the Cornell databank needs re-examination. There is a need for further application of the gravimetric technique to establish if it gives higher estimates of the degradation rates of proteins B2 and B3 in a range of feedstuffs.

  18. Fracturas del cuello quirúrgico del húmero (B2-B3). Tratamiento quirúrgico.

    Arenas Planelles, Antonio; D'Arrigo, A.; Arenas Miquélez, A.; Garbayo Marturet, Antonio Jesús


    Se presentan 36 casos de fractura de húmero proximal tipos B2 y B3 tratados quirúrgicamente mediante osteosíntesis con clavo proximal (4 casos) o placa bloqueada (29 casos) o utilizando una hemiartroplastia de hombro (3 casos). Los resultados fueron buenos en la mayor parte de los pacientes, con un dolor medio de 11,97/15 en la cotación cifrada de Constant, una fuerza de 13,42/25 puntos y una movilidad de 24,33/40 puntos. Las complicaciones más importantes fueron el conflicto subacromial (10 ...

  19. Supply with the vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in carcinomas before and after radiotherapy

    In 108 breast cancer, 63 cervix carcinoma, 35 corpus carcinoma and 15 ovarial cancer patients the erythrocyte transketolase, gluthathione reductase and aspartate aminotransferase activity were determined as parameters for the supply with vitamin B1, B2 and B6 before and after radiotherapy. The effects of thiamine pyrophosphate determined in cancer patients were normal but the effects of flavin adenine dinucleotide and pyridoxal-5-phosphate were significantly increased compared to the controls. These results revealed radiation-induced disorders in the B2 metabolism and tumor-induced disorders in the B6 metabolism. Both disorders can be avoided by treatment with vitamin B complex. (author)

  20. Laminin A, B1, B2, S and M subunits in the postnatal rat liver development and after partial hepatectomy

    Wewer, U M; Engvall, E; Paulsson, M; Yamada, Y; Albrechtsen, R


    The expression of laminin subunits (A, B1, B2, S and M) in the perisinusoidal space of the rat liver was studied in early postnatal life, in the adult, and after partial hepatectomy. In the perisinusoidal space of the normal adult rat, laminin was detected with polyclonal antibodies only in small...... liver (biliary ducts and blood vessels) irrespective of the age of animals exhibited B1, B2 and S immunoreactivity. Laminin A was restricted to the larger blood vessels and could not be detected in the biliary ducts. In the adult rat, immunoreactivity for the A-like M subunit was absent except for some...... neonatal rats as compared to adult rats. S-laminin mRNA could readily be demonstrated in neonatal rat livers by Northern blot analysis, whereas A and M could not. Expression of S and M-laminin transcripts were demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction, but we were unable to obtain a laminin A product...

  1. Occurence of fumonisins B1 and B2 in Portuguese maize and maize-based foods intended for human consumption

    Silva, Liliana; Lino, Celeste De Matos; Pena, Angelina Lopes Simões; Moltó, Juan Carlos


    Abstract Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) are mycotoxins mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium proliferatum, field pathogens of maize. A survey was conducted on the incidence of FB1 and FB2 in maize, and derived products purchased in Portugal. The analytical method involved extraction with methanol-water, cleanup with immunoaffinity columns and derivatization with naphthalene?{2,3?{dicarboxaldehyde. Determination was carried out by liquid chromato...

  2. Compressibility and structural stability of CeN from experiment and theory. The B1-B2 transition

    Olsen, J. Staun [Niels Bohr Institute, Oersted Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jorgensen, J.-E. [Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Gerward, L., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Vaitheeswaran, G. [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachbowli, Hyderabad 500 046, Andhra Pradesh (India); Kanchana, V. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailaram 502 205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Svane, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First experimental determination of bulk modulus of CeN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First observation of B1-B2 transformation in CeN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density functional calculations in remarkably good agreement with experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations extended to B2 phase, including B1-B2 transition. - Abstract: The high-pressure structural stability of CeN is investigated by experiment and theory. Experiments are carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation, using a diamond anvil cell, to a maximum pressure of 77 GPa. The experimental results are in remarkably good agreement with ab initio calculations using the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The experimental zero pressure bulk modulus is B{sub 0} = 156(3) GPa, the pressure derivative being constrained to B{sub 0} Prime = 4.00. The corresponding calculated data are B{sub 0} = 158.1 GPa and B{sub 0} Prime = 3.3. We report here the first experimental observation of the transformation of CeN from the ambient B1 type crystal structure to the B2 type. The onset of the transition is in the range 65-70 GPa, and the relative volume change at the transition is {Delta}V/V = -10.9(3)%. These data compare well with the calculated transition pressure P{sub tr} = 68 GPa and {Delta}V/V = -10.8%. Experimentally, the transition is found to be rather sluggish.

  3. Incidência de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em produtos de milho Occurrence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in corn products

    Luciane Mie Kawashima


    Full Text Available Levantamentos de ocorrência de micotoxinas em alimentos foram realizados nas últimas duas décadas nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Levantamentos em alimentos comercializados em outras regiões têm-se limitado a aflatoxinas em amendoim e castanhas do Brasil. O presente trabalho pesquisou a presença de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em 74 amostras de produtos a base de milho adquiridas no comércio da cidade de Recife, PE, durante o período de 1999 a 2001. Fumonisina B1 foi determinada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por fluorescência e as demais toxinas foram determinadas por cromatografia em camada delgada. Fumonisina B1 foi encontrada em 94,6% das amostras em concentrações variando de 20 a 8600 µg/kg. Apenas 5 amostras continham aflatoxina B1 e o teor máximo encontrado foi 20 µg/kg. Duas amostras ultrapassaram o limite de 20 µg/kg para a somatória das aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2 (farinha de milho pré-cozida com 21,5 µg/kg e quirera (xerém com 23,3 µg/kg. As aflatoxinas G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona não foram detectadas em nenhuma das amostras. Todas as amostras contaminadas com aflatoxinas também apresentaram fumonisina B1.Research concerning the presence of mycotoxin in food has been conducted in the Southwest and South regions of Brazil over the last two decades. Research in other regions has been limited to aflatoxin in peanuts and Brazil nuts. The aim of this work is to study the presence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in 74 samples of corn products acquired in shops and food markets in the city of Recife (PE from 1999 to 2001. Fumonisin B1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence was detected. The other toxins were determined by thin layer chromatography. Fumonisin B1 was found in 94.6% of the samples in levels from 20 to 8600 µg/kg. Only 5 samples contained

  4. Electronic structure of β-BaB2O4 and LiB3O5 nonlinear optical crystals

    French, R. H.; Ling, J. W.; Ohuchi, F. S.; Chen, C. T.


    The relationship between the anionic groups of β-barium borate and lithium borate nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals and their bonding, electronic structure, and transmission cutoffs has been studied using the discrete variational self-consistent multipolar Xα method [B. Delley and D. E. Ellis, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1949 (1982)] for the electronic structure of the borate anionic groups, coupled with experimental studies of the band gap, absorption edge, and valence bands, using vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and valence-band x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The band gap of β-BaB2O4 (BBO) is 6.43 eV while LiB3O5(LBO) has a larger band gap of 7.78 eV. The structures of LBO and BBO differ principally in two aspects: the bonding in the borate anionic groups, and the isolation or linkage of the anionic groups in the crystal. BBO consists of (B3O6)3- anionic groups, with boron trigonally coordinated by oxygen; these groups are isolated in the crystal structure. LBO, however, is based on (B3O7)5- anionic groups, with boron either trigonally or tetrahedrally coordinated by oxygen, these groups are linked throughout the crystal. These structural differences between BBO and LBO lead to a larger band-gap energy in LBO. The linkage of LBO's anionic groups removes states from the top of the valence band which arise from the nonbonding terminal oxygen atoms present in BBO's unlinked anionic groups and also partially removes the π-conjugated orbitals associated with trigonally coordinated boron-oxygen bonding. The relationship between the crystal structure and the electronic structure can be seen as an extension of the molecular-engineering approach to search for additional NLO crystals in the uv range.

  5. Discovery and in Vivo Evaluation of Potent Dual CYP11B2 (Aldosterone Synthase) and CYP11B1 Inhibitors.

    Meredith, Erik L; Ksander, Gary; Monovich, Lauren G; Papillon, Julien P N; Liu, Qian; Miranda, Karl; Morris, Patrick; Rao, Chang; Burgis, Robin; Capparelli, Michael; Hu, Qi-Ying; Singh, Alok; Rigel, Dean F; Jeng, Arco Y; Beil, Michael; Fu, Fumin; Hu, Chii-Whei; LaSala, Daniel


    Aldosterone is a key signaling component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and as such has been shown to contribute to cardiovascular pathology such as hypertension and heart failure. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is responsible for the final three steps of aldosterone synthesis and thus is a viable therapeutic target. A series of imidazole derived inhibitors, including clinical candidate 7n, have been identified through design and structure-activity relationship studies both in vitro and in vivo. Compound 7n was also found to be a potent inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), which is responsible for cortisol production. Inhibition of CYP11B1 is being evaluated in the clinic for potential treatment of hypercortisol diseases such as Cushing's syndrome. PMID:24900631

  6. Constituents of the sea cucumber Cucumaria okhotensis. Structures of okhotosides B1-B3 and cytotoxic activities of some glycosides from this species.

    Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Fedorov, Sergey N; Stepanov, Vadim G; Dong, Zigang; Stonik, Valentin A


    Three new triterpene oligoglycosides, okhotosides B 1 ( 1), B 2 ( 2), and B 3 ( 3), have been isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria okhotensis along with the known compounds frondoside A ( 4), frondoside A 1, cucumarioside A 2-5, and koreoside A. The structures of 1- 3 were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data (2D NMR and MS). Compounds 1- 3 were moderately toxic against HeLa tumor cells. Frondoside A ( 4) showed more potent cytotoxicity against THP-1 and HeLa tumor cell lines (with IC 50 values of 4.5 and 2.1 microg/mL, respectively) and decreased both the AP-1-dependent trascriptional activities induced by UVB, EGF, or TPA in JB6-LucAP-1 cells and the EGF-induced NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activity in JB6-LucNF-kB cells at doses of about 1 microg/mL. At the same doses, it increased the p53-dependent transcriptional activity in nonactivated JB6-Lucp53 cells and inhibited the colony formation of JB6 P (+) Cl 41 cells activated with EGF (INCC 50 = 0.8 microg/mL). PMID:18288810

  7. Lithium triborate LiB3O5 crystallization in Li2O-B2O3-MoO3 system

    Solution-melting crystallization at spontaneous nucleation, inoculation crystallization and quenching one extracted lithium triborate crystals from Li2O-B2O3-MoO3 system. Li2O-B2O3, B2O3-MoO3 and Li2MoO4-MoO3 binary systems faceting Li2O2-B2O3-MoO3 ternary oxide system were studied by means of solid-phase reactions in subsolidus range. LiB3O5-MoO3 and LiB3O5-Li4Mo5O17 cuts and LiB3O5-Li4Mo5O17-MoO3 ternary system of that oxide system were studied, as well

  8. HIV protease inhibitors are substrates for OATP1A2, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and lopinavir plasma concentrations are influenced by SLCO1B1 polymorphisms

    Hartkoorn, Ruben C; San Kwan, Wai; Shallcross, Victoria; Chaikan, Ammara; Liptrott, Neill; Egan, Deirdre; Enrique Salcedo Sora, J; James, Chloe E; Gibbons, Sara; Bray, Pat G; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H; Owen, Andrew


    OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 are major hepatic drug transporters whilst OATP1A2 is mainly located in the brain but is also located in liver and several other organs. These transporters affect the distribution and clearance of many endo- and xenobiotics and have been reported to have functional SNPs. We have assessed the substrate specificites of these transporters for a panel of antiretrovirals and investigated the effects of SNPs within these transporters on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir. SLCO1A2, SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 were cloned, verified and used to generate cRNA for use in the Xenopus laevis oocyte transport system. Using the oocyte system, antiretrovirals were tested for their substrate specificities. Plasma samples (n=349) from the Liverpool therapeutic drug monitoring registry were genotyped for SNPs in SLCO1A2, SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 and associations between SNPs and lopinavir plasma concentrations were analysed. Antiretroviral protease inhibitors, but not non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are substrates for OATP1A2, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Furthermore, ritonavir was not an inhibitor of OATP1B1. The 521T>C polymorphism in SLCO1B1 was significantly associated with higher lopinavir plasma concentrations. No associations were observed with functional variants of SLCO1A2 and SLCO1B3. These data add to our understanding of the factors that contribute to variability in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors. Further studies are now required to confirm the association of SLCO1B1 521T>C with lopinavir plasma concentrations and to assess the influence of other polymorphisms in the SLCO family. PMID:20051929

  9. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and their genetic variants influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of raloxifene

    Trdan Lušin Tina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, exhibits quite large and unexplained interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The aim of this study was to determine the role of organic-anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and their genetic variants in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of raloxifene. Methods To test the role of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 transporters on hepatic uptake of raloxifene and its metabolites an in vitro model of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing OATP1B1 or OATP1B3 was employed. The influence of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 genetic variants on in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was evaluated in 53 osteoporotic postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene. Results Our in vitro results showed that raloxifene and two of the three metabolites, raloxifene-4'-β-glucuronide (M2 and raloxifene-6,4'-diglucuronide (M3, interact with OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Higher M3 and total raloxifene serum concentrations in patients correlated with lower serum levels of bone resorption marker, serum C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen, indicating a higher antiresorptive effect of raloxifene. Higher concentrations of M2 correlated with higher increase of lumbar spine bone mineral density supporting the raloxifene vertebral fracture specific protection effect. Finally, raloxifene, M3 and total raloxifene serum concentrations were significantly higher in patients with SLCO1B1 c.388A > G polymorphism and *1b haplotype implicating a considerable genetic effect on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of raloxifene. Conclusions These findings indicate that SLCO1B1 c.388A > G polymorphism could play an important role in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of raloxifene.

  10. Neuregulin-1-mediated ErbB2–ErbB3 signalling protects human trophoblasts against apoptosis to preserve differentiation

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Draxler, Peter; Otti, Gerlinde Regina; Fiala, Christian; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen


    ABSTRACT During placentation, foetal trophoblasts invade deeply into maternal tissue to establish a foeto–maternal circulation. We have previously shown that extravillous trophoblast (EVT) lineage cells express ErbB2 and ErbB3, of which the potential as an oncogenic unit is well established. However, a physiological function of this receptor combination in humans remains a puzzling question. Here, we demonstrate neuregulin 1 (NRG1) expression and secretion by human decidual stromal cells. Stimulation of human primary trophoblasts with exogenous NRG1 induced phosphorylation of ErbB2, ErbB3 and related downstream effectors. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the formation of ErbB2–ErbB3 dimers upon ligand engagement. Along this line, receptor knockdown and ErbB3 neutralization strongly diminished NRG1-dependent activation of the signalling complex. Functional studies revealed that NRG1 promotes EVT formation in placental explant cultures. Although, in the presence of NRG1, basal and camptothecin-induced trophoblast apoptosis was significantly repressed, this effect was abolished upon ErbB3 inhibition. Notably, camptothecin provoked a strong reduction of trophoblast cell column size, whereas NRG1-treated explants were refractory to the compound. Taken together, our findings newly identify a physiological function of the NRG1–ErbB2–ErbB3 axis in trophoblast survival during human placental development. PMID:26490994


    刘宝军; 张海涛; 李淑琴; 陈伟; 李润江


    The expression of c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 oncogenes were investigated by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies to c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 protein in 43 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 26 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We found that the expression of c-erbB-1 oncogene in all BCC increased by different degrees and the expression of c-erbB-2 oncogene in BCC was significantly reduced or lost when compared to that in normal epidermal cells.Furthermore,apparent negative and positive relationships were observed respectively between the tumor differentiation and the expression of c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 oncogenes in SCC.It is suggested that the abnormal expression of c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 oncogenes in BCC and SCC may play a role in the development of skin tumors.The pattern of the c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 oncogenes expression in SCC may assist in distinguishing the biological behavior and prognosis of SCC.

  12. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn-based products commercialized in the state of Santa Catarina - Southern Brazil

    Rejane Maria Cirra Scaff


    Full Text Available Corn flour, "canjica" (corn grits, corn flakes and popcorn for human consumption, commercialized in Santa Catarina (n=82, were analyzed in order to detect the presence of fumonisins B1 (FB1 and B2 (FB2. From the samples, 92.68% showed detectable levels of Fumonisins (FBs. Corn flour showed the highest level of contamination (91.5% with average levels of 3.811 and 5.737 mg/g for the home-processed and industrialized products, respectively. The next most contaminated product was popcorn with a average of 2.872 mg/g and an occurrence in 91.6% of the samples. All samples of corn flakes were contaminated with an average of 1.307 mg/g. The product with the lowest levels of FBs was "canjica" with a average contamination of 0.732 mg/g. These results indicated the need of monitoring corn-based products in this state.Farinha de milho, canjica, flocos de milho, milho de pipoca, destinados ao consumo humano e comercializados em Santa Catarina (n=82, foram analisados a fim de determinar a ocorrência de fumonisinas B1 (FB1 e B2 (FB2. Das amostras, 92,68 % apresentaram níveis detectáveis de FBs. A farinha de milho apresentou os maiores níveis de contaminação (91,5% com níveis médios 3,811 e 5,737 mg/g para as de preparo artesanal e industrializadas, respectivamente. O segundo produto mais contaminado foi o milho de pipoca com uma média de contaminação de 2,872 mg/g e ocorrência em 91,6% das amostras. Todas as amostras de flocos de milho apresentaram contaminação com uma média de 1,307 mg/g. O produto com menores níveis de FBs foi a canjica com contaminação média de 0,732 mg/g. Estes resultados indicam a necessidade de monitoramento dos produtos derivados de milho em nosso Estado, ressaltando-se que os níveis mais expressivos foram encontrados em produtos comercializados no Sul e Oeste de SC, regiões agrícolas, marcadamente colonizadas por descendentes de italianos, consumidores habituais de produtos derivados de milho, particularmente a

  13. New analytical techniques for mycotoxins in complex organic matrices. [Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2

    Bicking, M.K.L.


    Air samples are collected for analysis from the Ames Solid Waste Recovery System. The high level of airborne fungi within the processing area is of concern due to the possible presence of toxic mycotoxins, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites. An analytical method has been developed to determine the concentration of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the air of the plant which produces Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). After extraction with methanol, some components in the matrix are precipitated by dissolving the sample in 30% acetonitrile/chloroform. An aliquot of this solution is injected onto a Styragel column where the sample components undergo simultaneous size exclusion and reverse phase partitioning. Additional studies have provided a more thorough understanding of solvent related non-exclusion effects on size exclusion gels. The Styragel column appears to have a useable lifetime of more than six months. After elution from Styragel, the sample is diverted to a second column containing Florisil which has been modified with oxalic acid and deactivated with water. Aflatoxins are eluted with 5% water/acetone. After removal of this solvent, the sample is dissolved in 150 of a spotting solvent and the entire sample applied to a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate using a unique sample applicator developed here. The aflatoxins on the TLC plate are analyzed by laser fluorescence. A detection limit of 10 pg is possible for aflatoxin standards using a nitrogen laser as the excitation source. Sample concentrations are determined by comparing with an internal standard, a specially synthesized aflatoxin derivative. In two separate RDF samples, aflatoxin B1 was found at levels of 6.5 and 17.0 ppB. The analytical method has also proven useful in the analysis of contaminated corn and peanut meal samples. 42 figures, 8 tables.

  14. Endophilin B2 promotes inner mitochondrial membrane degradation by forming heterodimers with Endophilin B1 during mitophagy

    Wang, Yi-Han; Wang, Jiu-Qiang; Wang, Qiaochu; Wang, Yun; Guo, Caixia; Chen, Quan; Chai, Tuanyao; Tang, Tie-Shan


    Mitochondrial sequestration by autophagosomes is a key step in mitophagy while the mechanisms mediating this process are not fully understood. It has been reported that Endophilin B1 (EB1) promotes mitochondrial sequestration by binding and shaping membrane. However, the role of EB1 homolog Endophilin B2 (EB2) in mitophagy remains unclear. Here we report that EB2 plays an indispensable role in mitochondria sequestration and inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) protein degradation during mitophagy. Similar to EB1, EB2 aggregates into foci and then translocates to damaged mitochondria. Loss of either EB2 and/or EB1 significantly enervates the foci translocation to fragmented mitochondria and IMM degradation, and the EB1/EB2 heterodimer formed by EB1/EB2 interaction promotes the above process. We noticed that, it is the dimer domain of EB2 but not that of EB1 mediating the heterodimer formation, manifesting the importance of EB2 in mitophagy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the EB foci formation is closely regulated by the PINK1-Parkin signaling pathway. From these results, we propose that EB1/EB2 heterodimers may serve as linkers between damaged mitochondria and phagophores during mitophagy. PMID:27112121

  15. Compressibility and structural stability of CeN from experiment and theory. The B1B2 transition

    Staun Olsen, J.; Jørgensen, J.-E.; Gerward, L.;


    The high-pressure structural stability of CeN is investigated by experiment and theory. Experiments are carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation, using a diamond anvil cell, to a maximum pressure of 77GPa. The experimental results are in remarkably good agreement...... with ab initio calculations using the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The experimental zero pressure bulk modulus is B0=156(3)GPa, the pressure derivative being constrained to B0′=4.00. The corresponding calculated data are B0=158.1GPa...... and B0′=3.3. We report here the first experimental observation of the transformation of CeN from the ambient B1 type crystal structure to the B2 type. The onset of the transition is in the range 65–70GPa, and the relative volume change at the transition is ΔV/V=−10.9(3)%. These data compare well...

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Plantaricin Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains (IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, IIA-2B2

    I. I. Arief


    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Indonesian lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, IIA-2B2 were purified and characterized. Plantaricin W gene had been successfully amplified from all strains. This amplicon showed the expected 200 bp size of plantaricin W gene. This bacteriocins purified from L. plantarum IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, and IIA-2B2 were named plantaricin IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, and IIA-2B2. Purification by cation exchange chromatography increased the purity (fold and activity of plantaricins. Purity of plantaricin IIA-1A5 was increased by 3.13 fold with specific activity 13.40 AU/mg. Plantaricin IIA-1B1 had 2.98 fold purity with specific activity 5.12 AU/mg, while purity of plantaricin IIA-2B2 was 1.37 fold with specific activity 7.70 AU/mg. All plantaricins could inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Plantaricins could be digested by trypsin. Stability of plantaricins at 80 oC for 30 min and at 121 oC for 15 min were affected by type of plantaricin and species of pathogenic bacteria. Generally, plantaricin IIA-1A5 was better as antimicrobial agent than plantaricin IIA-1B1 and plantaricin IIA-2B2.

  17. Heat Shock Factors HsfB 1 and HsfB2b Are Involved in the Regulation of Pdfl.2 Expression and Pathogen Resistance in Arabidopsis

    Mukesh Kumar; Wolfgang Busch; Hannah Birke; Birgit Kemmerling; Thorsten N(U)rnberger; Friedrich Sch(o)ffl


    In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfBl/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdfl.2a/b in mutant plants.The Pdfexpression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdfl.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdfgenes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses.

  18. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil.

    Bao, Lei; Trucksess, Mary W; White, Kevin D


    Edible oils are consumed directly, and used as ingredients in food, soaps, and skin products. However, oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil could be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are detrimental to human and animal health. A method using immunoaffinity column cleanup with RPLC separation and fluorescence detection (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil was developed and validated. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC/FLD analysis after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of AFB1 spiked at levels from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 82.9 to 98.6%. RSDs ranged from 0.6 to 8.9%. HorRat values were < 0.2 for all of the matrixes tested. Recoveries of AF spiked at levels from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg ranged from 87.7 to 102.2%. RSDs ranged from 1.3 to 12.6%. HorRat values were < 0.4 for all of the matrixes tested. LC/MS/MS with multiple-reaction monitoring was used to confirm the identities of aflatoxins in a naturally contaminated peanut oil. PMID:20629398

  19. Regulation of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 steroidogenic genes by hypoxia-inducible miR-10b in H295R cells

    Highlights: • Identification of miR-10b as a hypoxia-inducible microRNA in H295R human adrenocortical cells. • Characterization of miR-10b as a negative regulator of the human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes. • Evidence to support that CYP11B1 and and CYP11B2 mRNAs are likely targets of miR-10b. • miR-10b inhibits cortisol and aldosterone production in H295R cells. - Abstract: Although numerous studies have shown that hypoxia affects cortisol and aldosterone production in vivo, the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating the steroidogenic genes of these steroid hormones are still poorly known. MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators that control diverse biological processes and this study describes the identification and validation of the hypoxia-inducible microRNA, miR-10b, as a negative regulator of the CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 steroidogenic genes in H295R human adrenocortical cells. Using the human TaqMan Low Density miRNA Arrays, we determined the miRNA expression patterns in H295R cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and in cells overexpressing the human HIF-1α. Computer analysis using three in silico algorithms predicted that the hypoxia-inducible miR-10b molecule targets CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNAs. Gene transfection studies of luciferase constructs containing the 3′-untranslated region of CYP11B1 or CYP11B2, combined with miRNA overexpression and knockdown experiments provide compelling evidence that CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNAs are likely targets of miR-10b

  20. Expression of glutathione S-transferase B1, B2, Mu and Pi in breast cancers and their relationship to oestrogen receptor status.

    Howie, A F; Miller, W. R.; Hawkins, R. A.; Hutchinson, A. R.; Beckett, G J


    The concentrations of glutathione S-transferase (GST) B1 and B2 (Alpha), Pi and Mu have been measured by radioimmunoassay in cytosols from 28 oestrogen receptor (ER) rich an 30 ER-poor breast tumours. GST B1, B2 and Pi was detected in all 58 breast tumour cytosols whilst GST Mu was found in only 28. Of the GSTs, Pi was expressed most strongly in all cytosols and the concentration was significantly higher in ER-poor tumour cytosols than in ER-rich tumours (P less than 0.01). As with GST Pi, th...

  1. Quantification of differential ErbB1 and ErbB2 cell surface expression and spatial nanoclustering through plasmon coupling.

    Wang, Jing; Yu, Xinwei; Boriskina, Svetlana V; Reinhard, Björn M


    Cell surface receptors play ubiquitous roles in cell signaling and communication and their expression levels are important biomarkers for many diseases. Expression levels are, however, only one factor that determines the physiological activity of a receptor. For some surface receptors, their distribution on the cell surface, especially their clustering, provides additional mechanisms for regulation. To access this spatial information robust assays are required that provide detailed insight into the organization of cell surface receptors on nanometer length scales. In this manuscript, we demonstrate through combination of scattering spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and generalized multiple particle Mie theory (GMT) simulations that the density- and morphology-dependent spectral response of Au nanoparticle (NP) immunolabels bound to the epidermal growth factor receptors ErbB1 and ErbB2 encodes quantitative information of both the cell surface expression and spatial clustering of the two receptors in different unliganded in vitro cancer cell lines (SKBR3, MCF7, A431). A systematic characterization of the collective spectral responses of NPs targeted at ErbB1 and ErbB2 at various NP concentrations indicates differences in the large-scale organization of ErbB1 and ErbB2 in cell lines that overexpress these receptors. Validation experiments in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirm that NPs targeted at ErbB1 on A431 are more strongly clustered than NPs bound to ErbB2 on SKBR3 or MCF7 at overall comparable NP surface densities. This finding is consistent with the existence of larger receptor clusters for ErbB1 than for ErbB2 in the plasma membranes of the respective cells. PMID:22587495

  2. First-principles calculations of the electronic structure and optical properties of LiB3O5, CsB3O5, and BaB2O4 crystals

    Li, Jun; Duan, Chun-Gang; Gu, Zong-Quan; Wang, Ding-Sheng


    This paper reports the calculation of electronic structure and linear optical properties of LiB3O5 (LBO), CsB3O5 (CBO), and BaB2O4 (BBO) crystals using the linearized augmented plane-wave band method. It is found that the top of their valence bands consists of O orbitals, while the boron has almost no contribution. The linkage between (B3O7)5- anionic groups in the crystalline state is the main cause of making the gap of LBO and CBO larger than BBO's. The near-edge interband transition contains the contribution of the trigonal coordinated B-O bands in the final state for LBO. For CBO and BBO, the final state consists mainly of cation states at the bottom of the conduction bands. In this case, however, the transition from the O derived valence states to these cation states is quite weak; strong transition only appears till about 1 eV above the absorption edge when B-O orbitals are also involved in the final states.

  3. Camelliasaponins B1, B2, C1 and C2, new type inhibitors of ethanol absorption in rats from the seeds of Camellia japonica L.

