Search for light scalar dark matter with atomic gravitational wave detectors
Arvanitaki, Asimina; Graham, Peter W.; Hogan, Jason M.; Rajendran, Surjeet; Van Tilburg, Ken
2016-01-01
We show that gravitational wave detectors based on a type of atom interferometry are sensitive to ultralight scalar dark matter. Such dark matter can cause temporal oscillations in fundamental constants with a frequency set by the dark matter mass, and amplitude determined by the local dark matter density. The result is a modulation of atomic transition energies. This signal is ideally suited to a type of gravitational wave detector that compares two spatially separated atom interferometers r...
Search for light scalar dark matter with atomic gravitational wave detectors
Arvanitaki, Asimina; Hogan, Jason M; Rajendran, Surjeet; Van Tilburg, Ken
2016-01-01
We show that gravitational wave detectors based on a type of atom interferometry are sensitive to ultralight scalar dark matter. Such dark matter can cause temporal oscillations in fundamental constants with a frequency set by the dark matter mass, and amplitude determined by the local dark matter density. The result is a modulation of atomic transition energies. This signal is ideally suited to a type of gravitational wave detector that compares two spatially separated atom interferometers referenced by a common laser. Such a detector can improve on current searches for electron-mass or electric-charge modulus dark matter by up to 10 orders of magnitude in coupling, in a frequency band complementary to that of other proposals. It demonstrates that this class of atomic sensors is qualitatively different from other gravitational wave detectors, including those based on laser interferometry. By using atomic-clock-like interferometers, laser noise is mitigated with only a single baseline. These atomic sensors ca...
Matter-wave beam splitter on an atom chip for a portable atom-interferometer
Kim, S J; Gang, S T; Kim, J B
2016-01-01
We construct a matter-wave beam splitter using 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate on an atom chip. Through the use of radio-frequency-induced double-well potentials, we were able to split a BEC into two clouds separated by distances ranging from 2.8 {\\mu}m to 57 {\\mu}m. Interference between these two freely expanding BECs has been observed. By varying the rf-field amplitude, frequency, or polarization, we investigate behaviors of the beam-splitter. From the perspective of practical use, our BEC manipulation system is suitable for application to interferometry since it is compact and the repetition rate is high due to the anodic bonded atom chip on the vacuum cell. The portable system occupies a volume of 0.5 m3 and operates at a repetition rate as high as ~0.2 Hz.
Bound States of Guided Matter Waves: An Atom and a Charged Wire
Hau, Lene Vestergaard; Burns, Michael M.; Golovchenko, Jene A.
1992-01-01
We argue that it is possible to bind a neutral atom in stable orbits around a wire charged by a time-varying sinusoidal voltage. Both classical and quantum-mechanical theories for this system are discussed, and a unified approach to the Kapitza picture of effective potentials associated with high-frequency fields is presented. It appears that cavities and waveguides for neutral-atomic-matter waves may be fashioned from these considerations.
Measuring the Gouy Phase of Matter Waves using Singular Atom Optics with Spinor BECs
Schultz, Justin T.; Hansen, Azure; Murphree, Joseph D.; Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Bigelow, Nicholas P.
2016-05-01
The Gouy phase is a propagation-dependent geometric phase found in confined waves as they propagate through a focus. Although it has been observed and studied extensively both in scalar and vector optical beams as well as in electron vortex beams, it has not yet been directly observed in ultracold matter waves. The Schrödinger equation has the same form as the paraxial wave equation from electromagnetism; expansion of a BEC upon release from a trap has the same mathematical form as a beam propagating away from a focus. We employ and extend this analogy between coherent optical beams and coherent matter waves to include spin angular momentum (polarization), which enables us measure the matter wave Gouy phase using coreless vortex spin textures in spinor BECs. Because the Gouy phase is dependent on the orbital angular momentum of the wave, the vortex and core states acquire different Gouy phase shifts. Parameters that are sensitive to the relative phase such as two-dimensional maps of the Stokes parameters rotate during evolution due to this phase difference. Using atom-optic polarimetry we can access the evolution of the atomic Stokes parameters and observe this rotation.
From quantum turbulence to statistical atom optics: new perspectives in speckle matter wave
Tavares, P E S; Telles, G D; Impens, F; Kaiser, R; Bagnato, V S
2016-01-01
Quantum Turbulence, the chaotic configuration of tangled quantized vortex lines, can be analyzed from the matter wave perspective in instead of the traditional fluid perspective. We report the observation of a remarkable similarity in between the dynamics of a freely expanding turbulent Bose-Einstein condensate and the propagation of an optical speckle pattern. Both follow very similar basic propagation characteristics. The second-order correlation is calculated and the typical correlation length of the two phenomena is used to substantiate the observations. The analogy between an expanding turbulent atomic condensate and a traveling optical speckle creates exciting prospects to investigate disordered quantum matter including the possibilities of a 3D speckle matter field.
Controllable Asymmetric Matter-wave Beam Splitter and Ring Potential on an Atom Chip
Kim, S J; Gang, S T; Anderson, D; Kim, J B
2015-01-01
We have constructed an asymmetric matter-wave beam splitter and a ring potential on an atom chip with Bose-Einstein condensates using radio-frequency dressing. By applying rf-field parallel to the quantization axis in the vicinity of the static trap minima added to perpendicular rf-fields, versatile controllability on the potentials is realized. Asymmetry of the rf-induced double well is manipulated without discernible displacement of the each well along horizontal and vertical direction. Formation of an isotropic ring potential on an atom chip is achieved by compensating the gradient due to gravity and inhomogeneous coupling strength. In addition, position and rotation velocity of a BEC along the ring geometry are controlled by the relative phase and the frequency difference between the rf-fields, respectively.
High momentum splitting of matter-waves by an atom chip field gradient beam-splitter
Machluf, Shimon; Folman, Ron
2012-01-01
The splitting of matter-waves into superposition states is a fundamental tool for studying the basic tenets of quantum behavior, as well as a building block for numerous technological applications. We report on the first realization of a beam-splitter by a combination of magnetic field gradients and a radio-frequency technique. It may be used for freely propagating or trapped atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate or a thermal state. It has the advantageous feature of endowing its superposition state with a large differential momentum in the direction parallel or transverse to the atoms' motion, thereby, for example enabling to open large angles. As large space-time area of an interferometer increases its sensitivity, this may be used for new kinds of interferometry experiments (e.g. large angle Sagnac interferometry). Furthermore, it is also simple to use, fast, and does not require light.
Single spontaneous photon as a coherent beamsplitter for an atomic matter-wave
Tomkovič, Jiří; Welte, Joachim; Oberthaler, Markus K. [Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Schreiber, Michael [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München (Germany); Kiffner, Martin [Physik Department I, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Schmiedmayer, Jörg [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, Vienna (Austria)
2014-12-04
In free space the spontaneous emission of a single photon destroys motional coherence. Close to a mirror surface the reflection erases the which-path information and the single emitted photon can be regarded as a coherent beam splitter for an atomic matter-wavewhich can be verified by atom interferometry. Our experiment is a realization of the recoiling slit Gedanken experiment by Einstein.
Yao, Yu-Qin; Li, Ji; Han, Wei; Wang, Deng-Shan; Liu, Wu-Ming
2016-01-01
The intrinsic nonlinearity is the most remarkable characteristic of the Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) systems. Many studies have been done on atomic BECs with time- and space- modulated nonlinearities, while there is few work considering the atomic-molecular BECs with space-modulated nonlinearities. Here, we obtain two kinds of Jacobi elliptic solutions and a family of rational solutions of the atomic-molecular BECs with trapping potential and space-modulated nonlinearity and consider the effect of three-body interaction on the localized matter wave solutions. The topological properties of the localized nonlinear matter wave for no coupling are analysed: the parity of nonlinear matter wave functions depends only on the principal quantum number n, and the numbers of the density packets for each quantum state depend on both the principal quantum number n and the secondary quantum number l. When the coupling is not zero, the localized nonlinear matter waves given by the rational function, their topological properties are independent of the principal quantum number n, only depend on the secondary quantum number l. The Raman detuning and the chemical potential can change the number and the shape of the density packets. The stability of the Jacobi elliptic solutions depends on the principal quantum number n, while the stability of the rational solutions depends on the chemical potential and Raman detuning. PMID:27403634
Yao, Yu-Qin; Li, Ji; Han, Wei; Wang, Deng-Shan; Liu, Wu-Ming
2016-01-01
The intrinsic nonlinearity is the most remarkable characteristic of the Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) systems. Many studies have been done on atomic BECs with time- and space- modulated nonlinearities, while there is few work considering the atomic-molecular BECs with space-modulated nonlinearities. Here, we obtain two kinds of Jacobi elliptic solutions and a family of rational solutions of the atomic-molecular BECs with trapping potential and space-modulated nonlinearity and consider the effect of three-body interaction on the localized matter wave solutions. The topological properties of the localized nonlinear matter wave for no coupling are analysed: the parity of nonlinear matter wave functions depends only on the principal quantum number n, and the numbers of the density packets for each quantum state depend on both the principal quantum number n and the secondary quantum number l. When the coupling is not zero, the localized nonlinear matter waves given by the rational function, their topological properties are independent of the principal quantum number n, only depend on the secondary quantum number l. The Raman detuning and the chemical potential can change the number and the shape of the density packets. The stability of the Jacobi elliptic solutions depends on the principal quantum number n, while the stability of the rational solutions depends on the chemical potential and Raman detuning. PMID:27403634
Integrated coherent matter wave circuits
An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through their electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry
Conti, C; Conti, Claudio; Trillo, Stefano
2003-01-01
We predict that an ultra-cold Bose gas in an optical lattice can give rise to a new form of condensation, namely matter X waves. These are non-spreading 3D wave-packets which reflect the symmetry of the Laplacian with a negative effective mass along the lattice direction, and are allowed to exist in the absence of any trapping potential even in the limit of non-interacting atoms. This result has also strong implications for optical propagation in periodic structures
Brownian motion of a matter-wave bright soliton moving through a thermal cloud of distinct atoms
McDonald, R. G.; Bradley, A. S.
2016-06-01
Taking an open quantum system approach, we derive a collective equation of motion for the dynamics of a matter-wave bright soliton moving through a thermal cloud of a distinct atomic species. The reservoir interaction involves energy transfer without particle transfer between the soliton and thermal cloud, thus damping the soliton motion without altering its stability against collapse. We derive a Langevin equation for the soliton center-of-mass velocity in the form of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with analytical drift and diffusion coefficients. This collective motion is confirmed by simulations of the full stochastic projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the matter-wave field. The system offers a pathway for experimentally observing the elusive energy-damping reservoir interaction and a clear realization of collective Brownian motion for a mesoscopic superfluid droplet.
Kaplan, David E.; Krnjaic, Gordan Z.; Rehermann, Keith R.; Wells, Christopher M.
2009-01-01
We propose that dark matter is dominantly comprised of atomic bound states. We build a simple model and map the parameter space that results in the early universe formation of hydrogen-like dark atoms. We find that atomic dark matter has interesting implications for cosmology as well as direct detection: Protohalo formation can be suppressed below $M_{proto} \\sim 10^3 - 10^6 M_{\\odot}$ for weak scale dark matter due to Ion-Radiation interactions in the dark sector. Moreover, weak-scale dark a...
Agueny, Hicham
2015-07-01
We present results for single and double electron captures in intermediate energies H+ and 2H+ projectiles colliding with a helium target. The processes under investigations are treated using a nonperturbative semiclassical approach in combination with Eikonal approximation to calculate the scattering differential cross sections. The latter reveals pronounced minima and maxima in the scattering angles, in excellent agreement with the recent experimental data. It turns out that the present structure depends strongly on the projectile energy and shows only slight variations with different capture channels. The observed structure demonstrates the analogy of atomic de Broglie's matter-wave scattering with λd B=1.3 -3.2 ×10-3 a.u. and Fraunhofer-type diffraction of light waves.
Negative-Index Media for Matter Waves
Perales, F.; Bocvarski, V.; Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Grucker, J.; Dutier, G.; Mainos, C.; Boustimi, M.; Ducloy, M.
2010-02-01
One reviews the recently introduced field of matter-wave "meta-optics", i.e. the extension of optical negative-index media (NIM) to atom optics. After emphasizing the differences with light meta-optics and particularly the necessary transient character of NIM's in atom optics, we present the way of generating matter-wave NIM's and their general properties: negative refraction, atom meta-lenses. Finally their specific features are reviewed: longitudinal wave packet narrowing associated to a time-reversal effect, transient revivals of evanescent matter waves and atom reflection echoes at a potential barrier.
Matter-Wave Decoherence due to a Gas Environment in an Atom Interferometer
Uys, H; Cronin, A D; Uys, Hermann; Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.
2005-01-01
Decoherence due to scattering from background gas particles is observed for the first time in a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer, and compared with decoherence due to scattering photons. A single theory is shown to describe decoherence due to scattering either atoms or photons. Predictions from this theory are tested by experiments with different species of background gas, and also by experiments with different collimation restrictions on an atom beam interferometer.
Matter-Wave Decoherence due to a Gas Environment in an Atom Interferometer
Decoherence due to scattering from background gas particles is observed for the first time in a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer, and compared with decoherence due to scattering photons. A single theory is shown to describe decoherence due to scattering either atoms or photons. Predictions from this theory are tested by experiments with different species of background gas, and also by experiments with different collimation restrictions on an atom beam interferometer
Matter-Wave Decoherence due to a Gas Environment in an Atom Interferometer
Uys, Hermann; Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.
2005-10-01
Decoherence due to scattering from background gas particles is observed for the first time in a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer, and compared with decoherence due to scattering photons. A single theory is shown to describe decoherence due to scattering either atoms or photons. Predictions from this theory are tested by experiments with different species of background gas, and also by experiments with different collimation restrictions on an atom beam interferometer.
Matter Waves in Reduced Dimensions: Dipolar-Induced Resonances and Atomic Artificial Crystals
Bartolo, Nicola
2014-01-01
The experimental achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation and Fermi degeneracy with ultracold gases boosted tremendous progresses both in theoretical methods and in the development of new experimental tools. Among them, intriguing possibilities have been opened by the implementation of optical lattices: periodic potentials for neutral atoms created by interfering laser beams. Degenerate gases in optical lattices can be forced in highly anisotropic traps, reducing the effective dimensionality...
Coherent Momentum State Manipulation of Matter Waves
Pötting, Sierk
2004-01-01
This dissertation presents a theoretical analysis of methods to manipulate and control the momentum state of coherent matter waves. Of particular interest is the coherent acceleration of a quantum-degenerate atomic system, which, as a direct consequence of the form of the de Broglie wavelength, results in tunable source of matter waves. Such sources are of considerable importance for a number of potential applications in the field of atom optics, including the development...
Ghezali, S.; Taleb, A.
2008-09-01
A research project at the "Laboratoire d'électronique quantique" consists in a theoretical study of the reflection and diffraction phenomena via an atomic mirror. This poster presents the principle of an atomic mirror. Many groups in the world have constructed this type of atom optics experiments such as in Paris-Orsay-Villetaneuse (France), Stanford-Gaithersburg (USA), Munich-Heidelberg (Germany), etc. A laser beam goes into a prism with an incidence bigger than the critical incidence. It undergoes a total reflection on the plane face of the prism and then exits. The transmitted resulting wave out of the prism is evanescent and repulsive as the frequency detuning of the laser beam compared to the atomic transition δ = ωL-ω0 is positive. The cold atomic sample interacts with this evanescent wave and undergoes one or more elastic bounces by passing into backward points in its trajectory because the atoms' kinetic energy (of the order of the μeV) is less than the maximum of the dipolar potential barrier ℏΩ2/Δ where Ω is the Rabi frequency [1]. In fact, the atoms are cooled and captured in a magneto-optical trap placed at a distance of the order of the cm above the prism surface. The dipolar potential with which interact the slow atoms is obtained for a two level atom in a case of a dipolar electric transition (D2 Rubidium transition at a wavelength of 780nm delivered by a Titane-Saphir laser between a fundamental state Jf = l/2 and an excited state Je = 3/2). This potential is corrected by an attractive Van der Waals term which varies as 1/z3 in the Lennard-Jones approximation (typical atomic distance of the order of λ0/2π where λ0 is the laser wavelength) and in 1/z4 if the distance between the atom and its image in the dielectric is big in front of λ0/2π. This last case is obtained in a quantum electrodynamic calculation by taking into account an orthornormal base [2]. We'll examine the role of spontaneous emission for which the rate is inversely
Cavity QED Detection of Interfering Matter Waves
Bourdel, T; Donner, T.; Ritter, S; Öttl, A.; Köhl, M.; Esslinger, T.
2005-01-01
We observe the build-up of a matter wave interference pattern from single atom detection events in a double-slit experiment. The interference arises from two overlapping atom laser beams extracted from a Rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate. Our detector is a high-finesse optical cavity which realizes the quantum measurement of the presence of an atom and thereby projects delocalized atoms into a state with zero or one atom in the resonator. The experiment reveals simultaneously the granular and...
Dynamics of evanescent matter waves in negative-index media
Hamamda, M.; Bocvarski, V.; Perales, F.; Baudon, J.; Dutier, G.; Mainos, C.; Boustimi, M.; Ducloy, M.
2010-11-01
Semi-evanescent and evanescent matter waves produced by an atom wave packet impinging on a repulsive barrier can be back-refracted and reconstructed by the application of negative-index 'comoving' potential pulses. One shows that those collapses and revivals generate a matter wave confined on both sides of the barrier border ('surface matter wave') and should be observable via the retardation of atom reflection from the barrier interface. This property, joined to the possibility recently demonstrated of inducing negative refraction of atom waves, makes such potentials a matter-wave counterpart of negative-index materials or 'meta materials' well known in light optics.
Creation of matter wave Bessel beams
Ryu, C.; Henderson, K. C.; Boshier, M. G.
2013-01-01
Bessel beams are plane waves with amplitude profiles described by Bessel functions. They are important because of their property of limited diffraction and their capacity to carry orbital angular momentum. Here we report the creation of a Bessel beam of de Broglie matter waves. The Bessel beam is produced by the free evolution of a thin toroidal atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) which has been set into rotational motion. By attempting to stir it at different rotation rates, we show that t...
Negative-Index Media for Matter-Wave Optics
Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Grucker, J.; Boustimi, M.; Perales, F.; Dutier, G.; Ducloy, M.
2009-04-01
We consider the extension of optical metamaterials to matter waves and then the down scaling of metaoptics to nanometric wavelengths. We show that the generic property of pulsed comoving magnetic fields allows us to fashion the wave-number dependence of the atomic phase shift. It can be used to produce a transient negative group velocity of an atomic wave packet, which results into a negative refraction of the matter wave. Application to slow metastable argon atoms Ar*(P23) shows that the device is able to operate either as an efficient beam splitter or an atomic metalens.
Negative-Index Media for Matter-Wave Optics
We consider the extension of optical metamaterials to matter waves and then the down scaling of metaoptics to nanometric wavelengths. We show that the generic property of pulsed comoving magnetic fields allows us to fashion the wave-number dependence of the atomic phase shift. It can be used to produce a transient negative group velocity of an atomic wave packet, which results into a negative refraction of the matter wave. Application to slow metastable argon atoms Ar*(3P2) shows that the device is able to operate either as an efficient beam splitter or an atomic metalens
Matter wave lensing to picokelvin temperatures
Kovachy, Tim; Sugarbaker, Alex; Dickerson, Susannah M; Donnelly, Christine A; Overstreet, Chris; Kasevich, Mark A
2014-01-01
Using a matter wave lens and a long time-of-flight, we cool an ensemble of Rb-87 atoms in two dimensions to an effective temperature of less than $50^{+50}_{-30}$ pK. A short pulse of red-detuned light generates an optical dipole force that collimates the ensemble. We also report a three-dimensional magnetic lens that substantially reduces the chemical potential of evaporatively cooled ensembles with high atom number. These cooling techniques yield bright, collimated sources for precision atom interferometry. By observing such low temperatures, we set limits on proposed modifications to quantum mechanics.
Inversion of an Atomic Wave Packet in a Circularly Polarized Electromagnetic Wave
ZENG Gao-Jian
2001-01-01
We study behavior of an atomic wave packet in a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave, and particularly calculate the atomic inversion of the wave packet. A general method of calculation is presented. The results are interesting. For example, if the wave packet is very narrow or/and the interaction is very strong, no matter the atom is initially in its ground state or excited state, the atomic inversion approaches zero as time approaches infinity. If the atom is initially in its ground state and excited state with the probability 1/2 respectively, and if the momentum density is an even function, then the atomic inversion equals zero at any time.``
Time reversal in matter-wave optics
Hamamda, M.; Perales, F.; Dutier, G.; Mainos, C.; Baudon, J.; Boustimi, M.; Ducloy, M.
2011-01-01
The evolution of atomic wave packets experiencing so-called comoving potential pulses is examined theoretically, in the framework of the stationary-phase approximation. The negative refraction induced by this potential is a characteristic property of negative-index media, the atomic counterpart of negative-index materials of light optics. A novel process, specific of negative-index for matter waves, is evidenced, namely a narrowing of the wave packet transiently counterbalancing the natural spreading. This is the manifestation of a general property of negative-index media, i.e. a time reversal effect. It is shown that, for a statistical ensemble of wave packets leading to a moderate dispersion of the times of flight, this time reversal phenomenon should be observable.
Fermionic condensation in ultracold atoms, nuclear matter and neutron stars
Salasnich, Luca
2013-01-01
We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of fermionic pairs in three different superfluid systems: ultracold and dilute atomic gases, bulk neutron matter, and neutron stars. In the case of dilute gases made of fermionic atoms the average distance between atoms is much larger than the effective radius of the inter-atomic potential. Here the condensation of fermionic pairs is analyzed as a function of the s-wave scattering length, which can be tuned in experiments by using the technique of...
Matter waves with angular momentum
Bracher, C; Kleber, M; Bracher, Christian; Kramer, Tobias; Kleber, Manfred
2003-01-01
An alternative description of quantum scattering processes rests on inhomogeneous terms amended to the Schr\\"odinger equation. We detail the structure of sources that give rise to multipole scattering waves of definite angular momentum, and introduce pointlike multipole sources as their limiting case. Partial wave theory is recovered for freely propagating particles. We obtain novel results for ballistic scattering in an external uniform force field, where we provide analytical solutions for both the scattering waves and the integrated particle flux. As an illustration of the theory, we predict some properties of vortex-bearing atom laser beams outcoupled from a rotating Bose--Einstein condensate under the influence of gravity.
