Sample records for attribute pair-based visual

  1. Attribute pair-based visual recognition and memory.

    Masahiko Morita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the human visual system, different attributes of an object, such as shape, color, and motion, are processed separately in different areas of the brain. This raises a fundamental question of how are these attributes integrated to produce a unified perception and a specific response. This "binding problem" is computationally difficult because all attributes are assumed to be bound together to form a single object representation. However, there is no firm evidence to confirm that such representations exist for general objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we propose a paired-attribute model in which cognitive processes are based on multiple representations of paired attributes. In line with the model's prediction, we found that multiattribute stimuli can produce an illusory perception of a multiattribute object arising from erroneous integration of attribute pairs, implying that object recognition is based on parallel perception of paired attributes. Moreover, in a change-detection task, a feature change in a single attribute frequently caused an illusory perception of change in another attribute, suggesting that multiple pairs of attributes are stored in memory. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The paired-attribute model can account for some novel illusions and controversial findings on binocular rivalry and short-term memory. Our results suggest that many cognitive processes are performed at the level of paired attributes rather than integrated objects, which greatly facilitates the binding problem and provides simpler solutions for it.

  2. Relative Forest for Visual Attribute Prediction.

    Li, Shaoxin; Shan, Shiguang; Yan, Shuicheng; Chen, Xilin


    Accurate prediction of the visual attributes is significant in various recognition tasks. For many visual attributes, while it is very difficult to describe the exact degrees of their presences, by comparing the pairs of samples, the relative ordering of presences may be easily figured out. Based on this observation, instead of considering such attribute as binary attribute, the relative attribute method learns a ranking function for each attribute to provide more accurate and informative prediction results. In this paper, we also explore pairwise ranking for visual attribute prediction and propose to improve the relative attribute method in two aspects. First, we propose a relative tree method, which can achieve more accurate ranking in case of nonlinearly distributed visual data. Second, by resorting to randomization and ensemble learning, the relative tree method is extended to the relative forest method to further boost the accuracy and simultaneously reduce the computational cost. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, we conduct extensive experiments on four databases: PubFig, OSR, FGNET, and WebFace. The results show that the proposed relative forest method not only outperforms the original relative attribute method, but also achieve the state-of-the-art accuracy for ordinal visual attribute prediction. PMID:27323363

  3. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    Pollock, G.M.


    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  4. Implementation aspects of data visualization based on map of attributes

    Tomasz Rzeźniczak


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present an original data visualization method with greatest focus on selected aspects of its implementation. The proposed method is designed for visualization of multidimensional data sets consisting of objects described by nominal attributes. The goal of the visualization is to facilitate objects recognition and remembering based on human perceptual capabilities. The expected result for a given input data set is a twodimensional map of all attributes. Arrangement of the attributes on the map allows visualization of individual objects as, so called, good figures. The study is focused on the algorithm, which searches for the optimal maps; implementation aspects and overall complexity of the problem are also explored.

  5. On the Relationship between Visual Attributes and Convolutional Networks

    Castillo, Victor


    One of the cornerstone principles of deep models is their abstraction capacity, i.e. their ability to learn abstract concepts from ‘simpler’ ones. Through extensive experiments, we characterize the nature of the relationship between abstract concepts (specifically objects in images) learned by popular and high performing convolutional networks (conv-nets) and established mid-level representations used in computer vision (specifically semantic visual attributes). We focus on attributes due to their impact on several applications, such as object description, retrieval and mining, and active (and zero-shot) learning. Among the findings we uncover, we show empirical evidence of the existence of Attribute Centric Nodes (ACNs) within a conv-net, which is trained to recognize objects (not attributes) in images. These special conv-net nodes (1) collectively encode information pertinent to visual attribute representation and discrimination, (2) are unevenly and sparsely distribution across all layers of the conv-net, and (3) play an important role in conv-net based object recognition.

  6. Covert photo classification by fusing image features and visual attributes.

    Lang, Haitao; Ling, Haibin


    In this paper, we study a novel problem of classifying covert photos, whose acquisition processes are intentionally concealed from the subjects being photographed. Covert photos are often privacy invasive and, if distributed over Internet, can cause serious consequences. Automatic identification of such photos, therefore, serves as an important initial step toward further privacy protection operations. The problem is, however, very challenging due to the large semantic similarity between covert and noncovert photos, the enormous diversity in the photographing process and environment of cover photos, and the difficulty to collect an effective data set for the study. Attacking these challenges, we make three consecutive contributions. First, we collect a large data set containing 2500 covert photos, each of them is verified rigorously and carefully. Second, we conduct a user study on how humans distinguish covert photos from noncovert ones. The user study not only provides an important evaluation baseline, but also suggests fusing heterogeneous information for an automatic solution. Our third contribution is a covert photo classification algorithm that fuses various image features and visual attributes in the multiple kernel learning framework. We evaluate the proposed approach on the collected data set in comparison with other modern image classifiers. The results show that our approach achieves an average classification rate (1-EER) of 0.8940, which significantly outperforms other competitors as well as human's performance. PMID:25966474

  7. Attribute-based point cloud visualization in support of 3-D classification

    Zlinszky, András; Otepka, Johannes; Kania, Adam


    Despite the rich information available in LIDAR point attributes through full waveform recording, radiometric calibration and advanced texture metrics, LIDAR-based classification is mostly done in the raster domain. Point-based analyses such as noise removal or terrain filtering are often carried out without visual investigation of the point cloud attributes used. This is because point cloud visualization software usually handle only a limited number of pre-defined point attributes and only allow colorizing the point cloud with one of these at a time. Meanwhile, point cloud classification is rapidly evolving, and uses not only the individual attributes but combinations of these. In order to understand input data and output results better, more advanced methods for visualization are needed. Here we propose an algorithm of the OPALS software package that handles visualization of the point cloud together with its attributes. The algorithm is based on the .odm (OPALS data manager) file format that efficiently handles a large number of pre-defined point attributes and also allows the user to generate new ones. Attributes of interest can be visualized individually, by applying predefined or user-generated palettes in a simple .xml format. The colours of the palette are assigned to the points by setting the respective Red, Green and Blue attributes of the point to result in the colour pre-defined by the palette for the corresponding attribute value. The algorithm handles scaling and histogram equalization based on the distribution of the point attribute to be considered. Additionally, combinations of attributes can be visualized based on RBG colour mixing. The output dataset can be in any standard format where RGB attributes are supported and visualized with conventional point cloud viewing software. Viewing the point cloud together with its attributes allows efficient selection of filter settings and classification parameters. For already classified point clouds, a large

  8. Visualized attribute analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor using electronic tongue.

    Lu, Lin; Hu, Xianqiao; Tian, Shiyi; Deng, Shaoping; Zhu, Zhiwei


    This paper deals with a novel visualized attributive analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor attributes (softness, stickiness, sweetness and aroma) employing a multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue. Data preprocessing methods including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) were provided. An attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the interactive response in which each attribute responded by specific electrodes and frequencies. The model was trained using signal data from electronic tongue and attribute scores from artificial evaluation. The correlation coefficients for all attributes were over 0.9, resulting in good predictive ability of attributive analysis model preprocessed by FFT. This approach extracted more effective information about linear relationship between electronic tongue and taste flavor attribute. Results indicated that this approach can accurately quantify taste flavor attributes, and can be an efficient tool for data processing in a voltammetric electronic tongue system. PMID:27086094

  9. Attribute-based edge bundling for visualizing social networks

    Guo, Lin; Zuo, Wanli; Peng, Tao; Adhikari, Binod Kumar


    Most nodes in complex networks have multiple attributes, which make them hard to analyze. Because general edge bundling algorithms fail to handle complex networks as a result of their intricate features, network simplification is extremely important. This paper proposes an attribute-based edge bundling algorithm that displays similar edges in nearby locations. Meanwhile, by analyzing complex networks at a community level, the overlapping clustering of nodes is well implemented, and better clustering effects can be achieved by grouping similar edges together. On the basis of datasets with different types and sizes, the experiments illustrate the simplification degree of the intricate graphs created by the algorithm proposed, which outperforms established competitors in correctness and effectiveness.

  10. Learning Compact Visual Attributes for Large-Scale Image Classification

    Su, Yu; Jurie, Frédéric


    International audience Attributes based image classification has received a lot of attention recently, as an interesting tool to share knowledge across different categories or to produce compact signature of images. However, when high classification performance is expected, state-of-the-art results are typically obtained by combining Fisher Vectors (FV) and Spatial Pyramid Matching (SPM), leading to image signatures with dimensionality up to 262,144 [1]. This is a hindrance to large-scale ...

  11. The location but not the attributes of visual cues are automatically encoded into working memory.

    Chen, Hui; Wyble, Brad


    Although it has been well known that visual cues affect the perception of subsequent visual stimuli, relatively little is known about how the cues themselves are processed. The present study attempted to characterize the processing of a visual cue by investigating what information about the cue is stored in terms of both location ("where" is the cue) and attributes ("what" are the attributes of the cue). In 11 experiments subjects performed several trials of reporting a target letter and then answered an unexpected question about the cue (e.g., the location, color, or identity of the cue). This surprise question revealed that participants could report the location of the cue even when the cue never indicated the target location and they were explicitly told to ignore it. Furthermore, the memory trace of this location information endured during encoding of the subsequent target. In contrast to location, attributes of the cue (e.g., color) were poorly reported, even for attributes that were used by subjects to perform the task. These results shed new light on the mechanisms underlying cueing effects and suggest also that the visual system may create empty object files in response to visual cues. PMID:25490435

  12. A Visual Analysis of Multi-Attribute Data Using Pixel Matrix Displays

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Keim, Daniel A.; Schreck, Tobias


    Charts and tables are commonly used to visually analyze data. These graphics are simple and easy to understand, but charts show only highly aggregated data and present only a limited number of data values while tables often show too many data values. As a consequence, these graphics may either lose or obscure important information, so different techniques are required to monitor complex datasets. Users need more powerful visualization techniques to digest and compare detailed multi-attribute ...

  13. Visual analytics techniques for large multi-attribute time series data

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Keim, Daniel A.


    Time series data commonly occur when variables are monitored over time. Many real-world applications involve the comparison of long time series across multiple variables (multi-attributes). Often business people want to compare this year's monthly sales with last year's sales to make decisions. Data warehouse administrators (DBAs) want to know their daily data loading job performance. DBAs need to detect the outliers early enough to act upon them. In this paper, two new visual analytic techniques are introduced: The color cell-based Visual Time Series Line Charts and Maps highlight significant changes over time in a long time series data and the new Visual Content Query facilitates finding the contents and histories of interesting patterns and anomalies, which leads to root cause identification. We have applied both methods to two real-world applications to mine enterprise data warehouse and customer credit card fraud data to illustrate the wide applicability and usefulness of these techniques.

  14. Combining low level features and visual attributes for VHR remote sensing image classification

    Zhao, Fumin; Sun, Hao; Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Shilin


    Semantic classification of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing images is of great importance for land use or land cover investigation. A large number of approaches exploiting different kinds of low level feature have been proposed in the literature. Engineers are often frustrated by their conclusions and a systematic assessment of various low level features for VHR remote sensing image classification is needed. In this work, we firstly perform an extensive evaluation of eight features including HOG, dense SIFT, SSIM, GIST, Geo color, LBP, Texton and Tiny images for classification of three public available datasets. Secondly, we propose to transfer ground level scene attributes to remote sensing images. Thirdly, we combine both low-level features and mid-level visual attributes to further improve the classification performance. Experimental results demonstrate that i) Dene SIFT and HOG features are more robust than other features for VHR scene image description. ii) Visual attribute competes with a combination of low level features. iii) Multiple feature combination achieves the best performance under different settings.

  15. Nonmedical economic consequences attributable to visual impairment: a nation-wide approach in France.

    Lafuma, Antoine; Brezin, Antoine; Fagnani, Francis; Mimaud, Viviane; Mesbah, Mounir; Berdeaux, Gilles


    The nonmedical costs of visual impairment are crucial when allocating resources for prevention or treatment programs. Were analyzed the data from two representative nationwide French surveys aimed at documenting impairments that included 14,603 subjects living in institutions and 16,945 in the community. Three groups were identified: blind (light perception), low vision (loss of shape perception, LV), and controls. Item consumption was standardized on confounding factors using logistic regression. Costs attributable to visual impairment were estimated from control subjects. National nonmedical costs due to visual impairment were euro 9,806 million, arising mostly from LV (euro 8,735 million). The annual average cost/subject was euro 7,242 for LV and euro 15,679 for blindness. Loss of family income was euro 4,552 million, the burden on the caregiver euro 2,525 million, paid assistance euro 2,025 million, social allowances euro 0,942 million, and unmet needs euro 5,553 million. Resource allocation strategies aimed at controlling visual impairment should cover all relevant economic dimensions, including nonmedical items. PMID:16850334

  16. Report on Pairing-based Cryptography.

    Moody, Dustin; Peralta, Rene; Perlner, Ray; Regenscheid, Andrew; Roginsky, Allen; Chen, Lily


    This report summarizes study results on pairing-based cryptography. The main purpose of the study is to form NIST's position on standardizing and recommending pairing-based cryptography schemes currently published in research literature and standardized in other standard bodies. The report reviews the mathematical background of pairings. This includes topics such as pairing-friendly elliptic curves and how to compute various pairings. It includes a brief introduction to existing identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes and other cryptographic schemes using pairing technology. The report provides a complete study of the current status of standard activities on pairing-based cryptographic schemes. It explores different application scenarios for pairing-based cryptography schemes. As an important aspect of adopting pairing-based schemes, the report also considers the challenges inherent in validation testing of cryptographic algorithms and modules. Based on the study, the report suggests an approach for including pairing-based cryptography schemes in the NIST cryptographic toolkit. The report also outlines several questions that will require further study if this approach is followed. PMID:26958435

  17. Problem-Solving Orientation and Attributional Style as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Egyptian Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    Emam, Mahmoud M.


    The association between attributional style (AS), problem-solving orientation (PSO), and gender on depressive symptoms was investigated in Egyptian adolescents with visual impairment (VI). After being written in Braille, measures of AS, PSO, and depression were administered to 110 adolescents with VI, ages 12-17 years, from a residential school…

  18. A Sensemaking Approach to Visual Analytics of Attribute-Rich Social Networks

    Gou, Liang


    Social networks have become more complex, in particular considering the fact that elements in social networks are not only abstract topological nodes and links, but contain rich social attributes and reflecting diverse social relationships. For example, in a co-authorship social network in a scientific community, nodes in the social network, which…

  19. Analysis of the Usage of Magnetic Force-directed Approach and Visual Techniques for Interactive Context-based Drawing of Multi-attributed Graphs

    Zabiniako Vitaly


    Full Text Available In this article, the authors perform an analysis in order to assess adaptation of magnetic force-directed algorithms for context-based information extraction from multi-attributed graphs during visualization sessions. Theoretic standings behind magnetic force-directed approach are stated together with review on how particular features of respective algorithms in combination with appropriate visual techniques are especially suitable for improved processing and presenting of knowledge that is captured in form of graphs. The complexity of retrieving multi-attributed information within the proposed approach is handled with dedicated tools, such as selective attraction of nodes to MFE (Magnetic Force Emitter based on search criteria, localization of POI (Point of Interest regions, graph node anchoring, etc. Implicit compatibility of aforementioned tools with interactive nature of data exploration is distinguished. Description of case study, based on bibliometric network analysis is given, which is followed by the review of existing related works in this field. Conclusions are made and further studies in the field of visualization of multi-attributed graphs are defined.

  20. Visual-Based Clothing Attribute Classification Algorithm%基于视觉的服装属性分类算法

    刘聪; 丁贵广


    提出了一种服装图像属性分类算法 .针对服装图像噪声多的问题 ,采用人体部位检测技术定位服装关键部位并去除冗余信息 ,提高了属性分类的准确率 .并提出了一种基于人体骨架与皮肤的特征提取算法 ,以较少的维数表达衣型特点 ,显著加快相关属性的分类速度 .针对服装属性语义复杂、需求多样化的问题 ,为不同的属性构建了不同的SVM决策树模型 ,从而提高分类效率 ,并同时满足粗、细粒度的服装分类需求 .实验结果验证了该方法在多种服装属性分类任务上的有效性 .%We propose an algorithm for classifying clothing image attributes .To handle the noise in clothing images , key parts of clothing are located by a well-trained human part detector ,and redundant information is eliminated ,by which means the accuracy of clothing attribute classification is improved .Additionally ,a novel feature descriptor based on human skeleton and skin is also proposed . This descriptor describes clothing feature with fewer dimensions ,which significantly speeds up classifiers of related attributes .To deal with the complex semantic of clothing attributes ,different SVM Decision Tree models are built for different attributes ,which improves the efficiency of classification and achieves the objective of both coarse-grained and fine-grained classification . Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm on multiple clothing attribute classification tasks .

