An improved Kalman Smoother for atmospheric inversions
L. M. P. Bruhwiler
2005-03-01
Full Text Available We explore the use of a fixed-lag Kalman smoother for sequential estimation of atmospheric carbon dioxide fluxes. This technique takes advantage of the fact that most of the information about the spatial distribution of sources and sinks is observable within a 5 few months to half of a year of emission. After this period, the spatial structure of sources is diluted by transport and cannot significantly constrain flux estimates. We therefore describe an estimation technique that steps through the observations sequentially, using only the subset of observations and modeled transport fields that most strongly constrain the fluxes at a particular time step. Estimates of each set of fluxes 10 are sequentially updated multiple times, using measurements taken at different times, and the estimates and their uncertainties are shown to quickly converge. Final flux estimates are incorporated into the background state of CO_{2} and transported forward in time, and the final flux uncertainties and covariances are taken into account when estimating the covariances of the fluxes still being estimated. The computational demands 15 of this technique are greatly reduced in comparison to the standard Bayesian synthesis technique where all observations are used at once with transport fields spanning the entire period of the observations. It therefore becomes possible to solve larger inverse problems with more observations and for fluxes discretized at finer spatial scales. We also discuss the differences between running the inversion simultaneously with the 20 transport model and running it entirely off-line with pre-calculated transport fields. We find that the latter can be done with minimal error if time series of transport fields of adequate length are pre-calculated.
An improved Kalman Smoother for atmospheric inversions
L. M. P. Bruhwiler
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We explore the use of a fixed-lag Kalman smoother for sequential estimation of atmospheric carbon dioxide fluxes. This technique takes advantage of the fact that most of the information about the spatial distribution of sources and sinks is observable within a few months to half of a year of emission. After this period, the spatial structure of sources is diluted by transport and cannot significantly constrain flux estimates. We therefore describe an estimation technique that steps through the observations sequentially, using only the subset of observations and modeled transport fields that most strongly constrain the fluxes at a particular time step. Estimates of each set of fluxes are sequentially updated multiple times, using measurements taken at different times, and the estimates and their uncertainties are shown to quickly converge. Final flux estimates are incorporated into the background state of CO2 and transported forward in time, and the final flux uncertainties and covariances are taken into account when estimating the covariances of the fluxes still being estimated. The computational demands of this technique are greatly reduced in comparison to the standard Bayesian synthesis technique where all observations are used at once with transport fields spanning the entire period of the observations. It therefore becomes possible to solve larger inverse problems with more observations and for fluxes discretized at finer spatial scales. We also discuss the differences between running the inversion simultaneously with the transport model and running it entirely off-line with pre-calculated transport fields. We find that the latter can be done with minimal error if time series of transport fields of adequate length are pre-calculated.
Evaluating atmospheric methane inversion model results for Pallas, northern Finland
Tsuruta, Aki; Aalto, Tuula; Backman, Leif; Peters, Wouter; Krol, Maarten; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Hatakka, Juha; Heikkinen, Pauli; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Spahni, Renato; Paramonova, Nina N.
2015-01-01
A state-of-the-art inverse model, CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS), was used to optimize estimates of methane (CH4) surface fluxes using atmospheric observations of CH4 as a constraint. The model consists of the latest version of the TM5 atmospheric chemistry-transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter based data assimilation system. The model was constrained by atmospheric methane surface concentrations, obtained from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG). Pri...
An improved Kalman Smoother for atmospheric inversions
Bruhwiler, L.; Michalak, A.; Peters, W.; Baker, D.; Tans, P.P.
2005-01-01
We explore the use of a fixed-lag Kalman smoother for sequential estimation of atmospheric carbon dioxide fluxes. This technique takes advantage of the fact that most of the information about the spatial distribution of sources and sinks is observable within a few months to half of a year of emissio
Objectified quantification of uncertainties in Bayesian atmospheric inversions
A. Berchet
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Classical Bayesian atmospheric inversions process atmospheric observations and prior emissions, the two being connected by an observation operator picturing mainly the atmospheric transport. These inversions rely on prescribed errors in the observations, the prior emissions and the observation operator. At the meso-scale, inversion results are very sensitive to the prescribed error distributions, which are not accurately known. The classical Bayesian framework experiences difficulties in quantifying the impact of mis-specified error distributions on the optimized fluxes. In order to cope with this issue, we rely on recent research results and enhance the classical Bayesian inversion framework through a marginalization on all the plausible errors that can be prescribed in the system. The marginalization consists in computing inversions for all possible error distributions weighted by the probability of occurence of the error distributions. The posterior distribution of the fluxes calculated by the marginalization is complicated and not explicitly describable. We then carry out a Monte-Carlo sampling relying on an approximation of the probability of occurence of the error distributions. This approximation is deduced from the well-tested algorithm of the Maximum of Likelihood. Thus, the marginalized inversion relies on an automatic objectified diagnosis of the error statistics, without any prior knowledge about the matrices. It robustly includes the uncertainties on the error distributions, contrary to what is classically done with frozen expert-knowledge error statistics. Some expert knowledge is still used in the method for the choice of emission aggregation pattern and sampling protocol in order to reduce the computation costs of the method. The relevance and the robustness of the method is tested on a case study: the inversion of methane surface fluxes at the meso-scale with real observation sites in Eurasia. Observing System Simulation
Inversion for atmosphere duct parameters using real radar sea clutter
This paper addresses the problem of estimating the lower atmospheric refractivity (M profile) under nonstandard propagation conditions frequently encountered in low altitude maritime radar applications. The vertical structure of the refractive environment is modeled using five parameters and the horizontal structure is modeled using five parameters. The refractivity model is implemented with and without a priori constraint on the duct strength as might be derived from soundings or numerical weather-prediction models. An electromagnetic propagation model maps the refractivity structure into a replica field. Replica fields are compared with the observed clutter using a squared-error objective function. A global search for the 10 environmental parameters is performed using genetic algorithms. The inversion algorithm is implemented on the basis of S-band radar sea-clutter data from Wallops Island, Virginia (SPANDAR). Reference data are from range-dependent refractivity profiles obtained with a helicopter. The inversion is assessed (i) by comparing the propagation predicted from the radar-inferred refractivity profiles with that from the helicopter profiles, (ii) by comparing the refractivity parameters from the helicopter soundings with those estimated. This technique could provide near-real-time estimation of ducting effects. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
Inversion for atmosphere duct parameters using real radar sea clutter
Sheng Zheng; Fang Han-Xian
2012-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of estimating the lower atmospheric refractivity (M profile) under nonstandard propagation conditions frequently encountered in low altitude maritime radar applications.The vertical structure of the refractive environment is modeled using five parameters and the horizontal structure is modeled using five parameters.The refractivity model is implemented with and without a priori constraint on the duct strength as might be derived from soundings or numerical weather-prediction models.An electromagnetic propagation model maps the refractivity structure into a replica field.Replica fields are compared with the observed clutter using a squared-error objective function.A global search for the 10 environmental parameters is performed using genetic algorithms.The inversion algorithm is implemented on the basis of S-band radar sea-clutter data from Wallops Island,Virginia (SPANDAR).Reference data are from range-dependent refractivity profiles obtained with a helicopter. The inversion is assessed (i) by comparing the propagation predicted from the radar-inferred refractivity profiles with that from the helicopter profiles,(ii) by comparing the refractivity parameters from the helicopter soundings with those estimated.This technique could provide near-real-time estimation of ducting effects.
Atmospheric Inverse Estimates of Methane Emissions from Central California
Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hirsch, Adam; MacDonald, Clinton; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Fischer, Marc L.
2008-11-21
Methane mixing ratios measured at a tall-tower are compared to model predictions to estimate surface emissions of CH{sub 4} in Central California for October-December 2007 using an inverse technique. Predicted CH{sub 4} mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and simulated atmospheric trajectories. The atmospheric trajectories, along with surface footprints, are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated CH{sub 4} emissions. Three inverse model estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions are reported. First, linear regressions of modeled and measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios obtain slopes of 0.73 {+-} 0.11 and 1.09 {+-} 0.14 using California specific and Edgar 3.2 emission maps respectively, suggesting that actual CH{sub 4} emissions were about 37 {+-} 21% higher than California specific inventory estimates. Second, a Bayesian 'source' analysis suggests that livestock emissions are 63 {+-} 22% higher than the a priori estimates. Third, a Bayesian 'region' analysis is carried out for CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions, which shows that inventory CH{sub 4} emissions from the Central Valley are underestimated and uncertainties in CH{sub 4} emissions are reduced for sub-regions near the tower site, yielding best estimates of flux from those regions consistent with 'source' analysis results. The uncertainty reductions for regions near the tower indicate that a regional network of measurements will be necessary to provide accurate estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions.
Inversion of Atmospheric Tracer Measurements, Localization of Sources
Issartel, J.-P.; Cabrit, B.; Hourdin, F.; Idelkadi, A.
When abnormal concentrations of a pollutant are observed in the atmosphere, the question of its origin arises immediately. The radioactivity from Tchernobyl was de- tected in Sweden before the accident was announced. This situation emphasizes the psychological, political and medical stakes of a rapid identification of sources. In tech- nical terms, most industrial sources can be modeled as a fixed point at ground level with undetermined duration. The classical method of identification involves the cal- culation of a backtrajectory departing from the detector with an upstream integration of the wind field. We were first involved in such questions as we evaluated the ef- ficiency of the international monitoring network planned in the frame of the Com- prehensive Test Ban Treaty. We propose a new approach of backtracking based upon the use of retroplumes associated to available measurements. Firstly the retroplume is related to inverse transport processes, describing quantitatively how the air in a sam- ple originates from regions that are all the more extended and diffuse as we go back far in the past. Secondly it clarifies the sensibility of the measurement with respect to all potential sources. It is therefore calculated by adjoint equations including of course diffusive processes. Thirdly, the statistical interpretation, valid as far as sin- gle particles are concerned, should not be used to investigate the position and date of a macroscopic source. In that case, the retroplume rather induces a straightforward constraint between the intensity of the source and its position. When more than one measurements are available, including zero valued measurements, the source satisfies the same number of linear relations tightly related to the retroplumes. This system of linear relations can be handled through the simplex algorithm in order to make the above intensity-position correlation more restrictive. This method enables to manage in a quantitative manner the
Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan
2014-06-01
In this study we consider large wind farms in a conventionally neutral atmospheric boundary layer. In large wind farms the energy extracted by the turbines is dominated by downward vertical turbulent transport of kinetic energy from the airflow above the farm. However, atmospheric boundary layers are almost always capped by an inversion layer which slows down the entrainment rate and counteracts boundary layer growth. In a suite of large eddy simulations the effect of the strength of the capping inversion on the boundary layer and on the performance of a large wind farm is investigated. For simulations with and without wind turbines the results indicate that the boundary layer growth is effectively limited by the capping inversion and that the entrainment rate depends strongly on the inversion strength. The power output of wind farms is shown to decrease for increasing inversions.
Sparse optimization for inverse problems in atmospheric modelling
Adam, Lukáš; Branda, Martin
2016-01-01
Roč. 79, č. 3 (2016), s. 256-266. ISSN 1364-8152 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14287 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Inverse modelling * Sparse optimization * Integer optimization * Least squares * European tracer experiment * Free Matlab codes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.420, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/adam-0457037.pdf
J. F. Meirink
2008-11-01
Full Text Available A four-dimensional variational (4D-Var data assimilation system for inverse modelling of atmospheric methane emissions is presented. The system is based on the TM5 atmospheric transport model. It can be used for assimilating large volumes of measurements, in particular satellite observations and quasi-continuous in-situ observations, and at the same time it enables the optimization of a large number of model parameters, specifically grid-scale emission rates. Furthermore, the variational method allows to estimate uncertainties in posterior emissions. Here, the system is applied to optimize monthly methane emissions over a 1-year time window on the basis of surface observations from the NOAA-ESRL network. The results are rigorously compared with an analogous inversion by Bergamaschi et al. (2007, which was based on the traditional synthesis approach. The posterior emissions as well as their uncertainties obtained in both inversions show a high degree of consistency. At the same time we illustrate the advantage of 4D-Var in reducing aggregation errors by optimizing emissions at the grid scale of the transport model. The full potential of the assimilation system is exploited in Meirink et al. (2008, who use satellite observations of column-averaged methane mixing ratios to optimize emissions at high spatial resolution, taking advantage of the zooming capability of the TM5 model.