    Yoshikawa, M; Harada, E; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N


    New type inhibitors of ethanol absorption, camelliasaponins B1, B2, C1 and C2, were isolated from the seeds of Camellia japonica L. The structures of camelliasaponins were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effect of camelliasaponins and related saponins on ethanol absorption have been examined, and it was found that the triterpene oligoglycoside structure having an acyl group was essential to exerting the activity. PMID:8004726

  4. HPLC法测定150种中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1的含量%Determination of Aflatoxin G2,G1,B2 and B1 in 150 Chinese Herbs by HPLC

    郭巧技; 高咏莉; 王淑红


    Objective: To establish an HPLC method for the determination of aflatoxin G2 , G1 , B2 and B1 in 150 Chinese herbs. Method: After extracted by 70% methanol and purified by immunoafinity column, the aflatoxins were determined by fluorescence detection. Result: The calibration curves for aflatoxin G2 and B2 were linear within the range of 0. 15-6.00 ng · ml-1 , and those for aflatoxin G1 and B1 were linear within the range of 0. 5-20.00 ng · ml-1 . The recoveries were within the range of 85. 6% -92. 0% . Conclusion : The method is reliable, accurate and specific, and can be used in the determination of aflatoxin G2 , G1 , B2 and B1.%目的:建立了HPLC法测定150种中药材中的黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1含量.方法:样品经70% 甲醇提取、免疫亲和色谱柱净化后,用HPLC-柱后衍生-荧光检测器测定.结果:黄曲霉毒素G2、B2在0.15~6.00 ng·ml-1范围内,黄曲霉毒素G1、B1在0.5~20.00 ng·ml-1范围内线性关系良好.回收率为85.6%~92.0%.结论:本法操作简便,结果准确、重复性好,可用于中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1的测定.

  5. Animal experiments and clinical studies on the role of the vitamins B1, B2, and B6 in radiation protection

    The effects of ionizing radiation on erythrocytic transketolase, glutathion reductase, and aspartate-aminotransferase activities with and without addition of coenzymes were studied in 152 Wistar rats, six beagles, and 225 carcinoma patients, as a measure for vitamin B1, B2, and B6 supplies. Examinations of 108 patients with mammary carcinoma and 117 patients with cervical, corpus, and ovarian carcinomas were undertaken prior to, during, and after termination of radiotherapy. Two check-up series were run, the first without vitamin B complex therapy, and the second with three daily applications of one dragee each, beginning on the first day of irradiation. The TPP effects recorded indicated no impairment of vitamin B1 supply. FAD and PLP effects, on the other hand, were significantly increased, which suggested B2 and B6 deficits. Vitamin B2 metabolism was causally impaired by radiation, while the disordes in vitamin B6 metabolism were attributed to tumour-related causes. The results obtained revealed that both types of disorders can be avoided by prophylactic vitamin B complex treatment. (author)

  6. Electronic structure and interatomic bonding of crystalline β-BaB2O4 with comparison to LiB3O5

    Xu, Yong-Nian; Ching, W. Y.; French, R. H.


    The electronic structure and the linear-optical properties of the nonlinear-optical crystal β-BaB2O4 (BBO) have been calculated using a first-principles band-structure method with the local-density approximation. The results are compared with those of another nonlinear-optical crystal LiB3O5 (LBO). An indirect band gap of 5.52 eV and a direct gap of 5.61 eV at Γ for BBO are obtained, which are to be compared with the measured optical gap of 6.43 eV. It is shown that the electronic structure of the BBO is dominated by the characteristic ionic (B3O6)-3 group in which the two different O sites show markedly different bonding structures. Comparison of charge-density distributions in BBO and LBO shows that the ionic groups are linked together in forming a networklike structure. The Ba atom in the BBO crystal is found to be bonded to the O ions in the adjacent layers in a partly covalent, partly ionic manner due to the presence of large semi-core-like 5p orbitals. The calculated optical properties for both BBO and LBO crystals are in good agreement with the measured vacuum ultraviolet spectrum especially in the region of absorption threshold. The agreements between theory and experiment near the absorption edges are much closer than that reflected by the gap values alone.

  7. Structural Elucidation and Toxicity Assessment of Degraded Products of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 by Aqueous Extracts of Trachyspermum ammi

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen


    In this study aqueous extract of seeds and leaves of Trachyspermum ammi were evaluated for their ability to detoxify aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L−1 and AFB2; 50 μg L−1) by in vitro and in vivo assays. Results indicated that T. ammi seeds extract was found to be significant (P Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that T. ammi seeds extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27064492

  8. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet


    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L-1 and AFB2; 50 μg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  9. Assessment of fumonisins B1 and B2 levels in commercial maize-based food products by liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection and postcolumn chemical derivatization.

    Lo Magro, Sonia; Campaniello, Maria; Nardiello, Donatella; Muscarella, Marilena


    The occurrence of the fumonisins B(1) and B(2) in maize-based food products marketed in Italy was examined. A simply and reliable chromatographic method with fluorimetric detection and postcolumn o-phtalaldehyde derivatization was used for a monitoring of 100 samples (8 flours, 21 corn-meal, 16 snacks, 7 maize samples, 13 gluten-free products, and 35 corn-flakes) bought in local supermarkets during the years 2008 and 2009. The presence of both fumonisins B(1) and B(2), at a concentration higher than 15 μg/kg, was observed in all samples of corn-meal and maize-flour, in 75% of snacks, in 57% of maize samples, in 54% of gluten-free products, and in 29% of corn-flakes. A total of 7 samples including 4 corn-meals, 2 maize-flours, and 1 maize showed a value exceeding the maximum level fixed in the Regulation 1126/2007/EC; no positive sample was observed in corn-flakes, snacks, and gluten-free foods. Fumonisins contamination, on the whole range of maize-based food products analyzed, emphasizes the need of improve agricultural practices, and increase official control and monitoring studies. PMID:21535723

  10. Rapid analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with HPLC.

    Lai, Xian-Wen; Sun, Dai-Li; Ruan, Chun-Qiang; Zhang, He; Liu, Cheng-Lan


    A novel, simple, and rapid method is presented for the analysis of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with LC and fluorescence detection. After extraction of the rice samples with a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid, mycotoxins were rapidly partitioned into a small volume of organic solvent (chloroform) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The three mycotoxins were simultaneously determined by LC with fluorescence detection after precolumn derivatization for aflatoxin B1 and B2. Parameters affecting both extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedures, including the extraction solvent, the type and volume of extractant, the volume of dispersive solvent, the addition of salt, the pH and the extraction time, were optimized. The optimized protocol provided an enrichment factor of approximately 1.25 and with detection of limits (0.06-0.5 μg/kg) below the maximum levels imposed by current regulations for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The mean recovery of three mycotoxins ranged from 82.9-112%, with a RSD less than 7.9% in all cases. The method was successfully applied to measure mycotoxins in commercial rice samples collected from local supermarkets in China. PMID:24243826

  11. Rapid Determination of Aflatoxin B1B2,G1,G2 in wine with HPLC and Immunoaffinity Column%免疫亲和柱HPLC荧光检测酒中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2

    李佐卿; 谢东华; 孙大为; 康继韬; 俞雪钧


    Monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity technology was used for specific method of extracting and purging aflatoxin from samples directly. After evaporating the extract to dryness, the residue were derived and detected by HPLC fluorescence detector. The average recoveries (n=10) are G1 73.8%、B1 97.3%、G2 61.7%、B2 90.5% respectively;the RSD of ten determination are G1 4.50%、B1 3.80%、G2 3.68%、B2 4.77% respectively; in the rang of 25—1250pg the analytical response is linear, the correlation coefficients are G1: r =0.9990 ,B1: r=0.9994,G2: r=0.9995,B2 :r=0.9992 respectively;the limit of determination was 6.25pg .%采用单克隆抗体免疫亲和技术作为直接从样品中分离提纯黄曲霉毒素的特效手段,提取液挥发干后,经衍生用HPLC荧光检测器测定。本法在样品中添加2.5μg /kg黄曲霉毒素时进行10次测定,平均回收率分别为G1 73.8%、B1 97.3%、G2 61.7%、B2 90.5%;2.5μg /kg 10次测定的精密度分别为:G1 4.50%、B1 3.80%、G2 3.68%、B2 4.77%,本方法在25—1250pg 范围内呈线性,相关系数分别为G1: r =0.9990 、 B1: r=0.9994、 G2: r=0.9995、 B2 : r=0.9992。测定的最低检出限为6.25pg。

  12. Determination of Vitamin B1,B2,B6 and B12 in Qingda Vitamin B Capsules by HPLC%庆大维B胶囊中维生素B1B2、B6和B12的HPLC法测定

    胡蓉梅; 郭澄


    建立HPLC法测定庆大维B胶囊中维生素B1B2、B6和B12的含量.采用C18柱,乙腈-10mmol/L磷酸二氢钾(pH 3.2)为流动相,梯度洗脱,检测波长280nm.维生素B1B2、B6和B12分别在50~150、20~60、20~60和0.5~1.5μg/ml浓度范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率分别为101.9%、98.1%、99.6%和99.4%.

  13. 弛豫铁电体Pb(B_1B_2)O_3和钛酸铅固溶体的相稳定性

    罗豪甦; 许桂生; 徐海清; 齐振一; 仲维卓; 殷之文


    弛豫铁电体Pb(B1B2 )O3 和PbTiO3 能够形成具有复合钙钛矿结构的二元固溶体Pb(B1B2 )O3 PbTiO3 。到目前为止 ,已经发现了多种这类二元固溶体单晶 (如PMN PT、PZN PT和PSN PT等 )不仅具有良好的介电性能 ,而且具有良好的压电性能。和普通压电陶瓷PZT相比较 ,弛豫铁电单晶的纵向机电耦合系数k3 3 要大得多 ,可以达到 90 %以上。由于缺少这类二元固溶体单晶的高温相图 ,这类单晶的生长比较困难。我们通过对几种具有复合钙钛矿结构的二元固溶体体系 ,进行差热分析 (DTA)和热重分析 (TG) ,分析了固溶体的相关系和相稳定性。并用粉末X射线衍射谱 (XRD)分析了固溶体的结构 ,以便确定相应的单晶生长方法。研究结果表明 ,A(B1B2 )O3 PbTiO3 二元固溶体体系的结果比较复杂 ,体系中除了具有钙钛结构的铁电相之外 ,还有多种焦绿石相 ,而且不同的弛豫铁电体形成的固溶体其相稳定性的差异较大。其中PMN PT固溶体的相稳定性较高。研究结果表明 ,PMN PT固溶体的液相线和固相线比较接近 ,晶体生长中的分凝现象较小 ,可以看作为同成分熔化的化合物 ,故可...

  14. Validação de métodos cromatográficos por clae para análise das vitaminas B1, B2, B6 e niacina naturalmente presentes em farinha de cereais Validation of hplc methods for analysis of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin naturally present in cereal flours

    Ana Elisa Ferreira Presoto; Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian


    Complex B vitamins are present in some cereal foods and the ingestion of enriched products contributes to the recommended dietary intake of these micronutrients. To adapt the label of some products, it is necessary to develop and validate the analytical methods. These methods must be reliable and with enough sensitivity to analyze complex B vitamins naturally present in food at low concentration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, with validated methods, the content of vitamins B1, B2, ...

  15. HPLC法测定复合维生素B片中维生素B1B2、B6的含量%Determination of Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B6 in Compound Vitamin B Tablets by HPLC

    韩秀梅; 祖述春


    目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定复合维生素B片中维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量.方法 色谱柱:Wondasil C18色谱柱,流动相为醋酸-醋酸钠缓冲液(pH 4.5)-甲醇(65∶35),流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为270 nm.结果 维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6浓度分别在0.6 μg·mL-1~0.75 mg·mL-1、0.3 μg·mL-1~0.62 mg·mL-1、80~415 μg·mL1范围内与峰面积线性关系良好.结论 该方法简便、快速、准确可靠,可用于复合维生素B片中维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量测定.

  16. Pharmacological characterization of homobaclofen on wild type and mutant GABA(B)1b receptors coexpressed with the GABA(B)2 receptor

    Jensen, Anders A.; Madsen, Bo E.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P;


    Homobaclofen (5-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl) pentanoic acid) is a homologue of the classical GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen. In a recent study, the two enantiomers of this compound were tested in a GABA(B) receptor selective [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid ([3H]GABA) binding assay using rat brain...... rat GABA(B)1b receptors coexpressed with rat GABA(B)2 receptors. The results from this study correlate nicely with the binding data from rat brain. (R)-Homobaclofen was shown to act like (R)-baclofen albeit with 20-fold less potency, and (S)-homobaclofen was inactive on the receptor. The discrepancies...... between the data obtained in this study and those from the guinea pig ileum model could be ascribed to differences in amino acid sequence or receptor splicing of GABA(B) receptors between the two species. Another explanation for the observation is the possible existence of a novel yet uncloned GABA...

  17. Colloidal gold based immuno chromatographic strip for the simple and sensitive determination of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in corn and rice

    We have developed a simple and fast immuno chromatographic test strip for the simultaneous quantitation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 in corn and rice. The strip contains three pads (sample, conjugate, and absorbing pad) and uses the respective polyclonal antibodies immobilized on gold nanoparticles. Matrix interferences were minimized by application of fugacity theory. Clean-up of samples and pre-treatment of strip pads is not required. The visual detection limit is 0.1 ng mL−1, and the process can be completed within 5 min. Out of 113 natural samples, 16 rice and 27 corn samples (38% in total) were aflatoxin positive and the test results were confirmed by HPLC. The strip shows, however, high cross reactivity to aflatoxins G1, G2, and M1. We consider this strip to possess wide applicability because of its ease of use, sensitivity, stability, and low cost. (author)

  18. Nanosecond ligand migration and functional protein relaxation in ba3 oxidoreductase: Structures of the B0, B1 and B2 intermediate states.

    Nicolaides, Antonis; Soulimane, Tewfik; Varotsis, Constantinos


    Nanosecond time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy (nTRS (2) -FTIR) has been applied to literally probe the active site of the carbon monoxide (CO)-bound thermophilic ba3 heme-copper oxidoreductase as it executes its function. The nTRS (2) - snapshots of the photolysed heme a3 Fe-CO/CuB species captured a "transition state" whose side chains prevent the photolysed CO to enter the docking cavity. There are three sets of ba3 photoproduct bands of docked CO with different orientation exhibiting different kinetics. The trajectories of the "docked" CO at 2122, 2129 and 2137cm(-1) is referred to in the literature as B2, B1 and B0 intermediate states, respectively. The present data provided direct evidence for the role of water in controlling ligand orientation in an intracavity protein environment. PMID:27207588

  19. Determination Method of Aflatoxins B1,B2,G1,G2 in Chinese Medicinal Herbs%中药材中黄曲霉毒素B1B2,G1,G2测定方法研究



    Objective To establish a HPLC combined with electro spray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS)method for determining aflatoxins B1,B2,G1 and G2 in Chinese medicinal herbs. Methods After extraction by 70% methanol and purification and concentration by immunoaffinity column in the Chinese medicinal herb sample,the contents of aflatoxins B1,B2,G1 and G2 were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. Results The linear range was 0. 3-30 pg for aflatoxins G2 and B2,1-100 pg for aflatox-ins G1 and B1 ( r ﹥ 0. 999 0 ) . The recovery rate was 75. 33% -92. 29%. Conclusion The method is accurate,simple to operate,highly sensitive,better reproducible and suitable for the aflatoxins determination of Chinese medicinal herbs.%目的:建立测定中药材中黄曲霉毒素B1B2,G1,G2的高效液相色谱分离-串联三重四级杆质谱分析(HPLC-MS/MS)法。方法中药材样本经70%甲醇溶液提取,并采用免疫亲和柱净化和浓缩后,以HPLC-MS/MS对4个黄曲霉毒素的含量进行测定。结果黄曲霉毒素G2和B2进样量在0.3~30 pg、黄曲霉毒素G1和B1进样量在1~100 pg范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系( r﹥0.9990),加样回收率为75.33%~92.29%。结论该法速度快、操作简便、灵敏度高、重复性好,适用于中药材中霉菌毒素的检测。

  20. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...


    ... the entire maximum inspiration and the entire maximum forced expiration. The instrument shall, in... instructed to expire completely, momentarily hold his breath, place the mouthpiece in his mouth and close the.... Inspiration and expiration shall be checked visually for reproducibility. The effort shall be...

  1. Development of a microwave-assisted-extraction-based method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 in grains and grain products.

    Chen, Si; Zhang, Hong


    This article describes the use of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) as a pretreatment technique for the determination of aflatoxins B(1), G(1), B(2), and G(2) in grains and grain products. The optimal operation parameters, including extraction solvent, temperature, and time, were identified to be acetonitrile as the extraction solvent at 80 °C with 15 min of MAE. The extracts were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction followed by derivatization with trifluoroacetic acid and were determined by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. A Sep-Pak cartridge was chosen over Oasis HLB and Bond Elut cartridges. By the use of aflatoxin M(1) as an internal standard, relative recoveries of the aflatoxins ranged from 90.7 to 105.7 % for corn and from 88.1 to 103.4 % for wheat, with relative standard deviations between 2.5 and 8.7 %. A total of 36 samples from local markets were analyzed, and aflatoxin B(1) was found to be the predominant toxin, with concentrations ranging from 0.42 to 3.41 μg/kg. PMID:23314480

  2. HPLC柱后衍生同时测定黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的探讨%Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 by HPLC with postcolumn derivatization

    王新丽; 张玉黔


    Objective:To develop a high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization method for simultaneous determination of Aflatoxins B1 ,B2,G1 ,G2. Methods:The extracted samples were separated by HPLC column, conducted reaction with iodine solution in postcolumn derivatization device, finally detected by fluorescence detector. Results; The method has a limit of detection of 0.03 |xg/kg for aflatoxins B1 ,G2, 0.01 u,g/kg for aflatoxin B2 and 0.05 ug/kg for aflatoxin G,. Conclusion:This method was sensitive, accurate, simple and specific, which can be applied for the determination of aflatoxins B,, B2,G1 ,G2.%目的:建立黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的高效液相色谱柱后衍生检测方法.方法:样品通过高效液相色谱柱分离后,进入柱后衍生装置与碘溶液发生反应,最后进入荧光检测器进行检测.结果:该方法的检出限AFB1、AFG2为0.03 μg/kg、AFB2为0.01 μg/kg、AFG1为0.05 μg/kg.结论:方法灵敏度高,准确度好,操作简单,实用性强,可用于黄曲霉毒素的检测.

  3. Study on the expression of bradykinin and its receptors B1R and B2R in the kidney immune injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mouse%三氯乙烯致敏小鼠肾脏免疫损伤中缓激肽及其受体B1R和B2R的表达水平

    王慧; 张家祥; 李树龙; 查晚生; 王峰; 朱启星


    Objective To study the expression of bradykinin and its receptors B1R and B2R in the kidney immune injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mouse and discuss the pathogenesis of Dermatitis Medicamentosa-like of TCE (ODMLT).Methods On the first days,intradermal injection by 50% TCE and the amount of FCA mixture 100μl for initial sensitization;on 4,7,10 days,painted abdominal skin by 100 μl 50% TCE for three sensitization,on 17,19 days,painted on the back skin by 100 μl 30% TCE for initial excitation and the last challenge;24 h before each challenge,PKSI-527+TCE group received intraperitoneal injection by inhibitor PKSI-527 (50 mg/kg);solvent control group treat without TCE and sensitization and excitation reagent the same proportion of olive oil and acetone mixture,blank control group without any treatment.Before killing the mouse,renal weight and body weight were recorded.The renals and plasma were separated at 24 h,48 h,72 h and 7 d after the last challenge and observed pathological of the renals.Expression of B1R and B2R in renal were examined by immunofluorescence technique.Plasma were examined by ELISA for BK.Results The renal pathological examination revealed the apparent damage of TCE sensitized mice which compared to solvent control group showed obvious cellular infiltration,vacuolar degeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells.The renal damage of PKSI-527+TCE-sensitized groups which compared to the corresponding point of TCE-sensitized groups showed significantly reduced.The expression of BK in 24 h,48 h and 72 h TCE-sensitized groups were significant higher than solvent control group and related TCE non-sensitized groups (P<0.05) and 72 h point compared to the corresponding point of PKSI-527+TCE group was also increased,,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).The expression levels of B1R and B2R in the kidney in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 7 d TCE-sensitized groups were obviously higher than solvent control group and related TCE non

  4. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in food by UPLC%UPLC同时测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2

    丘汾; 李可; 周海涛; 刘奋; 杨梅; 曾胜波; 戴京晶


    Objective; A simple and rapid method for determination of aflatoxin B, ,B2 ,G, and G2 content in food by UPLC were developed. Methods; After extraction with MeOH - H2O,the extracts of food homogenization was loaded on the I AC for purification and determined by UPLC. Results; The recoveries of samples were in the range of 75.0% -90.4% ,the RSD was below 5% . The limit of quantification for aflatoxin B, was 0. 2 μg/kg,the limit of quantification for aflatoxin B2 was 0.2 μg/kg, the limit of quantification for aflatoxin G, was 0.4 μg/kg, the limit of quantification for aflatoxin G2 was 0.2 μg/kg. Conclusion; Determination of aflatoxins B, ,B2 ,G,and G2 content in food by immune affinity column was a rapid,simple and exact method.%目的:建立免疫亲和柱超高效液相色谱法测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1和G2含量的方法.方法:试样经过甲醇-水提取、稀释后经过免疫亲和柱层析净化,应用超高液相色谱法检测.结果:试验结果表明:空白样品分别按照0.2 μg/kg、0.8μg/kg、2.0μg/kg添加黄曲霉毒素混合标准,回收率为75.0%~90.4%,精密度<5%,黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1和G2的检测灵敏度分别为0.2μg/kg,0.2 μg/kg,0.4 μg/kg,0.2 μg/kg.结论:免疫亲和柱净化超高效液相色谱法测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2含量,是一种简单、快速和准确的方法.


    Ni Luh Kasih Ariani


    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Vitamin B terutama B1 (Tiamin, B2 (Riboflavin, dan B6 (Piridoksin sering terkandung dalam sirup multivitamin sehingga diperlukan analisis untuk mendeteksi secara simultan dalam campuran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membandingkan analisis vitamin B1, B2, dan B6 dalam sirup multivitamin secara simultan dengan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi eluasi gradien dan isokratik, menggunakan kolom C18, panjang 15 cm, dan dengan pelarut campuran metanol: air : asam asetat glasial (10:90:1. Fase gerak adalah campuran natrium heksan sulfonat 5 mM dalam asam asetat glasial 0,5% dengan metanol yang dicampur secara gradien. Kondisi optimum metode gradien diperoleh pada laju alir 2,0 mL/menit, panjang gelombang 280 nm dengan waktu retensi 3,441 menit untuk piridoksin; 4,985 menit untuk riboflavin dan 7,393 menit untuk tiamin dengan resolusi 2,272 antara riboflavin dan piridoksin. Hasil uji presisi riboflavin dan piridoksin menggunakan metode isokratik (campuran natrium heksan sulfonat 5 mM dengan metanol dengan perbandingan 70 : 30 masing-masing dengan RSD adalah 1,377 dan 1,376 sedangkan metode gradien adalah 0,693 dan 0,825. Uji linearitas ketiga vitamin menggunakan dua metode isokratik dan gradien memenuhi persyaratan dengan R2 = 0,999. Kata kunci : Vitamin B, sirup multivitamin, kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to compare the simultaneous analytical results of B1 (Tiamin, B2 (Riboflavin, and B6 (Piridoxin in multivitamin syrup between gradient and isocratic methods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The separation was performed on 15 cm length of C18 column and a mixture of methanol, water and glacial acetate acid with ratio of 10:90:1 was used as solvent. The eluent was a mixture of methanol and 5 mM sodium hexane sulfonate in 0.5% glacial acetate acid and gradually mixed using 2 different pumps. The optimal analytical conditions for gradient method were found to be 2,0 mL/min of flow rate and

  6. Natural incidence of Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2 associated with maize kernels from nine provinces in China in 2012.

    Fu, Meng; Li, Renjie; Guo, Congcong; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao


    Fusarium species, which can produce mycotoxins, are the predominant pathogens causing maize ear rot, a disease that results in severe economic losses and serves as a potential health risk for humans and animals. A survey was conducted in 2012 to investigate the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2. A total of 250 maize samples were randomly collected from nine provinces (Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Ningxia) in China. Fusarium species were isolated and identified using morphological (electron microscope) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing). Fumonisins B1 and B2 were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with OPA (2-Mercaptoethanol, o-phthaldialdehyde) post-column derivatisation. A total of 2321 Fusarium isolates (20.7%) were obtained from all the samples. These isolates included nine Fusarium species, namely, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. meridionale and F. chlamydosporum. The incidence of occurrence of Fusarium species in Guizhou was the highest, while in Inner Mongolia it was the lowest. F. verticillioides was the dominant species of maize ear rot in Liaoning, Sichuan, Hebei and Ningxia. F. graminearum was the dominant species in Yunnan, Guizhou and Shanxi. F. subglutinans was the dominant species in Heilongjiang. F. verticillioides and F. graminearum percentages were the same in Inner Mongolia. The incidence of fumonisins in Liaoning was high (up to 81.0%) and in Heilongjiang low (up to 10.3%). Except Shanxi, more than 50% of maize samples from other provinces were contaminated with fumonisins, with concentrations less than 500 ng g(-1). About 33% of maize samples from Yunnan were contaminated with high levels of fumonisins, and average of fumonisin levels were 5191 ng g(-1). Fusarium species causing maize

  7. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2), ochratoxin A, and sterigmatocystin in traditional Chinese medicines by LC-MS-MS.

    Zheng, Runsheng; Xu, Hui; Wang, Wenli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen


    In this paper we describe a rapid, simple, and costeffective liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS–MS) method for simultaneous analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A, and sterigmatocystin in 25 traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). The method is based on single extraction with 84:16 (v/v) acetonitrile–water then analysis of the diluted crude extract without further clean-up. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column, with a mobile phase gradient prepared from aqueous 4 mmol L−1 ammonium acetate–0.1 % formic acid and methanol. Quantification of the analytes was by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive-ionization mode. Special focus was on investigating and reducing matrix effects to improve accuracy. The established method was validated by determination of linearity (r>0.995), sensitivity (limits of quantification 1.6–25.0 ng L−1), apparent recovery (84.8–110.6 %), extraction recovery (83.6–106.1 %), and precision (relative standard deviation ≤9.9 %) for two representative TCMs, Semen Armeniacae Amarae and Radix Pseudostellariae. The applicability of the method to TCMs other than these was further investigated, and 23 other TCMs with acceptable matrix effects (80.2–118.6 %) were screened. The validated method was finally used to assess mycotoxin contamination of 244 samples of 25 TCMs collected from local hospitals and TCM pharmacies. Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A were detected in 5.3 % of the samples. Sterigmatocystin, the most prevalent mycotoxin contaminant, was present in 26.2 % of the samples tested; this has not been reported previously. The results of this work imply greater attention should be devoted to evaluation of the potential hazard caused by sterigmatocystin in TCMs. PMID:24658469

  8. Validação de métodos cromatográficos por clae para análise das vitaminas B1, B2, B6 e niacina naturalmente presentes em farinha de cereais Validation of hplc methods for analysis of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin naturally present in cereal flours

    Ana Elisa Ferreira Presoto


    Full Text Available Complex B vitamins are present in some cereal foods and the ingestion of enriched products contributes to the recommended dietary intake of these micronutrients. To adapt the label of some products, it is necessary to develop and validate the analytical methods. These methods must be reliable and with enough sensitivity to analyze complex B vitamins naturally present in food at low concentration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, with validated methods, the content of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin in five cereal flours used in food industry (oat, rice, barley, corn and wheat.