  1. Entanglement and Sources of Magnetic Anisotropy in Radical Pair-Based Avian Magnetoreceptors

    Hogben, Hannah J; Hore, P J


    One of the principal models of magnetic sensing in migratory birds rests on the quantum spin-dynamics of transient radical pairs created photochemically in ocular cryptochrome proteins. We consider here the role of electron spin entanglement and coherence in determining the sensitivity of a radical pair-based geomagnetic compass and the origins of the directional response. It emerges that the anisotropy of radical pairs formed from spin-polarized molecular triplets could form the basis of a more sensitive compass sensor than one founded on the conventional hyper?ne-anisotropy model. This property offers new and more flexible opportunities for the design of biologically inspired magnetic compass sensors.

  2. Discovering beautiful attributes for aesthetic image analysis

    Marchesotti, Luca; Murray, Naila; Perronnin, Florent


    Aesthetic image analysis is the study and assessment of the aesthetic properties of images. Current computational approaches to aesthetic image analysis either provide accurate or interpretable results. To obtain both accuracy and interpretability by humans, we advocate the use of learned and nameable visual attributes as mid-level features. For this purpose, we propose to discover and learn the visual appearance of attributes automatically, using a recently introduced database, called AVA, w...

  3. A Bilinear Pairing-Based Dynamic Key Management and Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Chin-Ling Chen


    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks have been used in a variety of environments; a wireless network infrastructure, established to communicate and exchange information in a monitoring area, has also been applied in different environments. However, for sensitive applications, security is the paramount issue. In this paper, we propose using bilinear pairing to design dynamic key management and authentication scheme of the hierarchical sensor network. We use the dynamic key management and the pairing-based cryptography (PBC to establish the session key and the hash message authentication code (HMAC to support the mutual authentication between the sensors and the base station. In addition, we also embed the capability of the Global Positioning System (GPS to cluster nodes to find the best path of the sensor network. The proposed scheme can also provide the requisite security of the dynamic key management, mutual authentication, and session key protection. Our scheme can defend against impersonation attack, replay attack, wormhole attack, and message manipulation attack.

  4. Extruded polymer films pigmented with a heterogeneous ion-pair based lumophore for O2 sensing.

    Mills, Andrew; Graham, Ashleigh


    A novel approach to polymeric Ru(II)-diimine luminescent O2 sensors is described. The Ru(II)-diimine, tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) dichloride ([Ru(dpp)3](2+)), is first ion-paired to the surface of heterogeneous TiO2 particles, rendered negatively charged due to the alkali nature of the aqueous solution, to produce an O2 sensitive pigment with a strikingly high oxygen sensitivity (i.e. PO2 (S = 1/2) = 0.002 atm, where PO2 (S = 1/2) is defined as the amount of oxygen required to reduce the initial, oxygen free luminescence by 50%), and a rapid response to oxygen. The pigment is extruded in low density polyethylene (LDPE) to produce a thin (60 μm), flexible, O2 sensing plastic film, with an O2 sensitivity (PO2 (S = 1/2) = 0.84 atm) comparable to the more traditional homogeneous lumophore ion-pair based O2 sensor ink films reported in the literature. PMID:24040643

  5. Carcinogenesis of asbestos switched on by inducing cross-linkage between DNA complementary pair bases


    Since the beginning of the 1980s, Dai Qianhuan predicted based upon his di-region theory that the carcinogenesis switched on by the so-called physical carcinogenic factors including radiation, asbestos and foreign matter implantation, is just initiated through the cross-linking between DNA complementary pair bases induced by them. In this note, it was evidenced with the DNA filter elution method that the oxygenase activated by asbestos induces the cross-linking between DNA inter-strands and DNA-protein with dosage correlation, in which over 80% of DNA inter-strand cross-link ratio account for the total cross-link ratio. Obviously, both of the cross-linkages are just induced by hydroxyl free radical, HO@, because the ferrous ion increased the cross-link ratios up to several times through Fenton reaction and vitamin C inhibited the cross-link ratios with factors of 8-9 by destroying the hydroxyl radical. Non-carcinogen but with lower free radical formation energy, pyrene, by culturing with asbestos gave 3-4 times cross-link ratios than the original ratios induced by asbestos only. Estradiol, an endogenous carcinogen, as a bio-electrophilic species but with higher free radical formation energy by culturing with asbestos, gave only 1.2 time cross-link ratios than expected ones. Ferrous ion which can increase HO@ concentration through Fenton reaction, increased the ratios to 2-2.5 times in the former case but only 1.2 time in the latter case. Vitamin C, a free radical scavenger, gave a powerful inhibition to the cross-linking with a factor of 8-11 in the former case but a weak inhibition with a factor of 1.2 only in the latter case. So, it is evidenced further that the cross-linkages induced by asbestos are originated from hydroxyl radical. Reasonable structures of the cross-linking products induced by asbestos or hydroxyl radical have been depicted based upon AM1 MO theory. These structures have been verified further by a reasonable explanation of the mutational

  6. Multi-task CNN Model for Attribute Prediction

    Abdulnabi, Abrar H.; Wang, Gang; Lu, Jiwen; Jia, Kui


    This paper proposes a joint multi-task learning algorithm to better predict attributes in images using deep convolutional neural networks (CNN). We consider learning binary semantic attributes through a multi-task CNN model, where each CNN will predict one binary attribute. The multi-task learning allows CNN models to simultaneously share visual knowledge among different attribute categories. Each CNN will generate attribute-specific feature representations, and then we apply multi-task learn...

  7. Uranium Measurements and Attributes

    It may be necessary to find the means to determine unclassified attributes of uranium in nuclear weapons or their components for future transparency initiatives. We briefly describe the desired characteristics of attribute measurement systems for transparency. The determination of uranium attributes; in particular, by passive gamma-ray detection is a formidable challenge

  8. Attributing illness to food

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.;


    the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...

  9. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Inna Galperin

    Full Text Available Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  10. The attribute measurement technique

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  11. Attribute coordination in organizations

    Yingyi Qian; Gerard Roland; Chenggang Xu


    We study coordination in organizations with a variety of organizational forms. Coordination in organization is modeled as the adjustment of attributes and capacities of tasks when facing external shocks. An M-form (U-form) organization groups complementary (substitutable) tasks together in one unit. In the presence of only attribute shocks, particularly when gains from specialization are small, communication is poor, or shocks are more likely, the expected payoff of the decentralized M-form i...

  12. Object Discovery: Soft Attributed Graph Mining.

    Zhang, Quanshi; Song, Xuan; Shao, Xiaowei; Zhao, Huijing; Shibasaki, Ryosuke


    We categorize this research in terms of its contribution to both graph theory and computer vision. From the theoretical perspective, this study can be considered as the first attempt to formulate the idea of mining maximal frequent subgraphs in the challenging domain of messy visual data, and as a conceptual extension to the unsupervised learning of graph matching. We define a soft attributed pattern (SAP) to represent the common subgraph pattern among a set of attributed relational graphs (ARGs), considering both their structure and attributes. Regarding the differences between ARGs with fuzzy attributes and conventional labeled graphs, we propose a new mining strategy that directly extracts the SAP with the maximal graph size without applying node enumeration. Given an initial graph template and a number of ARGs, we develop an unsupervised method to modify the graph template into the maximal-size SAP. From a practical perspective, this research develops a general platform for learning the category model (i.e., the SAP) from cluttered visual data (i.e., the ARGs) without labeling "what is where," thereby opening the possibility for a series of applications in the era of big visual data. Experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method on RGB/RGB-D images and videos. PMID:27046496

  13. A model for avian magnetoreception by coupling magnetite-based mechanism with radical-pair-based mechanism

    Lu, Yan


    Many species of animals have been testified to use the geomagnetic field for their navigation, but the biophysical mechanism of magnetoreception has remained enigmatic. This paper presents a biophysical model consisting of magnetite-based mechanism and radical-pair-based mechanism for the avian magnetoreception. The amplitude of resultant magnetic field outside the magnetic particles correspond to the geomagnetic field direction and effect the yield of singlet/triplet state products in the radical pair reactions, therefore the yield of singlet/triplet state products can connect with the geomagnetic field information for orientational detection by the proposed model. The resultant magnetic fields corresponds to two materials with different magnetic properties were analysed under different directions of the geomagnetic field. The results shown that the ferromagnetic particles in organisms could provide more significant change of singlet state products than that of superparamagnetic particles, and the period of ...

  14. Population attribute compression

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.


    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  15. Significant Attributes of Documents.

    Armstrong, Frances T.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of finding the significant attributes of documents established during the course of research on the automatic classification of documents. The problem was first approached by examining the way in which an existing hierarchical classification system classifies things. The study of biological…

  16. Attribution of Library Costs

    Drake, Miriam A.


    Universities conduct a variety of cost-allocation studies that require the collection and analysis of the library cost-data. Cost accounting methods are used in most studies; however, costs are attributed to library user groups in a variety of ways. Cost accounting studies are reviewed and allocation methods are discussed. (Author)




    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical and conceptual synthesis on relevant aspects of the ecological and aesthetic dimensions that define the urban landscape attributes. The city, as product and creation, has its characteristics, elements, qualities and relationships that can be perceived and interpreted under the light of the viewer, so that its definition embraces both an objective and a subjective analysis. Ecology provides a systemic perspective of the urban dynamics observed in the interaction of its natural and social-cultural factors; aesthetics encompasses perception from the visual contact, with the elements of the landscape, to sensations, feelings and conditions that influence the interpretation. The multidimensional nature based on the eco-aesthetics conception of the urban landscape attributes is a fundamental base to determine the analysis indicators of visual quality oriented to the , urban design practice.

  18. Reliability attributes. Survey

    Starting from an integral system technical concept, the paper gives a survey concerning the treatment of risks relating to reliability by means of the VDI-manual 'Technical Reliability'. Various kinds of reliability characteristics necessary for the determination of risks are explained. Assumed aspects for the evaluation and influencing of attributed risks relating to reliability are stated. Herewith, the formation and application of reliability factors are prepared, which are described on page 2 to 4 of this guideline. (orig./HP)

  19. Space-restricted attribute grammars

    Schmidt, Erik Meineche


    Restricting the size of attribute values, relative to the length of the string under consideration, leads to a model of attribute grammars in which grammars with both inherited and synthesized attributes can be significantly more economical than grammars with synthesized attributes only....

  20. Attributes for Improved Attributes: A Multi-Task Network for Attribute Classification

    Hand, Emily M.; Chellappa, Rama


    Attributes, or semantic features, have gained popularity in the past few years in domains ranging from activity recognition in video to face verification. Improving the accuracy of attribute classifiers is an important first step in any application which uses these attributes. In most works to date, attributes have been considered to be independent. However, we know this not to be the case. Many attributes are very strongly related, such as heavy makeup and wearing lipstick. We propose to tak...

  1. Visual Information Communications International Conference

    Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Zhang, Kang; VINCI'09


    Visual Information Communication is based on VINCI'09, The Visual Information Communications International Conference, September 2009 in Sydney, Australia. Topics covered include The Arts of Visual Layout, Presentation & Exploration, The Design of Visual Attributes, Symbols & Languages, Methods for Visual Analytics and Knowledge Discovery, Systems, Interfaces and Applications of Visualization, Methods for Multimedia Data Recognition & Processing. This cutting-edge book addresses the issues of knowledge discovery, end-user programming, modeling, rapid systems prototyping, education, and design activities. Visual Information Communications is an edited volume whose contributors include well-established researchers worldwide, from diverse disciplines including architects, artists, engineers, and scientists. Visual Information Communication is designed for a professional audience composed of practitioners and researchers working in the field of digital design and visual communications. This volume i...

  2. Visualization of JPEG Metadata

    Malik Mohamad, Kamaruddin; Deris, Mustafa Mat

    There are a lot of information embedded in JPEG image than just graphics. Visualization of its metadata would benefit digital forensic investigator to view embedded data including corrupted image where no graphics can be displayed in order to assist in evidence collection for cases such as child pornography or steganography. There are already available tools such as metadata readers, editors and extraction tools but mostly focusing on visualizing attribute information of JPEG Exif. However, none have been done to visualize metadata by consolidating markers summary, header structure, Huffman table and quantization table in a single program. In this paper, metadata visualization is done by developing a program that able to summarize all existing markers, header structure, Huffman table and quantization table in JPEG. The result shows that visualization of metadata helps viewing the hidden information within JPEG more easily.

  3. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam


    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  4. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    Rosendahl, Mads


    Attribute grammars may be seen as a (rather specialised) lazy or demand-driven programming language. The ``programs'' in this language take text or parse trees as input and return values of the synthesised attributes to the root as output. From this observation we establish a framework for abstract...... interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  5. Mining Attribute-structure Correlated Patterns in Large Attributed Graphs

    Silva, Arlei; Zaki, Mohammed J


    In this work, we study the correlation between attribute sets and the occurrence of dense subgraphs in large attributed graphs, a task we call structural correlation pattern mining. A structural correlation pattern is a dense subgraph induced by a particular attribute set. Existing methods are not able to extract relevant knowledge regarding how vertex attributes interact with dense subgraphs. Structural correlation pattern mining combines aspects of frequent itemset and quasi-clique mining problems. We propose statistical significance measures that compare the structural correlation of attribute sets against their expected values using null models. Moreover, we evaluate the interestingness of structural correlation patterns in terms of size and density. An efficient algorithm that combines search and pruning strategies in the identification of the most relevant structural correlation patterns is presented. We apply our method for the analysis of three real-world attributed graphs: a collaboration, a music, a...

  6. Visualization of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    With the rapid developments in experimental and theoretical fusion energy research towards more geometric details, visualization plays an increasingly important role. In this paper we will give an overview of how visualization can be used to compare and contrast some different configurations for future fusion reactors. Specifically we will focus on the stellarator and tokamak concepts. In order to gain understanding of the underlying fundamental differences and similarities these two competing concepts are compared and contrasted by visualizing some key attributes

  7. A Chance for Attributable Agency

    Briegel, Hans J.; Müller, Thomas


    Can we sensibly attribute some of the happenings in our world to the agency of some of the things around us? We do this all the time, but there are conceptual challenges purporting to show that attributable agency, and specifically one of its most important subspecies, human free agency, is incoherent. We address these challenges in a novel way: rather than merely rebutting specific arguments, we discuss a concrete model that we claim positively illustrates attributable agency in an indetermi...

  8. Effectiveness of Usability Attributes in Domains of Virtual Environment

    Kirti Muley


    Full Text Available In recent years, Virtual Environment (VE has gained immense attention of researchers. VE has its applications in all most all domains of software development. At the same time, it is worth to incorporate software usability attributes to develop an effective VE based application. A wide range of usability attributes may be used for different application areas and for environment. Hence, importance of usability attribute also varies from domain to domain or from application to application. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effectiveness of usability attributes specifically, in domains of VE. Algorithm BayesPost is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of usability attributes of interest in various domains of VE. For execution of the algorithm, we have selected five domains such as Simulation, Educational Websites, Banking Sector, Medical and Entertainment covering 19 usability attributes. On the basis of this study, it may be stated that the probability of existence of usability attribute Interactivity is higher in the domains associated with learning. In contrast, usability attribute Readability possesses lower probability of existence in domains where visual effects are dominant as compared to textual data. It is also observed that probability of existence of usability attribute Active Distraction is subdominant in all domains except medical domain

  9. Attributional Style and School Truancy.

    Kee, Tony Tam Shui


    Argues that little research has been directed toward exploring cognitive variables that characterize students with poor school attendance. Presents the findings of a pilot study that compared a small sample of truants and non-truants on locus of control and attributional style. Finds that attributional style is a significant factor in explaining…

  10. Nomogram-based search for subspaces of independent attributes

    Moškon, Sašo


    In thesis we introduce selective nomograms, an improvement of nomograms for visualization of naive Bayesian classifier. Selective nomograms allow us to interactively explore the domain and discover conditional dependencies between the attributes. We also propose a classification algorithm based on the idea of selectable nomograms. First, we introduce selective nomograms, define conditional dependencies and describe the theoretical background for discovering conditional dependencies betw...

  11. Visual agnosia.

    Álvarez, R; Masjuan, J


    Visual agnosia is defined as an impairment of object recognition, in the absence of visual acuity or cognitive dysfunction that would explain this impairment. This condition is caused by lesions in the visual association cortex, sparing primary visual cortex. There are 2 main pathways that process visual information: the ventral stream, tasked with object recognition, and the dorsal stream, in charge of locating objects in space. Visual agnosia can therefore be divided into 2 major groups depending on which of the two streams is damaged. The aim of this article is to conduct a narrative review of the various visual agnosia syndromes, including recent developments in a number of these syndromes. PMID:26358494

  12. Attribute-Based Data Sharing

    Ms. Rahila Fatima


    Full Text Available Messages addressed to specific users can be decrypted by Key Generation Centre (KGC by generating their private keys. Data owner wants the data to be delivered only to specified user and not to unauthorized person that is the data owner makes their private data accessible only to authorized person. We propose attribute based encryption and escrow problem which means written agreement delivered to a third party to overcome this problem. Attribute based Encryption (ABE is a type of public-key encryption in which the private key of a user and the cipher text are dependent upon attributes. It is a promising cryptographic approach.

  13. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez


    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  14. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    Rosendahl, Mads


    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....

  15. Flow visualization

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang


    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  16. Spatial correlations in attribute communities.