Daily European CO2 fluxes inferred by inversion of atmospheric transport
Bousquet, P.; Peylin, P.; Rayner, P.; Carouge, C.; Rivier, L.; Ciais, P.; Heinrich, P.; Hourdin, F.
2002-12-01
Continuous measurements of atmospheric CO2 over continental areas offer the potential to better understand the carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Up to now, most atmospheric inversions have provided monthly fluxes averaged over large sub continental regions. Refining space and time resolution of European fluxes calculated by inversion of atmospheric transport requires i) continuous CO2 measurements over Europe, ii) a high resolution transport model that can reproduce the variability of CO2 over continents and provide continuous response functions at model resolution, and iii) an updated inverse procedure that can use the increased associated information. We use here continuous CO2 measurements obtained through AEROCARB EU project (part of CARBOEUROPE cluster) for year 1998 at 10 continental stations to retrieve daily fluxes over Europe at model resolution with LMDZ transport model. LMDZ model is a global transport model with zoom and back-transport capabilities. A zoom was defined over Europe, with 0.4° maximum resolution. Back transport is based on self-adjoint property of atmospheric transport that makes it possible to get model daily response functions at model resolution and at low computing cost. In this talk, we present the new features of the inverse procedure and we detail the LMDZ back transport. First results obtained for daily European fluxes of the two last months of 1998 are presented and analysed. The question of retrieving fossil emissions from continuous measurements is also developed.
S. M. Burrows; Rayner, P. J.; Butler, T; M. G. Lawrence
2013-01-01
Model-simulated transport of atmospheric trace components can be combined with observed concentrations to obtain estimates of ground-based sources using various inversion techniques. These approaches have been applied in the past primarily to obtain source estimates for long-lived trace gases such as CO2. We consider the application of similar techniques to source estimation for atmospheric aerosols, using as a case study the estimation of bacteria emissio...
Time-dependent atmospheric CO2 inversions based on interannually varying tracer transport
The use of inverse calculations to estimate surface CO2 fluxes from atmospheric concentration measurements has gained large attention in recent years. The success of an inversion will, among other factors, depend strongly on how realistically atmospheric tracer transport is represented by the employed transport model, as it links surface CO2 fluxes to modelled concentrations at the location of measurement stations. We present sensitivity studies demonstrating that transport modelling should be based on interannually varying meteorology, as compared to the traditional use of repeating a single year's winds only. Moreover, we propose an improved procedure of representing the concentration sampling in the model, which allows consistency with the measurements and uses their information content more efficiently. In further sensitivity tests, we estimate the effect of different spatial transport model resolutions and different meteorological driver data sets. Finally, we assess the quality of the inversion results with the help of independent measurements and flux estimates, and preliminarily discuss some of the resulting features
Nested atmospheric inversion for the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks in China
Jiang, F.; Wang, H. W.; Chen, J. M.; Zhou, L. X.; Ju, W. M.; Ding, A. J.; Liu, L. X.; Peters, W.
2013-01-01
In this study, we establish a nested atmospheric inversion system with a focus on China using the Bayesian method. The global surface is separated into 43 regions based on the 22 TransCom large regions, with 13 small regions in China. Monthly CO2 concentrations from 130 GlobalView sites and 3 additi
Branda, Martin; Adam, Lukáš
Vienna: CTBTO, 2015. [CTBT: Science and Technology 2015. 22.06.2015-26.06.2015, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14287 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Sparse Optimization * Inverse Modelling * Atmospheric Modelling http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/branda-0448985.pdf
Atmospheric inverse modeling with known physical bounds: an example from trace gas emissions
S. M. Miller
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Many inverse problems in the atmospheric sciences involve parameters with known physical constraints. Examples include non-negativity (e.g., emissions of some urban air pollutants or upward limits implied by reaction or solubility constants. However, probabilistic inverse modeling approaches based on Gaussian assumptions cannot incorporate such bounds and thus often produce unrealistic results. The atmospheric literature lacks consensus on the best means to overcome this problem, and existing atmospheric studies rely on a limited number of the possible methods with little examination of the relative merits of each. This paper investigates the applicability of several approaches to bounded inverse problems and is also the first application of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC to estimation of atmospheric trace gas fluxes. The approaches discussed here are broadly applicable. A common method of data transformations is found to unrealistically skew estimates for the examined example application. The method of Lagrange multipliers and two MCMC methods yield more realistic and accurate results. In general, the examined MCMC approaches produce the most realistic result but can require substantial computational time. Lagrange multipliers offer an appealing alternative for large, computationally intensive problems when exact uncertainty bounds are less central to the analysis. A synthetic data inversion of US anthropogenic methane emissions illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.
C. Mukherjee
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Inverse modeling applications in atmospheric chemistry are increasingly addressing the challenging statistical issues of data synthesis by adopting refined statistical analysis methods. This paper advances this line of research by addressing several central questions in inverse modeling, focusing specifically on Bayesian statistical computation. Motivated by problems of refining bottom-up estimates of source/sink fluxes of trace gas and aerosols based on increasingly high-resolution satellite retrievals of atmospheric chemical concentrations, we address head-on the need for integrating formal spatial statistical methods of residual error structure in global scale inversion models. We do this using analytically and computationally tractable spatial statistical models, know as conditional autoregressive spatial models, as components of a global inversion framework. We develop Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to explore and fit these spatial structures in an overall statistical framework that simultaneously estimates source fluxes. Additional aspects of the study extend the statistical framework to utilize priors in a more physically realistic manner, and to formally address and deal with missing data in satellite retrievals. We demonstrate the analysis in the context of inferring carbon monoxide (CO sources constrained by satellite retrievals of column CO from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT instrument on the TERRA satellite, paying special attention to evaluating performance of the inverse approach using various statistical diagnostic metrics. This is developed using synthetic data generated to resemble MOPITT data to define a~proof-of-concept and model assessment, and then in analysis of real MOPITT data.
As a part of resolving optical properties in atmosphere radiative transfer calculations, this paper focuses on obtaining aerosol optical thicknesses (AOTs) in the visible and near infrared wave band through indirect method by gleaning the values of aerosol particle size distribution parameters. Although various inverse techniques have been applied to obtain values for these parameters, we choose a stochastic particle swarm optimization (SPSO) algorithm to perform an inverse calculation. Computational performances of different inverse methods are investigated and the influence of swarm size on the inverse problem of computation particles is examined. Next, computational efficiencies of various particle size distributions and the influences of the measured errors on computational accuracy are compared. Finally, we recover particle size distributions for atmospheric aerosols over Beijing using the measured AOT data (at wavelengths λ=0.400, 0.690, 0.870, and 1.020 μm) obtained from AERONET at different times and then calculate other AOT values for this band based on the inverse results. With calculations agreeing with measured data, the SPSO algorithm shows good practicability.
New analysis indicates no thermal inversion in the atmosphere of HD 209458b
An important focus of exoplanet research is the determination of the atmospheric temperature structure of strongly irradiated gas giant planets, or hot Jupiters. HD 209458b is the prototypical exoplanet for atmospheric thermal inversions, but this assertion does not take into account recently obtained data or newer data reduction techniques. We reexamine this claim by investigating all publicly available Spitzer Space Telescope secondary-eclipse photometric data of HD 209458b and performing a self-consistent analysis. We employ data reduction techniques that minimize stellar centroid variations, apply sophisticated models to known Spitzer systematics, and account for time-correlated noise in the data. We derive new secondary-eclipse depths of 0.119% ± 0.007%, 0.123% ± 0.006%, 0.134% ± 0.035%, and 0.215% ± 0.008% in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bandpasses, respectively. We feed these results into a Bayesian atmospheric retrieval analysis and determine that it is unnecessary to invoke a thermal inversion to explain our secondary-eclipse depths. The data are well fitted by a temperature model that decreases monotonically between pressure levels of 1 and 0.01 bars. We conclude that there is no evidence for a thermal inversion in the atmosphere of HD 209458b.
Nested atmospheric inversion for the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks in China
Jiang, F; Wang, H. W.; Chen, J M; L. X. Zhou; W. M. Ju; Peters, W.
2013-01-01
In this study, we establish a~nested atmospheric inversion system with a focus on China using the Bayes theory. The global surface is separated into 43 regions based on the 22 TransCom large regions, with 13 small regions in China. Monthly CO2 concentrations from 130 GlobalView sites and a Hong Kong site are used in this system. The core component of this system is atmospheric transport matrix, which is created using the TM5 model with a horizontal resolution of 3° × 2°. The net carbon fluxes...
Inverse diffraction for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the Solar Dynamics Observatory
Torre, Gabriele; Schwartz, Richard A.; Benvenuto, Federico; Massone, Anna Maria; Piana, Michele
2015-01-01
The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides full Sun images every 1 seconds in each of 7 Extreme Ultraviolet passbands. However, for a significant amount of these images, saturation affects their most intense core, preventing scientists from a full exploitation of their physical meaning. In this paper we describe a mathematical and automatic procedure for the recovery of information in the primary saturation region based on a correlation/inversion analysis of t...
Variational approach to direct and inverse problems of atmospheric pollution studies
Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena; Penenko, Alexey
2016-04-01
We present the development of a variational approach for solving interrelated problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry concerning air pollution transport and transformations. The proposed approach allows us to carry out complex studies of different-scale physical and chemical processes using the methods of direct and inverse modeling [1-3]. We formulate the problems of risk/vulnerability and uncertainty assessment, sensitivity studies, variational data assimilation procedures [4], etc. A computational technology of constructing consistent mathematical models and methods of their numerical implementation is based on the variational principle in the weak constraint formulation specifically designed to account for uncertainties in models and observations. Algorithms for direct and inverse modeling are designed with the use of global and local adjoint problems. Implementing the idea of adjoint integrating factors provides unconditionally monotone and stable discrete-analytic approximations for convection-diffusion-reaction problems [5,6]. The general framework is applied to the direct and inverse problems for the models of transport and transformation of pollutants in Siberian and Arctic regions. The work has been partially supported by the RFBR grant 14-01-00125 and RAS Presidium Program I.33P. References: 1. V. Penenko, A.Baklanov, E. Tsvetova and A. Mahura . Direct and inverse problems in a variational concept of environmental modeling //Pure and Applied Geoph.(2012) v.169: 447-465. 2. V. V. Penenko, E. A. Tsvetova, and A. V. Penenko Development of variational approach for direct and inverse problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2015, Vol. 51, No. 3, p. 311-319, DOI: 10.1134/S0001433815030093. 3. V.V. Penenko, E.A. Tsvetova, A.V. Penenko. Methods based on the joint use of models and observational data in the framework of variational approach to forecasting weather and atmospheric composition
Broquet, G.; Chevallier, F.; Breon, F.M.; Yver, C.; Ciais, P.; Ramonet, M.; Schmidt, M. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, UMR8212, IPSL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alemanno, M. [Servizio Meteorologico dell' Aeronautica Militare Italiana, Centro Aeronautica Militare di Montagna, Monte Cimone/Sestola (Italy); Apadula, F. [Research on Energy Systems, RSE, Environment and Sustainable Development Department, Milano (Italy); Hammer, S. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Haszpra, L. [Hungarian Meteorological Service, Budapest (Hungary); Meinhardt, F. [Federal Environmental Agency, Kirchzarten (Germany); Necki, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Piacentino, S. [ENEA, Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, Palermo (Italy); Thompson, R.L. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); Vermeulen, A.T. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, EEE-EA, Petten (Netherlands)
2013-07-01
The Bayesian framework of CO2 flux inversions permits estimates of the retrieved flux uncertainties. Here, the reliability of these theoretical estimates is studied through a comparison against the misfits between the inverted fluxes and independent measurements of the CO2 Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) made by the eddy covariance technique at local (few hectares) scale. Regional inversions at 0.5{sup 0} resolution are applied for the western European domain where {approx}50 eddy covariance sites are operated. These inversions are conducted for the period 2002-2007. They use a mesoscale atmospheric transport model, a prior estimate of the NEE from a terrestrial ecosystem model and rely on the variational assimilation of in situ continuous measurements of CO2 atmospheric mole fractions. Averaged over monthly periods and over the whole domain, the misfits are in good agreement with the theoretical uncertainties for prior and inverted NEE, and pass the chi-square test for the variance at the 30% and 5% significance levels respectively, despite the scale mismatch and the independence between the prior (respectively inverted) NEE and the flux measurements. The theoretical uncertainty reduction for the monthly NEE at the measurement sites is 53% while the inversion decreases the standard deviation of the misfits by 38 %. These results build confidence in the NEE estimates at the European/monthly scales and in their theoretical uncertainty from the regional inverse modelling system. However, the uncertainties at the monthly (respectively annual) scale remain larger than the amplitude of the inter-annual variability of monthly (respectively annual) fluxes, so that this study does not engender confidence in the inter-annual variations. The uncertainties at the monthly scale are significantly smaller than the seasonal variations. The seasonal cycle of the inverted fluxes is thus reliable. In particular, the CO2 sink period over the European continent likely ends later than
Miller, Scot M.; Commane, Roisin; Melton, Joe R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Benmergui, Joshua; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Michalak, Anna M.; Sweeney, Colm; Worthy, Doug E. J.
