Tavassoli, Teresa; Miller, Lucy J.; Schoen, Sarah A.; Nielsen, Darci M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon
Anecdotal reports and empirical evidence suggest that sensory processing issues are a key feature of autism spectrum conditions. This study set out to investigate whether adults with autism spectrum conditions report more sensory over-responsivity than adults without autism spectrum conditions. Another goal of the study was to identify whether…
Luke, Lydia R.
Background: The difficulties experienced by intellectually able adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) have been hinted at in autobiographical accounts as well as in the clinical and neuropsychological research literature. Little is known, however, about the nature of these putative difficulties, nor how people with ASCs might best be supported to make decisions for themselves. The aim of this project is to improve understanding of the effects of ASCs on decision-making in a way that m...
Peppé, Susan; Cleland, Joanne; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Hare, Anne; Martinez-Castilla, Pastora
The expressive prosodic abilities of two groups of school-age children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC), Asperger's syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA), were compared with those of typically-developing controls. The HFA group showed impairment relative to age-matched controls on all the prosody tasks assessed (affect, sentence-type, contrastive stress, phrasing and imitation) while the AS showed impairment only on phrasing and imitation. Compared with lexically-matched contro...
Stewart, Mary E.; McAdam, Clair; Ota, Mitsuhiko; Peppe, Sue; Cleland, Joanne
The present study reports on a new vocal emotion recognition task and assesses whether people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) perform differently from typically developed individuals on tests of emotional identification from both the face and the voice. The new test of vocal emotion contained trials in which the vocal emotion of the sentence…
Sebastian, Catherine; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Charman, Tony
Little is known about how adolescents with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) experience the initial impact of ostracism. This study investigated whether a mild, short-term episode of experimentally induced ostracism (Cyberball) would affect self-reported anxiety, mood, and the extent to which four social needs (self-esteem, belonging, control and…
Lai, Meng-Chuan; Baron-Cohen, Simon
Autism spectrum conditions comprise a set of early-onset neurodevelopmental syndromes with a prevalence of 1% across all ages. First diagnosis in adulthood has finally become recognised as an important clinical issue due to the increasing awareness of autism, broadening of diagnostic criteria, and the introduction of the spectrum concept. Thus, the idea of a lost generation of people who were previously excluded from a diagnosis of classic autism has arisen. Making a first diagnosis of autism spectrum conditions in adults can be challenging for practical reasons (eg, no person to provide a developmental history), developmental reasons (eg, the acquisition of learnt or camouflaging strategies), and clinical reasons (eg, high frequency of co-occurring disorders). The diagnostic process includes referral, screening, interviews with informants and patients, and functional assessments. In delineating differential diagnoses, true comorbidities, and overlapping behaviour with other psychiatric diagnoses, particular attention should be paid to anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, psychosis, personality disorders, and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Possible misdiagnosis, especially in women, should be explored. The creation of supportive, accepting, and autism-friendly social and physical environments is important and requires a coordinated effort across agencies and needs support from government policies. PMID:26544750
Press, C; D Richardson; Bird, G
It has been proposed that there is a core impairment in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) to the mirror neuron system (MNS): If observed actions cannot be mapped onto the motor commands required for performance, higher order sociocognitive functions that involve understanding another person's perspective, such as theory of mind, may be impaired. However, evidence of MNS impairment in ASC is mixed. The present study used an 'automatic imitation' paradigm to assess MNS functioning in adults with...
Cooper, Rose A; Plaisted-Grant, Kate C; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Simons, Jon S
Studies of reality monitoring (RM) often implicate medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in distinguishing internal and external information, a region linked to autism-related deficits in social and self-referential information processing, executive function, and memory. This study used two RM conditions (self-other; perceived-imagined) to investigate RM and metamemory in adults with autism. The autism group showed a deficit in RM, which did not differ across source conditions, and both groups exhibited a self-encoding benefit on recognition and source memory. Metamemory for perceived-imagined information, but not for self-other information, was significantly lower in the autism group. Therefore, reality monitoring and metamemory, sensitive to mPFC function, appear impaired in autism, highlighting a difficulty in remembering and monitoring internal and external details of past events. PMID:26899724
Middha Akanksha; Kataria Sahil; Sandhu Premjeet; Kapoor Bhawna
Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a serious neurological disorder affecting communication skills, social interactions, adaptability in an individual, and also causes dramatic changes in behavioral patterns. This condition typically lasts throughout one’s lifetime and affects both, children as well as adults. Research has shown a tenfold increase in autism cases over the past decade and still rising at an alarming pace. The origins of autism are not known even to modern science. Aut...
Hannant, Penelope; Tavassoli, Teresa; Cassidy, Sarah
In addition to difficulties in social communication, current diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC) also incorporate sensorimotor difficulties, repetitive motor movements, and atypical reactivity to sensory input (1). This paper explores whether sensorimotor difficulties are associated with the development and maintenance of symptoms in ASC. First, studies have shown difficulties coordinating sensory input into planning and executing movement effectively in ASC. Second, studies have shown associations between sensory reactivity and motor coordination with core ASC symptoms, suggesting these areas each strongly influence the development of social and communication skills. Third, studies have begun to demonstrate that sensorimotor difficulties in ASC could account for reduced social attention early in development, with a cascading effect on later social, communicative and emotional development. These results suggest that sensorimotor difficulties not only contribute to non-social difficulties such as narrow circumscribed interests, but also to the development of social behaviors such as effectively coordinating eye contact with speech and gesture, interpreting others’ behavior, and responding appropriately. Further research is needed to explore the link between sensory and motor difficulties in ASC and their contribution to the development and maintenance of ASC.
Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.
According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…
Caroline E Robertson
Full Text Available Vision in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC is characterized by enhanced perception of local elements, but impaired perception of global percepts. Deficits in coherent motion perception seem to support this characterization, but the roots and robustness of such deficits remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the dynamics of the perceptual decision-making network known to support coherent motion perception. In a series of forced-choice coherent motion perception tests, we parametrically varied a single stimulus dimension, viewing duration, to test whether the rate at which evidence is accumulated towards a global decision is atypical in ASC. 40 adult participants (20 ASC performed a classic motion discrimination task, manually indicating the global direction of motion in a random-dot kinematogram across a range of coherence levels (2-75% and stimulus-viewing durations (200-1500 ms. We report a deficit in global motion perception at short viewing durations in ASC. Critically, however, we found that increasing the amount of time over which motion signals could be integrated reduced the magnitude of the deficit, such that at the longest duration there was no difference between the ASC and control groups. Further, the deficit in motion integration at the shortest duration was significantly associated with the severity of autistic symptoms in our clinical population, and was independent from measures of intelligence. These results point to atypical integration of motion signals during the construction of a global percept in ASC. Based on the neural correlates of decision-making in global motion perception our findings suggest the global motion deficit observed in ASC could reflect a slower or more variable response from the primary motion area of the brain or longer accumulation of evidence towards a decision-bound in parietal areas.
Meng-Chuan Lai; Lombardo, Michael V.; Greg Pasco; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A; Bhismadev Chakrabarti; Simon Baron-Cohen
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (h...
... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental ... key findings. About Us Overview of CDC’s work. Autism: What's New New Data on Autism: Five Facts ...
... autism. One NIH-funded team found that the brain waves of some 2-year-olds with autism can have a distinctive pattern when they listen to familiar words. The children with ... in the brain region that processes language. Follow-up studies showed ...
Falkmer, Marita; Anderson, Katie; Joosten, Annette; Falkmer, Torbjörn
Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) increasingly participate in inclusive education. The present study reviewed studies of children with ASC for parents' perceptions of aspects they believed contributed to inclusive mainstream school settings. Understanding the parental perspective on the facilitators for inclusion of their child…
Johansson, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria
As part of multidisciplinary surveys of three Behavioural Phenotype Conditions (BPCs); Möbius sequence (Möbius), CHARGE syndrome (CHARGE) and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAV), autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) was diagnosed in 45%, 68% and 42% of the individuals, respectively. Diagnostic difficulties due to additional dysfunctions such as mental retardation (MR), impaired vision, reduced hearing and cranial nerve dysfunction, were experienced in all three BPC groups. The applicability of current autism diagnostic instruments, such as the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Autistic Behaviour Checklist (ABC), in individuals with ASCs and Möbius/CHARGE/OAV was analysed. Use of an extensive battery of diagnostic instruments, including both observational schedules and parent interviews, and, if possible, independent judgements from two clinicians, is essential in the diagnostics of ASCs in these individuals. Further, in individuals who are deaf and blind the applicability of current autism diagnostic instruments is highly questionable. PMID:19709852
Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASCs are characterized by a high degree of clinical heterogeneity, but the extent to which this variation represents a severity gradient versus discrete phenotypes is unclear. This issue has complicated genetic studies seeking to investigate the genetic basis of the high hereditability observed clinically in those with an ASC. The aim of this study was to examine the possible clustering of symptoms associated with ASCs to determine whether the observed distribution of symptom type and severity supported either a severity or a symptom subgroup model to account for the phenotypic variation observed within the ASCs. Methods We investigated the responses of a group of adults with higher functioning ASCs on the fifty clinical features examined in the Autism Spectrum Quotient, a screening questionnaire used in the diagnosis of higher functioning ASCs. In contrast to previous studies we have used this instrument with no a priori assumptions about any underlying factor structure of constituent items. The responses obtained were analyzed using complete linkage hierarchical cluster analysis. For the members of each cluster identified the mean score on each Autism Spectrum Quotient question was calculated. Results Autism Spectrum Quotient responses from a total of 333 individuals between the ages of 16.6 and 78.0 years were entered into the hierarchical cluster analysis. The four cluster solution was the one that generated the largest number of clusters that did not also include very small cluster sizes, defined as a membership comprising 10 individuals or fewer. Examination of these clusters demonstrated that they varied in total Autism Spectrum Quotient but that the profiles across the symptoms comprising the Autism Spectrum Quotient did not differ independently of this severity factor. Conclusion These results are consistent with a unitary spectrum model, suggesting that the clinical heterogeneity observed
Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.
Full Text Available Dietary intervention as a tool for maintaining and improving physical health and wellbeing is a widely researched and discussed topic. Speculation that diet may similarly affect mental health and wellbeing particularly in cases of psychiatric and behavioural symptomatology opens up various avenues for potentially improving quality of life. We examine evidence suggestive that a gluten-free, casein-free or combined gluten- and casein-free diet can ameliorate core and peripheral symptoms and improve developmental outcome in some cases of autism spectrum conditions. Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published studies indicate statistically significant positive changes to symptom presentation following dietary intervention. In particular, changes to areas of communication, attention and hyperactivity are detailed, despite the presence of various methodological shortcomings. Specific characteristics of best- and non-responders to intervention have not been fully elucidated; neither has the precise mode of action for any universal effect outside of known individual cases of food-related co-morbidity. With the publication of controlled medium- and long-term group studies of a gluten- and casein-free diet alongside more consolidated biological findings potentially linked to intervention, the appearance of a possible diet-related autism phenotype seems to be emerging supportive of a positive dietary effect in some cases. Further debate on whether such dietary intervention should form part of best practice guidelines for autism spectrum conditions and onward representative of an autism dietary-sensitive enteropathy is warranted.
Baron-Cohen, Simon; Golan, Ofer; Ashwin, Emma
Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have major difficulties in recognizing and responding to emotional and mental states in others' facial expressions. Such difficulties in empathy underlie their social-communication difficulties that form a core of the diagnosis. In this paper we ask whether aspects of empathy can be taught to young children with ASC. We review a study that evaluated The Transporters, an animated series designed to enhance emotion comprehension in children with AS...
von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A.H.; Stoyanova, Raliza S.; Rowe, James B.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Calder, Andrew J
Eye contact plays a key role in social interaction and is frequently reported to be atypical in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASCs). Despite the importance of direct gaze, previous functional magnetic resonance imaging in ASC has generally focused on paradigms using averted gaze. The current study sought to determine the neural processing of faces displaying direct and averted gaze in 18 males with ASC and 23 matched controls. Controls showed an increased response to direct gaz...