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Community detection is an important tool for exploring and classifying the properties of large complex networks and should be of great help for spatial networks. Indeed, in addition to their location, nodes in spatial networks can have attributes such as the language for individuals, or any other socio-economical feature that we would like to identify in communities. We discuss in this paper a crucial aspect which was not considered in previous studies which is the possible existence of correlations between space and attributes. Introducing a simple toy model in which both space and node attributes are considered, we discuss the effect of space-attribute correlations on the results of various community detection methods proposed for spatial networks in this paper and in previous studies. When space is irrelevant, our model is equivalent to the stochastic block model which has been shown to display a detectability-non detectability transition. In the regime where space dominates the link formation process, most methods can fail to recover the communities, an effect which is particularly marked when space-attributes correlations are strong. In this latter case, community detection methods which remove the spatial component of the network can miss a large part of the community structure and can lead to incorrect results.

  17. Data visualization

    Azzam, Tarek


    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  18. Visual imagery without visual perception?

    Helder Bértolo


    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be us...

  19. Visual Language in Visual Communication

    Jia Wang


    In visual communication the design information is mainly communicated by visual language, the correct use of which is the standard of evaluation of a graphic design composition. Therefore it is necessary to understand and percept visual language properly. It will be helpful for viewers to percept the desired information from the designer as well as the significance within the work.

  20. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger;


    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study in this...

  1. k-visit Attribute Grammars

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Skyum, S.


    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar is k-visit for some k. Furthermore, it is shown that given a well-defined grammar G and an integer k, it is decidable whether G is k-visit. Finally it is shown that the k-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations...

  2. Nomograms for Visualization of Naive Bayesian Classifier

    Možina, Martin; Demšar, Janez; Michael W Kattan; Zupan, Blaz


    Besides good predictive performance, the naive Bayesian classifier can also offer a valuable insight into the structure of the training data and effects of the attributes on the class probabilities. This structure may be effectively revealed through visualization of the classifier. We propose a new way to visualize the naive Bayesian model in the form of a nomogram. The advantages of the proposed method are simplicity of presentation, clear display of the effects of individual attribute value...

  3. Why is Information Displaced from Visual Working Memory during Visual Search?

    Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Luck, Steven J.


    Research has shown that performing visual search while maintaining representations in visual working memory displaces up to one object’s worth of information from memory. This memory displacement has previously been attributed to a nonspecific disruption of the memory representation by the mere presentation of the visual search array, and the goal of the present study was to determine whether it instead reflects the use of visual working memory in the actual search process. The first hypothes...

  4. Different Properties of Visual Relearning after Damage to Early Versus Higher-Level Visual Cortical Areas

    Das, Anasuya; DeMagistris, Margaret; Huxlin, Krystel R.


    The manipulation of visual perceptual learning is emerging as an important rehabilitation tool following visual system damage. Specificity of visual learning for training stimulus and task attributes has been used in prior work to infer a differential contribution of higher-level versus lower-level visual cortical areas to this process. The present study used a controlled experimental paradigm in felines to examine whether relearning of motion discrimination and the specificity of such relear...

  5. Visual imagery without visual perception?

    Helder Bértolo


    Full Text Available The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be used as a way of answering some of those questions, namely if it is possible to have visual imagery without visual perception. We present results from the work of our group using visual activation in dreams and its relation with EEG’s spectral components, showing that congenitally blind have visual contents in their dreams and are able to draw them; furthermore their Visual Activation Index is negatively correlated with EEG alpha power. This study supports the hypothesis that it is possible to have visual imagery without visual experience.

  6. Facilitation versus inhibition in non-spatial attribute discrimination tasks

    Hu, Frank K.; Samuel, Arthur G.


    Inhibition of Return is a delay in initiating attentional shifts to previously inspected locations. It has been explained as a mechanism to facilitate visual search of a scene by inhibiting the allocation of attention to locations that have already been examined. We (Hu, Samuel, & Chan, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2010) recently demonstrated that similar processing costs can appear when a non-spatial attribute (color or shape) repeats—detection of a target stimulus was slower...

  7. The Characteristics of Attributes in English

    Deng Hui


    This essay focuses on two aspects.One is the characteristic of attribute.The other is concern with some points of using attributes in English.This understanding contributes to using attributes correctly both in written and spoken English.

  8. Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.

  9. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Vineis Paolo


    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  10. Attribute Search in Online Retailing

    Richards, Timothy J.; Hamilton, Stephen F; Empen, Janine


    Online shopping is common in many categories of retail goods. The recent trend towards online retailing has created an unprecedented empirical opportunity to examine consumer search behavior using click stream data. In this paper we examine consumer search intensity across a wide range of grocery products that differ in the depth of product assortment. We develop a model of attribute search in which consumers search within a chosen retailer for products that match their tastes, and that equil...

  11. Narrative attributions of entrepreneurial failure

    Mantere, Saku; Aula, Pekka; Schildt, Henri; Vaara, Eero


    We examine how organizational stakeholders use narratives in their psychological processing of venture failure. We identify a range of “narrative attributions”, alternative accounts of failure that actors draw on to process the failure and their role in it. Our analysis provides a view of entrepreneurial failure as a complex social construction, as entrepreneurs, hired executives, employees and the media construct failure in distinctively different ways. Narratives provide means for both ...

  12. Attempting Measurement of Psychological Attributes

    Salzberger, Thomas


    Measures of psychological attributes abound in the social sciences as much as measures of physical properties do in the physical sciences. However, there are crucial differences between the scientific underpinning of measurement. While measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence that demonstrates the quantitative nature of the property assessed, measurement in the social sciences is, in large part, made possible only by a vague, discretionary definition of measurem...

  13. Visualization Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  14. Traffic Visualization

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti;


    In this paper, we present a space-time visualization to provide city's decision-makers the ability to analyse and uncover important "city events" in an understandable manner for city planning activities. An interactive Web mashup visualization is presented that integrates several visualization...... techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...

  15. Attempting measurement of psychological attributes.

    Salzberger, Thomas


    Measures of psychological attributes abound in the social sciences as much as measures of physical properties do in the physical sciences. However, there are crucial differences between the scientific underpinning of measurement. While measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence that demonstrates the quantitative nature of the property assessed, measurement in the social sciences is, in large part, made possible only by a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data. Traditional psychometric analyses fail to address the requirements of measurement as defined more rigorously in the physical sciences. The construct definitions do not allow for testable predictions; and content validity becomes a matter of highly subjective judgment. In order to improve measurement of psychological attributes, it is suggested to, first, readopt the definition of measurement in the physical sciences; second, to devise an elaborate theory of the construct to be measured that includes the hypothesis of a quantitative attribute; and third, to test the data for the structure implied by the hypothesis of quantity as well as predictions derived from the theory of the construct. PMID:23550264

  16. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    Lourembam Surjit Singh


    Full Text Available This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social expertise. Meetei used proverbs as an important aspect of verbal discourses within the socio-cultural and ethno-civilization contexts in which skills, knowledge, ideas, emotion, and experiences are communicating. The language used in proverbs reflects the Meetei’s status of life, food habits, belief systems, philosophy, cultural and social orientations. At the same time, various meanings attribute in Meetei proverbs in the forms of figurative, witty, pithy, didactic etc. The construction of these forms are grammatically insightful thereby creating spaces for a whole range of possibilities for investigating the features, functions and structure of verbal inflectional markers occurred in Meetei proverbial sentences.Keywords: Proverbs, morphosemantics, features of lexical items, attributes of meanings and language

  17. Newfound verses attributed to Sanai

    علی حوری علی حوری


    Full Text Available Hakim Sanai is among the few major poets and mystics and is one of the Persian-language primers, whose works created modern developments of the Persian poetry’s content. He was also, in the true sense of the word, “like a thunder that lightened and like a sun that shined,” brightening the road of such poets as Attar and Rumi. The significance of Sanai’s position in literature and mysticism, as well as the position of his poetry has still not been explored as it should be. While examining Sanai’s verses in the prose works, his verses were found in the prose texts of the 6th to 9th century AH/12th to 15th century AD, which do not exist among the popular edited works of this great poet. This article introduces the sources and investigates 43 confirmed verses attributed to Sanai, based on nineteen ancient Persian prose texts, whose authors attribute them to Sanai, or are attributed to him due to coming in the same text with his other verses. This may prove useful for the future edited works of Sanai. Key Words: Sanai, confirmed verses, prose texts, newfound verses.

  18. Client attributions for sexual dysfunction.

    Fichten, C S; Spector, I; Libman, E


    This investigation examined attributions for sexual dysfunctions made by 63 individuals and 21 of their partners who presented at a sex therapy service for the following problems: erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, and female orgasmic dysfunctions. All participants completed measures of marital adjustment, locus of control, depression and a questionnaire which assessed: attributions of responsibility for the sexual problem, perceived control over sexual functioning, distress, effort made to improve the sexual relationship, and expectations about the efficacy of sex therapy for the problem. Results indicate that both identified patients and their partners, regardless of the dysfunction, blamed the sexual problem on the "dysfunctional individual" rather than on the circumstances or the partner. With respect to the partners, husbands of women with orgasmic dysfunction were more likely to blame themselves than the circumstances, while the opposite was true for wives of males with erectile difficulties. Individuals experiencing the dysfunction perceived themselves and their partners as having little, but equal control over the identified patient's sexuality. Correlational analyses indicate that in identified patients, the better the quality of the marital relationship, the greater the self-blame and the lower the partner blame. Those with happy marriages also made greater efforts to improve their sexual relationship and had higher expectations of success with therapy. The implications of the results for research on the role of attributions in sexual dysfunction and for assessment of cognitive factors in sexually dysfunctional individuals and their partners is discussed. PMID:3172253

  19. Analysis of biodistribution attributes of radiopharmaceuticals by BioDOT

    An important component of radiopharmaceuticals quality evaluation is determination of biological distribution attributes by animal study. This is subjective, time consuming, and difficult to quantify. A user friendly graphical statistical analysis software (BioDOT) was developed using Visual Basic 6.0 for repeatable, objective evaluate of biological distribution attribute of radiopharmaceuticals in animal. The software measured the organs mass, organs radioactivity, radioactivity decay correction, radioactivity per gram of organs, and calculate radioactivity target to non-target ratios. Radiopharmaceuticals quality assessment by a BioDOT was used to estimate post injected biological distribution, and organs radioactivity and uniformity ratio was calculated. The software quantified percent injected dose of radiopharmaceutical in selected organs of the animal study. Total percent injected dose was quantified and correlated with the standard value of BP Pharmacopoeia. The method objectively measured distribution quality attributes of radiopharmaceuticals and generate full report in pdf format in less than 10 min per study. (author)

  20. Towards three-dimensional visual saliency

    Sharma, Puneet


    A salient image region is defined as an image part that is clearly different from its surround in terms of a number of attributes. In bottom-up processing, these attributes are defined as: contrast, color difference, brightness, and orientation. By measuring these attributes, visual saliency algorithms aim to predict the regions in an image that would attract our attention under free viewing conditions, i.e., when the observer is viewing an image without a specific task such as searching for ...

  1. Interactive Visual Profiling of Musicians.

    Janicke, Stefan; Focht, Josef; Scheuermann, Gerik


    Determining similar objects based upon the features of an object of interest is a common task for visual analytics systems. This process is called profiling, if the object of interest is a person with individual attributes. The profiling of musicians similar to a musician of interest with the aid of visual means became an interesting research question for musicologists working with the Bavarian Musicians Encyclopedia Online. This paper illustrates the development of a visual analytics profiling system that is used to address such research questions. Taking musicological knowledge into account, we outline various steps of our collaborative digital humanities project, priority (1) the definition of various measures to determine the similarity of musicians' attributes, and (2) the design of an interactive profiling system that supports musicologists in iteratively determining similar musicians. The utility of the profiling system is emphasized by various usage scenarios illustrating current research questions in musicology. PMID:26529700

  2. Visual art and visual perception

    Koenderink, Jan J.


    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their weight in gold”. I perceive a metabletic (van den Berg, 1956) parallel to philosophy transforming itself into speculative logic games, and psychology going cognitive by freeing itself from phenomen...

  3. Nomograms for Visualizing Support Vector Machines

    Zupan, Dejan; Saje, Miran; Jakulin, Aleks; Možina, Martin; Demšar, Janez; Bratko, Ivan; Zupan, Blaz


    We propose a simple yet potentially very effective way of visualizing trained support vector machines. Nomograms are an established model visualization technique that can graphically encode the complete model on a single page. The dimensionality of the visualization does not depend on the number of attributes, but merely on the properties of the kernel. To represent the effect of each predictive feature on the log odds ratio scale as required for the nomograms, we employ logistic regression t...

  4. Nomograms for Visualizing Support Vector Machines

    Jakulin, Aleks; Možina, Martin; Demšar, Janez; Bratko, Ivan; Zupan, Blaz


    We propose a simple yet potentially very effective way of visualizing trained support vector machines. Nomograms are an established model visualization technique that can graphically encode the complete model on a single page. The dimensionality of the visualization does not depend on the number of attributes, but merely on the properties of the kernel. To represent the effect of each predictive feature on the log odds ratio scale as required for the nomograms, we employ logistic regression t...

  5. Visual Education

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise


    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... the learning potential of images and visuality from two perspectives: 1) The perspective of digital media which are assumed to form an increasing part of experience and communication from the use of internet, tv and mobile devices. 2) The perspective of culture where images and visualisations are assumed...... to emerge in the interlocutory space of a global visual repertoire and diverse local interpretations. The two perspectives represent challenges for future visual education which require visual competences, not only within the arts but also within the subjects of natural sciences, social sciences, languages...

  6. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution

    Fahey, A. J.; Zeissler, C. J.; Newbury, D. E.; Davis, J.; Lindstrom, R.M.


    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the “Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act,” scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nucle...

  7. Factorial Validity of the Mathematics Attribution Scale.

    Choroszy, Melisa; And Others


    The Mathematics Attribution Scale (MAS) (Algebra) was designed to assess attributions of success and failure in algebra to ability, effort, task, and environment. This study examined the MAS (Algebra) for a separate dimension of attributes for success and a dimension of attributes for failure. The two hypothesized dimensions did not emerge.…

  8. SAR Image Segmentation Using Morphological Attribute Profiles

    Boldt, M.; Thiele, A.; Schulz, K.; Hinz, S.


    In the last years, the spatial resolution of remote sensing sensors and imagery has continuously improved. Focusing on spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors, the satellites of the current generation (TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SykMed) are able to acquire images with sub-meter resolution. Indeed, high resolution imagery is visually much better interpretable, but most of the established pixel-based analysis methods have become more or less impracticable since, in high resolution images, self-sufficient objects (vehicle, building) are represented by a large number of pixels. Methods dealing with Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) provide help. Objects (segments) are groupings of pixels resulting from image segmentation algorithms based on homogeneity criteria. The image set is represented by image segments, which allows the development of rule-based analysis schemes. For example, segments can be described or categorized by their local neighborhood in a context-based manner. In this paper, a novel method for the segmentation of high resolution SAR images is presented. It is based on the calculation of morphological differential attribute profiles (DAP) which are analyzed pixel-wise in a region growing procedure. The method distinguishes between heterogeneous and homogeneous image content and delivers a precise segmentation result.

  9. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Butler, T. M.


    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  10. Visual Impairment

    ... poorly lit spaces, and colors that seem faded. Diabetic retinopathy (pronounced: reh-ton-AH-pa-thee) occurs when ... that is likely to cause visual impairment, many treatments are available. Options may include eyeglasses, contact lenses, ...

  11. Visual cognition

    Pinker, S.


    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  12. Research on Radar Emitter Attribute Recognition Method


    In order to solve emitter recognition problems in a practical reconnaissance environment, attribute mathematics is introduced. The basic concepts and theory of attribute set and attribute measure are described in detail. A new attribute recognition method based on attribute measure is presented in this paper. Application example is given, which demonstrates this new method is accurate and effective. Moreover, computer simulation for recognizing the emitter purpose is selected, and compared with classical statistical pattern recognition through simulation. The excellent experimental results demonstrate that this is a brand-new attribute recognition method as compared to existing statistical pattern recognition techniques.

  13. Visual comparison for information visualization

    Gleicher, M.


    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  14. Mid-level Representation for Visual Recognition

    Nabi, Moin


    Visual Recognition is one of the fundamental challenges in AI, where the goal is to understand the semantics of visual data. Employing mid-level representation, in particular, shifted the paradigm in visual recognition. The mid-level image/video representation involves discovering and training a set of mid-level visual patterns (e.g., parts and attributes) and represent a given image/video utilizing them. The mid-level patterns can be extracted from images and videos using the motion and appe...

  15. Attribution theory in science achievement

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  16. Attributional theory, organisational culture and motivation

    Xenikou, A.


    This thesis concerns the effect of attributions for failing in a creativity task and organisational culture (OC) on motivation to engage in similar tasks. In chapter one the relationship between situational attributions, attributional style (AS), and motivation is reviewed. A reformulation of Amabile's model of the social psychology of creativity is suggested on the grounds of recent developments in attributional theory. An extension of Amabile's theory is also proposed by inve...