Cold Matter Assembled Atom-by-Atom
Endres, Manuel; Keesling, Alexander; Levine, Harry; Anschuetz, Eric R; Krajenbrink, Alexandre; Senko, Crystal; Vuletic, Vladan; Greiner, Markus; Lukin, Mikhail D
2016-01-01
The realization of large-scale fully controllable quantum systems is an exciting frontier in modern physical science. We use atom-by-atom assembly to implement a novel platform for the deterministic preparation of regular arrays of individually controlled cold atoms. In our approach, a measurement and feedback procedure eliminates the entropy associated with probabilistic trap occupation and results in defect-free arrays of over 50 atoms in less than 400 ms. The technique is based on fast, real-time control of 100 optical tweezers, which we use to arrange atoms in desired geometric patterns and to maintain these configurations by replacing lost atoms with surplus atoms from a reservoir. This bottom-up approach enables controlled engineering of scalable many-body systems for quantum information processing, quantum simulations, and precision measurements.
Dynamics of matter wave solitons
Polo Gómez, Juan
2012-01-01
Treball final de màster oficial fet en col·laboració amb Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB) i Institut de Ciències Fotòniques (ICFO) [ANGLÈS] We study the implementation of a matter wave bright soliton interferometer formed by a Gaussian potential barrier placed at the center of a harmonic trap potential. After numerically evaluating the transmission coefficient of the potential barrier as a function of the ratio between the kinetic energy of an incident...
Wave Dark Matter and Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies
Parry, Alan R
2013-01-01
We explore a model of dark matter called wave dark matter (also known as scalar field dark matter and boson stars) which has recently been motivated by a new geometric perspective by Bray. Wave dark matter describes dark matter as a scalar field which satisfies the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations. These equations rely on a fundamental constant $\\Upsilon$ (also known as the "mass term" of the Klein-Gordon equation). Specifically, in this dissertation, we study spherically symmetric wave dark matter and compare these results with observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies as a first attempt to compare the implications of the theory of wave dark matter with actual observations of dark matter. This includes finding a first estimate of the fundamental constant $\\Upsilon$. The majority of this thesis has also been presented by the author in three separate shorter papers with arXiv reference codes [arXiv:1210.5269 [gr-qc
Axion Dark Matter Detection using Atomic Transitions
Sikivie, P
2014-01-01
Dark matter axions may cause transitions between atomic states that differ in energy by an amount equal to the axion mass. Such energy differences are conveniently tuned using the Zeeman effect. It is proposed to search for dark matter axions by cooling a kilogram-sized sample to milliKelvin temperatures and count axion induced transitions using laser techniques. This appears an appropriate approach to axion dark matter detection in the $10^{-4}$ eV mass range.
Neutron Matter Wave Quantum Optics
Rauch, Helmut
2012-06-01
Neutron matter-wave optics provides the basis for new quantum experiments and a step towards applications of quantum phenomena. Most experiments have been performed with a perfect crystal neutron interferometer where widely separated coherent beams can be manipulated individually. Various geometric phases have been measured and their robustness against fluctuation effects has been proven, which may become a useful property for advanced quantum communication. Quantum contextuality for single particle systems shows that quantum correlations are to some extent more demanding than classical ones. In this case entanglement between external and internal degrees of freedom offers new insights into basic laws of quantum physics. Non-contextuality hidden variable theories can be rejected by arguments based on the Kochen-Specker theorem.
Delva, Pacôme; Angonin, Marie-Christine; Tourrenc, Philippe
2006-01-01
We calculate and compare the response of light wave interferometers and matter wave interferometers to gravitational waves. We find that metric matter wave interferometers will not challenge kilometric light wave interferometers such as Virgo or LIGO, but could be a good candidate for the detection of very low frequency gravitational waves.
Quantum noise limits to matter-wave interferometry
Scully, Marlan O.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1994-01-01
We derive the quantum limits for an atomic interferometer in which the atoms obey either Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics. It is found that the limiting quantum noise is due to the uncertainty associated with the particle sorting between the two branches of the interferometer. As an example, the quantum-limited sensitivity of a matter-wave gyroscope is calculated and compared with that of laser gyroscopes.
Bigravitons as dark matter and gravitational waves
Aoki, Katsuki
2016-01-01
We consider the possibility that the massive graviton is a viable candidate of dark matter in the context of bimetric gravity. We first derive the energy-momentum tensor of the massive graviton and show that it indeed behaves as that of dark matter fluid. We then discuss a production mechanism and the present abundance of massive gravitons as dark matter. Since the metric to which ordinary matter fields couple is a linear combination of the two mass eigenstates of bigravity, production of massive gravitons, i.e. the dark matter particles, is inevitably accompanied by generation of massless gravitons, i.e. the gravitational waves. Therefore, in this scenario some information about dark matter in our universe is encoded in gravitational waves. For instance, if LIGO detects gravitational waves generated by the preheating after inflation then the massive graviton with the mass of $\\sim 0.01$ GeV is a candidate of the dark matter.
伍细如
2015-01-01
proton emits energy wave, electron could sits any position away from nucleus, but be the most stable just when it sits at the trough of energy wave, and this position accords with Bohr radius and Schr?dinger equation.
Excitation of knotted vortex lines in matter waves
Maucher, F.; Gardiner, S. A.; Hughes, I. G.
2016-06-01
We study the creation of knotted ultracold matter waves in Bose–Einstein condensates via coherent two-photon Raman transitions with a Λ level configuration. The Raman transition allows an indirect transfer of atoms from the internal state | a> to the target state | b> via an excited state | e> , that would be otherwise dipole-forbidden. This setup enables us to imprint three-dimensional knotted vortex lines embedded in the probe field to the density in the target state. We elaborate on experimental feasibility as well as on subsequent dynamics of the matter wave.
Nonlinear optics of matter waves
Goldstein, E. V.; Moore, M. G.; Zobay, O.; Meystre, P.
1998-01-01
We give a brief overview of the way atomic physics is now developing in a way reminiscent of the optics revolution of the 1960's. Thanks in particular to recent developments in atomic trapping and cooling, the new field of atom optics is rapidly leading to exciting new developments such as nonlinear atom optics and quantum atom optics. We illustrate these developments with examples out of our own research.
Theoretical study of ghost imaging with cold atomic waves under the condition of partial coherence
A matter wave ghost imaging mechanism is proposed and demonstrated theoretically. This mechanism is based on the Talbot-Lau effect. Periodic gratings of matter wave density, which appear as a result of interference of atoms diffracted by pulses of an optical standing wave, are utilized to produce the reference wave and the signal wave simultaneously for the ghost imaging. An advantage of this mechanism is that during the imaging process, the beam-splitter is not needed, which highly simplifies the experimental setup and makes the ghost imaging possible in the field of matter wave
Dephasing dynamics of Rydberg atom spin waves
Bariani, F; Kennedy, T A B
2012-01-01
A theory of Rydberg atom interactions is used to derive analytical forms for the spin wave pair correlation function in laser-excited cold-atom vapors. This function controls the quantum statistics of light emission from dense, inhomogeneous clouds of cold atoms of various spatial dimensionalities. The results yield distinctive scaling behaviors on the microsecond timescale, including generalized exponential decay. A detailed comparison is presented with a recent experiment on a cigar-shaped atomic ensemble [Y. Dudin and A. Kuzmich, Science 336, 887 (2012)], in which Rb atoms are excited to a set of Rydberg levels.
Quantum interference of molecules -- probing the wave nature of matter
Venugopalan, Anu
2012-01-01
The double slit interference experiment has been famously described by Richard Feynman as containing the "only mystery of quantum mechanics". The history of quantum mechanics is intimately linked with the discovery of the dual nature of matter and radiation. While the double slit experiment for light is easily undertsood in terms of its wave nature, the very same experiment for particles like the electron is somewhat more difficult to comprehend. By the 1920s it was firmly established that electrons have a wave nature. However, for a very long time, most discussions pertaining to interference experiments for particles were merely gedanken experiments. It took almost six decades after the establishment of its wave nature to carry out a 'double slit interference' experiment for electrons. This set the stage for interference experiments with larger particles. In the last decade there has been spectacular progress in matter-wave interefernce experiments. Today, molecules with over a hundred atoms can be made to i...
Vector Dark Matter Detection using Quantum Jump of Atoms
Yang, Qiaoli
2016-01-01
Hidden sector $U(1)$ vector bosons created from inflationary fluctuations can be a substantial fraction of dark matter if their mass is around $10^{-5}$eV which is the order of the Lamb-shift between S wave and P wave in atoms. Due to the creation mechanism, the dark matter vector bosons are condensate with a very small velocity dispersion which makes their energy spectral density $\\rho_{cdm}/\\Delta E$ very high therefore boost the dark electric dipole transition rates in cooling atoms or ions if the energy gap between states equals the mass of vector bosons. The energy difference between quantum states in atoms can be tuned using the Zeeman effect. In addition, the excited state of atoms can be pumped into a highly excited state, order of eV above the ground state, with a tunable laser. The laser frequency is set so no other states will be excited. The highly excited state with a short lifetime then spontaneously emits photon which can be detected. Choices of target material are many depending on facility of...
Matter wave propagation through microstructured waveguides*
Full text: Significant experimental progress in recent years has been seen in the field of 'atom chips', ie integrated atom optics, where trapping, propagation and manipulation of ultracold atoms have all been done above a single microchip surface. Our theoretical efforts have been focussed on exploring the nature of wave propagation through such microstructured waveguides. We present here a smorgasbord of fundamental physics, ranging from wave excitations and quantum/classical correspondence, through to interference-based vortex production and dispersion management. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics
Atomic processes in matter-antimatter interactions
Atomic processes dominate antiproton stopping in matter at nearly all energies of interest. They significantly influence or determine the antiproton annihilation rate at all energies around or below several MeV. This article reviews what is known about these atomic processes. For stopping above about 10 eV the processes are antiproton-electron collisions, effective at medium keV through high MeV energies, and elastic collisions with atoms and adiabatic ionization of atoms, effective from medium eV through low keB energies. For annihilation above about 10 eV is the enhancement of the antiproton annihilation rate due to the antiproton-nucleus coulomb attraction, effective around and below a few tens of MeV. At about 10 eV and below, the atomic rearrangement/annihilation process determines both the stopping and annihilation rates. Although a fair amount of theoretical and some experimental work relevant to these processes exist, there are a number of energy ranges and material types for which experimental data does not exist and for which the theoretical information is not as well grounded or as accurate as desired. Additional experimental and theoretical work is required for accurate prediction of antiproton stopping and annihilation for energies and material relevant to antiproton experimentation and application
Scalar Field (Wave) Dark Matter
Matos, T
2016-01-01
Recent high-quality observations of dwarf and low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies have shown that their dark matter (DM) halos prefer flat central density profiles. On the other hand the standard cold dark matter model simulations predict a more cuspy behavior. Feedback from star formation has been widely used to reconcile simulations with observations, this might be successful in field dwarf galaxies but its success in low mass galaxies remains uncertain. One model that have received much attention is the scalar field dark matter model. Here the dark matter is a self-interacting ultra light scalar field that forms a cosmological Bose-Einstein condensate, a mass of $10^{-22}$eV/c$^2$ is consistent with flat density profiles in the centers of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, reduces the abundance of small halos, might account for the rotation curves even to large radii in spiral galaxies and has an early galaxy formation. The next generation of telescopes will provide better constraints to the model that will help...
Matter-wave recombiners for trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
Berrada, T.; van Frank, S.; Bücker, R.; Schumm, T.; Schaff, J.-F.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Julía-Díaz, B.; Polls, A.
2016-06-01
Interferometry with trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) requires the development of techniques to recombine the two paths of the interferometer and map the accumulated phase difference to a measurable atom number difference. We have implemented and compared two recombining procedures in a double-well-based BEC interferometer. The first procedure utilizes the bosonic Josephson effect and controlled tunneling of atoms through the potential barrier, similar to laser light in an optical fiber coupler. The second one relies on the interference of the reflected and transmitted parts of the BEC wave function when impinging on the potential barrier, analogous to light impinging on a half-silvered mirror. Both schemes were implemented successfully, yielding an interferometric contrast of ˜20 % and 42% respectively. Building efficient matter-wave recombiners represents an important step towards the coherent manipulation of external quantum superposition states of BECs.
Astrophysical constraints on millicharged atomic dark matter
Kvam, Audrey K
2014-01-01
Some models of inelastic dark matter posit the existence of bound states under some new $U(1)'$ gauge symmetry. If this new dark photon kinetically mixes with the standard model photon, then the constituent particles in these bound states can acquire a fractional electric charge. This electric charge renders a dark-matter medium dispersive. We compute this frequency-dependent index of refraction for such a medium and use the frequency-dependent arrival time of light from astrophysical sources to constrain the properties of dark atoms in the medium. Using optical-wavelength observations from the Crab Pulsar, we find the electric millicharge of dark (electrons) protons to be smaller than the electric charge $e$ for dark atom masses below 100 keV, assuming a dark fine structure constant $\\boldsymbol{\\alpha}=1$. We estimate that future broadband observations of gamma-ray bursts can produce constraints on the millicharge of dark atoms with masses in the keV range that are competitive with existing collider constra...
Production and manipulation of wave packets from ultracold atoms in an optical lattice
Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Winter, Nils;
2013-01-01
system. The modulation technique also allows for a controllable transfer (deexcitation) of atoms from such wave packets to a state bound by the lattice. Thus, it acts as a beam splitter for matter waves that can selectively address different bands, enabling the preparation of atoms in localized states....... The combination of wave packet creation and deexcitation closely resembles the well-known method of pump-probe spectroscopy. Here, we use the deexcitation for spectroscopy of the anharmonicity of the combined potential. Finally, we demonstrate that lattice modulation can be used to excite matter wave...
Atom laser based on four-wave mixing with Bose-Einstein condensates in nonlinear lattices
Wasak, T.; Konotop, V. V.; Trippenbach, M.
2013-12-01
Optical lattices are typically used to modify the dispersion relation of the matter wave, in particular, to ensure resonant conditions for multiwave interactions. Here we propose an alternative mechanism of wave interactions. It can be implemented using a nonlinear lattice and modifies the momentum conservation law of the interacting atoms, leaving the energy conservation unchanged. We propose to apply this phenomenon to construct an atom laser via a resonant four-wave mixing process.
Detecting inertial effects with airborne matter-wave interferometry
Geiger, Remi; Stern, Guillaume; Zahzam, Nassim; Cheinet, Patrick; Battelier, Baptiste; Villing, André; Moron, Frédéric; Lours, Michel; Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre; Landragin, Arnaud; Bouyer, Philippe
2011-01-01
Inertial sensors relying on atom interferometry offer a breakthrough advance in a variety of applications, such as inertial navigation, gravimetry or ground- and space-based tests of fundamental physics. These instruments require a quiet environment to reach their performance and using them outside the laboratory remains a challenge. Here we report the first operation of an airborne matter-wave accelerometer set up aboard a 0g plane and operating during the standard gravity (1g) and microgravity (0g) phases of the flight. At 1g, the sensor can detect inertial effects more than 300 times weaker than the typical acceleration fluctuations of the aircraft. We describe the improvement of the interferometer sensitivity in 0g, which reaches 2 x 10-4 ms-2 / \\surdHz with our current setup. We finally discuss the extension of our method to airborne and spaceborne tests of the Universality of free fall with matter waves.
An Atomic Gravitational Wave Interferometric Sensor (AGIS)
Dimopoulos, Savas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Graham, Peter W.; /SLAC; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rajendran, Surjeet; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2008-08-01
We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10m atom interferometer presently under construction. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The signal scales with the distance between the interferometers, which can be large since only the light travels over this distance, not the atoms. The terrestrial experiment with baseline {approx} 1 km can operate with strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -19}/{radical}Hz in the 1 Hz-10 Hz band, inaccessible to LIGO, and can detect gravitational waves from solar mass binaries out to megaparsec distances. The satellite experiment with baseline {approx} 1000 km can probe the same frequency spectrum as LISA with comparable strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -20}/{radical}Hz. The use of ballistic atoms (instead of mirrors) as inertial test masses improves systematics coming from vibrations, acceleration noise, and significantly reduces spacecraft control requirements. We analyze the backgrounds in this configuration and discuss methods for controlling them to the required levels.
Using Atomic Clocks to Detect Gravitational Waves
Loeb, Abraham
2015-01-01
Atomic clocks have recently reached a fractional timing precision of $<10^{-18}$. We point out that an array of atomic clocks, distributed along the Earth's orbit around the Sun, will have the sensitivity needed to detect the time dilation effect of mHz gravitational waves (GWs), such as those emitted by supermassive black hole binaries at cosmological distances. Simultaneous measurement of clock-rates at different phases of a passing GW provides an attractive alternative to the interferometric detection of temporal variations in distance between test masses separated by less than a GW wavelength, currently envisioned for the eLISA mission.
Observation of Atom-Wave Beats Using a Kerr Modulator for Atom Waves.
Décamps, B; Gillot, J; Vigué, J; Gauguet, A; Büchner, M
2016-02-01
A phase modulation puts the atom in a coherent superposition of quantum states with different kinetic energies. We have detected the interference of such modulated waves at the output of our atom interferometer, and we have observed beats at the difference of the modulation frequencies and its harmonics, in good agreement with theory. The phase modulations were produced by a Kerr phase modulator, i.e., by the propagation of the atom wave in a time-dependent electric field. An extension of this technique to electron interferometry should open the way to very high temporal resolution in electron microscopy. PMID:26894710
Self-induced dipole force and filamentation instability of a matter wave
Saffman, M.
1998-01-01
The interaction of copropagating electromagnetic and matter waves is described with a set of coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger equations. Optical self-focusing modulates an initially planar wave leading to the generation of dipole forces on the atoms. Atomic channeling due to the dipole...... forces leads, in the nonlinear regime, to filamentation of the atomic beam. Instability growth rates are calculated for atomic beams with both low and high phase space densities. In one transverse dimension an exact solution is found that describes a coupled optical and atomic soliton....
Wave impedance of an atomically thin crystal.
Merano, Michele
2015-11-30
I propose an expression for the electromagnetic wave impedance of a two-dimensional atomic crystal, and I deduce the Fresnel coefficients in terms of this quantity. It is widely known that a two-dimensional crystal can absorb light, if its conductivity is different from zero. It is less emphasized that they can also store a certain amount of electromagnetic energy. The concept of impedance is useful to quantify this point. PMID:26698783
Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field
Kramer, T; Kleber, M; Kramer, Tobias; Bracher, Christian; Kleber, Manfred
2002-01-01
Localized scattering phenomena may result in the formation of stationary matter waves originating from a compact region in physical space. Mathematically, such waves are advantageously expressed in terms of quantum sources that are introduced into the Schr\\"odinger equation. The source formalism yields direct access to the scattering wave function, particle distribution, and total current. As an example, we study emission from three-dimensional Gaussian sources into a homogeneous force field. This model describes the behaviour of an atom laser supplied by an ideal Bose-Einstein condensate under the influence of gravity. We predict a strong dependence of the beam profile on the condensate size and the presence of interference phenomena recently observed in photodetachment experiments.
Matter-Wave Interferometery at BYU
Erickson, Christopher; Archibald, James; Merrill, Daniel; Bennett, Aaron; Durfee, Dallin
2009-10-01
We report on the progress of two matter-wave interferometers at BYU. The first device is a thermal-beam Ramsey-Bord'e calcium interferometer. The second device is an ion interferometer based on a laser-cooled ^87Sr^+ beam which will be split and recombined using stimulated Raman transitions. Design considerations, instrumentation development, and possible applications of the devices will be discussed.
Shock wave formation in hot nuclear matter
Assuming that nuclear matter can be treated as a perfect fluid, we study the propagation of perturbations in the baryon density at high temperature. The equation of state is derived from the non-linear Walecka model. The expansion of the Euler and continuity equations of relativistic hydrodynamics around equilibrium configurations lead to the breaking wave equation for the density perturbation. We solve it numerically for this perturbation and follow the propagation of the initial pulses. (author)
Coherent transport of matter waves in disordered optical potentials
Kuhn, Robert
2007-07-01
The development of modern techniques for the cooling and the manipulation of atoms in recent years, and the possibility to create Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases and to load them into regular optical lattices or disordered optical potentials, has evoked new interest for the disorder-induced localization of ultra-cold atoms. This work studies the transport properties of matter waves in disordered optical potentials, which are also known as speckle potentials. The effect of correlated disorder on localization is first studied numerically in the framework of the Anderson model. The relevant transport parameters in the configuration average over many different realizations of the speckle potential are then determined analytically, using self-consistent diagrammatic perturbation techniques. This allows to make predictions for a possible experimental observation of coherent transport phenomena for cold atoms in speckle potentials. Of particular importance are the spatial correlations of the speckle fluctuations, which are responsible for the anisotropic character of the single scattering processes in the effective medium. Coherent multiple scattering leads to quantum interference effects, which entail a renormalization of the diffusion constant as compared to the classical description. This so-called weak localization of matter waves is studied as the underlying mechanism for the disorder-driven transition to the Anderson-localization regime, explicitly taking into account the correlations of the speckle fluctuations. (orig.)
Coherent transport of matter waves in disordered optical potentials
The development of modern techniques for the cooling and the manipulation of atoms in recent years, and the possibility to create Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases and to load them into regular optical lattices or disordered optical potentials, has evoked new interest for the disorder-induced localization of ultra-cold atoms. This work studies the transport properties of matter waves in disordered optical potentials, which are also known as speckle potentials. The effect of correlated disorder on localization is first studied numerically in the framework of the Anderson model. The relevant transport parameters in the configuration average over many different realizations of the speckle potential are then determined analytically, using self-consistent diagrammatic perturbation techniques. This allows to make predictions for a possible experimental observation of coherent transport phenomena for cold atoms in speckle potentials. Of particular importance are the spatial correlations of the speckle fluctuations, which are responsible for the anisotropic character of the single scattering processes in the effective medium. Coherent multiple scattering leads to quantum interference effects, which entail a renormalization of the diffusion constant as compared to the classical description. This so-called weak localization of matter waves is studied as the underlying mechanism for the disorder-driven transition to the Anderson-localization regime, explicitly taking into account the correlations of the speckle fluctuations. (orig.)