BACKGROUND: Families play an important role in facilitating the development and well-being of children with autism spectrum conditions. OBJECTIVES: After setting the scene with a clinical example, and providing a brief discussion of the current thinking about the aetiology of Autism spectrum conditions, this paper provides a review of the literature regarding the practice of systemic psychotherapy with families in which a child has an autism spectrum condition (ASC). METHODS: A search of databases and journals revealed a large number of opinion papers regarding how family therapists might work with families of children with ASCs and a smaller number of papers that describe or explore actual clinical practice. RESULTS: Pilot studies using qualitative methods and practice-based evidence in the form of descriptions of clinical work offer a solid footing on which to develop systemic practice to help families where a person has an ASC. CONCLUSION: Given the multifactorial nature of the aetiology of ASCs it is suggested that systemic interventions have the potential to influence changes at multiple levels of functioning for the child and the family. PMID:27030899
Lyall, Kristen; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
The maternal immune system may play a role in offspring neurodevelopment. We examined whether maternal autoimmune disease, asthma, and allergy were associated with child autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental delay without autism (DD) using 560 ASD cases, 391 typically developing controls, and 168 DD cases from the CHildhood Autism Risk…
Stacy, Maria E.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Yarger, Heather A.; Zimmerman, Andrew; Makia, Barraw; Lee, Li-Ching
This study investigated differences in co-occurring diagnoses made in females compared to males with autism spectrum disorders in 913 children (746 males and 167 females) living in the United States with a current autism spectrum disorder diagnosis identified via caregiver-reported data from the National Survey of Children's Health 2007. The…
Wakabayashi, Akio; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Uchiyama, Tokio; Yoshida, Yuko; Kuroda, Miho; Wheelwright, Sally
This study tests the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism. Three groups of participants took part: n = 48 people with autism spectrum, n = 137 general population controls, and n = 1,250 university student controls. Each participant completed the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the…
Hannant, Penelope; Cassidy, Sarah; Tavassoli, Teresa; Mann, Francesca
Present diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC) include social communication and interaction difficulties, repetitive behavior and movement, and atypical sensory responsivity. Few studies have explored the influence of motor coordination and sensory responsivity on severity of ASC symptoms. In the current study, we explore whether sensory responsivity and motor coordination differences can account for the severity of autistic behaviors in children with ASC. Thirty-six children participated: 18 (13 male, 5 female) with ASC (ages 7–16: mean age = 9.93 years) and 18 (7 male, 11 female) typically developing (TD) children (ages 6–12; mean age = 9.16 years). Both groups completed a battery of assessments that included motor coordination, sensory responsivity, receptive language, non-verbal reasoning and social communication measures. Children with ASC also completed the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that children with ASC scored significantly lower on receptive language, coordination, sensory responsivity and a sensorimotor subscale, Modulation of Activity (MoA) compared to the TD group. In the ASC group, MoA significantly predicted ASC severity across all ASC measures; receptive language and sensory responsivity significantly predicted parental reported autism measures; and coordination significantly predicted examiner observed reported scores. Additionally, specific associations were found between the somatosensory perceptive modalities and ASC severity. The results show that sensorimotor skills are associated with severity of ASC symptoms; furthering the need to research sensorimotor integration in ASC and also implying that diagnosis of ASC should also include the assessment of both coordination deficit and atypical sensory responsivity. PMID:27582694
Hannant, Penelope; Cassidy, Sarah; Tavassoli, Teresa; Mann, Francesca
Present diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC) include social communication and interaction difficulties, repetitive behavior and movement, and atypical sensory responsivity. Few studies have explored the influence of motor coordination and sensory responsivity on severity of ASC symptoms. In the current study, we explore whether sensory responsivity and motor coordination differences can account for the severity of autistic behaviors in children with ASC. Thirty-six children participated: 18 (13 male, 5 female) with ASC (ages 7-16: mean age = 9.93 years) and 18 (7 male, 11 female) typically developing (TD) children (ages 6-12; mean age = 9.16 years). Both groups completed a battery of assessments that included motor coordination, sensory responsivity, receptive language, non-verbal reasoning and social communication measures. Children with ASC also completed the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that children with ASC scored significantly lower on receptive language, coordination, sensory responsivity and a sensorimotor subscale, Modulation of Activity (MoA) compared to the TD group. In the ASC group, MoA significantly predicted ASC severity across all ASC measures; receptive language and sensory responsivity significantly predicted parental reported autism measures; and coordination significantly predicted examiner observed reported scores. Additionally, specific associations were found between the somatosensory perceptive modalities and ASC severity. The results show that sensorimotor skills are associated with severity of ASC symptoms; furthering the need to research sensorimotor integration in ASC and also implying that diagnosis of ASC should also include the assessment of both coordination deficit and atypical sensory responsivity. PMID:27582694
Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; White, Rachael
In this discourse analytic study, we examine interactions between adolescents with autism spectrum condition (ASC) and their typically developing (TD) peers during the construction of fictional narratives within a group intervention context. We found participants with ASC contributed fewer narrative-related turns at talk than TD participants. The…
Roy, A.; Roy, M.; Deb, S.; Unwin, G.; Roy, A.
Background: ASC (autism spectrum conditions) may result from a failure of striatal beta endorphins to diminish with maturation. Many symptoms of ASC resemble behaviours induced in animals or humans by opiate administration, including decreased socialisation, diminished crying, repetitive stereotypies, insensitivity to pain and motor hyperactivity.…
Cheng, Yufang; Ye, Jun
Social reciprocity deficits are a core feature of the autism spectrum conditions (ASCs). Many individual with ASCs have difficulty with social interaction due to a frequent lack of social competence. This study focuses on using a virtual learning environment to help the deficiencies of social competence for people with ASCs, and to increase their…
This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD. Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD). Date Released: 4/2/2014.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC are a set of pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by a wide range of lifelong signs and symptoms. Recent explanatory models of autism propose abnormal neural connectivity and are supported by studies showing decreased interhemispheric coherence in individuals with ASC. The first aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of reduced interhemispheric coherence in ASC, and secondly to investigate specific effects of task performance on interhemispheric coherence in ASC. Methods We analyzed electroencephalography (EEG data from 15 participants with ASC and 15 typical controls, using Wavelet Transform Coherence (WTC to calculate interhemispheric coherence during face and chair matching tasks, for EEG frequencies from 5 to 40 Hz and during the first 400 ms post-stimulus onset. Results Results demonstrate a reduction of interhemispheric coherence in the ASC group, relative to the control group, in both tasks and for all electrode pairs studied. For both tasks, group differences were generally observed after around 150 ms and at frequencies lower than 13 Hz. Regarding within-group task comparisons, while the control group presented differences in interhemispheric coherence between faces and chairs tasks at various electrode pairs (FT7-FT8, TP7-TP8, P7-P8, such differences were only seen for one electrode pair in the ASC group (T7-T8. No significant differences in EEG power spectra were observed between groups. Conclusions Interhemispheric coherence is reduced in people with ASC, in a time and frequency specific manner, during visual perception and categorization of both social and inanimate stimuli and this reduction in coherence is widely dispersed across the brain. Results of within-group task comparisons may reflect an impairment in task differentiation in people with ASC relative to typically developing individuals. Overall, the results of this research support the value of WTC
Rebecca E. Rosenberg
Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.
Faras Hadeel; Al Ateeqi Nahed; Tidmarsh Lee
Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, reciprocal social interaction and restricted repetitive behaviors or interests. The term autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been used to describe their variable presentation. Although the cause of these disorders is not yet known, studies strongly suggest a genetic basis with a complex mode of inheritance. More research is needed to explore environmental factors that c...
Jones, Kyle B; Cottle, Kristina; Bakian, Amanda; Farley, Megan; Bilder, Deborah; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M
This study describes medical conditions experienced by a population-based cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder whose significant developmental concerns were apparent during childhood. As part of a 25-year outcome study of autism spectrum disorder in adulthood, medical histories were collected on 92 participants (N = 69 males) who were first ascertained as children in the mid-1980s, 11 of whom were deceased at the time of follow-up. Questionnaires queried medical symptoms, disorders, hospitalizations, surgeries, and medication use. Median age at follow-up was 36 years (range: 23.5-50.5 years), and intellectual disability co-occurred in 62%. The most common medical conditions were seizures, obesity, insomnia, and constipation. The median number of medical conditions per person was 11. Increased medical comorbidity was associated with female gender (p = 0.01) and obesity (p = 0.03), but not intellectual disability (p = 0.79). Adults in this cohort of autism spectrum disorder first ascertained in the 1980s experience a high number of chronic medical conditions, regardless of intellectual ability. Understanding of these conditions commonly experienced should direct community-based and medical primary care for this population. PMID:26162628
Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V;
bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....
The aim of this paper is to present an understanding of the coping mechanisms and coping styles adopted by individuals on the Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) by looking to draw parallels with sports performance psychology and how different sources of stress and anxiety can lead to the adoption of different coping styles. Firstly, an overview of current understanding of what constitute a stressor and how this can affect an individual is presented from sport and exercise psychology literature....
Children with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are included and thus expected to participate in mainstream schools. However, ASC are characterized by poor communication and difficulties in understanding social information; factors likely to have negative influences on participation. Hence, this thesis studied body functions hypothesized to affect social interaction and both perceived and observed participation of students with ASC in mainstream schools. Case-control studies were conducted to ...
Full Text Available Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, reciprocal social interaction and restricted repetitive behaviors or interests. The term autism spectrum disorders (ASD has been used to describe their variable presentation. Although the cause of these disorders is not yet known, studies strongly suggest a genetic basis with a complex mode of inheritance. More research is needed to explore environmental factors that could be contributing to the cause of these disorders. The occurrence of ASD has been increasing worldwide, with the most recent prevalence studies indicating that they are present in 6 per 1000 children. The objectives of this article are to provide physicians with relevant information needed to identify and refer children presenting with symptoms suggestive of ASDs to specialized centers early, and to make them feel comfortable in dealing with public concerns regarding controversial issues about the etiology and management of these disorders.
Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der
Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The e
Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI
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Slides for a talk about family process and the importance of parenting dimensions in adolescent development. The slides list findings to date, and propose research into the influence of family on outcomes for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.
Philip, Ruth Clare Margaret
With an estimated prevalence of ~1%, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is relatively common. Whilst accepted as a neurodevelopmental disorder, currently the diagnosis of autism is based on the observation of characteristic behaviour: deficits in language, communication and social skills in addition to unusual or restricted interests. Research in the condition has been approached with psychological and physiological methodology however a full understanding of the underlying neuropa...
... Shared Neurobiology of Autism and Related Disorders NINDS Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Conference Summary Summary of Clinical Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Conference September 19-22, 2002. Publicaciones en ...
Oliveira, Guiomar; Ataide, Assuncao; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa S.; Coutinho, Ana Margarida; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Goncalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazare Mendes; Rodrigues, Vitor; Carmona da Mota, Henrique; Vicente, Astrid Moura
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands.…
... is often based on guidelines from a medical book titled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ... Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Autism ...
... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Do vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? A: Many studies that have ... whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the studies continue ...
García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar
Couples affect each other cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally. The goal of this study is to test the benefits and potential use of the actor-partner interdependence model in examining how parental self-efficacy and positive contributions of fathers and mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Condition influence each other's psychological adaptation. The sample includes 76 Spanish couples who completed validated questionnaires measuring predictors, i.e., self-efficacy and positive contributions, and adaptation outcomes i.e., stress, anxiety, depression and psychological well-being. Multilevel analysis revealed many actor and some partner effects of parental self-efficacy and positive contributions to be important determinants of adaptation above and beyond child and sociodemographic factors, and as such, these effects should be targeted in clinical intervention programs. PMID:27007725
Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI; Salmanian, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin
How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication and the presence of repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. Previous studies have demonstrated structural and functional abnormalities in different brain regions in ASD. Motor difficulties, unusual percept ion and minor physical anomalies have been reported but not systematically investigated in the adult population with ASD and n...
Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna
Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…
Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven
Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…
Ferraro, F. Richard
A total of 32 studies comprising 238 simple reaction time and choice reaction time conditions were examined in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (n?=?964) and controls (n?=?1032). A Brinley plot/multiple regression analysis was performed on mean reaction times, regressing autism spectrum disorder performance onto the control performance as…
Masterson, Tracy Loye; Dimitriou, Francine; Turko, Kristine; McPartland, James
With rates of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) continuing to rise alongside improvements in early identification and treatment, service providers are in great demand. Providing undergraduate students with opportunities for education and applied experiences with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can help fill a valuable niche in the autism community.…
Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.
This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…
Barrett, Barbara; Mosweu, Iris; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Happé, Francesca; Byford, Sarah
Autism spectrum disorder is a complex condition that requires specialised care. Knowledge of the costs of autism spectrum disorder, especially in comparison with other conditions, may be useful to galvanise policymakers and leverage investment in education and intervention to mitigate aspects of autism spectrum disorder that negatively impact…
Golan, Ofer; Sinai-Gavrilov, Yana; Baron-Cohen, Simon
Background: Difficulties in recognizing emotions and mental states are central characteristics of autism spectrum conditions (ASC). However, emotion recognition (ER) studies have focused mostly on recognition of the six ?basic? emotions, usually using still pictures of faces. Methods: This study describes a new battery of tasks for testing recognition of nine complex emotions and mental states from video clips of faces and from voice recordings taken from the Mindreading DVD. This...
Education of children with autism spectrum disorders is possible only if their special educational needs are taken into account. Special educational needs of children form the demand for special educational conditions. On the basis of the existing primary list of special educational needs in the approximate adapted basic general education program for students with autism spectrum disorders and with consideration of contemporary scientific data about particularities of their develo...
Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; SOURANDER, ANDRE
The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender,...
Szymanski, Christen A.; Brice, Patrick J.; Lam, Kay H.; Hotto, Sue A.
Epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of autism have increased in recent years, within the United States and abroad. However, statistics as to how many of those children may also have a comorbid hearing loss is lacking. The prevalence of school-administrator reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (clinical diagnosis…
This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…
Hengeveld, M.W.; Londen, L van; Gaag, R.J. van der
Autism spectrum disorder was diagnosed in three adults. The first patient, a married man aged 41, was referred to a psychiatrist with 'impending burn-out'. The second was a 32-year-old male student with schizophrenia and a depressive disorder who was referred to a centre for autism because a friend
Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder
Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental condition, which is typically characterized by a triad of symptoms: impaired social communication, social reciprocity and repetitive stereotypic behavior. While the behavioral phenotype of ASD is well described, the search for reliable ‘autism biomarkers’ continues. CONTENT: Insulin growth factor (IGF) is essential for the myelination of developing fetal neurons; this is in addition to the well-known links bet...
White, Susan W.; Oswald, Donald; Ollendick, Thomas; Scahill, Lawrence
Anxiety and poor stress management are common concerns in clinical samples of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Anxiety may worsen during adolescence, as young people face an increasingly complex social milieu and often become more aware of their differences and interpersonal difficulties. This review summarizes the state of research on the prevalence, phenomenology, and treatment of anxiety in youth with autism and related conditions such as Asperger’s disorder. Using search wor...
Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI
Full Text Available objectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This articlereviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, reviewand editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.
Kim, Sung Koo
In patients with a language developmental delay, it is necessary to make a differential diagnosis for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), specific language impairment, and mental retardation. It is important that pediatricians recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs, as many patients with language developmental delays are ultimately diagnosed with ASDs. Pediatricians play an important role in the early recognition of ASDs, because they are usually the first point of contact for children with ASDs. A revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASDs was proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) that was released in May 2013. The autism spectrum describes a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders in the fifth edition of the DSM. The new diagnostic criteria encompasses previous elements from the diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. An additional change to the DSM includes synthesizing the section on social and communication deficits into one domain. In ASD patients, the appropriate behavioral therapies and rehabilitation treatments significantly affect the prognosis. Therefore, this makes early diagnosis and treatment very important. In conclusion, pediatricians need to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs and be attentive to them in order to make an early diagnosis and provide treatment. PMID:25729393
Lisik, Małgorzata Z.
Autism, also known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), is etiologically and clinically heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disabilities. ASD affects 1% of child’s population. The sex difference is observed with 4:1 male to female ratio. This is descriptive diagnosis based on observation and analysis of behavior and cognitive functions. ASD does not fit the criteria of known patterns of inheritance. For the majority of patients polygenic model of inheritance with many interacting genes i...
Purpose of review: Neurological comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are not only common, but they are also associated with more clinical severity. This review highlights the most recent literature on three of autism's most prevalent neurological comorbidities: motor impairment, sleep disorders and epilepsy. Recent findings: Motor impairment in ASDs manifests as both delays and deficits, with delays found in gross and fine motor domains and deficits found in praxis, coordination ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental condition, which is typically characterized by a triad of symptoms: impaired social communication, social reciprocity and repetitive stereotypic behavior. While the behavioral phenotype of ASD is well described, the search for reliable ‘autism biomarkers’ continues. CONTENT: Insulin growth factor (IGF is essential for the myelination of developing fetal neurons; this is in addition to the well-known links between IGF, maternal inflammation, infection and autism supporting IGF as a potential marker. Combining IGF data with data regarding levels of the known markers, serotonin and anti-myelin basic protein, in order to calculate an autism index, could provide a new diagnostic method for at-risk neonates. Disruptions to multiple pathophysiological systems, including redox, folate, methylation, tryptophan metabolism, and mitochondrial metabolism, have been well documented in autistic patients. Maternal infection and inflammation have known links with autism. Autoimmunity has therefore been a well-studied area of autism research. The potential of using autoantibodies as novel biomarkers for autism, in addition to providing insights into the neurodevelopmental processes that lead to autism. SUMMARY: The six proposed causes of autism involve both metabolic and immunologic dysfunctions and include: increased oxidative stress; decreased methionine metabolism and trans-sulfuration: aberrant free and bound metal burden; gastrointestinal (GI disturbances; immune/inflammation dysregulation; and autoimmune targeting. A newborn screening program for early-onset ASD should be capable of utilizing a combination of ASD-associated biomarkers representative of the six proposed causes of autism in order to identify newborns at risk. The biomarkers discussed in this article are useful to guide the selection, efficacy and sufficiency of biomedical interventions, which would likely
... Contact Us Home About Autism Symptoms Diagnosis Causes Asperger’s Syndrome Facts and Statistics Living with Autism Autism through ... Lifespan Autism through the Lifespan In our culture, autism spectrum disorder is often thought of as a childhood condition, ...
Congiu, Sara; Fadda, Roberta; Doneddu, Giuseppe; Striano, Tricia
Using eye-tracking methodology, we compared spontaneous gaze following in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (mean age 5.8 years) to that of typically developing children (mean age 5.7 years). Participants saw videos in which the position of a hidden object was either perceptually visible or was only represented in another person's mind. The findings indicate that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were significantly less accurate in gaze following and observed the attended object for less time than typically developing children only in the Representational Condition. These results show that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are responsive to gaze as a perceptual cue although they ignore its representational meaning. PMID:27348855
Kumar, Ankur; Juneja, Monica; Mishra, Devendra
This study determined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in 201 siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders. Siblings were screened using Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and Social Responsiveness Scale, parent version. Screen-positive siblings were assessed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. The risk of autism spectrum disorder in siblings was correlated with various familial and disease characteristics of the index case. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in siblings was 4.97%. There was a significant effect of the presence of aggressive behavior, externalizing problems and total problems in the proband, assessed using Childhood Behavior Checklist, and the young age of the father at conception on sibling risk of autism spectrum disorder. Results of our study are in line with previous studies reporting similar prevalence but have also brought up the association with behavioral problems as a possible risk factor. Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder should be routinely screened, and genetic counseling for this increased risk should be explained to the family. PMID:26733506
Specific Language Impairment, Nonverbal IQ, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cochlear Implants, Bilingualism, and Dialectal Variants: Defining the Boundaries, Clarifying Clinical Conditions, and Sorting out Causes
Rice, Mabel L.
Purpose: The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of a collection of invited articles on the topic "specific language impairment (SLI) in children with concomitant health conditions or nonmainstream language backgrounds." Topics include SLI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder,…
van Niekerk, Maarten E. H.; Groen, Wouter; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; van Driel-de Jong, Dorine; Kan, Cees C.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude
Background: As autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have largely been neglected in old-age psychiatry, the objective of the present paper is to describe the diagnostic process in elderly patients. Methods: A systematic review of the literature on ASD in older age was undertaken and illustrated by a case
Atladóttir, H Ó; Schendel, D.E.; Henriksen, T B;
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder. Several previous studies have identiﬁed pre-term birth as a risk factor for ASD but none has studied whether the association between gestational age and ASD has changed over time. This is a Danish population-based follow...
Strunk, Julie A.
The purpose of this study was to determine school nurses' working knowledge of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current knowledge of school nurses was investigated by means of a mixed-method exploratory descriptive pilot study. Instrumentation included a scale that measured the knowledge of school nurses in regard to ASD, including medication…
Wallace, Gregory L.; Happe, Francesca
Duration judgment has not been comprehensively examined in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), despite reports of perceptual idiosyncrasies in these individuals. Time estimation, production, and reproduction were tested in 25 individuals with ASD and 25 controls matched group-wise on age and IQ. Individuals with ASD performed comparably to matched…
Rossignol Daniel A; Bradstreet James J; Van Dyke Kyle; Schneider Cindy; Freedenfeld Stuart H; O’Hara Nancy; Cave Stephanie; Buckley Julie A; Mumper Elizabeth A; Frye Richard E
Abstract Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies...
Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.
This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…
Bauer, Sarah C.; Msall, Michael E.
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have unique developmental and behavioral phenotypes, and they have specific challenges with communication, social skills, and repetitive behaviors. At this time, no single etiology for ASD has been identified. However, evidence from family studies and linkage analyses suggests that genetic factors play…
Emerson, Natacha D.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Neece, Cameron
Having a consistent source of medical care may facilitate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined predictors of age of ASD diagnosis using data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Using multiple linear regression analysis, age of diagnosis was predicted by race, ASD severity, having a consistent…
Wright, Barry; Sims, David; Smart, Siobhan; Alwazeer, Ahmed; Alderson-Day, Ben; Allgar, Victoria; Whitton, Clare; Tomlinson, Heather; Bennett, Sophie; Jardine, Jenni; McCaffrey, Nicola; Leyland, Charlotte; Jakeman, Christine; Miles, Jeremy
Twenty-two children with autism spectrum disorders who had not responded to supported behaviour management strategies for severe dysomnias entered a double blind, randomised, controlled crossover trial involving 3 months of placebo versus 3 months of melatonin to a maximum dose of 10 mg. 17 children completed the study. There were no significant…
Jennifer Gerdts; Raphael Bernier
The presence of autism-related traits has been well documented in undiagnosed family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The most common finding is mild impairments in social and communication skills that are similar to those shown by individuals with autism, but exhibited to a lesser degree. Termed the broader autism phenotype (BAP), these traits suggest a genetic liability for autism-related traits in families. Genetic influence in autism is strong, with identical tw...
Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger\\'s Syndrome subtype) with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.
Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut De Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G M; Bailey, Anthony J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Carrington, Sarah; Daly, Eileen M.; Deoni, Sean C.; Happé, Francesca; Henty, Julian; Jezzard, Peter; Johnston, Patrick; Jones, Derek K.; Madden, Anya; Mullins, Diane; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Murphy, Declan G M; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Sadek, Susan A.; Spain, Debbie; Stewart, Rose; Williams, Steven C.
It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism sp
This review evaluates evidence for metabolic etiologies in autism spectrum disorders, as well as for the efficacy of dietary and vitamin treatments. The relationship between gastrointestinal abnormalities and autism spectrum disorders is also considered, and the need for more research on larger populations of individuals with autism is stressed.…
Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a surge of awareness about autism among the public and professionals. Much revealing research is being done on this issue and the knowledge base has improved substantially and a set of professionals are specializing on the subject, focusing on its causative factors and management. Autism being a disorder stemming from early childhood and the prevalence rate rising alarmingly over the years, Pediatricians are expected to play a vital role in early detection and early intervention in management of the problem. But, unfortunately, autism is not yet considered to be under the purview of pediatricians. As pediatricians, we are often perplexed when faced with such a different child in our office and either overlook the problem or hurry to hand him over to a psychiatrist, not trying to really identify and understand the problem as a medical entity ourselves. Hence better awareness among pediatricians is the need of the day. As specialists have worked with autism over the decades, it has become clear that: autism is a disorder that involves early development, presently there is no medical answer to autism, and the only management strategy hinges largely on effective training. The earlier the training begins the better it is for the child. It is of paramount importance to start training and bring about changes by the time the child is 18 months old. This throws up interesting new challenges to the profession of pediatrics. To identify the early warning signs of autism, it is important that Pediatricians are able to recognize the signs and symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, have a strategy for assessing them systematically, be familiar with available tools for screening as well as developmental and educational resources.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i3.12775 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3, 37-47
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases of unknown etiology. There are no biological markers for ASD and current diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria. Recent data has shown that MHC I, a compound involved in adaptive immune function, is also involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and behavior. It has been suggested that altered MHC I expression could play a part in neurodevelopmental diseases like ASD. To address this possibility, we measured plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (β2m, a molecule that associates with MHC I and is indicative of MHC I expression, in 36 children with autism, 28 typically developing controls and subjects with developmental disabilities (n=16 but not autism. The age range of our study population was 17-120 months. We found no statistically significant differences in plasma Ã 2m levels between groups. Therefore, plasma levels of Ã2m measured in early childhood in autism may not reflect changes in MHC class I in autism.
Kaushik, Gaurav; Zarbalis, Konstantinos S
An ever-increasing body of literature describes compelling evidence that a subset of young children on the autism spectrum show abnormal cerebral growth trajectories. In these cases, normal cerebral size at birth is followed by a period of abnormal growth and starting in late childhood often by regression compared to unaffected controls. Recent work has demonstrated an abnormal increase in the number of neurons of the prefrontal cortex suggesting that cerebral size increase in autism is driven by excess neuronal production. In addition, some affected children display patches of abnormal laminar positioning of cortical projection neurons. As both cortical projection neuron numbers and their correct layering within the developing cortex requires the undisturbed proliferation of neural progenitors, it appears that neural progenitors lie in the center of the autism pathology associated with early brain overgrowth. Consequently, autism spectrum disorders associated with cerebral enlargement should be viewed as birth defects of an early embryonic origin with profound implications for their early diagnosis, preventive strategies, and therapeutic intervention. PMID:27014681
Kaushik, Gaurav; Zarbalis, Konstantinos
An ever-increasing body of literature describes compelling evidence that a subset of young children on the autism spectrum show abnormal cerebral growth trajectories. In these cases, normal cerebral size at birth is followed by a period of abnormal growth and starting in late childhood often by regression compared to unaffected controls. Recent work has demonstrated an abnormal increase in the number of neurons of the prefrontal cortex suggesting that cerebral size increase in autism is driven by excess neuronal production. In addition, some affected children display patches of abnormal laminar positioning of cortical projection neurons. As both cortical projection neuron numbers and their correct layering within the developing cortex requires the undisturbed proliferation of neural progenitors, it appears that neural progenitors lie in the center of the autism pathology associated with early brain overgrowth. Consequently, autism spectrum disorders associated with cerebral enlargement should be viewed as birth defects of an early embryonic origin with profound implications for their early diagnosis, preventive strategies, and therapeutic intervention.