2016-03-01
Existing estimates of methane (CH4) fluxes from North American wetlands vary widely in both magnitude and distribution. In light of these differences, this study uses atmospheric CH4 observations from the US and Canada to analyze seven different bottom-up, wetland CH4 estimates reported in a recent model comparison project. We first use synthetic data to explore whether wetland CH4 fluxes are detectable at atmospheric observation sites. We find that the observation network can detect aggregate wetland fluxes from both eastern and western Canada but generally not from the US. Based upon these results, we then use real data and inverse modeling results to analyze the magnitude, seasonality, and spatial distribution of each model estimate. The magnitude of Canadian fluxes in many models is larger than indicated by atmospheric observations. Many models predict a seasonality that is narrower than implied by inverse modeling results, possibly indicating an oversensitivity to air or soil temperatures. The LPJ-Bern and SDGVM models have a geographic distribution that is most consistent with atmospheric observations, depending upon the region and season. These models utilize land cover maps or dynamic modeling to estimate wetland coverage while most other models rely primarily on remote sensing inundation data.
Towards better error statistics for atmospheric inversions of methane surface fluxes
A. Berchet
2013-07-01
Full Text Available We adapt general statistical methods to estimate the optimal error covariance matrices in a regional inversion system inferring methane surface emissions from atmospheric concentrations. Using a minimal set of physical hypotheses on the patterns of errors, we compute a guess of the error statistics that is optimal in regard to objective statistical criteria for the specific inversion system. With this very general approach applied to a real-data case, we recover sources of errors in the observations and in the prior state of the system that are consistent with expert knowledge while inferred from objective criteria and with affordable computation costs. By not assuming any specific error patterns, our results depict the variability and the inter-dependency of errors induced by complex factors such as the misrepresentation of the observations in the transport model or the inability of the model to reproduce well the situations of steep gradients of concentrations. Situations with probable significant biases (e.g., during the night when vertical mixing is ill-represented by the transport model can also be diagnosed by our methods in order to point at necessary improvement in a model. By additionally analysing the sensitivity of the inversion to each observation, guidelines to enhance data selection in regional inversions are also proposed. We applied our method to a recent significant accidental methane release from an offshore platform in the North Sea and found methane fluxes of the same magnitude than what was officially declared.
Atmospheric inversion for cost effective quantification of city CO2 emissions
Wu, L.; Broquet, G.; Ciais, P.; Bellassen, V.; Vogel, F.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Wang, Y.
2015-11-01
Cities, currently covering only a very small portion (CO2, and are associated with 71-76 % of CO2 emissions from global final energy use. Although many cities have set voluntary climate plans, their CO2 emissions are not evaluated by Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) procedures that play a key role for market- or policy-based mitigation actions. Here we propose a monitoring tool that could support the development of such procedures at the city scale. It is based on an atmospheric inversion method that exploits inventory data and continuous atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements from a network of stations within and around cities to estimate city CO2 emissions. We examine the cost-effectiveness and the performance of such a tool. The instruments presently used to measure CO2 concentrations at research stations are expensive. However, cheaper sensors are currently developed and should be useable for the monitoring of CO2 emissions from a megacity in the near-term. Our assessment of the inversion method is thus based on the use of several types of hypothetical networks, with a range of numbers of sensors sampling at 25 m a.g.l. The study case for this assessment is the monitoring of the emissions of the Paris metropolitan area (~ 12 million inhabitants and 11.4 Tg C emitted in 2010) during the month of January 2011. The performance of the inversion is evaluated in terms of uncertainties in the estimates of total and sectoral CO2 emissions. These uncertainties are compared to a notional ambitious target to diagnose annual total city emissions with an uncertainty of 5 % (2-sigma). We find that, with 10 stations only, which is the typical size of current pilot networks that are deployed in some cities, the uncertainty for the 1-month total city CO2 emissions is significantly reduced by the inversion by ~ 42 % but still corresponds to an annual uncertainty that is two times larger than the target of 5 %. By extending the network from 10 to 70 stations, the
Atmospheric inversion for cost effective quantification of city CO2 emissions
L. Wu
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Cities, currently covering only a very small portion (2, and are associated with 71–76 % of CO2 emissions from global final energy use. Although many cities have set voluntary climate plans, their CO2 emissions are not evaluated by Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV procedures that play a key role for market- or policy-based mitigation actions. Here we propose a monitoring tool that could support the development of such procedures at the city scale. It is based on an atmospheric inversion method that exploits inventory data and continuous atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements from a network of stations within and around cities to estimate city CO2 emissions. We examine the cost-effectiveness and the performance of such a tool. The instruments presently used to measure CO2 concentrations at research stations are expensive. However, cheaper sensors are currently developed and should be useable for the monitoring of CO2 emissions from a megacity in the near-term. Our assessment of the inversion method is thus based on the use of several types of hypothetical networks, with a range of numbers of sensors sampling at 25 m a.g.l. The study case for this assessment is the monitoring of the emissions of the Paris metropolitan area (~ 12 million inhabitants and 11.4 Tg C emitted in 2010 during the month of January 2011. The performance of the inversion is evaluated in terms of uncertainties in the estimates of total and sectoral CO2 emissions. These uncertainties are compared to a notional ambitious target to diagnose annual total city emissions with an uncertainty of 5 % (2-sigma. We find that, with 10 stations only, which is the typical size of current pilot networks that are deployed in some cities, the uncertainty for the 1-month total city CO2 emissions is significantly reduced by the inversion by ~ 42 % but still corresponds to an annual uncertainty that is two times larger than the target of 5 %. By extending the network from 10 to
C. Mukherjee
2011-06-01
Full Text Available We present and discuss the use of Bayesian modeling and computational methods for atmospheric chemistry inverse analyses that incorporate evaluation of spatial structure in model-data residuals. Motivated by problems of refining bottom-up estimates of source/sink fluxes of trace gas and aerosols based on satellite retrievals of atmospheric chemical concentrations, we address the need for formal modeling of spatial residual error structure in global scale inversion models. We do this using analytically and computationally tractable conditional autoregressive (CAR spatial models as components of a global inversion framework. We develop Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to explore and fit these spatial structures in an overall statistical framework that simultaneously estimates source fluxes. Additional aspects of the study extend the statistical framework to utilize priors on source fluxes in a physically realistic manner, and to formally address and deal with missing data in satellite retrievals. We demonstrate the analysis in the context of inferring carbon monoxide (CO sources constrained by satellite retrievals of column CO from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT instrument on the TERRA satellite, paying special attention to evaluating performance of the inverse approach using various statistical diagnostic metrics. This is developed using synthetic data generated to resemble MOPITT data to define a proof-of-concept and model assessment, and then in analysis of real MOPITT data. These studies demonstrate the ability of these simple spatial models to substantially improve over standard non-spatial models in terms of statistical fit, ability to recover sources in synthetic examples, and predictive match with real data.
A New Concept for Atmospheric Reentry Optimal Guidance: An Inverse Problem Inspired Approach
Davood Abbasi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept for atmospheric reentry online optimal guidance and control using a method called MARE G&C that exploits the different time scale featured by reentry dynamics. The new technique reaches a quasi-analytical solution and simplified computations, even considering both lift-to-drag ratio and aerodynamic roll as control variables; in addition, the paper offers a solution for the challenging path constraints issue, getting inspiration from the inverse problem methodology. The final resulting algorithm seems suitable for onboard predictive guidance, a new need for future space missions.
Inverse diffraction for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the Solar Dynamics Observatory
Torre, Gabriele; Benvenuto, Federico; Massone, Anna Maria; Piana, Michele
2015-01-01
The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides full Sun images every 1 seconds in each of 7 Extreme Ultraviolet passbands. However, for a significant amount of these images, saturation affects their most intense core, preventing scientists from a full exploitation of their physical meaning. In this paper we describe a mathematical and automatic procedure for the recovery of information in the primary saturation region based on a correlation/inversion analysis of the diffraction pattern associated to the telescope observations. Further, we suggest an interpolation-based method for determining the image background that allows the recovery of information also in the region of secondary saturation (blooming).
Validation of the Swiss methane emission inventory by atmospheric observations and inverse modelling
Henne, Stephan; Brunner, Dominik; Oney, Brian; Leuenberger, Markus; Eugster, Werner; Bamberger, Ines; Meinhardt, Frank; Steinbacher, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas
2016-03-01
Atmospheric inverse modelling has the potential to provide observation-based estimates of greenhouse gas emissions at the country scale, thereby allowing for an independent validation of national emission inventories. Here, we present a regional-scale inverse modelling study to quantify the emissions of methane (CH4) from Switzerland, making use of the newly established CarboCount-CH measurement network and a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model. In our reference inversion, prior emissions were taken from the "bottom-up" Swiss Greenhouse Gas Inventory (SGHGI) as published by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment in 2014 for the year 2012. Overall we estimate national CH4 emissions to be 196 ± 18 Gg yr-1 for the year 2013 (1σ uncertainty). This result is in close agreement with the recently revised SGHGI estimate of 206 ± 33 Gg yr-1 as reported in 2015 for the year 2012. Results from sensitivity inversions using alternative prior emissions, uncertainty covariance settings, large-scale background mole fractions, two different inverse algorithms (Bayesian and extended Kalman filter), and two different transport models confirm the robustness and independent character of our estimate. According to the latest SGHGI estimate the main CH4 source categories in Switzerland are agriculture (78 %), waste handling (15 %) and natural gas distribution and combustion (6 %). The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of our posterior emissions suggest an overestimation of agricultural CH4 emissions by 10 to 20 % in the most recent SGHGI, which is likely due to an overestimation of emissions from manure handling. Urban areas do not appear as emission hotspots in our posterior results, suggesting that leakages from natural gas distribution are only a minor source of CH4 in Switzerland. This is consistent with rather low emissions of 8.4 Gg yr-1 reported by the SGHGI but inconsistent with the much higher value of 32 Gg yr-1 implied by the EDGARv4.2 inventory for
In this study, the 222Rn flux density distribution at surface was estimated in East Asia with the Bayesian synthesis inversion using measurement data and a long-range atmospheric 222Rn transport model. Surface atmospheric 222Rn concentrations measured at Hateruma Island in January 2008 were used. The estimated 222Rn flux densities were generally higher than the prior ones. The area-weighted mean 222Rn flux density for East Asia in January 2008 was estimated to be 44.0 mBq m-2 s-1. The use of the estimated 222Rn flux density improved the discrepancy of the model-calculated concentrations with the measurements at Hateruma Island. (authors)
Methane fluxes in the high northern latitudes estimated using a Bayesian atmospheric inversion
Thompson, Rona; Stohl, Andreas; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Sasakawa, Motoki; Machida, Toshinobu; Aalto, Tuula; Dlugokencky, Edward; Worthy, Douglas; Skorokhod, Andrey
2016-04-01
Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after CO2. Atmospheric CH4 increased from pre-industrial concentrations of around 850 ppb (parts-per-billion) to 1773 ppb in the late 1990s and then remained approximately stable until the mid 2000s. However, since 2006 atmospheric CH4 has begun to increase again. The reasons for the stabilization and subsequent increase are likely to be a combination of changes in anthropogenic emissions such as from fossil fuels, as well as natural wetland sources. While global atmospheric inversions indicate that natural wetland sources in the tropics and subtropics have contributed to the recent increase, land surface and ecosystem models generally indicate no increase in these sources. Another potential source for the change in CH4 concentration could be wetlands in the high northern latitudes, which comprise about 44% of global wetland area. These latitudes are also undergoing rapid warming, which will impact wetland emissions of CH4. We present CH4 fluxes for the high northern latitudes (>50°N) from 2005 to 2012 estimated from a Bayesian atmospheric inversion. The inversion incorporates observations from 17 in-situ and 6 discrete-sample sites across North America and Northern Eurasia. Atmospheric transport is based on the Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART, run with ECMWF meteorological analyses. Emissions were optimized monthly and on a spatial grid of variable resolution (from 1°×1° to 4°×4°). Background concentrations were estimated by coupling FLEXPART to monthly global 2-D fields of CH4 concentration from a bivariate interpolation of smoothed data from the NOAA ESRL network. We estimate the total mean North American flux (>50°N) to be 18 -- 27 Tg y-1, and the total mean Northern Eurasian flux (>50°N) to be 55 -- 66 Tg y-1, both substantially higher than the prior (based on LPX-Bern for wetland and EDGAR-4.2FT2010 for anthropogenic fluxes). We also find a small trend in the
Pedersen, Jesper Grønnegaard; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Kelly, Mark C.