  17. Detecting Structure-correlated Attributes on Graphs

    Chen, Siheng; Yang, Yaoqing; Zong, Shi; Singh, Aarti; Kovačević, Jelena


    Do users from Carnegie Mellon University form social communities on Facebook? In this paper, we focus on a task of detecting structure-correlated attributes on a graph. A structure-correlated attribute means that the node set activated by the attribute form a community in the graph. This task is relevant to many applications including identifying structure-correlated attributes in social networks, special events in the urban traffic networks, unusual brain activity in the brain connectivity n...

  18. Attributions and requirements of Islamic leadership

    Dahlena Sari Marbun


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look into the relationship between attribution and requirements of Islamic leadership. Design/methodology/approach – This paper describes concepts of attribution and requirements of leadership and links them to related Islamic concepts. Findings - A correlation is found to exist between attribution and requirements of “conventional” and Islamic leadership. Research limitations/implications - Being a practical endeavor, attribution and requirements of ...

  19. Visual cognition

    Pinker, S.


    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  20. Visualizing Transformation

    Pedersen, Pia


    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process of...... transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project...

  1. 1997 & 1998 Smoking-Attributable Mortality Report

    Bryant, Jennifer B.S.; Thompson, Dan M.P.H.; Hopkins, Richard M.D., M.S.P.H.; Florida Department of Health, Brueau of Epidemiology


    Between 1997 and 1998, the percentage of smoking-attributable deaths compared with all deaths by all causes in Florida remained steady. During 1997 an estimated 18.90% of all deaths in Florida were attributable to cigarette smoking, and 18.74% were smoking-attributable in 1998. Using the Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity and Economic Costs (SAMMEC 3.0) software program, developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as a model, Florida’s smoking-attributable deaths were ...

  2. Attribute oriented induction with star schema

    Spits Warnars H.L.H


    Full Text Available This paper will propose a novel star schema attribute induction as a new attributeinduction paradigm and as improving from current attribute oriented induction. A novelstar schema attribute induction will be examined with current attribute oriented inductionbased on characteristic rule and using non rule based concept hierarchy by implementingboth of approaches. In novel star schema attribute induction some improvements havebeen implemented like elimination threshold number as maximum tuples control forgeneralization result, there is no ANY as the most general concept, replacement the roleconcept hierarchy with concept tree, simplification for the generalization strategy stepsand elimination attribute oriented induction algorithm. Novel star schema attributeinduction is more powerful than the current attribute oriented induction since can producesmall number final generalization tuples and there is no ANY in the results.

  3. Six-and-a-Half-Month-Old Children Positively Attribute Goals to Human Action and to Humanoid-Robot Motion

    Kamewari, K.; Kato, M.; Kanda, T.; Ishiguro, H.; Hiraki, K.


    Recent infant studies indicate that goal attribution (understanding of goal-directed action) is present very early in infancy. We examined whether 6.5-month-olds attribute goals to agents and whether infants change the interpretation of goal-directed action according to the kind of agent. We conducted three experiments using the visual habituation…

  4. Visual system for waste tank cleanup

    The single-shell underground radioactive waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are briefly described and their physical complexities discussed. The attributes of a remote visual system needed to work productively in this environment are reviewed. The vision subsystem of the Naval Ocean Systems Center's TeleOperator/telePresence System, which closely approaches the required attributes, is briefly described. The possibility and usefulness of overlaying the visual image of the tank and its contents with a virtual model are discussed

  5. Attributional analysis of chronic illness outcomes.

    Lowery, B J; Jacobsen, B S


    The Weiner et al. attribution model has generated a great deal of research on attributions for success and failure in academic achievement situations. Studies of success and failure attributions in real-life situations of high personal concern are limited. If the attribution model is to lead to a general theory of motivation, such tests in real-life situations are critical. In this study, causal attributions for success and failure outcomes of chronically ill patients were examined. Results indicated at least partial support for the model. Patients tended to attribute success internally and failure externally, but stability and expectations were not linked in this sample. Moreover, a tendency to respond with no cause to an open-ended measure and to hold little commitment to any causes on a closed-ended measure was characteristic of failure subjects. PMID:3844736

  6. Attributional and relational processing in pigeons

    Dennis eGarlick


    Full Text Available Six pigeons were trained using a matching-to-sample procedure where sample and rewarded comparisons matched on both attributional (color and relational (horizontal or vertical orientation dimensions. Probes then evaluated the pigeons’ preference to comparisons that varied in these dimensions. A strong preference was found for the attribute of color. The discrimination was not found to transfer to novel colors, however, suggesting that a general color rule had not been learned. Further, when color could not be used to guide responding, some influence of other attributional cues such as shape, but not relational cues, was found. We conclude that pigeons based their performance on attributional properties of but not on relational properties between elements in our matching-to-sample procedure.. Future studies should look at examining other attributes to compare attributional versus relational processing.

  7. Lightning Strikes and Attribution of Climatic Change

    Webster, Anthony J


    Using lightning strikes as an example, two possible schemes are discussed for the attribution of changes in event frequency to climate change, and estimating the cost associated with them. The schemes determine the fraction of events that should be attributed to climatic change, and the fraction that should be attributed to natural chance. They both allow for the expected increase in claims and the fluctuations about this expected value. Importantly, the attribution fraction proposed in the second of these schemes is necessarily different to that found in epidemiological studies. This ensures that the statistically expected fraction of attributed claims is correctly equal to the expected increase in claims. The analysis of lightning data highlights two particular difficulties with data-driven, as opposed to modeled, attribution studies. The first is the possibility of unknown "confounding" variables that can influence the strike frequency. This is partly accounted for here by considering the influence of temp...

  8. Graph matching and clustering using kernel attributes

    Lozano Ortega, Miguel Ángel; Escolano Ruiz, Francisco


    In this paper, we exploit graph kernels for graph matching and clustering. Firstly, we analyze different kinds of graph kernels in order to extract from them attributes to be used as a similarity measure between nodes of non-attributed graphs. Next, such attributes are embedded in a graph-matching cost function, through a probabilistic framework, and we evaluate their performance within a graph-matching algorithm. Secondly, we propose a method for obtaining a representative prototype from a s...

  9. Clothing Style Recognition using Fashion Attribute Detection

    Guang-Lu Sun; Xiao Wu; Hong-Han Chen; Qiang Peng


    In this paper, a new framework is proposed for clothing style recognition in natural scenes. Clothing region is first detected through the fusion of super-pixel segmentation, saliency detection and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Next, a group of fashion attribute detectors are trained to get the likelihood of each attribute in the clothing image. Finally, the correlation matrix between clothing styles and fashion attributes is adopted to predict the clothing style. For evaluation, we collect a...

  10. Second Attribute Algorithm Based on Tree Expression

    Su-Qing Han; Jue Wang


    One view of finding a personalized solution of reduct in an information system is grounded on the viewpoint that attribute order can serve as a kind of semantic representation of user requirements. Thus the problem of finding personalized solutions can be transformed into computing the reduct on an attribute order. The second attribute theorem describes the relationship between the set of attribute orders and the set of reducts, and can be used to transform the problem of searching solutions to meet user requirements into the problem of modifying reduct based on a given attribute order. An algorithm is implied based on the second attribute theorem, with computation on the discernibility matrix. Its time complexity is O(n2 × m) (n is the number of the objects and m the number of the attributes of an information system).This paper presents another effective second attribute algorithm for facilitating the use of the second attribute theorem,with computation on the tree expression of an information system. The time complexity of the new algorithm is linear in n. This algorithm is proved to be equivalent to the algorithm on the discernibility matrix.

  11. Machine Learning Based on Attribute Interactions

    Jakulin, Aleks


    Two attributes $A$ and $B$ are said to interact when it helps to observe the attribute values of both attributes together. This is an example of a $2$-way interaction. In general, a group of attributes ${\\cal X}$ is involved in a $k$-way interaction when we cannot reconstruct their relationship merely with $\\ell$-way interactions, $\\ell < k$. These two definitions formalize the notion of an interaction in a nutshell. An additional notion is the one of context. We interpret context as just...

  12. Clothing Style Recognition using Fashion Attribute Detection

    Guang-Lu Sun


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new framework is proposed for clothing style recognition in natural scenes. Clothing region is first detected through the fusion of super-pixel segmentation, saliency detection and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM. Next, a group of fashion attribute detectors are trained to get the likelihood of each attribute in the clothing image. Finally, the correlation matrix between clothing styles and fashion attributes is adopted to predict the clothing style. For evaluation, we collect a dataset for clothing style recognition which contains 5 styles and 14 fashion attributes. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework has a promising ability to recognize the clothing style.

  13. Predictors of Attributional Style Change in Children

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Comer, Jonathan S.; Shen, Gail H. C.; Villari, Annette G.


    A number of studies have supported the hypothesis that negative attributional styles may confer vulnerability to the development of depression. The goal of this study was to explore factors that may contribute to the development of negative attributional styles in children. As hypothesized, elevated levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness…

  14. Attributes of an Effective Feedback Process

    Journal of Staff Development, 2015


    Not all feedback is created equal. It is actually quite uneven in its design and effectiveness. Feedback forms typically used by educators and the feedback process used to support learning have markedly different attributes. Understanding the key attributes of effective feedback is important for those involved in the feedback process. The tools…

  15. Pretest probability assessment derived from attribute matching

    Hollander Judd E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretest probability (PTP assessment plays a central role in diagnosis. This report compares a novel attribute-matching method to generate a PTP for acute coronary syndrome (ACS. We compare the new method with a validated logistic regression equation (LRE. Methods Eight clinical variables (attributes were chosen by classification and regression tree analysis of a prospectively collected reference database of 14,796 emergency department (ED patients evaluated for possible ACS. For attribute matching, a computer program identifies patients within the database who have the exact profile defined by clinician input of the eight attributes. The novel method was compared with the LRE for ability to produce PTP estimation Results In the validation set, attribute matching produced 267 unique PTP estimates [median PTP value 6%, 1st–3rd quartile 1–10%] compared with the LRE, which produced 96 unique PTP estimates [median 24%, 1st–3rd quartile 10–30%]. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.74 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.82 for the attribute matching curve and 0.68 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.77 for LRE. The attribute matching system categorized 1,670 (24%, 95% CI = 23–25% patients as having a PTP Conclusion Attribute matching estimated a very low PTP for ACS in a significantly larger proportion of ED patients compared with a validated LRE.

  16. An Attributional Approach to Counselor Attractiveness.

    Hackman, Hollis W.; Claiborn, Charles D.


    Examined two components of counselor attractiveness--perceived similarity and liking--in a comparison of two theoretical approaches to attractiveness and influence in counseling--the referent power hypothesis and an attributional approach. Results generally support the attributional approach over the reference power hypothesis. (Author)

  17. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  18. Extreme events: The art of attribution

    Otto, Friederike E. L.


    A high-impact weather event that occurred at the end of a decade of weather extremes led to the emergence of extreme event attribution science. The challenge is now to move on to assessing the actual risks, rather than simply attributing meteorological variables to climate change.

  19. Causal Attribution of Mood in the Climacterium.

    Lyon, Bernadette M.


    Examined attributions used by pre- and postmenopausal women (N=105) to explain mood. After reading a diary written by a middle-aged woman, participants rated menopausal symptoms, environment, and age as likely causes of the woman's mood. Menopausal symptoms were rated as a salient source of attribution for negative mood. (NRB)

  20. An Exploration of EFL Teachers' Attributions

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Ghazanfari, Mohammad; Ghabanchi, Zargham


    The present study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attributions of success and failure. It also set out to investigate whether these attributions vary by teachers' age, teaching experience, gender and educational level. To do so, 200 EFL teachers were selected according to convenience sampling among EFL teachers teaching…

  1. Neutron activation analysis helps in picture attribution

    The neutron activation analysis application for obtaining the data useful for proper attribution of paintings has been presented on the base of several examples. The identification on this way of dye elements, pigments and other painting materials is an important element among the physico-chemical methods helping the attribution procedure of old painting objects

  2. Attributional Style and the Freshman Writer.

    Gordon, Douglas K.; Mercier, Judith D.

    Martin Seligman's psychology research on depression, published in 7 books and hundreds of articles, shows a correlation between attributional style and depression. "Explanatory style" is another term nearly synonymous with attributional style, a habitual way to explain, positively or negatively, external events. A "learned" optimist himself,…

  3. Risk attributes theory: Decision making under risk

    He, Ying; Huang, Ruihua


    In this paper, some limitations in the conventional theories and models of the decision making under risk are presented from a new angle. To eliminate those limitations, a theoretical framework is proposed, in which the risk preference relation is constructed on a set of risk attributes instead of...... risky prospects. The axioms are presented to ensure the existence of the representation function for this risk preference relation through employing the Multi-attribute Utility Theory (MAUT). In our framework, we construct a risk decision model with four risk attributes. One of these attributes measured...... by a newly defined attribute measurement, the Relative Maximum Absolute Value (RMAV), can be employed in our model to explain the experimental result more intuitively compared with the overweighting of small probability proposed by Kahneman and Tversky in their Prospect Theory. In addition, the...

  4. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Expenditures (SAE)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable expenditures (SAEs) are excess health care expenditures...

  5. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  6. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  7. The Depressive Attributions Questionnaire (DAQ): Development of a Short Self-Report Measure of Depressogenic Attributions

    Kleim, B; Gonzalo, D; Ehlers, A


    A depressogenic attributional style, i.e., internal, stable and global causal interpretations of negative events, is a stable vulnerability factor for depression. Current measures of pessimistic attributional style can be time-consuming to complete, and some are designed for specific use with student populations. We developed and validated a new short questionnaire suitable for the measurement of depressogenic attributions in clinical settings, the Depressive Attributions Questionnaire (DAQ)....

  8. Non-binding relationship between visual features

    Dragan Rangelov


    Full Text Available The answer as to how visual attributes processed in different brain loci at different speeds are bound together to give us our unitary experience of the visual world remains unknown. In this study we investigated whether bound representations arise, as commonly assumed, through physiological interactions between cells in the visual areas. In a focal attentional task in which correct responses from either bound or unbound representations were possible, participants discriminated the colour or orientation of briefly presented single bars. On the assumption that representations of the two attributes are bound, the accuracy of reporting the colour and orientation should co-vary. By contrast, if the attributes are not mandatorily bound, the accuracy of reporting the two attributes should be independent. The results of our psychophysical studies reported here supported the latter, non-binding, relationship between visual features, suggesting that binding does not necessarily occur even under focal attention. We propose a task-contingent binding mechanism, postulating that binding occurs at late, post-perceptual, stages through the intervention of memory.

  9. Construct Validity of Attributional Style: Modeling Context-Dependent Item Sets in the Attributional Style Questionnaire.

    Higgins, N. C.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Hay, Jana L.


    Confirmatory factor analysis of data from 1,346 respondents to the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) (C. Peterson and others, 1982) reveals that adequate fit is provided by a three-factor attributional style model that includes context-dependent item sets. Results suggest that there is no such thing as a nonsituational attributional style.…

  10. Fundamental attributes of water-conducting features

    The fundamental attributes of water-conducting features are discussed in two parts. The first part is a generic discussion of the attributes of water conducting features, and the second part illustrates some of these attributes using site-specific cases in various geologic media. The description of water-conducting features may use either geologic or statistical geometric approaches or a mixture of the two. More often, however, correlations of geologic and hydraulic properties are not completely adequate. The spatial structure of water conducting features affects strongly their importance for performance assessment. (author)

  11. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas


    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. PMID:22034342

  12. Continuous Attributes Discretization Algorithm based on FPGA

    Guoqiang Sun


    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of Discretization of continuous attributes in rough set. Discretization of continuous attributes is an important part of rough set theory because most of data that we usually gain are continuous data. In order to improve processing speed of discretization, we propose a FPGA-based discretization algorithm of continuous attributes making use of the speed advantage of FPGA. Combined attributes dependency degree of rough ret, the discretization system was divided into eight modules according to block design. This method can save much time of pretreatment in rough set and improve operation efficiency. Extensive experiments on a certain fighter fault diagnosis validate the effectiveness of the algorithm.  

  13. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Pennington, Wayne D.


    This project is intended to enhance the ability to use seismic data for the determination of rock and fluid properties through an improved understanding of the physics underlying the relationships between seismic attributes and formation.

  14. Pretest probability assessment derived from attribute matching

    Hollander Judd E; Diercks Deborah B; Pollack Charles V; Johnson Charles L; Kline Jeffrey A; Newgard Craig D; Garvey J Lee


    Abstract Background Pretest probability (PTP) assessment plays a central role in diagnosis. This report compares a novel attribute-matching method to generate a PTP for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We compare the new method with a validated logistic regression equation (LRE). Methods Eight clinical variables (attributes) were chosen by classification and regression tree analysis of a prospectively collected reference database of 14,796 emergency department (ED) patients evaluated for possib...

  15. Verifying Credence Attributes in Livestock Production

    Olynk, Nicole J.; Tonsor, Glynn T.; Christopher A. Wolf


    Livestock producers can respond to increasing consumer demand for certain production process attributes by providing verifiable information on the practices used. Consumer willingness to pay data were used to inform producer decision-making regarding selection of verification entities for four key production process attributes in the production of pork chops and milk. The potential for informing farm-level decision-making with information about consumer demand for product and production proce...