Full Text Available Background. There has been lack of reviews of evidence on efficacy, methodology, and/or safety of acupuncture in autism spectrum disorders. This paper examines the emerging evidence of the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of autistic children. Method. A literature review was completed via Medline and three Chinese search engines. A total of 31 studies were evaluated for acupuncture methodology, study design, treatment effects, and tolerability. Results. The acupoints used, the duration of needling, the frequency of treatment, the choice of stimulation, and the course of the treatment were highly variable amongst the studies. Behavioral and/or developmental improvements were reported in all acupuncture treatment studies. All studies reported general tolerability. Weakness of experimental designs was discussed. Conclusions. Vigorously controlled double-blinded clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in children with autism spectrum disorders.
Mohammad-Rezazadeh, I; Frohlich, J; Loo, SK; Jeste, SS
Many studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have different brain connectivity patterns compared with typically developing individuals. However, the results of more recent studies do not unanimously support the traditional view in which individuals with ASD have lower connectivity between distant brain regions and increased connectivity within local brain regions. In this review, we discuss different methods for measuring brain connectivity and how the use o...
Kim, Sung Koo
In patients with a language developmental delay, it is necessary to make a differential diagnosis for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), specific language impairment, and mental retardation. It is important that pediatricians recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs, as many patients with language developmental delays are ultimately diagnosed with ASDs. Pediatricians play an important role in the early recognition of ASDs, because they are usually the first point of contact for children with A...
Galina eSchmunk; J. Jay eGargus
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...
Schmunk, Galina; Gargus, J. Jay
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...
Lammert, Dawn B.; Howell, Brian W.
RELN encodes a large, secreted glycoprotein integral to proper neuronal positioning during development and regulation of synaptic function postnatally. Rare, homozygous, null mutations lead to lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia, accompanied by developmental delay and epilepsy. Until recently, little was known about the frequency or consequences of heterozygous mutations. Several lines of evidence from multiple studies now implicate heterozygous mutations in RELN in autism spectrum dis...
Kohls, Gregor; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Nehrkorn, Barbara; Müller, Kristin; Fink, Gereon R.; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Schultz, Robert T.; Konrad, Kerstin
Although it has been suggested that social deficits of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are related to reward circuitry dysfunction, very little is known about the neural reward mechanisms in ASD. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated brain activations in response to both social and monetary reward in a group of children with ASD, relative to matched controls. Participants with ASD showed the expected hypoactivation in the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in r...
Daalen, E. van
The general aim of the SOSO-project (Screenings Onderzoek Sociale Ontwikkeling), which provided the basis for the largest part of this thesis, was to evaluate the early signs and symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in children identified through screening and by surveillance and to determine their potential biological, behavioural, cognitive, and environmental correlates. This particular thesis has its focus on the early diagnosis of ASDs. This subject is divided into 3 separate part...
Włodzisław Duch; Wiesław Nowak; Jaroslaw Meller; Grzegorz Osiński; Krzysztof Dobosz; Dariusz Mikołajewski; Grzegorz Marcin Wójcik
Every year the prevalence of Autism Spectrum of Disorders (ASD) is rising. Is there a unifying mechanism of various ASD cases at the genetic, molecular, cellular or systems level? The hypothesis advanced in this paper is focused on neural dysfunctions that lead to problems with attention in autistic people. Simulations of attractor neural networks performing cognitive functions help to assess system long-term neurodynamics. The Fuzzy Symbolic Dynamics (FSD) technique is used for the visualiza...
Singh, Kanwaljit; Connors, Susan L.; Macklin, Eric A.; Smith, Kirby D.; Fahey, Jed W.; Talalay, Paul; Zimmerman, Andrew W.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), encompassing impaired communication and social interaction, and repetitive stereotypic behavior and language, affects 1–2% of predominantly male individuals and is an enormous medical and economic problem for which there is no documented, mechanism-based treatment. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, daily oral administration for 18 wk of the phytochemical sulforaphane (derived from broccoli sprouts) to 29 young men with ASD substa...
Barrett, Barbara; Mosweu, Iris; Jones, Catherine Rg; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Happé, Francesca; Byford, Sarah
Autism spectrum disorder is a complex condition that requires specialised care. Knowledge of the costs of autism spectrum disorder, especially in comparison with other conditions, may be useful to galvanise policymakers and leverage investment in education and intervention to mitigate aspects of autism spectrum disorder that negatively impact individuals with the disorder and their families. This article describes the services and associated costs for four groups of individuals: adolescents with autistic disorder, adolescents with other autism spectrum disorders, adolescents with other special educational needs and typically developing adolescents using data from a large, well-characterised cohort assessed as part of the UK Special Needs and Autism Project at the age of 12 years. Average total costs per participant over 6 months were highest in the autistic disorder group (£11,029), followed by the special educational needs group (£9268), the broader autism spectrum disorder group (£8968) and the typically developing group (£2954). Specialised day or residential schooling accounted for the vast majority of costs. In regression analysis, lower age and lower adaptive functioning were associated with higher costs in the groups with an autism spectrum disorder. Sex, ethnicity, number of International Classification of Diseases (10th revision) symptoms, autism spectrum disorder symptom scores and levels of mental health difficulties were not associated with cost. PMID:24913778
Ruggieri, Víctor L; Arberas, Claudia L
Autistic spectrum disorders affect one out of every 68 persons, with a 4:1 dominance in males. Since they are dysfunctions rather than irreversible injuries to the central nervous system, which can be attributed to deficits in the neuronal networks and synaptogenesis and are modifiable thanks to the plasticity of the brain, starting therapy as early as possible is essential for more favourable progress. Very few treatments are backed by solid scientific evidence. We will analyse the therapeutic approaches oriented towards improving autism spectrum disorders which showed a clinical improvement that can be related to neurophysiological or functional changes in the central nervous system. We will classify the behavioural educational treatments and those in the research phase into a hierarchy, highlighting the neurogenetic entities with a high prevalence of autism, in which their pathophysiology and molecular base are known, that attempt to modify the consequences of those alterations by means of pharmacological agents. These entities include fragile X syndrome (GABAergic and metabotropic glutamate receptor inhibitors), tuberous sclerosis (mTOR inhibitors), Phelan-McDermid syndrome and Rett syndrome (insulin-like growth factor 1 inhibitors). Oxytocin, which has been shown to improve social cognition in persons with autism spectrum disorders, is analysed separately. PMID:25726823
Rutherford, M D; Subiaul, Francys
An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated problem-solving and explanation-seeking responses. In the physical context (but not the social context), the children with autism spectrum disorder showed a stronger explanatory drive than controls. Importantly, the number of explanatory behaviors made by children with autism spectrum disorder in the social context was independent of social and communicative impairments. Children with autism spectrum disorder did not show an exceptional explanatory drive in the social domain. These results suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder have an explanatory drive and that the explanatory drive may be domain specific. PMID:26503988
Dudzinska Ewa; Szymona Kinga; Pacian Anna; Kulik Teresa
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition of multiple origins. It is characterised by a range of behaviour patterns, in addition to disturbed social and emotional functioning. Of note, early therapy is conducive to better treatment results. A few recently discussed therapies have a particularly positive impact on children with ASD. Corbett et al.  proposed Sense Theatre. This involves instilling appropriate behaviours and communication patterns into the afflicted individual through act...
Giuseppe Latini; Anna Maria Papini; Paolo Rovero; Mario Chelli; Claudio De Felice; Joussef Hayek; Francesca Nuti; Chiara Testa
ASDs (autism spectrum disorders) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders, still poorly understood, steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory. Extensive research has been so far unable to explain the aetiology of this condition, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of environmental factors. Phthalates, given their extensive use and their persistence, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are EDs (endocrine disruptors) suspected to interfer...
Enrico Cherubini; Rocco Pizzarelli
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of pathological conditions, mainly of genetic origin, characterized by stereotyped behavior, marked impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication, social skills, and cognition. Interestingly, in a small number of cases, ASDs are associated with single mutations in genes encoding for neuroligin-neurexin families. These are adhesion molecules which, by regulating transsynaptic signaling, contribute to maintain a proper excitator...
Peñagarikano, Olga; Geschwind, Daniel H
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by the presence of repetitive/restrictive behaviors and variable deficits in language and social behavior. Many genes predisposing an individual to ASD have been identified, and understanding the causal disease mechanism(s) is critical to be able to develop treatments. Neurobiological, genetic, and imaging data provide strong evidence for the CNTNAP2 gene as a risk factor for ASD and relat...
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Hadi Zarafshan; Salehe Ghasempour
Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the broader autism phenotype in Iranian parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and parents of typically developing children. Method Parents of children with ASD and parents of typically developing children were asked to complete the Persian version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). In the ASD group, families included 204 parents (96 fathers and 108 mothers) of children diagnosed as having autism (Autistic Disorder, or AD) (...
Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H
Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We divided 118 ASD children into a mild/moderate autism group (n = 65) and a severe a...
Alzahrani, Amsa N.
Autism spectrum disorders are lifelong conditions that affect children's social and communication skills. Dual diagnoses pose additional challenges mainly because of the difficulties that come with making accurate decisions. It is intriguing to note that children with hearing impairments are more likely to have autism as opposed to members of the…
Grinker, Roy R.; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Ahmann, Chloe; Beidas, Rinad S.; Lagman, Adrienne; Mandell, David S.
In order to connect with families and influence treatment trajectories, outreach materials should address cultural perceptions of the condition, its causes, and post-diagnostic care. This paper describes the cultural adaptation and translation of the Autism Speaks First 100 Days Kit into Korean for the purpose of improving autism spectrum disorder…
Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon
Objective: Frontline health professionals need a "red flag" tool to aid their decision making about whether to make a referral for a full diagnostic assessment for an autism spectrum condition (ASC) in children and adults. The aim was to identify 10 items on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) (Adult, Adolescent, and Child versions) and on the…
Hua, Rui; Wei, MengPing; Zhang, Chen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a pervasive neurodevelopmental disease characterized by deficits in social interaction and nonverbal communication, as well as restricted interests and stereotypical behavior. Genetic changes/heritability is one of the major contributing factors, and hundreds to thousands of causative and susceptible genes, copy number variants (CNVs), linkage regions, and microRNAs have been associated with ASD which clearly indicates that ASD is a complex genetic disorder. Here, we will briefly summarize some of the high-confidence genetic changes in ASD and their possible roles in their pathogenesis. PMID:26335739
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting body of evidence implies a role of various ion channel gene defects (channelopathies in the pathogenesis of autism. Indeed, recent genome-wide association, and whole exome- and whole- genome resequencing studies linked polymorphisms and rare variants in calcium, sodium and potassium channels and their subunits with susceptibility to ASD, much as they do with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and animal models with these genetic variations recapitulate endophenotypes considered to be correlates of autistic behavior seen in patients. An ion flux across the membrane regulates a variety of cell functions, from generation of action potentials to gene expression and cell morphology, thus it is not surprising that channelopathies have profound effects on brain functions. In the present work, we summarize existing evidence for the role of ion channel gene defects in the pathogenesis of autism with a focus on calcium signaling and its downstream effects.
Lisik, Małgorzata Z.
Full Text Available Autism, also known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD, is etiologically and clinically heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disabilities. ASD affects 1% of child’s population. The sex difference is observed with 4:1 male to female ratio. This is descriptive diagnosis based on observation and analysis of behavior and cognitive functions. ASD does not fit the criteria of known patterns of inheritance. For the majority of patients polygenic model of inheritance with many interacting genes is the most probable. The etiology of ASD is poorly understood. It is estimated that a specific genetic etiology can be determined in up to 20% of individuals with ASD. Advances in microarray technology and next generation sequencing are revealing copy variant numbers (CNV and single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNP with important roles in synapse formation and function. For families where a specific etiology has been identified, the risk of recurrence in siblings generally depends on the etiologic diagnosis. For autism of unknown cause, the sibling risk varies across studies but is generally considered to range from 5 to 10 %.