2014-01-01
A range of large-eddy simulations, with differing free atmosphere stratification and zero or slightly positive surface heat flux, is investigated to improve understanding of the neutral and near-neutral, inversion-capped, horizontally homogeneous, barotropic atmospheric boundary layer with emphas...
Inverse modelling of national and European CH4 emissions using the atmospheric zoom model TM5
P. Bergamaschi
2005-01-01
Full Text Available A synthesis inversion based on the atmospheric zoom model TM5 is used to derive top-down estimates of CH4 emissions from individual European countries for the year 2001. We employ a model zoom over Europe with 1° × 1° resolution that is two-way nested into the global model domain (with resolution of 6° × 4°. This approach ensures consistent boundary conditions for the zoom domain and thus European top-down estimates consistent with global CH4 observations. The TM5 model, driven by ECMWF analyses, simulates synoptic scale events at most European and global sites fairly well, and the use of high-frequency observations allows exploiting the information content of individual synoptic events. A detailed source attribution is presented for a comprehensive set of 56 monitoring sites, assigning the atmospheric signal to the emissions of individual European countries and larger global regions. The available observational data put significant constraints on emissions from different regions. Within Europe, in particular several Western European countries are well constrained. The inversion results suggest up to 50-90% higher anthropogenic CH4 emissions in 2001 for Germany, France and UK compared to reported UNFCCC values (EEA, 2003. A recent revision of the German inventory, however, resulted in an increase of reported CH4 emissions by 68.5% (EEA, 2004, being now in very good agreement with our top-down estimate. The top-down estimate for Finland is distinctly smaller than the a priori estimate, suggesting much smaller CH4 emissions from Finnish wetlands than derived from the bottom-up inventory. The EU-15 totals are relatively close to UNFCCC values (within 4-30% and appear very robust for different inversion scenarios.
Decadal trends of ocean and land carbon fluxes from a regional joint ocean-atmosphere inversion
Steinkamp, K.; Gruber, N.
2015-12-01
From 1980 until 2010, the combined CO2 sink strengths of ocean and land increased by nearly 50% (-0.55 Pg C yr-1 decade-1), but the spatial distribution of this trend is not well known. We address this by performing a joint cyclostationary ocean-atmosphere inversion for the three decades 1980-1989, 1990-1999, and 2000-2008, using only carbon data from the ocean and atmosphere as constraints, i.e., without applying any prior information about the land fluxes. We find that in the inversion, most of the 30 year sink trend stems from the ocean (-0.44 Pg C yr-1 decade-1). The contribution of the terrestrial biosphere is commensurably smaller but has more decadal variability. First, the land sink strength intensified in the 1990s by 0.4 (±0.3) Pg C yr-1 compared to the 1980s but then weakened slightly by 0.2 (±0.4) Pg C yr-1 in the 2000s. The different land regions contributed very variedly to these global trends. While the northern extratropical land acted as an increasing carbon sink throughout the examined period primarily driven by boreal regions, the tropical land is estimated to have acted as an increasing source of CO2, with source magnitude and trend dominated by enhanced release in tropical America during the Amazon mean wet season. This pattern is largely unchanged if the oceanic inversion constraint, which is based on a stationary ocean circulation, is replaced by an estimate based on simulation results from an ocean biogeochemical general circulation model that includes year-to-year variability in the air-sea CO2 fluxes and also has a trend (-0.07 Pg C yr-1 decade-1) that is at the very low end of current estimates. However, the land/ocean partitioning of the trend contribution is adjusted accordingly. Oceanic carbon data has a major impact on carbon exchange for all tropical regions and southern Africa but also for observationally better constrained regions in North America and temperate Asia. The European trend exhibits a strong sensitivity to the choice
Fang, X.; Thompson, R.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Li, S.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.
2013-12-01
With a global warming potential of around 22800 over a 100-year time horizon, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Global SF6 emissions have been increasing since circa the year 2000. The reason for this increase has been inferred to be due to rapidly increasing emissions in developing countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, notably China. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for China and other East Asian countries were determined using in-situ atmospheric measurements and inverse modeling. We performed various inversion sensitivity tests, which show the largest uncertainties in the a posteriori Chinese emissions are associated with the a priori emissions used and their uncertainty, the station network, as well as the meteorological input data. The overall relative uncertainty of the a posteriori emissions in China is estimated to be 17% in 2008. Based on sensitivity tests, we employed the optimal parameters in our inversion setup and performed yearly inversions for the study period. Inversion results show that the total a posteriori SF6 emissions from China increased from 1420 × 245 Mg/yr in 2006 to 2741 × 472 Mg/yr in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. The rapid increase in emissions reflected a fast increase in SF6 consumption in China, a result also found in bottom-up estimates. The a posteriori emission map shows high emissions concentrated in populated parts of China. During the period 2006-2012, emissions in northwestern and northern China peaked around the year 2009, while emissions in eastern, central and northeastern China grew gradually during almost the whole period. Fluctuating emissions are observed for southwestern China. These regional differences should be caused by changes of provincial SF6 usage and by shifts of usage among different sectors. Fig. 1. Footprint emission sensitivity
C. Yver
2010-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen (H_{2} budget with a particular focus on soil uptake and surface emissions. A variational inversion scheme is combined with observations from the RAMCES and EUROHYDROS atmospheric networks, which include continuous measurements performed between mid-2006 and mid-2009. Net H_{2} surface flux, soil uptake distinct from surface emissions and finally, soil uptake, biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions and N_{2} fixation-related emissions separately were inverted in several scenarios. The various inversions generate an estimate for each term of the H_{2} budget. The net H_{2} flux per region (High Northern Hemisphere, Tropics and High Southern Hemisphere varies between −8 and 8 Tg yr^{−1}. The best inversion in terms of fit to the observations combines updated prior surface emissions and a soil deposition velocity map that is based on soil uptake measurements. Our estimate of global H_{2} soil uptake is −59 ± 4.0 Tg yr^{−1}. Forty per cent of this uptake is located in the High Northern Hemisphere and 55% is located in the Tropics. In terms of surface emissions, seasonality is mainly driven by biomass burning emissions. The inferred European anthropogenic emissions are consistent with independent H_{2} emissions estimated using a H_{2}/CO mass ratio of 0.034 and CO emissions considering their respective uncertainties. To constrain a more robust partition of H_{2} sources and sinks would need additional constraints, such as isotopic measurements.
C. E. Yver
2011-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen (H_{2} budget with a particular focus on soil uptake and European surface emissions. A variational inversion scheme is combined with observations from the RAMCES and EUROHYDROS atmospheric networks, which include continuous measurements performed between mid-2006 and mid-2009. Net H_{2} surface flux, then deposition velocity and surface emissions and finally, deposition velocity, biomass burning, anthropogenic and N_{2} fixation-related emissions were simultaneously inverted in several scenarios. These scenarios have focused on the sensibility of the soil uptake value to different spatio-temporal distributions. The range of variations of these diverse inversion sets generate an estimate of the uncertainty for each term of the H_{2} budget. The net H_{2} flux per region (High Northern Hemisphere, Tropics and High Southern Hemisphere varies between −8 and +8 Tg yr^{−1}. The best inversion in terms of fit to the observations combines updated prior surface emissions and a soil deposition velocity map that is based on bottom-up and top-down estimations. Our estimate of global H_{2} soil uptake is −59±9 Tg yr^{−1}. Forty per cent of this uptake is located in the High Northern Hemisphere and 55% is located in the Tropics. In terms of surface emissions, seasonality is mainly driven by biomass burning emissions. The inferred European anthropogenic emissions are consistent with independent H_{2} emissions estimated using a H_{2}/CO mass ratio of 0.034 and CO emissions within the range of their respective uncertainties. Additional constraints, such as isotopic measurements would be needed to infer a more robust partition of H_{2} sources and sinks.
Fymat, A. L.
1976-01-01
The paper studies the inversion of the radiative transfer equation describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atmospheric aerosols. The interaction can be considered as the propagation in the aerosol medium of two light beams: the direct beam in the line-of-sight attenuated by absorption and scattering, and the diffuse beam arising from scattering into the viewing direction, which propagates more or less in random fashion. The latter beam has single scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In the former case and for single scattering, the problem is reducible to first-kind Fredholm equations, while for multiple scattering it is necessary to invert partial integrodifferential equations. A nonlinear minimization search method, applicable to the solution of both types of problems has been developed, and is applied here to the problem of monitoring aerosol pollution, namely the complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles.
M. Martinez-Camara
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere are a serious environmental concern. In order to understand and predict their effects, it is necessary to estimate the exact quantity and timing of the emissions, from sensor measurements taken at different locations. There exists a number of methods for solving this problem. However, these existing methods assume Gaussian additive errors, making them extremely sensitive to outlier measurements. We first show that the errors in real-world measurement datasets come from a heavy-tailed distribution, i.e., include outliers. Hence, we propose to robustify the existing inverse methods by adding a blind outlier detection algorithm. The improved performance of our method is demonstrated on a real dataset and compared to previously proposed methods. For the blind outlier detection, we first use an existing algorithm, RANSAC, and then propose a modification called TRANSAC, which provides a further performance improvement.
Time-dependent stochastic inversion (TDSI) was recently developed for acoustic travel-time tomography of the atmosphere. This type of tomography allows reconstruction of temperature and wind-velocity fields given the location of sound sources and receivers and the travel times between all source–receiver pairs. The quality of reconstruction provided by TDSI depends on the geometry of the transducer array. However, TDSI has not been studied for the geometry with reciprocal sound transmission. This paper is focused on three aspects of TDSI. First, the use of TDSI in reciprocal sound transmission arrays is studied in numerical and physical experiments. Second, efficiency of time-dependent and ordinary stochastic inversion (SI) algorithms is studied in numerical experiments. Third, a new model of noise in the input data for TDSI is developed that accounts for systematic errors in transducer positions. It is shown that (i) a separation of the travel times into temperature and wind-velocity components in tomography with reciprocal transmission does not improve the reconstruction, (ii) TDSI yields a better reconstruction than SI and (iii) the developed model of noise yields an accurate reconstruction of turbulent fields and estimation of errors in the reconstruction
Huestis, D. L.