Chiral density wave in nuclear matter
Inspired by recent work on inhomogeneous chiral condensation in cold, dense quark matter within models featuring quark degrees of freedom, we investigate the chiral density-wave solution in nuclear matter at zero temperature and nonvanishing baryon number density in the framework of the so-called extended linear sigma model (eLSM). The eLSM is an effective model for the strong interaction based on the global chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It contains scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons as well as baryons. In the latter sector, the nucleon and its chiral partner are introduced as parity doublets in the mirror assignment. The eLSM simultaneously provides a good description of hadrons in vacuum as well as nuclear matter ground-state properties. We find that an inhomogeneous phase in the form of a chiral density wave is realized, but only for densities larger than 2.4ρ0, where ρ0 is the nuclear matter ground-state density
Suppression of collapse for matter waves with orbital angular momentum
We explore the influence of the orbital angular momentum on the collapse of vortex-free elliptic clouds of Bose–Einstein condensates with a negative scattering length trapped in a radially symmetric harmonic potential. We show that the number of trapped ultracold atoms corresponding to the collapse threshold can be radically increased for such rotating nonlinear matter waves. Below the threshold the elliptic mode is stable and exhibits periodic oscillations around a stationary rotating state. The frequency of these oscillations is independent of the number of particles and is determined solely by the trapping potential
Dynamics of bright matter-wave solitons in inhomogeneous cigar-type Bose-Einstein condensate
Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Gammal, A.; Tomio, L.
2002-01-01
We discuss the possible observation of a new type of standing nonlinear atomic matter wave in the condensate: the nonlinear impurity mode. It is investigated dynamical effects of a bright soliton in Bose-Einstein-condensed (BEC) systems with local space variations of the two-body atomic scattering length. A rich dynamics is observed in the interaction between the soliton and an inhomogeneity. Processes as trapping, reflection and transmission of the bright matter soliton due to the impurity a...
Manipulating Higher Partial-Wave Atom-Atom Interaction by Strong Photoassoiative Coupling
Deb, Bimalendu; Hazra, Jisha
2009-01-01
We show that it is possible to change not only s-wave but also higher partial wave atom-atom interactions in cold collision in the presence of relatively intense laser fields tuned near a photoassociative transition.
Experimental methods of molecular matter-wave optics
We describe the state of the art in preparing, manipulating and detecting coherent molecular matter. We focus on experimental methods for handling the quantum motion of compound systems from diatomic molecules to clusters or biomolecules. Molecular quantum optics offers many challenges and innovative prospects: already the combination of two atoms into one molecule takes several well-established methods from atomic physics, such as for instance laser cooling, to their limits. The enormous internal complexity that arises when hundreds or thousands of atoms are bound in a single organic molecule, cluster or nanocrystal provides a richness that can only be tackled by combining methods from atomic physics, chemistry, cluster physics, nanotechnology and the life sciences. We review various molecular beam sources and their suitability for matter-wave experiments. We discuss numerous molecular detection schemes and give an overview over diffraction and interference experiments that have already been performed with molecules or clusters. Applications of de Broglie studies with composite systems range from fundamental tests of physics up to quantum-enhanced metrology in physical chemistry, biophysics and the surface sciences. Nanoparticle quantum optics is a growing field, which will intrigue researchers still for many years to come. This review can, therefore, only be a snapshot of a very dynamical process. (review article)
Wave mechanics of the hydrogen atom
Ogilvie, J F
2016-01-01
The hydrogen atom is a system amenable to an exact treatment within Schroedinger's formulation of quantum mechanics according to coordinates in four systems -- spherical polar, paraboloidal, ellipsoidal and spheroconical coordinates; the latter solution is reported for the first time. Applications of these solutions include angular momenta, a quantitative calculation of the absorption spectrum and accurate plots of surfaces of amplitude functions. The shape of an amplitude function, and even the quantum numbers in a particular set to specify such an individual function, depend on the coordinates in a particular chosen system, and are therefore artefacts of that particular coordinate representation within wave mechanics. All discussion of atomic or molecular properties based on such shapes or quantum numbers therefore lacks general significance
A universal matter-wave interferometer with optical gratings
Quantum mechanics was initially developed to describe microscopic processes but scientists quickly came to far-reaching predictions, such as the wave-particle dualism of matter [1,2] or the entanglement of particles [3,4], which often contradict our classical intuition. However, not even a single experiment could falsify any theoretical prediction of quantum mechanics. Today it is the most tested theory in physics. The question of the range and limits of its validity arises. To which extend can systems be macroscopic, complex and massive while retaining their quantum features? Is there a spatial and temporal restriction to the separation of wave functions? Which decoherence mechanisms force systems at macroscopic scales to appear classical? During my thesis I focused theoretically as well as experimentally on matter-wave interferometry with atoms, molecules and molecular clusters. During my 3 month exchange stay in the group of Prof. Müller at the University of California at Berkeley we have carried out an experiment to show the largest space-time area interferometer at that time [5]. Here, matter waves of caesium atoms have been coherently split and recombined up to 8.8 mm and for 500 ms. Key to run this experiment was to compensate for earth´s rotation. Without this compensation the Coriolis force would have prevented the split matter-waves from a precise recombination. The main subject of my thesis at the University of Vienna was the experimental realization of the (first) all Optical Time-domain Ionizing Matter-wave (OTIMA) interferometer [6,7]. It consists of three pulsed nanosecond standing light waves which act on the particles with a well-defined timing sequence. Interference in the time-domain is independent of the particles’ velocities and of their de Broglie wavelengths. This has been demonstrated earlier for atoms by addressing laser light to certain atomic levels [8]. In contrast to that, the OTIMA interferometer uses optical ionization gratings [9
Gyroscopic effects in interference of matter waves
A new gyroscopic interference effect stemming from the Galilean translational factor in the matter wave function is pointed out. In contrast to the well-known Sagnac effect that stems from the geometric phase and leads to a shift of interference fringes, this effect causes slanting of the fringes. We illustrate it by calculations for two split cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates under the conditions of a recent experiment, see Y. Shin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 050405 (2004). Importantly, the measurement of slanting obviates the need of a third reference cloud
Gyroscopic effects in interference of matter waves
Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi
2005-01-01
A new gyroscopic interference effect stemming from the Galilean translational factor in the matter wave function is pointed out. In contrast to the well-known Sagnac effect that stems from the geometric phase and leads to a shift of interference fringes, this effect causes slanting of the fringes. We illustrate it by calculations for two split cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates under the conditions of a recent experiment, see Y.Shin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 050405 (2004). Importantly,...
Transverse multipolar light-matter couplings in evanescent waves
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Bonod, Nicolas; Rockstuhl, Carsten
2016-01-01
We present an approach to study the interaction between matter and evanescent fields. The approach is based on the decomposition of evanescent plane waves into multipoles of well-defined angular momentum transverse to both decay and propagation directions. We use the approach to identify the origin of the recently observed directional coupling of emitters into guided modes, and of the opposite Zeeman state excitation of atoms near a fiber. We explain how to rigorously quantify both effects, and show that the directionality and the difference in excitation rates grow exponentially with the multipolar order of the light-matter interaction. We also use the approach to study and maximize the transverse torque exerted by an evanescent plane wave onto a given spherical absorbing particle. The maximum occurs at the quadrupolar order of the particle, and for a particular polarization of the plane wave. All the obtained physical insights can be traced back to the two main features of the decomposition of evanescent pl...
Fifteen Years of Cold Matter on the Atom Chip: Promise, Realizations, and Prospects
Keil, Mark; Zhou, Shuyu; Groswasser, David; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron
2016-01-01
Here we review the field of atom chips in the context of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC) as well as cold matter in general. Twenty years after the first realization of the BEC and fifteen years after the realization of the atom chip, the latter has been found to enable extraordinary feats: from producing BECs at a rate of several per second, through the realization of matter-wave interferometry, and all the way to novel probing of surfaces and new forces. In addition, technological applications are also being intensively pursued. This review will describe these developments and more, including new ideas which have not yet been realized.
Sensitivity of atom interferometry to ultralight scalar field dark matter
Geraci, Andrew A.; Derevianko, Andrei
2016-01-01
We discuss the use of atom interferometry as a tool to search for Dark Matter (DM) composed of ultra-light scalar fields. Previous work on ultra-light DM detection using accelerometers has considered the possibility of equivalence principle violating effects whereby gradients in the dark matter field can directly produce relative accelerations between media of differing composition. In atom interferometers, we find that time-varying phase signals from oscillatory, or dilaton-like, DM can also...
Wave Dark Matter and the Tully-Fisher Relation
Bray, Hubert L.; Goetz, Andrew S.
2014-01-01
We investigate a theory of dark matter called wave dark matter, also known as scalar field dark matter (SFDM) and boson star dark matter or Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter, in spherical symmetry and its relation to the Tully-Fisher relation. We show that fixing the oscillation frequency of wave dark matter near the edge of dark galactic halos implies a Tully-Fisher-like relation for those halos. We then describe how this boundary condition, which is roughly equivalent to fixing the...
Dark Atoms and Puzzles of Dark Matter Searches
Khlopov, M Yu
2014-01-01
The nonbaryonic dark matter of the Universe is assumed to consist of new stable forms of matter. Their stability reflects symmetry of micro world and particle candidates for cosmological dark matter are the lightest particles that bear new conserved quantum numbers. Dark matter candidates can appear in the new families of quarks and leptons and the existence of new stable charged leptons and quarks is possible, if they are hidden in elusive "dark atoms". Such possibility, strongly restricted by the constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements, is not excluded in scenarios that predict stable double charged particles. The excessive -2 charged particles are bound in these scenarios with primordial helium in O-helium "atoms", maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter, which may provide an interesting solution for the puzzles of the direct dark matter searches.
Transverse azimuthal dephasing of vortex spin wave in a hot atomic gas
Shi, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Dong, Ming-Xin; Liu, Shi-Long; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
Optical fields with orbital angular momentum (OAM) interact with medium have many remarkable properties with its unique azimuthal phase, showing many potential applications in high capacity information processing, high precision measurement etc. The dephasing mechanics of optical fields with OAM in an interface between light and matter plays a vital role in many areas of physics. In this work, we study the transverse azimuthal dephasing of OAM spin wave in a hot atomic gas via OAM storage. The transverse azimuthal phase difference between the control and probe beams is mapped onto the spin wave, which essentially results in dephasing of atomic spin wave. The dephasing of OAM spin wave can be controlled by the parameters of OAM topological charge and beam waist. Our results are helpful for studying OAM light interaction with matter, maybe hold a promise in OAM-based quantum information processing.
Quantum mechanics, matter waves, and moving clocks
Mueller, Holger
2013-01-01
This paper is divided into three parts. In the first (section 1), we demonstrate that all of quantum mechanics can be derived from the fundamental property that the propagation of a matter wave packet is described by the same gravitational and kinematic time dilation that applies to a clock. We will do so in several steps, first deriving the Schroedinger equation for a nonrelativistic particle without spin in a weak gravitational potential, and eventually the Dirac equation in curved space-time describing the propagation of a relativistic particle with spin in strong gravity. In the second part (sections 2-4), we present interesting consequences of the above quantum mechanics: that it is possible to use wave packets as a reference for a clock, to test general relativity, and to realize a mass standard based on a proposed redefinition of the international system of units, wherein the Planck constant would be assigned a fixed value. The clock achieved an absolute accuracy of 4 parts per billion (ppb). The exper...
Matter-wave grating distinguishing conservative and dissipative interactions
Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.; Cotter, J. P.
2016-07-01
We propose an optical grating for matter waves that separates molecules depending on whether their interaction with the light is conservative or dissipative. Potential applications include fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, measurement of molecular properties, and the ability to selectively prepare matter waves with different internal temperatures.
Condensed matter applied atomic collision physics, v.4
Datz, Sheldon
1983-01-01
Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 4: Condensed Matter deals with the fundamental knowledge of collision processes in condensed media.The book focuses on the range of applications of atomic collisions in condensed matter, extending from effects on biological systems to the characterization and modification of solids. This volume begins with the description of some aspects of the physics involved in the production of ion beams. The radiation effects in biological and chemical systems, ion scattering and atomic diffraction, x-ray fluorescence analysis, and photoelectron and Auger spectrosc
The Sagnac effect: 20 years of development in matter-wave interferometry
Barrett, Brynle; Dutta, Indranil; Meunier, Matthieu; Canuel, Benjamin; Gauguet, Alexandre; Bouyer, Philippe; Landragin, Arnaud
2014-01-01
Since the first atom interferometry experiments in 1991, measurements of rotation through the Sagnac effect in open-area atom interferometers has been studied. These studies have demonstrated very high sensitivity which can compete with state-of-the-art optical Sagnac interferometers. Since the early 2000s, these developments have been motivated by possible applications in inertial guidance and geophysics. Most matter-wave interferometers that have been investigated since then are based on two-photon Raman transitions for the manipulation of atomic wave packets. Results from the two most studied configurations, a space-domain interferometer with atomic beams and a time-domain interferometer with cold atoms, are presented and compared. Finally, the latest generation of cold atom interferometers and their preliminary results are presented.
Observation of atom wave phase shifts induced by van der Waals atom-surface interactions
Perreault, J D; Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.
2005-01-01
The development of nanotechnology and atom optics relies on understanding how atoms behave and interact with their environment. Isolated atoms can exhibit wave-like (coherent) behaviour with a corresponding de Broglie wavelength and phase which can be affected by nearby surfaces. Here an atom interferometer is used to measure the phase shift of Na atom waves induced by the walls of a 50 nm wide cavity. To our knowledge this is the first direct measurement of the de Broglie wave phase shift caused by atom-surface interactions. The magnitude of the phase shift is in agreement with that predicted by quantum electrodynamics for a non-retarded van der Waals interaction. This experiment also demonstrates that atom-waves can retain their coherence even when atom-surface distances are as small as 10 nm.
Concept of an ionizing time-domain matter-wave interferometer
Nimmrichter, Stefan; Haslinger, Philipp; Hornberger, Klaus; Arndt, Markus
2011-01-01
We discuss the concept of an all-optical and ionizing matter-wave interferometer in the time domain. The proposed setup aims at testing the wave nature of highly massive clusters and molecules, and it will enable new precision experiments with a broad class of atoms, using the same laser system. The propagating particles are illuminated by three pulses of a standing ultraviolet laser beam, which detaches an electron via efficient single photon-absorption. Optical gratings may have periods as ...
Observation of atom wave phase shifts induced by van der Waals atom-surface interactions
Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.
2005-01-01
The development of nanotechnology and atom optics relies on understanding how atoms behave and interact with their environment. Isolated atoms can exhibit wave-like (coherent) behaviour with a corresponding de Broglie wavelength and phase which can be affected by nearby surfaces. Here an atom interferometer is used to measure the phase shift of Na atom waves induced by the walls of a 50 nm wide cavity. To our knowledge this is the first direct measurement of the de Broglie wave phase shift ca...
The Sagnac effect: 20 years of development in matter-wave interferometry
Barrett, Brynle; Geiger, Remi; Dutta, Indranil; Meunier, Matthieu; Canuel, Benjamin; Gauguet, Alexandre; Bouyer, Philippe; Landragin, Arnaud
2014-01-01
Since the first atom interferometry experiments in 1991, measurements of rotation through the Sagnac effect in open-area atom interferometers has been studied. These studies have demonstrated very high sensitivity which can compete with state-of-the-art optical Sagnac interferometers. Since the early 2000s, these developments have been motivated by possible applications in inertial guidance and geophysics. Most matter-wave interferometers that have been investigated since then are based on tw...
Massive gravitons as dark matter and gravitational waves
Aoki, Katsuki; Mukohyama, Shinji
2016-07-01
We consider the possibility that the massive graviton is a viable candidate for dark matter in the context of bimetric gravity. We first derive the energy-momentum tensor of the massive graviton and show that it indeed behaves as that of dark matter fluid. We then discuss a production mechanism and the present abundance of massive gravitons as dark matter. Since the metric to which ordinary matter fields couple is a linear combination of the two mass eigenstates of bigravity, production of massive gravitons, i.e., the dark matter particles, is inevitably accompanied by generation of massless gravitons, i.e., the gravitational waves. Therefore, in this scenario some information about dark matter in our Universe is encoded in gravitational waves. For instance, if LIGO detects gravitational waves generated by the preheating after inflation, then the massive graviton with the mass of ˜0.01 GeV is a candidate for dark matter.
Atomic physics precise measurements and ultracold matter
Inguscio, Massimo
2013-01-01
Atomic Physics provides an expert guide to two spectacular new landscapes in physics: precision measurements, which have been revolutionized by the advent of the optical frequency comb, and atomic physics, which has been revolutionized by laser cooling. These advances are not incremental but transformative: they have generated a consilience between atomic and many-body physics, precipitated an explosion of scientific and technological applications, opened new areas of research, and attracted a brilliant generation of younger scientists. The research is advancing so rapidly, the barrage of applications is so dazzling, that students can be bewildered. For both students and experienced scientists, this book provides an invaluable description of basic principles, experimental methods, and scientific applications.
Black Hole Atom as a Dark Matter Particle Candidate
V. I. Dokuchaev
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We propose the new dark matter particle candidate—the “black hole atom,” which is an atom with the charged black hole as an atomic nucleus and electrons in the bound internal quantum states. As a simplified model we consider the the central Reissner-Nordström black hole with the electric charge neutralized by the internal electrons in bound quantum states. For the external observers these objects would look like the electrically neutral Schwarzschild black holes. We suppose the prolific production of black hole atoms under specific conditions in the early universe.
Black Hole Atom as a Dark Matter Particle Candidate
We propose the new dark matter particle candidate—the “black hole atom,” which is an atom with the charged black hole as an atomic nucleus and electrons in the bound internal quantum states. As a simplified model we consider the the central Reissner-Nordström black hole with the electric charge neutralized by the internal electrons in bound quantum states. For the external observers these objects would look like the electrically neutral Schwarzschild black holes. We suppose the prolific production of black hole atoms under specific conditions in the early universe
Observation of Atom Wave Phase Shifts Induced by Van Der Waals Atom-Surface Interactions
The development of nanotechnology and atom optics relies on understanding how atoms behave and interact with their environment. Isolated atoms can exhibit wavelike (coherent) behavior with a corresponding de Broglie wavelength and phase which can be affected by nearby surfaces. Here an atom interferometer is used to measure the phase shift of Na atom waves induced by the walls of a 50 nm wide cavity. To our knowledge this is the first direct measurement of the de Broglie wave phase shift caused by atom-surface interactions. The magnitude of the phase shift is in agreement with that predicted by Lifshitz theory for a nonretarded van der Waals interaction. This experiment also demonstrates that atom waves can retain their coherence even when atom-surface distances are as small as 10 nm
Superposition of Stationary Wave Fields Via Atom Microscopy
Hizbullah; Ali, khan Anwar; Khan, Naveed; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Amin Bacha, Bakht
2015-03-01
We investigate one-dimensional position microscopy of a three-level atom moving through a stationary wave region under the condition of electromagnetically induced transparency. The precise position information of an atom is observed on the resonance absorption and dispersion distribution spectrum of a weak probe field. Single and multiple localization peaks are observed in specific directions of the corresponding wave numbers and phase of the standing wave fields. The strength of space-independent Rabi frequency reduces the position uncertainty in the localized peaks without disturbing the probability of the atom. In a hot atomic medium the localized probability of an atom is reduced which depends upon the temperature of that medium. Our results provide useful applications in the development of laser cooling, atom nanolithography and Bose-Einstein condensation.
Vector Dark Matter Detection using the Quantum Jump of Atoms
Yang, Qiaoli; Di, Haoran
2016-01-01
The hidden sector $U(1)$ vector bosons created from inflationary fluctuations can be a substantial fraction of dark matter if their mass is around $10^{-5}$eV. Due to the creation mechanism, the dark matter vector bosons are a condensate with a very small velocity dispersion, which makes their energy spectral density $\\rho_{cdm}/\\Delta E$ very high. Therefore, the dark electric dipole transition rate in atoms or ions is boosted if the energy gap between atomic states equals the mass of the ve...
Cox, Kevin C; Wu, Baochen; Thompson, James K
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a method to generate spatially homogeneous entangled, spin-squeezed states of atoms appropriate for maintaining a large amount of squeezing even after release into the arm of a matter-wave interferometer or other free space quantum sensor. Using an effective intracavity dipole trap, we allow atoms to move along the cavity axis and time average their coupling to the standing wave used to generate entanglement via collective measurements, demonstrating 11(1) dB of directly observed spin squeezing. Our results show that time averaging in collective measurements can greatly reduce the impact of spatially inhomogeneous coupling to the measurement apparatus.
Concept of an ionizing time-domain matter-wave interferometer
Nimmrichter, Stefan; Hornberger, Klaus; Arndt, Markus
2011-01-01
We discuss the concept of an all-optical and ionizing matter-wave interferometer in the time domain. The proposed setup aims at testing the wave nature of highly massive clusters and molecules, and it will enable new precision experiments with a broad class of atoms, using the same laser system. The propagating particles are illuminated by three pulses of a standing ultraviolet laser beam, which detaches an electron via efficient single photon-absorption. Optical gratings may have periods as small as 80 nm, leading to wide diffraction angles for cold atoms and to compact setups even for very massive clusters. Accounting for the coherent and the incoherent parts of the particle-light interaction, we show that the combined effect of phase and amplitude modulation of the matter waves gives rise to a Talbot-Lau-like interference effect with a characteristic dependence on the pulse delay time.