  16. Enhancing Graduate Attributes Utilising Social Media

    Bates, Eric; Hinch, Peter


    The objective of this research was to ascertain the usefulness of utilising social media to enhance graduate attributes. This study was conducted during one semester and concentrated on one aspect of graduate attributes which were interview skills. Two videos were scripted, shot and edited that focused on interviews from the perspective of both the interviewer and the interviewee. These videos were incorporated into workshops with first year and second year level 8 undergraduate students. Pre...

  17. Estimation of Attribute Weights from Preference Comparisons

    Dan Horsky; Rao, M R


    The multi-attribute utility model serves as a basis for many marketing decisions such as new product planning and advertising message selection. The estimation of individuals' attribute weights can be performed using several data types and estimation techniques. There is evidence to suggest that the estimates derived from ordinal preference data through linear programming show greater stability and predictive validity. In this paper we address two fundamental issues which have not been addres...

  18. Actions and Attributes from Wholes and Parts

    Gkioxari, Georgia; Girshick, Ross; Malik, Jitendra


    We investigate the importance of parts for the tasks of action and attribute classification. We develop a part-based approach by leveraging convolutional network features inspired by recent advances in computer vision. Our part detectors are a deep version of poselets and capture parts of the human body under a distinct set of poses. For the tasks of action and attribute classification, we train holistic convolutional neural networks and show that adding parts leads to top-performing results ...

  19. Examining Servant Leadership Attributes and Employee Trust

    Zahrah Tariq; Abdul Raufu Ambali


    Preparing future leaders is one primal and challenging issue in the contemporary organizations. Within leadership research a new area based on ethical values and linked to positive organizational outcomes is servant leadership. Based on literature servant leadership is a construct that explains key attributes of leaders who first serve and then lead. To support this idea the concept needs more empirical explanation. The premise of this research is that the attributive values of servant leader...

  20. Relational Attributes in Supply Chain Relationships

    Sweety Law; Jacques Verville; Nazim Taskin


    The objective of this research paper is to examine the relational attributes underpinning supply chain networks, which linked firms need to manage on an ongoing basis. In examining the connections, which are different from transaction-based connections, this study measures the effects of face-to-face communication, trust, involvement, job title, and sales volume on performance. The hypothesized relationships are mostly supported and provide nuanced insights into relational attributes that aff...

  1. Corporate apologia and the attribution of guilt

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    This paper argues that in the difficult disciplines of crisis communication and image restoration, attribution theory has explanatory value. Corporate apologia - the explanations that an organisation offers after an attack - differs with the type of crisis it is designed to diffuse, and if the...... crisis concerns legitimacy, the art is to shift the public attribution of guilt or responsibility. The case of Arla vs Hirtshals is used to demonstrate how a concerted effort in impression management succeeded in just such a shift....

  2. Corporate apologia and the attribution of guilt

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie


    This paper argues that in the difficult disciplines of crisis communication and image restoration, attribution theory has explanatory value. Corporate apologia – the explanations that an organisation offers after an attack on – differs with the type of crisis it is designed to diffuse, and if the crisis concerns legitimacy, the art is to shift the public attribution of guilt or responsibility. The case of Arla vs Hirtshals is used to demonstrate how a concerted effort in impression management...

  3. Attribute Verification Systems: Concepts and Status

    Verification of the characteristics of large pieces of nuclear material is relatively straightforward if that material is not classified. However, this type of radiation measurement is, almost by definition, very intrusive. An alternative is to measure selected attributes of the material; an attribute of an object is an unclassified characteristic (e.g. exceeding a negotiated mass threshold) that is related to a classified quantity (e.g., the mass of an object). Such an attribute verification system must meet two criteria: 1) classified information cannot be released to the inspecting party, and 2) the inspecting party must be able to reach credible and independent conclusions. The attribute verification system for use in international agreements must satisfy both requirements simultaneously, to the satisfaction of all parties concerned. One key point in the design of such systems is that while the measurement data itself may be classified, the measurement system cannot be. A specific example of a 'three attribute' verification system is the 'Attribute Verification System with Information Barrier for Plutonium with Classified Characteristics utilizing Neutron Multiplicity Counting and High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry' (or AVNG), which is currently being designed and built as part of ongoing cooperation within the trilateral format (IAEA, Russia, and USA)

  4. Use of seismic attributes for sediment classification

    Fabio Radomille Santana


    Full Text Available A study to understand the relationships between seismic attributes extracted from 2D high-resolution seismic data and the seafloor's sediments of the surveyed area. As seismic attributes are features highly influenced by the medium through which the seismic waves are propagated, the authors can assume that it would be possible to characterise the geological nature of the seafloor by using these attributes. Herein, a survey was performed on the continental margin of the South Shetland Islands in Antarctica, where both 2D high-resolution seismic data and sediment gravity cores samples were simultaneously acquired. A computational script was written to extract the seismic attributes from the data, which have been statistically analysed with clustering analyses, such as principal components analysis, dendrograms and k-means classification. The extracted seismic attributes are the amplitude, the instantaneous phase, the instantaneous frequency, the envelope, the time derivative of the envelope, the second derivative of the envelope and the acceleration of phase. Statistical evaluation showed that geological classification of the seafloor's sediments is possible by associating these attributes according to their coherence. The methodologies here developed seem to be appropriate for glacio-marine environment and coarse-to-medium silt sediment found in the study area and may be applied to other regions in the same geological conditions.

  5. Tracking electricity generation attributes in Europe

    Tracking electricity generation attributes can yield detailed information on the used electricity generating technologies, such as per unit fuel consumption and emissions to the environment. The policy context matters for defining the attributes to be tracked. Evolving experience with tracking greatly facilitates the implementation of reliable tracking systems. Some EU Member States have already gained experience with electronically tracked generation attributes for the purpose of disclosing the generation mix to the consumer. Another major application is the use for facilitation of support systems for renewable electricity. There are factors rendering the introduction of tracking generation attributes in Europe no easy task. The main problem is the widely varying initiatives among EU Member States to implement legislation on Guarantees of Origin and disclosure, as this greatly complicates trans-border transfers of generation attributes. The amount of electricity traded makes it difficult to link generation to consumption under 'contract-tied tracking', while this is of no concern under 'de-linked tracking'. The key towards overcoming the aforementioned barriers is harmonisation of schemes for tracking generation attributes

  6. Multi-attribute ant-tracking and neural network for fault detection: a case study of an Iranian oilfield

    Fault detection is one of the most important steps in seismic interpretation in both exploration and development phases. A variety of seismic attributes enhancing fault visualization and detection have been used by many interpreters. Geometric seismic attributes such as coherency and curvature have been successfully applied in delineating faults in sedimentary basins. Seismic attributes are often sensitive to noise and it is necessary to reduce noise and enhance the seismic quality before computing the attributes. In this study, after enhancing the quality of the seismic data, several different seismic attributes sensitive to discontinuities such as similarity and curvature were computed and applied to a 3D seismic dataset and their effective parameters were explained. Ant-tracking as an algorithm that captures continuous features was used to improve fault visualization. Ant-tracking was applied to different fault-sensitive attributes and their results were compared. Also artificial neural networks were used for combining multiple attributes into a single image to allow us to visually cluster different fault-sensitive attributes. The area of this study was an oilfield in the South West of Iran lying in the Zagros thrust belt. Results showed that the similarity and the most-positive curvature could detect faults and fractures more properly than the other attributes and applying the ant-tracking algorithm provided better interpretable information for studying faults and subtle faults. Results proved that applying ant-tracking to the most-positive curvature attribute was more acceptable than the dip attribute or even the similarity in this field. Also by an unsupervised neural network, different ant-tracking volumes were integrated into one volume and faults with more probability were clustered in one group. (paper)

  7. Why Teach Visual Culture?

    Passmore, Kaye


    Visual culture is a hot topic in art education right now as some teachers are dedicated to teaching it and others are adamant that it has no place in a traditional art class. Visual culture, the author asserts, can include just about anything that is visually represented. Although people often think of visual culture as contemporary visuals such…

  8. The Design and Development of a User-Controlled Visual Aid for Improving Students' Understanding in Introductory Statistics

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Pei-Yu


    The use of visual aids is expected to have a positive effect on students' learning. However, not all visual aids work equally well. A recent meta-analytic research which examined 42 studies has found that the use of animated visuals does not facilitate learning (Anglin, Vaez & Cunnincham, 2004). The failure of visual aids can be attributed to…

  9. 'Visual' parsing can be taught quickly without visual experience during critical periods.

    Reich, Lior; Amedi, Amir


    Cases of invasive sight-restoration in congenital blind adults demonstrated that acquiring visual abilities is extremely challenging, presumably because visual-experience during critical-periods is crucial for learning visual-unique concepts (e.g. size constancy). Visual rehabilitation can also be achieved using sensory-substitution-devices (SSDs) which convey visual information non-invasively through sounds. We tested whether one critical concept--visual parsing, which is highly-impaired in sight-restored patients--can be learned using SSD. To this end, congenitally blind adults participated in a unique, relatively short (~70 hours), SSD-'vision' training. Following this, participants successfully parsed 2D and 3D visual objects. Control individuals naïve to SSDs demonstrated that while some aspects of parsing with SSD are intuitive, the blind's success could not be attributed to auditory processing alone. Furthermore, we had a unique opportunity to compare the SSD-users' abilities to those reported for sight-restored patients who performed similar tasks visually, and who had months of eyesight. Intriguingly, the SSD-users outperformed the patients on most criteria tested. These suggest that with adequate training and technologies, key high-order visual features can be quickly acquired in adulthood, and lack of visual-experience during critical-periods can be somewhat compensated for. Practically, these highlight the potential of SSDs as standalone-aids or combined with invasive restoration approaches. PMID:26482105

  10. Computerized measures of visual complexity.

    Machado, Penousal; Romero, Juan; Nadal, Marcos; Santos, Antonino; Correia, João; Carballal, Adrián


    Visual complexity influences people's perception of, preference for, and behaviour toward many classes of objects, from artworks to web pages. The ability to predict people's impression of the complexity of different kinds of visual stimuli holds, therefore, great potential for many domains, basic and applied. Here we use edge detection operations and several image metrics based on image compression error and Zipf's law to estimate the visual complexity of images. The experiments involved 800 images, each previously rated by thirty participants on perceived complexity. In a first set of experiments we analysed the correlation of individual features with the average human response, obtaining correlations up to rs = .771. In a second set of experiments we employed Machine Learning techniques to predict the average visual complexity score attributed by humans to each stimuli. The best configurations obtained a correlation of rs = .832. The average prediction error of the Machine Learning system over the set of all stimuli was .096 in a normalized 0 to 1 interval, showing that it is possible to predict, with high accuracy human responses. Overall, edge density and compression error were the strongest predictors of human complexity ratings. PMID:26164647

  11. [Mother's attributions regarding children's behavior and maltreatment].

    Nakaya, Namiko


    This study aimed to compare maltreating mothers and non-maltreating mothers on attributions and affects related to child behaviors. It also assessed how attributions predict affective and behavioral reactions to child behaviors. The study population comprised of a community-based sample of mothers with children aged 2 to 4 years (n = 238). Mothers' attributions and affect were assessed using vignettes of child behavior. They also answered questions about their maltreating parenting behaviors and demographic factors such as childcare environments. Results highlighted that, as compared with non-maltreating mothers, maltreating mothers made more intentional and stable attributions to negative child behavior, and to report more anger and aversion. They also had a tendency to report less happiness toward positive child behavior. Additionally, path analyses documented a pattern of thinking-feeling-action linkages. It was revealed that attributions regarding children's behavior influenced negative affect and that negative affect in turn predicted maltreatment. Finally, the usefulness of a cognitive approach to maltreating mothers, and the implications of the findings as a model for intervention are discussed. PMID:27180512

  12. Data Visualization and Infographics

    Prepared by Mathematica Policy Research


    Data visualization translates complex ideas and concepts into a simple visual context. Patterns, trends, and relationships that might go undetected in text are conveyed at a glance in effective data visualization.

  13. Learning Visualizations by Analogy: Promoting Visual Literacy through Visualization Morphing.

    Ruchikachorn, Puripant; Mueller, Klaus


    We propose the concept of teaching (and learning) unfamiliar visualizations by analogy, that is, demonstrating an unfamiliar visualization method by linking it to another more familiar one, where the in-betweens are designed to bridge the gap of these two visualizations and explain the difference in a gradual manner. As opposed to a textual description, our morphing explains an unfamiliar visualization through purely visual means. We demonstrate our idea by ways of four visualization pair examples: data table and parallel coordinates, scatterplot matrix and hyperbox, linear chart and spiral chart, and hierarchical pie chart and treemap. The analogy is commutative i.e. any member of the pair can be the unfamiliar visualization. A series of studies showed that this new paradigm can be an effective teaching tool. The participants could understand the unfamiliar visualization methods in all of the four pairs either fully or at least significantly better after they observed or interacted with the transitions from the familiar counterpart. The four examples suggest how helpful visualization pairings be identified and they will hopefully inspire other visualization morphings and associated transition strategies to be identified. PMID:26357285

  14. Maturation of social attribution skills in typically developing children: An investigation using the social attribution task

    Chan Raymond CK; Hu Zhouyi; McAlonan Grainne M


    Abstract Background The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. Methods In the conventional social attribution ...

  15. Controlling attribute effect in linear regression

    Calders, Toon


    In data mining we often have to learn from biased data, because, for instance, data comes from different batches or there was a gender or racial bias in the collection of social data. In some applications it may be necessary to explicitly control this bias in the models we learn from the data. This paper is the first to study learning linear regression models under constraints that control the biasing effect of a given attribute such as gender or batch number. We show how propensity modeling can be used for factoring out the part of the bias that can be justified by externally provided explanatory attributes. Then we analytically derive linear models that minimize squared error while controlling the bias by imposing constraints on the mean outcome or residuals of the models. Experiments with discrimination-aware crime prediction and batch effect normalization tasks show that the proposed techniques are successful in controlling attribute effects in linear regression models. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Process attributes in bio-ontologies

    Andrade André Q


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical processes can provide essential information about the (mal- functioning of an organism and are thus frequently represented in biomedical terminologies and ontologies, including the GO Biological Process branch. These processes often need to be described and categorised in terms of their attributes, such as rates or regularities. The adequate representation of such process attributes has been a contentious issue in bio-ontologies recently; and domain ontologies have correspondingly developed ad hoc workarounds that compromise interoperability and logical consistency. Results We present a design pattern for the representation of process attributes that is compatible with upper ontology frameworks such as BFO and BioTop. Our solution rests on two key tenets: firstly, that many of the sorts of process attributes which are biomedically interesting can be characterised by the ways that repeated parts of such processes constitute, in combination, an overall process; secondly, that entities for which a full logical definition can be assigned do not need to be treated as primitive within a formal ontology framework. We apply this approach to the challenge of modelling and automatically classifying examples of normal and abnormal rates and patterns of heart beating processes, and discuss the expressivity required in the underlying ontology representation language. We provide full definitions for process attributes at increasing levels of domain complexity. Conclusions We show that a logical definition of process attributes is feasible, though limited by the expressivity of DL languages so that the creation of primitives is still necessary. This finding may endorse current formal upper-ontology frameworks as a way of ensuring consistency, interoperability and clarity.

  17. The Aestetic and Perceived Attributes of Products

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Johnson, Kara; Ashby, M.F.


    The performance of a product – technical, aesthetic or perceived – is determined by its attributes. Technical attributes of a product, such as its weight, power, scale, efficiency, cost and the chosen material or manufacturing technologies can be measured or expressed in standard, accepted, ways...... establish whether a general vocabulary for discussing aesthetics and perceptions in industrial design can be established and then assigned to specific products or materials. We do this by surveying design reviews, museum exhibitions and other commentaries on products, searching for a common language; in...

  18. TOFIR: A Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval - Introduce a Visual Retrieval Model.

    Zhang, Jin


    Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)

  19. Information-Limited Parallel Processing in Difficult Heterogeneous Covert Visual Search

    Dosher, Barbara Anne; Han, Songmei; Lu, Zhong-Lin


    Difficult visual search is often attributed to time-limited serial attention operations, although neural computations in the early visual system are parallel. Using probabilistic search models (Dosher, Han, & Lu, 2004) and a full time-course analysis of the dynamics of covert visual search, we distinguish unlimited capacity parallel versus serial…

  20. Weight-Selected Attribute Bagging for Credit Scoring

    Jianwu Li; Haizhou Wei; Wangli Hao


    Assessment of credit risk is of great importance in financial risk management. In this paper, we propose an improved attribute bagging method, weight-selected attribute bagging (WSAB), to evaluate credit risk. Weights of attributes are first computed using attribute evaluation method such as linear support vector machine (LSVM) and principal component analysis (PCA). Subsets of attributes are then constructed according to weights of attributes. For each of attribute subsets, the larger the we...

  1. Perceived visual speed constrained by image segmentation

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.


    Little is known about how or where the visual system parses the visual scene into objects or surfaces. However, it is generally assumed that the segmentation and grouping of pieces of the image into discrete entities is due to 'later' processing stages, after the 'early' processing of the visual image by local mechanisms selective for attributes such as colour, orientation, depth, and motion. Speed perception is also thought to be mediated by early mechanisms tuned for speed. Here we show that manipulating the way in which an image is parsed changes the way in which local speed information is processed. Manipulations that cause multiple stimuli to appear as parts of a single patch degrade speed discrimination, whereas manipulations that perceptually divide a single large stimulus into parts improve discrimination. These results indicate that processes as early as speed perception may be constrained by the parsing of the visual image into discrete entities.