  9. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定水产品中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1%Determination of Aflatoxin G2、G1、B2B1 in Aquatic Products with HPLC-MS/MS

    莫彩娜; 杨曦; 黄智成


    The method for determining aflatoxin G2,G1,B2,and B1 by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS) was developed.The samples were extracted by 84% methanol,degreased with hexane and purified with HLB solid-phase extraction column.In addition,with electrospray ionization in positive mode,the samples was monitored with multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) and quantified them with external standard method.For the 4 aflatoxins,it showed good linear regression coeffcient in the standard curve(all0.99),the limits of detection for aflatoxin G1,B1 were 0.5 μg/kg,and the limits of detection for aflatoxin G2,B2 were 0.3 μg/kg.The average recovery was 56%~80%,and the relative standard deviation was 1.58%~14.4%.The method,was sensitive and reliable,and can be applied for the determination of aflatoxins in aquatic products.%建立了用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法(HPLC-MS/MS)测定水产品中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1残留量的方法。84%甲醇水溶液提取水产品中4种黄曲霉毒素,正己烷脱脂,HLB固相萃取柱净化。采用电喷雾电离,正离子扫描,选择多反应检测模式(MRM)监测,外标法定量。该法对4种黄曲霉毒素标准曲线的线性回归系数均在0.99以上,黄曲霉毒素G1、B1方法定量限为0.5μg/kg,G2、B2方法定量限为0.3μg/kg。4种黄曲霉毒素的回收率为56%~80%,相对标准偏差1.58%~14.4%。该法灵敏,结果可靠,可用于水产品中黄曲霉毒素的测定。

  10. Determination of Aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, and B1 in Yushangling Capsules by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定愈伤灵胶囊中黄曲霉毒素 G2,G1,B2B1含量

    张正锋; 张毅


    目的:建立测定愈伤灵胶囊中黄曲霉毒素 G2,G1,B2B1含量的高效液相色谱(HPLC)柱后光化学衍生法。方法样品经70%甲醇提取,免疫亲和柱净化,HPLC 柱后光化学衍生,荧光检测器定量,并用超高效液相色谱-串联质谱(UPLC - MS / MS)法对阳性样品进行确认。结果黄曲霉毒素 G2,G1,B2B1含量线性范围分别是3.54~35.40 pg,7.08~70.80 pg,2.10~21.00 pg,6.24~62.40 pg( r >0.999),回收率均在70%~120%。结论该法简便、灵敏、结果准确,适用于愈伤灵胶囊中黄曲霉毒素的检测。%Objective To establish a method for determination of aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, B1 in Yushangling capsules by HPLC. Methods The samples were extracted with 70% methanol and purified with immunoaffinity column, then analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence de-tection. The positive samples were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. Results Aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, B1 showed a good linear relationship at a range of 3. 54 - 35. 40 pg, 7. 08 - 70. 80 pg, 2. 10 - 21. 00 pg, 6. 24 - 62. 40 pg ( r > 0. 999) . The recoveries were between 70% - 120% . Conclusion The method is simple, sensitive and accurate, which is suitable for determination of four aflatoxins in Yushangling Capsules.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in Tobacco by HPLC-FLD Pre-column Derivatization Method%HPLC-FLD柱前衍生法同时测定烟草中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1和G2

    王康; 李韵; 肖少红


    通过溶剂萃取、免疫亲和柱纯化富集、三氟乙酸柱前衍生、高效液相色谱(HPLC)法分离及荧光检测器检测,建立了同时测定烟草及烟草制品中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1和G2的免疫亲和检测方法.结果表明:①该方法可在20 min内完成测定,4种目标物能够得到很好的分离,线性关系良好,相关系数r值均大于0.99.②方法的回收率为85%~117%,相对标准偏差为0.2%~9.4%(n=6),其中B1的检出限和定量限分别为0.10和0.34μg/kg.%An immunoaffinity detection method for simultaneously determining the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in tobacco and tobacco products was developed via solvent extraction of sample, purifying and concentrating on immunoaffinity column, pre-column derivatization by trifluoroacetic acid, separation by HPLC, and detection by fluorescence detector. The results showed that: 1) The determination could be completed within 20 minutes, the four target aflatoxins were well separated and exhibited good linear relations with correlation coefficients r > 0.99. 2) The recoveries of the method ranged from 85% to 117%with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.2%-9.4% (n=6), and the limits of detection and quantification of aflatoxin B1 were 0.10 and 0.34 μg/kg, respectively.

  12. A Quick Assay for the Quantitation of Fumonisin B1 and B2 in Maize Samples by Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry.

    Vega, Victor A


    A quick and effective extraction of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) in corn samples is described. The samples were extracted with an 80% acetonitrile-water solution, followed by a second extraction using an 80% methanol-water solution. The extract was then subjected to an immunoaffinity column for cleanup. Quantitation was then obtained by LC/MS. LC/MS parameters were optimized resulting in a 3 min run time. Corn certified reference materials (CRMs) at three different levels were analyzed. For the lowest level, a corn CRM sample containing 0.6 ppm of FB1 and 0.1 ppm of FB2 was analyzed. For the midlevel, analysis of a corn CRM sample containing 1.2 ppm FB1 and 0.3 ppm FB2 was conducted. A sample containing 3.6 ppm FB1 and 0.8 ppm FB2 was also analyzed. All recoveries were calculated using an external standard curve. Recoveries from all CRM samples ranged from 70 to 110%. Confirmation for both analytes in the sample extracts at each level was accomplished by comparing MS/MS spectra of the samples against those of the standards. This method provides a rapid, specific, robust, and easily controlled assay for the analysis of fumonisin in corn samples. PMID:27297840

  13. Mass spectrometric identification and toxicity assessment of degraded products of aflatoxin B1 and B2 by Corymbia citriodora aqueous extracts

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen


    This study explores the detoxification potential of Corymbia citriodora plant extracts against aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L−1 and AFB2; 50 μg L−1) in In vitro and In vivo assays. Detoxification was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by TLC and HPLC, respectively. The study was carried out by using different parameters of optimal temperature, pH and incubation time period. Results indicated that C. citriodora leaf extract(s) more effectively degrade AFB1 and AFB2 i.e. 95.21% and 92.95% respectively than C. citriodora branch extract, under optimized conditions. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products was done by LCMS/MS analysis. Ten degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 and their fragmentation pathways were proposed based on molecular formulas and MS/MS spectra. Toxicity of these degraded products was significantly reduced as compared to that of parent compounds because of the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring. The biological toxicity of degraded toxin was further analyzed by brine shrimps bioassay, which showed that only 17.5% mortality in larvae was recorded as compared to untreated toxin where 92.5% mortality was observed after 96hr of incubation. Therefore, our finding suggests that C. citriodora leaf extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:26423838

  14. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in animal feed by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    López Grío, Sergio José; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Romero-González, Roberto


    A rapid and simple method was developed to determine aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in animal feed and pet foods by UHPLC-MS/MS. Because the complexity of the evaluated matrices, the proposed method is based on sonication extraction using an ACN/water mixture (80:20 v/v) followed by a clean-up step utilising C(18) as sorbent. Performance parameters of the method were evaluated, including linearity, trueness, precision and LOQ. Good linearity was found for all mycotoxins, with determination coefficients higher than 0.99 in the range considered, using matrix-matched calibration for quantification purposes. Recoveries ranged from 84 to 113%, with RSD lower than 20%, whereas LOQs were 5 microg/kg for the assayed mycotoxins. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of 19 real samples, detecting aflatoxin G2 in two samples at 13 and 17 microg/kg respectively, whereas the other mycotoxins were detected at trace levels (

  15. EphrinB1 and EphrinB2 regulate T cell chemotaxis and migration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis.

    Luo, Hongyu; Broux, Bieke; Wang, Xuehai; Hu, Yan; Ghannam, Soufiane; Jin, Wei; Larochelle, Catherine; Prat, Alexandre; Wu, Jiangping


    T cells are believed to be key effector cells in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we examined the roles of T cell ephrinB1 (EFNB1) and ephrinB2 (EFNB2) in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and MS. We provide evidence that animals with T cell specific double deletion of EFNB1 and EFNB2 (dKO) have reduced proliferation in response to MOG35-55, defective Th1 and Th17 differentiations and significantly lower scores of MOG-induced EAE. We further demonstrate that dKO T cells are compromised in their ability to migrate into the CNS of EAE animals in vivo and towards multiple chemokines in vitro. Using deletion mutations, we identified a critical 11-aa EFNB1 intracellular domain segment that controls T cell chemotaxis towards CCL21. In humans, EFNB1 and EFNB2 are highly expressed in Th1 and Th17 cells and EFNB1- and EFNB2-expressing T cells are found among immune cell infiltrates in MS lesions. Reverse signaling through EFNB1 and EFNB2 in human Th17 cells enhances their migration through a monolayer of blood brain barrier endothelial cells. Our study demonstrates that expression of EFNB1 and EFNB2 is implicated in Th cell differentiation and migration to inflammatory sites in both EAE and MS. PMID:27039370

  16. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and antimicrobial studies of diabetic drug models: Complexes of vanadyl(II) sulfate with ascorbic acid (vitamin C), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3)

    Refat, Moamen S.


    The oxovanadium(II) complexes of the different vitamins like ascorbic acid (vitamin C; Vit. C), riboflavin (vitamin B2; Vit. B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3; Vit. B3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, electronic, magnetic measurements, thermal studies, XRD and SEM. Conductance measurements indicated that the vanadyl(II) complexes of Vit. B2 and Vit. B3 are 1:2 electrolytes except for [VO(Vit. C) 2(H 2O) 2] complex is non-electrolyte. IR data show that Vit. B2 is bidentate ligand against azomethine nitrogen of pyrazine ring and C dbnd O of pyrimidine-2,4-dione but Vit. B3 and Vit. C acts as a monodentate ligand through pyridine nitrogen and hydroxo oxygen of furan ring, respectively. Electronic spectral measurements indicated that all VO(II) complexes have a square-pyramidal geometry. Magnetic measurements for the new vanadyl(II) complexes are in a good agreement with the proposed formula. Thermal analyses (TG/DSC) of the studied complexes show that the decomposition process takes place in more than two steps. XRD refer that VO(II) complexes have an amorphous behavior. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied by SEM. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands and its complexes indicate that the vanadyl(II) complexes possess high antibacterial and antifungal activities towards the bacterial species and the fungal species than start ligands.

  17. Expression of organic anion-transporting polypeptides 1B3, 1B1, and 1A2 in human pancreatic cancer reveals a new class of potential therapeutic targets

    Kounnis V


    Full Text Available Valentinos Kounnis1, Elli Ioachim2, Martin Svoboda3, Andreas Tzakos4, Ioannis Sainis1, Theresia Thalhammer3, Georg Steiner5, Evangelos Briasoulis11Cancer Biobank Center of the University of Ioannina, Greece; 2Pathology Department of Hatzikosta General Hospital, Ioannina Greece; 3Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; 4Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Greece; 5TissueGnostics GmbH, Vienna, AustriaBackground: Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs are influx transporters that mediate intracellular uptake of selective endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Identification of new molecular targets and discovery of novel targeted therapies is top priority for pancreatic cancer, which lacks any effective therapy.Materials and methods: We studied expression of OATP 1A2, 1B1, and 1B3 in pancreatic cancer tissue and in cell lines. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy material of 12 human pancreatic cancers was immunohistochemically assessed for protein expression of the three studied influx transporters. Immunohistochemistry was evaluated by experienced pathologists and quantified by use of an automated image analysis system. BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell lines were used to quantify transcripts of OATP 1B1 and 1B3.Results: OATP 1A2, 1B1, and 1B3 proteins were found ubiquitously expressed in all studied cases. Quantification performed by HistoQuest system revealed that mean intensity was 53 for 1A2, 45 for 1B1, and 167 for OATP 1B1/1B3 on a range scale 0–250 units. At mRNA level, 1B1 and 1B3 were overexpressed in both studied cancer cell lines but not in normal pancreatic tissue.Conclusion: OATPs 1A2, 1B1, and 1B3 are highly expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We suggest that expression of these transporters in pancreatic cancer justify research efforts towards discovery of novel therapeutics targeting OATPs.Keywords: organic anion-transporting polypeptides

  18. The tryptophan synthase β-subunit paralogs TrpB1 and TrpB2 in Thermococcus kodakarensis are both involved in tryptophan biosynthesis and indole salvage.

    Hiyama, Takayoshi; Sato, Takaaki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Atomi, Haruyuki


    The last two steps of l-tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis are catalyzed by Trp synthase, a heterotetramer composed of TrpA and TrpB. TrpB catalyzes the condensation of indole, synthesized by TrpA, and serine to Trp. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis, trpA and trpB (trpB1) are located adjacently in the trpCDEGFB1A operon. Interestingly, several organisms possess a second trpB gene (trpB2) encoding TrpB2, located outside of the trp operon in T. kodakarensis. Until now, the physiological function of trpB2 has not been examined genetically. In the present study, we report the biochemical and physiological analyses of TrpB2 from T. kodakarensis. Kinetic analysis indicated that TrpB2 catalyzed the TrpB reaction but did not interact with TrpA as in the case of TrpB1. When growth phenotypes were examined for gene disruption strains, the double-deletion mutant (ΔtrpB1ΔtrpB2) displayed Trp auxotrophy, whereas individual single mutants (ΔtrpB1 and ΔtrpB2 strains) did not. It has been proposed previously that, in Thermotoga maritima, TrpB2 provides an alternate route to generate Trp from serine and free indole (indole salvage). To accurately examine the capacity of TrpB1 and TrpB2 in Trp synthesis via indole salvage, we constructed ΔtrpEB1 and ΔtrpEB2 strains using strain KUW1 (ΔpyrFΔtrpE) as a host, eliminating the route for endogenous indole synthesis. Indole complemented the Trp auxotrophies of ΔtrpEB1 (ΔpyrFΔtrpEΔtrpB1) and ΔtrpEB2 (ΔpyrFΔtrpEΔtrpB2) to similar levels. The results indicate that TrpB1 and TrpB2 both contribute to Trp biosynthesis in T. kodakarensis and can utilize free indole, and that indole salvage does not necessarily rely on TrpB2 to a greater extent. PMID:24835339

  19. Determination of aflatoxin G2,G1,B2 and B1 in suanzaoren by HPLC with postcolumn derivatization%柱后衍生-高效液相色谱法测定酸枣仁中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1

    郑荣; 毛丹; 王柯; 季申


    目的:建立酸枣仁中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1的HPLC测定方法.方法:样品经70%甲醇提取、免疫亲和柱净化后,用高效液相色谱-柱后衍生-荧光检测器进行分析测定.结果:黄曲霉毒素G2、B2在1.5~60 pg范围内线性关系良好,黄曲霉毒素G1、B1在5~200 pg范围内线性关系良好,r>0.9999.回收率在60%~120%之间.结论:该法快速简便,准确,可用于酸枣仁中黄曲霉毒素的测定.

  20. HPLC-MS/MS determination of aflatoxinG2,G1,B2,B1 in Persicae Semen%HPLC-MS/MS法测定中药桃仁中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1

    王少敏; 许勇; 毛丹; 郑荣; 王柯; 季申


    目的:建立中药桃仁中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、Bl的HPLC-MS/MS测定方法.方法:样品经有机溶剂提取及免疫亲和柱净化后,以高效液相色谱-串联三重四极杆质谱进行分析测定.采用Phenomenex SB -C18(2.0mmx50mm,4μm)色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-10mmol·L-1醋酸铵溶液,梯度洗脱,流速0.5mL·min-1;质谱条件为电喷雾离子源(ESI源),正离子模式检测,扫描方式为多反应监测(MRM),黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1的定量分析离子分别为m/z 331.1→313.l、m/z 329.1→243.1、m/z 315.0→287.1、m/z 313.1→241.0.结果:黄曲霉毒素G2、B2进样量在0.375-30pg范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,黄曲霉毒素G1、1进样量在1.2-1100 pg范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,0 999;回收率在88.%-1103.%%之间.结论:本法灵敏、快速、准确,专属性强,可用于中药桃仁中黄曲霉毒素的测定.%Objective : To establish an HPLC - MS/MS method for determination of aflatoxin G2 ,G1 , B2 ,B1 in Persicae Semen. Methods :Aflatoxins were extracted by 70% methanol, purified by an immunoaffinity column and then separation was carried on a Kromasil C18 (2. 0 mm ×50 mm ,4 μm) column with a mobile phase of methanol - 10 mmol · L-1 formic ammonate ( by a gradient program) at a rate of 0. 5 mL · min-1. Aflatoxins were analysed by HPLC - triple quadrupole MS with an ESI ion source in MRM mode, the ion combinations of m/z 331. 1→ 313. 1 ,m/z 329. 1→243. 1 , m/z 315. 0→287. 1 , m/z 313. 1→241. 0 were used to qualify aflatoxin G2 , G1 , B2 , B1 , respectively. Results : Good linear relationships were obtained within the ranges of 0. 375 - 30 pg for aflatoxin G2 and B2 ,and 1. 25 - 100 pg for aflatoxin G1 and B1. The recoveries were between 88. 5 % - 103. 9% . Conclusion : The method is sensitive, rapid , accurate and specific for the determination of aflatoxins in traditional Chinese medicine Persicae Semen.

  1. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts.

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet


    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. However, O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82-87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  2. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in cereal products.

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Rastrelli, Luca


    The application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique for the rapid analysis of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) in maize, rice and wheat products has been evaluated. After extraction of aflatoxins from cereal matrices with a mixture of methanol/water 8:2 (v/v), the analytes were rapidly transferred from the extract to another small volume of organic solvent, chloroform, by DLLME. Aflatoxins were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with florescence detection and photochemical post-column derivatization. Parameters affecting both extraction and DLLME procedures, such as extraction solvent, type and volume of DLLME extractant, volume of water and salt effect, were systematically investigated and optimized to achieve the best extraction efficiency. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the whole analytical method provides enrichment factors around 2.5 times and detection limits (0.01-0.17 μg kg(-1)) below the maximum levels imposed by current regulation for aflatoxins in cereals and cereal products intended for direct human consumption. Recoveries (67-92%) and repeatability (RSD<10, n=3), tested in three different cereal matrices, meet the performance criteria required by EC Regulation No. 401/2006 for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of retail cereal products with quantitative results comparable to the immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC). The main advantages of developed method are the simplicity of operation, the rapidity to achieve a very high sample throughput and low cost. PMID:21636088

  3. [Determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 in armeniacae semen amarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Zheng, Run-Sheng; Xu, Hui; Wang, Wen-Li; Zhan, Ruo-Ting; Chen, Wei-Wen


    A simple, rapid and cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method was established for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in Armeniacae Semen Amarum and the application was performance in 11 samples collected from different markets, medical stores and hospitals. The sample was extracted with 84% acetonitrile/water and 250 microL extraction was directly injected into a LC-MS/MS system without further purification procedure after being redissolved with methanol. The LC separation was performed on a C18 column with a linear gradient elution program of 4 mmol x L(-1) NH4 Ac-0.1% formic acid solution and menthol as the mobile phase. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was used for selective determination of the four aflatoxins on a triple quadruple mass spectrometer, which was operated in positive ionization modes. All the four aflatoxins showed a good linear relationship with r > 0.999 0, the average recoveries were between 87.88% and 102.9% and the matrix effect was ranged from 90.71% to 99.30% in low, intermediate and high levels. Furthermore, the higher recovery was obtained by the method reported in this study, comparing to the cleanup procedure with the Mycosep 226 purification column. Eleven samples collected were detected and the contamination levels of the AFB1 were between 1.590-2.340 microg x kg(-1) and the AF (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) was ranged from 2.340 to 3.340 microg x kg(-1). In summary, the developed method was suitable to detect and screen AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 in Armeniacae Semen Amarum. PMID:24490568

  4. Determining aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in maize using florisil clean up with thin layer chromatography and visual and densitometric quantification

    CASTRO Luciana de


    Full Text Available A method for determining aflatoxins B1 (AFB1, B2 (AFB2,G1 (AFG1 andG2 (AFG2 in maize with florisil clean up was optimised aiming at one-dimensional thin layer chromatography (TLC analysis with visual and densitometric quantification. Aflatoxins were extracted with chloroform: water (30:1, v/v, purified through florisil cartridges, separated on TLC plate, detected and quantified by visual and densitometric analysis. The in-house method performance characteristics were determined by using spiked, naturally contaminated maize samples, and certified reference material. The mean recoveries for aflatoxins were 94.2, 81.9, 93.5 and 97.3% in the range of 1.0 to 242 µg/kg for AFB1, 0.3 to 85mg/kg for AFB2, 0.6 to 148mg/kg for AFG1 and 0.6 to 140mg/kg for AFG2, respectively. The correlation values between visual and densitometric analysis for spiked samples were higher than 0.99 for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and 0.98 for AFG2. The mean relative standard deviations (RSD for spiked samples were 16.2, 20.6, 12.8 and 16.9% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. The RSD of the method for naturally contaminated sample (n = 5 was 16.8% for AFB1 and 27.2% for AFB2. The limits of detection of the method (LD were 0.2, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.1mg/kg and the limits of quantification (LQ were 1.0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.6mg/kg for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively.

  5. Truncated ErbB2 receptor enhances ErbB1 signaling and induces reversible, ERK-independent loss of epithelial morphology

    Egeblad, M; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Jäättelä, M


    Shedding of the extracellular domain of the ErbB2 tyrosine kinase receptor and expression of the remaining NH(2)-terminally truncated ErbB2 correlates with lymph node metastases and adverse outcome in human breast cancer. To study the possible signaling from such a truncated receptor, MCF-7 human...... breast cancer cells expressing NH(2)-terminally truncated ErbB2 (DeltaNErbB2) were compared with cells overexpressing wild-type ErbB2. Expression of DeltaNErbB2 in MCF-7 cells resulted in sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, extensive loss of the epithelial morphology....... In conclusion, constitutive signaling upon expression of the truncated ErbB2 receptor in human breast cancer cells promotes morphological changes indicative of a more motile and aggressive phenotype....

  6. Bioactive saponins and glycosides. V. Acylated polyhydroxyolean-12-ene triterpene oligoglycosides, camelliasaponins A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, and C2, from the seeds of Camellia japonica L.: structures and inhibitory activity on alcohol absorption.

    Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Yoshizumi, S; Murakami, N; Yamahara, J; Matsuda, H


    Acylated polyhydroxyolean-12-ene triterpene oligoglycosides, camelliasaponins A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, and C2, were isolated from the seeds of Camellia japonica L. The structures of six camelliasaponins were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Camelliasaponins B1, B2, C1, and C2 were found to exhibit inhibitory activity on ethanol absorption. By comparison of the inhibitory activities for camelliasaponins with those for desacyl-camelliasaponins, acyl groups such as the angeloyl or tigloyl group were found to be essential to exerting the activity. PMID:8904817

  7. 75 FR 23574 - Airworthiness Directives; CFM International, S.A. CFM56-5B1/P, -5B2/P, -5B3/P, -5B3/P1, -5B4/P...


    ... INFORMATION: The FAA proposed to amend 14 CFR part 39 by superseding AD 2009-01-01, Amendment 39-15779 (73 FR... (74 FR 67834). That action proposed to require continuous monitoring of EGT margin deterioration... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a...

  8. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定花生制品中的黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2%Simultaneous Determination of Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in Peanuts by HPLC-MS

    冯伟科; 罗佳玲; 赖毅东


    采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱建立了高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定花生制品中4种黄曲霉毒素(B1B2、G1、G2)的方法.结果表明,在ESI正离子模式下,高效液相色谱-串联质谱法的最低检出限为0.2μg/kg,定量限为0.6 μg/kg;标准工作液在0.5~50.0μg/kg的范围内线性良好,相关系数达到0.9990.%Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in peanuts. The eluted extract was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in positive ion mode using multiple reactions monitoring with a triple-quadruple MS using an electrospray ionization source. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) and the limits of quantification for the target compounds were in the range of 0.2 and 0.6 μg/kg, respectively. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.5~50 μg/kg with the regression coefficient of 0.9990.

  9. 高效液相色谱-串联三重四极杆质谱分析法测定刀豆中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1%HPLC-triple quadrupole MS determination of aflatoxin G2,G1,B2,B1 in Canavalia gladiata(Jacq.)

    许勇; 王少敏; 郑荣; 毛丹; 王柯; 季申


    目的:建立刀豆中黄曲霉毒素G、G、B、B的测定方法.方法:样品经70%甲醇提取、HLB柱净化后,用高效液相色谱-串联质谱进行分析测定.结果:黄曲霉毒素G、B在0.75~30 pg范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,黄曲霉毒素G、B在2.5 pg~100 pg范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,r>0.999.回收率在66.9%~86.7%之间.结论:本法简便快速、结果准确、重现性好,可用于刀豆中黄曲霉毒素的测定.%Objective:To establish a HPLC - triple quadrupole MS method for determination of aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, B1 in Canavalia gladiata( Jacq.).Methods:After being extracted by 70% methanol, purified by HLB column, aflatoxins were analysed by HPLC- triple quadrupole MS.Results:There is a good linear relationship within the range of 0.75 pg ~30 pg for aflatoxin G2 ,B2, and the range of 2.5 pg ~ 100 pg for aflatoxin G1 ,B1.The recovery was between 66.9% ~86.7%.Conclusion:The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, specific and reproducible in the quality Green Beans.

  10. 柱前衍生高效液相色谱法测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2%The aflatoxin B1 ,B2 ,G1 and G2 in food were decontaminated by high performance liquid chromatograph with a sample was derived before column

    王阳; 曹忠波


    目的:通过采用多功能小柱,利用高效液相色谱仪对食品中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2同时进行检测.方法:样品经体积分数为90%的乙腈溶液提取,提取液通过多功能小柱净化、浓缩,三氟乙酸(TFA)柱前衍生,C18色谱柱分离,荧光检测器检测,外标法定量.结果:4种黄曲霉毒素经过衍生后线性良好,对添加黄曲霉毒素的样品进行加标回收,回收率在80.4%~94.5%,精密度<10%.结论:该方法操作简便,线性范围广,效果良好.%Objective:The aflatoy in B1, B2, G1 and G2 in food were decontaminated by a many- sided column and detected simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatograph. Methods: The sample was extracted by acetonitrile solution with a volume fraction 90%, and then the extracted solution was decontaminated and concentrated by column, derived before trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) column, separated by C18 chromatographic column ,detected by fluorescence detector and quantified by external standard method,as seen,the four aflatoxins after derivation had good linearity. Results: The standard recovery rate of food samples with addition of aflatoxins was 80.4% ~ 94.5%, the RSD was below 10%. Conclusion: It shows the method is simple, the linear scope is wide, the result is good.

  11. Infrared spectra of β-BaB 2O 4 and LiB 3O 5: new nonlinear optical materials

    Moryc, U.; Ptak, W. S.


    Some boron compounds, among them low temperature phase β-barium metaborate (BBO) and lithium triborate (LBO), are very attractive materials exhibiting large nonlinear optical (NLO) effects. The two mentioned compounds, in the form of polycrystalline samples, were used in the infrared absorption spectra studies. In the synthesis of the samples, the boron isotopes: 10B, 11B and lithium isotope 6Li were used. The isotopic substitution as a method for giving additional data and better interpretation of the spectra was applied. The obtained spectra were discussed, applying group analysis of the basic structure units of the two phases: the (B 3O 6) 3- (BBO) and (B 3O 5) - (LBO). Assignment of the frequencies to the appropriate vibration according to the Redlich-Teller rule was also discussed.

  12. Combined inhibition of ErbB1/2 and Notch receptors effectively targets breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS stem/progenitor cell activity regardless of ErbB2 status.

    Gillian Farnie

    Full Text Available Pathways involved in DCIS stem and progenitor signalling are poorly understood yet are critical to understand DCIS biology and to develop new therapies. Notch and ErbB1/2 receptor signalling cross talk has been demonstrated in invasive breast cancer, but their role in DCIS stem and progenitor cells has not been investigated. We have utilised 2 DCIS cell lines, (ErbB2-normal and SUM225 (ErbB2-overexpressing and 7 human primary DCIS samples were cultured in 3D matrigel and as mammospheres in the presence, absence or combination of the Notch inhibitor, DAPT, and ErbB1/2 inhibitors, lapatinib or gefitinib. Western blotting was applied to assess downstream signalling. In this study we demonstrate that DAPT reduced acini size and mammosphere formation in whereas there was no effect in SUM225. Lapatinb reduced acini size and mammosphere formation in SUM225, whereas mammosphere formation and Notch1 activity were increased in Combined DAPT/lapatinib treatment was more effective at reducing acini size in both DCIS cell lines. Mammosphere formation in cell lines and human primary DCIS was reduced further by DAPT/lapatinib or DAPT/gefitinib regardless of ErbB2 receptor status. Our pre-clinical human models of DCIS demonstrate that Notch and ErbB1/2 both play a role in DCIS acini growth and stem cell activity. We report for the first time that cross talk between the two pathways in DCIS occurs regardless of ErbB2 receptor status and inhibition of Notch and ErbB1/2 was more efficacious than either alone. These data provide further understanding of DCIS biology and suggest treatment strategies combining Notch and ErbB1/2 inhibitors should be investigated regardless of ErbB2 receptor status.

  13. HPLC 法测定多维元素胶囊(15)中烟酰胺、维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量%Determination of Nicotinamide, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B6 in Duoweiyuansu Capsules (15) by HPLC

    王伟姣; 唐湘伟; 黄莉


    目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定多维元素胶囊(15)中的烟酰胺、维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6的含量.方法:采用Boston Green ODS C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm);流动相:庚烷磺酸钠溶液(取庚烷磺酸钠0.941 g,加冰乙酸10 ml,加水1 000 ml溶解,用NaOH试液调节pH至3.8)-甲醇(70:30);进样量:20 μl;检测波长为280 nm;柱温:30℃;流速1.0 ml·min-1.结果:烟酰胺、维生素B1、维生素B2、维生素B6分别在38.83~349.44,9.88~88.94,4.03~36.25,3.97~35.77 μg·ml-1范围内线性关系良好(r≥0.999 6);平均回收率分别为98.7%(RSD=0.89%),98.7%(RSD=1.03%),99.0%(RSD=1.03%),99.8%(RSD=1.49%).结论:该方法准确,灵敏度高,重复性好,可作为多维元素胶囊(15)的质量控制方法之一.%Objective: To develop an HPLC method for the determination of nicotinamide, vitamin B, , vitamin B2 and vitamin B6 in Duoweiyuansu capsules ( 15 ). Method: The separation was preformed on a Boston Green ODS C18 column ( 250 mm ×4. 6 mm,5 μm ) and the mobile phase consisted of sodium heptanesulfonate solution ( containing 0. 941 g sodium heptanesulfonate and 10ml glacial acetic acid in 1000ml water, and adjusting Ph to 3. 80 with NaOH test solution )-methanol ( 70: 30 ). The detection wavelength was set at 280nm. The flow rate was 1.0 ml ? Min-1 , and the column temperature was 30℃. Result: The calibration curve was linear within the range of 38. 83 ~349.44 μg ? Ml-1 for nicotinamide, 9. 88 ~ 88. 94 μg ? Ml-1 for vitamin B, , 4.03 ~36. 25 μg ? Ml-1 for vitamin B2 and3.97 -35.77 μg ? Ml-1 for vitamin B6. The average recovery was 98.7%( RSD =0. 89% ), 98.7%( RSD = 1.03% ), 99.0% ( RSD = 1. 03% ) and 99. 8%( RSD = 1. 49% ), respectively. Conclusion: This method is sensitive and accurate with good reproduc-ibility, and can be used for the quality control of Duoweiyuansu capsules ( 15 ) .