Modeling Wave Dark Matter in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies
Bray, Hubert L
2013-01-01
This paper studies a model of dark matter called wave dark matter (also known as scalar field dark matter and boson stars) which has recently also been motivated by a new geometric perspective by Bray [arXiv:1212.5745]. Wave dark matter describes dark matter as a scalar field which satisfies the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations. These equations rely on a fundamental constant Upsilon (also known as the "mass term" of the Klein-Gordon equation). In this work, we compare the wave dark matter model to observations to obtain a working value of Upsilon. Specifically, we compare the mass profiles of spherically symmetric static states of wave dark matter to the Burkert mass profiles that have been shown by Salucci et al. [arXiv:1111.1165] to predict well the velocity dispersion profiles of the eight classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We show that a reasonable working value for the fundamental constant in the wave dark matter model is Upsilon = 50 yr^{-1}. We also show that under precise assumptions the value of Ups...
Dual Matter-Wave Inertial Sensors in Weightlessness
Barrett, Brynle; Chichet, Laure; Battelier, Baptiste; Lévèque, Thomas; Landragin, Arnaud; Bouyer, Philippe
2016-01-01
Quantum technology based on cold-atom interferometers is showing great promise for fields such as inertial sensing and fundamental physics. However, the best precision achievable on Earth is limited by the free-fall time of the atoms, and their full potential can only be realized in Space where interrogation times of many seconds will lead to unprecedented sensitivity. Various mission scenarios are presently being pursued which plan to implement matter-wave inertial sensors. Toward this goal, we realize the first onboard operation of simultaneous $^{87}$Rb $-$ $^{39}$K interferometers in the weightless environment produced during parabolic flight. The large vibration levels ($10^{-2}~g/\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$), acceleration range ($0-1.8~g$) and rotation rates ($5$ deg/s) during flight present significant challenges. We demonstrate the capability of our dual-quantum sensor by measuring the E\\"{o}tv\\"{o}s parameter with systematic-limited uncertainties of $1.1 \\times 10^{-3}$ and $3.0 \\times 10^{-4}$ during standard- a...
Laser Source for Atomic Gravity Wave Detector Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an Atom Interferometry-based gravity wave detector (vs Optical Interferometry). Characterize a high power laser. Use Goddard Space Flight Center Mission...
Detecting dark matter waves with precision measurement tools
Derevianko, Andrei
2016-01-01
Virialized Ultra-Light Fields (VULFs) while being viable cold dark matter candidates can also solve the standard model hierarchy problem. Direct searches for VULFs due to their non-particle nature require low-energy precision measurement tools. Here we consider scalar VULF candidates. While the previous proposals have focused on detecting coherent oscillations of the measured signals at the VULF Compton frequencies at the device location, here we point out that VULFs also have a distinct spatial signature, forming dark matter waves. Thereby the discovery reach can be improved by using distributed networks of precision measurement tools. We find the expected dark-matter wave signal by deriving spatio-temporal two-point VULF correlation function. Based on the developed formalism for coherence properties of dark-matter fields, we propose several experiments for dark matter wave detection. In the most basic version, the modifications to already running experiments are minor and only require GPS-assisted time-stam...
Matter-wave dark solitons in optical lattices
We analyse the Floquet-Bloch spectrum of matter waves in Bose-Einstein condensates loaded into single-periodic optical lattices and double-periodic superlattices. In the framework of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we describe the structure and analyse the mobility properties of matter-wave dark solitons residing on backgrounds of extended nonlinear Bloch-type states. We demonstrate that interactions between dark solitons can be effectively controlled in optical superlattices
Chiao, R Y; Chiao, Raymond Y.; Speliotopoulos, Achilles D.
2003-01-01
A dynamical, non-Euclidean spacetime geometry in general relativity theory implies the possibility of gravitational radiation. Here we explore novel methods of detecting such radiation from astrophysical sources by means of matter-wave interferometers (MIGOs), using atomic beams emanating from supersonic atomic sources that are further cooled and collimated by means of optical molasses. While the sensitivities of such MIGOs compare favorably with LIGO and LISA, the sizes of MIGOs can be orders of magnitude smaller, and their bandwidths wider. Using a pedagogical approach, we place this problem into the broader context of problems at the intersection of quantum mechanics with general relativity.
Sensitivity of atom interferometry to ultralight scalar field dark matter
Geraci, Andrew A
2016-01-01
We discuss the use of atom interferometry as a tool to search for Dark Matter (DM) composed of ultra-light scalar fields. Previous work on ultra-light DM detection using accelerometers has considered the possibility of equivalence principle violating effects whereby gradients in the dark matter field can directly produce relative accelerations between media of differing composition. In atom interferometers, we find that time-varying phase signals from oscillatory, or dilaton-like, DM can also arise due to changes in the atom rest mass that can occur between light-pulses throughout the interferometer sequence as well as changes in the earth's gravitational field. We estimate that several orders of magnitude of unexplored phase space for light DM fields can be probed with our proposed method.
Atom interferometric gravitational wave detection using heterodyne laser links
Hogan, Jason M
2015-01-01
We propose a scheme based on a heterodyne laser link that allows for long baseline gravitational wave detection using atom interferometry. While the baseline length in previous atom-based proposals is constrained by the need for a reference laser to remain collimated as it propagates between two satellites, here we circumvent this requirement by employing a strong local oscillator laser near each atom ensemble that is phase locked to the reference laser beam. Longer baselines offer a number of potential advantages, including enhanced sensitivity, simplified atom optics, and reduced atomic source flux requirements.
Atomic coherence in nondegenerate four-wave mixing
Zuo Zhan-Chun; Sun Jiang; Liu Xia; Mi Xin; Yu Zu-He; Jiang Qian; Fu Pan-Ming; Wu Ling-An
2007-01-01
Two-photon resonant nondegenerate four-wave mixing (NFWM) with the addition of a coupling field in Ba atomic vapour has been studied. We find that coherence of the atomic level transitions leads to suppression of the NFWM signal, giving rise to a dip with a linewidth that is linearly proportional to the intensity of the coupling field.
Jeans Analysis for Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies in Wave Dark Matter
Chen, Shu-Rong; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Chiueh, Tzihong
2016-01-01
Observations suggest that dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies exhibit large constant-density cores in the centers, which can hardly be explained by dissipationless cold dark matter simulations. Wave dark matter (${\\psi {\\rm DM}}$), characterized by a single parameter, the dark matter particle mass $m_{\\psi}$, predicts a central soliton core in every galaxy arising from quantum pressure against gravity. Here we apply Jeans analysis to the kinematic data of eight classical dSphs so as to constrain...
Newtonian noise limit in atom interferometers for gravitational wave detection
Vetrano, Flavio; Viceré, Andrea
2013-01-01
In this work we study the influence of the newtonian noise on atom interferometers applied to the detection of gravitational waves, and we compute the resulting limits to the sensitivity in two different configurations: a single atom interferometer, or a pair of atom interferometers operated in a differential configuration. We find that for the instrumental configurations considered, and operating in the frequency range [0.1-10] Hz, the limits would be comparable to those affecting large scal...
Hybridizing matter-wave and classical accelerometers
Lautier, J.; Volodimer, L.; Hardin, T.; Merlet, S.; Lours, M.; Pereira Dos Santos, F.; Landragin, A., E-mail: arnaud.landragin@obspm.fr [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)
2014-10-06
We demonstrate a hybrid accelerometer that benefits from the advantages of both conventional and atomic sensors in terms of bandwidth (DC to 430 Hz) and long term stability. First, the use of a real time correction of the atom interferometer phase by the signal from the classical accelerometer enables to run it at best performance without any isolation platform. Second, a servo-lock of the DC component of the conventional sensor output signal by the atomic one realizes a hybrid sensor. This method paves the way for applications in geophysics and in inertial navigation as it overcomes the main limitation of atomic accelerometers, namely, the dead times between consecutive measurements.
Hybridizing matter-wave and classical accelerometers
Lautier, Jean; Hardin, Thomas; Merlet, Sebastien; Santos, Franck Pereira Dos; Landragin, Arnaud
2014-01-01
We demonstrate a hybrid accelerometer that benefits from the advantages of both conventional and atomic sensors in terms of bandwidth (DC to 430 Hz) and long term stability. First, the use of a real time correction of the atom interferometer phase by the signal from the classical accelerometer enables to run it at best performances without any isolation platform. Second, a servo-lock of the DC component of the conventional sensor output signal by the atomic one realizes a hybrid sensor. This method paves the way for applications in geophysics and in inertial navigation as it overcomes the main limitation of atomic accelerometers, namely the dead times between consecutive measurements.
Shock wave compression of condensed matter a primer
Forbes, Jerry W
2012-01-01
This book introduces the core concepts of the shock wave physics of condensed matter, taking a continuum mechanics approach to examine liquids and isotropic solids. The text primarily focuses on one-dimensional uniaxial compression in order to show the key features of condensed matter’s response to shock wave loading. The first four chapters are specifically designed to quickly familiarize physical scientists and engineers with how shock waves interact with other shock waves or material boundaries, as well as to allow readers to better understand shock wave literature, use basic data analysis techniques, and design simple 1-D shock wave experiments. This is achieved by first presenting the steady one-dimensional strain conservation laws using shock wave impedance matching, which insures conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Here, the initial emphasis is on the meaning of shock wave and mass velocities in a laboratory coordinate system. An overview of basic experimental techniques for measuring pressure...
Dark energy from quantum wave function collapse of dark matter
Dynamical wave function collapse models entail the continuous liberation of a specified rate of energy arising from the interaction of a fluctuating scalar field with the matter wave function. We consider the wave function collapse process for the constituents of dark matter in our universe. Beginning from a particular early era of the universe chosen from physical considerations, the rate of the associated energy liberation is integrated to yield the requisite magnitude of dark energy around the era of galaxy formation. Further, the equation of state for the liberated energy approaches w→-1 asymptotically, providing a mechanism to generate the present acceleration of the universe.
Path integrals, matter waves, and the double slit
Jones, Eric R.; Bach, Roger A.; Batelaan, Herman
2015-11-01
Basic explanations of the double slit diffraction phenomenon include a description of waves that emanate from two slits and interfere. The locations of the interference minima and maxima are determined by the phase difference of the waves. An optical wave, which has a wavelength λ and propagates a distance L, accumulates a phase of 2π L/λ . A matter wave, also having wavelength λ that propagates the same distance L, accumulates a phase of π L/λ , which is a factor of two different from the optical case. Nevertheless, in most situations, the phase difference, {{Δ }}\\varphi , for interfering matter waves that propagate distances that differ by {{Δ }}L, is approximately 2π {{Δ }}L/λ , which is the same value computed in the optical case. The difference between the matter and optical case hinders conceptual explanations of diffraction from two slits based on the matter-optics analogy. In the following article we provide a path integral description for matter waves with a focus on conceptual explanation. A thought experiment is provided to illustrate the validity range of the approximation {{Δ }}\\varphi ≈ 2π {{Δ }}L/λ .
This manuscript provides a theoretical description, sometimes illustrated by experimental results, of several examples of field-matter interaction in various domains of physics, showing how the same basic concepts and theoretical methods may be used in very different physics situations. The issues addressed here are nonlinear field-matter interaction in plasma physics within the framework of classical mechanics (with a particular emphasis on wave-particle interaction), the linear analysis of beam-plasma instabilities in the relativistic regime, and the quantum description of laser-atom interaction, including quantum electrodynamics. Novel methods are systematically introduced in order to solve some very old problems, like the nonlinear counterpart of the Landau damping rate in plasma physics, for example. Moreover, our results directly apply to inertial confinement fusion, laser propagation in an atomic vapor, ion acceleration in a magnetized plasma and the physics of the Reversed Field Pinch for magnetic fusion. (author)
Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves
Pinsker, Florian
2016-02-01
Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally it is shown that negative refraction indices allow perfect transmission of the wave passing the ensemble of scatterers. Finally the concept of the superlens is discussed, since it is based on negative refraction and can be extended to matter waves utilizing the observations presented in this paper which thus paves the way to ‘untouchable’ quantum systems in analogy to cloaking devices for electromagnetic waves.
Searching for dark matter with optical atomic clocks
Wcislo, Piotr; Bober, Marcin; Cygan, Agata; Lisak, Daniel; Ciurylo, Roman; Zawada, Michal
2016-01-01
One of the most fundamental questions of modern physics is the existence of yet unknown forms of matter and interactions. The total mass density of the Universe appears to be dominated by some hypothetical dark matter (DM). However, beyond its gravitational interaction at galactic scale, little is known about the DM nature and properties. One possibility is that it has a form of stable topological defects built from light scalar fields which, for nonzero DM-SM coupling, would result in transient variations of fundamental constants. Optical atomic clocks, highly sensitive to variations of the fine-structure constant, seem to be natural candidates for such searches. Here we demonstrate the first experimental constraint on the strength of transient DM-SM coupling determined with optical atomic clocks. Instead of measuring the phase difference between two distant clocks we determine a common component of their readouts. We show that our constraint, even for one-day measurement, greatly exceeds previous laboratory...
Parametric amplification of matter waves in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Deuretzbacher, F.; Gebreyesus, G.; Topic, O.;
2010-01-01
Spin-changing collisions may lead under proper conditions to the parametric amplification of matter waves in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, although typically very weak in alkali-metal atoms, are shown to play a very relevant role in the amplification process......-field gradients, hence, must be carefully controlled in future experiments, in order to observe clearly the effects of the dipolar interactions in the amplification dynamics....
Localization of Matter Waves in Two-Dimensional Disordered Optical Potentials
We consider ultracold atoms in 2D disordered optical potentials and calculate microscopic quantities characterizing matter wave quantum transport in the noninteracting regime. We derive the diffusion constant as a function of all relevant microscopic parameters and show that coherent multiple scattering induces significant weak localization effects. In particular, we find that even the strong localization regime is accessible with current experimental techniques and calculate the corresponding localization length
Ionization of Atoms by Slow Heavy Particles, Including Dark Matter
Roberts, B. M.; Flambaum, V. V.; Gribakin, G. F.
2016-01-01
Atoms and molecules can become ionized during the scattering of a slow, heavy particle off a bound electron. Such an interaction involving leptophilic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is a promising possible explanation for the anomalous 9 σ annual modulation in the DAMA dark matter direct detection experiment [R. Bernabei et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 73, 2648 (2013)]. We demonstrate the applicability of the Born approximation for such an interaction by showing its equivalence to the semiclassical adiabatic treatment of atomic ionization by slow-moving WIMPs. Conventional wisdom has it that the ionization probability for such a process should be exponentially small. We show, however, that due to nonanalytic, cusplike behavior of Coulomb functions close to the nucleus this suppression is removed, leading to an effective atomic structure enhancement. We also show that electron relativistic effects actually give the dominant contribution to such a process, enhancing the differential cross section by up to 1000 times.
Ionization of Atoms by Slow Heavy Particles, Including Dark Matter.
Roberts, B M; Flambaum, V V; Gribakin, G F
2016-01-15
Atoms and molecules can become ionized during the scattering of a slow, heavy particle off a bound electron. Such an interaction involving leptophilic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is a promising possible explanation for the anomalous 9σ annual modulation in the DAMA dark matter direct detection experiment [R. Bernabei et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 73, 2648 (2013)]. We demonstrate the applicability of the Born approximation for such an interaction by showing its equivalence to the semiclassical adiabatic treatment of atomic ionization by slow-moving WIMPs. Conventional wisdom has it that the ionization probability for such a process should be exponentially small. We show, however, that due to nonanalytic, cusplike behavior of Coulomb functions close to the nucleus this suppression is removed, leading to an effective atomic structure enhancement. We also show that electron relativistic effects actually give the dominant contribution to such a process, enhancing the differential cross section by up to 1000 times. PMID:26824537
Focus on modern frontiers of matter wave optics and interferometry
The level of experimental control and the detailed theoretical understanding of matter wave physics have led to a renaissance of experiments testing the very foundations of quantum mechanics and general relativity, as well as to applications in metrology. A variety of interferometric quantum sensors surpasses, or will surpass, the limits of their classical counterparts, for instance in the measurement of frequency and time or forces such as accelerations due to rotation and gravity with applications in basic science, navigation and the search for natural resources. The collection of original articles published in this focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended as a snapshot of the current research pursued by a number of leading teams working on the development of new matter wave physics, devices and techniques. A number of contributions also stress the close relation between the historic roots of quantum mechanics and aspects of modern quantum information science which are relevant for matter wave physics. (editorial)
Photofragmentation beam splitters for matter-wave interferometry
Dörre, Nadine; Geyer, Philipp; von Issendorff, Bernd; Haslinger, Philipp; Arndt, Markus
2014-01-01
Extending the range of quantum interferometry to a wider class of composite nanoparticles requires new tools to diffract matter-waves. Recently, pulsed photoionization light gratings have demonstrated their suitability for high mass matter-wave physics. Here we extend quantum interference experiments to a new class of particles by introducing photofragmentation beam splitters into time-domain matter-wave interferometry. Photofragmentation gratings can act on objects as different as van der Waals clusters and biomolecules which are thermally unstable and often resilient to single-photon ionization. We present data that demonstrate this coherent beam splitting mechanism with clusters of hexafluorobenzene and we show single-photon depletion gratings based both on fragmentation and ionization for clusters of vanillin.
Strong CMB Constraint On P-Wave Annihilating Dark Matter
An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue
2016-01-01
We consider a dark sector consisting of dark matter that is a Dirac fermion and a scalar mediator. This model has been extensively studied in the past. If the scalar couples to the dark matter in a parity conserving manner then dark matter annihilation to two mediators is dominated by the P-wave channel and hence is suppressed at very low momentum. The indirect detection constraint from the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background is usually thought to be absent in the model because of this suppression. In this letter we show that dark matter annihilation to bound states occurs through the S-wave and hence there is a constraint on the parameter space of the model from the Cosmic Microwave Background.
Matter wave interferometry in the light of Schroedinger's wave mechanics
This is a pre-conference abstracts collection for 67 oral presentations and posters, 62 of them are in INIS scope and are treated individually. The subject matters are interferometers (mainly neutron), interferometry experiments and the related interpretation - and epistemological problems of quantum theory. (qui)
Gravitational wave detection with optical lattice atomic clocks
Kolkowitz, Shimon; Pikovski, Igor; Langellier, Nicholas; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Ye, Jun
2016-01-01
We propose a space-based gravitational wave detector consisting of two spatially separated, drag-free satellites sharing ultra-stable optical laser light over a single baseline. Each satellite contains an optical lattice atomic clock, which serves as a sensitive, narrowband detector of the local frequency of the shared laser light. A synchronized two-clock comparison between the satellites will be sensitive to the effective Doppler shifts induced by incident gravitational waves (GWs) at a lev...
Wave function recombination instability in cold atom interferometers
Stickney, James A.; Zozulya, Alex A.
2002-01-01
Cold atom interferometers use guiding potentials that split the wave function of the Bose-Einstein condensate and then recombine it. We present theoretical analysis of the wave function recombination instability that is due to the weak nonlinearity of the condensate. It is most pronounced when the accumulated phase difference between the arms of the interferometer is close to an odd multiple of PI and consists in exponential amplification of the weak ground state mode by the strong first exci...
Explicitly correlated wave function for a boron atom
Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof
2015-01-01
We present results of high-precision calculations for a boron atom's properties using wave functions expanded in the explicitly correlated Gaussian basis. We demonstrate that the well-optimized 8192 basis functions enable a determination of energy levels, ionization potential, and fine and hyperfine splittings in atomic transitions with nearly parts per million precision. The results open a window to a spectroscopic determination of nuclear properties of boron including the charge radius of the proton halo in the $^8$B nucleus.
Evolutions of matter-wave bright soliton with spatially modulated nonlinearity
Yongshan Cheng; Fei Liu
2009-01-01
The evolution characteristics of a matter-wave bright soliton are investigated by means of the variational approach in the presence of spatially varying nonlinearity.It is found that the atom density envelope of the soliton is changed as a result of the spatial variation of the s-wave scattering length.The stable soliton can exist in appropriate initial conditions.The movement of the soliton depends on the sign and value of the coefficient of spatially modulated nonlinearity.These theoretical predictions are confirmed by the full numerical simulations of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
Canuel B.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We are building a hybrid detector of new concept that couples laser and matter-wave interferometry to study sub Hertz variations of the strain tensor of space-time and gravitation. Using a set of atomic interferometers simultaneously manipulated by the resonant optical field of a 200 m cavity, the MIGA instrument will allow the monitoring of the evolution of the gravitational field at unprecedented sensitivity, which will be exploited both for geophysical studies and for Gravitational Waves (GWs detection. This new infrastructure will be embedded into the LSBB underground laboratory, ideally located away from major anthropogenic disturbances and benefitting from very low background noise.
Novel laser controlled variable matter wave beamsplitter.
Theuer, H; Unanyan, R; Habscheid, C; Klein, K; Bergmann, K
1999-01-18
We demonstrate a novel variable beam splitter using a tripod-linkage of atomic states, the physics of which is based on the laser control of the non-adiabatic coupling between two degenerate dark states. This coupling and the splitting ratio is determined by the time delay of the interaction induced by two of the laser beams. PMID:19396260
Matter-wave bright solitons in effective bichromatic lattice potentials
Golam Ali Sekh
2013-08-01
Matter-wave bright solitons in bichromatic lattice potentials are considered and their dynamics for different lattice environments are studied. Bichromatic potentials are created from superpositions of (i) two linear optical lattices and (ii) a linear and a nonlinear optical lattice. Effective potentials are found for the solitons in both bichromatic lattices and a comparative study is done on the dynamics of solitons with respect to the effective potentials. The effects of dispersion on solitons in bichromatic lattices are studied and it is found that the dispersive spreading can be minimized by appropriate combinations of lattice and interaction parameters. Stability of nondispersive matter-wave solitons is checked from phase portrait analysis.
Evidence for a blast wave from compressed nuclear matter
Central collisions of heavy nuclei at c.m. kinetic energies of a few hundred MeV per nucleon produce fireballs of hot, dense nuclear matter. Each fireball explodes, producing a blast wave of nucleons and pions. Several features of the observed cross sections for pions and protons from Ne on Na F at 0.8 GeV/nucleon (lab) are explained by the blast wave, but contradict earlier, purely thermal models. The available energy is equally divided between translational energy of the blast, and thermal motion of the particles in the exploding matter
Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves
Florian Pinsker
2016-01-01
Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally ...