  2. The effect of quality attributes in determination of price for plantation-grown Teak (Tectona grandis) logs in Sri Lanka

    J.K.P.C. Jayawardhane; P.K.P. Perera; Lokupitiya, R. S.; H.S. Amarasekara; N. Ruwanpathirana


    Teak (Tectona grandis) is one of the highly demanded timber species in Sri Lanka. When buying teak logs, customers assess their quality by visual appraisal of surface characteristics such as visible defects. Hence, the buyers’ preference for logs with desired attributes is reflected by the price achieved in the market. In this study, we examined the influence of visually observable quality attributes of plantation grown teak logs on their market price. A set of 650 randomly selected teak logs...

  3. Consumer preferences for pork supply chain attributes

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.


    Based on an extensive customized conjoint analysis with 24 attributes of pork production, covering issues from feed to fork, we identified six consumer segments: ecologists (17%), tradition-minded consumers (17%), animal friends (16%), health-concerned consumers (18%), economists (12%) and unpronoun

  4. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann


    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetical...

  5. Attributional Biases: More Barriers to Women's Achievement.

    Falbo, Toni; And Others

    This paper presents three studies dealing with the use of attribution theory in the study of sex differences in achievement. These sex differences are measured in terms of task difficulty, ability, effort, and luck according to the model developed by Weiner, et al (1971). The studies attempt to expand the Weiner model to demonstrate that males and…

  6. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne


    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  7. Identifying Key Attributes for Protein Beverages.

    Oltman, A E; Lopetcharat, K; Bastian, E; Drake, M A


    This study identified key attributes of protein beverages and evaluated effects of priming on liking of protein beverages. An adaptive choice-based conjoint study was conducted along with Kano analysis to gain insight on protein beverage consumers (n = 432). Attributes evaluated included label claim, protein type, amount of protein, carbohydrates, sweeteners, and metabolic benefits. Utility scores for levels and importance scores for attributes were determined. Subsequently, two pairs of clear acidic whey protein beverages were manufactured that differed by age of protein source or the amount of whey protein per serving. Beverages were evaluated by 151 consumers on two occasions with or without priming statements. One priming statement declared "great flavor," the other priming statement declared 20 g protein per serving. A two way analysis of variance was applied to discern the role of each priming statement. The most important attribute for protein beverages was sweetener type, followed by amount of protein, followed by type of protein followed by label claim. Beverages with whey protein, naturally sweetened, reduced sugar and ≥15 g protein per serving were most desired. Three consumer clusters were identified, differentiated by their preferences for protein type, sweetener and amount of protein. Priming statements positively impacted concept liking (P 0.05). Consistent with trained panel profiles of increased cardboard flavor with higher protein content, consumers liked beverages with 10 g protein more than beverages with 20 g protein (6.8 compared with 5.7, P consumer appeal. PMID:25943857

  8. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire: A Conceptual Analysis.

    Ozer, Daniel

    The rich complexity of the concepts of masculinity and femininity has been reflected in personality measures in at least two different ways: by employing a variety of subscales with comparatively homogeneous items or by using a single scale with comparatively heterogeneous items. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) was the subject of an…

  9. On Parallel Evaluation of Ordered Attribute Grammars

    王顺迁; 叶大兴


    In this paper,a parallel algorithm is presented for the evaluation of orgered attribute grammars.The parallelism is achieved by constructing the so-called paralled visit sequences and accordingly augmenting the ordinary evaluation driver as well.For experimental purposes,the algorithm has been implemented by simulation.

  10. Distress attributed to negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    Selten, JP; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ


    The purpose of the study was to examine (1) to which negative symptoms schizophrenia patients attribute distress and (2) whether clinical variables can predict the levels of reported distress. With the help of a research assistant, 86 hospitalized patients completed a self-rating scale for negative

  11. Attribution of Negative Intention in Williams Syndrome

    Godbee, Kali; Porter, Melanie A.


    People with Williams syndrome (WS) are said to have sociable and extremely trusting personalities, approaching strangers without hesitation. This study investigated whether people with WS are less likely than controls to attribute negative intent to others when interpreting a series of ambiguous pictures. This may, at least partially, explain…

  12. The Value of Hunting Package Attributes

    Buller, Virginia; Hudson, Darren; Parkhurst, Gregory M.; Whittington, Andrew


    Economic impacts of hunting activities reveals opportunities for landowners to capitalize on apparent market demand for fee-access hunting. This paper discusses the marginal values of hunting package attributes. The results will provide landowners the information needed to make optimal management decision.

  13. Snowflake Visualization

    Bliven, L. F.; Kucera, P. A.; Rodriguez, P.


    NASA Snowflake Video Imagers (SVIs) enable snowflake visualization at diverse field sites. The natural variability of frozen precipitation is a complicating factor for remote sensing retrievals in high latitude regions. Particle classification is important for understanding snow/ice physics, remote sensing polarimetry, bulk radiative properties, surface emissivity, and ultimately, precipitation rates and accumulations. Yet intermittent storms, low temperatures, high winds, remote locations and complex terrain can impede us from observing falling snow in situ. SVI hardware and software have some special features. The standard camera and optics yield 8-bit gray-scale images with resolution of 0.05 x 0.1 mm, at 60 frames per second. Gray-scale images are highly desirable because they display contrast that aids particle classification. Black and white (1-bit) systems display no contrast, so there is less information to recognize particle types, which is particularly burdensome for aggregates. Data are analyzed at one-minute intervals using NASA's Precipitation Link Software that produces (a) Particle Catalogs and (b) Particle Size Distributions (PSDs). SVIs can operate nearly continuously for long periods (e.g., an entire winter season), so natural variability can be documented. Let’s summarize results from field studies this past winter and review some recent SVI enhancements. During the winter of 2009-2010, SVIs were deployed at two sites. One SVI supported weather observations during the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics. It was located close to the summit (Roundhouse) of Whistler Mountain, near the town of Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. In addition, two SVIs were located at the King City Weather Radar Station (WKR) near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Access was prohibited to the SVI on Whistler Mountain during the Olympics due to security concerns. So to meet the schedule for daily data products, we operated the SVI by remote control. We also upgraded the

  14. Visualizing desirable patient healthcare experiences.

    Liu, Sandra S; Kim, Hyung T; Chen, Jie; An, Lingling


    High healthcare cost has drawn much attention and healthcare service providers (HSPs) are expected to deliver high-quality and consistent care. Therefore, an intimate understanding of the most desirable experience from a patient's and/or family's perspective as well as effective mapping and communication of such findings should facilitate HSPs' efforts in attaining sustainable competitive advantage in an increasingly discerning environment. This study describes (a) the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the experience desired by patients and (b) the application of two visualization tools that are relatively new to the healthcare sector, namely the "spider-web diagram" and "promotion and detraction matrix." The visualization tools are tested with primary data collected from telephone surveys of 1,800 patients who had received care during calendar year 2005 at 6 of 61 hospitals within St. Louis, Missouri-based, Ascension Health. Five CQAs were found by factor analysis. The spider-web diagram illustrates that communication and empowerment and compassionate and respectful care are the most important CQAs, and accordingly, the promotion and detraction matrix shows those attributes that have the greatest effect for creating promoters, preventing detractors, and improving consumer's likelihood to recommend the healthcare provider. PMID:20155554

  15. Gender Attributions of Science and Academic Attributes: AN Examination of Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, and Technology Majors

    Hughes, W. Jay

    Questionnaire data (n = 297) examined the relationship between gender attributions of science and academic attributes for undergraduate science, mathematics, and technology majors from the perspective of gender schema theory. Female and male respondents perceived that (a) the role of scientist was sex typed as masculine, (b) their majors were more valuable for members of their gender than for those of the opposite gender, (c) their majors were more valuable for themselves than for members of their gender in general. Androgynous attributions of scientists and the value of one's major for women predicted value for oneself, major confidence, and career confidence, and masculine attributions of scientists predicted class participation for female respondents. Feminine attributions of scientists predicted graduate school intent; value for women predicted major confidence and subjective achievement, and value for men predicted value for oneself, course confidence, and career confidence for male respondents.

  16. Flexible Linked Axes for multivariate data visualization.

    Claessen, Jarry H T; van Wijk, Jarke J


    Multivariate data visualization is a classic topic, for which many solutions have been proposed, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. In standard solutions the structure of the visualization is fixed, we explore how to give the user more freedom to define visualizations. Our new approach is based on the usage of Flexible Linked Axes: The user is enabled to define a visualization by drawing and linking axes on a canvas. Each axis has an associated attribute and range, which can be adapted. Links between pairs of axes are used to show data in either scatter plot- or Parallel Coordinates Plot-style. Flexible Linked Axes enable users to define a wide variety of different visualizations. These include standard methods, such as scatter plot matrices, radar charts, and PCPs [11]; less well known approaches, such as Hyperboxes [1], TimeWheels [17], and many-to-many relational parallel coordinate displays [14]; and also custom visualizations, consisting of combinations of scatter plots and PCPs. Furthermore, our method allows users to define composite visualizations that automatically support brushing and linking. We have discussed our approach with ten prospective users, who found the concept easy to understand and highly promising. PMID:22034351

  17. ViA: a perceptual visualization assistant

    Healey, Chris G.; St. Amant, Robert; Elhaddad, Mahmoud S.


    This paper describes an automated visualized assistant called ViA. ViA is designed to help users construct perceptually optical visualizations to represent, explore, and analyze large, complex, multidimensional datasets. We have approached this problem by studying what is known about the control of human visual attention. By harnessing the low-level human visual system, we can support our dual goals of rapid and accurate visualization. Perceptual guidelines that we have built using psychophysical experiments form the basis for ViA. ViA uses modified mixed-initiative planning algorithms from artificial intelligence to search of perceptually optical data attribute to visual feature mappings. Our perceptual guidelines are integrated into evaluation engines that provide evaluation weights for a given data-feature mapping, and hints on how that mapping might be improved. ViA begins by asking users a set of simple questions about their dataset and the analysis tasks they want to perform. Answers to these questions are used in combination with the evaluation engines to identify and intelligently pursue promising data-feature mappings. The result is an automatically-generated set of mappings that are perceptually salient, but that also respect the context of the dataset and users' preferences about how they want to visualize their data.


    ASLAN, Fürüzan; Aslan, Edanur; Atik, Atilla


    Landscape, the way that people perceive, is described as areas the characteristics of which are made up as a result of the interaction and activity of natural and/or human factors. The composition which is formed as a result of this interaction of natural and cultural components sets forth the visual landscape conception.In the scope of study landscape, perception, visual landscape concepts, visual design factors and visual design principles in support of related descriptions and the visuals ...

  19. Visual thinking & digital imagery

    Blevis, Eli; Churchill, Elizabeth; Odom, William; Pierre, James; Roedl, David; Wakkary, Ron


    This workshop focuses on exploring the centrality of visual literacy and visual thinking to HCI. Drawing on emerging critical perspectives, the workshop will address visual literacy and visual thinking from an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary design-orientation [2, 8], foregrounding the notion that imagery is a primary form of visual thinking. Imagery—which subsumes digital imagery—goes well beyond sketching and beyond storyboards, screenshots and wireframes. We will address how a broa...

  20. Linking behavioral patterns to personal attributes through data re-mining

    Ertek, Gürdal; Ertek, Gurdal; Demiriz, Ayhan; Çakmak, Fatih; Cakmak, Fatih


    A fundamental challenge in behavioral informatics is the development of methodologies and systems that can achieve its goals and tasks, including behavior pattern analysis. This study presents such a methodology, that can be converted into a decision support system, by the appropriate integration of existing tools for association mining and graph visualization. The methodology enables the linking of behavioral patterns to personal attributes, through the re-mining of colored association graph...

  1. Sentencing goals, causal attributions, ideology, and personality.

    Carroll, J S; Perkowitz, W T; Lurigio, A J; Weaver, F M


    Disparity in sentencing of criminals has been related to a variety of individual difference variables. We propose a framework establishing resonances or coherent patterns among sentencing goals, causal attributions, ideology, and personality. Two studies are described, one with law and criminology students, the other with probation officers. Relations among the different types of variables reveal two resonances among both students and officers. One comprises various conservative and moralistic elements: a tough, punitive stance toward crime; belief in individual causality for crime; high scores on authoritarianism, dogmatism, and internal locus of control; lower moral stage; and political conservatism. The second comprises various liberal elements: rehabilitation, belief in economic and other external determinants of crime, higher moral stage, and belief in the powers and responsibilities of government to correct social problems. Implications of these results are discussed for individual differences in sentencing, attribution theory, and attempts to reduce disparity. PMID:3820064

  2. Weighted Attribute Fusion Model for Face Recognition

    Sakthivel, S


    Recognizing a face based on its attributes is an easy task for a human to perform as it is a cognitive process. In recent years, Face Recognition is achieved with different kinds of facial features which were used separately or in a combined manner. Currently, Feature fusion methods and parallel methods are the facial features used and performed by integrating multiple feature sets at different levels. However, this integration and the combinational methods do not guarantee better result. Hence to achieve better results, the feature fusion model with multiple weighted facial attribute set is selected. For this feature model, face images from predefined data set has been taken from Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL) and applied on different methods like Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based Eigen feature extraction technique, Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) based feature extraction technique, Histogram Based Feature Extraction technique and Simple Intensity based features. The extracted feature set obt...

  3. Attribute Exploration of Discrete Temporal Transitions

    Wollbold, Johannes


    Discrete temporal transitions occur in a variety of domains, but this work is mainly motivated by applications in molecular biology: explaining and analyzing observed transcriptome and proteome time series by literature and database knowledge. The starting point of a formal concept analysis model is presented. The objects of a formal context are states of the interesting entities, and the attributes are the variable properties defining the current state (e.g. observed presence or absence of proteins). Temporal transitions assign a relation to the objects, defined by deterministic or non-deterministic transition rules between sets of pre- and postconditions. This relation can be generalized to its transitive closure, i.e. states are related if one results from the other by a transition sequence of arbitrary length. The focus of the work is the adaptation of the attribute exploration algorithm to such a relational context, so that questions concerning temporal dependencies can be asked during the exploration pr...

  4. AcquisitionFootprintAttenuationDrivenbySeismicAttributes

    Cuellar-Urbano Mayra


    Full Text Available Acquisition footprint, one of the major problems that PEMEX faces in seismic imaging, is noise highly correlated to the geometric array of sources and receivers used for onshore and offshore seismic acquisitions. It prevails in spite of measures taken during acquisition and data processing. This pattern, throughout the image, is easily confused with geological features and misguides seismic attribute computation. In this work, we use seismic data from PEMEX Exploración y Producción to show the conditioning process for removing random and coherent noise using linear filters. Geometric attributes used in a workflow were computed for obtaining an acquisition footprint noise model and adaptively subtract it from the seismic data.

  5. Transfer and use of generation attributes

    Key issues regarding generation attribute accounting are being considered in the U.S., following similar discussions related to their use in Europe. Strict substantiation, environmental additionality and consistency criteria should be enshrined in nascent legislation being developed regarding claims over (electricity) generation attributes, and suitable standardization of disclosure labels should be mandated for electricity offerings to end users. In this way, the issue of multiple counting can be addressed effectively, consumer protection in the electricity market reliably ensured, and confidence in the integrity of green power products enhanced. For the time being, non-hydro renewable electricity cannot gain substantial market share without specific policy stimulation. Yet, both in Europe and in the U.S., credible facilitation of the consumer's choice in the electricity market is set to unleash considerable addition

  6. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    Thomassen, Marlies A; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout;


    -products. Insight is needed in the effect of choice on results of environmental analyses of agricultural products, such as milk. The main goal of this study was to demonstrate and compare ALCA and CLCA of an average conventional milk production system in The Netherlands. Materials and methods  ALCA describes the......Background, aim and scope  Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle co...... pollution and resource flows within a chosen system attributed to the delivery of a specified amount of the functional unit. CLCA estimates how pollution and resource flows within a system change in response to a change in output of the functional unit. For an average Dutch conventional milk production...

  7. An example of mathematical authorship attribution

    Basile, Chiara; Benedetto, Dario; Caglioti, Emanuele; Esposti, Mirko Degli


    In this paper we discuss a novel mathematical approach to authorship attribution which we implemented recently to face a concrete problem of author recognition. The fundamental ideas for our methods came from statistical mechanics and information theory. We combine two approaches. Both of them use similarity measures between couples of texts as indicators of stylistic closeness: the first one is based on the comparison of frequencies of fixed length substrings (n-grams) throughout the texts; the second one relies on a suitable use of compression algorithms as relative entropy approximators, in the spirit of the so-called Ziv-Merhav theorem. The two methods were separately developed and then combined, together with a suitable and theoretically founded ranking analysis, to produce an original authorship attribution procedure that yielded very successful results on the specific problem to which it was applied. This ranking analysis could be of interest also in other application fields.