  14. Combined Inhibition of ErbB1/2 and Notch Receptors Effectively Targets Breast Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) Stem/Progenitor Cell Activity Regardless of ErbB2 Status

    Farnie, Gillian; Willan, Pamela M; Clarke, Robert B; Bundred, Nigel J


    Pathways involved in DCIS stem and progenitor signalling are poorly understood yet are critical to understand DCIS biology and to develop new therapies. Notch and ErbB1/2 receptor signalling cross talk has been demonstrated in invasive breast cancer, but their role in DCIS stem and progenitor cells has not been investigated. We have utilised 2 DCIS cell lines, (ErbB2-normal) and SUM225 (ErbB2-overexpressing) and 7 human primary DCIS samples were cultured in 3D matrigel and as ma...

  15. Determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn by high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization method%柱后衍生-高效液相色谱法测定玉米中伏马菌素B1B2

    张晓旭; 肖志勇; 张红艳; 杨丽丽; 马丽艳


    建立了邻苯二甲醛(OPA)柱后衍生-高效液相色谱测定玉米中伏马菌素B1B2(FB1和FB2)的方法.采用ZORBAX SB-C18色谱柱,以0.1 mol/L磷酸二氢钠溶液(pH 3.3)-甲醇为流动相,梯度洗脱.流动相流速为0.8mL/min,柱温40℃;衍生剂的流速为0.4 mL/min,衍生温度为室温.实验对衍生剂缓冲液的pH、衍生剂的浓度和流速、激发和发射波长等重要条件进行了优化.结果表明,衍生剂的pH在10.5、OPA的质量浓度为2 g/L、流速为0.4 mL/min、激发波长335 nm、发射波长440 nm时测定效果良好,FB1、FB2在0.2~20 mg/L范围内线性关系良好,相关系数大于0.999;FB1和FB2的检出限均为0.02 mg/kg;在0.1~4.0 mg/kg范围内,3个添加水平的平均回收率为82.5% ~89.8%.该方法精确、简单、快速,适合玉米中FB1和FB2的测定.%A high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection with post-column derivatization method was developed to detect fumonisin B, ( FB,) and fumonisin B2 ( FB2) in com. Several factors, such as the pH of derivatization buffer, concentration and flow rate of derivatization reagents, excitation wavelength, emission wavelength, which affected the detection of fumonisins were optimized. The separation was performed on a ZORBAX SB C18 column operated at 40 ℃with the gradient elution by two mobile phases of 0. 1 mol/L sodium dihydro-gen phosphate solution (pH 3.3) and methanol at a flow rate of 0. 8 mL/min. The derivatization was performed at ambient temperature. The o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) flow rate was 0. 4 mL/min. The results showed that the optimum conditions were pH 10. 5 of the derivatization reagent, OPA concentration at 2 g/L, and excitation wavelength of 335 nm, emission wavelength of 440 nm. The linear plots of FB, and FB2 were obtained between 0. 2 to 20 mg/L, with the correlation coefficients above 0. 999 for both FB, and FB2. The limits of detection of fumonisins B, and B2 were 0. 02 mg/kg. The mean recoveries at

  16. Elucidation of separate, but collaborative functions of the rRNA methyltransferase-related human mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 in mitochondrial biogenesis reveals new insight into maternally inherited deafness

    Cotney, Justin; McKay, Sharen E.; Shadel, Gerald S.


    Mitochondrial biogenesis is controlled by signaling networks that relay information to and from the organelles. However, key mitochondrial factors that mediate such pathways and how they contribute to human disease are not understood fully. Here we demonstrate that the rRNA methyltransferase-related human mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 are key downstream effectors of mitochondrial biogenesis that perform unique, yet cooperative functions. The primary function of h-mtTFB2 is mtD...

  17. Validation of a confirmatory analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in foods and feed materials by HPLC with on-line photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection

    Muscarella, Marilena; Iammarino, Marco; Nardiello, Donatella; Lo Magro, Sonia; Palermo, Carmen; Centonze, Diego; Palermo, Domenico


    Abstract A sensitive and selective analytical method for the simultaneous separation and quantitative determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in foodstuffs and materials for feed has been validated. The method is based on high performance liquid chromatography with on-line post-column photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection. The chromatographic separation of aflatoxins was accomplished by using a C18 column eluted with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of w...

  18. Differential c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 mRNA expression in cancer of the pancreas compared with cancer of the papilla of Vater

    Klaus L Prenzel; Ute Warnecke-Eberz; Jan Brabender; Stephan E Baldus; Elfriede Bollschweiler; Christian A Gutschow; Uta Drebber; Arnulf H Hoelscher; Paul M Schneider


    AIM: We examined quantitative mRNA expression of growth factor receptors (c-erbB-1, c-erbB-2) and the anti-apoptosis gene survivin known to be regulated in pancreatic adenocarcinomas and compared the expression pattern with that in carcinomas of the papilla of Vater.METHODS: Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptasePCR (QRT-PCR, TaqmanTM) was performed to analyze mRNA expression levels of c-erbB-1, c-erbB-2 and survivin in normal and corresponding tumor samples of 31 pancreatic adenocarcinomas and 8 cancers of the papilla of Vater.RESULTS: The overall median mRNA expression of survivin was significantly increased in both adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (P<0.01) and papilla of Vater (P<0.008) compared with uninvolved normal control tissue. In pancreatic cancer, expression of c-erbB-1 was significantly decreased compared with the normal pancreatic tissue (P<0.03), whereas in the cancer of the papilla of Vater expression of c-erbB-2 was significantly downregulated (P<0.05) compared with the paired normal samples. Gene expression was not associated with tumor stage, differentiation or prognosis.CONCLUSION: The common anti-apoptosis gene survivin is overexpressed both in the cancer of the papilla of Vater and pancreas. In contrast, the growth factor receptor genes c-erbB-1 and c-erbB-2 are differentially regulated in both tumor entities adding further evidence that pancreatic cancer is biologically different from the cancer of papilla of Vater.

  19. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: first action 2013.05.

    Bao, Lei; Liang, Chengzhu; Trucksess, Mary W; Xu, Yanli; Lv, Ning; Wu, Zhenxing; Jing, Ping; Fry, Fred S


    A collaborative study of a method for determination of aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and LC with fluorescence detection, previously published in J. AOAC Int. 95, 1689-1700 (2012), was approved as First Action 2013.05 on March 29, 2013 by the Method-Centric Committee for Aflatoxins in Edible Oils. The method uses methanol for extraction followed by filtration. The extract is applied to an immunoaffinity column with antibodies specific for AFs, which are then eluted from the column with a methanol solution. Determination and quantification occur using RP-LC with fluorescence detection after postcolumn derivatization. The average recovery of AFs in olive, peanut, and sesame oils in spiked samples (levels between 2.0 and 20.0 microg/kg) ranged from 84 to 92%. The recoveries for AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 86-93, 89-95, 85-97, and 76-85%, respectively. Within-laboratory RSD (RSDr) values for AFs ranged from 3.4 to 10.2%. RSDr values forAF B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 3.5-10.9, 3.2-9.5, 6.5-14.9, and 4.8-14.2%, respectively. Between-laboratory RSD (RSDR) values for AFs were 6.1-14.5%. RSD, values for AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 7.5-15.4, 7.1-14.6, 10.8-18.1, and 7.6-23.7%, respectively. Horwitz ratio values were < or =2 for the analytes in the three matrixes. PMID:24282940

  20. Fabrication of a novel nanocomposite based on sol-gel process for hollow fiber-solid phase microextraction of aflatoxins: B1 and B2, in cereals combined with high performane liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    Es'haghi, Zarrin; Sorayaei, Hoda; Samadi, Fateme; Masrournia, Mahboubeh; Bakherad, Zohreh


    The new pre-concentration technique, hollow fiber-solid phase microextraction based on carbon nanotube reinforced sol-gel and liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection was applied to determination of aflatoxins B(1), B(2) (AFB(1), AFB(2)) in rice, peanut and wheat samples. This research provides an overview of trends related to synthesis of solid phase microextraction (SPME) sorbnents that improves the assay of aflatoxins as the semi-polar compounds in several real samples. It mainly includes summary and a list of the results for a simple carbon nanotube reinforced sol-gel in-fiber device. This device was used for extraction, pre-concentration and determination of aflatoxins B1, B2 in real samples. In this technique carbon nanotube reinforced sol was prepared by the sol-gel method via the reaction of phenyl trimethoxysilane (PTMS) with a basic catalyst (tris hydroxymethyl aminomethan). The influences of microextraction parameters such as pH, ageing time, carbon nanotube contents, desorption conditions, desorption solvent and agitation speed were investigated. Optimal HPLC conditions were: C(18) reversed phase column for separation, water-acetonitril-methanol (35:10:55) as the mobile phase and maximum wavelength for detection was 370 nm. The method was evaluated statistically and under optimized conditions, the detection limits for the analytes were 0.074 and 0.061 ng/mL for B1 and B2 respectively. Limit of quantification for B1 and B2 was 0.1 ng/mL too (n=7). The precisions were in the range of 2.829-2.976% (n=3), and linear ranges were within 0.1 and 400 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cereals (peanut, wheat, rice) with the relative recoveries from 47.43% to 106.83%. PMID:21925977

  1. 免疫亲和柱净化-在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD同时测定甘草中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2和赭曲霉毒素A的含量%Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in Glycyrrhiza uralensis by HPLC-FLD after immunoaffinity column with online post-column photochemicai derivatization

    韦日伟; 杨小丽; 仇峰; 杨美华; 覃洁萍


    目的:建立同时检测甘草中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2和赭曲霉毒素A的免疫亲和柱净化-在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC- FLD测定的方法.方法:样品经甲醇-水(80:20)超声提取后,用免疫亲和柱净化和富集;以甲醇和0.5%乙酸溶液为流动相进行梯度洗脱,通过柱后光化学衍生,荧光检测器测定.结果:黄曲霉毒素G2,G1,B2,B1和赭曲霉毒素A的检测限分别为0.02,0.06,0.015,0.03,0.25μg·kg-1,平均加样回收率为76.0%~103%,RSD低于13%.结论:该方法快速简便、准确,可用于甘草中同时测定黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2和赭曲霉毒素A的含量.%Objective: To develop a method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in Glycyrrhita walensis by HPLC-FLD after immunoaffinity column with online post-column photochemical derivatization. Method; Sample was extracted with MeOH:- H2O (80:20) and cleaned up by immunoaffinity column. The toxins were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and the mobile phase was consisted of methanol and 0. 5% acetic acid solution with gradient elution. The determination was carried out by fluorescence detector after photochemical derivatization. Result; The detection limits of aflatoxin G2 , C,, B2 , B, and ochratoxin A were 0.02, 0. 06, 0. 015, 0.03 and 0. 25 μg · kg-1, respectively. The recoveries of analytes were from 76.0% to 103% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were below 13%. Conclusion; The method is a simple, accurate and can be used to determine the contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in G. Uralensis simultaneously.

  2. Introduction of aromatic ring-containing substituents in cyclic nucleotides is associated with inhibition of toxin uptake by the hepatocyte transporters OATP 1B1 and 1B3.

    Lars Herfindal

    Full Text Available Analogs of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP have been extensively used to mimic or modulate cellular events mediated by protein kinase A (PKA, Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac, or protein kinase G (PKG. We report here that some of the most commonly used cyclic nucleotide analogs inhibit transmembrane transport mediated by the liver specific organic anion transporter peptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, unrelated to actions on Epac, PKA or PKG. Several cAMP analogs, particularly with 8-pCPT-substitution, inhibited nodularin (Nod induced primary rat hepatocyte apoptosis. Inhibition was not mediated by PKA or Epac, since increased endogenous cAMP, and some strong PKA- or Epac-activating analogs failed to protect cells against Nod induced apoptosis. The cAMP analogs inhibiting Nod induced hepatocyte apoptosis also reduced accumulation of radiolabeled Nod or cholic acid in primary rat hepatocytes. They also inhibited Nod induced apoptosis in HEK293 cells with enforced expression of OATP1B1 or 1B3, responsible for Nod transport into cells. Similar results were found with adenosine analogs, disconnecting the inhibitory effect of certain cAMP analogs from PKA or Epac. The most potent inhibitors were 8-pCPT-6-Phe-cAMP and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, whereas analogs like 6-MB-cAMP or 8-Br-cAMP did not inhibit Nod uptake. This suggests that the addition of aromatic ring-containing substituents like the chloro-phenyl-thio group to the purines of cyclic nucleotides increases their ability to inhibit the OATP-mediated transport. Taken together, our data show that aromatic ring substituents can add unwanted effects to cyclic nucleotides, and that such nucleotide analogs must be used with care, particularly when working with cells expressing OATP1B1/1B3, like hepatocytes, or intact animals where hepatic metabolism can be an issue, as well as certain cancer cells. On the other hand, cAMP analogs with substituents like bromo, monobutyryl were non

  3. 二氧化硅-氧化石墨烯复合物固相萃取-高效液相色谱法检测植物油中黄曲霉毒素B1B2%Determination of Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 in Edible Oil by Using Graphene Oxide-SiO2 as Soild Phase Extraction Coupled with HPLC

    王恒玲; 喻理; 李培武; 李敏; 张奇; 张文


    以二氧化硅-氧化石墨烯复合物为固相萃取材料,建立了植物油中黄曲霉毒素B1B2的高效液相色谱(HPLC)检测方法。优化的条件为:复合材料的最佳用量为0.15 g,最佳萃取时间20 min,洗脱溶剂为乙腈,洗脱次数为2次。结果表明,在优化条件下,建立的二氧化硅-氧化石墨烯复合物固相萃取-高效液相色谱法对黄曲霉毒素B1B2的检出限分别为0.17和0.05μg/L。将本方法应用于植物油实际样品的检测中,加标回收率在81.4%~105.3%之间,相对标准偏差为1.3%~8.6%。%Silica dioxide bound graphene oxide ( GO-SiO2 ) was applied as an effective adsorbent for determination and quantiflcation of aflatoxin B1 , B2 in edible oil by HPLC. The optimized conditions were GO-SiO2 0. 15 g, extraction time 20 min, elution reagent acetonitrile, elution cycles two times. Results showed under the optimum conditions, the detection limits of aflatoxin B1 , B2 were 0. 17 and 0. 05 μg/L, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the detection of the actual edible oil, the spiked recoveries of aflatoxin B1 and B2 were 81. 4%-105. 3% and the relative standard deviations were 1. 3%-8. 6%.

  4. Measurement of the production cross section ratio $\\sigma(\\chi_{b2}(1\\mathrm{P}))/ \\sigma(\\chi_{b1}(1\\mathrm{P}))$ in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Song; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Dujany, Giulio; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Korenkov, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Tikhonenko, Elena; Yuldashev, Bekhzod S; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel


    A measurement of the production cross section ratio $\\sigma(\\chi_{b2}(1\\mathrm{P}))/ \\sigma(\\chi_{b1}(1\\mathrm{P}))$ is presented. The $\\chi_{b1}(1\\mathrm{P})$ and $\\chi_{b2}(1\\mathrm{P})$ bottomonium states, promptly produced in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV, are detected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC through their radiative decays $\\chi_{b1,2}(1\\mathrm{P}) \\rightarrow \\Upsilon(1\\mathrm{S}) + \\gamma$. The emitted photons are measured through their conversion to e$^+$e$^-$ pairs, whose reconstruction allows the two states to be resolved. The $\\Upsilon(1\\mathrm{S})$ is measured through its decay to two muons. An event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.7 fb$^{-1}$ is used to measure the cross section ratio in a phase-space region defined by the photon pseudorapidity, |$\\eta^\\gamma$| < 1.0; the $\\Upsilon(1\\mathrm{S})$ rapidity, |$y^\\Upsilon$| < 1.5; and the $\\Upsilon(1\\mathrm{S})$ transverse momentum, 7 < $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^\\Upsilon$ < 40 GeV. The cross section ratio sh...

  5. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in traditional Chinese medicines.

    Han, Zheng; Zheng, Yunliang; Luan, Lianjun; Cai, Zengxuan; Ren, Yiping; Wu, Yongjiang


    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) was developed. The approach was characterized in details and a special focus was placed on the recovery rates of isolation procedure in different TCM matrices, i.e. rhizomes and roots, seeds, flowers, grasses and leaves. For this purpose, [(13)C(17)]-aflatoxinB1 was employed as the internal standard and a reliable solid phase extraction-based clean-up method was developed. The observed recovery rates of the six aflatoxins ranged from 85.6% to 117.6% in different matrices. Then, the established method was successfully applied to the determination of the six aflatoxins in various TCMs. For 30 commercial samples analyzed, 16 were contaminated with aflatoxins. The mean levels (incidence) of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in positive samples were 1.40 (68.8%), 1.27 (50.0%), 0.50 (43.8%) and 0.94 (43.8%) microg kg(-1), respectively. Interestingly, aflatoxin M1 was detected in two samples with the maximal content of 0.70 microg kg(-1). No sample was contaminated with aflatoxin M2. Meanwhile, a possible association between the contamination levels and the selected herbs was clarified in the present study. PMID:20363399

  6. [Biological contamination by micromycetes in dried Boletus edulis: research of aflatoxin B1, B2 G1, G2 and ochratoxin A].

    Lorini, C; Rossetti, F; Palazzoni, S; Comodo, N; Bonaccorsi, G


    Aim of this survey is to identify those filamentous fungi which parasite Boletus edulis and its group and check the potential presence of secondary metabolites, specifically aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, in order to assess the risk to consumers' health. Forty samples of dried Boletus edulis, collected by two food industries which distribute the product in many Italian regions, have been analysed. The sampling plan has been conducted from November 2005 to March 2006, collecting 50 g from each commercial category of dried Boletus edulis available in the factory at the time of sampling. All the samples have been tested by visual macroscopic and stereoscopic assays; for some samples--those referred to commercial category presumably at higher risk--we have performed cultural assays as well, typization of isolated micromycetes, extraction and quantification of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Mycotoxin detection has been made by HPLC, using the UNI EN 14123 and UNI EN 14132 standard methods, respectively applied to aflatoxins determination in peanuts, pistachios, figs and paprika and to ochratoxin A in barley and coffee. Non pathogenic micromycetes, common in food products, have been frequently observed in cultural assays, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger have been found in some samples. However the concentration of aflatoxins was always under the quantification limit. The survey confirm that, if the cold chain is kept throughout the process and the distribution, Boletus edulis and analogue mycetes are not a favourable substratum for the growth and the development of moulds. PMID:19238880

  7. HPLC Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and Fat-Soluble Vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-Carotene of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus

    Rokayya Sami


    Full Text Available Okra is consumed as a vegetable by populations in Africa and Asia and particularly in Egypt. In this study, we investigated some nutritional components of okra grown in four different geographical locations of Egypt. A comparative analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and fat-soluble vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-carotene in okra pods was carried out. Results of principal component analysis (PCA showed three clusters of varieties. The first cluster included the Dakahlia (D and Kafr El-Sheikh (K varieties. The second and the third clusters separated out the Suez (S and Mansoura (M varieties independently. The S pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B6 (49.81 μg/100 g and E (1.47 mg/100 g but contained the lowest contents of vitamins B3 (1.42 μg/100 g and B12 (undetected. The K pod showed the lowest vitamin C content (11.60 mg/100 g. The M pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B3 (22.70 μg/100 g, B12 (91.20 μg/100 g, C (27.14 mg/100 g, and K (0.21 mg/100 g. The D pod showed the lowest contents of vitamins E (0.15 mg/100 g, K (0.05 mg/100 g, and B6 (11.50 μg/100 g. These findings could help develop meal planning at the community level by incorporating okra varieties with high vitamin content.

  8. Determination of Aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, B1 in 34 Batches of Chinese Herbs by HPLC Associated with Post Column Photochemical Derivatization%免疫亲和柱净化HPLC柱后光化学衍生法测定34批中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1

    杨文武; 熊凌云; 王瑞芳; 刘岩; 孙启生; 雷雨; 王强


    目的 建立HPLC柱后光化学衍生法检测中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2B1方法.方法 样品经过70%甲醇提取、免疫亲和拄净化后,采用HPLC柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测中药材黄曲霉毒素含量.对疑似成分进行液质确认.结果 黄曲霉毒素G2和B2,G1和B1分别在0.75 ~ 22.5 pg和5~ 75Pg线性关系良好,方法准确稳定.检测的34批次药材中,3批酸枣仁检出黄曲霉毒素,其中1批酸枣仁黄曲霉毒素B1超过5μg·kg-1.结论 该方法简便、准确,适用于中药材黄曲霉毒素的检测.%Objective To establish HPLC methods associated with post column Photochemical Derivatization to determine aflatoxin G2, Gl, B2, Bl in Chinese herbal. Method Aflatoxins were extracted by 70% methanol and purified by an immunoaffinity column. Then the samples were analysed by HPLC fluorescence detector with post column Photochemical derivatization. Confirm the suspected components with LC-MS. Results The method with the great linear concentration range of 0.75-22.5 pg for aflatoxins G2,B2,and 5-75 pg for aflatoxins G1,B1 respectively, was stable and accurate. In the result of 34 batches of Chinese herbs,Aflatoxins were detected in 3 batches of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae among which Aflatoxin Bl of one batch exceed 5 μg·kg-l. Conclusion The method is simple and accurate,which is suitable for the determination of aflatoxins in Chinese herbal.

  9. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko


    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver. PMID:25036135

  10. Comparison of the amount of bioaccessible fumonisin B1 and B2 in maize and rice inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826) and determined by in vitro digestion-preliminary results.

    Szabó-Fodor, J; Bors, I; Szabó, A; Kovács, M


    In this study the occurrence of hidden fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) was analysed, on two cereal substrates (maize and rice), inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826), in order to determine the ratio of hidden FB1 and FB2. Two parallel methods were applied: an in vitro human digestion sample pre-treatment and the routine extraction procedure, in both cases with subsequent LC-MS analysis. It was found that all samples showed higher concentration of total fumonisin B1 after digestion, as compared to that of free fumonisin analysed only after extraction. The percentage of the hidden form by maize was 18.8 % (±2.4) for FB1 and 36.8 % (±3.8) for FB2, while for rice it was 32.3 % (±11.3) and 58.0 (±6.8), respectively, expressed as the proportion to total fumonisin B1, for the total dataset. Significant differences were found in the FB1 and FB2 concentration measured after the different digestion phases (saliva, gastric and duodenal) in case of both matrixes. The results are useful for human risk assessment, since both humans and animals may be exposed to markedly higher toxin load, as determined merely by conventional analytical methods. PMID:27364334

  11. Determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1 in corn by high performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry%固相萃取-高效液相色谱/串联质谱检测谷物中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2和M1

    王岩松; 范世华; 李华; 张凤清; 贺明睿; 崔相勇


    建立了高效液相色谱/串联质谱(LC-MS/MS)同时检测谷物中的黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2和M1的方法.并优化了液相色谱条件和质谱的相关参数.谷物样品经研磨成粉末后,直接经甲醇-水( V∶V=10∶90)提取,Oasis HLB固相萃取净化,乙腈-水(0.2%甲酸)梯度洗脱,选择电喷雾离子源(ESI),正离子扫描多反应监测( MRM)模式,外标法定量.黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2和M1的定量下限分别为0.1、0.1、0.2、0.3、0.2 ng/g,平均回收率在74.6%~89.6%之间,测试精密度(RSD)在5.2%~11.3%之间.方法已用于谷物样品检测,黄曲霉毒素残留量最高达到B1 5.86 ng/g、G1 8.6 ng/g、M1 4.0 ng/g,B2和G2未检出.%A sensitive method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B,, B2, G,, G2 and M, in corn by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( HPLC-MS/MS). Analysis conditions of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were optimized. Aflatoxins were extracted with 10% ( V/V) methanol-water after corn was grinded into powder, purified through an Oasis HLB cartridge, eluted by methanol and water containing 0. 2% formic acid, and determinated by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The limits of quantification for aflatoxin B,, B2, G1, G2 and M1 were 0. 1 ng/g, 0. 1 ng/g, 0.2 ng/g, 0.3 ng/g and 0.2 ng/g, the correlation coefficients were more than 0.9975 in respective linear ranges, and recoveries for analytes in different matrixs were 74. 6% ~ 89. 6% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) in different concentration levels were all less than 11. 3%. The proposed method was sensitive to meet the requirements for monitoring aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and Ml in corn.

  12. Characterization of the critical amino acids of an Aspergillus parasiticus cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase encoded by ordA that is involved in the biosynthesis of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2.

    Yu, J; Chang, P K; Ehrlich, K C; Cary, J W; Montalbano, B; Dyer, J M; Bhatnagar, D; Cleveland, T E


    The conversion of O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin to aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 requires a cytochrome P-450 type of oxidoreductase activity. ordA, a gene adjacent to the omtA gene, was identified in the aflatoxin-biosynthetic pathway gene cluster by chromosomal walking in Aspergillus parasiticus. The ordA gene was a homolog of the Aspergillus flavus ord1 gene, which is involved in the conversion of OMST to aflatoxin B1. Complementation of A. parasiticus SRRC 2043, an OMST-accumulating strain, with the ordA gene restored the ability to produce aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2. The ordA gene placed under the control of the GAL1 promoter converted exogenously supplied OMST to aflatoxin B1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast, the ordA gene homolog in A. parasiticus SRRC 2043, ordA1, was not able to carry out the same conversion in the yeast system. Sequence analysis revealed that the ordA1 gene had three point mutations which resulted in three amino acid changes (His-400-->Leu-400, Ala-143-->Ser-143, and Ile-528-->Tyr-528). Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that the change of His-400 to Leu-400 resulted in a loss of the monooxygenase activity and that Ala-143 played a significant role in the catalytic conversion. In contrast, Ile-528 was not associated with the enzymatic activity. The involvement of the ordA gene in the synthesis of aflatoxins G1, and G2 in A. parasiticus suggests that enzymes required for the formation of aflatoxins G1 and G2 are not present in A. flavus. The results showed that in addition to the conserved heme-binding and redox reaction domains encoded by ordA, other seemingly domain-unrelated amino acid residues are critical for cytochrome P-450 catalytic activity. The ordA gene has been assigned to a new cytochrome P-450 gene family named CYP64 by The Cytochrome P450 Nomenclature Committee. PMID:9835571

  13. Panorama da Pesquisa em Marketing no Brasil: uma análise da produção funcionalista em periódicos Qualis Capes A2, B1 e B2.

    Ernandes Rodrigues do Nascimento


    Full Text Available Diante da tradição da pesquisa qualitativa ter abordagens paradigmáticas construtivistas ou não funcionalistas, o questionamento principal deste artigo é saber como se dá a apropriação de critérios de qualidade na pesquisa funcionalista, tendo como objetivo principal apresentar um panorama dos artigos publicados nas revistas nacionais classificadas com Qualis A2, B1 e B2 dos anos de 2003 a 2013. Para este fim, a análise debruçou-se sobre os artigos que apresentavam em seu escopo características qualitativas funcionalistas, tendo como objetivo avaliar como estão sendo trabalhados os critérios de qualidade nas publicações de marketing no Brasil, nos últimos 11 anos.

  14. Oasis HLB 固相萃取-超快速液相-三重四极杆质谱法测定花生和花生油中黄曲霉毒素 B1B2、G1、G2%Determination of aflatoxin B 1,B2,G1,G2 in peanut and peanut oil using oasis HLB SPE-Ultra fast liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry

    劳哲; 江恩源


    目的:建立了Oasis HLB固相萃取‐超快速液相‐三重四极杆质谱法测定花生和花生油中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的方法。方法样品用甲醇‐水(V甲醇∶V水=20∶80)提取,离心后过Oasis HLB柱萃取净化,超快速液相进行梯度洗脱,质谱用电喷雾离子源(ESI),经过正离子MRM 模式,外标法定量。结果黄曲霉毒素(AFT ) B1B2、G1、G2的最低检出限分别为:0.05、0.05、0.10、0.20μg/kg ,平均加标回收率在89.3%~98.7%之间,精密度(RSD )在2.6%~5.3%之间。结论本法利用Oasis HLB固相萃取柱良好的性能和质谱仪采用弯曲180度的碰撞池技术大大减少了样品中的杂质干扰,精密度和准确度高,方法操作简便,结果可靠。%Objective To establish a method to determine aflatoxin B1 ,B2 ,G1 ,G2 in peanut and peanut oil by oasis HLB SPE‐high performance liquid chromatography‐triple qua‐drupole tandem mass .Methods The sample underwent methanol‐water (V∶V=20∶80) extraction ,and was then purified using oasis (R) HLB cartridge after centrifugation .Through gradient elution of liquid chromatography ,ESI as mass spectrum ,and positive ion MRM mode ,the sample was quantified using external standard method .Results The minimum detection limit for AFT B1 ,B2 ,G1 and G2 were 0 .05 ,0 .05 ,0 .10 and 0 .20 ng/kg respectively while the average recovery rate of standard addition was 89 .3%‐98 .7% and RSD was 2 .6%‐5 .3% .Conclusions By optimizing sample extraction conditions , methods of precise extractions of oasis HLB SPE and cell collision of mass spectrometry bending with 180 degree were adopted to reduce the amount of disturbing impurities in the samples and to increase precision and accuracy . This method can be easily applied while the results are reliable .