The wave function of a moderately cold atom in a stationary near-resonant standing light wave delocalizes very fast due to wave packet splitting. However, frequency modulation of the field may suppress packet splitting for some atoms having specific velocities in a narrow range. These atoms remain localized in a small space for a long time. We show that modulated field can not only trap, but also cool the atoms. We perform a numerical experiment with a large atomic ensebmble having wide initial velocity and energy distribution. During the experiment, most of atoms leave the wave while trapped atoms have narrow energy distribution
Strong CMB Constraint On P-Wave Annihilating Dark Matter
An, Haipeng; Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue(Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125, U.S.A.)
2016-01-01
We consider a dark sector consisting of dark matter that is a Dirac fermion and a scalar mediator. This model has been extensively studied in the past. If the scalar couples to the dark matter in a parity conserving manner then dark matter annihilation to two mediators is dominated by the P-wave channel and hence is suppressed at very low momentum. The indirect detection constraint from the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background is usually thought to be absent in the model because of t...
Conical intersections for light and matter waves
Leykam, Daniel
2016-01-01
We review the design, theory, and applications of two dimensional periodic lattices hosting conical intersections in their energy-momentum spectrum. The best known example is the Dirac cone, where propagation is governed by an effective Dirac equation, with electron spin replaced by a "fermionic" half-integer pseudospin. However, in many systems such as metamaterials, modal symmetries result in the formation of higher order conical intersections with integer or "bosonic" pseudospin. The ability to engineer lattices with these qualitatively different singular dispersion relations opens up many applications, including superior slab lasers, generation of orbital angular momentum, zero-index metamaterials, and quantum simulation of exotic phases of relativistic matter.
Observable induced gravitational waves from an early matter phase
Assuming that inflation is succeeded by a phase of matter domination, which corresponds to a low temperature of reheating Tr 9GeV, we evaluate the spectra of gravitational waves induced in the post-inflationary universe. We work with models of hilltop-inflation with an enhanced primordial scalar spectrum on small scales, which can potentially lead to the formation of primordial black holes. We find that a lower reheat temperature leads to the production of gravitational waves with energy densities within the ranges of both space and earth based gravitational wave detectors
Ground state wave function and energy of the lithium atom
Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof
2006-01-01
Highly accurate nonrelativistic ground-state wave function and energy of the lithium atom is obtained in the Hylleraas basis set. The leading relativistic corrections,as represented by Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian, are obtained in fair agreement with the former results. The calculational method is based on the analytical evaluation of Hylleraas integrals with the help of recursion relations.
Matter wave interference pattern in the collision of bright solitons
We investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in a quasi one-dimensional regime in a time-dependent trap and show analytically that it is possible to observe matter wave interference patterns in the intra-trap collision of two bright solitons by selectively tuning the trap frequency and scattering length.
Squeezing of Spin Waves in a Three-Dimensional Atomic Ensemble
Norris, Leigh; Baragiola, Ben; Montano, Enrique; Michelson, Pascal; Jessen, Poul; Deutsch, Ivan
2013-03-01
Spin squeezed states (SSS) have generated considerable interest for their potential applications in quantum metrology and quantum information processing. Many protocols for generating SSS in atomic gases rely on the Faraday interaction that creates entanglement between atoms through the coupling of the collective spin of the ensemble to polarization modes of an optical field. Most descriptions of this process rely on an idealized one-dimensional plane wave model of light-matter interactions that is not appropriate for describing a real system consisting of a cigar-shaped cold atomic cloud in dipole trap interacting with a probe laser beam. We provide a first principles three-dimensional model of squeezing via a quantum nondemolition measurement of the collective magnetization for an ensemble of atoms with hyperfine spin f. The model includes spin waves, diffraction, paraxial modes, and optical pumping, derived by a full master equation description. Including dissipative dynamics, we find the optimal ensemble geometry and input Gaussian beam parameters for generating spin squeezing. We also study the effect of enhancing the atom-light interface using internal hyperfine control of atoms with large spin f. Supported by NSF
New method for gravitational wave detection with atomic sensors.
Graham, Peter W; Hogan, Jason M; Kasevich, Mark A; Rajendran, Surjeet
2013-04-26
Laser frequency noise is a dominant noise background for the detection of gravitational waves using long-baseline optical interferometry. Amelioration of this noise requires near simultaneous strain measurements on more than one interferometer baseline, necessitating, for example, more than two satellites for a space-based detector or two interferometer arms for a ground-based detector. We describe a new detection strategy based on recent advances in optical atomic clocks and atom interferometry which can operate at long baselines and which is immune to laser frequency noise. Laser frequency noise is suppressed because the signal arises strictly from the light propagation time between two ensembles of atoms. This new class of sensor allows sensitive gravitational wave detection with only a single baseline. This approach also has practical applications in, for example, the development of ultrasensitive gravimeters and gravity gradiometers. PMID:23679702
Exact wave functions for atomic electron interacting with photon fields
Dong-Sheng Guo
2013-01-01
Many nonlinear quantum optical physics phenomena need more accurate wave functions and corresponding energy or quasienergy levels to account for. An analytic expression of wave functions with corresponding energy levels for an atomic electron interacting with a photon field is presented as an exact solution to the SchrSdinger-like equation involved with both atomic Coulomb interaction and electron-photon interaction. The solution is a natural generalization of the quantum-field Volkov states for an otherwise free electron interacting with a photon field. The solution shows that an N- level atom in light form stationary states without extra energy splitting in addition to the Floquet mechanism. The treatment developed here with computing codes can be conveniently transferred to quantum optics in classical-field version as research tools to benefit the whole physics community.
Safeguards and legal matters 1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications
This catalogue lists all currently valid sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Safeguards and Legal Matters. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated
Weak Nonlinear Matter Waves in a Trapped Spin-1 Condensates
CAI Hong-Qiang; YANG Shu-Rong; XUE Ju-Kui
2011-01-01
The dynamics of the weak nonlinear matter solitary waves in a spin-1 condensates with harmonic external potential are investigated analytically by a perturbation method. It is shown that, in the small amplitude limit, the dynamics of the solitary waves are governed by a variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The reduction to the (KdV) equation may be useful to understand the dynamics of nonlinear matter waves in spinor BEGs. The analytical expressions for the evolution of soliton show that the small-amplitude vector solitons of the mixed types perform harmonic oscillations in the presence of the trap. Furthermore, the emitted radiation profiles and the soliton oscillation freauencv are also obtained.
Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space
Kohel, James M.
2012-01-01
Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.
Matter-wave propagation in optical lattices: geometrical and flat-band effects
Metcalf, Mekena; Chern, Gia-Wei; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Chien, Chih-Chun
2016-04-01
The geometry of optical lattices can be engineered, allowing the study of atomic transport along paths arranged in patterns that are otherwise difficult to probe in the solid state. A question feasible to atomic systems is related to the speed of matter-wave propagation as a function of the lattice geometry. To address this issue, we investigated, theoretically, the quantum transport of noninteracting and weakly-interacting ultracold fermionic atoms in several 2D optical lattice geometries. We find that the triangular lattice has a higher propagation velocity compared to the square lattice, and the cross-linked square lattice has an even faster propagation velocity. The increase results from the mixing of the momentum states which leads to different group velocities in quantum systems. Standard band theory provides an explanation and allows for a systematic way to search and design systems with controllable matter-wave propagation. Moreover, the presence of a flat band such as in a two-leg ladder geometry leads to a dynamical density discontinuity due to its localized atoms. Possible realizations of those dynamical phenomena are discussed.
Mean-Field Dynamics and Fisher Information in Matter Wave Interferometry
Haine, Simon A.
2016-06-01
There has been considerable recent interest in the mean-field dynamics of various atom-interferometry schemes designed for precision sensing. In the field of quantum metrology, the standard tools for evaluating metrological sensitivity are the classical and quantum Fisher information. In this Letter, we show how these tools can be adapted to evaluate the sensitivity when the behavior is dominated by mean-field dynamics. As an example, we compare the behavior of four recent theoretical proposals for gyroscopes based on matter-wave interference in toroidally trapped geometries. We show that while the quantum Fisher information increases at different rates for the various schemes considered, in all cases it is consistent with the well-known Sagnac phase shift after the matter waves have traversed a closed path. However, we argue that the relevant metric for quantifying interferometric sensitivity is the classical Fisher information, which can vary considerably between the schemes.
Mean-Field Dynamics and Fisher Information in Matter Wave Interferometry.
Haine, Simon A
2016-06-10
There has been considerable recent interest in the mean-field dynamics of various atom-interferometry schemes designed for precision sensing. In the field of quantum metrology, the standard tools for evaluating metrological sensitivity are the classical and quantum Fisher information. In this Letter, we show how these tools can be adapted to evaluate the sensitivity when the behavior is dominated by mean-field dynamics. As an example, we compare the behavior of four recent theoretical proposals for gyroscopes based on matter-wave interference in toroidally trapped geometries. We show that while the quantum Fisher information increases at different rates for the various schemes considered, in all cases it is consistent with the well-known Sagnac phase shift after the matter waves have traversed a closed path. However, we argue that the relevant metric for quantifying interferometric sensitivity is the classical Fisher information, which can vary considerably between the schemes. PMID:27341216
Average-Atom Model for X-ray Scattering from Warm Dense Matter
Johnson, W R; Cheng, K T
2012-01-01
A scheme for analyzing Thomson scattering of x-rays by warm dense matter, based on the average-atom model, is developed. Emphasis is given to x-ray scattering by bound electrons. Contributions to the scattered x-ray spectrum from elastic scattering by electrons moving with the ions and from inelastic scattering by free and bound electrons are evaluated using parameters (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave functions, and occupation numbers) taken from the average-atom model. The resulting scheme provides a relatively simple diagnostic for use in connection with x-ray scattering measurements. Applications are given to dense hydrogen, beryllium, aluminum, titanium, and tin plasmas. At high momentum transfer, contributions from inelastic scattering by bound electrons are dominant features of the scattered x-ray spectrum for aluminum, titanium, and tin.
New source for matter wave interferometry
Full text: In order to explore the transition between the quantum and the classical world we investigate the possibility of seeing non-classical interference effects with big molecules. This requires new interferometer concepts but also efficient methods to bring neutral molecules into the gas phase and to detect them selectively and efficiently after the interference. Up to now all macromolecule interference experiments were using thermal sources. But for thermo-labile particles such as for instance biomolecules even weak heating can lead to fragmentation, so that a different method is needed. We have successfully implemented a jet-cooled laser desorption source in which the molecules are first desorbed from a surface in a nanosecond laser pulse and then injected into an adiabatically expanding cooling jet of noble gas atoms. We demonstrate the efficiency of our method for the amino acids tryptophan (204 u) and the polypeptide gramicidin(1900 u) and we shed some light on the challenges and chances for proteins such as insulin (5700 u). We show that translational temperatures as low as 15 K can be reached for amino acids. Techniques for volatizing large neutral molecules will be the basis for future quantum interferometry experiments, but they will also enable further studies in the domain of slowing, cooling and spectroscopy of macromolecules. (author)
Ultracold neutrons and the interaction of waves with moving matter
Frank, A. I.
2016-07-01
The present review is focused on the problem of interaction of neutron waves with moving matter. The validity of the 1/ v law for ultracold neutrons and the possibility to characterize the interaction of neutrons with matter using the effective potential were verified in the so-called null Fizeau experiments. A neutron wave in such experiments propagates through a flat sample that moves parallel to its edges. The observation of effects caused by this motion provides evidence that the concept of constant effective potential is not correct. The second part of the review deals with the prediction and the first observation of the accelerated matter effect (a change in the energy of neutrons in passing through a refractive sample that moves with an acceleration directed along or opposite the direction of neutron propagation). The characteristic features of this phenomenon in the case of birefringent material are considered. In conclusion, the problem of propagation of neutron waves in matter moving with giant acceleration is discussed.
Studies of Four Wave Mixing in a Cold Atomic Ensemble for Efficient Generation of Photon Pairs
Ferdinand, Andrew Richard; Luo, Xijie; Becerra, Francisco Elohim
2016-05-01
Photon pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing (FWM) in atomic ensembles provide a natural path toward quantum light-matter interfaces due to their intrinsic compatibility with atomic quantum memories. We study the generation of light from a semi-classical FWM process in an elongated ensemble of cold cesium (Cs) atoms. We investigate the generation efficiency as a function of power, detuning, and polarization of the pump fields in the process. This study will allow us to determine the pump-field parameters in our system for the efficient generation of correlated photon pairs from a spontaneous FWM process. This work is supported by AFOSR Grant FA9550-14-1-0300.
Black Hole Window into p-Wave Dark Matter Annihilation.
Shelton, Jessie; Shapiro, Stuart L; Fields, Brian D
2015-12-01
We present a new method to measure or constrain p-wave-suppressed cross sections for dark matter (DM) annihilations inside the steep density spikes induced by supermassive black holes. We demonstrate that the high DM densities, together with the increased velocity dispersion, within such spikes combine to make thermal p-wave annihilation cross sections potentially visible in γ-ray observations of the Galactic center (GC). The resulting DM signal is a bright central point source with emission originating from DM annihilations in the absence of a detectable spatially extended signal from the halo. We define two simple reference theories of DM with a thermal p-wave annihilation cross section and establish new limits on the combined particle and astrophysical parameter space of these models, demonstrating that Fermi Large Area Telescope is currently sensitive to thermal p-wave DM over a wide range of possible scenarios for the DM distribution in the GC. PMID:26684108
Localized atomic basis set in the projector augmented wave method
Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Vanin, Marco; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen;
2009-01-01
is tested by calculating atomization energies and equilibrium bulk properties of a variety of molecules and solids, comparing to the grid results. Finally, it is demonstrated how a grid-quality structure optimization can be performed with significantly reduced computational effort by switching......We present an implementation of localized atomic-orbital basis sets in the projector augmented wave (PAW) formalism within the density-functional theory. The implementation in the real-space GPAW code provides a complementary basis set to the accurate but computationally more demanding grid...
Search for Ultralight Scalar Dark Matter with Atomic Spectroscopy.
Van Tilburg, Ken; Leefer, Nathan; Bougas, Lykourgos; Budker, Dmitry
2015-07-01
We report new limits on ultralight scalar dark matter (DM) with dilatonlike couplings to photons that can induce oscillations in the fine-structure constant α. Atomic dysprosium exhibits an electronic structure with two nearly degenerate levels whose energy splitting is sensitive to changes in α. Spectroscopy data for two isotopes of dysprosium over a two-year span are analyzed for coherent oscillations with angular frequencies below 1 rad s-1. No signal consistent with a DM coupling is identified, leading to new constraints on dilatonlike photon couplings over a wide mass range. Under the assumption that the scalar field comprises all of the DM, our limits on the coupling exceed those from equivalence-principle tests by up to 4 orders of magnitude for masses below 3×10(-18) eV. Excess oscillatory power, inconsistent with fine-structure variation, is detected in a control channel, and is likely due to a systematic effect. Our atomic spectroscopy limits on DM are the first of their kind, and leave substantial room for improvement with state-of-the-art atomic clocks. PMID:26182090
Detecting quark matter in the early universe by gravitational waves
Schettler, Simon; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen
2011-01-01
For large baryochemical potential, strongly interacting matter might undergo a first order phase transition at temperatures T ~ 100-200 MeV. Within standard cosmology, however, the chemical potential is assumed to be very small leading to a crossover. We discuss implications of a first order QCD transition at high chemical potential being consistent with current observations. In this contribution we concentrate on effects on the gravitational wave spectrum. There are other interesting cosmological signals as a modification of the power spectrum of dark matter, the production of stellar black holes, and the seeds for the extragalactic magnetic fields which we briefly address also.
Gravitational wave detection with optical lattice atomic clocks
Kolkowitz, Shimon; Langellier, Nicholas; Lukin, Mikhail D; Walsworth, Ronald L; Ye, Jun
2016-01-01
We propose a space-based gravitational wave detector consisting of two spatially separated, drag-free satellites sharing ultra-stable optical laser light over a single baseline. Each satellite contains an optical lattice atomic clock, which serves as a sensitive, narrowband detector of the local frequency of the shared laser light. A synchronized two-clock comparison between the satellites will be sensitive to the effective Doppler shifts induced by incident gravitational waves (GWs) at a level competitive with other proposed space-based GW detectors, while providing complementary features. The detected signal is a differential frequency shift of the shared laser light due to the relative velocity of the satellites, rather than a phase shift arising from the relative satellite positions, and the detection window can be tuned through the control sequence applied to the atoms' internal states. This scheme enables the detection of GWs from continuous, spectrally narrow sources, such as compact binary inspirals, ...
Tully-Fisher Scalings and Boundary Conditions for Wave Dark Matter
Goetz, Andrew S.
2015-01-01
We investigate a theory of dark matter called wave dark matter, also known as scalar field dark matter (SFDM) and boson star dark matter or Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter (also see axion dark matter), and its relation to the Tully-Fisher relation. We exhibit two boundary conditions that give rise to Tully-Fisher-like relations for spherically symmetric static wave dark matter halos: (BC1) Fixing a length scale at the outer edge of wave dark matter halos gives rise to a Tully-Fishe...
The wave impedance of an atomically thin crystal
Merano, Michele
2015-01-01
I propose an expression for the electromagnetic wave impedance of a two-dimensional atomic crystal, and I deduce the Fresnel coefficients in terms of this quantity. It is widely known that a two-dimensional crystal can absorb light, if its conductivity is different from zero. It is less emphasized that they can also store a certain amount of electromagnetic energy. The concept of impedance is useful to quantify this point.
Influence of conformational molecular dynamics on matter wave interferometry
Gring, Michael; Eibenberger, Sandra; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Berrada, Tarik; Arndt, Markus; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Hornberger, Klaus; Müri, Marcel; Mayor, Marcel; Böckmann, Marcus; Doltsinis, Nikos
2014-01-01
We investigate the influence of thermally activated internal molecular dynamics on the phase shifts of matter waves inside a molecule interferometer. While de Broglie physics generally describes only the center-of-mass motion of a quantum object, our experiment demonstrates that the translational quantum phase is sensitive to dynamic conformational state changes inside the diffracted molecules. The structural flexibility of tailor-made hot organic particles is sufficient to admit a mixture of strongly fluctuating dipole moments. These modify the electric susceptibility and through this the quantum interference pattern in the presence of an external electric field. Detailed molecular dynamics simulations combined with density functional theory allow us to quantify the time-dependent structural reconfigurations and to predict the ensemble-averaged square of the dipole moment which is found to be in good agreement with the interferometric result. The experiment thus opens a new perspective on matter wave interfe...
"Photonic" Cat States from Strongly Interacting Matter Waves.
Fischer, Uwe R; Kang, Myung-Kyun
2015-12-31
We consider ultracold quantum gases of scalar bosons residing in a coupling strength-density regime in which they constitute a twofold fragmented condensate trapped in a single well. It is shown that the corresponding quantum states are, in the appropriate Fock space basis, identical to the photon cat states familiar in quantum optics, which correspond to superpositions of coherent states of the light field with a phase difference of π. In marked distinction to photon cat states, however, the very existence of matter-wave cat states crucially depends on the many-body correlations of the constituent bosons. We consequently establish that the quadratures of the effective "photons," expressing the highly nonclassical nature of the macroscopic matter-wave superposition state, can be experimentally accessed by measuring the density-density correlations of the interacting quantum gas. PMID:26764977
Detecting quark matter in the early universe by gravitational waves
Schettler, Simon; Boeckel, Tillmann; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen
2011-01-01
For large baryochemical potential, strongly interacting matter might undergo a first order phase transition at temperatures T ~ 100-200 MeV. Within standard cosmology, however, the chemical potential is assumed to be very small leading to a crossover. We discuss implications of a first order QCD transition at high chemical potential being consistent with current observations. In this contribution we concentrate on effects on the gravitational wave spectrum. There are other interesting cosmolo...
Quantum interference of molecules -- probing the wave nature of matter
Venugopalan, Anu
2012-01-01
The double slit interference experiment has been famously described by Richard Feynman as containing the "only mystery of quantum mechanics". The history of quantum mechanics is intimately linked with the discovery of the dual nature of matter and radiation. While the double slit experiment for light is easily undertsood in terms of its wave nature, the very same experiment for particles like the electron is somewhat more difficult to comprehend. By the 1920s it was firmly established that el...
Peptides and proteins in matter wave interferometry: Challenges and prospects
Sezer, Ugur; Geyer, Philipp; Mairhofer, Lukas; Brand, Christian; Doerre, Nadine; Rodewald, Jonas; Schaetti, Jonas; Koehler, Valentin; Mayor, Marcel; Arndt, Markus
2016-05-01
Recent developments in matter wave physics suggest that quantum interferometry with biologically relevant nanomaterials is becoming feasible for amino acids, peptides, proteins and RNA/DNA strands. Quantum interference of biomolecules is interesting as it can mimic Schrödinger's cat states with molecules of high mass, elevated temperature and biological functionality. Additionally, the high internal complexity can give rise to a rich variety of couplings to the environment and new handles for quantitative tests of quantum decoherence. Finally, matter wave interferometers are highly sensitive force sensors and pave the way for quantum-assisted measurements of biomolecular properties in interaction with tailored or biomimetic environments. Recent interferometer concepts such as the Kapitza-Dirac-Talbot-Lau interferometer (KDTLI) or the Optical Time-domain Matter Wave interferometer (OTIMA) have already proven their potential for quantum optics in the mass range beyond 10000 amu and for metrology. Here we show our advances in quantum interferometry with vitamins and peptides and discuss methods of realizing cold, intense and sufficiently slow beams of synthetically tailored or hydrated polypeptides with promising properties for a new generation of quantum optics.
Matter Density and Relativistic Models of Wave Function Collapse
Bedingham, Daniel; Ghirardi, GianCarlo; Goldstein, Sheldon; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghi, Nino
2011-01-01
Mathematical models for the stochastic evolution of wave functions that combine the unitary evolution according to the Schrodinger equation and the collapse postulate of quantum theory are well understood for non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Recently, there has been progress in making these models relativistic. But even with a fully relativistic law for the wave function evolution, a problem with relativity remains: Different Lorentz frames may yield conflicting values for the matter density at a space-time point. One solution to this problem is provided by Tumulka's "flash" model. Another solution is presented here. We propose a relativistic version of the law for the matter density function. According to our proposal, the matter density function at a space-time point x is obtained from the wave function psi on the past light cone of x by setting the i-th particle position in |psi|^2 equal to x, integrating over the other particle positions, and averaging over i. We show that the predictions that follow f...