  8. Revisiting Pattern Structures for Structured Attribute Sets

    Alam, Mehwish; Buzmakov, Aleksey; Napoli, Amedeo; Sailanbayev, Alibek


    In this paper, we revisit an original proposition on pattern structures for structured sets of attributes. There are several reasons for carrying out this kind of research work. The original proposition does not give many details on the whole framework, and especially on the possible ways of implementing the similarity operation. There exists an alternative definition without any reference to pattern structures, and we would like to make a parallel between two points of view. Moreover we disc...

  9. Consumer preferences for pork supply chain attributes

    M.P.M. Meuwissen; Lans, van der, I.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.


    Based on an extensive customized conjoint analysis with 24 attributes of pork production, covering issues from feed to fork, we identified six consumer segments: ecologists (17%), tradition-minded consumers (17%), animal friends (16%), health-concerned consumers (18%), economists (12%) and unpronounced consumers (20%). Typically all segments prefer pork originating from the Netherlands and a zero risk of Salmonella. Discriminating items between segments include issues of pig breeding, housing...

  10. Attribute Based Multisignature Scheme for Wireless Communications


    With rapidly development of wireless communication, more mobile devices are used in our daily life. Although the need for accessing a wireless network is evident, new problems, such as keeping and preserving user identity’s privacy, should be greatly concerned. Attribute based signature scheme is an important cryptographic primitive which provides a powerful way for user to control their privacy. In wireless environment, the capacity of wireless channel is also valuable resources which is lim...

  11. Weighted Attribute Fusion Model for Face Recognition

    S. Sakthivel; R. Lakshmipathi


    Recognizing a face based on its attributes is an easy task for a human to perform as it is a cognitive process. In recent years, Face Recognition is achieved with different kinds of facial features which were used separately or in a combined manner. Currently, Feature fusion methods and parallel methods are the facial features used and performed by integrating multiple feature sets at different levels. However, this integration and the combinational methods do not guarantee better result. Hen...

  12. Experimental functional realization of attribute grammar system

    I. Attali


    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental functional realization of attribute grammar(AG system for personal computers. For AG system functioning only Turbo Prolog compiler is required. The system functioning is based on a specially elaborated metalanguage for AG description, universal syntactic and semantic constructors. The AG system provides automatic generation of target compiler (syntax--oriented software using Turbo Prolog as object language.

  13. Assortment Variety: Attribute versus Product-Based

    van Herpen, H.W.I.; Pieters, R.


    Retailers need to decide on the content and structure of their product assortments, and thereby on the degree of variety that they offer to their customers.This paper compares measures of assortment variety and relates them to underlying variety components.We conceptualize assortment variety from a product and an attribute perspective, compare extant measures of assortment variety, and examine the appropriateness of these measures in capturing assortment variety as perceived by consumers.Rece...

  14. AcquisitionFootprintAttenuationDrivenbySeismicAttributes

    Cuellar-Urbano Mayra; Chávez-Pérez Sergio


    Acquisition footprint, one of the major problems that PEMEX faces in seismic imaging, is noise highly correlated to the geometric array of sources and receivers used for onshore and offshore seismic acquisitions. It prevails in spite of measures taken during acquisition and data processing. This pattern, throughout the image, is easily confused with geological features and misguides seismic attribute computation. In this work, we use seismic data from PEMEX Exploración y Producción to show th...

  15. Attribute Search in Online Retail Grocery Markets

    Timothy Richards; Stephen Hamilton


    Online shopping is common in many categories of retail goods. The recent trend towards online retailing has created an unprecedented empirical opportunity to examine consumer search behavior using click stream data. In this paper we examine consumer search intensity across a wide range of grocery products that differ in the depth of product assortment. We develop a model of attribute search in which consumers search within a chosen retailer for products that match their tastes, and that equil...

  16. Team formation and biased self-attribution

    Corgnet, Brice


    We analyze the impact of individuals' self-attribution biases on the formation of teams in the workplace. We consider a two periods model in which workers jointly decide whether to form a team or work alone. We assume workers' abilities are unknown. Agents update their beliefs about abilities after receiving a signal at the end of the first period. We show that allowing workers to learn about their abilities undermines cooperation when a fixed allocation of the group outcome is assumed. Consi...

  17. A calculus for attribute-based communication

    Alrahman, Yehia Abd; De Nicola, Rocco; Loreti, Michele;


    The notion of attribute-based communication seems promising to model and analyse systems with huge numbers of interacting components that dynamically adjust and combine their behaviour to achieve specific goals. A basic process calculus, named AbC, is introduced that has as primitive construct....... An example of how well-established process calculi could be encoded into AbC is given by considering the translation into AbC of a proto-typical π-calculus process....


    Khachatryan, R.


    The overarching premise in this discussion is to reiterate the cross-disciplinary intersection between law and language. Correspondingly, the application of language studies to legal issues generates a separate domain, referred to as forensic linguistics. The paper looks into one aspect of forensic linguistics, namely forensic authorship attribution that entails the process of identifying the author of an anonymous text by employing methods and features of forensic linguistics. This concept i...

  19. Time valuation of historical outbreak attribution data.

    Ebel, E D; Williams, M S; Golden, N J; Schlosser, W D; Travis, C


    Human illness attribution is recognized as an important metric for prioritizing and informing food-safety decisions and for monitoring progress towards long-term food-safety goals. Inferences regarding the proportion of illnesses attributed to a specific commodity class are often based on analyses of datasets describing the number of outbreaks in a given year or combination of years. In many countries, the total number of pathogen-related outbreaks reported nationwide for an implicated food source is often fewer than 50 instances in a given year and the number of years for which data are available can be fewer than 10. Therefore, a high degree of uncertainty is associated with the estimated fraction of pathogen-related outbreaks attributed to a general food commodity. Although it is possible to make inferences using only data from the most recent year, this type of estimation strategy ignores the data collected in previous years. Thus, a strong argument exists for an estimator that could 'borrow strength' from data collected in the previous years by combining the current data with the data from previous years. While many estimators exist for combining multiple years of data, most either require more data than is currently available or lack an objective and biologically plausible theoretical basis. This study introduces an estimation strategy that progressively reduces the influence of data collected in past years in accordance with the degree of departure from a Poisson process. The methodology is applied to the estimation of the attribution fraction for Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 for common food commodities and the estimates are compared against two alternative estimators. PMID:26095014

  20. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi


    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.

  1. Relative Attribute SVM+ Learning for Age Estimation.

    Wang, Shengzheng; Tao, Dacheng; Yang, Jie


    When estimating age, human experts can provide privileged information that encodes the facial attributes of aging, such as smoothness, face shape, face acne, wrinkles, and bags under-eyes. In automatic age estimation, privileged information is unavailable to test images. To overcome this problem, we hypothesize that asymmetric information can be explored and exploited to improve the generalizability of the trained model. Using the learning using privileged information (LUPI) framework, we tested this hypothesis by carefully defining relative attributes for support vector machine (SVM+) to improve the performance of age estimation. We term this specific setting as relative attribute SVM+ (raSVM+), in which the privileged information enables separation of outliers from inliers at the training stage and effectively manipulates slack variables and age determination errors during model training, and thus guides the trained predictor toward a generalizable solution. Experimentally, the superiority of raSVM+ was confirmed by comparing it with state-of-the-art algorithms on the face and gesture recognition research network (FG-NET) and craniofacial longitudinal morphological face aging databases. raSVM+ is a promising development that improves age estimation, with the mean absolute error reaching 4.07 on FG-NET. PMID:25850101

  2. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R and D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development

  3. Visualization analysis and design

    Munzner, Tamara


    Visualization Analysis and Design provides a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about visualization in terms of principles and design choices. The book features a unified approach encompassing information visualization techniques for abstract data, scientific visualization techniques for spatial data, and visual analytics techniques for interweaving data transformation and analysis with interactive visual exploration. It emphasizes the careful validation of effectiveness and the consideration of function before form. The book breaks down visualization design according to three questions: what data users need to see, why users need to carry out their tasks, and how the visual representations proposed can be constructed and manipulated. It walks readers through the use of space and color to visually encode data in a view, the trade-offs between changing a single view and using multiple linked views, and the ways to reduce the amount of data shown in each view. The book concludes with six case stu...

  4. Universal visualization platform

    Gee, Alexander G.; Li, Hongli; Yu, Min; Smrtic, Mary Beth; Cvek, Urska; Goodell, Howie; Gupta, Vivek; Lawrence, Christine; Zhou, Jainping; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Grinstein, Georges G.


    Although there are a number of visualization systems to choose from when analyzing data, only a few of these allow for the integration of other visualization and analysis techniques. There are even fewer visualization toolkits and frameworks from which one can develop ones own visualization applications. Even within the research community, scientists either use what they can from the available tools or start from scratch to define a program in which they are able to develop new or modified visualization techniques and analysis algorithms. Presented here is a new general-purpose platform for constructing numerous visualization and analysis applications. The focus of this system is the design and experimentation of new techniques, and where the sharing of and integration with other tools becomes second nature. Moreover, this platform supports multiple large data sets, and the recording and visualizing of user sessions. Here we introduce the Universal Visualization Platform (UVP) as a modern data visualization and analysis system.

  5. Exemplar Based Recognition of Visual Shapes

    Olsen, Søren I.


    This paper presents an approach of visual shape recognition based on exemplars of attributed keypoints. Training is performed by storing exemplars of keypoints detected in labeled training images. Recognition is made by keypoint matching and voting according to the labels for the matched keypoint....... The matching is insensitive to rotations, limited scalings and small deformations. The recognition is robust to noise, background clutter and partial occlusion. Recognition is possible from few training images and improve with the number of training images....

  6. Generality of the relationship between attributions and depression across attributional dimensions and across samples

    PERSONS, JACQUELINE B.; Perloff, Jeffrey M


    Two hypotheses implicit in the use of composite measures of attributions in tests of learned helplessness theory (but not implicit in the theory itself) were tested: the hypotheses that relationships between depression and the three types of attributions are equal in magnitude, and linear. To test these hypotheses, data from three published studies of the reformulated learned helplessness theory of depression (Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale, 1978) were reanalyzed. The hypothesis that internal...

  7. A Look at Contrastive Linguistics-Differences and Similarities between English Attributes and Chinese Attributes



    Contrastive linguistics is a branch of linguistics which mainly involves contrast or comparison, and it can leave us some useful insights into our problems, especially for translation work. This paper discusses similarities and differences between English attributes and Chinese attributes from the perspective of the location, the composition, and the function, for the purpose of pre-senting a sound version for the original text.

  8. Maturation of social attribution skills in typically developing children: an investigation using the social attribution task

    Chan Raymond CK


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. Methods In the conventional social attribution task (SAT participants ascribe feelings to moving shapes and describe their interaction in social terms. However, this format requires that participants understand both, that an inanimate shape is symbolic, and that its action is social in nature. This may be challenging for young children, and may be a potential confounder in studies of children with developmental disorders. Therefore we developed a modified SAT (mSAT using animate figures (e.g. animals to simplify the task. We used the SAT and mSAT to examine social attribution skill development in 154 healthy children (76 boys, 78 girls, ranging in age from 6 to 13 years and investigated the relationship between social attribution ability and executive function. Results The mSAT revealed a steady improvement in social attribution skills from the age of 6 years, and a significant advantage for girls compared to boys. In contrast, children under the age of 9 years performed at baseline on the conventional format and there were no gender differences apparent. Performance on neither task correlated with executive function after controlling for age and verbal IQ, suggesting that social attribution ability is independent of cognitive functioning. The present findings indicate that the mSAT is a sensitive measure of social attribution skills from a young age. This should be carefully considered when choosing assessments for young children and those with developmental disorders.

  9. Interaction for visualization

    Tominski, Christian


    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  10. Multivariate volume visualization through dynamic projections

    Liu, Shusen [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wang, Bei [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bremer, Peer -Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    We propose a multivariate volume visualization framework that tightly couples dynamic projections with a high-dimensional transfer function design for interactive volume visualization. We assume that the complex, high-dimensional data in the attribute space can be well-represented through a collection of low-dimensional linear subspaces, and embed the data points in a variety of 2D views created as projections onto these subspaces. Through dynamic projections, we present animated transitions between different views to help the user navigate and explore the attribute space for effective transfer function design. Our framework not only provides a more intuitive understanding of the attribute space but also allows the design of the transfer function under multiple dynamic views, which is more flexible than being restricted to a single static view of the data. For large volumetric datasets, we maintain interactivity during the transfer function design via intelligent sampling and scalable clustering. As a result, using examples in combustion and climate simulations, we demonstrate how our framework can be used to visualize interesting structures in the volumetric space.

  11. WebSound: a generic Web sonification tool, and its application to an auditory Web browser for blind and visually impaired users

    Petrucci, Lori Stefano; Harth, Eric; Roth, Patrick; Assimacopoulos, André; Pun, Thierry


    The inherent visual nature of Internet browsers makes the Web inaccessible to the visually impaired. Although several non-visual browsers have been developed, they usually transform the visual content of HTML documents into textual information only, that can be rendered by a text-to-speech converter or a Braille device. The loss of spatial layout and of textual attributes should be avoided since they often bear visually important information. Moreover, typical non-visual Internet browsers do ...

  12. Three-Year-Olds Can Predict a Noun Based on an Attributive Adjective: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Tribushinina, Elena; Mak, Willem M.


    This paper investigates whether three-year-olds are able to process attributive adjectives (e.g., "soft pillow") as they hear them and to predict the noun ("pillow") on the basis of the adjective meaning ("soft"). This was investigated in an experiment by means of the Visual World Paradigm. The participants saw two…

  13. Study In Some Quality Attribute Of Meat

    Dr. Siham Abdelwhab Alamin; Prof. Sid Ahmed Elshafia; Prof. Daoud Alzubair Ahmed


    Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the quality attributes of fresh camel meat and beef. The result showed that hunter lightness L values were highly significant P 0.001 between the types of meat. Beef recorded higher values of lightness compared to camel meat as 35.40 and 29.56 respectively. Redness a values was significantly P 0.01 between the types of meat studied hence beef recorded the higher values than that in camel meat as 19.60 and 16.45 respectively. The yellowness b values were s...

  14. Improved attribute sampling plans for materials accounting

    The Safeguards Systems Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been requested to study attribute sampling plans requiring minimal sample sizes for the purpose of reducing personnel time and radiation exposure in item inventories of nuclear materials. Results indicate that double sampling plans can generally reduce the work effort by at least 30% compared with the single sampling plans currently used at the Los Alamos plutonium facility. Such innovations should be applicable to any DOE facility engaged in processing nuclear materials, particularly in low-turnover storage areas. Future work includes the study of multiple sampling plans as a possible procedure for further reduction of sample sizes

  15. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit


    Single disasters related to extreme weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of extreme weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the extreme event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the extreme weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of extreme weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an extreme weather event, and the associated consequences

  16. Visual characteristics of clay target shooters.

    Abernethy, B; Neal, R J


    A comprehensive battery of standardised visual tests was administered to 11 skilled and 12 novice clay target shooters in an attempt to determine the distinctive visual characteristics of expert performers in this sport. The static and dynamic visual acuity, ocular muscle balance, ocular dominance, depth perception and colour vision of each of the subjects was measured in addition to their performance on simple and choice reaction time, peripheral response time, rapid tachistoscopic detection, coincidence timing and eye movement skills tasks. Expert superiority was observed on the simple reaction time measure only, and the novices actually outperformed the skilled subjects on a number of the other visual measures (viz., static acuity at near distance, dynamic acuity, vertical ocular muscle balance, choice reaction time and rapid target detection discriminability). Scores on all measures for both groups were within the expected normal range indicating that normal and not necessarily above-average basic visual functioning is sufficient to support skilled clay target shooting. An important implication of the finding that skilled shooters are not characterised by supranormal levels of basic visual functioning is the recognition that any attempt to improve shooting performance through training of general attributes of vision to supranormal levels is likely to be unproductive. PMID:10331472

  17. Visualization of Social Networks

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.


    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  18. Visualizing Knowledge Domains.

    Borner, Katy; Chen, Chaomei; Boyack, Kevin W.


    Reviews visualization techniques for scientific disciplines and information retrieval and classification. Highlights include historical background of scientometrics, bibliometrics, and citation analysis; map generation; process flow of visualizing knowledge domains; measures and similarity calculations; vector space model; factor analysis;…

  19. Constructing visual representations

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh


    tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations......The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...

  20. Topological Methods for Visualization

    Berres, Anne Sabine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United Stat


    This slide presentation describes basic topological concepts, including topological spaces, homeomorphisms, homotopy, betti numbers. Scalar field topology explores finding topological features and scalar field visualization, and vector field topology explores finding topological features and vector field visualization.

  1. Visual experience and blindsight

    Overgaard, Morten


    Blindsight is classically defined as residual visual capacity, e.g., to detect and identify visual stimuli, in the total absence of perceptual awareness following lesions to V1. However, whereas most experiments have investigated what blindsight patients can and cannot do, the literature contains...... several, often contradictory, remarks about remaining visual experience. This review examines closer these remarks as well as experiments that directly approach the nature of possibly spared visual experiences in blindsight....

  2. Visual Data Mining Techniques

    Keim, Daniel A.; Ward, Matthew O.