Forward integration calculation of air mass, refraction, and time delay requires care even for very smooth model atmospheres. The literature abounds in examples of injudicious approximations, assumptions, transformations, variable substitutions, and failures to verify that the formulas work with unlimited accuracy for simple cases and also survive challenges from mathematically pathological but physically realizable cases. A few years ago we addressed the problem of evaluation of the Chapman function for attenuation along a straight line path in an exponential atmosphere. In this presentation we will describe issues and approaches for integration over light paths curved by refraction. The inverse problem, determining the altitude profile of mass density (index of refraction) or the concentration of an individual chemical species (absorption), from occultation data, also has its mathematically interesting (i.e., difficult) aspects. Now we automatically have noise and thus statistical analysis is just as important as calculus and numerical analysis. Here we will describe a new approach of least-squares fitting occultation data to an expansion over compact basis functions. This approach, which avoids numerical differentiation and singular integrals, was originally developed to analyze laboratory imaging data.Forward integration calculation of air mass, refraction, and time delay requires care even for very smooth model atmospheres. The literature abounds in examples of injudicious approximations, assumptions, transformations, variable substitutions, and failures to verify that the formulas work with unlimited accuracy for simple cases and also survive challenges from mathematically pathological but physically realizable cases. A few years ago we addressed the problem of evaluation of the Chapman function for attenuation along a straight line path in an exponential atmosphere. In this presentation we will describe issues and approaches for integration over light paths
A new method for the inversion of atmospheric parameters of A/Am stars
Gebran, M.; Farah, W.; Paletou, F.; Monier, R.; Watson, V.
2016-05-01
Context. We present an automated procedure that simultaneously derives the effective temperature Teff, surface gravity log g, metallicity [Fe/H], and equatorial projected rotational velocity vsini for "normal" A and Am stars. The procedure is based on the principal component analysis (PCA) inversion method, which we published in a recent paper . Aims: A sample of 322 high-resolution spectra of F0-B9 stars, retrieved from the Polarbase, SOPHIE, and ELODIE databases, were used to test this technique with real data. We selected the spectral region from 4400-5000 Å as it contains many metallic lines and the Balmer Hβ line. Methods: Using three data sets at resolving powers of R = 42 000, 65 000 and 76 000, about ~6.6 × 106 synthetic spectra were calculated to build a large learning database. The online power iteration algorithm was applied to these learning data sets to estimate the principal components (PC). The projection of spectra onto the few PCs offered an efficient comparison metric in a low-dimensional space. The spectra of the well-known A0- and A1-type stars, Vega and Sirius A, were used as control spectra in the three databases. Spectra of other well-known A-type stars were also employed to characterize the accuracy of the inversion technique. Results: We inverted all of the observational spectra and derived the atmospheric parameters. After removal of a few outliers, the PCA-inversion method appeared to be very efficient in determining Teff, [Fe/H], and vsini for A/Am stars. The derived parameters agree very well with previous determinations. Using a statistical approach, deviations of around 150 K, 0.35 dex, 0.15 dex, and 2 km s-1 were found for Teff, log g, [Fe/H], and vsini with respect to literature values for A-type stars. Conclusions: The PCA inversion proves to be a very fast, practical, and reliable tool for estimating stellar parameters of FGK and A stars and for deriving effective temperatures of M stars. Based on data retrieved from the
A. Devasthale
2011-05-01
Full Text Available An accurate characterization of the vertical structure of the Arctic atmosphere is useful in climate change and attribution studies as well as for the climate modelling community to improve projections of future climate over this highly sensitive region. Here, we investigate one of the dominant features of the vertical structure of the Arctic atmosphere, i.e. water-vapour inversions, using eight years of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder data (2002–2010 and radiosounding profiles released from the two Arctic locations (North Slope of Alaska at Barrow and during SHEBA. We quantify the characteristics of clear-sky water vapour inversions in terms of their frequency of occurrence, strength and height covering the entire Arctic for the first time.
We found that the frequency of occurrence of water-vapour inversions is highest during winter and lowest during summer. The inversion strength is, however, higher during summer. The observed peaks in the median inversion-layer heights are higher during the winter half of the year, at around 850 hPa over most of the Arctic Ocean, Siberia and the Canadian Archipelago, while being around 925 hPa during most of the summer half of the year over the Arctic Ocean. The radiosounding profiles agree with the frequency, location and strength of water-vapour inversions in the Pacific sector of the Arctic. In addition, the radiosoundings indicate that multiple inversions are the norm with relatively few cases without inversions. The amount of precipitable water within the water-vapour inversion structures is estimated and we find a distinct, two-mode contribution to the total column precipitable water. These results suggest that water-vapour inversions are a significant source to the column thermodynamics, especially during the colder winter and spring seasons. We argue that these inversions are a robust metric to test the reproducibility of thermodynamics within climate models. An accurate statistical
Locatelli, R.; Bousquet, P.; Hourdin, F.; Saunois, M.; COZIC A.; Couvreux, F; Grandpeix, J.-Y.; Lefebvre, M.-P.; C. Rio; Bergamaschi, P.; Chambers, S. D.; U. Karstens; Kazan, V.; S. Van der Laan; Meijer, H. A. J.
2015-01-01
Representation of atmospheric transport is a major source of error in the estimation of greenhouse gas sources and sinks by inverse modelling. Here we assess the impact on trace gas mole fractions of the new physical parameterizations recently implemented in the atmospheric global climate model LMDz to improve vertical diffusion, mesoscale mixing by thermal plumes in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and deep convection in the troposphere. At the same time, the horizontal ...
Bergamaschi, Peter; Karstens, Ute; Koffi, Ernest; Saunois, Marielle; Arnold, Timothy; Manning, Alistair; Tsuruta, Aki; Berchet, Antoine; Vermeulen, Alex; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Hammer, Samuel; Levin, Ingeborg; Schmidt, Martina
2016-04-01
We present top-down estimates of European CH4 and N2O emissions for 2006-2012, based on the new quality controlled and harmonized data set from 18 European atmospheric monitoring stations generated within the European FP7 project InGOS ("Integrated non-CO2 Greenhouse gas Observing System"). We applied an ensemble of 7 different inverse models for CH4 (and 4 for N2O), and performed four different inversion experiments, investigating the impact of different sets of stations and the use of 'a priori' information on emissions. The inverse models infer total CH4 emissions of 28.4 ± 6.4 (2σ) Tg CH4 yr‑1 for the EU-28 for 2006-2012 from the 4 inversion experiments. For comparison, total anthropogenic CH4 emissions reported to UNFCCC ('bottom-up', based on statistical data and emissions factors) amount to only 19.0 - 20.9 Tg CH4 yr‑1 for the same period. A potential explanation for the discrepancy between the 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' estimates could be the contribution of natural sources, such as peatlands, wetlands, and wet soils, which might have been underestimated in previous analyses. The hypothesis of significant natural emissions is supported by the finding that the inversions yield significant seasonal cycles of derived CH4 emissions with maximum in summer, while anthropogenic CH4 emissions are assumed to have much lower seasonal variability. Furthermore we investigate potential biases of the flux inversions by comparing model simulations with regular aircraft profiles at 4 European sites and the 'Infrastructure for Measurement of the European Carbon Cycle (IMECC)' aircraft campaign. For N2O, for which uncertainties of bottom-up inventories are very large - typically on the order of 100% for the total N2O emissions per country (mainly due to N2O emissions from agricultural soils) - our results demonstrate that atmospheric measurements and inverse modelling can significantly reduce the uncertainties. Despite the large uncertainties in the bottom
Reducing Uncertainty in Life Cycle CH4 Emissions from Natural Gas using Atmospheric Inversions
Schwietzke, S.; Griffin, W.; Matthews, S.
2012-12-01
Methane emissions associated with the production and use of natural gas (NG) are highly uncertain because of challenges to accurately measure fugitive CH4 emissions from NG leaks and venting throughout a large and complex industry. Better understanding the CH4 emissions from the NG life cycle is important for two reasons. First, the rising interest in NG use associated with the recent development of unconventional sources, such as shale gas, may cause a shift in the future energy system from coal towards more NG. Given its relatively high greenhouse gas potency, fugitive CH4 emissions from the NG life cycle have the potential to outweigh lower CO2 emissions compared to coal use in terms of their climate impacts over the next few decades. Second, worldwide NG related CH4 emissions play a key role in understanding the global CH4 budget. According to current atmospheric inversion studies, NG and oil production account for about 12% of global CH4 emissions. However, these results largely depend on prior emissions estimates whose uncertainties are poorly documented. The objective of this research is to analyze which ranges of global fugitive CH4 emissions from the NG life cycle are reasonable given atmospheric observations as a constraint. We establish a prior global CH4 inventory for NG, oil, and coal using emissions data from the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature. This inventory includes uncertainty estimates for different fuels, world regions, and time periods based on LCA literature, which existing inventories do not account for. Furthermore, global CH4 inversion modeling will be used to test bottom-up hypotheses of high NG leakage and venting associated with the upper bound of the prior inventory. Given the use of detailed LCA emissions factors, we will test bottom-up scenarios regarding management and technology improvements over time. The emissions inventory will be established for the past decade, and inversion modeling will be carried out using NOAA
Qixiang Liao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile combining the scattering signal (electromagnetic wave propagation loss and the direct signal (phase delay. The refractivity profile is modeled using four parameters, i.e., the gradient of the refractivity profile (c1, c2 and the vertical altitude (h1, h2. We apply the NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II, a multiobjective optimization algorithm, to achieve the goals of joint optimization inversion in the inverting process, and compare this method with traditional individual inversion methods. The anti-noise ability of joint inversion is investigated under the noiseless condition and adding noise condition, respectively. The numerical experiments demonstrate that joint inversion is superior to individual inversion. The adding noise test further suggests that this method can estimate synthesized parameters more efficiently and accurately in different conditions. Finally, a set of measured data is tested in the new way and the consequence of inversion shows the joint optimization inversion algorithm has feasibility, effectiveness and superiority in the retrieval of the refractivity profile.
On the ability of a global atmospheric inversion to constrain variations of CO2 fluxes over Amazonia
L. Molina
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The exchanges of carbon, water, and energy between the atmosphere and the Amazon Basin have global implications for current and future climate. Here, the global atmospheric inversion system of the Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate service (MACC was used to further study the seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic CO2 fluxes in Amazonia. The system assimilated surface measurements of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions made over more than 100 sites over the globe into an atmospheric transport model. This study added four surface stations located in tropical South America, a region poorly covered by CO2 observations. The estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE optimized by the inversion were compared to independent estimates of NEE upscaled from eddy-covariance flux measurements in Amazonia, and against reports on the seasonal and interannual variations of the land sink in South America from the scientific literature. We focused on the impact of the interannual variation of the strong droughts in 2005 and 2010 (due to severe and longer-than-usual dry seasons, and of the extreme rainfall conditions registered in 2009. The spatial variations of the seasonal and interannual variability of optimized NEE were also investigated. While the inversion supported the assumption of strong spatial heterogeneity of these variations, the results revealed critical limitations that prevent global inversion frameworks from capturing the data-driven seasonal patterns of fluxes across Amazonia. In particular, it highlighted issues due to the configuration of the observation network in South America and the lack of continuity of the measurements. However, some robust patterns from the inversion seemed consistent with the abnormal moisture conditions in 2009.
Nested atmospheric inversion for the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks in China
Jiang, F.; Wang, H. W.; Chen, J. M.; Zhou, L. X.; Ju, W. M.; Ding, A. J.; Liu, L. X.; Peters, W.