  15. The cloning of cyclin B3 and its gene expression during hormonally induced spermatogenesis in the teleost, Anguilla japonica

    We cloned cyclin B1, B2, and B3 cDNAs from the eel testis. Northern blot analysis indicated that these cyclin B mRNAs were expressed and increased from day 3 onward after the hormonal induction of spermatogenesis, and that cyclin B3 was most dominantly expressed during spermatogenesis. In situ hybridization showed that cyclin B1 and B2 were present from the spermatogonium stage to the spermatocyte stage. On the other hand, cyclin B3 mRNA was present only in spermatogonia. Although mouse cyclin B3 is expressed specifically in the early meiotic prophase, these results indicate that eel cyclin B3 expression is limited during spermatogenesis to spermatogonia, but is not present in spermatocytes. These facts together suggest that eel cyclin B3 is specifically involved in spermatogonial proliferation (mitosis), but not in meiosis

  16. 免疫亲和柱萃取-液相色谱柱后衍生荧光法检测黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2%Determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 based on immunoaffinity column extraction and liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection

    郝尚东; 欧战功


    Objective:This study presents a method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1,B2,G~,and G2.Methods:The samples were purified and enriched with immunoaffinity column,with the mobile phase consisting of water,methanol and acetonitrile (6∶3∶2),350 μl 4 mol/L nitric acid and 0.120 g potassium bromide,determined by fluorescent method after high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivation.Results:The method is highly selective with good.linearity (r > 0.999),the linear range of the method was 0.07 μg/kg ~9.08 μg/kg for AFB1,0.02 μg/kg ~ 2.70 μg/kg for AFB2,0.07 μg/kg ~ 9.0 μg/kg for AFG1,0.03 μg/kg ~2.79 μg/kg for AFG2,the detection limit and limit of quantification values (μg/kg) were:aflatoxin B1,0.02,0.07 ; aflatoxinB2,0.01,0.02 ; aflatoxin G1,0.02,0.07 ; and aflatoxin G2,0.01,0.03,the recoveries of the samples ranged from 80% to 105%.Condusion:The results show that the method is rapid,sensitive and accurate,and it can determine AFB1,AFB2,AFG1,AFG2 simultaneously.%目的:本文研究了同时测定黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1和G2(AFB1、AFB2 、AFG1、AFG2)的方法.方法:使用免疫亲和柱富集净化,以每升流动相含有0.120 g溴化钾和350μ4 mol/L硝酸的水:甲醇:乙腈(6:3:2)为洗脱液,高效液相色谱电化学柱后衍生,荧光法测定.结果:方法的选择性较好,线性关系(r>0.999),线性范围:AFB1为0.07 μg/kg ~ 9.08 μg/kg; AFB2为0.02 μg/kg~2.70 μg/kg;AFG1为0.07 μg/kg~9.0 μg/kg; AFG2为0.03 μg/kg~2.79 μg/kg,相对标准偏差0.5% ~ 3.5%之间,检测限和定量限值(μg/kg):AFB1为0.02,0.07;AFB2为,0.01,0.02;AFG1为0.02,0.07;AFG2为0.01,0.03,回收率为80%~105%.结论:该方法快速、准确,能同时测定AFB1、AFB2 、AFG1、AFG2.

  17. Factors Required for the Uridylylation of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3B1, 3B2, and 3B3 Peptides by the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (3Dpol) In Vitro

    Nayak, Arabinda; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Belsham, Graham J.


    The 5′ terminus of picornavirus genomic RNA is covalently linked to the virus-encoded peptide 3B (VPg). Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is unique in encoding and using 3 distinct forms of this peptide. These peptides each act as primers for RNA synthesis by the virus-encoded RNA polymerase 3Dpol. To act as the primer for positive-strand RNA synthesis, the 3B peptides have to be uridylylated to form VPgpU(pU). For certain picornaviruses, it has been shown that this reaction is achieved by ...

  18. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in peanuts and their derivative products by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Huang, Baifen; Han, Zheng; Cai, Zengxuan; Wu, Yongjiang; Ren, Yiping


    A reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in peanuts and their derivative products was developed. The sample was extracted by 84% of acetonitrile aqueous solution and the extract was purified by a reliable solid phase extraction-based clean-up method. Then, the analytes were separated on Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile/methanol (50/50, v/v). The separated compounds were detected with a Waters Micromass Quattro Ultima Pt tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electro-spray ionization using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The established method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R(2) > or = 0.9990), average recovery (74.7-86.8%) and precision (relative standard deviation aflatoxins in peanuts and their derivative products. Finally, a total of 73 samples randomly collected from different areas in Zhejiang province were screened for aflatoxins with the proposed method. The results showed that 31 samples of peanut butter, 14 samples of fresh peanut and 5 samples of musty peanut were contaminated with aflatoxins. Meanwhile, this was the first report on aflatoxins M1 and M2, which were found in unprocessed peanuts and their derivative products. PMID:20152266

  19. Simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and ochratoxin A in breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence after liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (LLE-LTP).

    Andrade, Patricia Diniz; Gomes da Silva, Julyane Laine; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra


    The aims of this study were to optimize and validate a methodology for the simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in breast milk, and to analyze these mycotoxins in samples obtained from human milk banks in the Federal District, Brazil. The optimized analytical method was based on liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (3.25mL of acidified acetonitrile+0.75mL of ethyl acetate), followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLD) and a photochemical post-column reactor. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.005 to 0.03ng/mL, recoveries from 73 to 99.5%, and relative standard deviations (RSD) from 1.8 to 17.3%. The LLE-LTP extraction method was shown to be simple and cost-effective, since no columns were needed for clean-up. Only 2 of the 224 breast milk samples analyzed were positive for the mycotoxins, both samples containing AFB2 at the LOQ level (0.005ng/mL). The identity of the mycotoxin detected was confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This result indicates that infants who are fed with breast milk from the milk banks are not at risk from aflatoxin and ochratoxin exposure. PMID:23871563

  20. TaqI B1/B2 and -629A/C cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene polymorphisms and their association with CETP activity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a Tehranian population. Part of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS

    Maryam S Daneshpour


    Full Text Available We examined the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene TaqI intron 1 B1/B2 polymorphism and the -629A/C CETP promoter polymorphism in respect to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in a healthy Iranian population taken from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS. The relationship between CETP activity and HDL-C level was also determined along with body mass index, blood pressure and tobacco smoking status. PCR-RFLP used to amplify a segment of the CETP intron 1 TaqI (B2/B1 polymorphism from 1021 individuals and we selected 345 individuals from the lowest, middle and highest HDL-C deciles and investigated the -629A/C polymorphism. We also evaluated the CETP activity of 103 of these individuals, each with at least one homozygous allele. The presence of the TaqI B2 and -629A/C A alleles were significantly associated with increased HDL-C levels (B2B2 = 1.19 ± 0.31 mmolL-1 vs. B1B1 = 1.01 ± 0.2 mmol L-1 for p < 0.001; AA = 1.15 ± 0.41 mmol L-1 vs. CC = 0.95 ± 0.28 mmol L-1 for p < 0.001 and decreased the CETP activity (B1B1 = 67.8 ± 8.9 pmol L-1 vs. B2B2 = 62.6 ± 9.6 pmol L-1 for p < 0.01; CC = 68.6 ± 8.4 pmol L-1 vs. AA = 62.7 ± 9.7 pmol L-1 for p < 0.002. The frequencies were 0.382 for the TaqI B2 allele and 0.462 for the -629A/C A allele, with linkage disequilibrium analysis giving D = 0.0965 and D' = 0.4695. We demonstrated that the TaqI B1 and B2 alleles and the -629A/C A and C alleles were in linkage disequilibrium in our population and that there was a significant association between the B2 and A alleles and high HDL-C levels and low CETP activity. Linkage disequilibrium between the TaqI A and B2 alleles also detected.

  1. Ultraviolet Photodissociation Dynamics of the Allyl Radical via the B̃(2)A1(3s), C̃(2)B2(3py), and Ẽ(2)B1(3px) Electronic Excited States.

    Song, Yu; Lucas, Michael; Alcaraz, Maria; Zhang, Jingsong; Brazier, Christopher


    Ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation dynamics of jet-cooled allyl radical via the B̃(2)A1(3s), C̃(2)B2(3py), and Ẽ(2)B1(3px) electronically excited states are studied at the photolysis wavelengths from 249 to 216 nm using high-n Rydberg atom time-of-flight (HRTOF) and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) techniques. The photofragment yield (PFY) spectra of the H atom products are measured using both allyl chloride and 1,5-hexadiene as precursors of the allyl radical and show a broad peak centered near 228 nm, whereas the previous UV absorption spectra of the allyl radical peak around 222 nm. This difference suggests that, in addition to the H + C3H4 product channel, another dissociation channel (likely CH3 + C2H2) becomes significant with increasing excitation energy. The product translational energy release of the H + C3H4 products is modest, with the P(ET) distributions peaking near 8.5 kcal/mol and the fraction of the average translational energy in the total excess energy, ⟨fT⟩, in the range 0.22-0.18 from 249 to 216 nm. The P(ET)'s are consistent with production of H + allene and H + propyne, as suggested by previous experimental and theoretical studies. The angular distributions of the H atom products are isotropic, with the anisotropy parameter β ≈ 0. The H atom dissociation rate constant from the pump-probe study gives a lower limit of 1 × 10(8)/s. The dissociation mechanism is consistent with unimolecular decomposition of the hot allyl radical on the ground electronic state after internal conversion of the electronically excited state. PMID:26334360

  2. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection: collaborative study.

    Bao, Lei; Liang, Chengzhu; Trucksess, Mary W; Xu, Yanli; Lv, Ning; Wu, Zhenxing; Jing, Ping; Fry, Fred S


    The accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility characteristics of a method using immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup with postcolumn derivatization and LC with a fluorescence detector (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AFs; sum of AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2) in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil have been established in a collaborative study involving 15 laboratories from six countries. Blind duplicate samples of blank, spiked at levels ranging from 0.25 to 20.0 microg/kg for AF, were analyzed. A naturally contaminated peanut oil sample was also included. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an IAC, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC-FLD analysis after postcolumn derivatization. Average recoveries of AFs from olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 84 to 92% (at spiking levels ranging from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg); of AFB1 from 86 to 93% (at spiking levels ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg); of AFB2 from 89 to 95% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 microg/kg); of AFG1 from 85 to 97% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 microg/kg); and of AFG2 from 76 to 85% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 microg/kg). RSDs for within-laboratory repeatability (RSD(r)) ranged from 3.4 to 10.2% for AF, from 3.5 to 10.9% for AFB1, from 3.2 to 9.5% for AFB2, from 6.5 to 14.9% for AFG1, and from 4.8 to 14.2% for AFG2. RSDs for between-laboratory reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 6.1 to 14.5% for AF, from 7.5 to 15.4% for AFB1, from 7.1 to 14.6% for AFB2, from 10.8 to 18.1% for AFG1, and from 7.6 to 23.7% for AFG2. Horwitz ratio values were < or = 2 for the analytes in the three matrixes. PMID:23451385

  3. Two key residues in ephrinB3 are critical for its use as an alternative receptor for Nipah virus.


    Full Text Available EphrinB2 was recently discovered as a functional receptor for Nipah virus (NiV, a lethal emerging paramyxovirus. Ephrins constitute a class of homologous ligands for the Eph class of receptor tyrosine kinases and exhibit overlapping expression patterns. Thus, we examined whether other ephrins might serve as alternative receptors for NiV. Here, we show that of all known ephrins (ephrinA1-A5 and ephrinB1-B3, only the soluble Fc-fusion proteins of ephrinB3, in addition to ephrinB2, bound to soluble NiV attachment protein G (NiV-G. Soluble NiV-G bound to cell surface ephrinB3 and B2 with subnanomolar affinities (Kd = 0.58 nM and 0.06 nM for ephrinB3 and B2, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that the relatively lower affinity of NiV-G for ephrinB3 was largely due to a faster off-rate (K(off = 1.94 x 10(-3 s(-1 versus 1.06 x 10(-4 s(-1 for ephrinB3 and B2, respectively. EphrinB3 was sufficient to allow for viral entry of both pseudotype and live NiV. Soluble ephrinB2 and B3 were able to compete for NiV-envelope-mediated viral entry on both ephrinB2- and B3-expressing cells, suggesting that NiV-G interacts with both ephrinB2 and B3 via an overlapping site. Mutational analysis indicated that the Leu-Trp residues in the solvent exposed G-H loop of ephrinB2 and B3 were critical determinants of NiV binding and entry. Indeed, replacement of the Tyr-Met residues in the homologous positions in ephrinB1 with Leu-Trp conferred NiV receptor activity to ephrinB1. Thus, ephrinB3 is a bona fide alternate receptor for NiV entry, and two residues in the G-H loop of the ephrin B-class ligands are critical determinants of NiV receptor activity.

  4. HPLC-柱后光化学衍生法检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素%Determination of Aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 in Peanut Butter by HPLC with On-Line Post-Column Photochemical Derivatization

    邵丽; 王晓; 滕振勇


    To determine the contents of aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 in peanut butter using on-line post-column photo-chemical derivatization-HPLC-FLD method. The samples were extracted with acetonitril-H2O (80:20) and purified with inmunoafinity column,aflatoxins were analyzed by HPLC -FLD with post -column photochemical derivatizaton. On optimum conditions,aflatoxin B1,G1 ranging 0.30 mg/L-10 mg/L showed a good linear relationship with aflatoxin B2,G2 ranging 0.06 mg/L-3.0mg/L with r>0.998. The recoveries ranged between 80 % and 101 % ,with RSDs all bellow 5.9 %. LOD of aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 were 0.10,0.03,0.15,0.04μg/kg,respectively.%建立高效液相色谱-在线柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的含量.样品以乙腈-水(80:20)溶液提取,经免疫亲和柱净化后,利用在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD进行分析测定.结果:在优化条件下,黄曲霉毒素B1、G1在0.30 mg/L~10 mg/L,黄曲霉毒素B2、G2在0.06 mg/L~3.0mg/L线性关系良好,r>0.998 ,回收率80%~101%,RSD<5.9%.黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的检测限(LOD)分别为0.10、0.03、0.15、0.04μg/kg.

  5. Nuclear quadrupole interactions of 11B in a LiB3O5 single crystal

    The rotation patterns of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of an 11B nucleus in a LiB3O5 (LBO) single crystal were measured in the three mutually perpendicular crystallographic planes at room temperature. We identified three centres denoted as B1, B2, and B3, each of which consists of four sets of 11B NMR spectra originating from the chemically equivalent but magnetically inequivalent sites. The four sets belonging to each centre were properly classified in accordance with crystal symmetry and analysed. The principal values and principal axis orientations of the nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) tensors were determined for the first time. The centres B1, B2, and B3 were assigned to boron sites in the crystalline lattice of LBO by comparing the directions of the B-O bonds and the principal axes of the NQC tensor (P). The NQC constant (e2qQ/h) and asymmetry parameter (η) were determined as follows: for B1, e2qQ/h 2.615 ± 0.005 MHz and η = 0.266 ± 0.005; for B2, e2qQ/h = 0.176 ± 0.003 MHz and η = 0.584 ± 0.003; and for B3, e2qQ/h = 2.690 ± 0.004 MHz and η = 0.204 ± 0.003

  6. Nuclear envelope remodeling during mouse spermiogenesis: Postmeiotic expression and redistribution of germline lamin B3

    Lamins are members of a multigene family of structural nuclear envelope (NE) proteins. Differentiated mammalian somatic cells express lamins A, C, B1, and B2. The composition and organization of the nuclear lamina of mammalian spermatogenic cells differ significantly from that of somatic cells as they express lamin B1 as well as two short germ line-specific isoforms, namely lamins B3 and C2. Here we describe in detail the expression pattern and localization of lamin B3 during mouse spermatogenesis. By combining RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that lamin B3 is selectively expressed during spermiogenesis (i.e., postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis). In round spermatids, lamin B3 is distributed in the nuclear periphery and, notably, also in the nucleoplasm. In the course of spermiogenesis, lamin B3 becomes redistributed as it concentrates progressively to the posterior pole of spermatid nuclei. Our results show that during mammalian spermiogenesis the nuclear lamina is composed of B-type isoforms only, namely the ubiquitous lamin B1 and the germline-specific lamin B3. Lamin B3 is the first example of a mammalian lamin that is selectively expressed during postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis

  7. HPLC-柱后光化学衍生法检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素%Determination of Aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 in Peanut Butter by HPLC with On-Line Post-Column Photochemical Derivatization

    邵丽; 王晓; 滕振勇


    建立高效液相色谱-在线柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的含量.样品以乙腈-水(80:20)溶液提取,经免疫亲和柱净化后,利用在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD进行分析测定.结果:在优化条件下,黄曲霉毒素B1、G1在0.30 mg/L~10 mg/L,黄曲霉毒素B2、G2在0.06 mg/L~3.0mg/L线性关系良好,r>0.998 ,回收率80%~101%,RSD0.998. The recoveries ranged between 80 % and 101 % ,with RSDs all bellow 5.9 %. LOD of aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 were 0.10,0.03,0.15,0.04μg/kg,respectively.

  8. Method Validation for the Quantitative Analysis of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) and Ochratoxin A in Processed Cereal-Based Foods by HPLC with Fluorescence Detection.

    Gazioğlu, Işil; Kolak, Ufuk


    Modified AOAC 991.31 and AOAC 2000.03 methods for the simultaneous determination of total aflatoxins (AFs), aflatoxin B1, and ochratoxin A (OTA) in processed cereal-based foods by RP-HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection were validated. A KOBRA® Cell derivatization system was used to analyze total AFs. One of the modifications was the extraction procedure of mycotoxins. Both AFs and OTA were extracted with methanol-water (75+25, v/v) and purified with an immunoaffinity column before HPLC analysis. The modified methods were validated by measuring the specificity, selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery, LOD, and LOQ parameters. The validated methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in 81 processed cereal-based foods purchased in Turkey. These rapid, sensitive, simple, and validated methods are suitable for the simultaneous determination of AFs and OTA in the processed cereal-based foods. PMID:26268976

  9. The Mysterious Ways of ErbB2/HER2 Trafficking

    Vibeke Bertelsen; Espen Stang


    The EGFR- or ErbB-family of receptor tyrosine kinases consists of EGFR/ErbB1, ErbB2/HER2, ErbB3/HER3 and ErbB4/HER4. Receptor activation and downstream signaling are generally initiated upon ligand-induced receptor homo- or heterodimerization at the plasma membrane, and endocytosis and intracellular membrane transport are crucial for regulation of the signaling outcome. Among the receptors, ErbB2 is special in several ways. Unlike the others, ErbB2 has no known ligand, but is still the favore...

  10. Quantising the B=2 and B=3 Skyrmion systems

    We examine the quantisation of a collective Hamiltonian for the two-baryon system derived by us in a previous paper. We show that by increasing the sophistication of the approximations we can obtain a bound state - or a resonance - not too far removed from the threshold with the quantum numbers of the deuteron. The energy of this state is shown to depend very sensitively on the parameters of the model. Subsequently we construct part of a collective Hamiltonian for the three-baryon system. Large-amplitude quantum fluctuations play an important role in the intrinsic wave function of the ground state, changing its symmetry from tetrahedral to cubic. Apart from the tetrahedron describing the minimum of the potential, we identify a ''doughnut'' and a ''pretzel'' as the most important saddle points in the potential energy surface. We show that it is likely that inclusion of fluctuations through these saddle points leads to an energy close to the triton's value. (orig.)

  11. SH2B1 regulation of energy balance, body weight, and glucose metabolism

    Liangyou; Rui


    The Src homology 2B(SH2B)family members(SH2B1,SH2B2 and SH2B3)are adaptor signaling proteins containing characteristic SH2 and PH domains.SH2B1(also called SH2-B and PSM)and SH2B2(also called APS)are able to form homo-or hetero-dimers via their N-terminal dimerization domains.Their C-terminal SH2 domains bind to tyrosyl phosphorylated proteins,including Janus kinase 2(JAK2),TrkA,insulin receptors,insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors,insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS1),and IRS2.SH2B1 enhances leptin signaling by both stimulating JAK2 activity and assembling a JAK2/IRS1/2 signaling complex.SH2B1 promotes insulin signaling by both enhancing insulin receptor catalytic activity and protecting against dephosphorylation of IRS proteins.Accordingly,genetic deletion of SH2B1 results in severe leptin resistance,insulin resistance,hyperphagia,obesity,and type 2 diabetes in mice.Neuronspecific overexpression of SH2B1βtransgenes protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.SH2B1 in pancreaticβcells promotesβcell expansion and insulin secretion to counteract insulin resistance in obesity.Moreover,numerous SH2B1 mutations are genetically linked to leptin resistance,insulin resistance,obesity,and type 2 diabetes in humans.Unlike SH2B1,SH2B2 and SH2B3 are not required for the maintenance of normal energy and glucose homeostasis.The metabolic function of the SH2B family is conserved from insects to humans.

  12. Simultaneous Detection of Aflatoxin B1B2、G1、G2 in Fried Foods By Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography%超高效液相色谱法同时测定油炸食品中4种黄曲霉毒素

    张英; 蔡志斌; 郑志伟


    Objective To establish a rapid, sensitive and simple method for the determination of aflatoxin B1B2 、G1、G2 in fried foods by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Methods Sample was extracted with 84% acetonitrile and cleaned- up with the MFC. The purified solution was concentrated and evaporated to dryness. Aflatoxins were derivatized with TFA and detected and quantitated by UPLC with fluorescence detection. Results The four afltoxins could be separated in 5 minutes. The linear range of the method is 0.10~ 100. 00μg/L for aflatoxin B1 ,G1, and 0.05~50. 00μg/L for aflatox B2, G2, and the lowest detection limit was 0. 04μg/kg for aflatoxin B1 、G1 and 0.02μg/kg for B2, G2. The method has been successfully applied to determination of fried foods. The recoveries of aflatoxins was in the range of 82.0% ~ 101. 2%and the relative standard deviation was < 5 %,The correlation coefficient was ≥0.999. Conclusion This method is simpie,high sensitive, accurate and rapid for aflatoxin B1B2 、G1 、G2 detection in fried foods.%目的 建立一种快速、灵敏、简便的超高效液相色谱法(UPLC)同时测定油炸食品中黄曲霉毒素B1(AFB1),B2 (AFB2),G1 (AFG1),G2 (AFG2)水平的方法.方法 样品用乙腈水(84:16)提取液提取后过滤,滤液经黄曲霉毒素多功能净化柱(MPC)净化,纯化液经浓缩挥干后,加三氟乙酸(TFA)衍生后,用带有荧光检测器的超高效液相色谱仪测定.结果 4种黄曲霉毒素5 min完全分离,线性范围质量浓度分别为0.10~100.00μg/L(AFB1,AFG1),0.05-50.00μg/L(AFB2,AFG2),最低检出质量分数分别为0.04μg/kg(AFB1,AFG1),0.02μg/kg(AFB2,AFG2),油炸食品回收率为82.0%~101.2%,相对标准偏差<5%,r≥0.999.结论 该方法简单、快速、灵敏度高,适用于油炸食品中4种黄曲霉毒素水平的同时测定.

  13. Crystal structure of new synthetic Ca,Na carbonate-borate Ca2Na(NaxCa0.5−x)[B3tB2δO8(OH)(O1−xOHx)](CO3)

    New Ca,Na carbonate-borate Ca2Na(NaxCa0.5−x) [B3tB2ΔO8(OH)(O1−xOHx)](CO3) crystals (x ∼ 0.4) have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the Ca(OH)2-H3BO3-Na2CO3-NaCl-system at t = 250°C and P = 70–80 atm; the structure parameters are found to be a = 11.1848(3) Å, b = 6.4727(2) Å, c = 25.8181(7) Å, β = 96.364(3)°, V = 1857.60(9) Å3, sp. gr. C2/c, Z = 8, and ρcalcd = 2.801 g/cm3 (Xcalibur S autodiffractometer (CCD), 2663 reflections with I > 2σ (I), direct solution, refinement by the least-squares method in the anisotropic approximation of thermal atomic vibrations, hydrogen localization, R1 = 0.0387). The structure is based on boron-oxygen layers of pentaborate radicals 5(2Δ + 3T). Ca and Na polyhedra and CO3 triangles are located between the layers. A crystallochemical analysis of the new Ca,Na carbonate-borate has established its similarity to natural Na,Ca pentaborates (heidornite and tuzlaite) and synthetic Na,Ba-decaborate.

  14. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定地龙中4个黄曲霉毒素%HPLC-MS/MS simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 and G2 in Pheretima

    杨小丽; 仇峰; 韦日伟; 覃禹; 杨美华; 欧阳臻


    Objective:To establish a sensitive and accurate liquid chromatography -tandem mass spectrometry method(LC -MS/MS) for simultaneous determination of four aflatoxins in Pheretima. Methods;The samples were firstly extracted with methanol - water solution ( 80:20, v/v), and then cleaned up by immunoaffinity columns. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive ionization electrospray( ESI) mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for analysis of four aflatoxins. The transitions of m/z 313-241 (aflatoxin B, ,CE 50 eV) ,m/z 315-259 (aflatoxin B2,CE 43 eV) ,m/z 329-243 (aflatoxin G1,CE 38 eV) and m/z 331-245(aflatoxin G2,CE 40 eV) were used to quantify four aflatoxins,respectively. Results:The detection limits of aflatoxin B1,B2 ,G1 and G2 were 0. 03,0. 02,0. 03 and 0. 02 μg o kg-1 .respectively. The recoveries of four analytes ranged from 88. 0% to 100. 3% and the relative standard deviations were all below 6. 1 %. Conclusion; The method is sensitive, simple and accurate, and proved to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of four aflatoxins in Pheretima.%目的:建立同时测定地龙中4个黄曲霉毒素含量的高效液相色谱串联质谱法.方法:样品经甲醇-水(80∶20,v/v)提取,通过免疫亲和柱净化后,采用高效液相色谱串联质谱法测定其中4个黄曲霉毒素的含量,以多反应监测(MRM)方式分别监测离子对m/z 313→241(黄曲霉毒素B1,CE 50 eV),m/z 315→259(黄曲霉毒素B2,CE 43 eV),m/z329→243(黄曲霉毒素G1,CE 38 eV)和m/z 331→245(黄曲霉毒素G2,CE 40 eV).结果:黄曲霉毒素B1B2、G1、G2的检测限分别为0.03,0.02,0.03,0.02μg·kg-1,回收率在88.0%~100.3%范围内,RSD均低于6.1%.结论:该方法快速、灵敏,结果准确,适用于地龙中4个黄曲霉毒素的同时检测.

  15. Activation of ErbB3, EGFR and Erk is essential for growth of human breast cancer cell lines with acquired resistance to fulvestrant

    Frogne, Thomas; Benjaminsen, Rikke V; Sonne-Hansen, Katrine; Sorensen, Boe S; Nexo, Ebba; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Rasmussen, Louise M; Riese, David J; de Cremoux, Patricia; Stenvang, Jan; Lykkesfeldt, Anne


    Seven fulvestrant resistant cell lines derived from the estrogen receptor alpha positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line were used to investigate the importance of epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1-4) signaling. We found an increase in mRNA expression of EGFR and the ErbB3/ErbB4 ligand...... growth inhibition of two resistant cell lines. These data indicate that ligand activated ErbB3 and EGFR, and Erk signaling play important roles in fulvestrant resistant cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased level of ErbB4 in resistant cells may facilitate heterodimerization of ErbB3 with EGFR and ErbB2....... Our data support that a concerted action against EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB3 may be required to obtain complete growth suppression of fulvestrant resistant cells....

  16. Vitamin B1

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  17. Development and in-house validation of a robust and sensitive solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitative determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal-based foods.

    Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Gatta, Stefania Della; Suman, Michele; Visconti, Angelo


    A sensitive and robust liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2)), ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal-based foods. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (84:16, v/v) and cleaned up through a polymeric solid-phase extraction column. Detection and quantification of the nine mycotoxins were performed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS), using fully (13)C-isotope-labelled mycotoxins as internal standards. The method was validated in-house for five different cereal processed products, namely barley, oat and durum wheat flours, rye- and wheat-based crisp bread. Recoveries and repeatability of the whole analytical procedure were evaluated at contamination levels encompassing the EU maximum permitted levels for each tested mycotoxin. Recoveries ranged from 89 to 108% for deoxynivalenol, from 73 to 114% for aflatoxins, from 85 to 114% for T-2 and HT-2 toxins, from 64 to 97% for zearalenone, from 74 to 102% for ochratoxin A. Relative standard deviations were less than 16% for all tested mycotoxins and matrices. Limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) ranged from 0.1 to 59.2 µg/kg. The trueness of the results obtained by the proposed method was demonstrated by analysis of reference materials for aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone. The use of inexpensive clean-up cartridges and the increasing availability of less expensive LC/MS/MS instrumentation strengthen the potential of the proposed method for its effective application for reliable routine analysis to assess compliance of tested cereal products with current regulation. PMID:21638363

  18. 超高效液相色谱法快速检测粮食中黄曲霉毒素的含量%Rapid Analysis of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) in Grain by Immuno-affinity Clear-up Column and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography without Derivation

    谢刚; 王松雪; 张艳


    建立了免疫亲和柱净化-超高效液相色谱法快速测定粮食中黄曲霉毒素(Aflatoxins,AF)的检测方法.样品经提取后,用免疫亲和柱净化、浓缩,Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18色谱柱(50 mm×2.1 mm,1.7 um)分离.以甲醇-水(40∶60,V/V)为流动相,流速为0.2 mL/min,进样量为1μL,荧光检测器检测,激发波长为360 nm,发射波长为440 nm,无需衍生.黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2的保留时间小于5min,从样品前处理到结果分析整个过程小于45 min.根据3倍信噪比的峰响应值,确定黄曲霉毒素(B1,B2,G1,G2)检出限分别为0.15,0.05,0.40,0.06 pg,4种毒素在0.4 ~ 60.0 pg,0.2~15.0 pg,1.5~ 60.0 pg和0.2~15.0 pg范围内分别呈线性相关,相关系数R2值分别为0.9999,0.9999,0.9998和0.9992;在小麦、玉米、稻谷3类样品中加标回收率为77.4% ~ 104.2%,精密度为1.8% ~ 8.9%.本方法无需衍生即可同时测定粮食中4种黄曲霉毒素,适用于粮食中黄曲霉毒素的快速定量测定.%A rapid and environmental-friendly analytical method without any derivation was established for the determination of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) in grain samples. The samples were extracted by methanol-water, cleared up with the immuno-affinity column (IAC). The separation of target compound was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18(50 mmx2. 1 mm, 1. 7μ,m) using methanol; water (40 = 60, V/V) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 0. 2 mL/min at 25 ℃. The injection volume was 1 μL and detection wavelengths were set at 360 nm (λem) and 440 nm (λeX) using fluorescence detector (FLD). The retention time was less than 5 min, and the whole analytical time was less than 45 min. The detection limits of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 were 0.15, 0.05, 0.40 and 0.06 pg, respectively. The linear detection ranges of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 were 0. 4-60. 0, 0. 2-15. 0, 1. 5-60, 0. 2-15. 00 pg with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9999, 0.9999, 0.9998, 0.9992, respectively

  19. Determination of aflatoxins in Nelumbinis Semen by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC-FLD with on-line post-column photochemical derivatization and LC-MS/MS confirmation%免疫亲和柱净化-在线柱后光化学衍生HPLC-FLD检测莲子中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2及其液质确证

    刘书宇; 仇峰; 杨美华


    目的:建立高效液相色谱-在线柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测药食同源中药材莲子中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2的含量,并采用液质联用法进行确证.方法:样品以甲醇-水(80∶20)溶液提取,经免疫亲和柱净化后,利用在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD进行分析测定.并进一步采用LC-MS/MS对阳性样品进行确证.结果:在优化条件下,黄曲霉毒素B1,G1在0.3~30μg·L-1,黄曲霉毒素B2,G2在0.09~9.0 μg·L-线性关系良好,r>0.999 9,回收率86.7% ~99.1%,RSD <4.87%.黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2的检测限(LOD)分别为0.08,0.03,0.10,0.03 μg·kg-1.所测的20批莲子样品中,有14批样品的黄曲霉毒素检测结果呈阳性,其中黄曲霉毒素B1的污染水平为0.40~586μg·kg-1,黄曲霉毒素总量(B1+B2+G1+G2)的污染水平为0.40 ~ 602.5 μg·kg-1.通过LC-MS/MS确证,在与对照品相同的保留时间处,样品与对照品有相同的特征离子碎片,排除了样品假阳性的可能.结论:该方法简便快速,灵敏度高,重复性好,适用于莲子中黄曲霉毒素的检测.%To determine the contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in Nelumbinis Semen using on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-HPLC-FLD method and verify the method by LC-MS method. Method: The samples were extracted with MeOH-H2O (80: 20) and purified with inmunoaffinity column, aflatoxins were analyzed by HPLC-FLD with post-column photochemical derivatizaton. The positive samples were further confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Result: On optimum conditions, aflatoxin B1 , G1 ranging 0. 3-30 mg · L-1 showed a good linear relationship with aflatoxin B2, G2 ranging 0. 09-9. 0 mg · L-1 with r >0. 999 9. The recoveries ranged between 86. 7% and 99. 1 % , with RSDs all bellow 4. 87%. LOD of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G, and G2 were 0. 08, 0. 03, 0. 10, 0. 03 μg · Kg-1 , respectively. Among 20 Nelumbinis Semen samples, 14 were found to contain aflatoxin B1 ranging from 0. 40 to 586 μg · Kg-1. The

  20. Estandarización y validación de un método para la determinación simultánea de vitaminas tiamina b1, riboflavina b2, niacina b3, y ácido fólico b9, utilizando hplc

    Moncada, L. M.; Ruiz, J


    En la separación, identificación y cuantificación convencional de las vitaminas del complejo B, se utilizan métodos físicos, químicos y microbiológicos para cada una de ellas en forma independiente, lo que hace necesaria la preparación diversa de la muestra de análisis, incrementando el costo y el riesgo de deterioro de las vitaminas durante la determinación.

  1. Estandarización y validación de un método para la determinación simultánea de vitaminas Tiamina B1, Riboflavina B2, Niacina B3, y ácido fólico B9, utilizando HPLC

    L. M. Moncada


    Full Text Available En la separación, identificación y cuantificación convencional de las vitaminas del complejo B, se utilizan métodos físicos, químicos y microbiológicos para cada una de ellas en forma independiente, lo que hace necesaria la preparación diversa de la muestra de análisis, incrementando el costo y el riesgo de deterioro de las vitaminas durante la determinación.

  2. Important roles of multiple Sp1 binding sites and epigenetic modifications in the regulation of the methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1 promoter

    Favaloro Bartolo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of oxidized methionine residues. Most organisms that were genetically modified to lack the MsrA gene have shown shortening of their life span. Methionine sulfoxide reductases B (MsrB proteins codified by three separate genes, named MsrB1, MsrB2, and MsrB3, are included in the Msrs system. To date, the mechanisms responsible for the transcriptional regulation of MsrB genes have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of MsrB1 selenoprotein levels through transcriptional regulation of the MsrB1 gene in MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell lines. Results A MsrB1 gene promoter is located 169 base pairs upstream from the transcription start site. It contains three Sp1 binding sites which are sufficient for maximal promoter activity in transient transfection experiments. High levels of MsrB1 transcript, protein and promoter activity were detected in low metastatic MCF7 human breast cancer cells. On the contrary, very low levels of both MsrB1 transcript and promoter activity were detected in the highly metastatic counterpart MDA-MB231 cells. A pivotal role for Sp1 in the constitutive expression of the MsrB1 gene was demonstrated through transient expression of mutant MsrB1 promoter-reporter gene constructs and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Since Sp1 is ubiquitously expressed, these sites, while necessary, are not sufficient to explain the patterns of gene expression of MsrB1 in various human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB231 cells can be induced to express MsrB1 by treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent. Therefore, the MsrB1 promoter is controlled by epigenetic modifications. Conclusion The results of this study provide the first insights into the transcriptional regulation of the human MsrB1 gene, including the discovery that the Sp1 transcription factor may play a central role in its

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of soybean mature glycinin A1bB2

    Soybean mature glycinin was purified and crystallized and its preliminary crystallographic analysis is also reported. Glycinin is one of the most abundant storage-protein molecules in soybean seeds and is composed of five subunits (A1aB1b, A1bB2, A2B1a, A3B4 and A5A4B3). A1bB2 was purified from a mutant soybean cultivar containing glycinin composed of only A5A4B3 and A1bB2. At 281 K the protein formed hexagonal, rectangular and rod-shaped crystals in the first [0.1 M imidazole pH 8.0, 0.2 M MgCl2, 35%(v/v) MPD], second [0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.6, 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 30%(v/v) MPD] and third (0.1 M phosphate–citrate pH 4.2, 2.0 M ammonium sulfate) crystallization conditions, respectively. X-ray diffraction data were collected to resolutions of 1.85, 1.85 and 2.5 Å from crystals of the three different shapes. The crystals belonged to space groups P6322, P21 and P1, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 143.60, c = 84.54 Å, a = 114.54, b = 105.82, c = 116.67 Å, β = 94.99° and a = 94.45, b = 94.96, c = 100.66 Å, α = 107.02, β = 108.44, γ = 110.71°, respectively. One, six and six subunits of A1bB2 were estimated to be present in the respective asymmetric units. The three-dimensional structure of the A1bB2 hexamer is currently being determined

  4. B2B marketing

    Pospíšilová, Lucie


    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to apply theoretical knowledge in B2B marketing to the example of marketing processes in a particular company, to evaluate the current situation of its activities with regard to B2B principles and to suggest relevant recommendations. The theoretical part focuses on specific characteristics of B2B marketing, describes its differences from marketing on consumer markets, deals with buying behaviour of organizations and specifies particular features of mar...

  5. CYP7B1

    Roos, P; Svenstrup, K; Danielsen, E R;


    UNLABELLED: The SPG5A subtype of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CYP7B1 gene, which encodes a steroid cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase. This enzyme provides the primary metabolic route for neurosteroids. Clinica......UNLABELLED: The SPG5A subtype of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CYP7B1 gene, which encodes a steroid cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase. This enzyme provides the primary metabolic route for neurosteroids...

  6. B2(BO)6 0/- and B 2(BS) 6 0/- doubly bridged structures containing BO or BS as ligands.

    Li, Da-Zhi; Li, Si-Dian


    The investigation on the geometrical and electronic properties of B(2)(BO)(6) (0/-) and B(2)(BS)(6) (0/-) has been performed by density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP and BP86 methods. The chemical bonding in B(2)A(6) (A = H, BO, and BS) series is elucidated through the recently developed adaptive natural density partitioning (AdNDP). D(2h) B(2)(BO)(6) and B(2)(BS)(6) were found to possess two bridging η (2)-BO or η (2)-BS groups, as well as four terminal BO or BS groups that are analogs of diborane B(2)H(6). D(2)h B(2)(BO)(6) (-) and B(2)(BS)(6) (-) with two bridging η (2)-BO or η (2)-BS groups which are more stable than their corresponding D(3d) structures. The binding energy of B(2)(BO)(6) and B(2)(BS)(6) with respect to B(2)(BO)(6) (D2h) → 2B(BO)(3) (D(3h)) and B(2)(BS)(6)(D(2h)) → 2B(BS)(3) (D(3h)) are estimated to be (△)E = 19.8 and 40.6 kcal mol(-1) at CCSD(T)//B3LYP level, respectively. This finding advances the boronyl chemistry and helps establish the isolobal analogy between boron-rich oxide clusters and boranes. PMID:25159274

  7. Emergence of clonal groups O1:HNM-D-ST59; O15:H1-D-ST393; O20:H34/HNM-D-ST354; O25b:H4-B2-ST131 and ONT:H21,42-B1-ST101 among CTX-M-14-producing clinical isolates in Galicia; northwest Spain

    Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Miguel; López, Cecilia; Mamani, Rosalia; Blanco, Jesús E.; Alonso, María Pilar; García-Garrote, Fernando; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Herrera, Alexandra; Fernández, Ana; Fernández, Begoña; Agulla, Andrés; Bou, Germán; Blanco, Jorge


    Abstract CTX-M enzymes, mainly CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15, have emerged as the most prevalent extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) type produced by Escherichia coli in Spain, with successful dissemination of clonal group O25b:H4-B2-ST131 producing CTX-M-15 within the hospital and community settings. However, until now CTX-M-14-producing E. coli in Spain had been shown to belong to a wide variety of serotypes with no predominance of a certain clonal group. In the present study, 654 E. co...

  8. aflatoxina b1

    A. Valdivia


    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de probar que la suplementación dietética de ácido elágico (AE o N-Acetilcisteína (NAC en pollos de engorda, atenúa los efectos de una intoxicación aguda por la aflatoxina B1 (AFB1, se intoxicaron con AFB1 pura, tres grupos de diez pollos cada uno (3.0 mb/kg pc, IP. Otros tres grupos recibieron solamente el vehículo (aceite de maíz 2.0 ml/kg pc, IP. Cuatro días antes se administró un alimento testigo, o bien, la misma dieta adicionada con AE (2.5 g/kg o NAC (200 mg/kg pc/6 h. A las 24 horas de la administración de AFB1, se cuantificaron las concentraciones hepáticas de glutatión (GSH, de actividad enzimática específica de la transferasa de glutatión (GST, alanina aminotransferasa, aspartato aminotransferasa y de proteínas hepáticas totales. Los resultados mostraron que NAC atenúa el impacto negativo de la AFB1 sobre el crecimiento corporal y al igual que AE, incrementa la GST y revierte parcialmente los efectos de AFB1 sobre GSH, lo cual sugiere que ambas sustancias pudieran conferir un efecto protector de las aves

  9. B1 Aerogels

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard


    , engineering and architectural basis which will support the appropriate use of aerogels in windows, solar collectors and passive solar applications, with the aim of saving or producing thermal energy for use in buildings".This objective is in very good agreement with the general scope of task 18 but where Task...... properties of aerogel as a material for window applications3. Construction of an aerogel DGU and measurement of key performance parameters. The goal for the aerogel DGU was to reach a Total Solar Energy Transmittance above 0.75 and a U-value below 0.5 W/m²K. These are values that can not be simultaneously......The report summarizes the work that has been carried out within the project "B1 AEROGELS" as a part of the IEA SH&CP Task 18 "Advanced Glazing and Associated Materials For Solar And Building Applications".By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very...

  10. Kinetic energy release in CO fragmentation by electron loss and capture collisions of fast B''2''+ ions

    Ionization and fragmentation of CO molecules have been investigated in charge-changing collisions of B''2''+ ions at v = 1.69 a.u.. Fragment ions from CO were measured by using a momentum 3D imaging technique in coincidence with outgoing projectile charge states. We deduced the kinetic energy release (KER) associated with charge-changing collisions of B''2''+ to B''3''+, B''1''+ and B''0''+. The KER spectra in the fragmentation to C''+ and O''+ ions are found to be different to some extent for these loss and capture collisions. It is concluded that the electron loss collision populates the intact CO molecule to highly excited states of (CO)''2''+''1 more effectively than electron capture collisions, resulting from different effective impact parameters associated with loss and capture collisions.

  11. Positron lifetime spectroscopy of vitreous B2O3

    A comparison is made of the structural data obtained by positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS) for vitreous B2O3 (v-B2O3) and crystalline B2O3 (c-B2O3). Samples of v-B2O3 were dried by holding the melt at 1350K to reduce residual OH groups. Fast quenching and slow cooling were used to obtain glasses having different fictive structures. According to the literature, B3O6 rings are thought to be formed during slow cooling of v-B2O3. PLS measurements show that both the intensity value and the long lifetime component (t3) associated with positron decay in cavities and lifetime component (t1) associated with the positron annihilation in the bulk are different for v-B2O3 and c-B2O3. The low intensity of t3 for c-B2O3 and its high value for v-B2O3 is argued to be due to the presence of different structural units in the two states of B2O3

  12. Cyclin B2 and p53 control proper timing of centrosome separation

    Nam, H.J.; Deursen, J.M.A. van


    Cyclins B1 and B2 are frequently elevated in human cancers and are associated with tumour aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome; however, whether and how B-type cyclins drive tumorigenesis is unknown. Here we show that cyclin B1 and B2 transgenic mice are highly prone to tumours, including tumour

  13. Plasma extravasation mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induction of kinin B1 receptors in rat tissues

    Paulo Roberto Wille


    Full Text Available The present study was performed to: (a evaluate the effects of kinin B1 (Sar{D-Phe8}-des-Arg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (bradykinin (BK; 10 nmol/kg receptor agonists on plasma extravasation in selected rat tissues; (b determine the contribution of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS (100 μ g/kg to the effects triggered by B1 and B2 agonists; and (c characterize the selectivity of B1 ({Leu8}desArg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (HOE 140; 10 nmol/kg antagonists as inhibitors of this kinin-induced phenomenon. B1 and B2 agonists were shown to increase plasma extravasation in the duodenum, ileum and also in the urinary bladder of the rat. LPS pretreatment enhanced the plasma extravasation mediated only by the B1 agonist in the duodenum, ileum, trachea, main and segmentar bronchi. These effects were prevented by the B1. but not the B2 antagonist. In normal rats, the B2 antagonist inhibited the effect of B2 agonist in all the tissues analyzed. However, in LPS-treated rats, the B2 antagonist was ineffective in the urinary bladder.

  14. Discovery of the magnetic field in the B1/B2V star sigma Lupi

    Henrichs, H F; Plaggenborg, B; Marsden, S C; Waite, I A; Wade, G


    The ultraviolet stellar wind lines of the photometrically periodic variable early B-type star sigma Lupi were found to behave very similarly to what has been observed in known magnetic B stars, although no periodicity could be determined. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained. We detected a longitudinal magnetic field with varying strength and amplitude of about 100 G with error bars of typically 20 G. This type of variability supports an oblique magnetic rotator model. We fold the equivalent width of the 4 usable UV spectra in phase with the well-known photometric period of 3.019 days, which we identify with the rotation period of the star. The magnetic field variations are consistent with this period. Additional observations with ESPaDOnS attached to the CFHT strongly confirmed this discovery, and allowed to determine a precise magnetic period. Like in the other magnetic B stars the wind emission likely originates in the magnetic equatorial plane, with maximum emission occurring whe...

  15. The patient, disease status, and treatment options for prostate cancer: stages B1 and B2

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma palpably confined to the prostate is clinically defined as stage B. Although potentially curable in many, if not most, instances, there is no disputing that the optimal management of patients with stage B neoplasms is one of the most uncertain and controversial issues in modern urologic oncology. The present uncertainty can be related to three major factors: 1) competing causes of death in patients commonly older than 50 years of age; 2) the variable and unpredictable natural course of localized prostatic cancer as reflected by the three, at least in part, independent variables of growth rate, metastatic potential, and therapeutic responsiveness; and 3) the multiplicity and effectiveness of a variety of treatments in producing effects on the tumor favorable to the patient. The relative effectiveness of different treatments has been and remains clouded by a constantly changing array of clinical staging techniques, selection criteria for treatment, and definitions of response, and by the general absence of satisfactory control data. Experiences with patients receiving no treatment, various forms of irradiation, and radical excision have indicated a general similarity in at least 10-year survival rates and clinically manifest local failure rates among comparable substages of stage B prostatic cancer. Since suitable control data are lacking, one may conclude that a variety of treatments offer similar prospects of benefit or that none of the treatments is producing significant beneficial effect and that survivals are a consequence of the natural history of stage B disease. A Possibility that has yet to be evaluated is that different treatments produce benefit in different segments of the stage B prostatic cancer population, and the challenge today is to recognize and define such neoplasms that may respond most appropriately to one form of therapy or another

  16. Cathepsins B1 and B2 of Trichobilharzia spp., bird schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis

    Kašný, M.; Mikeš, L.; Dolečková, K.; Hampl, V.; Dvořák, Jan; Novotný, M.; Horák, P.

    BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, HEIDELBERGER PLATZ 3, D-14197, 2011 - (Robinson, M.; Dalton, J.), s. 136-154. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 712). ISBN 978-1-4419-8413-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trichobilharzia * trematode * Schistosoma * Fasciola * peptidase * cercarial elastase * cathepsin * hydrolysis * blood digestion * tissue migration * biochemical characterization * phylogeny * function Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  17. Structural nature of 7Li and 11B sites in the nonlinear optical material LiB3O5 using static NMR and MAS NMR

    The structural nature of the nonlinear optical properties of LiB3O5 is analyzed using single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. The 3-coordinated trigonal [B(1) and B(2)] and 4-coordinated tetragonal [B(3)] sites are distinguished using the spectrum and the spin-lattice relaxation time in rotating frame T1ρ, which was obtained from the 11B MAS NMR. Moreover, the T1 and T1ρ values for 7Li and 11B are compared, and the activation energies were obtained. The T1ρ values of the boron nuclei in LiB3O5 show no significant changes. These results may be closely related to the largest second-order nonlinear optical coefficient. - Highlights: • The structural nature of the nonlinear optical properties of LiB3O5. • Single-crystal NMR and MAS NMR. • The 3-coordnated trigonal and 4-coordinated tetragonal. • The spin-lattice relaxation time in rotating frame T1ρ

  18. Regiospecific O-methylation of naphthoic acids catalyzed by NcsB1, an O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic neocarzinostatin.

    Luo, Yinggang; Lin, Shuangjun; Zhang, Jian; Cooke, Heather A; Bruner, Steven D; Shen, Ben


    Neocarzinostatin, a clinical anticancer drug, is the archetypal member of the chromoprotein family of enediyne antitumor antibiotics that are composed of a nonprotein chromophore and an apoprotein. The neocarzinostatin chromophore consists of a nine-membered enediyne core, a deoxyaminosugar, and a naphthoic acid moiety. We have previously cloned and sequenced the neocarzinostatin biosynthetic gene cluster and proposed that the biosynthesis of the naphthoic acid moiety and its incorporation into the neocarzinostatin chromophore are catalyzed by five enzymes NcsB, NcsB1, NcsB2, NcsB3, and NcsB4. Here we report the biochemical characterization of NcsB1, unveiling that: (i) NcsB1 is an S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase; (ii) NcsB1 catalyzes regiospecific methylation at the 7-hydroxy group of its native substrate, 2,7-dihydroxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoic acid; (iii) NcsB1 also recognizes other dihydroxynaphthoic acids as substrates and catalyzes regiospecific O-methylation; and (iv) the carboxylate and its ortho-hydroxy groups of the substrate appear to be crucial for NcsB1 substrate recognition and binding, and O-methylation takes place only at the free hydroxy group of these dihydroxynaphthoic acids. These findings establish that NcsB1 catalyzes the third step in the biosynthesis of the naphthoic acid moiety of the neocarzinostatin chromophore and further support the early proposal for the biosynthesis of the naphthoic acid and its incorporation into the neocarzinostatin chromophore with free naphthoic acids serving as intermediates. NcsB1 represents another opportunity that can now be exploited to produce novel neocarzinostatin analogs by engineering neocarzinostatin biosynthesis or applying directed biosynthesis strategies. PMID:18387946

  19. Niacin and niacinamide (Vitamin B3)

    Niacin and niacinamide are forms of Vitamin B3. Vitamin B3 is found in many foods including yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, beans, and cereal grains. Niacin and niacinamide are also found in many vitamin B complex ...

  20. The GABAB1a isoform mediates heterosynaptic depression at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses

    Guetg, Nicole; Seddik, Riad; Vigot, Réjan;


    GABA(B) receptor subtypes are based on the subunit isoforms GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b), which associate with GABA(B2) subunits to form pharmacologically indistinguishable GABA(B(1a,2)) and GABA(B(1b,2)) receptors. Studies with mice selectively expressing GABA(B1a) or GABA(B1b) subunits revealed that...... GABA(B(1a,2)) receptors are more abundant than GABA(B(1b,2)) receptors at glutamatergic terminals. Accordingly, it was found that GABA(B(1a,2)) receptors are more efficient than GABA(B(1b,2)) receptors in inhibiting glutamate release when maximally activated by exogenous application of the agonist...... baclofen. Here, we used a combination of genetic, ultrastructural and electrophysiological approaches to analyze to what extent GABA(B(1a,2)) and GABA(B(1b,2)) receptors inhibit glutamate release in response to physiological activation. We first show that at hippocampal mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 pyramidal...

  1. Flotillins as regulators of ErbB2 levels in breast cancer

    Pust, S; Klokk, T I; Musa, N;


    Amplification and overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 occur in up to 30% of human breast cancers, and high ErbB2 levels are correlated with poor prognosis for breast cancer patients. In contrast to the epithelial growth factor receptor (ErbB1), ErbB2 is not downregulated by ligand...... complex with ErbB2 and Hsp90. The depletion of one of these proteins results in disruption of this complex, followed by destabilization of ErbB2 at the membrane, and its internalization and degradation. As a consequence, ErbB2-triggered downstream signalling is inhibited. Our data demonstrate a novel...

  2. Electronic states of BP, BP +, BP -, B 2P 2, B2P2- and B2P2+

    Linguerri, Roberto; Komiha, Najia; Oswald, Rainer; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander; Rosmus, Pavel


    Using augmented sextuple zeta basis sets and internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) wavefunctions, potential energy, electric dipole and transition moments have been computed for the X 3Π, a 1Σ +, b 1Π and A 3Σ - states of BP, X 2Σ + and A 2Π states of BP - and X 4Σ - and A 4Π states of BP +. From these data spectroscopic constants, radiative transition probabilities and photoelectron spectra of BP - and BP have been evaluated. The non-vanishing spin-orbit coupling elements between the four low lying triplet and singlet states of the neutral BP have also been calculated from MRCI wavefunctions. The treatment of the corresponding perturbations in the manifold of dense rovibrational states in the three lowest states would require a precise knowledge of the electronic excitation energies. Our best singlet-triplet separations (X-a) are calculated to be 2412 cm -1 (MRCI) and 2482 cm -1 (restricted coupled cluster with perturbative triples (RCCSD(T))) with an estimated error bound of about ±200 cm -1. All three states have long radiative lifetimes with cascading among the rovibrational levels of different states. The ionization energy IE e of BP is calculated to be 9.22 eV (MRCI) and 9.48 eV (RCCSD(T)), the electron affinity EA e 2.51 eV (MRCI) and 2.74 eV (RCCSD(T)). The photoelectron spectra of BP and BP - have been obtained from the Franck-Condon factors of the MRCI potentials. For the UV spectroscopy the dipole allowed radiative transition probabilities are given for A 3Σ - ↔ X 3Π, b 1Π ↔ a 1Σ + of BP, A 2Π ↔ X 2Σ + of BP - and A 4Π ↔ X 4Σ - of BP +. The ionization energy IE e of B 2P 2 of 8.71 eV and the electron affinity EA e of 2.34 eV have been calculated by the RCCSD(T)/aVQZ approach. Also the harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for the electronic ground states of the ions B2P2+ and B2P2- are given.

  3. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-1 - Minimum coverage requirements (before 1994).


    ....410(b)-1(b)(2). (6) Integration with Social Security Act. See section 401(a)(5) and the regulations thereunder for rules relating to integration of plans with the Social Security Act. (7) Different age and... service. The plan can be shown not to satisfy the requirements of IRC section 410(b)(1)(A) as follows:...

  4. B2-B2.5 code benchmarking

    Dekeyser, W.; Baelmans, M; Voskoboynikov, S.; Rozhansky, V.; Reiter, D.; Wiesen, S.; Kotov, V.; Boerner, P.


    ITER-IO currently (and since about 15 years) employs the code for its divertor design, currently version SOLPS4.3. is a special variant of the B2-EIRENE code, which was originally developed by an European consortium (FZ Juelich, AEA Culham, ERM Belgium/KU Leuven) in the late eighties and early nineties of the last century under NET contracts. Until today even the very similar edge plasma codes within the SOLPS family, if run on a seemingly identical choice of physical parameters, still sometimes disagree significantly with each other. It is obvious that in computational engineering applications, as they are carried out for the various ITER divertor aspects with SOLPS4.3 for more than a decade now, any transition from one to another code must be fully backward compatible, or, at least, the origin of differences in the results must be identified and fully understood quantitatively. In this report we document efforts undertaken in 2010 to ultimately eliminate the third issue. For the kinetic EIRENE part within SOLPS this backward compatibility (back until 1996) was basically achieved (V. Kotov, 2004-2006) and SOLPS4.3 is now essentially up to date with the current EIRENE master maintained at FZ Juelich. In order to achieve a similar level of reproducibility for the plasma fluid (B2, B2.5) part, we follow a similar strategy, which is quite distinct from the previous SOLPS benchmark attempts: the codes are ''disintegrated'' and pieces of it are run on smallest (i.e. simplest) problems. Only after full quantitative understanding is achieved, the code model is enlarged, integrated, piece by piece again, until, hopefully, a fully backward compatible B2 / B2.5 ITER edge plasma simulation will be achieved. The status of this code dis-integration effort and its findings until now (Nov. 2010) are documented in the present technical note. This work was initiated in a small workshop by the three partner teams of KU Leuven, St. Petersburg

  5. In vivo knockdown of ErbB3 in mice inhibits Schwann cell precursor migration.

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Takada, Shuji; Tsumura, Hideki; Arai, Miyuki; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji


    The myelin sheath insulates neuronal axons and markedly increases the nerve conduction velocity. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cell precursors migrate along embryonic neuronal axons to their final destinations, where they eventually wrap around individual axons to form the myelin sheath after birth. ErbB2 and ErbB3 tyrosine kinase receptors form a heterodimer and are extensively expressed in Schwann lineage cells. ErbB2/3 is thought to be one of the primary regulators controlling the entire Schwann cell development. ErbB3 is the bona fide Schwann cell receptor for the neuronal ligand neuregulin-1. Although ErbB2/3 is well known to regulate both Schwann cell precursor migration and myelination by Schwann cells in fishes, it still remains unclear whether in mammals, ErbB2/3 actually regulates Schwann cell precursor migration. Here, we show that knockdown of ErbB3 using a Schwann cell-specific promoter in mice causes delayed migration of Schwann cell precursors. In contrast, littermate control mice display normal migration. Similar results are seen in an in vitro migration assay using reaggregated Schwann cell precursors. Also, ErbB3 knockdown in mice reduces myelin thickness in sciatic nerves, consistent with the established role of ErbB3 in myelination. Thus, ErbB3 plays a key role in migration, as well as in myelination, in mouse Schwann lineage cells, presenting a genetically conservative role of ErbB3 in Schwann cell precursor migration. PMID:25204498

  6. Synthesis, structure, and characterization of a new rubidium cadmium borate: RbCdB3O6

    Graphical abstract: A new ternary borate, RbCdB3O6 has been synthesized and its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction for the first time. Detailed structural analyses show that RbCdB3O6 possesses the [RbCdB3O6] layers. The antiparallel arrangement of B3O6 rings makes it crystallize in the centrosymmetric group and has a relatively large birefringence. -- Highlights: • A new ternary borate, RbCdB3O6 has been synthesized. • It is a layer-type structure composed of planar B3O6 rings, which are distributed discretely from layer to layer. • A comparison of the structures of RbCdB3O6, α-BaB2O4 and β-BaB2O4 is presented. • The electronic structure and linear optical response are calculated. -- Abstract: A new ternary borate, RbCdB3O6 has been synthesized by solid-state reaction and its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, and in its crystal structure, RbO10 polyhedra and B3O6 rings comprise a three dimensional (3D) framework containing tunnels viewing along [1 0 1] direction in which Cd atoms are located to balance the charge. A comparison of the structures of RbCdB3O6, α-BaB2O4 and β-BaB2O4 is presented. The IR, UV–Vis-IR absorption spectra and the thermal properties of RbCdB3O6 have also been reported. The electronic structure and birefringence have been calculated by the first-principle method based on the density-functional theory

  7. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to −225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2→2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276–426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling. - Graphical abstract: The in situ high temperature XRD contour plot (A) and XRD patterns

  8. A Dual Role of erbB2 in Myelination and in Expansion of the Schwann Cell Precursor Pool

    Garratt, A.N.; Voiculescu, O.; Topilko, P.; Charnay, P; Birchmeier, C.