Safeguards and legal matters 1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications
This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Safeguards and Legal Matters issued during the period 1970-1994. Most publications are published in English, through some are also available in French, Russian and Spanish. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. If publications are also available in other languages than English, this is noted as C for Chinese, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated
Generating Schroedinger-cat states via scattering of quantum matter wave solitons
The generation of spatial quantum superpositions via scattering solitons off a laser focus can be understood with a mathematically justified (for numeric investigations on the N-particle level). The motion of two attractively interacting atoms in an optical lattice is investigated in the presence of a scattering potential. The initial wavefunction can be prepared by using tightly bound exact two-particle eigenfunction for vanishing scattering potential. This allows to numerically simulate the dynamics in the generation of two-particle Schroedinger cat states using a scheme recently proposed for scattering of quantum matter wave solitons.
Position-momentum correlations in matter waves double-slit experiment
Neto, J. S. M.; Cabral, L. A.; da Paz, I. G.
2015-05-01
We present a treatment of the double-slit interference of matter-waves represented by Gaussian wavepackets. The interference pattern is modelled with Green's function propagator which emphasizes the coordinate correlations and phases. We explore the connection between phases and position-momentum correlations in the intensity, visibility and predictability of the wavepacket interference. This formulation will indicate some aspects that can be useful for theoretical and experimental treatment of particle, atom or molecule interferometry and can be discussed in introductory quantum mechanics courses.
Electron Rydberg wave packets in one-dimensional atoms
Supriya Chatterjee; Amitava Choudhuri; Aparna Saha; B Talukdar
2010-09-01
An expression for the transition probability or form factor in one-dimensional Rydberg atom irradiated by short half-cycle pulse was constructed. In applicative contexts, our expression was found to be more useful than the corresponding result given by Landau and Lifshitz. Using the new expression for the form factor, the motion of a localized quantum wave packet was studied with particular emphasis on its revival and super-revival properties. Closed form analytical expressions were derived for expectation values of the position and momentum operators that characterized the widths of the position and momentum distributions. Transient phase-space localization of the wave packet produced by the application of a single impulsive kick was explicitly demonstrated. The undulation of the uncertainty product as a function of time was studied in order to visualize how the motion of the wave packet in its classical trajectory spreads throughout the orbit and the system becomes nonclassical. The process, however, repeats itself such that the atom undergoes a free evolution from a classical, to a nonclassical, and back to a classical state.
Noise Reduction in Magnetic Resonance Images using Wave Atom Shrinkage
J.Rajeesh, R.S.Moni, S.Palanikumar, T.Gopalakrishnan
2010-06-01
Full Text Available De-noising is always a challenging problem in magnetic resonance imaging andimportant for clinical diagnosis and computerized analysis, such as tissueclassification and segmentation. It is well known that the noise in magneticresonance imaging has a Rician distribution. Unlike additive Gaussian noise,Rician noise is signal dependent, and separating signal from noise is a difficulttask. An efficient method for enhancement of noisy magnetic resonance imageusing wave atom shrinkage is proposed. The reconstructed MRI data have highSignal to Noise Ratio (SNR compared to the curvelet and wavelet domain denoisingapproaches.
Discrete Wave-Packet Representation in Nuclear Matter Calculations
Müther, H; Kukulin, V I; Pomerantsev, V N
2016-01-01
The Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the nucleon-nucleon $t$-matrix as well as the corresponding Bethe-Goldstone equation to determine the Brueckner reaction matrix in nuclear matter are reformulated in terms of the resolvents for the total two-nucleon Hamiltonians defined in free space and in medium correspondingly. This allows to find solutions at many energies simultaneously by using the respective Hamiltonian matrix diagonalization in the stationary wave packet basis. Among other important advantages, this approach simplifies greatly the whole computation procedures both for coupled-channel $t$-matrix and the Brueckner reaction matrix. Therefore this principally novel scheme is expected to be especially useful for self-consistent nuclear matter calculations because it allows to accelerate in a high degree single-particle potential iterations. Furthermore the method provides direct access to the properties of possible two-nucleon bound states in the nuclear medium. The comparison between reaction matrices f...
Gravitational, shear and matter waves in Kantowski-Sachs cosmologies
Keresztes, Zoltán; Bradley, Michael; Dunsby, Peter K S; Gergely, László Á
2015-01-01
A general treatment of vorticity-free, perfect fluid perturbations of Kantowski-Sachs models with a positive cosmological constant are considered within the framework of the 1+1+2 covariant decomposition of spacetime. The dynamics is encompassed in six evolution equations for six harmonic coefficients, describing certain gravito-magnetic, kinematic and matter perturbations, and a set of algebraic expressions for the rest of the variables. The six equations further decouple into a set of four equations sourced by the perfect fluid, representing forced oscillations and two uncoupled damped oscillator equations. In the geometric optics approximation, the even and odd tensorial perturbations of the Weyl tensor evolve as gravitational waves on the anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs background, while the modes describing the shear and the matter density gradient are dephased by $\\pi /2$ and share the same speed of sound.
Chaotic matter shock wave of an open system
We investigate a one-dimensional open Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive interaction, by considering the effect of feeding from nonequilibrium thermal cloud and applying the time-periodic inverted-harmonic potential. Using the direct perturbation method and the exact shock wave solution of the stationary Gross—Pitaevskii equation, we obtain the chaotic perturbed solution and the Melnikov chaotic regions. Based on the analytical and the numerical methods, the influence of the feeding strength on the chaotic motion is revealed. It is shown that the chaotic regions could be enlarged by reducing the feeding strength and the increase of feeding strength plays a role in suppressing chaos. In the case of “nonpropagated” shock wave with fixed boundary, the number of condensed atoms increases faster as the feeding strength increases. However, for the free boundary the metastable shock wave with fixed front density oscillates its front position and atomic number aperiodically, and their amplitudes decay with the increase of the feeding strength. (general)
Canuel, B; Amand, L; Bertoldi, A; Cormier, E; Fang, B; Gaffet, S; Geiger, R; Harms, J; Holleville, D; Landragin, A; Lefèvre, G; Lhermite, J; Mielec, N; Prevedelli, M; Riou, I; Bouyer, P
2016-01-01
The Matter-Wave laser Interferometer Gravitation Antenna, MIGA, will be a hybrid instrument composed of a network of atom interferometers horizontally aligned and interrogated by the resonant field of an optical cavity. This detector will provide measurements of sub Hertz variations of the gravitational strain tensor. MIGA will bring new methods for geophysics for the characterization of spatial and temporal variations of the local gravity field and will also be a demonstrator for future low frequency Gravitational Wave (GW) detections. MIGA will enable a better understanding of the coupling at low frequency between these different signals. The detector will be installed underground in Rustrel (FR), at the "Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit" (LSBB), a facility with exceptionally low environmental noise and located far away from major sources of anthropogenic disturbances. We give in this paper an overview of the operating mode and status of the instrument before detailing simulations of the gravitational backg...
A universal matter-wave interferometer with optical ionization gratings in the time domain
Haslinger, Philipp; Geyer, Philipp; Rodewald, Jonas; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Arndt, Markus
2014-01-01
Matter-wave interferometry with atoms and molecules has attracted a rapidly growing interest over the past two decades, both in demonstrations of fundamental quantum phenomena and in quantum-enhanced precision measurements. Such experiments exploit the non-classical superposition of two or more position and momentum states which are coherently split and rejoined to interfere. Here, we present the experimental realization of a universal near-field interferometer built from three short-pulse single-photon ionization gratings. We observe quantum interference of fast molecular clusters, with a composite de Broglie wavelength as small as 275 fm. Optical ionization gratings are largely independent of the specific internal level structure and are therefore universally applicable to different kinds of nanoparticles, ranging from atoms to clusters, molecules and nanospheres. The interferometer is sensitive to fringe shifts as small as a few nanometers and yet robust against velocity-dependent phase shifts, since the g...
Quantum reflection of bright solitary matter waves from a narrow attractive potential
Marchant, A. L.; Billam, T. P.; Yu, M. M. H.; Rakonjac, A.; Helm, J. L.; Polo, J.; Weiss, C.; Gardiner, S. A.; Cornish, S. L.
2016-02-01
We report the observation of quantum reflection from a narrow attractive potential using bright solitary matter waves formed from a 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. We create the attractive potential using a tightly focused, red-detuned laser beam, and observe reflection of up to 25% of the atoms, along with the confinement of atoms at the position of the beam. We show that the observed reflected fraction is much larger than theoretical predictions for a simple Gaussian potential well. A more detailed model of bright soliton propagation, accounting for the generic presence of small subsidiary intensity maxima in the red-detuned beam, suggests that these small intensity maxima are the cause of this enhanced reflection.
Quantum reflection of bright solitary matter-waves from a narrow attractive potential
Marchant, A L; Yu, M M H; Rakonjac, A; Helm, J L; Polo, J; Weiss, C; Gardiner, S A; Cornish, S L
2015-01-01
We report the observation of quantum reflection from a narrow, attractive, potential using bright solitary matter-waves formed from a 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. We create narrow potentials using a tightly focused, red-detuned laser beam, and observe reflection of up to 25% of the atoms, along with the trapping of atoms at the position of the beam. We show that the observed reflected fraction is much larger than theoretical predictions for a narrow Gaussian potential well; a more detailed model of bright soliton propagation, accounting for the generic presence of small subsidiary intensity maxima in the red-detuned beam, suggests that these small intensity maxima are the cause of this enhanced reflection.
Spontaneous emission of a photon: wave packet structures and atom-photon entanglement
Fedorov, M. V.; Efremov, M. A.; Kazakov, A. E.; Chan, K W; Law, C. K.; Eberly, J. H.
2004-01-01
Spontaneous emission of a photon by an atom is described theoretically in three dimensions with the initial wave function of a finite-mass atom taken in the form of a finite-size wave packet. Recoil and wave-packet spreading are taken into account. The total atom-photon wave function is found in the momentum and coordinate representations as the solution of an initial-value problem. The atom-photon entanglement arising in such a process is shown to be closely related to the structure of atom ...
Hybrid Matter-Wave-Microwave Solitons Produced by the Local-Field Effect.
Qin, Jieli; Dong, Guangjiong; Malomed, Boris A
2015-07-10
It was recently found that the electric local-field effect (LFE) can lead to a strong coupling of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) to off-resonant optical fields. We demonstrate that the magnetic LFE gives rise to a previously unexplored mechanism for coupling a (pseudo-) spinor BEC or fermion gas to microwaves (MWs). We present a theory for the magnetic LFE and find that it gives rise to a short-range attractive interaction between two components of the (pseudo) spinor, and a long-range interaction between them. The latter interaction, resulting from deformation of the magnetic field, is locally repulsive but globally attractive, in sharp contrast with its counterpart for the optical LFE, produced by phase modulation of the electric field. Our analytical results, confirmed by the numerical computations, show that the long-range interaction gives rise to modulational instability of the spatially uniform state, and it creates stable ground states in the form of hybrid matter-wave-microwave solitons (which seem like one-dimensional magnetic monopoles), with a size much smaller than the MW wavelength, even in the presence of arbitrarily strong contact intercomponent repulsion. The setting is somewhat similar to exciton-polaritonic condensates in semiconductor microcavities. The release of matter waves from the soliton may be used for the realization of an atom laser. The analysis also applies to molecular BECs with rotational states coupled by the electric MW field. PMID:26207469
Bouyer, P.
2015-12-01
Since its first demonstration in 1991, Atomic Interferometry (AI) has shown to be an extremely performing probe of inertial forces. More recently, AI has revealed sensitivities to acceleration or rotation competing with or even beating state-of-the art sensors based on other technologies. The high stability and accuracy of AI sensors relying on cold atoms is at the basis of several applications ranging from fundamental physics (e.g. tests of general relativity and measurements of fundamental constants), geophysics (gravimetry, gradiometry) and inertial navigation. We are currently building a large scale matter-wave detector which will open new applications in geoscience and fundamental physics. In contrast to standard AI based sensors, our matter-wave laser interferometer gravitation antenna (MIGA) exploits the superb seismic environment of a low noise underground laboratory. This new infrastructure is embedded into the LSBB underground laboratory, in France, ideally located away from major anthropogenic disturbances and benefitting from very low background noise. MIGA combines atom and laser interferometry techniques, manipulating an array of atomic ensembles distributed along the antenna to simultanously read out seismic effects, inertial effects and eventually the passage of a gravity wave. The first version uses a set of three atomic sensors placed along an optical cavity. The spatial resolution obtained with this configuration will enable the separation of the seismic, inertial and GW contributions. This technique will bring unprecedented sensitivities to gravity gradients variations and open new perspectives for sub Hertz gravity wave and geodesic detection. MIGA will provide measurements of gravity gradients variations limited only by the AI shot noise, which will allow sensitivities of about 10-13 s-2Hz-1/2@ 2Hz. This instrument will then be capable to spatially resolve 1 m3 of water a distances of about 100 m, which opens important potential applications
Photo-Ionization of Hydrogen Atom in a Circularly Polarized Standing Electromagnetic Wave
LIU Xiang-Tao; ZHANG Qi-Ren; WANG Wan-Zhang
2004-01-01
Applying time-independent non-perturbative formalism to the photo-ionization of hydrogen atom immersed in a strong circularly polarized standing electromagnetic wave, we calculate the shift of energy levels and the distortion of wave functions for the hydrogen atom, the ionization cross section induced by the standing wave, and the angular distribution of photoelectrons and obtain some interesting results.
Treatment of Ion-Atom Collisions Using a Partial-Wave Expansion of the Projectile Wavefunction
Wong, T. G.; Foster, M.; Colgan, J.; Madison, D. H.
2009-01-01
We present calculations of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction. Most calculations of ion-atom collisions have typically used classical or plane-wave approximations for the projectile wavefunction, since partial-wave expansions are expected to require prohibitively large numbers of terms to converge…
Roura, Albert; Brill, Dieter R.; Hu, B. L.; Misner, Charles W.; Phillips, William D.
2004-01-01
We show that a recent claim that matter wave interferometers have a much higher sensitivity than laser interferometers for a comparable physical setup is unfounded. We point out where the mistake in the earlier analysis is made. We also disprove the claim that only a description based on the geodesic deviation equation can produce the correct physical result. The equations for the quantum dynamics of non-relativistic massive particles in a linearly perturbed spacetime derived here are useful ...
Jeans Analysis for Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies in Wave Dark Matter
Chen, Shu-Rong; Chiueh, Tzihong
2016-01-01
Observations suggest that dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies exhibit large constant-density cores in the centers, which can hardly be explained by dissipationless cold dark matter simulations. Wave dark matter (${\\psi {\\rm DM}}$), characterized by a single parameter, the dark matter particle mass $m_{\\psi}$, predicts a central soliton core in every galaxy arising from quantum pressure against gravity. Here we apply Jeans analysis to the kinematic data of eight classical dSphs so as to constrain $m_{\\psi}$, and obtain $m_{\\psi}=1.18_{-0.24}^{+0.28}\\times10^{-22}{\\,\\rm eV}$ and $m_{\\psi}=1.79_{-0.33}^{+0.35}\\times10^{-22}{\\,\\rm eV}~(2\\sigma)$ using the observational data sets of Walker et al. (2007) and Walker et al. (2009b), respectively. We show that the estimate of $m_{\\psi}$ is sensitive to the dSphs kinematic data sets and is robust to various models of stellar density profile. We also consider multiple stellar subpopulations in dSphs and find consistent results. This mass range of $m_{\\psi}$ is in good agre...
Approximate relativistic corrections to atomic radial wave functions
Cowan, R.D.; Griffin, D.C.
1976-10-01
The mass-velocity and Darwin terms of the one-electron-atom Pauli equation have been added to the Hartree-Fock differential equations by using the HX formula to calculate a local central field potential for use in these terms. Introduction of the quantum number j is avoided by omitting the spin-orbit term of the Pauli equation. The major relativistic effects, both direct and indirect, are thereby incorporated into the wave functions, while allowing retention of the commonly used nonrelativistic formulation of energy level calculations. The improvement afforded in calculated total binding energies, excitation energies, spin-orbit parameters, and expectation values of r/sub m/ is comparable with that provided by fully relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations. (AIP)
Coexistence of four-wave, six-wave and eight-wave mixing processes in multi-dressed atomic systems
Zhang Yanpeng; Anderson, Blake; Xiao Min [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States)], E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: mxiao@uark.edu
2008-02-28
Two doubly dressing (parallel and nested processes) schemes are considered which generate co-existing four-wave mixing (FWM), six-wave mixing (SWM) and eight-wave mixing (EWM) processes in an open five-level atomic system. The coherent interaction between two dressing processes in nested type is much stronger than that in parallel type. The singly enhanced SWM and dually enhanced FWM channels can be opened at the same time. Such dramatic enhancements in high-order nonlinear optical processes result from the constructive interactions of double dark resonances. The giant third-, fifth- and seventh-order nonlinear responses with different signs can be obtained by using the coherent phase controls of the polarization beats between the FWM, SWM and EWM signa0008.
Spherically Symmetric Static States of Wave Dark Matter
Parry, Alan R
2013-01-01
We explore spherically symmetric solutions to the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations, the defining equations of wave dark matter, where the scalar field is of the form f(t,r) = exp(i\\omega t)F(r) for some constant \\omega\\ in R and complex-valued function F(r). We show that the corresponding metric is static if and only if F(r) = h(r)exp(ia) for some constant a in R and real-valued function h(r). We describe the behavior of the resulting solutions, which are called spherically symmetric static states. We also describe how, in the low field limit, the parameters defining these static states are related and show that these relationships imply important properties of the static states.
Miniature inhalation therapy platform using surface acoustic wave microfluidic atomization.
Qi, Aisha; Friend, James R; Yeo, Leslie Y; Morton, David A V; McIntosh, Michelle P; Spiccia, Leone
2009-08-01
Pulmonary drug administration requires direct delivery of drug formulations into the lower pulmonary tract and alveoli of the lung in the form of inhaled particles or droplets, providing a distinct advantage over other methods for the treatment of respiratory diseases: the drug can be delivered directly to the site of inflammation, thus reducing the need for systemic exposure and the possibility of adverse effects. However, it is difficult to produce droplets of a drug solution within a narrow monodisperse size range (1-10 microm) needed for deposition in the lower pulmonary tract and alveoli. Here, we demonstrate the use of surface acoustic wave microfluidic atomization as an efficient means to generate appropriate aerosols containing a model drug, the short-acting beta2 agonist salbutamol, for the treatment of asthma. The mean aerosol diameter produced, 2.84+/-0.14 microm, lies well within the optimum size range, confirmed by a twin-stage impinger lung model, demonstrating that approximately 70 to 80% of the drug supplied to the atomizer is deposited within the lung. Our preliminary study explores how to control the aerosol diameter and lung delivery efficiency through the surface tension, viscosity, and input power, and also indicates which factors are irrelevant-like the fluid density. Even over a modest power range of 1-1.5 W, SAW atomization provides a viable and efficient generic nebulization platform for the delivery of drugs via the pulmonary route for the treatment of various diseases. The control offered over the aerosol size, low power requirements, high delivery efficiency, and the miniaturization of the system together suggest the proposed platform represents an attractive alternative to current nebulizers compatible with microfluidic technologies. PMID:19606295
Non-locality and destructive interference of matter waves
Quantum mechanics with massive particles becomes an important tool for fundamental research and applied science since many previously named 'Gedanken' experiments become feasible. Neutrons are massive particles which couple to gravitational, nuclear and electro-magnetic interactions and they are sensitive to topological effects as well. Therefore they are proper tools for testing quantum mechanics where several previously named 'hidden' parameters become measurable. Widely separated coherent beams can be produced by means of perfect crystal interferometers and they can be influenced individually. Spinor symmetry, spin superposition and quantum beat effect experiments have been performed and topological phases have been observed. Recent experiments related to the decoherence problem have shown that interference effects can be revived even when the overall interference pattern seems to be incoherent. All retrieval processes involve inherently unavoidable losses which stem partly from the theory itself and partly from an imperfect environment. Related post-selection experiments shed a new light on questions of quantum non-locality and support the request for more complete quantum measurements in the future. A more rational explanation of non-locality effects may be obtained when the plane wave components outside the wave packets are included in the discussion. This can also help to discuss entanglement and contextuality effects in a new light. In all quantum experiments more information can be extracted by more complete quantum experiments which will be important in the future to get a better understanding of quantum physics. An example may be the consideration of the Compton frequency and of proper time effects of matter waves.
Matter, dark matter and gravitational waves from a GUT-scale U(1) phase transition
The cosmological realization of the spontaneous breaking of B-L, the difference of baryon and lepton number, can generate the initial conditions for the hot early universe. In particular, we show that entropy, dark matter and a matter-antimatter asymmetry can be produced in accordance with current observations. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, F-term hybrid inflation can be realized in the false vacuum of unbroken B-L. The phase transition at the end of inflation, governed by tachyonic preheating, spontaneously breaks the U(1)B-L symmetry and sets the initial conditions for the following perturbative reheating phase. We provide a detailed, time-resolved picture of the reheating process. The competition of cosmic expansion and entropy production leads to an intermediate plateau of constant temperature, which controls both the generated lepton asymmetry and the dark matter abundance. This enables us to establish relations between the neutrino and superparticle mass spectrum, rendering this mechanism testable. Moreover, we calculate the entire gravitational wave spectrum for this setup. This yields a promising possibility to probe cosmological B - L breaking with forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO and BBO/DECIGO. The largest contribution is obtained from cosmic strings which is, for typical parameter values, at least eight orders of magnitude higher then the contribution from inflation. Finally, we study the possibility of realizing hybrid inflation in a superconformal framework. We find that superconformal D-term inflation is an interesting possibility generically leading to a two-field inflation model, but in its simplest version disfavoured by the recently published Planck data.