Rutherford, M. D.; Subiaul, Francys
An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated…
Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Anderson, Connie M.; Law, Paul
Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a…
Gotts, Stephen J.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Milbury, Lydia A.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex
Autism spectrum disorders are developmental disorders characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities and repetitive behaviours. Converging neuroscientific evidence has suggested that the neuropathology of autism spectrum disorders is widely distributed, involving impaired connectivity throughout the brain. Here, we evaluate the…
Yudell, Michael; Tabor, Holly K.; Dawson, Geraldine; Rossi, John; Newschaffer, Craig
Autism spectrum disorders are an issue of increasing public health significance. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has been increasing in recent years, and they are associated with significant personal and financial impacts for affected persons and their families. In recent years, a large number of scientific studies have been undertaken,…
Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul
Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a national web-based registry. Parents completed a survey dedicated to the school and bullying experiences of their child, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify child and school risk factors for involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Additional analyses examined the risk of bullying involvement based on the amount of time spent in general education classrooms. Children diagnosed with Asperger's disorder, attending a public school or a school with a general education population, were at the greatest risk of being victimized in the past month. Children with comorbid conditions and a high level of autistic traits were the most likely to be victims, bullies, and bully-victims. Finally, children in full inclusion classrooms were more likely to be victimized than those who spend the majority of their time in special education settings. Future research studies should be invested in finding appropriate supports for children with autism spectrum disorder placed in inclusive settings. PMID:23901152
Full Text Available At the stage of school education in the framework of comprehensive support for children with autism spectrum dis¬order it is important to adequately access their educational needs while taking all aspects of autistic disorders into consideration including intellectual disorders. This article examines some moments of interconnection between autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. It demonstrates that such interconnection can be treated as chronological comorbidity; it depicts dynamics and structure of connection between autism spectrum disorders and intellectual dis¬ability, different variants of qualitative characteristics of this connection; specifics of assessment of the level of intellect in autism spectrum disorders. The article provides practical recommendations for intellect assessment in children with autism spectrum disorder that allow avoiding mistakes in decision-making in educational trajectory of the child.
Parr, Alissa D.; Hunter, Samuel T.
The focus of this study was to identify leader behaviors that elicit successful engagement of employees with autism spectrum disorder, a population that is powerfully emerging into the workplace. The ultimate goal was to improve the quality of life of employees with autism spectrum disorder by facilitating an environment leading to their success.…
Vasa, Roma A.; Connie Anderson; Marvin, Alison R.; Rebecca E. Rosenberg; J. Kiely Law; Julia Thorn; Geeta Sarphare; Law, Paul A.
Mood disorders occur more frequently in family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than in the general population. There may be associations between maternal mood disorder history patterns and specific ASD phenotypes. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal mood disorders and child autism spectrum disorders in 998 mother-child dyads enrolled in a national online autism registry and database. Mothers of children with ASD completed online questionnaires a...
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed along a continuum of behavioural variants in social communication and repetitive behaviours . Most individuals on the autism spectrum also experience differences in sensory perception. Some individuals on the spectrum are ‘high-functioning’ and able to cope in every day environments, while others are severely affected, non-verbal, and may have co-occurring diagnoses, such as intellectual disability, epilepsy, and/or obsessional, conduct, or ment...
Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey
High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment.…
Channell, Marie Moore; Phillips, B. Allyson; Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A; Bussanich, Paige M.; Klinger, Laura Grofer
Background Prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Down syndrome (DS) are highly varied. This variation is partly due to the difficulty of screening for and diagnosing comorbid ASD in individuals with a syndrome that carries its own set of social communicative and behavioral difficulties that are not well documented. The aim of this study was to identify the typical range of social communicative impairments observed in children, adolescents, and young adults with DS who do n...
Full Text Available Every year the prevalence of Autism Spectrum of Disorders (ASD is rising. Is there a unifying mechanism of various ASD cases at the genetic, molecular, cellular or systems level? The hypothesis advanced in this paper is focused on neural dysfunctions that lead to problems with attention in autistic people. Simulations of attractor neural networks performing cognitive functions help to assess system long-term neurodynamics. The Fuzzy Symbolic Dynamics (FSD technique is used for the visualization of attractors in the semantic layer of the neural model of reading. Large-scale simulations of brain structures characterized by a high order of complexity requires enormous computational power, especially if biologically motivated neuron models are used to investigate the inﬂuence of cellular structure dysfunctions on the network dynamics. Such simulations have to be implemented on computer clusters in a grid-based architectures
Karp, EA; Kuo, AA
© 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Importance:The prevalence of psychological distress among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests a need for interventions that address parental mental health during the critical period after the child's autism diagnosis when parents are learning to navigate the complex system of autism services.Objective: To investigate whether a brief cognitive behavioral intervention, problem-solving education (PSE), decreas...
Emerson, Natacha D; Morrell, Holly E R; Neece, Cameron
Having a consistent source of medical care may facilitate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined predictors of age of ASD diagnosis using data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Using multiple linear regression analysis, age of diagnosis was predicted by race, ASD severity, having a consistent source of care (CSC), and the interaction between these variables after controlling for birth cohort, birth order, poverty level, parental education, and health insurance. While African American children were diagnosed earlier than Caucasians, this effect was moderated by ASD severity and CSC. Having a CSC predicted earlier diagnosis for Caucasian but not African American children. Both physician and parent behaviors may contribute to diagnostic delays in minority children. PMID:26280401
Gregory, B L; Plaisted-Grant, K C
A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between performance on perceptual tasks in high-AQ individuals as observed in autism. We question whether the similarity in performance by high-AQ individuals and autistics reflects the same underlying perceptual cause in the context of two visual search tasks administered to a large sample of typical individuals assessed for AQ. Our results indicate otherwise and that deploying the AQ as a proxy for autism introduces unsubstantiated assumptions about high-AQ individuals, the endophenotypes they express, and their relationship to Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) individuals. PMID:24077740
Mire, Sarah S.; Nowell, Kerri P.; Kubiszyn, Thomas; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.
Psychotropic medication use and its relationship to autism spectrum core features were examined in a well-characterized but nonstratified North American sample (N = 1605) of children/adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders utilizing the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule" and the "Autism Diagnostic…
Davis, Tonya N.; O'Reilly, Mark; Kang, Soyeon; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Copeland, Daelynn; Attai, Shanna; Mulloy, Austin
Chelation treatment is used to eliminate specific metals from the body, such as mercury. It has been hypothesized that mercury poisoning may be a factor in autism and data suggest that perhaps 7% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received chelation treatment. It would therefore seem timely to review studies investigating the…
Sullivan, Alison; Winograd, Greta; Verkuilen, Jay; Fish, Marian C.
Background: This study investigated associations between the presence of a child with autism or Asperger's disorder in the family, family functioning and grandmother experiences with the goal of better understanding grandparent involvement in the lives of grandchildren on the autism spectrum and their families. Methods: Mothers and grandmothers of…
Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…
Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony
It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…
Green, Jonathan; Leadbitter, Kathy; Kay, Catherine; Sharma, Kishan
Syndromic autism has been described in children adopted after orphanage rearing. We investigated whether the same existed in children adopted after family breakdown. Families of 54/60 adopted children aged 6-11 years (mean 102 months; SD 20; 45% male) returned screening questionnaires for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); 21/54 (39%) screened…
Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Lamond, Erin; Holden, Jeanette
This survey study investigates issues related to bilingualism and autism. Bilingualism is common around the world but there is little published information to guide professionals and parents in making decisions about bilingualism for children with autism. Participants were 49 parents or guardians of children with autism who were members of a…
... Parent-mediated therapy Physical therapy Social skills training Speech-language therapy Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the treatments for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? Skip sharing on social media ...
Politte, Laura C; Henry, Charles A; McDougle, Christopher J
After participating in this educational activity, the physician should be better able to1. Prescribe the appropriate psychotropic medication to treat symptoms of ASD.2. Identify the side effects of the psychotropic medications used to treat ASD.Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by core deficits in social communication and language, and restrictive and repetitive behaviors that cause significant functional impairment and distress for affected individuals and their caregivers. The increasing prevalence of ASD, most recently estimated as 1 in 88 children, presents an ever-increasing burden on families, schools, medical systems, and society at large. Individuals with ASD commonly present for treatment of associated emotional and behavioral disturbances that include anxiety, symptoms of ADHD, compulsions and other repetitive behaviors, mood lability, irritability, aggression, and sleep disturbance. Psychotropic medications are widely utilized in alleviating these symptoms, though rigorous clinical trials in ASD are lacking for most areas of impairment. Strong evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled trials supports the use of atypical antipsychotics, particularly risperidone and aripiprazole, for managing severe irritability and aggression in ASD. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly used to treat anxiety and compulsions, though reports of efficacy in the literature are mixed, and behavioral side effects in children are common. Minimal evidence supports the utility of anticonvulsants and traditional mood stabilizers in managing mood lability and aggression. Stimulant and nonstimulant ADHD medications can be effective for reducing hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, though to a lesser degree than in ADHD populations without ASD and with greater risk of adverse effects. Psychopharmacological interventions in development for core symptoms of autism include those that target the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems and the
Altgassen, Mareike; Schmitz-Hübsch, Maren; Kliegel, Matthias
The purpose of the present study was to investigate event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and to explore possible relations between laboratory-based prospective memory performance and everyday performance. Nineteen children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 matched neurotypical controls participated. The laboratory-based prospective memory test was embedded in a visuo-spatial working memory test and required participants to ...
Mastrogiuseppe, Marilina; Capirci, Olga; Cuva, Simone; Venuti, Paola
Children with autism spectrum disorders display atypical development of gesture production, and gesture impairment is one of the determining factors of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Despite the obvious importance of this issue for children with autism spectrum disorder, the literature on gestures in autism is scarce and contradictory. The…
Fischbach, Ruth L.; Harris, Mark J.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Gerald D.; Link, Bruce G.
There is no reported investigation comparing concordance in attitudes and beliefs about autism spectrum disorder between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and scientists who research autism spectrum disorder. To investigate the level of concordance between these groups on causes of autism, priorities of research, perceived stigma,…
Maxwell, Christina R.; Parish-Morris, Julia; Hsin, Olivia; Bush, Jennifer C; Schultz, Robert T.
Background Broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a milder expression of the social and communication impairments seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While prior studies characterized the BAP in unaffected family members of probands with ASD, the relationship between parental BAP traits and proband symptomatology remains poorly understood. This study utilizes the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) in parents and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in children to examine this connecti...
Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Embacher, Rebecca; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Constantino, John N.; Law, Paul; Findling, Robert L.; Eng, Charis
Demographic and clinical factors may influence assessment of autism symptoms. This study evaluated these correlates and also examined whether social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior provided unique prediction of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. We analyzed data from 7352 siblings included in the Interactive Autism Network registry. Social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior symptoms were obtained using caregiver-reports on the So...
Berthoz, Sylvie; Lalanne, Christophe; Crane, Laura; Hill, Elisabeth L.
There is an increasing interest in the socio-affective atypicalities observed in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to further explore emotional responsiveness in adults with ASD using well-validated self-reports of alexithymia and extend these with consideration of anhedonia, and to determine whether these features are part of a broader autism phenotype. Thirty-eight adults with ASD, 87 parents of ASD individuals and 47 typical controls completed the Autism...
Kienle, Xaver; Freiberger, Verena; Greulich, Heide; Blank, Rainer
Within the new DSM-5, the currently differentiated subgroups of "Autistic Disorder" (299.0), "Asperger's Disorder" (299.80) and "Pervasive Developmental Disorder" (299.80) are replaced by the more general "Autism Spectrum Disorder". With regard to a patient-oriented and expedient advising therapy planning, however, the issue of an empirically reproducible and clinically feasible differentiation into subgroups must still be raised. Based on two Autism-rating-scales (ASDS and FSK), an exploratory two-step cluster analysis was conducted with N=103 children (age: 5-18) seen in our social-pediatric health care centre to examine potentially autistic symptoms. In the two-cluster solution of both rating scales, mainly the problems in social communication grouped the children into a cluster "with communication problems" (51 % and 41 %), and a cluster "without communication problems". Within the three-cluster solution of the ASDS, sensory hypersensitivity, cleaving to routines and social-communicative problems generated an "autistic" subgroup (22%). The children of the second cluster ("communication problems", 35%) were only described by social-communicative problems, and the third group did not show any problems (38%). In the three-cluster solution of the FSK, the "autistic cluster" of the two-cluster solution differentiated in a subgroup with mainly social-communicative problems (cluster 1) and a second subgroup described by restrictive, repetitive behavior. The different cluster solutions will be discussed with a view to the new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, for following studies a further specification of some of the ASDS and FSK items could be helpful. PMID:26289149
White, Susan W.; Bray, Bethany C.; Ollendick, Thomas H.