    Neuregulin-1 provides an important axonally derived signal for the survival and growth of developing Schwann cells, which is transmitted by the ErbB2/ErbB3 receptor tyrosine kinases. Null mutations of the neuregulin-1, erbB2, or erbB3 mouse genes cause severe deficits in early Schwann cell development. Here, we employ Cre-loxP technology to introduce erbB2 mutations late in Schwann cell development, using a Krox20-cre allele. Cre-mediated erbB2 ablation occurs perinatally in peripheral nerves...

  9. Bridging gold: B-Au-B three-center-two-electron bonds in electron-deficient B(2) Au(n) (-/0) (n = 1, 3, 5) and mixed analogues.

    Yao, Wen-Zhi; Li, Da-Zhi; Li, Si-Dian


    A systematic density functional theory and wave function theory investigation on the geometrical and electronic structures of the electron-deficient diboron aurides B(2) Au n-/0 (n = 1, 3, 5) and their mixed analogues B(2) H(m) Au n- (m + n = 3, 5) has been performed in this work. Ab initio theoretical evidences strongly suggest that bridging gold atoms exist in the ground states of C(2v) B(2) Au(-) ((1) A(1) ), C(2) B(2) Au 3-((1) A), C(2v) B(2) Au(3) ((2) B(1) ), C(2v) B(2) Au 5-((1) A(1) ), and C(s) B(2) Au(5) ((2) A″), which all prove to possess a B-Au-B three-center-two-electron (3c-2e) bond. For B(2) H(m) Au n- (m + n = 3, 5) mixed anions, bridging B-Au-B units appear to be favored in energy over bridging B-H-B, as demonstrated by the fact that the Au-bridged C(2v) B(2) H(2) Au(-) ((1) A(1) ), C(s) B(2) HAu 2- ((1) A'), and C(1) B(2) HAu 4- ((1) A) lie clearly lower than their H-bridged counterparts C(s) B(2) H(2) Au(-) ((1) A'), C(2) B(2) HAu 2- ((1) A), and C(2v) B(2) HAu 4- ((1) A(1) ), respectively. Orbital analyses indicate that Au 6s makes about 92-96% contribution to the Au-based orbitals in these B-Au-B 3c-2e interactions, whereas Au 5d contributes 8-4%. The adiabatic and vertical detachment energies of the concerned anions have been calculated to facilitate their future experimental characterizations. The results obtained in this work establish an interesting 3c-2e bonding model (B-Au-B) for electron-deficient systems in which Au 6s plays a major role with non-negligible contribution from Au 5d. PMID:20652871

  10. Deformation density in lithium triborate, LiB3O5

    An accurate set of X-ray data collected at 293 K was used to refine the structure and study the deformation density of the title compound, LiB3O5, orthorhombic, Pna21, a=8.447(1), b=7.3789(8), c=5.1408(6) A. According to the deformation electron density distribution, the vacant 2p orbital of the triangulary coordinated B(1) atom is mainly populated by electrons belonging to lone pairs of the O(1) and O(2) atoms which are linked by short bonds to the B(1) atom. The vacant 2p orbital of the B(3) atom is also triangularly coordinated and is mainly populated by electrons from a lone pair of a single oxygen O(4) atom. From the analysis of the atomic arrangement of LiB3O5, it is possible that a highly anisotropic Li-ion conductivity exists in the title compound. (orig./GSCH)

  11. Aflatoxin B1content in patients with hepatic diseases Aflatoxina B1 en pacientes con enfermedades hepáticas

    Clara López


    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of some Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius strains that occur in many foods and feeds. There are four major natural occurring aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1 and G2. These toxins can cause illness in human beings and animals. Aflatoxin B1 is the most abundant and toxic member of the family, and it is also the most potent hepatocarcinogen known. In order to estimate the potential human health risk of AFB1, it is useful to measure blood concentration. The presence of aflatoxin B1 in patients was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography, in serum samples, obtained from 20 patient volunteers with hepatic disease. Out of the 20 patients, the presence of AFB1 was detected in only one of them, in a concentration of 0.47 ng/cm³. Nevertheless, this result should draw the attention of control organizations in Argentina to the need for a thorough food and feed inspection.Las aflatoxinas son metabolitos tóxicos producidos por cepas de Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus y A. nomius, presentes en alimentos y piensos. Las cuatro aflatoxinas principales son: aflatoxina B1, B2, G1 y G2. Dichas toxinas pueden causar enfermedades tanto en seres humanos como en animales. La aflatoxina B1 es la más abundante y la más tóxica del grupo y es también el más potente hepatocarcinógeno conocido. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar la presencia de aflatoxina B1 en sangre humana para estimar el riesgo potencial de la salud. La determinación de aflatoxina B1 fue realizada por cromatografía líquida de alto rendimiento, en suero de 20 pacientes voluntarios con enfermedades hepáticas. En sólo uno de estos pacientes se detectó la presencia de aflatoxina B1, en una concentración de 0.47ng/cm³. Estos resultados deberían ser tenidos en cuenta por los responsables de la vigilancia y control de los alimentos en la Argentina.

  12. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market

    Kaynova Tatyana V.


    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  13. Mixed valent perovskites Ba3B3+Ru2sup(4.5+)O9

    The black compounds Ba3B3+Ru2O9 crystallize with B3+ = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Y in a hexagonal BaTiO3 structure (6L, sequence (hcc)2) with an ordered distribution (1:2 order) of B3+ and ruthenium (BO6 single octahedra; Ru2O9 double groups). The mean oxidation state of ruthenium is about +4.5. The properties are compared with those of other isotypic stacking polytypes Ba3B3+M2sup(4.5)O9 (M2 = IrRu, Ir2, PtRu) and Ba3B2+M25+O9 (M = Ru, Ir). The results of activity tests concerning the efficiency of perovskite oxides with noble metals in respect of the oxidation of CO or CHsub(x) and the reduction of NOsub(x) are reported. (author)

  14. 38 CFR 18b.2 - Reviewing authority.


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reviewing authority. 18b.2 Section 18b.2 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Rules § 18b.2 Reviewing authority. The term reviewing authority means the Secretary of Veterans...

  15. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  16. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann, E-mail:


    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  17. On Heavy Carbon Doping of MgB$_2$

    Kasinathan, Deepa; Lee, K. -W.; PICKETT, W.E.


    Heavy carbon doping of MgB$_2$ is studied by first principles electronic structure studies of two types, an ordered supercell (Mg(B$_{1-x}$C$_{x}$)$_{2}$,x=0.0833) and also the coherent potential approximation method that incorporates effects of B-C disorder. For the ordered model, the twofold degenerate $\\sigma$-bands that are the basis of the high temperature superconductivity are split by 60 meV (i.e.7 meV/%C) and the $\\sigma$ Fermi cylinders contain 0.070 holes/cell, compared to 0.11 for ...

  18. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA

  19. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan


    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  20. Nachweis der Kinin-B1-Rezeptor-Hochregulation im Schwein bei Tieren mit einer vorbestehenden Infektion

    Lehner, Markus


    Als wichtige Mediatoren der akuten und chronischen Entzündungsreaktion gelten Bradykinin und seine Derivate. Als Rezeptoren dieser Kinine sind der Kinin B2- und B1-Rezeptor bekannt. Ziel dieser Arbeit war der Beweis einer Kinin B1-Rezeptorhochregulation im Rahmen der inflammatorischen Antwort bei Schweinen, die unter natürlichen Bedingungen eine das Immunsystem alternierende Infektion erworben hatten. Eine erhöhte Stimulierbarkeit des Kinin B1-Rezeptors unter Ausgangsbedingungen (Grup...

  1. Improvement of skin wound healing in diabetic mice by kinin B2 receptor blockade

    Desposito, D.; Chollet, C.; Taveau, C.; Descamps, V.; Alhenc-Gelas, F.; Roussel, R.; Bouby, Nadine; Waeckel, L.


    Impaired skin wound healing is a major medical problem in diabetic subjects. Kinins exert a number of vascular and other actions limiting organ damage in ischaemia or diabetes, but their role in skin injury is unknown. We investigated, through pharmacological manipulation of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1R and B2R respectively), the role of kinins in wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Using two mouse models of diabetes (streptozotocin-induced and db/db mice) and non-diabetic...

  2. Doping effects of carbon and titanium on the critical current density of MgB2

    MgB2 bulks doped with Ti or/and C were prepared by an in situ solid state reaction method to determine the combined effect of C and Ti doping and to probe the detailed mechanism. The magnetization measurement shows that Mg0.95Ti0.05B1.95C0.05 sample has significantly improved flux pinning compared to the MgB1.95C0.05 sample at 20 K, indicating that C and Ti are largely cooperative in improving the Jc(H) behaviour. No TiC phase was detected in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. Moreover, the overlap of the (100) peaks of MgB1.95C0.05 and Mg0.95Ti0.05B1.95C0.05 showed that Ti doping does not reduce the amount of C in MgB2. Microstructural analyses revealed that the addition of Ti eliminated the porosity present in the carbon-doped MgB2 pellet, resulting in an improved intergrain connectivity and an increase of effective current pass. Further, MgB2 doped with C and Ti, which mainly consists of spherical grains about 200-300 nm in size, shows an higher grain homogeneity than the C-doped sample, suggesting that the Ti doping in MgB1-xCx has played an important role in obtaining uniform grains

  3. Controlled indole-3-acetaldoxime production through ethanol-induced expression of CYP79B2

    Mikkelsen, M.D.; Fuller, V.L.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram;


    Indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) is a key branching point between primary and secondary metabolism. IAOx serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates (I-GLSs), camalexin and the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The cytochrome P450s CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 catalyze the...

  4. Depletion of the xynB2 gene upregulates β-xylosidase expression in C. crescentus.

    Corrêa, Juliana Moço; Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Seixas, Flávio Augusto Vicente; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia


    Caulobacter crescentus is able to express several enzymes involved in the utilization of lignocellulosic biomasses. Five genes, xynB1-5, that encode β-xylosidases are present in the genome of this bacterium. In this study, the xynB2 gene, which encodes β-xylosidase II (CCNA_02442), was cloned under the control of the PxylX promoter to generate the O-xynB2 strain, which overexpresses the enzyme in the presence of xylose. In addition, a null mutant strain, Δ-xynB2, was created by two homologous recombination events where the chromosomal xynB2 gene was replaced by a copy that was disrupted by the spectinomycin-resistant cassette. We demonstrated that C. crescentus cells lacking β-xylosidase II upregulates the xynB genes inducing β-xylosidase activity. Transcriptional analysis revealed that xynB1 (RT-PCR analysis) and xynB2 (lacZ transcription fusion) gene expression was induced in the Δ-xynB2 cells, and high β-xylosidase activity was observed in the presence of different agro-industrial residues in the null mutant strain, a characteristic that can be explored and applied in biotechnological processes. In contrast, overexpression of the xynB2 gene caused downregulation of the expression and activity of the β-xylosidase. For example, the β-xylosidase activity that was obtained in the presence of sugarcane bagasse was 7-fold and 16-fold higher than the activity measured in the C. crescentus parental and O-xynB2 cells, respectively. Our results suggest that β-xylosidase II may have a role in controlling the expression of the xynB1 and xynB2 genes in C. crescentus. PMID:24142353

  5. Sintering of TiB2 ceramics

    M. Swiatek


    Full Text Available Purpose: Titanium diborides (TiB2 ceramic is particularly interesting because it exhibits high elastic modulus and hardness as well as high thermal conductivity. The interest in TiB2 ceramic increased enormously due to these properties but applications seem to be limited due to difficulties during densification process. In the experiment the TiB2 compacts was obtained using HP-HT method. The aim of this study is to work out and optimize the sintering densification process of TiB2 ceramics.Design/methodology/approach: The high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP Bridgman type apparatus was used for densification method of TiB2 powder. Ceramics were sintered at pressure of 7.2 ± 0.2 GPa and temperature at 1500-2300ºC ± 50ºC. The duration of sintering was 60 seconds. In order to investigate the structure changes, the optical and scanning electron microscope was used. Mechanical properties were determined by Vickers hardness. Young modulus measurements were carried out using ultrasonic method.Findings: The TiB2 ceramics was obtained without using sintering agents. The properties and structure of TiB2 ceramics strongly depend on conditions of sintering process. The application of the temperature of 1500ºC±50ºC and pressure of 7.2 ± 0.2 GPa and time of 60 seconds permits to obtain the TiB2 ceramics without cracks.Practical implications: The TiB2 ceramic might be used for production of composites. From a practical position it is important to optimize the sintering densification of TiB2 ceramic.Originality/value: The TiB2 ceramics were formed using HP-HT technique without the use of additives. This method of sintering for TiB2 ceramics is original one.T7

  6. Kinin B1 receptors contributes to acute pain following minor surgery in humans

    Brahim Jaime S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinins play an important role in regulation of pain and hyperalgesia after tissue injury and inflammation by activating two types of G-protein-coupled receptors, the kinin B1 and B2 receptors. It is generally accepted that the B2 receptor is constitutively expressed, whereas the B1 receptor is induced in response to inflammation. However, little is known about the regulatory effects of kinin receptors on the onset of acute inflammation and inflammatory pain in humans. The present study investigated the changes in gene expression of kinin receptors and the levels of their endogenous ligands at an early time point following tissue injury and their relation to clinical pain, as well as the effect of COX-inhibition on their expression levels. Results Tissue injury resulted in a significant up-regulation in the gene expression of B1 and B2 receptors at 3 hours post-surgery, the onset of acute inflammatory pain. Interestingly, the up-regulation in the gene expression of B1 and B2 receptors was positively correlated to pain intensity only after ketorolac treatment, signifying an interaction between prostaglandins and kinins in the inflammatory pain process. Further, the gene expression of both B1 and B2 receptors were correlated. Following tissue injury, B1 ligands des-Arg9-BK and des-Arg10-KD were significantly lower at the third hour compared to the first 2 hours in both the placebo and the ketorolac treatment groups but did not differ significantly between groups. Tissue injury also resulted in the down-regulation of TRPV1 gene expression at 3 hours post-surgery with no significant effect by ketorolac treatment. Interestingly, the change in gene expression of TRPV1 was correlated to the change in gene expression of B1 receptor but not B2 receptor. Conclusions These results provide evidence at the transcriptional level in a clinical model of tissue injury that up-regulation of kinin receptors are involved in the development of the

  7. Certification of B-group vitamins (b1, b2, b6, and b12) in four food reference materials

    Ollilainen, V.; Finglas, P.M.; Berg, H. van den; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de


    In 1989, the Community Bureau of Reference started a research program to improve the quality of vitamin analysis in food. To achieve this task, vitamin methodology was evaluated and tested by interlaboratory studies and the preparation of certified reference materials, which will be used for quality

  8. Montelukast Disposition: No Indication of Transporter-Mediated Uptake in OATP2B1 and OATP1B1 Expressing HEK293 Cells.

    Brännström, Marie; Nordell, Pär; Bonn, Britta; Davis, Andrew M; Palmgren, Anna-Pia; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Rubin, Katarina; Grime, Ken


    Clinical studies with montelukast show variability in effect and polymorphic OATP2B1-dependent absorption has previously been implicated as a possible cause. This claim has been challenged with conflicting data and here we used OATP2B1-transfected HEK293 cells to clarify the mechanisms involved. For montelukast, no significant difference in cell uptake between HEK-OATP2B1 and empty vector cell lines was observed at pH 6.5 or pH 7.4, and no concentration-dependent uptake was detected. Montelukast is a carboxylic acid, a relatively potent inhibitor of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1, and has previously been postulated to be actively transported into human hepatocytes. Using OATP1B1-transfected HEK293 cells and primary human hepatocytes in the presence of OATP inhibitors we demonstrate for the first time that active OATP-dependent transport is unlikely to play a significant role in the human disposition of montelukast. PMID:26694455

  9. Montelukast Disposition: No Indication of Transporter-Mediated Uptake in OATP2B1 and OATP1B1 Expressing HEK293 Cells

    Marie Brännström


    Full Text Available Clinical studies with montelukast show variability in effect and polymorphic OATP2B1-dependent absorption has previously been implicated as a possible cause. This claim has been challenged with conflicting data and here we used OATP2B1-transfected HEK293 cells to clarify the mechanisms involved. For montelukast, no significant difference in cell uptake between HEK-OATP2B1 and empty vector cell lines was observed at pH 6.5 or pH 7.4, and no concentration-dependent uptake was detected. Montelukast is a carboxylic acid, a relatively potent inhibitor of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1, and has previously been postulated to be actively transported into human hepatocytes. Using OATP1B1-transfected HEK293 cells and primary human hepatocytes in the presence of OATP inhibitors we demonstrate for the first time that active OATP-dependent transport is unlikely to play a significant role in the human disposition of montelukast.

  10. Nucleation, growth and characterization of LiB 3O 5 single crystals

    Kannan, C. V.; Kimura, H.; Miyazaki, A.; Ramasamy, P.


    Nucleation parameters of LiB 3O 5 (LBO) that crystallized from high-temperature solution using two different solvents, namely boron oxide (B 2O 3) and molybdate (MoO 3), have been studied for better understanding of the growth process. Our results showed that B 2O 3 solvent yielded a larger value of metastable zone width than that of molybdate flux, thus giving more stability to the solution. Based on our theoretical considerations, inclusion-free LBO crystals have been grown by spontaneous nucleation and TSSG techniques using B 2O 3 solvent. Variation of optical absorption coefficient and refractive indices with wavelength has been studied. Results of optical and mechanical properties showed that the grown crystals are highly transparent and possesses hardness higher than that of KTP crystal.

  11. Construction and Virulence of Filamentous Hemagglutinin Protein B1 Mutant of Pasteurella multocida in Chickens

    GUO Dong-chun; QU Lian-dong; SUN Yan; ZHANG Ai-qin; LIU Jia-sen; LU Yan; LIU Pei-xin; YUAN Dong-wei; JIANG Qian; SI Chang-de


    Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative nonmotile coccobacillus, is the causative agent of fowl cholera, bovine hemorrhagic septicemia, enzoonotic pneumonia and swine atropic rhinitis. Two iflamentous hemagglutinin genes, fhaB1 and fhaB2, are the potential virulence factors. In this study, an inactivation fhaB1 mutant of P. multocida in avian strain C48-102 was constructed by a kanamycin-resistance cassette. The virulence of the fhaB1 mutant and the wild type strain was assessed in chickens by intranasal and intramuscular challenge. The inactivation of fhaB1 resulted in a high degree of attenuation when the chickens were challenged intranasally and a lesser degree when challenged intramuscularly. The fhaB1 mutant and the wild type strain were investigated their sensitivity to the antibody-dependent classical complement-mediated killing pathway in 90%convalescent chicken serum. The fhaB1 mutant was serum sensitive as the viability has reduced between untreated serum and heat inactivated chicken serum (P<0.007). These results conifrmed that FhaB1 played the critical roles in the bacterial pathogenesis and further studies were needed to investigate the mechanism which caused reduced virulence of the fhaB1 mutant.

  12. ALARM-B2: a computer program for analysis of large break LOCA of BWR

    The computer program ALARM-B2 is a modified version of ALARM-B1 and is a tool to analyse thermo-hydraulic phenomena of BWR during a postulated large break LOCA. The major improvement is to provide one dimensional heat conduction equation, heat transfer correlation package, and point reactor kinetics equation to analyse the heat transfer phenomenon in the core region during a LOCA. Analytical models of the fluid conservation and state equations are the same as in ALARM-B1 code; namely ALARM-B2 solves one-dimensional integral forms of the fluid conservation and state equations under the assumptions common to conventional node-junction type models. The main purpose of this report is to explain the frame-work of ALARM-B2 together with the requirements of input data. The validity of models newly incorporated into the present code is now being examined. (author)

  13. Radiation-resistant B-1 cells: A possible initiating cells of neoplastic transformation.

    Guimarães-Cunha, Caroline Ferreira; Alvares-Saraiva, Anuska Marcelino; de Souza Apostolico, Juliana; Popi, Ana Flavia


    The role of B-1 cells in the hyperproliferative hematologic disease has been described. Several reports bring evidences that B-1 cells are the main cell population in the chronic lymphatic leukemia. It is also described that these cells have an important involvement in the lupus erythematous systemic. The murine model used to investigate both disease models is NZB/NZW. Data from literature point that mutation in micro-RNA 15a and 16 are the responsible for the B-1 hyperplasia in these mice. Interestingly, it was demonstrated that NZB/NZW B-1 cells are radioresistant, contrariwise to observe in other mouse lineage derived B-1 cells and B-2 cells. However, some reports bring evidences that a small percentage of B-1 cells in healthy mice are also able to survive to irradiation. Herein, we aim to investigate the malignant potential of ionizing-radiation resistant B-1 cells in vitro. Our main goal is to establish a model that mimics the neoplastic transformation originate to a damage exposure of DNA, and not only related to intrinsic mutations. Data shown here demonstrated that radiation-resistant B-1 cells were able to survive long periods in culture. Further, these cells show proliferation index increase in relation to non-irradiated B-1 cells. In addition, radiation resistant B-1 cells showed hyperploid, morphologic alterations, increased induction of apoptosis after anti-IgM stimulation. Based on these results, we could suggest that radiation resistant B-1 cells showed some modifications in that could be related to induction of malignant potential. PMID:26898918


    B. Yu; Y.J. Zhang; Z.X. Zhao; F.X. Zhao; Q.K. Cai; C.S. Liu


    Mechanical properties were tested for in situ TiB2/A357 composite fabricated by LSM (mixed salts reaction) method. Microstructures of as cast and plastic deformed TiB2/A357 were investigated. The results show that there is a low misfit between (200)A1 and (101)TiB2 with [011]Al // [101]TiB2. There is a change from fully dendritic structure of the α-Al of A357 to a rosette-type structure of TiB2/A357. Significant increases in proof stress and Young's modulus can be obtained at low TiB2 additions. There exist dislocation loops around neighboring TiB2 particles with about 0. 1ηm in diameter and dislocation multiplication near TiB2 particles.

  15. Fungal degradation of aflatoxin B1.

    Shantha, T


    A number of fungal cultures were screened to select an organism suitable to be used in the detoxification of aflatoxin B1. They were co-cultured in Czapek-Dox-Casamino acid medium with aflatoxin B1 producing Aspergillus flavus. Several fungal cultures were found to prevent synthesis of aflatoxin B1 in liquid culture medium. Among these Phoma sp., Mucor sp., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma sp. 639, Rhizopus sp. 663, Rhizopus sp. 710, Rhizopus sp. 668, Alternaria sp. and some strains belonging to the Sporotrichum group (ADA IV B14(a), ADA SF VI BF (9), strain 720) could inhibit aflatoxin synthesis by > or =90%. A few fungi, namely ADA IV B1, ADA F1, ADA F8, also belonging to the Sporotrichum group, were less efficient than the Phoma sp. The Cladosporium sp. and A. terreus sp. were by far the least efficient, registering aflatoxin biosynthesis are also capable of degrading the preformed toxin. Among these, Phoma sp. was the most efficient destroying about 99% of aflatoxin B1. The cell free extract of Phoma sp. destroyed nearly 50 microg aflatoxin B1 100 ml(-1) culture medium (90% of the added toxin), and this was more effective than its own culture filtrate over 5 days incubation at 28+/-2 degrees C. The degradation was gradual: 35% at 24 h, 58% at 48 h, 65% at 72 h, 85% at 96 h and 90% at 120 h. The possibility of a heat stable enzymatic activity in the cell free extract of Phoma is proposed. PMID:10945479

  16. Observation of B-meson decays to b_1 pi and b_1 K

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Graugès-Pous, E; López, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabé, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Pelizaeus, M; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Bequilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; De La Vaissière, C; Hamon, O; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pérez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Röthel, W; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H


    We present the results of searches for decays of B mesons to final states with a b_1 meson and a charged pion or kaon. The data, collected with the BaBar detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represent 382 million B-Bbar pairs produced in e+e- annihilation. The results for the branching fractions are, in units of 10^{-6}, B(B+ -> b1^0 pi+) = 6.7 +/- 1.7 +/- 1.0 (4.0 sigma), B(B+ -> b1^0 K+ = 9.1+/- 1.7+/- 1.0 (5.3 sigma), B(B0 -> b1^-/+ pi^+/-) = 10.9 +/- 1.2 +/- 0.9 (8.9 sigma), and B(B0 -> b1^-K+) = 7.4 +/- 1.0 +/- 1.0 (6.1 sigma), with the assumption that B(b_1 -> omega pi)=1. We also measure charge and flavor asymmetries Ach(B+ -> b1^0 pi+) = 0.05 +/- 0.16 +/- 0.02, Ach(B+ -> b1^0 K+ = -0.46 +/- 0.20 +/- 0.02, Ach(B0 -> b1^-/+ pi^+/-) = -0.05 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.02, C(B0 -> b1^-/+ pi^+/-) = -0.22 +/- 0.23 +/- 0.05, deltaC(B0 -> b1^-/+ pi^+/-) = -1.04 +/- 0.23 +/- 0.08, and Ach(B0 -> b1^-K+) = -0.07 +/- 0.12 +/- 0.02, The first error quoted is statistical, the second systematic, and for the branch...

  17. Flux pinning behaviors of Ti and C co-doped MgB2 superconductors

    Flux pinning behavior of carbon and titanium concurrently doped MgB2 alloys has been studied by ac susceptibility and dc magnetization measurements. It is found that critical current density and irreversibility field of MgB2 have been significantly improved by doping C and Ti concurrently, sharply contrasted to the situation of C-only-doped or Ti-only-doped MgB2 samples. AC susceptibility measurement reveals that the dependence of the pinning potential on the dc applied field of Mg0.95Ti0.05B1.95C0.05 has been determined to be U(Bdc)∝Bdc-1 compared to that of MgB2U(Bdc)∝Bdc-1.5. As to the U(J) behavior, a relationship of U(J) ∝ J-0.17 is found fitting well for Mg0.95Ti0.05B1.95C0.05 with respect to U(J) ∝ J-0.21 for MgB2. All the results reveal a strong enhancement of the high field pinning potential in C and Ti co-doped MgB2

  18. Beneficial effects of kinin B1 receptor antagonism on plasma fatty acid alterations and obesity in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Talbot, Sébastien; Dias, Jenny Pena; El Midaoui, Adil; Couture, Réjean


    Kinins are the endogenous ligands of the constitutive B2 receptor (B2R) and the inducible B1 receptor (B1R). Whereas B2R prevents insulin resistance, B1R is involved in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, the contribution of B1R in type 2 diabetes associated with obesity remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of 1-week treatment with a selective B1R antagonist (SSR240612, 10 mg/kg per day, by gavage) on hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, leptinemia, body mass gain, and abnormal plasma fatty acids in obese Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Treatment with SSR240612 abolished the body mass gain and reduced polyphagia, polydipsia, and plasma fatty acid alterations in ZDF rats without affecting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia. The present study suggests that the upregulated B1R plays a role in body mass gain and circulating fatty acid alterations in ZDF rats. However, mechanisms other than B1R induction would be implicated in glucose metabolism disorder in ZDF rats, based on the finding that SSR240612 did not reverse hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. PMID:27172260

  19. Hotelzon's B2B content marketing plan

    Nguyen, Trang


    This thesis follows a research-based structure. The objective of this research was to help the case company Hotelzon develop a practical business-to-business (B2B) content marketing plan to engage new customers. The research topic came up when the case company named Hotelzon started expanding its business to many other countries. Therefore, attracting new prospects has become a critical issue to B2B corporates in this online world and constantly changing business environment. The first pa...