Matter, dark matter and gravitational waves from a GUT-scale U(1) phase transition
Domcke, Valerie
2013-09-15
The cosmological realization of the spontaneous breaking of B-L, the difference of baryon and lepton number, can generate the initial conditions for the hot early universe. In particular, we show that entropy, dark matter and a matter-antimatter asymmetry can be produced in accordance with current observations. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, F-term hybrid inflation can be realized in the false vacuum of unbroken B-L. The phase transition at the end of inflation, governed by tachyonic preheating, spontaneously breaks the U(1){sub B-L} symmetry and sets the initial conditions for the following perturbative reheating phase. We provide a detailed, time-resolved picture of the reheating process. The competition of cosmic expansion and entropy production leads to an intermediate plateau of constant temperature, which controls both the generated lepton asymmetry and the dark matter abundance. This enables us to establish relations between the neutrino and superparticle mass spectrum, rendering this mechanism testable. Moreover, we calculate the entire gravitational wave spectrum for this setup. This yields a promising possibility to probe cosmological B - L breaking with forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO and BBO/DECIGO. The largest contribution is obtained from cosmic strings which is, for typical parameter values, at least eight orders of magnitude higher then the contribution from inflation. Finally, we study the possibility of realizing hybrid inflation in a superconformal framework. We find that superconformal D-term inflation is an interesting possibility generically leading to a two-field inflation model, but in its simplest version disfavoured by the recently published Planck data.
Li Yu-Qing; Ma Jie; Wu Ji-Zhou; Zhang Yi-Chi; Zhao Yan-Ting; Wang Li-Rong; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang
2012-01-01
We report on the observation of enhanced high-order partial wave scattering from atom-atom interaction via changing the temperature of a magneto-optical trap in the process of photoassociation. The high-order scattering partial wave is directly manifested through the large signal amplitude of the rovibrational resonance levels of trap-loss spectroscopy from photoassociation.
Slowly moving matter-wave gap soliton propagation in weak random nonlinear potential
Zhang Ming-Rui; Zhang Yong-Liang; Jiang Xun-Ya; Zi Jian
2008-01-01
We systematically investigate the motion of slowly moving matter-wave gap solitons in a nonlinear potential, produced by the weak random spatial variation of the atomic scattering length. With the weak randomness, we construct an effective-particle theory to study the motion of gap solitons. Based on the effective-particle theory, the effect of the randomness on gap solitous is obtained, and the motion of gap solitons is finally solved. Moreover, the analytic results for the general behaviours of gap soliton motion, such as the ensemble-average speed and the reflection probability depending on the weak randomness are obtained. We find that with the increase of the random strength the ensemble-average speed of gap solitons decreases slowly where the reduction is proportional to the variance of the weak randomness, and the reflection probability becomes larger. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
Exploring the stability and dynamics of dipolar matter-wave dark solitons
Edmonds, M. J.; Bland, T.; O'Dell, D. H. J.; Parker, N. G.
2016-06-01
We study the stability, form, and interaction of single and multiple dark solitons in quasi-one-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates. The solitons are found numerically as stationary solutions in the moving frame of a nonlocal Gross Pitaevskii equation and characterized as a function of the key experimental parameters, namely the ratio of the dipolar atomic interactions to the van der Waals interactions, the polarization angle, and the condensate width. The solutions and their integrals of motion are strongly affected by the phonon and roton instabilities of the system. Dipolar matter-wave dark solitons propagate without dispersion and collide elastically away from these instabilities, with the dipolar interactions contributing an additional repulsion or attraction to the soliton-soliton interaction. However, close to the instabilities, the collisions are weakly dissipative.
Orbital dependent functionals: An atom projector augmented wave method implementation
Xu, Xiao
This thesis explores the formulation and numerical implementation of orbital dependent exchange-correlation functionals within electronic structure calculations. These orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functionals have recently received renewed attention as a means to improve the physical representation of electron interactions within electronic structure calculations. In particular, electron self-interaction terms can be avoided. In this thesis, an orbital-dependent functional is considered in the context of Hartree-Fock (HF) theory as well as the Optimized Effective Potential (OEP) method and the approximate OEP method developed by Krieger, Li, and Iafrate, known as the KLI approximation. In this thesis, the Fock exchange term is used as a simple well-defined example of an orbital-dependent functional. The Projected Augmented Wave (PAW) method developed by P. E. Blochl has proven to be accurate and efficient for electronic structure calculations for local and semi-local functions because of its accurate evaluation of interaction integrals by controlling multiple moments. We have extended the PAW method to treat orbital-dependent functionals in Hartree-Fock theory and the Optimized Effective Potential method, particularly in the KLI approximation. In the course of study we develop a frozen-core orbital approximation that accurately treats the core electron contributions for above three methods. The main part of the thesis focuses on the treatment of spherical atoms. We have investigated the behavior of PAW-Hartree Fock and PAW-KLI basis, projector, and pseudopotential functions for several elements throughout the periodic table. We have also extended the formalism to the treatment of solids in a plane wave basis and implemented PWPAW-KLI code, which will appear in future publications.
Gravitational Wave Detection with Single-Laser Atom Interferometers
Yu, Nan; Tinto, Massimo
2011-01-01
A new design for a broadband detector of gravitational radiation relies on two atom interferometers separated by a distance L. In this scheme, only one arm and one laser are used for operating the two atom interferometers. The innovation here involves the fact that the atoms in the atom interferometers are not only considered as perfect test masses, but also as highly stable clocks. Atomic coherence is intrinsically stable, and can be many orders of magnitude more stable than a laser.
Stadnik, Yevgeny V; Flambaum, Victor V; Dzuba, Vladimir A
2015-01-01
We propose to search for scalar dark matter via its effects on the electromagnetic fine-structure constant and particle masses. Scalar dark matter that forms an oscillating classical field produces `slow' linear-in-time drifts and oscillating variations of the fundamental constants, while scalar dark matter that forms topological defects produces transient-in-time variations of the constants of Nature. These variations can be sought for with atomic clock, laser interferometer and pulsar timing measurements. Atomic spectroscopy and Big Bang nucleosynthesis measurements already give improved bounds on the quadratic interaction parameters of scalar dark matter with the photon, electron, and light quarks by up to 15 orders of magnitude, while Big Bang nucleosynthesis measurements provide the first such constraints on the interaction parameters of scalar dark matter with the massive vector bosons.
Stadnik, Y V
2015-01-01
We present an overview of recent developments in the detection of light bosonic dark matter, including axion, pseudoscalar axion-like and scalar dark matter, which form either a coherently oscillating classical field or topological defects (solitons). We emphasise new high-precision laboratory and astrophysical measurements, in which the sought effects are linear in the underlying interaction strength between dark matter and ordinary matter, in contrast to traditional detection schemes for dark matter, where the effects are quadratic or higher order in the underlying interaction parameters and are extremely small. New terrestrial experiments include measurements with atomic clocks, spectroscopy, atomic and solid-state magnetometry, torsion pendula, ultracold neutrons, and laser interferometry. New astrophysical observations include pulsar timing, cosmic radiation lensing, Big Bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background measurements. We also discuss various recently proposed mechanisms for the inducti...
Coupled matter-wave solitons in optical lattices
We make use of a potential model to study the dynamics of two coupled matter-wave or Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons loaded in optical lattices. With separate attention to linear and nonlinear lattices we find some remarkable differences for response of the system to effects of these lattices. As opposed to the case of linear optical lattice (LOL), the nonlinear lattice (NOL) can be used to control the mutual interaction between the two solitons. For a given lattice wave number k, the effective potentials in which the two solitons move are such that the well (Veff(NOL)), resulting from the juxtaposition of soliton interaction and nonlinear lattice potential, is deeper than the corresponding well Veff(LOL). But these effective potentials have opposite k dependence in the sense that the depth of Veff(LOL) increases as k increases and that of Veff(NOL) decreases for higher k values. We verify that the effectiveness of optical lattices to regulate the motion of the coupled solitons depends sensitively on the initial locations of the motionless solitons as well as values of the lattice wave number. For both LOL and NOL the two solitons meet each other due to mutual interaction if their initial locations are taken within the potential wells with the difference that the solitons in the NOL approach each other rather rapidly and take roughly half the time to meet as compared with the time needed for such coalescence in the LOL. In the NOL, the soliton profiles can move freely and respond to the lattice periodicity when the separation between their initial locations are as twice as that needed for a similar free movement in the LOL. We observe that, in both cases, slow tuning of the optical lattices by varying k with respect to a time parameter τ drags the oscillatory solitons apart to take them to different locations. In our potential model the oscillatory solitons appear to propagate undistorted. But a fully numerical calculation indicates that during evolution
Coupled matter-wave solitons in optical lattices
Golam Ali, Sk; Talukdar, B.
2009-06-01
We make use of a potential model to study the dynamics of two coupled matter-wave or Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons loaded in optical lattices. With separate attention to linear and nonlinear lattices we find some remarkable differences for response of the system to effects of these lattices. As opposed to the case of linear optical lattice (LOL), the nonlinear lattice (NOL) can be used to control the mutual interaction between the two solitons. For a given lattice wave number k, the effective potentials in which the two solitons move are such that the well (Veff(NOL)), resulting from the juxtaposition of soliton interaction and nonlinear lattice potential, is deeper than the corresponding well Veff(LOL). But these effective potentials have opposite k dependence in the sense that the depth of Veff(LOL) increases as k increases and that of Veff(NOL) decreases for higher k values. We verify that the effectiveness of optical lattices to regulate the motion of the coupled solitons depends sensitively on the initial locations of the motionless solitons as well as values of the lattice wave number. For both LOL and NOL the two solitons meet each other due to mutual interaction if their initial locations are taken within the potential wells with the difference that the solitons in the NOL approach each other rather rapidly and take roughly half the time to meet as compared with the time needed for such coalescence in the LOL. In the NOL, the soliton profiles can move freely and respond to the lattice periodicity when the separation between their initial locations are as twice as that needed for a similar free movement in the LOL. We observe that, in both cases, slow tuning of the optical lattices by varying k with respect to a time parameter τ drags the oscillatory solitons apart to take them to different locations. In our potential model the oscillatory solitons appear to propagate undistorted. But a fully numerical calculation indicates that during evolution
Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication.
Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S
2016-06-28
Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum-based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires the next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed toward this goal through various lithographies and scanning-probe-based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron- and ion-based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano- and atomic scales and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis, and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. In this paper, we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large-scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies. PMID:27183171
Cooperatively enhanced light transmission in cold atomic matter
Kemp, Kasie; Havey, M D; Sokolov, I M; Kupriyanov, D V
2014-01-01
We report enhanced transmission in measurements of the spectral dependence of forward light scattering by a high-density and cold ensemble of 87Rb atoms. This phenomenon, which is a result of dipole-dipole interaction induced cooperative light scattering in the atomic sample, implies a significant departure from the traditional density dependence of the transmitted light as embodied in the Beer-Lambert Law. Absolute values of the density-dependent forward light scattering cross-section are extracted from the measurements.
S-wave and p-wave scattering in a cold gas of Na and Rb atoms
Ouerdane, H
2008-01-01
Using improved experimentally based $X{}^1\\Sigma^+$ and $a{}^3\\Sigma^+$ molecular potentials of NaRb, published recently by Pashov {\\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 72}, 062505 (2005)], we apply the variable phase method to compute new data for low energy scattering of $^{23}$Na atoms by $^{85}$Rb atoms and $^{87}$Rb atoms. These are scattering lengths and volumes, numbers of bound states and effective ranges. From an analysis of the contributions of s-wave and p-wave scatterings to the elastic cross section we estimate temperatures below which only s-wave scattering is dominant. We supply evidence for the existence of a near zero energy p-wave bound state supported by the singlet molecular potential.
Theory of light-matter interactions in cascade and diamond type atomic ensembles
Jen, Hsiang-Hua
2011-01-01
In this thesis, we investigate the quantum mechanical interaction of light with matter in the form of a gas of ultracold atoms: the atomic ensemble. We present a theoretical analysis of two problems, which involve the interaction of quantized electromagnetic fields (called signal and idler) with the atomic ensemble (i) cascade two-photon emission in an atomic ladder configuration, and (ii) photon frequency conversion in an atomic diamond configuration. The motivation of these studies comes from potential applications in long-distance quantum communication where it is desirable to generate quantum correlations between telecommunication wavelength light fields and ground level atomic coherences. We develop a theory of correlated signal-idler pair correlation. The analysis is complicated by the possible generation of multiple excitations in the atomic ensemble. An analytical treatment is given in the limit of a single excitation assuming adiabatic laser excitations. The analysis predicts superradiant timescales ...
Atom Interferometry for detection of Gravity Waves-a Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atom interferometers are more sensitive to inertial effects. This is because atoms in their inertial frame are ideal test masses for detection of gravity effects...
Gravitational wave detection with single-laser atom interferometers
Yu, Nan; Tinto, Massimo
2010-01-01
We present a new general design approach of a broad-band detector of gravitational radiation that relies on two atom interferometers separated by a distance L. In this scheme, only one arm and one laser will be used for operating the two atom interferometers. We consider atoms in the atom interferometers not only as perfect inertial reference sensors, but also as highly stable clocks. Atomic coherence is intrinsically stable and can be many orders of magnitude more stable than a laser. The un...
Dark matter searches using gravitational wave bar detectors: Quark nuggets and newtorites
Bassan, M.; Coccia, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Fafone, V.; Giordano, G.; Marini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Modena, I.; Pallottino, G. V.; Pizzella, G.; Rocchi, A.; Ronga, F.; Visco, M.
2016-05-01
Many experiments have searched for supersymmetric WIMP dark matter, with null results. This may suggest to look for more exotic possibilities, for example compact ultra-dense quark nuggets, widely discussed in literature with several different names. Nuclearites are an example of candidate compact objects with atomic size cross section. After a short discussion on nuclearites, the result of a nuclearite search with the gravitational wave bar detectors Nautilus and Explorer is reported. The geometrical acceptance of the bar detectors is 19.5 m2 sr, that is smaller than that of other detectors used for similar searches. However, the detection mechanism is completely different and is more straightforward than in other detectors. The experimental limits we obtain are of interest because, for nuclearites of mass less than 10-5 g, we find a flux smaller than that one predicted considering nuclearites as dark matter candidates. Particles with gravitational only interactions (newtorites) are another example. In this case the sensitivity is quite poor and a short discussion is reported on possible improvements.
Study of Atomization of a Water Jet by High-Intensity Aerial Ultrasonic Waves
Ito, Youichi
2001-05-01
An experimental study has been carried out on the atomization of a water jet by aerially radiating it with high-intensity ultrasonic waves. A sound source that enables the linear generation of high-intensity aerial ultrasonic waves (frequency: approximately 20 kHz) is combined with a cylindrical reflection plate in order to create a standing-wave sound field. An attempt has been made to atomize a water jet of 1 mm diameter by passing it through the above sound field at a velocity of approximately 30 m/s. It has been clarified that nodes of sound pressure in the standing-wave sound field are effective for the atomization of a water jet. In addition, the atomizing phenomenon of a water jet has been observed precisely. The relation between the intensity of sound waves required for atomization and the radiation duration has also been clarified. Even the radiation of sound waves for only 2 ms atomizes water. This suggests that a very fast water jet at 300-500 m/s might be atomized.
Dynamics and Matter-Wave Solitons in Bose-Einstein Condensates with Two- and Three-Body Interactions
Jing Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By means of similarity transformation, this paper proposes the matter-wave soliton solutions and dynamics of the variable coefficient cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation arising from Bose-Einstein condensates with time-dependent two- and three-body interactions. It is found that, under the effect of time-dependent two- and three-body interaction and harmonic potential with time-dependent frequency, the density of atom condensates will gradually diminish and finally collapse.
宣恒农; 左苗
2011-01-01
We present three families of exact matter-wave soliton solutions for an effective one-dimension two- component Bose-Einstein condensates （BECs） with tunable interactions, harmonic potential and gain or loss term. We investigate the dynamics of bright-bright solitons, bright-dark solitons and dark-dark solitons for the time-dependent expulsive harmonic trap potential, periodically modulated harmonic trap potential, and kinklike modulated harmonic trap potential. Through the Feshbach resonance, these dynamics can be realized in experiments by suitable control of time-dependent trap parameters, atomic interactions, and interaction with thermal cloud.
Electron Scattering From Atoms, Molecules, Nuclei, and Bulk Matter
Whelan, Colm T
2005-01-01
Topics that are covered include electron scattering in the scanning TEM; basic theory of inelastic electron imaging; study of confined atoms by electron excitation; helium bubbles created in extreme pressure with application to nuclear safety; lithium ion implantation; electron and positron scattering from clusters; electron scattering from physi- and chemi-absorbed molecules on surfaces; coincidence studies; electron scattering from biological molecules; electron spectroscopy as a tool for environmental science; electron scattering in the presence of intense fields; electron scattering from astrophysical molecules; electon interatctions an detection of x-ray radiation.
Foot, Christopher J
2007-01-01
This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen
Improved limits on interactions of low-mass spin-0 dark matter from atomic clock spectroscopy
Stadnik, Y. V.; Flambaum, V. V.
2016-01-01
Low-mass (sub-eV) spin-0 dark matter particles, which form a coherently oscillating classical field $\\phi = \\phi_0 \\cos(m_\\phi t)$, can induce oscillating variations in the fundamental constants through their interactions with the Standard Model sector. We calculate the effects of such possible interactions, which may include the linear interaction of $\\phi$ with the Higgs boson, on atomic and molecular transitions. Using recent atomic clock spectroscopy measurements, we derive new limits on ...
Using time reversal symmetry for sensitive incoherent matter-wave Sagnac interferometry
Japha, Y.; Arzouan, O.; Avishai, Y.; Folman, R.
2007-01-01
We present a theory of the transmission of incoherent guided matter-waves through Sagnac interferometers. Interferometer configurations with only one input and one output port have a property similar to the phase rigidity observed in the transmission through Aharonov-Bohm interferometers in coherent mesoscopic electronics. This property is connected to the existence of counterpropagating paths of equal length and enables the operation of such matter-wave interferometers with incoherent source...
Wave Mechanics of a Two Wire Atomic Beamsplitter
Bortolotti, Daniele C. E.; Bohn, John L.
2003-01-01
We consider the problem of an atomic beam propagating quantum mechanically through an atom beam splitter. Casting the problem in an adiabatic representation (in the spirit of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in molecular physics) sheds light on explicit effects due to non-adiabatic passage of the atoms through the splitter region. We are thus able to probe the fully three dimensional structure of the beam splitter, gathering quantitative information about mode-mixing, splitting ratios,and r...
Wave Mechanics of a Two Wire Atomic Beamsplitter
Bortolotti, D C E; Bortolotti, Daniele C. E.; Bohn, John L.
2004-01-01
We consider the problem of an atomic beam propagating quantum mechanically through an atom beam splitter. Casting the problem in an adiabatic representation (in the spirit of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in molecular physics) sheds light on explicit effects due to non-adiabatic passage of the atoms through the splitter region. We are thus able to probe the fully three dimensional structure of the beam splitter, gathering quantitative information about mode-mixing, splitting ratios,and reflection and transmission probabilities.
Wave mechanics of a two-wire atomic beam splitter
We consider the problem of an atomic beam propagating quantum mechanically through an atom beam splitter. Casting the problem in an adiabatic representation (in the spirit of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in molecular physics) sheds light on explicit effects due to nonadiabatic passage of the atoms through the splitter region. We are thus able to probe the fully three-dimensional structure of the beam splitter, gathering quantitative information about mode mixing, splitting ratios, and reflection and transmission probabilities
Evidence of wave-particle duality for single fast hydrogen atoms.
Schmidt, H T; Fischer, D; Berenyi, Z; Cocke, C L; Gudmundsson, M; Haag, N; Johansson, H A B; Källberg, A; Levin, S B; Reinhed, P; Sassenberg, U; Schuch, R; Simonsson, A; Støchkel, K; Cederquist, H
2008-08-22
We report the direct observation of interference effects in a Young's double-slit experiment where the interfering waves are two spatially separated components of the de Broglie wave of single 1.3 MeV hydrogen atoms formed close to either target nucleus in H++H2 electron-transfer collisions. Quantum interference strongly influences the results even though the hydrogen atoms have a de Broglie wavelength, lambda_{dB}, as small as 25 fm. PMID:18764612
On Wave Dark Matter, Shells in Elliptical Galaxies, and the Axioms of General Relativity
Bray, Hubert L
2012-01-01
This paper is a sequel to the author's paper entitled "On Dark Matter, Spiral Galaxies, and the Axioms of General Relativity" [arXiv:1004.4016] which explored a geometrically natural axiomatic definition for dark matter modeled by a scalar field satisfying the Einstein-Klein-Gordon wave equations which, after much calculation, was shown to be consistent with the observed spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxies. We give an update on where things stand on this "wave dark matter" model of dark matter (aka scalar field dark matter and boson stars), an interesting alternative to the WIMP model of dark matter, and discuss how it has the potential to help explain the long-observed interleaved shell patterns, also known as ripples, in the images of elliptical galaxies.
Intermixing between four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing in a four-level atomic system
Zhang Yanpeng; Brown, Andy W; Gan Chenli; Xiao Min [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States)
2007-09-14
We investigate the interplay between six-wave mixing (SWM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) resulting from atomic coherence and polarization beat in a four-level atomic system. The dressed FWM evolution and competition pathways can be controlled by the coupling field to exhibit two FWM and SWM turning points, FWM+SWM, and FWM+FWM interference regions. Quantum interference between two FWM or one FWM and one SWM channels leads to nonlinear signal enhancement and suppression under different conditions. The fifth-order nonlinear response can be obtained by the phase control of the polarization beat between the FWM and SWM signals.
Massive gravitons as dark matter and gravitational waves
Aoki, Katsuki; Mukohyama, Shinji
2016-01-01
We consider the possibility that the massive graviton is a viable candidate of dark matter in the context of bimetric gravity. We first derive the energy-momentum tensor of the massive graviton and show that it indeed behaves as that of dark matter fluid. We then discuss a production mechanism and the present abundance of massive gravitons as dark matter. Since the metric to which ordinary matter fields couple is a linear combination of the two mass eigenstates of bigravity, production of mas...