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are fairly common psychiatric conditions that impair the functioning of otherwise healthy young adults. Given that the two conditions frequently co-occur, measurement of the characteristics unique to each condition is critical. This study evaluated the structure and construct…
Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reli
Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Embacher, Rebecca; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Constantino, John N.; Law, Paul; Findling, Robert L.; Eng, Charis
Demographic and clinical factors may influence assessment of autism symptoms. This study evaluated these correlates and also examined whether social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior provided unique prediction of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. We analyzed data from 7352 siblings included in the Interactive…
Bishop, Somer L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick
Scores on the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) were examined in 65 adults with ASD. Maternal reports of symptoms were collected simultaneously using the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) and the Vineland Screener. A slightly revised AQ administration procedure was used to accommodate adults with below average IQ. AQ scores were lower than…
Autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurological condition that impairs social interaction, communication and behaviour. The current increase in the prevalence of ASD is alarming. A large population of parents is left searching for answers regarding their child’s developmental delays. Once their child has been diagnosed, they have to deal with the challenge of raising such a child. Parenting a child with ASD is particularly challenging for mothers as it has been reporte...
Elder, Lauren M.; Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Munson, Jeff
Siblings of children with autism have an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As children with autism often exhibit an atypical trajectory of head circumference (HC) growth, HC may be an indicator of vulnerability to autism. This study investigated whether infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 77) with an atypical trajectory of…
Ruggieri, Victor L
From their earliest reports, Kanner and Asperger included the hierarchy of difficulties in socialisation as one of the key axes in persons affected with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), associated to development delay or language disorders and restricted interests. This deficiency in social cognition has been related with a deficit in empathy. The theory of deficit in empathising and hypersystematisation provides a coherent, comprehensible explanation with which to partially understand the genesis of these disorders. Empathy is an essential component for emotional experiencing and social interaction, and denotes an affective response to mental states that are either perceived directly or imagined or are feelings inferred by another person. It enables us to understand, feel and respond appropriately to social stimuli, thereby giving rise to an adequate socialisation. Empathy has been considered a synonym of emotional contagion, mimicry, sympathy, compassion and empathic interest. Although these are concepts that are related and necessary for the development of adequate social cognition, they are not the same; nonetheless, they are all essential for the development of empathy or its consequences. Empathy allows individuals to 'feel with', whereas sympathy, compassion and empathic interest are related with 'feeling for' or feeling what is appropriate. Studies conducted in persons with ASD have shown them to have a low empathy quotient. In this work, different aspects of empathy, its components, its neurobiological foundations, the manifestations related with its deficit and its relation with the development of ASDs are all analysed. PMID:23446714
Singh, Kanwaljit; Connors, Susan L; Macklin, Eric A; Smith, Kirby D; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Zimmerman, Andrew W
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by both impaired communication and social interaction, and by stereotypic behavior, affects about 1 in 68, predominantly males. The medico-economic burdens of ASD are enormous, and no recognized treatment targets the core features of ASD. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, young men (aged 13-27) with moderate to severe ASD received the phytochemical sulforaphane (n = 29)--derived from broccoli sprout extracts--or indistinguishable placebo (n = 15). The effects on behavior of daily oral doses of sulforaphane (50-150 µmol) for 18 wk, followed by 4 wk without treatment, were quantified by three widely accepted behavioral measures completed by parents/caregivers and physicians: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Initial scores for ABC and SRS were closely matched for participants assigned to placebo and sulforaphane. After 18 wk, participants receiving placebo experienced minimal change (social interaction, abnormal behavior, and verbal communication (P = 0.015-0.007). Upon discontinuation of sulforaphane, total scores on all scales rose toward pretreatment levels. Dietary sulforaphane, of recognized low toxicity, was selected for its capacity to reverse abnormalities that have been associated with ASD, including oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capacity, depressed glutathione synthesis, reduced mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuroinflammmation. PMID:25313065
Volkmar, Fred; Siegel, Matthew; Woodbury-Smith, Marc; King, Bryan; McCracken, James; State, Matthew
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by patterns of delay and deviance in the development of social, communicative, and cognitive skills that arise in the first years of life. Although frequently associated with intellectual disability, this condition is distinctive in its course, impact, and treatment. Autism spectrum disorder has a wide range of syndrome expression and its management presents particular challenges for clinicians. Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder can present for clinical care at any point in development. The multiple developmental and behavioral problems associated with this condition necessitate multidisciplinary care, coordination of services, and advocacy for individuals and their families. Early, sustained intervention and the use of multiple treatment modalities are indicated. PMID:24472258
Brunner, Daniela; Kabitzke, Patricia; He, Dansha; Cox, Kimberly; Thiede, Lucinda; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily; Alexandrov, Vadim; Saxe, Michael; Peles, Elior; Mills, Alea; Spooren, Will; Ghosh, Anirvan; Feliciano, Pamela; Benedetti, Marta
Autism spectrum disorder comprises several neurodevelopmental conditions presenting symptoms in social communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors. A major roadblock for drug development for autism is the lack of robust behavioral signatures predictive of clinical efficacy. To address this issue, we further characterized, in a uniform and rigorous way, mouse models of autism that are of interest because of their construct validity and wide availability to the scientific community. We i...
Brosnan, Mark; Lewton, Marcus; Ashwin, Chris
Dual process theory proposes two distinct reasoning processes in humans, an intuitive style that is rapid and automatic and a deliberative style that is more effortful. However, no study to date has specifically examined these reasoning styles in relation to the autism spectrum. The present studies investigated deliberative and intuitive reasoning profiles in: (1) a non-clinical sample from the general population with varying degrees of autism traits (n = 95), and (2) males diagnosed with ASD (n = 17) versus comparisons (n = 18). Taken together, the results suggest reasoning on the autism spectrum is compatible with the processes proposed by Dual Process Theory and that higher autism traits and ASD are characterised by a consistent bias towards deliberative reasoning (and potentially away from intuition). PMID:26960339
... for problems with things like attention, hyperactivity, and sleep) Many other types of therapy (including diet, music, and art therapies) can help people with autism spectrum disorder. Teens with autism ...
Full Text Available Merete Juul Sørensen,1 Therese Koops Grønborg,2 Jakob Christensen,3,4 Erik Thorlund Parner,2 Mogens Vestergaard,5,6 Diana Schendel,7 Lars Henning Pedersen8,9 1Regional Centre of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Denmark; 2Department of Public Health, Section of Biostatistics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, 5Department of Public Health, Section of General Practice, 6Research unit for General Practice, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 7Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 8Danish Epidemiological Science Centre, Institute of Public Health, 9Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Background: Both the use of antidepressant medication during pregnancy and the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder have increased during recent years. A causal link has recently been suggested, but the association may be confounded by the underlying indication for antidepressant use. We investigated the association between maternal use of antidepressant medication in pregnancy and autism, controlling for potential confounding factors. Methods: We identified all children born alive in Denmark 1996–2006 (n=668,468 and their parents in the Danish Civil Registration System. We obtained information on the mother's prescriptions filled during pregnancy from the Danish National Prescription Registry, and on diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in the children and diagnoses of psychiatric disorders in the parents from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. In a cohort analysis, we estimated hazard ratios of autism spectrum disorders in children exposed to antidepressant medication during pregnancy compared with children who were not exposed, using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Furthermore, we estimated the risk
Wei CHEN; Jing ZHANG; Jun DING
This paper reviews the present theories and empirical research of autisms' cognitive research and mir-ror systems and introduces a new hypothesis about the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD): autistic mir-ror neuron dysfunction hypothesis. ASD subjects show obvious lack of the activation of the mirror system during the task of observation or emotional cognition. It is sig-nificant to investigate the mirror system for revealing the causes of autism and it is also helpful for developing new ways to diagnose or treat this disorder.
Halladay, Alycia K.; Amaral, David; Aschner, Michael; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Bowman, Aaron; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Hyman, Susan L.; Keller, Flavio; Lein, Pamela; Pessah, Isaac; Restifo, Linda; Threadgill, David W.
Recent findings derived from large-scale datasets and biobanks link multiple genes to autism spectrum disorders. Consequently, novel rodent mutants with deletions, truncations and in some cases, overexpression of these candidate genes have been developed and studied both behaviorally and biologically. At the Annual Neurotoxicology Meeting in Rochester, NY in October of 2008, a symposium of clinicians and basic scientists gathered to present the behavioral features of autism, as well as strate...
Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.
Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in social activities among young adults who received special education services for autism (ASD group), compared to young adults who received special educ...
Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Speer, Leslie; Embacher, Rebecca; Law, Paul; Constantino, John; Findling, Robert L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Eng, Charis
Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of proposed "DSM-5" criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: We analyzed symptoms from 14,744 siblings (8,911 ASD and 5,863 non-ASD) included in a national registry, the Interactive Autism Network. Youth 2 through 18 years of age were included if at least one…
Weissman, Jacqueline R.; Kelley, Richard I.; Bauman, Margaret L.; Cohen, Bruce H.; Murray, Katherine F.; Mitchell, Rebecca L.; Kern, Rebecca L.; Natowicz, Marvin R.
Background Previous reports indicate an association between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and disorders of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. One study suggested that children with both diagnoses are clinically indistinguishable from children with idiopathic autism. There are, however, no detailed analyses of the clinical and laboratory findings in a large cohort of these children. Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive review of patients with ASD and a mitochondrial disorder. Method...
Francesca Fulceri; Annarita Contaldo; Ilaria Parrini; Calderoni Sara; Antonio Narzisi; Raffaella Tancredi; Fabio Apicella; Filippo Muratori
Objective: To investigate expressiveness of motor impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its correlation with developmental and clinical features of ASD. Method: Thirty-five male preschoolers with ASD completed the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2; Folio and Fewell, 2000) and underwent a multidisciplinary assessment including medical examination, standardized assessment of cognitive abilities, administration of Autism_Diagnostic_Observation_Schedule (ADOS) and a pare...
Shih, Patricia; Shen, Mark; Öttl, Birgit; Keehn, Brandon; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Müller, Ralph-Axel
Imitation has been considered as one of the precursors for sociocommunicative development. Impairments of imitation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be indicative of dysfunctional underlying neural processes. Neuroimaging studies have found reduced activation in areas associated with imitation, but a functional connectivity MRI network perspective of these regions in autism is unavailable. Functional and effective connectivity was examined in 14 male participants with ASD and 14 matche...
Felker, Susan B.
A conference designed to assist those who are supporting students from preschool through high school with autism spectrum disorders including Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified PDD-NOS or atypical autism, will be held March 30 and 31, at the Southwest Virginia Higher Education Center in Abingdon, Va. Registration for the conference is $65 for both days and covers breaks, lunch, and materials.
Rossignol Daniel A
Full Text Available Abstract Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies of children with ASD have found positive changes in physiology and/or behavior from HBOT. For example, several studies have reported that HBOT improved cerebral perfusion, decreased markers of inflammation and did not worsen oxidative stress markers in children with ASD. Most studies of HBOT in children with ASD examined changes in behaviors and reported improvements in several behavioral domains although many of these studies were not controlled. Although the two trials employing a control group reported conflicting results, a recent systematic review noted several important distinctions between these trials. In the reviewed studies, HBOT had minimal adverse effects and was well tolerated. Studies which used a higher frequency of HBOT sessions (e.g., 10 sessions per week as opposed to 5 sessions per week generally reported more significant improvements. Many of the studies had limitations which may have contributed to inconsistent findings across studies, including the use of many different standardized and non-standardized instruments, making it difficult to directly compare the results of studies or to know if there are specific areas of behavior in which HBOT is most effective. The variability in results between studies could also have been due to certain subgroups of children with ASD responding differently to HBOT. Most of the reviewed studies relied on changes in behavioral measurements, which may lag behind physiological changes. Additional studies
Rossignol, Daniel A; Bradstreet, James J; Van Dyke, Kyle; Schneider, Cindy; Freedenfeld, Stuart H; O'Hara, Nancy; Cave, Stephanie; Buckley, Julie A; Mumper, Elizabeth A; Frye, Richard E
Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies of children with ASD have found positive changes in physiology and/or behavior from HBOT. For example, several studies have reported that HBOT improved cerebral perfusion, decreased markers of inflammation and did not worsen oxidative stress markers in children with ASD. Most studies of HBOT in children with ASD examined changes in behaviors and reported improvements in several behavioral domains although many of these studies were not controlled. Although the two trials employing a control group reported conflicting results, a recent systematic review noted several important distinctions between these trials. In the reviewed studies, HBOT had minimal adverse effects and was well tolerated. Studies which used a higher frequency of HBOT sessions (e.g., 10 sessions per week as opposed to 5 sessions per week) generally reported more significant improvements. Many of the studies had limitations which may have contributed to inconsistent findings across studies, including the use of many different standardized and non-standardized instruments, making it difficult to directly compare the results of studies or to know if there are specific areas of behavior in which HBOT is most effective. The variability in results between studies could also have been due to certain subgroups of children with ASD responding differently to HBOT. Most of the reviewed studies relied on changes in behavioral measurements, which may lag behind physiological changes. Additional studies enrolling children with ASD
Elder, Lauren M.; Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Munson, Jeff
Siblings of children with autism have an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As children with autism often exhibit an atypical trajectory of head circumference (HC) growth, HC may be an indicator of vulnerability to autism. This study investigated whether infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 77) with an atypical trajectory of HC growth were more likely than those without an atypical HC trajectory to develop autism symptoms. Results showed that infants who had larger HC at...