  20. EphB2 in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Regulates Vulnerability to Stress.

    Zhang, Ruo-Xi; Han, Ying; Chen, Chen; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Li, Jia-Li; Chen, Na; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wen-Hao; Zhu, Wei-Li; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin


    The ephrin B2 (EphB2) receptor is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is associated with synaptic development and maturation. It has recently been implicated in cognitive deficits and anxiety. However, still unknown is the involvement of EphB2 in the vulnerability to stress. In the present study, we observed decreases in EphB2 levels and their downstream molecules in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in mice that were susceptible to chronic social defeat stress. The activation of EphB2 receptors with EphrinB1-Fc in the mPFC produced stress-resistant and antidepressant-like behavioral effects in susceptible mice that lasted for at least 10 days. EphB2 receptor knockdown by short-hairpin RNA in the mPFC increased the susceptibility to stress and induced depressive-like behaviors in a subthreshold chronic social defeat stress paradigm. These behavioral effects were associated with changes in the phosphorylation of cofilin and membrane α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) trafficking and the expression of some synaptic proteins in the mPFC. We also found that EphB2 regulated stress-induced spine remodeling in the mPFC. Altogether, these results indicate that EphB2 is a critical regulator of stress vulnerability and might be a potential target for the treatment of depression. PMID:27103064

  1. Growth and study of LuNi2B2C single crystals

    Rare earth-nickel-borocarbides have attracted much interest in the last years because the compounds show the interplay of superconductivity and magnetic ordering. LuNi2B2C can be considered as non-magnetic reference system of such magnetic borocarbides as HoNi2B2C in which superconducting and antiferromagnetic ordering temperatures, Tc and TN, are similar. So far, LuNi2B2C crystals were only prepared by a flux method. For growing larger crystals we used an optical floating zone (FZ) technique, which already was successful in crystal growth of other RNi2B2C (R = Y,Tb,Ho,Tm,Er) compounds. In the case of LuNi2B2C, the primary crystallization field is far from the stoichiometric composition, and adjacent to the properitectic LuB2C2 phase field an extended region of LuNiBC occurs. Systematic studies of polycrystalline samples revealed that samples with nominal compositions LuNi5B3.5C and LuNi5B3C0.5 are free of the properitectic LuB2C2 and LuNiBC phases. Thus in the FZ crystal growth experiments we used a molten zone which corresponds to these compositions. From the grown LuNi2B2C rods single crystalline pieces have been prepared to investigate Fermi surface peculiarities by magneto-resistance measurements and to study the electronic band structure

  2. Activation of kinin B1 receptor evokes hyperthermia through a vagal sensory mechanism in the rat

    Talbot Sébastien


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinins are mediators of pain and inflammation. Their role in thermoregulation is, however, unknown despite the fact the B1 receptor (B1R was found implicated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which peripheral B1R affects body core temperature in a rat model known to show up-regulated levels of B1R. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats received streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg; i.p. to enhance B1R expression. Control rats received the vehicle only. One week later, rectal temperature was measured in awake rats after i.p. injection of increasing doses (0.01 to 5 mg/kg of des-Arg9-Bradykinin (BK and Sar-[D-Phe8]des-Arg9-BK (B1R agonists or BK (B2R agonist. The mechanism of B1R-induced hyperthermia was addressed using specific inhibitors and in rats subjected to subdiaphragmatic vagal nerve ligation. B1R mRNA level was measured by quantitative Real Time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and B1R was localized by confocal microscopy. Results B1R agonists (0.1 to 5 mg/kg showed transient (5- to 30-minute and dose-dependent increases of rectal temperature (+1.5°C in STZ-treated rats, but not in control rats. BK caused no effect in STZ and control rats. In STZ-treated rats, B1R agonist-induced hyperthermia was blocked by antagonists/inhibitors of B1R (SSR240612, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 (niflumic acid and nitric oxide synthase (NOS (L-NAME, and after vagal nerve ligation. In contrast, COX-1 inhibition (indomethacin had no effect on B1R agonist-induced hyperthermia. In STZ-treated rats, B1R mRNA was significantly increased in the hypothalamus and the vagus nerve where it was co-localized with calcitonin-gene-related peptide in sensory C-fibers. Conclusion B1R, which is induced in inflammatory diseases, could contribute to hyperthermia through a vagal sensory mechanism involving prostaglandins (via COX-2 and nitric oxide.

  3. Intermolecular biparatopic trapping of ErbB2 prevents compensatory activation of PI3K/AKT via RAS-p110 crosstalk.

    Tamaskovic, Rastislav; Schwill, Martin; Nagy-Davidescu, Gabriela; Jost, Christian; Schaefer, Dagmar C; Verdurmen, Wouter P R; Schaefer, Jonas V; Honegger, Annemarie; Plückthun, Andreas


    Compensatory mechanisms, such as relief of AKT-ErbB3-negative feedback, are known to desensitize ErbB2-dependent tumours to targeted therapy. Here we describe an adaptation mechanism leading to reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway during trastuzumab treatment, which occurs independently of ErbB3 re-phosphorylation. This signalling bypass of phospho-ErbB3 operates in ErbB2-overexpressing cells via RAS-PI3K crosstalk and is attributable to active ErbB2 homodimers. As demonstrated by dual blockade of ErbB2/RAS and ErbB3 by means of pharmacological inhibition, RNA interference or by specific protein binders obstructing the RAS-p110α interaction, both routes must be blocked to prevent reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Applying these general principles, we developed biparatopic designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) trapping ErbB2 in a dimerization-incompetent state, which entail pan-ErbB inhibition and a permanent OFF state in the oncogenic signalling, thereby triggering extensive apoptosis in ErbB2-addicted tumours. Thus, these novel insights into mechanisms underlying network robustness provide a guide for overcoming adaptation response to ErbB2/ErbB3-targeted therapy. PMID:27255951

  4. Inner shell excitation spectroscopy of transient molecules: HBS, HBO, and H3B3O3

    Ennis, L. E.; Hitchcock, A. P.


    Inner shell electron energy spectroscopy (ISEELS) was used to study HBS, HBO, and H3B3O3, reactive, transient species generated in situ. The reaction of H2S with crystalline boron in a quartz tube was used to produce thioborine (HBS) at ˜1100 °C, and borine (HBO) at ˜1200 °C. The reaction of H2O vapor with crystalline boron in a quartz tube at ˜1200 °C was used to produce boroxine (H3B3O3). These species were identified from their inner shell excitation spectra and mass spectrometry. The B 1s, S 2s, and S 2p ISEEL spectra of HBS, and the B 1s and O 1s spectra of HBO and H3B3O3 are reported and analyzed with the help of GSCF3 ab initio calculations. A reaction scheme is proposed for the generation of HBO from the reaction of H2S and boron in a heated quartz tube.

  5. Cellular Barcoding Links B-1a B Cell Potential to a Fetal Hematopoietic Stem Cell State at the Single-Cell Level

    Kristiansen, Trine A; Jaensson Gyllenbäck, Elin; Zriwil, Alya;


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a functional switch in neonatal mice hallmarked by a decrease in self-renewing divisions and entry into quiescence. Here, we investigated whether the developmental attenuation of B-1a cell output is a consequence of a shift in stem cell state during ontogeny....... Using cellular barcoding for in vivo single-cell fate analyses, we found that fetal liver definitive HSCs gave rise to both B-1a and B-2 cells. Whereas B-1a potential diminished in all HSCs with time, B-2 output was maintained. B-1a and B-2 plasticity could be reinitiated in a subset of adult HSCs...... by ectopic expression of the RNA binding protein LIN28B, a key regulator of fetal hematopoiesis, and this coincided with the clonal reversal to fetal-like elevated self-renewal and repopulation potential. These results anchor the attenuation of B-1a cell output to fetal HSC behavior and demonstrate...

  6. ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Alvarado, Diego; Klein, Daryl E.; Lemmon, Mark A.; (UPENN-MED)


    The orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) transforms cells when overexpressed, and it is an important therapeutic target in human cancer. Structural studies have suggested that the oncogenic (and ligand-independent) signalling properties of ErbB2 result from the absence of a key intramolecular 'tether' in the extracellular region that autoinhibits other human ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Although ErbB2 is unique among the four human ErbB receptors, here we show that it is the closest structural relative of the single EGF receptor family member in Drosophila melanogaster (dEGFR). Genetic and biochemical data show that dEGFR is tightly regulated by growth factor ligands, yet a crystal structure shows that it, too, lacks the intramolecular tether seen in human EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Instead, a distinct set of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions hold unliganded dEGFR in an inactive state. All of these interactions are maintained (and even extended) in ErbB2, arguing against the suggestion that ErbB2 lacks autoinhibition. We therefore suggest that normal and pathogenic ErbB2 signalling may be regulated by ligands in the same way as dEGFR. Our findings have important implications for ErbB2 regulation in human cancer, and for developing therapeutic approaches that target novel aspects of this orphan receptor.

  7. Prediction of B1 to B10 phase transition in LuN under pressure: An ab-initio investigation

    Sahoo, B. D.; Mukherjee, D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.


    Ab-initio total energy calculations have been performed in lutetium nitride (LuN) as a function of hydrostatic compression to understand the high pressure behavior of this compound. Our calculations predict a phase transition from ambient rocksalt type structure (B1 phase) to a tetragonal structure (B10 phase) at ~ 240 GPa. The phase transition has been identified as first order in nature with volume discontinuity of ~ 6%. The predicted high pressure phase has been found to be stable up to at least 400 GPa, the maximum pressure up to which calculations have been performed.Further, to substantiate the results of static lattice calculations analysis of lattice dynamic stability of B1 and B10 phase has been carried out at different pressures. Apart from this, we have analyzed the lattice dynamic stability CsCl type (B2) phase around the 240 GPa, the pressure reported for B1 to B2 transition in previous all-electron calculations by Gupta et al. 2013. We find that the B2 structure is lattice dynamically unstable at this pressure and remains unstable up to ~ 400 GPa, ruling out the possibility of B1 to B2 phase transition at least up to ~ 400 GPa. Further, the theoretically determined equation of state has been utilized to derive various physical quantities such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, and pressure derivative of bulk modulus of B1 phase at ambient conditions.

  8. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor attenuates melanoma tumor growth and metastasis.

    Patricia Dillenburg-Pilla

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a very aggressive tumor that does not respond well to standard therapeutic approaches, such as radio- and chemotherapies. Furthermore, acquiring the ability to metastasize in melanoma and many other tumor types is directly related to incurable disease. The B1 kinin receptor participates in a variety of cancer-related pathophysiological events, such as inflammation and angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated whether this G protein-coupled receptor plays a role in tumor progression. We used a murine melanoma cell line that expresses the kinin B1 receptor and does not express the kinin B2 receptor to investigate the precise contribution of activation of the B1 receptor in tumor progression and correlated events using various in vitro and in vivo approaches. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor in the absence of B2 receptor inhibits cell migration in vitro and decreases tumor formation in vivo. Moreover, tumors formed from cells stimulated with B1-specific agonist showed several features of decreased aggressiveness, such as smaller size and infiltration of inflammatory cells within the tumor area, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the host anti-tumor immune response, lower number of cells undergoing mitosis, a poorer vascular network, no signs of invasion of surrounding tissues or metastasis and increased animal survival. Our findings reveal that activation of the kinin B1 receptor has a host protective role during murine melanoma tumor progression, suggesting that the B1 receptor could be a new anti-tumor GPCR and provide new opportunities for therapeutic targeting.

  9. Radio continuum and radio recombination line observations of Sagittarius B1 and G0.6-0.0

    Mehringer, David M.; Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Palmer, Patrick; Goss, W. M.


    Continuum emission and H110-alpha recombination line emission from Sgr B1 and G0.6-0.0 have been observed using the VLA. It is shown that Sgr B1 is a region of great complexity, both spatially and kinematically. The continuum observations show that this region is dominated by many extended features rather than compact sources. On the other hand, Sgr B2 is dominated by several ultracompact H II regions. The two regions may be in different stages of evolution, with Sgr B1 being older, perhaps by as much as 0 exp 6 yrs. The recombination line study shows that Sgr B1 is composed of two distinct kinematic regions, a simple western one and a more complex eastern one. G0.6-0.0 is a region composed of at least four ultracompact H II regions that is situated between Sgr B1 and Sgr B2. There is an arc of ionized gas that lies to the east and to the south of these compact regions. The velocity of G0.6-0.0 is intermediate between those of Sgr B1 and Sgr B2. These facts strengthen the argument that these regions are physically associated.

  10. A subset of AID-dependent B-1a cells initiates hypersensitivity and pneumococcal pneumonia resistance.

    Askenase, Phillip W; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Paliwal, Vipin; Redegeld, Frank; Groot Kormelink, Thomas; Kerfoot, Steven; Hutchinson, Andrew T; van Loveren, Henk; Campos, Regis; Itakura, Atsuko; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Yamamoto, Natsuo; Nazimek, Katarzyn; Szczepanik, Marian; Ptak, Wold


    We propose that there is a special B-1a B cell subset ("sB-1a" cells) that mediates linked processes very early after immunization to initiate cutaneous contact sensitivity (CS), delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and immune resistance to pneumococcal pneumonia. Our published data indicate that in CS and DTH, these initiating processes are required for elicitation of the delayed onset and late-occurring classical T cell-mediated responses. sB-1a cells resemble memory B2 cells, as they are stimulated within 1 h of immunization and depend on T helper cytokines-uniquely IL-4 from hepatic iNKT cells--for activation and rapid migration from the peritoneal cavity to the spleen to secrete IgM antibody (Ab) and Ab-derived free light chains (FLCs) by only 1 day after immunization. Unlike conventional B-1a (cB-1a) cell-produced IgM natural Ab, IgM Ab produced by sB-1a cells has high Ag affinity owing to immunoglobulin V-region mutations induced by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). The dominant cB-1a cells are increased in immunized AID-deficient mice but do not mediate initiation, CS, or pneumonia resistance because natural Ab has relatively low Ag affinity because of unmutated germ-line V regions. In CS and DTH, sB-1a IgM Ag affinity is sufficiently high to mediate complement activation for generation of C5a that, together with vasoactive mediators such as TNF-α released by FLC-sensitized mast cells, activate local endothelium for extravascular recruitment of effector T cells. We conclude by discussing the possibility of functional sB-1 cells in humans. PMID:26662721

  11. The NbB2-phase revisited: Homogeneity range, defect structure, superconductivity

    The discovery of superconductivity below 40 K in MgB2 has motivated new investigations on similar compounds, especially on binary diborides. The great majority of these compounds represent the AlB2-type structure (P6/mmm space group, number 191) and comprise line compounds. However, among those, NbB2 and TaB2 are reported to present a significant homogeneity region, a value of 12 at.% being reported for the case of NbB2. In this work we have evaluated the homogeneity range of the NbB2-phase through detailed microstructural characterization of as-cast, as-cast + heat-treated and solid state sintered Nb-B alloys. Neutron diffraction experiments were performed to assess the defect mechanism responsible for accommodating the non-ideal NbB2 stoichiometries (ideal = 66.7 at.% B). The results clearly showed that the width of the homogeneity range of this phase is nearly 5 at.%, extending from 65 at.% B (NbB1.86) up to 70 at.% B (NbB2.34). Rietveld refinement of the neutron intensity diffraction data indicated a random distribution of vacancies in the Nb-subnet for hyperstoichiometric NbB2. The occurrence of a possible Nb-vacancy ordered supercell was evaluated; however, a simple AlB2-type is observed throughout the entire homogeneity range. The superconducting properties of selected alloys were checked via magnetic measurements. The Nb-deficient samples were found to contain traces of a superconducting phase with T c ∼ 3.5 K

  12. Characterization of metabolites from a strain of Aspergillus flavus accumulating aflatoxin B2

    A number of aflatoxins and anthraquinone pigments were isolated from a strain of Aspergillus flavus, several of which were fully characterized. The major metabolites isolated were aflatoxin B2 and versicolorin C, which are normally only found as minor products from species of the genus Aspergillus. The identification of these products supports the proposal that aflatoxin B2 can arise independently of aflatoxin B1 and that, in this case, the branch in the pathway occurs at the versicolorins. Other metabolites charaterized were aflatoxin M2, norsolorinic acid, and averufin

  13. Lattice defects and recombination processes in non-linear crystals LiB3O5

    Ogorodnikov, I. N.; Kruzhalov, A. V.; Porotnikov, A. V.; Yakovlev, Yu. V.

    The paper presents the results of a study of kinetics of the recombination processes in crystals LiB3O5 (LBO) obtained by the use of time-resolved luminescence and optical absorption spectroscopy. It was revealed that the observed peculiarities of the recombination processes in LBO are due to a participation of the trapped electron (B2+) and hole (O-) centres. In the framework of a model of the competing trapped hole centres the time dependence of both transient optical absorption and luminescence as well as their temperature dependencies was interpreted.

  14. Metastable optical absorption and luminescence of LiB3O5 lithium triborate crystals

    Metastable optical absorption and luminescence of LiB3O5 (LBO) nonlinear crystals in visible and ultraviolet ranges of spectrum were studied, the results are presented. By the method of absorption optical spectroscopy it was ascertained that short-lived optical absorption of LBO is brought about by optical transitions in hole centers. It is shown that kinetics of pulsed cathodoluminescence of LBO is controlled by recombination process involving two competing hole centers, interacting via valence zone, and small electronic centers of B2+. Radiative recombination dictates characteristic σ-polarized LBO luminescence in the range of 4.0 eV

  15. B2B Pioneer A Millionaire Maker


    China should soon see its largest group of instant millionaires after Jack Ma,Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of Alibaba Group,announced on July 27 that the China’s preeminent e-commerce company has initiated the listing of its B2B unit

  16. B2-Eirene modelling of ASDEX Upgrade

    Coster, D. P.; Schneider, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Bosch, H.-S.; Wunderlich, R.; Fuchs, C.; Mast, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Dux, R.; Becker, G.; Braams, B. J.; Reiter, D.; ASDEX Upgrade Team


    The extension of the computational region of the coupled fluid plasma, Monte-Carlo neutrals code, B2-Eirene, to the plasma center is discussed. The simulation of completely detached H-mode plasma is presented, as is the modelling of He and Ne compression.

  17. X-ray photoemission study of MgB2 films synthesized from in-situ annealed MgB2/Mg multilayers

    Superconducting MgB2 films were obtained by in-situ annealing of precursor multilayers deposited at low substrate temperature by sputtering from a MgB2 stoichiometric target and by thermal evaporation of pure Mg. After an in-situ annealing at 500-600 C, the films showed a zero resistance critical temperature up to 31 K. The as-obtained MgB2 films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES). The electronic structure was studied by monitoring the B 1s, Mg 2p, O 1s core-levels and the Mg KL2L3 Auger line. For comparison, the electronic structure of an MgB2 commercial superconducting sputtering target, of a not-annealed precursor film and of a sample obtained by direct sputtering from the MgB2 target have also been investigated. Electron spectroscopy showed that in the superconducting systems the Mg KL2L3 Auger line kinetic energy position is always higher by about 0.9 eV with respect to the energy position of the same Auger line measured in the non-superconducting samples. (orig.)

  18. Mitochondrial Transcription Factor B2 Is Essential for Metabolic Function in Drosophila melanogaster Development*

    Adán, Cristina; Matsushima, Yuichi; Hernández-Sierra, Rosana; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Fernández-Moreno, Miguel Ángel; González-Vioque, Emiliano; Calleja, Manuel; Aragón, Juan J.; Kaguni, Laurie S.; Garesse, Rafael


    Characterization of the basal transcription machinery of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is critical to understand mitochondrial pathophysiology. In mammalian in vitro systems, mtDNA transcription requires mtRNA polymerase, transcription factor A (TFAM), and either transcription factor B1 (TFB1M) or B2 (TFB2M). We have silenced the expression of TFB2M by RNA interference in Drosophila melanogaster. RNA interference knockdown of TF2BM causes lethality by arrest of larval deve...

  19. Thermodynamic properties of vitamin B2

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B2 has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B2 have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 322 K. • The energy of combustion of the riboflavin has been measured at 298.15 K. • The enthalpy of combustion ΔcH° and the thermodynamic parameters ΔfH°, ΔfS°, ΔfG° have been calculated. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) has been measured for the first time in the range from 6 to 322 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B2, namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) − H°(0), entropy S°(T) − S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) − H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 322 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye's theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. In a calorimeter with a static bomb and an isothermal shield, the energy of combustion of the riboflavin has been measured at 298.15 K. The enthalpy of combustion ΔcH° and the thermodynamic parameters ΔfH°, ΔfS°, ΔfG° and of reaction of formation of the riboflavin from simple substances at T = 298.15 K and p = 0.1 MPa have been calculated

  20. Electronic structure of MgB2

    P Modak; R S Rao; B K Godwal; S K Sikka


    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with experiment. We obtain the mass enhancement parameter by using our calculated (F) and the experimental specific heat data. The c is found to be 24.7 K.

  1. Effect of TiB2 Pretreatment on Pt/TiB2 Catalyst Performance

    Highlights: • We pretreated Titanium diboride by different acids and alkali. • We synthesis the Pt/as-pretreated TiB2 catalysts by a colloid route. • We investigated the effects of TiB2 Pretreatment on Pt/TiB2 Catalyst Performance. • The BET surface area and defects on the surface have a close relationship with the deposition of Pt nanoparticles. - Abstract: Carbon support corrosion of traditional Pt/C catalyst is one of the major contributors causing poor durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Titanium diboride (TiB2) has high electrical conductivity and considerable chemical stability, which making it as a good candidate for catalyst support in PEMFC. In this work, TiB2 was pretreated by different acid and alkali. The as-obtained samples were characterized by Ex-situ microscopy (ESM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pore size distribution (PSD) was analyzed by using DFT method. The PSD shows distinct volume in mesopore regions (less than 50 nm). The TiB2 pretreated by H2O2 shows the biggest BET surface area of 57 m2 g−1 and its PSD focus on mesoporous (1.5-8 nm) region, which resulted to high dispersion and better loading of Pt particles. The Hydrogen oxidization reaction (HOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was characterized by Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE). The Pt/TiB2 prepared by H2O2-pretreated TiB2 using the colloidal method showed better half-cell electrochemical performance. Facile synthetic for the development of Pt/TiB2 catalysts was developed

  2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of MgB 2 for valence state of Mg

    A. Talapatra; Bandyopadhyay, S. K.; Sen, Pintu; Barat, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukherjee, M.


    Core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been carried out on polycrystalline MgB 2 pellets over the whole binding energy range with a view to having an idea of the charge state of magnesium (Mg). We observe three distinct peaks in Mg 2p spectra at 49.3 eV (trace), 51.3 eV (major) and 54.0 eV (trace), corresponding to metallic Mg, MgB 2 and MgCO 3 or, divalent Mg species, respectively. Similar trend has been noticed in Mg 2s spectra. The binding energy of Mg in MgB 2 is lower than that corresponding to Mg(2+), indicative of the fact that the charge state of Mg in MgB 2 is less than (2+). Lowering of the formal charge of Mg promotes the σ → π electron transfer in boron (B) giving rise to holes on the top of the σ-band which are involved in coupling with B E 2g phonons for superconductivity. Through this charge transfer, Mg plays a positive role in hole superconductivity. B 1s spectra consist of three peaks corresponding to MgB 2, boron and B 2O 3. There is also evidence of MgO due to surface oxidation as seen from O 1s spectra.

  3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of MgB2 for valence state of Mg

    Core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been carried out on polycrystalline MgB2 pellets over the whole binding energy range with a view to having an idea of the charge state of magnesium (Mg). We observe three distinct peaks in Mg 2p spectra at 49.3 eV (trace), 51.3 eV (major) and 54.0 eV (trace), corresponding to metallic Mg, MgB2 and MgCO3 or, divalent Mg species, respectively. Similar trend has been noticed in Mg 2s spectra. The binding energy of Mg in MgB2 is lower than that corresponding to Mg(2+), indicative of the fact that the charge state of Mg in MgB2 is less than (2+). Lowering of the formal charge of Mg promotes the σ → π electron transfer in boron (B) giving rise to holes on the top of the σ-band which are involved in coupling with B E2g phonons for superconductivity. Through this charge transfer, Mg plays a positive role in hole superconductivity. B 1s spectra consist of three peaks corresponding to MgB2, boron and B2O3. There is also evidence of MgO due to surface oxidation as seen from O 1s spectra

  4. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel

  5. IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on Recommended Zero Points for the Absolute and Apparent Bolometric Magnitude Scales

    Mamajek, E. E.; Torres, G.; Prsa, A.;


    The XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu adopted IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on recommended zero points for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. The resolution was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division A-G Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy after...... consulting with a broad spectrum of researchers from the astronomical community. Resolution B2 resolves the long-standing absence of an internationally-adopted zero point for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. Resolution B2 defines the zero point of the absolute bolometric magnitude scale.......828e26 W) adopted by IAU 2015 Resolution B3 corresponds approximately to $M_{\\rm Bol}$(Sun) = 4.74, the value most commonly adopted in recent literature. The nominal total solar irradiance (1361 W/m$^2$) adopted in IAU 2015 Resolution B3 corresponds approximately to apparent bolometric magnitude $m...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-3 - Use considered sale.


    ....4161(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-3 Use considered sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer,...

  7. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 on Blood Biochemical Parameters in Broilers

    Tessari; Kobashigawa; Cardoso; Ledoux; Rottinghaus; Oliveira


    The individual and combined effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on liver pathology, serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and plasma total protein (TP) of broilers were evaluated from 8 to 41 days of age. Dietary treatments included a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of AFB1 (0, 50 and 200 μg AFB1/kg), and three levels of FB1 (0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg). At 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed 50 mg FB1 only, concentrations of ...

  8. MgB2 superconductors with addition of ZrB2 and different carbon sources

    MgB2 has been catching the attention due to the possibility to apply the material in magnets and electronic devices, operating with cryocoolers. In this work, MgB2 bulks were developed and analyzed with addition of ZrB2, another diboride with the same C32 hexagonal structure as MgB2, and simultaneous addition of different carbon sources (SiC, graphite, and carbon nanotubes). The objective of these additions is to modify the Mg planes with the diborides and to dope the material with carbon, improving the upper critical fields. Besides the doping of the material, this method creates crystalline defects in the superconducting matrix, which can act as pinning centers. As a result we could improve the critical current density of the material and estimate the behavior of dopants on the superconducting properties.

  9. IL-15 and IL-15 receptor selectively regulate differentiation of common mucosal immune system-independent B-1 cells for IgA responses.

    Hiroi, T; Yanagita, M; Ohta, N; Sakaue, G; Kiyono, H


    We show in this report a new regulatory role for IL-15 and IL-15R in the development of B-1 cells and their differentiation into IgA-producing cells. Mucosal IgA levels were found to be inhibited by anti-IL-15 mAb treatment in vivo, but enhanced by administration of rIL-15, while serum IgA levels remained unaffected. Mucosal B-1 cells preferentially proliferated in response to IL-15 in vitro. When mucosal B-1 and B-2 cells were separated into surface (s)IgM(+)sIgA(-) and sIgM(-)sIgA(+) fractions, IL-15R-specific mRNA was found to be predominant in both sIgM(+)sIgA(-) and sIgM(-)sIgA(+) B-1 cells at a much higher level than B-2 cells. Further, incubation of these different subsets of B-1 and B-2 cells with IL-15 resulted in greater enhancement of the corresponding receptor expression by B-1 subset when compared with B-2 fraction. Interestingly, de novo isolated sIgM(+)sIgA(-) B-1, but not sIgM(+)sIgA(-) B-2, cells were already class-switched cells because the germline Calpha transcript was detected and was then further enhanced by IL-15. IL-15 also supported differentiation of both sIgM(+)sIgA(-) and sIgM(-)sIgA(+) B-1 cells into IgA-producing cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that IL-15 is a critically important cytokine for the differentiation of both sIgM(+),IgA(-) and sIgM(-)sIgA(+) B-1 cells expressing IL-15R into IgA-producing cells in mucosal tissues. PMID:11035068

  10. Anti-ErbB-2 monoclonal antibodies and ErbB-2-directed vaccines.

    Yip, Yum L; Ward, Robyn L


    The tumour antigen ErbB-2 belongs to the epidermal growth factor receptor family. Numerous studies have shown that ErbB-2 is overexpressed in many cancers and it is prognostically important in a subset of malignancies. It is well recognised that this receptor has many characteristics that make it an excellent target for tumour-specific immunotherapy. One anti-ErbB-2 monoclonal antibody, Herceptin or TrastuzuMab, has already shown clinical efficacy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, despite this success, it is still currently unclear how monoclonal antibodies inhibit tumour growth in vivo. This review will summarise the biological activities of a range of anti-ErbB-2 Mabs, as well as their possible mechanisms of action. In addition, as an active mode of immunotherapy, the current vaccine strategies for inducing or enhancing ErbB-2-specific immunity will also be discussed. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the activities of anti-ErbB-2 Mabs will aid in the development of both passive and active immunotherapies against this important receptor. PMID:11807621