2013-08-01
In this study, we establish a nested atmospheric inversion system with a focus on China using the Bayesian method. The global surface is separated into 43 regions based on the 22 TransCom large regions, with 13 small regions in China. Monthly CO2 concentrations from 130 GlobalView sites and 3 additional China sites are used in this system. The core component of this system is an atmospheric transport matrix, which is created using the TM5 model with a horizontal resolution of 3° × 2°. The net carbon fluxes over the 43 global land and ocean regions are inverted for the period from 2002 to 2008. The inverted global terrestrial carbon sinks mainly occur in boreal Asia, South and Southeast Asia, eastern America and southern South America. Most China areas appear to be carbon sinks, with strongest carbon sinks located in Northeast China. From 2002 to 2008, the global terrestrial carbon sink has an increasing trend, with the lowest carbon sink in 2002. The inter-annual variation (IAV) of the land sinks shows remarkable correlation with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The terrestrial carbon sinks in China also show an increasing trend. However, the IAV in China is not the same as that of the globe. There is relatively stronger land sink in 2002, lowest sink in 2006, and strongest sink in 2007 in China. This IAV could be reasonably explained with the IAVs of temperature and precipitation in China. The mean global and China terrestrial carbon sinks over the period 2002-2008 are -3.20 ± 0.63 and -0.28 ± 0.18 PgC yr-1, respectively. Considering the carbon emissions in the form of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and from the import of wood and food, we further estimate that China's land sink is about -0.31 PgC yr-1.
Nested atmospheric inversion for the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks in China
F. Jiang
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In this study, we establish a nested atmospheric inversion system with a focus on China using the Bayesian method. The global surface is separated into 43 regions based on the 22 TransCom large regions, with 13 small regions in China. Monthly CO2 concentrations from 130 GlobalView sites and 3 additional China sites are used in this system. The core component of this system is an atmospheric transport matrix, which is created using the TM5 model with a horizontal resolution of 3° × 2°. The net carbon fluxes over the 43 global land and ocean regions are inverted for the period from 2002 to 2008. The inverted global terrestrial carbon sinks mainly occur in boreal Asia, South and Southeast Asia, eastern America and southern South America. Most China areas appear to be carbon sinks, with strongest carbon sinks located in Northeast China. From 2002 to 2008, the global terrestrial carbon sink has an increasing trend, with the lowest carbon sink in 2002. The inter-annual variation (IAV of the land sinks shows remarkable correlation with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. The terrestrial carbon sinks in China also show an increasing trend. However, the IAV in China is not the same as that of the globe. There is relatively stronger land sink in 2002, lowest sink in 2006, and strongest sink in 2007 in China. This IAV could be reasonably explained with the IAVs of temperature and precipitation in China. The mean global and China terrestrial carbon sinks over the period 2002–2008 are −3.20 ± 0.63 and −0.28 ± 0.18 PgC yr−1, respectively. Considering the carbon emissions in the form of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs and from the import of wood and food, we further estimate that China's land sink is about −0.31 PgC yr−1.
Nested atmospheric inversion for the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks in China
F. Jiang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, we establish a~nested atmospheric inversion system with a focus on China using the Bayes theory. The global surface is separated into 43 regions based on the 22 TransCom large regions, with 13 small regions in China. Monthly CO_{2} concentrations from 130 GlobalView sites and a Hong Kong site are used in this system. The core component of this system is atmospheric transport matrix, which is created using the TM5 model with a horizontal resolution of 3° × 2°. The net carbon fluxes over the 43 global land and ocean regions are inverted for the period from 2002 to 2009. The inverted global terrestrial carbon sinks mainly occur in Boreal Asia, South and Southeast Asia, eastern US and southern South America (SA. Most China areas appear to be carbon sinks, with strongest carbon sinks located in Northeast China. From 2002 to 2009, the global terrestrial carbon sink has an increasing trend, with the lowest carbon sink in 2002. The inter-annual variation (IAV of the land sinks shows remarkable correlation with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. However, no obvious trend is found for the terrestrial carbon sinks in China. The IAVs of carbon sinks in China show strong relationship with drought and temperature. The mean global and China terrestrial carbon sinks over the period 2002–2009 are −3.15 ± 1.48 and −0.21 ± 0.23 Pg C yr^{−1}, respectively. The uncertainties in the posterior carbon flux of China are still very large, mostly due to the lack of CO_{2} measurement data in China.
Air pollution episodes have been recorded in Cairo, during the fall season, since 1999, as a result of specific meteorological conditions combined with large quantity of pollutants created by several ground-based sources. The main reason for the smog-like episodes (black clouds) is adverse weather conditions with low and variable winds, high humidity and strong temperature inversions in the few-hundred meters above the ground. The two important types of temperature inversion affecting the air pollution are surface or ground (radiation) inversion and subsidence (elevated) inversion. The surface temperature inversion is associated with a rapid decrease in the ground surface temperature with the simultaneous existence of warm air in the lower troposphere. The inversion develops at dusk and continues until the surface warms again the following day. Pollutants emitted during the night are caught under this inversion lid.Subsidence inversion forms when warm air masses move over colder air masses. The inversion develops with a stagnating high-pressure system (generally associated with fair weather). Under these conditions, the pressure gradient becomes progressively weaker so that winds become light. These light winds greatly reduce the horizontal transport and dispersion of pollutants. At the same time, the subsidence inversion acts as a barrier to the vertical dispersion of the pollutants. In this study, the Penn State/NCAR meso -scale model (MM5) is used to simulate the temperature inversion phenomenon over Greater Cairo region during the fall season of 2004. Accurate computations of the heat transfer at the surface are needed to capture this phenomenon. This can only be achieved by high-resolution simulations in both horizontal and vertical directions. Hence, for accurate simulation of the temperature inversion over Greater Cairo, four nested domains of resolutions of 27 km, 9 km, 3 km and 1 km, respectively, were used in the horizontal planes. Furthermore, 42 levels
Allende-Prieto, C; Asplund, M; Cobo, B R; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Barklem, Paul S.; Asplund, Martin; Cobo, Basilio Ruiz
2001-01-01
Spectra of late-type stars are usually analyzed with static model atmospheres in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and a homogeneous plane-parallel or spherically symmetric geometry. The energy balance requires particular attention, as two elements which are particularly difficult to model play an important role: line blanketing and convection. Inversion techniques are able to bypass the difficulties of a detailed description of the energy balance. Assuming that the atmosphere is in hydrostatic equilibrium and LTE, it is possible to constrain its structure from spectroscopic observations. Among the most serious approximations still implicit in the method is a static and homogeneous geometry. In this paper, we take advantage of a realistic three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamical simulation of the solar surface to check the systematic errors incurred by an inversion assuming a plane-parallel horizontally-homogeneous atmosphere. The thermal structure recovered resembles the spatial and time average of the...
Breidt, F. J.; Cooley, D. S.; Thurier, Q.; Wang, Y.; Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A.; Davis, K. J.; West, T. O.; Ogle, S. M.
2009-12-01
Atmospheric inversions and inventories provide two distinct data sources for describing regional carbon budgets in the Mid-Continent Intensive (MCI) study of the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Inversions rely on temporally rich CO2 concentration measurements to infer fluxes between the terrestrial surface and atmosphere. Since towers from which concentration measurements are obtained are sparsely distributed on the landscape, inversion data tend to be temporally rich and spatially poor. Inventories are typically conducted using models for which the inputs are driving variables that influence uptake and release of CO2 from the terrestrial surface, and the outputs are predicted changes in C pools, or CO2 fluxes directly. In contrast to inversions, the inventory data tend to be spatially rich and temporally poor. A statistical methodology based on a state-space model and the Kalman recursions is proposed to combine the inversion and inventory data for optimal estimation of CO2 fluxes. The methodology trades off the strengths and weaknesses of the two data streams. This synthesis activity provides the most rigorous estimates of CO2 flux for the MCI, along with estimated uncertainties. In particular, it identifies portions of the region and time series, as well as sources and C pools, with the largest uncertainties.
Inner Structure of Atmospheric Inversion Layers over Haifa Bay in the Eastern Mediterranean
Haikin, N.; Galanti, E.; Reisin, T. G.; Mahrer, Y.; Alpert, P.
2015-09-01
Capping inversions act as barriers to the vertical diffusion of pollutants, occasionally leading to significant low-level air pollution episodes in the lower troposphere. Here, we conducted two summer campaigns where global positioning system radiosondes were operated in Haifa Bay on the eastern Mediterranean coast, a region of steep terrain with significant pollution. The campaigns provided unique high resolution measurements related to capping inversions. It was found that the classical definition of a capping inversion was insufficient for an explicit identification of a layer; hence additional criteria are required for a complete spatial analysis of inversion evolution. Based on the vertical temperature derivative, an inner fine structure of inversion layers was explored, and was then used to track inversion layers spatially and to investigate their evolution. The exploration of the inner structure of inversion layers revealed five major patterns: symmetric peak, asymmetric peak, double peak, flat peak, and the zig-zag pattern. We found that the symmetric peak is related to the strongest inversions, double peak inversions tended to break apart into two layers, and the zig-zag pattern was related to the weakest inversions. Employing this classification is suggested for assistance in following the evolution of inversion layers.
An Assessment of Biases in Satellite CO2 Measurements Using Atmospheric Inversion
Baker, D. F.; O'Dell, C.
2014-12-01
Column-integrated CO2 mixing ratio measurements from satellite should provide a new view of the global carbon cycle, thanks to their ability to measure with great coverage in places that are poorly sampled by the in situ network (e.g. the tropics) using a new approach (full-column averages rather than point measurements). For this new insight to be useful, however, systematic errors in these data must first be identified and removed. Here we use atmospheric transport modeling to perform a global comparison of satellite CO2 measurements to higher-quality reference data (in situ data from flasks and aircraft, column CO2 data from the upward-looking spectrometers of the TCCON network) to assess systematic errors in the satellite data. This broad comparison is meant to complement the more direct validation done at specific TCCON sites. A suite of 3-D CO2 mixing ratio histories are generated across 2009-2014 using combinations of several different a priori fossil fuel, land biospheric, and oceanic CO2 fluxes run through the PCTM off-line atmospheric transport model driven by MERRA 1°x1.25° winds and vertical mixing parameters. Each member of the suite is forced to agree with in situ CO2 measurements (flask, tall tower, and routine light aircraft profiles) through use of a variational carbon data assimilation (4Dvar) system. The optimized 3-D CO2 fields are then compared to ACOS column CO2 retrievals of GOSAT data, with the differences being fit to different independent variables (aerosol optical depth, atmospheric path length, surface albedo, etc.) to derive a GOSAT bias correction. ACOS-GOSAT CO2 retrievals, corrected by this scheme, as well as with the "official" ACOS bias correction, will then be assimilated using the same 4Dvar approach. The benefit of the GOSAT data with and without the bias corrections will then be assessed by comparing the optimized CO2 fields to independent data (TCCON column data, as well as aircraft data left out of the in situ inversions
Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Thompson, Rona; Stohl, Andreas; Shevchenko, Vladimir P.