... is self-prescribed. Working With a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist Just about every child, with or without autism, ... foods he or she eats. A registered dietitian nutritionist can identify any nutritional risks based on how ...
Croen, Lisa A.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L.; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa
Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured…
Chaudhuri, S.; Chatterjee, N
The last decade has witnessed a surge of awareness about autism among the public and professionals. Much revealing research is being done on this issue and the knowledge base has improved substantially and a set of professionals are specializing on the subject, focusing on its causative factors and management. Autism being a disorder stemming from early childhood and the prevalence rate rising alarmingly over the years, Pediatricians are expected to play a vital role in early detection and ea...
Gnanasekaran, Sangeeth; Choueiri, Roula; Neumeyer, Ann; Ajari, Ogheneochuko; Shui, Amy; Kuhlthau, Karen
The objectives of this study are to evaluate the employee benefits parents of children with autism spectrum disorders have, how benefits are used, work change, and job satisfaction. We conducted a cross-sectional mailed survey study of 435 families with children with autism spectrum disorders residing in the United States. We received 161 surveys for a response rate of 37%. Families reported using the following benefits: 39% paid family leave, 19% unpaid family leave, 91% flexible work arrangements, and 86% telecommuting. Of respondents, 43% reported stopping work, cutting down on hours worked, or changing jobs because of their child's condition. Having paid family leave was a positive predictor for job satisfaction. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders have an interest and need for alternative work arrangements. PMID:26341992
Laje, Gonzalo; Morse, Rebecca; Richter, William; Ball, Jonathan; Pao, Maryland; Smith, Ann C M
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM 182290) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a well-defined pattern of anomalies. The majority of cases are due to a common deletion in chromosome 17p11.2 that includes the RAI1 gene. In children with SMS, autistic-like behaviors and symptoms start to emerge around 18 months of age. This study included 26 individuals (15 females and 11 males), with a confirmed deletion (del 17p11.2). Parents/caregivers were asked to complete the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) both current and lifetime versions. The results suggest that 90% of the sample had SRS scores consistent with autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, females showed more impairment in total T-scores (P = 0.02), in the social cognition (P = 0.01) and autistic mannerisms (P = 0.002) subscales. The SCQ scores are consistent to show that a majority of individuals may meet criteria for autism spectrum disorders at some point in their lifetime. These results suggest that SMS needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders but also that therapeutic interventions for autism are likely to benefit individuals with SMS. The mechanisms by which the deletion of RAI1 and contiguous genes cause psychopathology remain unknown but they provide a solid starting point for further studies of gene-brain-behavior interactions in SMS and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:20981775
Fernanda Rasch Czermainski
Full Text Available The literature has shown a strong relationship between executive dysfunction and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, although there is no consensus on which subprocesses of executive functioning are impaired and/or preserved in this condition. This study aimed to investigate executive function and working memory in children and adolescents with ASD (n = 11 compared to children and adolescents with typical development (n = 19 matched by age, formal education, and nonverbal IQ. The tests used were: Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices, Stroop Test, Trail Making Test, Rey’s Complex Figure Test, Digit span, Pseudowords span, Working memory, Verbal fluency (orthographic and semantic and Go/no go. The results demonstrate impairment of executive function in the clinical group, especially in planning, flexibility, inhibition, and also visuospatial working memory.
Geretsegger, Monika; Elefant, Cochavit; Mössler, Karin;
of this updated review provide evidence that music therapy may help children with ASD to improve their skills in primary outcome areas that constitute the core of the condition including social interaction, verbal communication, initiating behaviour, and social-emotional reciprocity. Music therapy......Background The central impairments of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affect social interaction and communication. Music therapy uses musical experiences and the relationships that develop through them to enable communication and expression, thus attempting to address some of the core...... problems of people with ASD. The present version of this review on music therapy for ASD is an update of the original Cochrane review published in 2006. Objectives To assess the effects of music therapy for individuals with ASD. Search methods We searched the following databases in July 2013: CENTRAL, Ovid...
Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter
A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…
Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Grayndler, Luke; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.
Findings that a subgroup of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have linguistic capabilities that resemble specific language impairment (SLI) have led some authors to hypothesise that ASD and SLI have a shared aetiology. While considerable research has explored overlap in the language phenotypes of the two conditions, little research…
Adcock, Julie; Cuvo, Anthony J.
Children with autism spectrum disorders sometimes are fully included in regular education classrooms with its standard curriculum and instructional methods. Under these classroom conditions, the children might perform successfully for some academic subjects but not for others. For these latter academic subjects, standard instruction could be…
Rivard, Mélina; Terroux, Amélie; Parent-Boursier, Claudel; Mercier, Céline
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder are known to experience more stress than parents of children with any other conditions. The current study describes the parental stress of 118 fathers and 118 mothers at the onset of their children's Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention program. The objectives of the study were to compare…
Russo, Nicole; Zecker, Steven; Trommer, Barbara; Chen, Julia; Kraus, Nina
This study provides new evidence of deficient auditory cortical processing of speech in noise in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Speech-evoked responses (approximately 100-300 ms) in quiet and background noise were evaluated in typically-developing (TD) children and children with ASD. ASD responses showed delayed timing (both conditions) and…
Scheeren, Anke M.; Banerjee, Robin; Koot, Hans M.; Begeer, Sander
We compared self-presentation abilities of 132 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to those of 41 typically developing (TD) peers, and examined the potential link with their social motivation and perspective taking. Participants introduced themselves to an interviewer in a baseline condition (without incentive) and a…
Pinto, Dalila; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Klei, Lambertus; Anney, Richard; Merico, Daniele; Regan, Regina; Conroy, Judith; Magalhaes, Tiago R.; Correia, Catarina; Abrahams, Brett S.; Almeida, Joana; Bacchelli, Elena; Bader, Gary D.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Baird, Gillian; Battaglia, Agatino; Berney, Tom; Bolshakova, Nadia; Boelte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick F.; Bourgeron, Thomas; Brennan, Sean; Brian, Jessica; Bryson, Susan E.; Carson, Andrew R.; Casallo, Guillermo; Casey, Jillian; Chung, Brian H. Y.; Cochrane, Lynne; Corsello, Christina; Crawford, Emily L.; Crossett, Andrew; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Dawson, Geraldine; de Jonge, Maretha; Delorme, Richard; Drmic, Irene; Duketis, Eftichia; Duque, Frederico; Estes, Annette; Farrar, Penny; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Folstein, Susan E.; Fombonne, Eric; Freitag, Christine M.; Gilbert, John; Gillberg, Christopher; Glessner, Joseph T.; Goldberg, Jeremy; Green, Andrew; Green, Jonathan; Guter, Stephen J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Heron, Elizabeth A.; Hill, Matthew; Holt, Richard; Howe, Jennifer L.; Hughes, Gillian; Hus, Vanessa; Igliozzi, Roberta; Kim, Cecilia; Klauck, Sabine M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Korvatska, Olena; Kustanovich, Vlad; Lajonchere, Clara M.; Lamb, Janine A.; Laskawiec, Magdalena; Leboyer, Marion; Le Couteur, Ann; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Lionel, Anath C.; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Lord, Catherine; Lotspeich, Linda; Lund, Sabata C.; Maestrini, Elena; Mahoney, William; Mantoulan, Carine; Marshall, Christian R.; McConachie, Helen; McDougle, Christopher J.; McGrath, Jane; McMahon, William M.; Merikangas, Alison; Migita, Ohsuke; Minshew, Nancy J.; Mirza, Ghazala K.; Munson, Jeff; Nelson, Stanley F.; Noakes, Carolyn; Noor, Abdul; Nygren, Gudrun; Oliveira, Guiomar; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Parr, Jeremy R.; Parrini, Barbara; Paton, Tara; Pickles, Andrew; Pilorge, Marion; Piven, Joseph; Ponting, Chris P.; Posey, David J.; Poustka, Annemarie; Poustka, Fritz; Prasad, Aparna; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Renshaw, Katy; Rickaby, Jessica; Roberts, Wendy; Roeder, Kathryn; Roge, Bernadette; Rutter, Michael L.; Bierut, Laura J.; Rice, John P.; Salt, Jeff; Sansom, Katherine; Sato, Daisuke; Segurado, Ricardo; Sequeira, Ana F.; Senman, Lili; Shah, Naisha; Sheffield, Val C.; Soorya, Latha; Sousa, Ines; Stein, Olaf; Sykes, Nuala; Stoppioni, Vera; Strawbridge, Christina; Tancredi, Raffaella; Tansey, Katherine; Thiruvahindrapduram, Bhooma; Thompson, Ann P.; Thomson, Susanne; Tryfon, Ana; Tsiantis, John; Van Engeland, Herman; Vincent, John B.; Volkmar, Fred; Wallace, Simon; Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhouzhi; Wassink, Thomas H.; Webber, Caleb; Weksberg, Rosanna; Wing, Kirsty; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Wood, Shawn; Wu, Jing; Yaspan, Brian L.; Zurawiecki, Danielle; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cantor, Rita M.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Devlin, Bernie; Ennis, Sean; Gallagher, Louise; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Gill, Michael; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hallmayer, Joachim; Miller, Judith; Monaco, Anthony P.; Nurnberger, John I.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Szatmari, Peter; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Betancur, Catalina
The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of conditions characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviours(1). Individuals with an ASD vary greatly in cognitive development, which can range from above avera
Yasuda, Yuka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Fukai, Ryoko; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Hiraki, Yoko; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Fujimoto, Michiko; Ohi, Kazutaka; Taniike, Masako; Mohri, Ikuko; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Miyake, Noriko
Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interactions, reduced verbal communication abilities, stereotyped repetitive behaviors, and restricted interests. It is a complex condition caused by genetic and environmental factors; the high heritability of this disorder supports the presence of a significant genetic contribution. Many studies have suggested that copy-number variants contribute to the etiology of autism spectrum disorder. Recen...
Casanova, Manuel Fernando; Hensley, Marie K.; Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Wang, Yao; Li, Xiaoli; Sears, Lonnie
The term autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a range of conditions characterized by impairments in social interactions, communication, and by restricted and repetitive behaviors. Autism spectrum disorder may also present with symptoms suggestive of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 18 sessions of low frequency (LF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on autonomic function in children with ASD by recordin...
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified as to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All these categories are grouped together in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, classification under the category of Autism Spectrum Disorders.Behavioral disorders including irritability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and aggression are additional symptoms found in up to 20% of children and adolescents with ASD and require careful evaluation for appropriate treatment. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is defined by impaired attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, whereas ASD is defined by social dysfunction, communicative impairment, and restricted/repetitive behaviors. They should be distinctly evaluated in children and adolescents with ASD and intellectual disability in contrast to individuals without intellectual disability, because significant differences between these conditions exist. Mood disorders are also common in ASD and should be systematically investigated in this population of children and adolescents. Approximately 50% of children and adolescents with ASD receive medication for comorbid behavioral/ADHD and mood symptoms, mostly stimulants, antiepileptics and antipsychotics. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment including medications for ADHD-like symptoms have recently been provided and should be carefully considered. Antiepileptic drugs are commonly used in ASDs with epilepsy, because seizures are associated with ASD in 10% to 30% of young patients, and as mood stabilizers. Lithium is another option for children and adolescents with ASD who present with symptoms of a mood disorder, such as elevated moods/euphoria, mania, and paranoia, whether accompanied or not by irritability. Experimental treatments are under
Vijayakumar, N Thushara; Judy, M V
Autism spectrum disorders denote a series of lifelong neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by an impaired social communication profile and often repetitive, stereotyped behavior. Recent years have seen the complex genetic architecture of the disease being progressively unraveled with advancements in gene finding technology and next generation sequencing methods. However, a complete elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind autism is necessary for potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A multidisciplinary approach should be adopted where the focus is not only on the 'genetics' of autism but also on the combinational roles of epigenetics, transcriptomics, immune system disruption and environmental factors that could all influence the etiopathogenesis of the disease. ASD is a clinically heterogeneous disorder with great genetic complexity; only through an integrated multidimensional effort can modern autism research progress further. PMID:27084239
Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline J.; Rutherford, M. D.
This study reports a revised version of the "Reading the Mind in the Voice" (RMV) task. The original task (Rutherford et al., (2002), "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32," 189-194) suffered from ceiling effects and limited sensitivity. To improve that, the task was shortened and two more foils were added to each of the remaining…
Kenworthy, Lauren; Wallace, Gregory L.; Powell, Kelly; Anselmo, Cheryl; Martin, Alex; Black, David O.
Language ability is a known predictor of outcome in children with autism but plays a more controversial role for higher functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We studied the relationship between early language milestones and later structural language, adaptive functioning and autism symptoms in a sample of 76 children (mean age…
Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A.
Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In…
Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Navab, Anahita; Koegel, Robert L.
The literature suggests that many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with recognizing and describing emotions in others, which may result in difficulties with the verbal expression of empathy during communication. Thus, there is a need for intervention techniques targeting this area. Using a multiple…
Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.
Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…
Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Felix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M. J.; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger
Dream questionnaires were completed by 28 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Seventy-nine typically developed individual served as the control group. In a subset of 17 persons with ASD and 11 controls matched for verbal IQ, dream narratives were obtained following REM sleep awakenings in a sleep laboratory.…
Barnhill, Gena P.; Polloway, Edward A.; Sumutka, Bianca M.
Researchers indicate that special education is grappling with many issues and challenges that point to the need to examine the nature and type of personnel preparation for educators working with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study was to survey teacher educators at colleges and universities to (a) determine…
Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.
Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…
Hanson, Laura K.; Atance, Cristina M.
Episodic foresight (EpF) or, the ability to imagine the future and use such imagination to guide our actions, is an important aspect of cognition that has not yet been explored in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is despite its proposed links with theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF), two areas found to be impaired in…
Tracy, Jessica L.; Robins, Richard W.; Schriber, Roberta A.; Solomon, Marjorie
Researchers have argued that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) use an effortful "systematizing" process to recognize emotion expressions, whereas typically developing (TD) individuals use a more holistic process. If this is the case, individuals with ASDs should show slower and less efficient emotion recognition, particularly for…
De Theije, Caroline G.M.; Koelink, Pim J.; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A.H.; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S. Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a cluster of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, social interest and stereotypical behaviour. Dysfunction of the intestinal tract is reported in patients with ASD and implicated in the development and severity of ASD symptoms.
Atladottir, Hjordis O.; Thorsen, Poul; Ostergaard, Lars; Schendel, Diana E.; Lemcke, Sanne; Abdallah, Morsi; Parner, Erik T.
Exposure to prenatal infection has been suggested to cause deficiencies in fetal neurodevelopment. In this study we included all children born in Denmark from 1980, through 2005. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and maternal infection were obtained through nationwide registers. Data was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards…
Joseph, Robert M.; Keehn, Brandon; Connolly, Christine; Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Horowitz, Todd S.
This study investigated the possibility that enhanced memory for rejected distractor locations underlies the superior visual search skills exhibited by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We compared the performance of 21 children with ASD and 21 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children in a standard static search task…
Hume, Kara; Boyd, Brian A.; Hamm, Jill V.; Kucharczyk, Suzanne
The development of independent behavior is a critical, challenging process for all youth as they pass through the high school environment into adulthood. Although most high school students gain skills related to independence, the independent behaviors of their peers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plateau and decline. These skill deficits and…
Kelley, Jane E.; Cardon, Teresa A.; Algeo-Nichols, Dana
In the last decade, schools have seen an increasing number of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the current estimated average of children in the United States who are diagnosed with an ASD is one out of 68 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). One way for educators and elementary students to learn about ASD is through…
Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.
The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother-child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children's descriptions of friendships (age 8-12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and…
Brobst, Jennifer B.; Clopton, James R.; Hendrick, Susan S.
Balancing the roles of parent and partner is challenging for most people and may be especially challenging when extra time and effort are required in the parenting role. The current research compared 25 couples whose children have autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with 20 couples whose children do not have developmental disorders. Comparisons were…
Tongerloo, M.A. van; Bor, H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
It takes considerable time before Autism Spectrum Disorders are diagnosed. Validated diagnostic instruments are available, but not applicable to primary healthcare. By means of a case-control study we investigated whether there were differences in presented complaints and referral patterns between c
Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Kwakye, Leslie D.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Stevenson, Ryan A.; Stone, Wendy L.; Wallace, Mark T.
This study examined unisensory and multisensory speech perception in 8-17 year old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing controls matched on chronological age, sex, and IQ. Consonant-vowel syllables were presented in visual only, auditory only, matched audiovisual, and mismatched audiovisual ("McGurk")…
Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.
The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…
Odom, Samuel L.; Cox, Ann W.; Brock, Matthew E.
The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has intensified the need for high-quality special education services designed for children and youth with ASD and their families. Implementation science provides guidance for moving innovation, such as utilizing evidence- based practices for students with ASD, into regular practice in…
Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim
To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…
Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Congedo, Marco; van Schie, Hein T.
Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's…
Abdallah, Morsi; Pearce, Brad D; Larsen, Nanna;
Evidence suggests that some developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are caused by errors in brain plasticity. Given the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neurotrophins (NTs) in neuroplasticity, amniotic fluid samples for 331 ASD cases and 698...
Menear, Kristi Sayers; Smith, Shannon C.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) estimates that one in every 110 children is affected by an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The prevalence of ASDs makes it very likely that every physical education teacher is teaching at least one student with an ASD. This article will provide physical educators with a brief overview of…
Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda; Jukes, Kaylee; Goddard, Lorna
Two studies are presented that explored the effects of experimental manipulations on the quality and accessibility of autobiographical memories in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relative to a typical comparison group matched for age, gender and IQ. Both studies found that the adults with ASD generated fewer specific memories than the…
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurobiological disorder that significantly impairs children's social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and behaviors. Questions about theory of mind (ToM) deficits in ASD have generated a large number of empirical studies. This article reviews current studies of the relationship between ToM and…
Canitano, Roberto; Vivanti, Giacomo
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are more frequently associated with tic disorders than expected by chance. Variable rates of comorbidity have been reported and common genetic and neurobiological factors are probably involved. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of tic disorders in a clinical sample (n = 105) of children and…
Kuusikko, Sanna; Haapsamo, Helena; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Hurtig, Tuula; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Jussila, Katja; Bolte, Sven; Moilanen, Irma
We examined upper facial basic emotion recognition in 57 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (M = 13.5 years) and 33 typically developing controls (M = 14.3 years) by using a standardized computer-aided measure (The Frankfurt Test and Training of Facial Affect Recognition, FEFA). The ASD group scored lower than controls on the total…
Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Patrick, Kristina E.; Brinckman, Danielle D.; Schultheis, Maria T.
This pilot study investigated driving history and driving behaviors between adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as compared to non-ASD adult drivers. Seventy-eight licensed drivers with ASD and 94 non-ASD comparison participants completed the Driver Behavior Questionnaire. Drivers with ASD endorsed significantly lower ratings of…
Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Mortensen, Erik L; Atladóttir, Hjördis Ó; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Grove, Jakob; Hougaard, David M
The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in neonatal dried blood samples (n-DBSS) retrieved from The Danish Newborn Screening Biobank of children developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) later in life and controls. Samples of 359 ASD cases and 741 controls were analyzed using Lumin...
Weiss, Jonathan A.; Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona
Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health-related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can…
Duff, Christine K.; Flattery, J. J., Jr.
A teaching methodology and curriculum was designed to develop and increase positive self-awareness in students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Joint attention (JA) strategies were first utilized to directly teach students about reflected mirror images, and then subsequently, to indirectly teach students about their reflected image.…
Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.
Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…
Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony
Introduction: Severe mood dysregulation and problems (SMP) in otherwise typically developing youth are recognized as an important mental health problem with a distinct set of clinical features, family history and neurocognitive characteristics. SMP in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have not previously been explored. Method: We…
Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Hougaard, David M; Mortensen, Erik L
A potential role of chemokines in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has been previously suggested. In a recent study we examined levels of three inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1a and RANTES) in samples of amniotic fluid of children diagnosed later in life with ASD and...
Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine
With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…
Maras, Katie L.; Bowler, Dermot M.
The cognitive interview (CI) is one of the most widely accepted forms of interviewing techniques for eliciting the most detailed, yet accurate reports from witnesses. No research, however, has examined its effectiveness with witnesses with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-six adults with ASD and 26 matched typical adults viewed a video of an…
Gillam, Sandra Laing; Hartzheim, Daphne; Studenka, Breanna; Simonsmeier, Vicki; Gillam, Ronald
Purpose: This study was conducted to determine whether a narrative intervention program that targeted the use of mental state and causal language resulted in positive gains in narrative production for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Five children (2 girls and 3 boys) who had been diagnosed with ASD participated in the study.…
Long, Jennie L.
Although the professional literature related to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has focused on successful interventions and strategies there is a paucity of research documenting which of these methods and supports are most foundational and essential for classroom use. Specifically, literature does not define the interventions and strategies which…
Tsao, Ling-Ling; Davenport, Randy; Schmiege, Cynthia
Research studies have shown the importance of early intervention services for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families. However, most attention has been given to the effectiveness of treatments solely for children with ASDs. Because the family centered practice has been emphasized and supported by many researchers and…
Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Wodka, Ericka L.
Aggression is a clinically significant problem for many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there have been few large-scale studies addressing this issue. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical aggression in a sample of 1584 children and adolescents with ASD enrolled in the Autism…
Caria, Andrea; De Falco, Simona
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by dramatic impairments of interpersonal behavior, communication, and empathy. Recent neuroimaging studies suggested that ASD are disorders characterized by widespread abnormalities involving distributed brain network, though clear evidence of differences in large-scale brain network interactions underlying the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of ASD are still lacking. Consistent findi...
While travel training on local mass transit makes intuitive sense, the thought of larger scale travel training does not occur to most people. Possible benefits that could be gained from long distance or more involved traveling with individuals on the autism spectrum are vast. In this article, the author presents 11 essential skills that are a…
Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit
The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…
Lucker, Jay R.
A review of records was completed to determine whether children with auditory hypersensitivities have difficulty tolerating loud sounds due to auditory-system factors or some other factors not directly involving the auditory system. Records of 150 children identified as not meeting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) criteria and another 50 meeting…
Occelli, Valeria; Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola; Arduino, Giuseppe Maurizio; Zampini, Massimiliano
Previous evidence on neurotypical adults shows that the presentation of a stimulus allocates the attention to its modality, resulting in faster responses to a subsequent target presented in the same (vs. different) modality. People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often fail to detect a (visual or auditory) target in a stream of stimuli after…
Henderson, L. M.; Clarke, P. J.; Snowling, M. J.
Background: Comprehension difficulties are commonly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but the causes of these difficulties are poorly understood. This study investigates how children with ASD access and select meanings of ambiguous words to test four hypotheses regarding the nature of their comprehension difficulties: semantic deficit,…
Stanley, Gillian C.; Konstantareas, M. Mary
The relationship between symbolic play and other domains, such as degree of autistic symptomatology, nonverbal cognitive ability, receptive language, expressive language, and social development, was investigated. The assessment files of 101 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were studied. Nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive language…
Falter, Christine M.; Bailey, Anthony J.
Gestalt grouping in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is selectively impaired for certain organization principles but for not others. Symmetry is a fundamental Gestalt principle characterizing many biological shapes. Sensitivity to symmetry was tested using the Picture Symmetry Test, which requires finding symmetry lines on pictures. Individuals…
Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda
Unusual sensory processing has been widely reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, the majority of research in this area has focused on children. The present study assessed sensory processing in adults with ASD using the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP), a 60-item self-report questionnaire assessing levels of sensory…
Itzchak, Esther Ben; Zachor, Ditza A.
Research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) described individual differences in response to intervention. This study explored child and parental characteristics at baseline that predict outcomes in adaptive skills and acquisition of cognitive gains. Seventy-eight children aged 15-35 months diagnosed with ASD by standardized diagnostic tools were…
Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.
Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…
Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady
Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…
Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.
As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…
Nielsen, Mette Gilling
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a significant genetic component as shown by family and twin studies. However, only a few genes have repeatedly been shown to be involved in the development of ASDs. The aim of this study has been to...
Beyer, Julia F.
Significant attention has been paid in the literature to sibling relationships and the effects of birth order, family size, and gender on such relationships. Although these are important areas to study, there is relatively little research on the effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on sibling relationships. The existent research identifies…
Lake, Johanna K.; Balogh, Robert; Lunsky, Yona
Pharmacological interventions are frequently used to treat commonly associated mental health and behavioural issues in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite high rates of psychotropic drug use documented in children with ASD, very few studies have examined medication profiles, side effects, and rates of polypharmacy in…
Full Text Available Impairments in social cognition are a key symptom of Autism Spectrum Disorder. People with autism have great difficulty with understanding the beliefs and desires of other people. In recent years literature has begun to examine the link between impairments in social cognition and abilities which demand the use of spatial and social skills, such as visual perspective taking (VPT. Flavell (1977 defined two levels of perspective taking: VPT level 1 is the ability to understand that other people have a different line of sight to ourselves, whereas VPT level 2 is the understanding that two people viewing the same item from different points in space may see different things. So far, literature on whether either level of VPT is impaired or intact in autism is inconsistent. Here we review studies which have examined VPT levels 1 and 2 in people with autism with a focus on the methods that have been used to measure perspective taking. We conclude the review with an evaluation of the findings into VPT in autism and give recommendations for future research which may give a clearer insight into whether perspective taking is truly impaired in autism.