    Never before in history has data been generated at such high volumes as it is today. Exploring and analyzing the vast volumes of data has become increasingly difficult. Information visualization and visual data mining can help to deal with the flood of information. The advantage of visual data exploration is that the user is directly involved in the data mining process. There are a large number of information visualization techniques that have been developed over the last two decades to suppo...

  3. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    Palus, Charles J


    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  4. Tools for software visualization

    Stojanova, Aleksandra; Stojkovic, Natasa; Bikov, Dusan


    Software visualization is a kind of computer art, and in the same time is a science for generating visual representations of different software aspects and of software development process. There are many tools that allow software visualization but we are focusing on some of them. In this paper will be examined in details just four tools: Jeliot 3, SRec, jGrasp and DDD. Visualizations that they produce will be reviewed and analyzed and will be mentioned possible places for their application. A...

  5. Functional segregation and temporal hierarchy of the visual perceptive systems.

    Moutoussis, K.; Zeki, S


    In extending our previous work, we addressed the question of whether different visual attributes are perceived separately when they belong to different objects, rather than the same one. Using our earlier psychophysical method, but separating the attributes to be paired in two different halves of the screen, we found that human subjects misbind the colour and the direction of motion, or the colour and the orientation of lines, because colour, form, and motion are perceived separately and at d...

  6. Arithmetic Operators for Pairing-Based Cryptography

    Beuchat, Jean-Luc; Brisebarre, Nicolas; Detrey, Jérémie; Okamoto, Eiji


    Since their introduction in constructive cryptographic applications, pairings over (hyper)elliptic curves are at the heart of an ever increasing number of protocols. Software implementations being rather slow, the study of hardware architectures became an active research area. In this paper, we first study an accelerator for the eta_T pairing over F_3[x]/(x^97 + x^12 + 2). Our architecture is based on a unified arithmetic operator which performs addition, multiplication, and cubing over F_3^9...

  7. Variable sampling in the attribute mode

    Variables inspection can be used in the attribute mode, if an assumed mode, if an assumed falsification of reported data is sufficiently small so as to escape detection with the attribute tester, i.e., a variable tester can be used in order to make a qualitative statement. The efficiency of such a procedure can be determined if the statistical properties of the tester are known. In this paper first, for one class of material data the probability of detection is determined as function of the total number of item data to be verified, inspector's sample size, fraction of falsified data and false alarm probability, both for drawing without and with replacement. For the latter case and given total falsification, the minimal, i.e. guaranteed probability of detection is determined. Second, for several classes of material data it is shown under some simplifying assumptions in which way the available inspection effort has to be distributed optimally on the various classes. Finally, some remarks are made about the use of two different measurement techniques for the verification of data of one class of material

  8. Interactive visual analysis of set-typed data.

    Freiler, Wolfgang; Matković, Kresimir; Hauser, Helwig


    While it is quite typical to deal with attributes of different data types in the visualization of heterogeneous and multivariate datasets, most existing techniques still focus on the most usual data types such as numerical attributes or strings. In this paper we present a new approach to the interactive visual exploration and analysis of data that contains attributes which are of set type. A set-typed attribute of a data item--like one cell in a table--has a list of n > or = 0 elements as its value. We present the set'o'gram as a new visualization approach to represent data of set type and to enable interactive visual exploration and analysis. We also demonstrate how this approach is capable to help in dealing with datasets that have a larger number of dimensions (more than a dozen or more), especially also in the context of categorical data. To illustrate the effectiveness of our approach, we present the interactive visual analysis of a CRM dataset with data from a questionnaire on the education and shopping habits of about 90000 people. PMID:18988982


    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie


    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into

  10. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Wayne D. Pennington


    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we

  11. Service attribute importance and strategic planning: An empirical study

    Pezeshki, V; A. Mousavi


    There is growing evidence that attribute importance is a function of attribute performance. Several studies reported that service quality attributes fall into three categories: basic, performance, and excitement. Thus, the identification of attribute importance is significantly important as a key to customer satisfaction evaluation and other behavioural intentions. According to customer behaviour literature, attribute importance can be measured in two ways: (1) self-stated importance, and (2)...

  12. Visualization of Areas of Interest in Software Architecture Diagrams

    Byelas, H.; Telea, A.


    Understanding complex software systems requires getting insight in how system properties, such as performance, trust, reliability, or structural attributes, correspond to the system architecture. Such properties can be seen as defining several ’areas of interest’ over the system architecture. We visualize areas of interest atop of system architecture diagrams using a new technique that minimizes visual clutter for multiple, overlapping areas for large diagrams, yet preserves the diagram layou...

  13. Professional Visual Studio 2010

    Randolph, Nick; Anderson, Chris


    A must-have guide that covers all the new features of Visual Studio 2010. Visual Studio allows you to create and manage programming projects for the Windows platform, and the new 2010 version has undergone a major overhaul comprised of significant changes. Written by an author team of veteran programmers and developers, Professional Visual Studio 2010 gets you quickly up to speed on what you can expect from the newest version of Visual Studio. This book's first section is dedicated to familiarizing you with the core aspects of Visual Studio 2010. Everything you need is contained in the first f

  14. Python data visualization cookbook

    Milovanovic, Igor


    This book is written in a Cookbook style targeted towards an advanced audience. It covers the advanced topics of data visualization in Python.Python Data Visualization Cookbook is for developers that already know about Python programming in general. If you have heard about data visualization but you don't know where to start, then this book will guide you from the start and help you understand data, data formats, data visualization, and how to use Python to visualize data.You will need to know some general programming concepts, and any kind of programming experience will be helpful, but the co

  15. Visualization system on ITBL

    Visualization systems PATRAS/ITBL and AVS/ITBL, which are based on visualization software PATRAS and AVS/Express respectively, have been developed on a global, heterogeneous computing environment, Information Technology Based Laboratory (ITBL). PATRAS/ITBL allows for real-time visualization of the numerical results acquired from coupled multi-physics numerical simulations, executed on different hosts situated in remote locations. AVS/ITBL allow for post processing visualization. The scientific data located in remote sites may be selected and visualized on a web browser installed in a user terminal. The global structure and main functions of these systems are presented. (author)

  16. Beginning Visual Basic 2010

    Willis, Thearon


    A focused, step-by-step approach to Visual Basic for new programmers. What better way to get started with Visual Basic than with this essential Wrox beginner's guide? Beginning Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 not only shows you how to write Windows applications, Web applications with ASP.NET, and Windows mobile and embedded CE apps with Visual Basic 2010, but you'll also get a thorough grounding in the basic nuts-and-bolts of writing good code. You'll be exposed to the very latest VB tools and techniques with coverage of both the Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4 releases. Plus, the book walks you ste

  17. Visual perception and visual cognition in healthy and pathological ageing

    MarkW.Greenlee; AllisonB.Sekuler


    Our understanding of visual perception and visual cognition has advanced considerably over the last decades. The effects of ageing on visual perception and visual cognition are less well understood. This Research Topic features state-of-the-art approaches to determining the effects of ageing on visual perception, visual attention, visual memory and visually guided behaviour. Studies using methods that incorporate psychophysics, eye movements, electrophysiology, structural and functional neuro...

  18. A structured model of video reproduces primary visual cortical organisation.

    Pietro Berkes


    Full Text Available The visual system must learn to infer the presence of objects and features in the world from the images it encounters, and as such it must, either implicitly or explicitly, model the way these elements interact to create the image. Do the response properties of cells in the mammalian visual system reflect this constraint? To address this question, we constructed a probabilistic model in which the identity and attributes of simple visual elements were represented explicitly and learnt the parameters of this model from unparsed, natural video sequences. After learning, the behaviour and grouping of variables in the probabilistic model corresponded closely to functional and anatomical properties of simple and complex cells in the primary visual cortex (V1. In particular, feature identity variables were activated in a way that resembled the activity of complex cells, while feature attribute variables responded much like simple cells. Furthermore, the grouping of the attributes within the model closely parallelled the reported anatomical grouping of simple cells in cat V1. Thus, this generative model makes explicit an interpretation of complex and simple cells as elements in the segmentation of a visual scene into basic independent features, along with a parametrisation of their moment-by-moment appearances. We speculate that such a segmentation may form the initial stage of a hierarchical system that progressively separates the identity and appearance of more articulated visual elements, culminating in view-invariant object recognition.

  19. Assessing brand image through communalitites and asymmetries brand-to-attribute and attribute-to-brand associations.

    Anna Torres; Tammo Bijmolt


    Brand image is a key component of customer-based brand equity, and refers to the associations a consumer holds in memory. Such associations are often directional; one should distinguish between brand-to-attribute and attribute-to-brand associations. Information on these associations arise from two ways of collecting data respectively: brand-by-brand evaluations of all attributes and attribute-by-attribute evaluations of all brands. In this paper, the authors present a methodological approach,...

  20. Fault zone identification in the eastern part of the Persian Gulf based on combined seismic attributes

    Faults, as main pathways for fluids, play a critical role in creating regions of high porosity and permeability, in cutting cap rock and in the migration of hydrocarbons into the reservoir. Therefore, accurate identification of fault zones is very important in maximizing production from petroleum traps. Image processing and modern visualization techniques are provided for better mapping of objects of interest. In this study, the application of fault mapping in the identification of fault zones within the Mishan and Aghajari formations above the Guri base unconformity surface in the eastern part of Persian Gulf is investigated. Seismic single- and multi-trace attribute analyses are employed separately to determine faults in a vertical section, but different kinds of geological objects cannot be identified using individual attributes only. A mapping model is utilized to improve the identification of the faults, giving more accurate results. This method is based on combinations of all individual relevant attributes using a neural network system to create combined attributes, which gives an optimal view of the object of interest. Firstly, a set of relevant attributes were separately calculated on the vertical section. Then, at interpreted positions, some example training locations were manually selected in each fault and non-fault class by an interpreter. A neural network was trained on combinations of the attributes extracted at the example training locations to generate an optimized fault cube. Finally, the results of the fault and nonfault probability cube were estimated, which the neural network applied to the entire data set. The fault probability cube was obtained with higher mapping accuracy and greater contrast, and with fewer disturbances in comparison with individual attributes. The computed results of this study can support better understanding of the data, providing fault zone mapping with reliable results. (paper)

  1. Urban-Tree-Attribute Update Using Multisource Single-Tree Inventory

    Ninni Saarinen


    Full Text Available The requirements for up-to-date tree data in city parks and forests are increasing, and an important question is how to keep the digital databases current for various applications. Traditional map-updating procedures, such as visual interpretation of digital aerial images or field measurements using tachymeters, are either inaccurate or expensive. Recently, the development of laser-scanning technology has opened new opportunities for tree mapping and attributes updating. For a detailed measurement and attributes update of urban trees, we tested the use of a multisource single-tree inventory (MS-STI for heterogeneous urban forest conditions. MS-STI requires an existing tree map as input information in addition to airborne laser-scanning (ALS data. In our study, the tested input tree map was produced by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and by using a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. Tree attributes were either measured from ALS or predicted by using metrics extracted from ALS data. Stem diameter-at-breast height (DBH was predicted and compared to the field measures, and tree height and crown area were directly measured from ALS data at the two different urban-forest areas. The results indicate that MS-STI can be used for updating urban-forest attributes. The accuracies of DBH estimations were improved compared to the existing attribute information in the city of Helsinki’s urban-tree register. In addition, important attributes, such as tree height and crown dimensions, were extracted from ALS and added as attributes to the urban-tree register.

  2. Visualization Learning for Visually Impaired People

    Salamin, Patrick; Thalmann, Daniel; Vexo,Frederic


    Virtual Environments (VE) are mainly visual experiments that exclude visually impaired people. In this paper we present an application that should allow almost everybody to ``see'' or at least to perceive 3D shapes. We will first describe the mandatory aspects of such an application, the tests we made and finally conclude by the results we obtained with geometrically basic shapes that are very promising.

  3. Mortality of American alligators attributed to cannibalism

    Delany, Michael F.; Woodward, Allan R.; Kiltie, Richard A.; Moore, Clinton T.


    Mortality of juvenile (Alligator mississippiensis) attributed to cannibalism on Orange Lake, Florida was examined. Alligator web tags used in mark–recapture studies were found in 12% of 267 stomachs sampled from alligators ≥168 cm TL. Captive alligators retained 76% of force-fed tags during a 588-d tag-retention trial. Models relating the probability of tag recovery to the annual probabilities of juvenile survival, cannibalism, tag retention, adult survival, and adult harvest suggested that cannibalism may on average remove 6–7% of the juvenile alligator population annually. Vulnerability continued to 140 cm TL (age 6–8 yr). Cannibalism of juveniles may serve to regulate the alligator population on Orange Lake. Alligator cannibalism may vary widely among populations, depending on demography and environmental conditions. The role and importance of cannibalism in alligator population dynamics should be more fully assessed and environmental and population factors that influence cannibalism identified to better evaluate management programs.

  4. Continuity Adjustment for Control Charts for Attributes

    L.K. Chan; T.K. Mak; B. Tao


    A unified approach is proposed for making a continuity adjustment on some control charts for attributes, e.g., np-chart and c-chart, through adding a uniform (0, 1) random observation to the conventional sample statistic (e.g., npi and ci). The adjusted sample statistic then has a continuous distribution. Consequently, given any Type I risk α (the probability that the sample statistic is on or beyond the control limits),control charts achieving the exact value of α can be readily constructed. Guidelines are given for when to use the continuity adjustment control chart, the conventional Shewhart control chart (with ±3 standard deviations control limits), and the control chart based on the exact distribution of the sample statistic before adjustment.

  5. A comparison of attribute sampling plans

    This report describes, compares, and provides sample size selection criteria for the most common sampling plans for attribute data (i.e., data that is qualitative in nature such as Pass-Fail, Yes-No, Defect-Nondefect data). This report is being issued as a guide in prudently choosing the correct sampling plan to meet statistical plan objectives. The report discusses three types of sampling plans: AQL (Acceptable Quality Level expressed as a percent), RQL (Rejectable Quality Level as a percent), and the AQL/RQL plan which emphasizes both risks simultaneously. These plans are illustrated with six examples, one of which is an inventory of UF6 cans whose weight must agree within 100 grams of its listed weight to be acceptable

  6. Attribute Exploration of Gene Regulatory Processes

    Wollbold, Johannes


    This thesis aims at the logical analysis of discrete processes, in particular of such generated by gene regulatory networks. States, transitions and operators from temporal logics are expressed in the language of Formal Concept Analysis. By the attribute exploration algorithm, an expert or a computer program is enabled to validate a minimal and complete set of implications, e.g. by comparison of predictions derived from literature with observed data. Here, these rules represent temporal dependencies within gene regulatory networks including coexpression of genes, reachability of states, invariants or possible causal relationships. This new approach is embedded into the theory of universal coalgebras, particularly automata, Kripke structures and Labelled Transition Systems. A comparison with the temporal expressivity of Description Logics is made. The main theoretical results concern the integration of background knowledge into the successive exploration of the defined data structures (formal contexts). Applyi...

  7. A general approach to attribute reduction in rough set theory

    ZHANG WenXiuiu; QIU GuoFang; WU WeiZhi


    The concept of a consistent approximation representation space is introduced.Many types of information systems can be treated and unified as consistent approximation representation spaces. At the same time, under the framework of this space, the judgment theorem for determining consistent attribute set is established,from which we can obtain the approach to attribute reductions in information systems. Also, the characterizations of three important types of attribute sets (the core attribute set, the relative necessary attribute set and the unnecessary attribute set)are examined.

  8. Attribute attendance in choice experiments: Exploring issues of scale and attribute farming

    Kragt, Marit Ellen


    This paper has been published in a peer-reviewed journal as: Kragt, M.E. (2013) Stated and Inferred Attribute Attendance Models: A Comparison with Environmental Choice Experiments. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 64(3): 719–736. DOI: 10.1111/1477-9552.12032

  9. Evaluation of Visualization Software

    Globus, Al; Uselton, Sam


    Visualization software is widely used in scientific and engineering research. But computed visualizations can be very misleading, and the errors are easy to miss. We feel that the software producing the visualizations must be thoroughly evaluated and the evaluation process as well as the results must be made available. Testing and evaluation of visualization software is not a trivial problem. Several methods used in testing other software are helpful, but these methods are (apparently) often not used. When they are used, the description and results are generally not available to the end user. Additional evaluation methods specific to visualization must also be developed. We present several useful approaches to evaluation, ranging from numerical analysis of mathematical portions of algorithms to measurement of human performance while using visualization systems. Along with this brief survey, we present arguments for the importance of evaluations and discussions of appropriate use of some methods.

  10. [Migraine with visual aura].

    Bidot, S; Biotti, D


    Migraine with visual aura is marked by recurrent episodes of transient visual disturbance, often followed by headaches. Its pathophysiology has not been fully understood, but visual auras might be related to a self-propagating wave of cortical depolarization called "cortical spreading depression", triggering a trigemino-vascular "storm" ultimately leading to headaches. The most specific visual symptom is the "fortification spectrum" consisting of glimmering jagged lines spreading from the center to the periphery, and leaving a transient scotoma in its wake. Other visual symptoms are numerous, ranging from elementary positive or negative visual phenomena to complex and elaborate hallucinations. The diagnosis can be made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders revised in 2013. The main goal of the treatment is to relieve the patient's pain quickly and to decrease the frequency of the episodes. PMID:27324232