2016-04-01
Black carbon (BC) is the main light absorbing aerosol species and it has important impacts on air quality, weather and climate. The major source of BC is incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and the burning of biomass or bio-fuels (soot). Therefore, to understand to what extent BC affects climate change and pollutant dynamics, accurate knowledge of the emissions, distribution and variation of BC is required. Most commonly, BC emission inventory datasets are built by "bottom up" approaches based on activity data and emissions factors, but these methods are considered to have large uncertainty (Cao et al, 2006). In this study, we have used a Bayesian Inversion to estimate spatially resolved BC emissions. Emissions are estimated monthly for 2014 and over the domain from 180°W to 180°E and 50°N to 90°N. Atmospheric transport is modeled using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model, FLEXPART (Stohl et al., 1998; 2005), and the inversion framework, FLEXINVERT, developed by Thompson and Stohl, (2014). The study domain is of particular interest concerning the identification and estimation of BC sources. In contrast to Europe and North America, where BC sources are comparatively well documented as a result of intense monitoring, only one station recording BC concentrations exists in the whole of Siberia. In addition, emissions from gas flaring by the oil industry have been geographically misplaced in most emission inventories and may be an important source of BC at high latitudes since a significant proportion of the total gas flared occurs at these high latitudes (Stohl et al., 2013). Our results show large differences with the existing BC inventories, whereas the estimated fluxes improve modeled BC concentrations with respect to observations. References Cao, G. et al. Atmos. Environ., 40, 6516-6527, 2006. Stohl, A. et al. Atmos. Environ., 32(24), 4245-4264, 1998. Stohl, A. et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5(9), 2461-2474, 2005. Stohl, A. et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13
Scalar dispersion in the atmosphere is an important area wherein different approaches are followed in development of good analytical model. The analyses based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes offer an opportunity of model development based on first principles of physics and hence such models have an edge over the existing models. Both forward and backward calculation methods are being developed for atmospheric dispersion around NPPs at BARC Forward modeling methods, which describe the atmospheric transport from sources to receptors, use forward-running transport and dispersion models or computational fluid dynamics models which are run many times, and the resulting dispersion field is compared to observations from multiple sensors. Backward or inverse modeling methods use only one model run in the reverse direction from the receptors to estimate the upwind sources. Inverse modeling methods include adjoint and tangent linear models, Kalman filters, and variational data assimilation, and neural network. The present paper is aimed at developing a new approach where the identified specific signatures at receptor points form the basis for source estimation or inversions. This approach is expected to reduce the large transient data sets to reduced and meaningful data sets. In fact this reduces the inherently transient data set into a time independent mean data set. Forward computation were carried out with CFD code for various case to generate a large set of data to train the ANN. Specific signature analysis was carried out to find the parameters of interest for ANN training like peak concentration, time to reach peak concentration and time to fall, the ANN was trained with data and source strength and location were predicted from ANN. Inverse problem was performed using ANN approach in long range atmospheric dispersion. An illustration of application of CFD code for atmospheric dispersion studies for a hypothetical case is also included in the paper. (author)
Hain, C.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Schultz, L. A.
2009-12-01
The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model was developed as an auxiliary means for estimating surface fluxes over large regions primarily using remote-sensing data. The model is unique in that no information regarding antecedent precipitation or moisture storage capacity is required - the surface moisture status is deduced from a radiometric temperature change signal. ALEXI uses the available water fraction (fAW) as a proxy for soil moisture conditions. Combining fAW with ALEXI’s ability to provide valuable information about the partitioning of the surface energy budget, which can dictated largely by soil moisture conditions, accommodates the retrieval of an average fAW from the surface to the rooting depth of the active vegetation. Using this approach has many advantages over traditional energy flux and soil moisture measurements (towers with limited range and large monetary/personnel costs) or approximation methods (parametrization of the relationship between available water and soil moisture) in that data is available both spatially and temporal over a large, non-homogeneous, sometimes densely vegetated area. Being satellite based, the model can be run anywhere thermal infrared satellite information is available. The current ALEXI climatology dates back to March 2000 and covers the continental U.S. Examples of projects underway using the ALEXI soil moisture retrieval tools include the Southern Florida Water Management Project; NASA’s Project Nile, which proposes to acquire hydrological information for the water management in the Nile River basin; and a USDA pro ject to expand the ALEXI framework to include Europe and parts of northern Africa using data from the European geostationary satellites, specifically the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Series.
Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland
2013-04-01
The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.
R. Locatelli
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Representation of atmospheric transport is a major source of error in the estimation of greenhouse gas sources and sinks by inverse modelling. Here we assess the impact on trace gas mole fractions of the new physical parameterisations recently implemented in the Atmospheric Global Climate Model LMDz to improve vertical diffusion, mesoscale mixing by thermal plumes in the planetary boundary layer (PBL, and deep convection in the troposphere. At the same time, the horizontal and vertical resolution of the model used in the inverse system has been increased. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of these developments on the representation of trace gas transport and chemistry, and to anticipate the implications for inversions of greenhouse gas emissions using such an updated model. Comparison of a one-dimensional version of LMDz with large eddy simulations shows that the thermal scheme simulates shallow convective tracer transport in the PBL over land very efficiently, and much better than previous versions of the model. This result is confirmed in three dimensional simulations, by a much improved reproduction of the Radon-222 diurnal cycle. However, the enhanced dynamics of tracer concentrations induces a stronger sensitivity of the new LMDz configuration to external meteorological forcings. At larger scales, the inter-hemispheric exchange is slightly slower when using the new version of the model, bringing them closer to observations. The increase in the vertical resolution (from 19 to 39 layers significantly improves the representation of stratosphere/troposphere exchange. Furthermore, changes in atmospheric thermodynamic variables, such as temperature, due to changes in the PBL mixing, significantly modify chemical reaction rates and the equilibrium value of reactive trace gases. One implication of LMDz model developments for future inversions of greenhouse gas emissions is the ability of the updated system to assimilate a larger
McGuire, A.D.; Christensen, T.R.; Hayes, D.; Heroult, A.; Euskirchen, E.; Yi, Y.; Kimball, J.S.; Koven, C.; Lafleur, P.; Miller, P.A.; Oechel, W.; Peylin, P.; Williams, M.
2012-01-01
Although arctic tundra has been estimated to cover only 8% of the global land surface, the large and potentially labile carbon pools currently stored in tundra soils have the potential for large emissions of carbon (C) under a warming climate. These emissions as radiatively active greenhouse gases in the form of both CO2 and CH4 could amplify global warming. Given the potential sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change and the expectation that the Arctic will experience appreciable warming over the next century, it is important to assess whether responses of C exchange in tundra regions are likely to enhance or mitigate warming. In this study we compared analyses of C exchange of Arctic tundra between 1990–1999 and 2000–2006 among observations, regional and global applications of process-based terrestrial biosphere models, and atmospheric inversion models. Syntheses of the compilation of flux observations and of inversion model results indicate that the annual exchange of CO2 between arctic tundra and the atmosphere has large uncertainties that cannot be distinguished from neutral balance. The mean estimate from an ensemble of process-based model simulations suggests that arctic tundra acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2 in recent decades, but based on the uncertainty estimates it cannot be determined with confidence whether these ecosystems represent a weak or a strong sink. Tundra was 0.6 °C warmer in the 2000s compared to the 1990s. The central estimates of the observations, process-based models, and inversion models each identify stronger sinks in the 2000s compared with the 1990s. Similarly, the observations and the applications of regional process-based models suggest that CH4 emissions from arctic tundra have increased from the 1990s to 2000s. Based on our analyses of the estimates from observations, process-based models, and inversion models, we estimate that arctic tundra was a sink for atmospheric CO2 of 110 Tg C yr-1 (uncertainty between a
Atmospheric inverse modeling with known physical bounds: an example from trace gas emissions
S. M. Miller
2014-02-01
the relative merits of each. This paper investigates the applicability of several approaches to bounded inverse problems. A common method of data transformations is found to unrealistically skew estimates for the examined example application. The method of Lagrange multipliers and two Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods yield more realistic and accurate results. In general, the examined MCMC approaches produce the most realistic result but can require substantial computational time. Lagrange multipliers offer an appealing option for large, computationally intensive problems when exact uncertainty bounds are less central to the analysis. A synthetic data inversion of US anthropogenic methane emissions illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.
Since the end of the 1980's, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide have been used to estimate global and regional fluxes of CO2. This is possible because CO2 concentration variation is directly linked to flux variation by atmospheric transport. We can find the spatial and temporal distribution of fluxes from concentration measurements by 'inverting' the atmospheric transport. Until recently, most CO2 inversions have used monthly mean CO2 atmospheric concentration measurements to infer monthly fluxes. Considering the sparseness of the global CO2 measurement network, fluxes were a priori aggregated on sub-continental regions and distributed on a fixed spatial pattern within these regions. Only one flux coefficient per month for each region was optimized. With this strong constraint, estimated fluxes can be biased by non-perfect distribution of fluxes within each region (aggregation error). Therefore, flux estimation at model resolution is being developed where the hard constraint of a fixed distribution within a region is replaced by a soft constraint of covariances between flux uncertainties. The use of continuous observations from an increasing number of measurement sites offers a new challenge for inverse modelers. We investigate the use of daily averaged observations to infer daily CO2 fluxes at model resolution over Europe. We have developed a global synthesis Bayesian inversion to invert daily fluxes at model resolution (50 x 50 km over Europe) from daily averaged CO2 concentrations. We have obtained estimated fluxes for the year 2001 over Europe using the 10 European continuous sites from the AEROCARB network. The global atmospheric model LMDZt is used with a nested grid over Europe. It is necessary to add a priori spatial and temporal correlations between flux errors to constrain the Bayesian inversion. We present the impact on estimated fluxes of three different spatial correlations based on distance between pixels, climate and vegetation distribution
Sensitivity of earthquake source inversions to atmospheric noise and corrections of InSAR data
Scott, Chelsea Phipps; Lohman, Rowena Benfer
2016-05-01
Tropospheric phase delays pose a major challenge to InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar)-based studies of tectonic deformation. One approach to the mitigation of effects from tropospheric noise is the application of elevation-dependent corrections based on empirical fits between elevation and interferometric phase. We quantify the effects of corrections with a range of complexity on inferred earthquake source parameters using synthetic interferograms with known atmospheric characteristics. We infer statistical properties of the stratified component of the atmosphere using pressure, temperature, and water vapor data from the North America Regional Reanalysis model over our region of interest in the Basin and Range province of the western United States. The statistics of the simulated atmospheric turbulence are estimated from InSAR and Global Positioning System data. We demonstrate potentially significant improvements in the precision of earthquake magnitude, depth, and dip estimates for several synthetic earthquake focal mechanisms following a correction for spatially variable atmospheric characteristics, relative to cases where the correction is based on a uniform delay versus elevation relationship or where no correction is applied. We apply our approach to the 1992 M5.6 Little Skull Mountain, Nevada, earthquake and demonstrate that the earthquake source parameter error bounds decrease in size after applying the atmospheric corrections. Our approach for evaluating the impact of atmospheric noise on inferred fault parameters is easily adaptable to other regions and source mechanisms.
Cheung, Mark C M; Schrijver, C J; Testa, P; Chen, F; Peter, H; Malanushenko, A
2015-01-01
We present a new method for performing differential emission measure (DEM) inversions on narrow-band EUV images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The method yields positive definite DEM solutions by solving a linear program. This method has been validated against a diverse set of thermal models of varying complexity and realism. These include (1) idealized gaussian DEM distributions, (2) 3D models of NOAA Active Region 11158 comprising quasi-steady loop atmospheres in a non-linear force-free field, and (3) thermodynamic models from a fully-compressible, 3D MHD simulation of AR corona formation following magnetic flux emergence. We then present results from the application of the method to AIA observations of Active Region 11158, comparing the region's thermal structure on two successive solar rotations. Additionally, we show how the DEM inversion method can be adapted to simultaneously invert AIA and XRT data, and how supplementing AIA data with the latt...
Garbarino, Sara; Massone, Anna Maria; Sannino, Alessia; Boselli, Antonella; Wang, Xuan; Spinelli, Nicola; Piana, Michele
2016-01-01
We consider the problem of retrieving the aerosol extinction coefficient from Raman lidar measurements. This is an ill--posed inverse problem that needs regularization, and we propose to use the Expectation--Maximization (EM) algorithm to provide stable solutions. Indeed, EM is an iterative algorithm that imposes a positivity constraint on the solution, and provides regularization if iterations are stopped early enough. We describe the algorithm and propose a stopping criterion inspired by a statistical principle. We then discuss its properties concerning the spatial resolution. Finally, we validate the proposed approach by using both synthetic data and experimental measurements; we compare the reconstructions obtained by EM with those obtained by the Tikhonov method, by the Levenberg-Marquardt method, as well as those obtained by combining data smoothing and numerical derivation.