Coherent manipulation of spin wave vector for polarization of photons in an atomic ensemble
Li, Shujing; Xu, Zhongxiao; Zheng, Haiyan; ZHAO, XINGBO; Wu, Yuelong; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2011-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate the manipulation of two-orthogonal components of a spin wave in an atomic ensemble. Based on Raman two-photon transition and Larmor spin precession induced by magnetic field pulses, the coherent rotations between the two components of the spin wave is controllably achieved. Successively, the two manipulated spin-wave components are mapped into two orthogonal polarized optical emissions, respectively. By measuring Ramsey fringes of the retrieved optical signals, t...
Effects of ion-atom collisions on the propagation and damping of ion-acoustic waves
Andersen, H.K.; D'Angelo, N.; Jensen, Vagn Orla;
1968-01-01
Experiments are described on ion-acoustic wave propagation and damping in alkali plasmas of various degrees of ionization. An increase of the ratio Te/Ti from 1 to approximately 3-4, caused by ion-atom collisions, results in a decrease of the (Landau) damping of the waves. At high gas pressure and....../or low wave frequency a "fluid" picture adequately describes the experimental results....
Baker, John G.; Thorpe, James Ira
2012-01-01
We consider a class of proposed gravitational wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, non-inertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nea...
Cherif, Abour A.; Adams, Gerald E.; Cannon, Charles E.
1997-01-01
Describes several activities used to teach students from middle school age to college nonmajors about the nature of matter, atoms, molecules and the periodic table. Strategies integrate such approaches as hands-on activities, visualization, writing, demonstrations, role play, and guided inquiry. For example, the periodic table is viewed as a town…
Full text: Full text: Frequency-modulation AFM can be combined with scanning tunneling microscopy, yielding a simultaneous data set for current and average force gradient. Ternes et al. have shown that for some metallic contacts, force and current are proportional. The figure shows an example, where combined AFM/STM reveals two strongly distinct aspects of the atomic structure of matter. The gray veil depicts the inverted tunneling current between a CO molecule adsorbed on Cu(111) and a tungsten tip, while the colored surface shows the corresponding force profiles, where the left image corresponds to a W tip oriented in a direction, the right to a direction and the bottom to a direction. While the simultaneous acquisition of current and force can reveal new information about the atomic and electronic structure of matter, the tunneling current can modify the atomic forces. This phantom force, a modification of the electrostatic attraction between tip and sample, originates in an alteration of the effective potential difference between tip and sample caused by strongly localized voltage drop induced by the tunneling current. The talk discusses the merits of combined STM/AFM as well as the challenges, in particular with respect to tip preparation and characterization. (author)
Coherent manipulation of spin-wave vector for polarization of photons in an atomic ensemble
Li Shujing; Xu Zhongxiao; Zheng Haiyan; Zhao Xingbo; Wu Yuelong; Wang Hai; Xie Changde; Peng Kunchi [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)
2011-10-15
We experimentally demonstrate the manipulation of two orthogonal components of a spin wave in an atomic ensemble. Based on Raman two-photon transition and Larmor spin precession induced by magnetic field pulses, the coherent rotations between the two components of the spin wave are controllably achieved. Successively, the two manipulated spin-wave components are mapped into two orthogonal polarized optical emissions. By measuring Ramsey fringes of the retrieved optical signals, the {pi}/2-pulse fidelity of {approx}96% is obtained. The presented manipulation scheme can be used to build an arbitrary rotation for qubit operations in quantum information processing based on atomic ensembles.
Coherent manipulation of spin wave vector for polarization of photons in an atomic ensemble
Li, Shujing; Zheng, Haiyan; Zhao, Xingbo; Wu, Yuelong; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2011-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate the manipulation of two-orthogonal components of a spin wave in an atomic ensemble. Based on Raman two-photon transition and Larmor spin precession induced by magnetic field pulses, the coherent rotations between the two components of the spin wave is controllably achieved. Successively, the two manipulated spin-wave components are mapped into two orthogonal polarized optical emissions, respectively. By measuring Ramsey fringes of the retrieved optical signals, the \\pi/2-pulse fidelity of ~96% is obtained. The presented manipulation scheme can be used to build an arbitrary rotation for qubit operations in quantum information processing based on atomic ensembles.
Coherent manipulation of spin-wave vector for polarization of photons in an atomic ensemble
We experimentally demonstrate the manipulation of two orthogonal components of a spin wave in an atomic ensemble. Based on Raman two-photon transition and Larmor spin precession induced by magnetic field pulses, the coherent rotations between the two components of the spin wave are controllably achieved. Successively, the two manipulated spin-wave components are mapped into two orthogonal polarized optical emissions. By measuring Ramsey fringes of the retrieved optical signals, the π/2-pulse fidelity of ∼96% is obtained. The presented manipulation scheme can be used to build an arbitrary rotation for qubit operations in quantum information processing based on atomic ensembles.
A Gravitational Wave Detector Based on an Atom Interferometer Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational waves are tiny perturbations in the curvature of space-time that arise from accelerating masses – according to Einstein’s general...
Flambaum, Victor
2016-05-01
Low-mass boson dark matter particles produced after Big Bang form classical field and/or topological defects. In contrast to traditional dark matter searches, effects produced by interaction of an ordinary matter with this field and defects may be first power in the underlying interaction strength rather than the second or fourth power (which appears in a traditional search for the dark matter). This may give a huge advantage since the dark matter interaction constant is extremely small. Interaction between the density of the dark matter particles and ordinary matter produces both `slow' cosmological evolution and oscillating variations of the fundamental constants including the fine structure constant alpha and particle masses. Recent atomic dysprosium spectroscopy measurements and the primordial helium abundance data allowed us to improve on existing constraints on the quadratic interactions of the scalar dark matter with the photon, electron and light quarks by up to 15 orders of magnitude. Limits on the linear and quadratic interactions of the dark matter with W and Z bosons have been obtained for the first time. In addition to traditional methods to search for the variation of the fundamental constants (atomic clocks, quasar spectra, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, etc) we discuss variations in phase shifts produced in laser/maser interferometers (such as giant LIGO, Virgo, GEO600 and TAMA300, and the table-top silicon cavity and sapphire interferometers), changes in pulsar rotational frequencies (which may have been observed already in pulsar glitches), non-gravitational lensing of cosmic radiation and the time-delay of pulsar signals. Other effects of dark matter and dark energy include apparent violation of the fundamental symmetries: oscillating or transient atomic electric dipole moments, precession of electron and nuclear spins about the direction of Earth's motion through an axion condensate, and axion-mediated spin-gravity couplings, violation of Lorentz
Semi-classical description of matter wave interferometers and hybrid quantum systems
Schneider, Mathias
2015-02-16
This work considers the semi-classical description of two applications involving cold atoms. This is, on one hand, the behavior of a BOSE-EINSTEIN condensate in hybrid systems, i.e. in contact with a microscopic object (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, etc.). On the other, the evolution of phase space distributions in matter wave interferometers utilizing ray tracing methods was discussed. For describing condensates in hybrid systems, one can map the GROSS-PITAEVSKII equation, a differential equation in the complex-valued macroscopic wave function, onto a system of two differential equations in density and phase. Neglecting quantum dispersion, one obtains a semiclassical description which is easily modified to incorporate interactions between condensate and microscopical object. In our model, these interactions comprise attractive forces (CASIMIR-POLDER forces) and loss of condensed atoms due to inelastic collisions at the surface of the object. Our model exhibited the excitation of sound waves that are triggered by the object's rapid immersion, and spread across the condensate thereafter. Moreover, local particle loss leads to a shrinking of the bulk condensate. We showed that the total number of condensed particles is decreasing potentially in the beginning (large condensate, strong mean field interaction), while it decays exponentially in the long-time limit (small condensate, mean field inetraction negligible). For representing the physics of matter wave interferometers in phase space, we utilized the WIGNER function. In semi-classical approximation, which again consists in ignoring the quantum dispersion, this representation is subject to the same equation of motion as classical phase space distributions, i.e. the LIOUVILLE equation. This implies that time evolution of theWIGNER function follows a phase space flow that consists of classical trajectories (classical transport). This means, for calculating a time-evolved distribution, one has know the initial
Semi-classical description of matter wave interferometers and hybrid quantum systems
This work considers the semi-classical description of two applications involving cold atoms. This is, on one hand, the behavior of a BOSE-EINSTEIN condensate in hybrid systems, i.e. in contact with a microscopic object (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, etc.). On the other, the evolution of phase space distributions in matter wave interferometers utilizing ray tracing methods was discussed. For describing condensates in hybrid systems, one can map the GROSS-PITAEVSKII equation, a differential equation in the complex-valued macroscopic wave function, onto a system of two differential equations in density and phase. Neglecting quantum dispersion, one obtains a semiclassical description which is easily modified to incorporate interactions between condensate and microscopical object. In our model, these interactions comprise attractive forces (CASIMIR-POLDER forces) and loss of condensed atoms due to inelastic collisions at the surface of the object. Our model exhibited the excitation of sound waves that are triggered by the object's rapid immersion, and spread across the condensate thereafter. Moreover, local particle loss leads to a shrinking of the bulk condensate. We showed that the total number of condensed particles is decreasing potentially in the beginning (large condensate, strong mean field interaction), while it decays exponentially in the long-time limit (small condensate, mean field inetraction negligible). For representing the physics of matter wave interferometers in phase space, we utilized the WIGNER function. In semi-classical approximation, which again consists in ignoring the quantum dispersion, this representation is subject to the same equation of motion as classical phase space distributions, i.e. the LIOUVILLE equation. This implies that time evolution of theWIGNER function follows a phase space flow that consists of classical trajectories (classical transport). This means, for calculating a time-evolved distribution, one has know the initial
Twin Matter Waves for Interferometry Beyond the Classical Limit
Lücke, Bernd; Scherer, Manuel; Kruse, Jens;
2011-01-01
Interferometers with atomic ensembles constitute an integral part of modern precision metrology. However, these interferometers are fundamentally restricted by the shot noise limit, which can only be overcome by creating quantum entanglement among the atoms. We used spin dynamics in Bose-Einstein...
Dynamic effects of electromagnetic wave on a damped two-level atom
Zeng, Z Y; Kuang, L M; Zhang, L D
1999-01-01
We studied the dynamic effects of an electromagnetic(EM) wave with circular polarization on a two-level damped atom. The results demonstrate interesting ac Stark split of energy levels of damped atom. The split levels have different energies and lifetimes, both of which depend on the interaction and the damping rate of atom. When the frequency of the EM wave is tuned to satisfy the resonance condition in the strong coupling limit, the transition probability exhibits Rabi oscillation. Momentum transfer between atom and EM wave shows similar properties as the transition probability under resonance condition. For a damped atom interacting with EM field, there exists no longer stable state. More importantly, if the angular frequency of the EM wave is tuned the same as the atomic transition frequency and its amplitude is adjusted appropriately according to the damping coefficients, we can prepare a particular 'Dressed State' of the coupled system between atom and EM field and can keep the system coherently in this...
Stationary rotary force waves on the liquid-air core interface of a swirl atomizer
Chinn, J. J.; Cooper, D.; Yule, A. J.; Nasr, G. G.
2015-11-01
A one-dimensional wave equation, applicable to the waves on the surface of the air-core of a swirl atomizer is derived analytically, by analogy to the similar one-dimensional wave equation derivation for shallow-water gravity waves. In addition an analogy to the flow of water over a weir is used to produce an analytical derivation of the flow over the lip of the outlet of a swirl atomizer using the principle of maximum flow. The principle of maximum flow is substantiated by reference to continuity of the discharge in the direction of streaming. For shallow-water gravity waves, the phase velocity is the same expression as for the critical velocity over the weir. Similarly, in the present work, the wave phase velocity on the surface of the air-core is shown to be the same expression as for the critical velocity for the flow at the outlet. In addition, this wave phase velocity is shown to be the square root of the product of the radial acceleration and the liquid thickness, as analogous with the wave phase velocity for shallow water gravity waves, which is the square root of the product of the acceleration due to gravity and the water depth. The work revisits the weirs and flumes work of Binnie et al. but using a different methodology. The results corroborate with the work of Binnie. High speed video, Laser Doppler Anemometry and deflected laser beam experimental work has been carried out on an oversize Perspex (Plexiglas) swirl atomizer. Three distinctive types of waves were detected: helical striations, low amplitude random ripples and low frequency stationary waves. It is the latter wave type that is considered further in this article. The experimentally observed waves appear to be stationary upon the axially moving flow. The mathematical analysis allows for the possibility of a negative value for the phase velocity expression. Therefore the critical velocity and the wave phase velocity do indeed lead to stationary waves in the atomizer. A quantitative comparison
The Production of Strong Blast Waves through Intense Laser Irradiation of Atomic Clusters
An understanding of radiation effects on the evolution of shock waves is of great importance to many problems in astrophysics. Shock waves driven by a laser-heated plasma are attractive for laboratory investigation of these phenomena. Recent studies of intense short-pulse laser interactions with gases of atomic clusters indicate a potential avenue to access this regime of radiative hydrodynamics. We have measured the energy absorption efficiency of high-intensity, picosecond laser pulses in low-density gases composed of large atomic clusters and find that the energy absorption can be very high (>95%), producing a high-temperature plasma filament which consequently produces a strong blast wave. Interferometric characterization of these shock waves indicates that in high-Z gases such as Xe, radiation transport plays an important role in the evolution of the shock wave. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society
Do Neutrino Wave Functions Overlap and Does it Matter?
Li, Cheng-Hsien
2016-01-01
Studies of neutrinos commonly ignore anti-symmetrization of their wave functions. This implicitly assumes that either spatial wave functions for neutrinos with approximately the same momentum do not overlap or their overlapping has no measurable consequences. We examine these assumptions by considering the evolution of three-dimensional neutrino wave packets (WPs). We find that it is perfectly adequate to treat accelerator and reactor neutrinos as separate WPs for typical experimental setup. While solar and supernova neutrinos correspond to overlapping WPs, they can be treated effectively as non-overlapping for analyses of their detection.
A discussion on the double wave theory and its applications to description of radiation atoms
无
2001-01-01
The double wave theory (DWT), sometimes called the“non_statistical quantum mechanics” by its proposer, describes the state of each single particle in an ensemble with two wave functions which have a parameter corresponding to the particle. However the basic postulates of the DWT show that this theory can hardly describe any quantum rules of the microscopic world. In the double wave descriptions, the wave feature of the behavior of microscopic particles and the discontinuity characteristic of energy almost disappear. The discussions on several problems of the radiation atoms made by the DWT's proposer on the basis of this theory are either mathematically incorrect or inconsistent with experiments and the usual theory.
Extracting chemical information from plane wave calculations by a 3D 'fuzzy atoms' analysis
Bakó, I.; Stirling, A.; Seitsonen, A. P.; Mayer, I.
2013-03-01
Bond order and valence indices have been calculated by the method of the three-dimensional 'fuzzy atoms' analysis, using the numerical molecular orbitals obtained from plane wave DFT calculations, i.e., without introducing any external atom-centered functions. Weight functions of both Hirshfeld and Becke types have been applied. The results are rather close to the similar 'fuzzy atoms' ones obtained by using atom-centered basis sets and agree well with the chemical expectations, stressing the power of the genuine chemical concepts.
Vacuum Rabi Oscillation of an Atom without Rotating-Wave Approximation
WANG Fa-Qiang; LIU Wei-Ci; LIANG Rui-Sheng
2008-01-01
@@ We have investigated vacuum Rabi oscillation of an atom coupled with single-mode cavity field exactly, and compared the results with that of the Jaynes-Cummings (J-C) model.The results show that for resonant case, there is no Rabi oscillation for an atom.For small detuning and weak coupling case, the probability for the atom in excited state oscillates against time with different frequencies and amplitudes from that of the J-C model.It exhibits that the counter-rotating wave interaction could significantly effect the dynamic hehaviour of the atom, even under the condition in which the RWA is considered to be justified.
Vacuum Rabi Oscillation of an Atom without Rotating-Wave Approximation
We have investigated vacuum Rabi oscillation of an atom coupled with single-mode cavity field exactly, and compared the results with that of the Jaynes–Cummings (J–C) model. The results show that for resonant case, there is no Rabi oscillation for an atom. For small detuning and weak coupling case, the probability for the atom in excited state oscillates against time with different frequencies and amplitudes from that of the J-C model. It exhibits that the counter-rotating wave interaction could significantly effect the dynamic behaviour of the atom, even under the condition in which the RWA is considered to be justified
Time evolution of atomic inversion in a standing wave light field
Wen Yin(殷雯); Jiuqing Liang(梁九卿); Yunzhong Lai(赖云忠); Qiwei Yan(严启伟)
2003-01-01
The interaction between an atomic beam of two-level atoms and a standing wave light field has beenstudied by the exact solution of a time-dependent quantum system developed recently. When the initialatomic state is choosen to be ground, we find that with the limit of zero detuning the atoms will oscillatebetween the upper and the lower levels with a decaying amplitude. The most interesting result obtainedin this paper is when the initial atomic state is a particular superposition of the two levels, now the systemdoes not oscillate at any time.
Design and Fabrication of a Chip-based Continuous-wave Atom Laser
Power, E. P.; George, L; Vanderelzen, B.; Herrera-Fierro, P.; Murphy, R; Yalisove, S. M.; Raithel, G.
2012-01-01
We present a design for a continuous-wave (CW) atom laser on a chip and describe the process used to fabricate the device. Our design aims to integrate quadrupole magnetic guiding of ground state Rb atoms with continuous surface adsorption evaporative cooling to create a continuous Bose-Einstein condensate; out-coupled atoms from the condensate should realize a CW atom laser. We choose a geometry with three wires embedded in a spiral pattern in a silicon subtrate. The guide features an integr...
Manipulating localized matter waves in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates
Manikandan, K.; Muruganandam, P.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2016-03-01
We analyze vector localized solutions of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with variable nonlinearity parameters and external trap potentials through a similarity transformation technique which transforms the two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations into a pair of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with constant coefficients under a specific integrability condition. In this analysis we consider three different types of external trap potentials: a time-independent trap, a time-dependent monotonic trap, and a time-dependent periodic trap. We point out the existence of different interesting localized structures; namely, rogue waves, dark- and bright-soliton rogue waves, and rogue-wave breatherlike structures for the above three cases of trap potentials. We show how the vector localized density profiles in a constant background get deformed when we tune the strength of the trap parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the nature of the trajectories of the nonautonomous rogue waves. We also construct the dark-dark rogue wave solution for the repulsive-repulsive interaction of two-component BECs and analyze the associated characteristics for the three different kinds of traps. We then deduce single-, two-, and three-composite rogue waves for three-component BECs and discuss the correlated characteristics when we tune the strength of the trap parameter for different trap potentials.
Mohamadou, Alidou [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 538, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Wamba, Etienne; Kofane, Timoleon C. [Laboratory of Mechanics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Doka, Serge Y. [Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, P.O. Box 55, Maroua (Cameroon); Ekogo, Thierry B. [Departement de Physique, Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku, B.P. 943, Franceville (Gabonese Republic)
2011-08-15
We examine the generation of bright matter-wave solitons in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing Bose-Einstein condensates with a time-dependent complex potential, which is composed of a repulsive parabolic background potential and a gravitational field. By performing a modified lens-type transformation, an explicit expression for the growth rate of a purely growing modulational instability is presented and analyzed. We point out the effects of the gravitational field, as well as of the parameter related to the feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate, on the instability growth rate. It is evident from numerical simulations that the feeding with atoms and the magnetic trap have opposite effects on the dynamics of the system. It is shown that the feeding or loss parameter can be well used to control the instability domain. Our study shows that the gravitational field changes the condensate trail of the soliton trains during the propagation. We also perform a numerical analysis to solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent complicated potential. The numerical results on the effect of both the gravitational field and the parameter of feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate agree well with predictions of the linear stability analysis. Another result of the present work is the modification of the background wave function in the Thomas-Fermi approximation during the numerical simulations.
We examine the generation of bright matter-wave solitons in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing Bose-Einstein condensates with a time-dependent complex potential, which is composed of a repulsive parabolic background potential and a gravitational field. By performing a modified lens-type transformation, an explicit expression for the growth rate of a purely growing modulational instability is presented and analyzed. We point out the effects of the gravitational field, as well as of the parameter related to the feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate, on the instability growth rate. It is evident from numerical simulations that the feeding with atoms and the magnetic trap have opposite effects on the dynamics of the system. It is shown that the feeding or loss parameter can be well used to control the instability domain. Our study shows that the gravitational field changes the condensate trail of the soliton trains during the propagation. We also perform a numerical analysis to solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent complicated potential. The numerical results on the effect of both the gravitational field and the parameter of feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate agree well with predictions of the linear stability analysis. Another result of the present work is the modification of the background wave function in the Thomas-Fermi approximation during the numerical simulations.
Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Meier, T.
2016-03-01
Nonlinearity is the driving force for numerous important effects in nature typically showing transitions between different regimes, regular, chaotic or catastrophic behavior. Localized nonlinear modes have been the focus of intense research in areas such as fluid and gas dynamics, photonics, atomic and solid state physics etc. Due to the richness of the behavior of nonlinear systems and due to the severe numerical demands of accurate three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations presently only little knowledge is available on the dynamics of complex nonlinear modes in 3D. Here, we investigate the dynamics of 3D non-coaxial matter wave vortices that are trapped in a parabolic potential and interact via a repulsive nonlinearity. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the existence of an unexpected and fascinating nonlinear regime that starts immediately when the nonlinearity is switched-on and is characterized by a smooth dynamics representing torque-free precession with nutations. The reported motion is proven to be robust regarding various effects such as the number of particles, dissipation and trap deformations and thus should be observable in suitably designed experiments. Since our theoretical approach, i.e., coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, is quite generic, we expect that the obtained novel dynamical behavior should also exist in other nonlinear systems.
Gravitational decoherence of atomic interferometers
Lamine, Brahim; Jaekel, Marc-Thierry; Reynaud, Serge
2002-01-01
We study the decoherence of atomic interferometers due to the scattering of stochastic gravitational waves. We evaluate the `direct' gravitational effect registered by the phase of the matter waves as well as the `indirect' effect registered by the light waves used as beam-splitters and mirrors for the matter waves. Considering as an example the space project HYPER, we show that both effects are negligible for the presently studied interferometers.