Widawski Artur
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Sosnowiec is located in the Katowice Region, which is the most urbanized and industrialized region in Poland. Urban areas of such character favor enhancement of pollution concentration in the atmosphere and the consequent emergence of smog. Local meteorological and circulation conditions significantly influence not only on the air pollution level but also change air temperature considerably in their centers and immediate vicinities. The synoptic situation also plays the major role in dispersal and concentration of air pollutants and changes in temperature profile. One of the most important are the near-ground (100 m inversions of temperature revealed their highest values on clear winter days and sometimes stay still for the whole day and night. Air temperature inversions in Sosnowiec occur mainly during anticyclone stagnation (Ca-anticyclone centre and Ka-anticyclonic ridge and in anticyclones with air advection from the south and southwest (Sa and SWa which cause significantly increase of air pollution values. The detailed evaluation of the influence of circulation types on the appearance of a particular concentration of pollutants carried out in this work has confirmed the predominant influence of individual circulation types on the development of air pollution levels at the Katowice region. This paper presents research case study results of the thermal structure of the near-ground atmospheric layer (100 m and air pollution parameters (PM10, SO2, NO, NO2 changes in selected days of 2005 year according to regional synoptic circulation types. The changes in urban environment must be taken into account in analyses of multiyear trends of air temperature and air conditions on the regional and global scales.
Atmospheric inversion of SO2 and primary aerosol emissions for the year 2010
N. Huneeus
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Natural and anthropogenic emissions of primary aerosols and sulphur dioxide (SO2 are estimated for the year 2010 by assimilating daily total and fine mode aerosol optical depth (AOD at 550 nm from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite instrument into a global aerosol model of intermediate complexity. The system adjusts monthly emission fluxes over a set of predefined regions tiling the globe. The resulting aerosol emissions improve the model performance, as measured from usual skill scores, both against the assimilated observations and a set of independent ground-based measurements. The estimated emission fluxes are 67 Tg S yr−1 for SO2, 12 Tg yr−1 for black carbon (BC, 87 Tg yr−1 for particulate organic matter (POM, 17 000 Tg yr−1 for sea salt (SS, estimated at 80 % relative humidity and 1206 Tg yr−1 for desert dust (DD. They represent a difference of +53, +73, +72, +1 and −8%, respectively, with respect to the first guess (FG values. Constant errors throughout the regions and the year were assigned to the a priori emissions. The analysis errors are reduced with respect to the a priori ones for all species and throughout the year, they vary between 3 and 18% for SO2, 1 and 130% for biomass burning, 21 and 90 % for fossil fuel, 1 and 200% for DD and 1 and 5% for SS. The maximum errors on the global-yearly scale for the estimated fluxes (considering temporal error dependence are 3% for SO2, 14% for BC, 11% for POM, 14% for DD and 2% for SS. These values represent a decrease as compared to the global-yearly errors from the FG of 7% for SO2, 40% for BC, 55% for POM, 81% for DD and 300% for SS. The largest error reduction, both monthly and yearly, is observed for SS and the smallest one for SO2. The sensitivity and robustness of the inversion system to the choice of the first guess emission inventory is investigated by using different combinations of inventories for industrial, fossil fuel and biomass burning
Analysis of atmospheric CO2 growth rates at Mauna Loa using CO2 fluxes derived from an inverse model
Carbon dioxide (CO2) growth rates are estimated for a period 1959-2004 from atmospheric CO2 measurements at Mauna Loa by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Only during a few short periods, 1965-1966, 1972-1973, 1987-1988 and 1997-1998, in the last 45 yr have growth rates of atmospheric CO2 been of a similar magnitude or higher than that due to the total emission from burning of fossil fuels. Using results from a time-dependent inverse (TDI) model, based on observations of atmospheric CO2 at 87 stations, we establish that El Nino-induced climate variations in the tropics and large-scale forest fires in the boreal regions are the main causes of anomalous growth rates of atmospheric CO2. The high growth rate of 2.8 ppm/yr in 2002 can be predicted fairly successfully by using the correlations between (1) the peak-to-trough amplitudes in the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index and tropical flux anomaly, and (2) anomalies in CO2 flux and area burned by fire from the boreal regions. We suggest that the large interannual changes in CO2 growth rates can mostly be explained by natural climate variability. Our analysis also shows that the decadal average growth rate, linked primarily to human activity, has fluctuated around an all-time high value of 1.5 ppm/yr over the past 20 yr. A statistical model analysis is performed to identify the regions which have the maximum influence on the observed growth rate anomaly at Mauna Loa
X. Xiao
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl_{4} has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl_{4} measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl_{4} for the period of 1996–2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH, driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl_{4} mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE and the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl_{4} mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl_{4} oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.
A new method for the inversion of atmospheric parameters of A/Am stars
Gebran, M; Paletou, F; Monier, R; Watson, V
2016-01-01
We present an automated procedure that derives simultaneously the effective temperature $T_{eff}$, the surface gravity logg, the metallicity [Fe/H], and the equatorial projected rotational velocity vsini for "normal" A and Am stars. The procedure is based on the principal component analysis inversion method of Paletou et al. (2015a). A sample of 322 high resolution spectra of F0-B9 stars, retrieved from the Polarbase, SOPHIE, and ELODIE databases, were used to test this technique with real data. We have selected the spectral region from 4400-5000\\AA\\ as it contains many metallic lines and the Balmer H$\\beta$ line. Using 3 datasets at resolving powers of R=42000, 65000 and 76000, about 6.6x$10^6$ synthetic spectra were calculated to build a large learning database. The Online Power Iteration algorithm was applied to these learning datasets to estimate the principal components (PC). The projection of spectra onto the few PCs offered an efficient comparison metric in a low dimensional space. The spectra of the w...
Aires, F.; Rossow, W. B.; Scott, N. A.; Chedin, A.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A fast temperature water vapor and ozone atmospheric profile retrieval algorithm is developed for the high spectral resolution Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) space-borne instrument. Compression and de-noising of IASI observations are performed using Principal Component Analysis. This preprocessing methodology also allows, for a fast pattern recognition in a climatological data set to obtain a first guess. Then, a neural network using first guess information is developed to retrieve simultaneously temperature, water vapor and ozone atmospheric profiles. The performance of the resulting fast and accurate inverse model is evaluated with a large diversified data set of radiosondes atmospheres including rare events.
Wu, Xueran; Jacob, Birgit
2015-01-01
The controllability of advection-diffusion systems, subject to uncertain initial values and emission rates, is estimated, given sparse and error affected observations of prognostic state variables. In predictive geophysical model systems, like atmospheric chemistry simulations, different parameter families influence the temporal evolution of the system.This renders initial-value-only optimisation by traditional data assimilation methods as insufficient. In this paper, a quantitative assessment method on validation of measurement configurations to optimize initial values and emission rates, and how to balance them, is introduced. In this theoretical approach, Kalman filter and smoother and their ensemble based versions are combined with a singular value decomposition, to evaluate the potential improvement associated with specific observational network configurations. Further, with the same singular vector analysis for the efficiency of observations, their sensitivity to model control can be identified by deter...
X. Xiao
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl_{4} has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CC1_{4} measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl_{4} for the period of 1996–2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH, driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl_{4} mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl_{4} mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl_{4} oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.
Boucher, É.; Guiot, J.; Hatté, C.; Daux, V.; Danis, P.-A.; Dussouillez, P.
2013-11-01
Over the last decades, dendroclimatologists have relied upon linear transfer functions to reconstruct historical climate. Transfer functions need to be calibrated using recent data from periods where CO2 concentrations reached unprecedented levels (near 400 ppm). Based on these transfer functions, dendroclimatologists must then reconstruct a different past, a past where CO2 concentrations were much below 300 ppm. However, relying upon transfer functions calibrated in this way may introduce an unanticipated bias in the reconstruction of past climate, particularly if CO2 levels have had a noticeable fertilizing effect since the beginning of the industrial era. As an alternative to the transfer function approach, we run the MAIDENiso ecophysiological model in an inverse mode to link together climatic variables, atmospheric CO2 concentrations and tree growth parameters. Our approach endeavors to find the optimal combination of meteorological conditions that best simulate observed tree ring patterns. We test our approach in the Fontainebleau forest (France). By comparing two different CO2 scenarios, we present evidence that increasing CO2 concentrations have had a slight, yet significant, effect on reconstruction results. We demonstrate that higher CO2 concentrations augment the efficiency of water use by trees, therefore favoring the reconstruction of a warmer and drier climate. Under elevated CO2 concentrations, trees close their stomata and need less water to produce the same amount of wood. Inverse process-based modeling represents a powerful alternative to the transfer function technique, especially for the study of divergent tree-ring-to-climate relationships. The approach has several advantages, most notably its ability to distinguish between climatic effects and CO2 imprints on tree growth. Therefore our method produces reconstructions that are less biased by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and that are based on sound ecophysiological knowledge.
Graziosi, F.; Arduini, J.; Furlani, F.; Giostra, U.; Kuijpers, L. J. M.; Montzka, S. A.; Miller, B. R.; O'Doherty, S. J.; Stohl, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Maione, M.
2015-07-01
HCFC-22 (CHClF2), a stratospheric ozone depleting substance and a powerful greenhouse gas, is the third most abundant anthropogenic halocarbon in the atmosphere. Primarily used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems, its global production and consumption have increased during the last 60 years, with the global increases in the last decade mainly attributable to developing countries. In 2007, an adjustment to the Montreal Protocol for Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer called for an accelerated phase out of HCFCs, implying a 75% reduction (base year 1989) of HCFC production and consumption by 2010 in developed countries against the previous 65% reduction. In Europe HCFC-22 is continuously monitored at the two sites Mace Head (Ireland) and Monte Cimone (Italy). Combining atmospheric observations with a Bayesian inversion technique, we estimated fluxes of HCFC-22 from Europe and from eight macro-areas within it, over an 11-year period from January 2002 to December 2012, during which the accelerated restrictions on HCFCs production and consumption have entered into force. According to our study, the maximum emissions over the entire domain was in 2003 (38.2 ± 4.7 Gg yr-1), and the minimum in 2012 (12.1 ± 2.0 Gg yr-1); emissions continuously decreased between these years, except for secondary maxima in the 2008 and 2010. Despite such a decrease in regional emissions, background values of HCFC-22 measured at the two European stations over 2002-2012 are still increasing as a consequence of global emissions, in part from developing countries, with an average trend of ca 7.0 ppt yr-1. However, the observations at the two European stations show also that since 2008 a decrease in the global growth rate has occurred. In general, our European emission estimates are in good agreement with those reported by previous studies that used different techniques. Since the currently dominant emission source of HCFC-22 is from banks, we assess the banks' size and their
R. Parker
2013-02-01
Full Text Available We analyze an ensemble of seven XCO2 retrieval algorithms for SCIAMACHY (scanning imaging absorption spectrometer of atmospheric chartography and GOSAT (greenhouse gases observing satellite. The ensemble spread can be interpreted as regional uncertainty and can help to identify locations for new TCCON (total carbon column observing network validation sites. Additionally, we introduce the ensemble median algorithm EMMA combining individual soundings of the seven algorithms into one new data set. The ensemble takes advantage of the algorithms' independent developments. We find ensemble spreads being often < 1 ppm but rising up to 2 ppm especially in the tropics and East Asia. On the basis of gridded monthly averages, we compare EMMA and all individual algorithms with TCCON and CarbonTracker model results (potential outliers, north/south gradient, seasonal (peak-to-peak amplitude, standard deviation of the difference. Our findings show that EMMA is a promising candidate for inverse modeling studies. Compared to CarbonTracker, the satellite retrievals find consistently larger north/south gradients (by 0.3–0.9 ppm and seasonal amplitudes (by 1.5–2.0 ppm.
S. Eckhardt; A. J. Prata; Seibert, P.; K. Stebel; Stohl, A.
2008-01-01
An analytical inversion method has been developed to estimate the vertical profile of SO_{2} emissions from volcanic eruptions. The method uses satellite-observed total SO_{2} columns and an atmospheric transport model (FLEXPART) to exploit the fact that winds change with altitude – thus, the position and shape of the volcanic plume bear information on its emission altitude. The method finds the vertical emission distribution which minimizes t...
Carouge, C
2006-04-15
Since the end of the 1980's, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide have been used to estimate global and regional fluxes of CO{sub 2}. This is possible because CO{sub 2} concentration variation is directly linked to flux variation by atmospheric transport. We can find the spatial and temporal distribution of fluxes from concentration measurements by 'inverting' the atmospheric transport. Until recently, most CO{sub 2} inversions have used monthly mean CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentration measurements to infer monthly fluxes. Considering the sparseness of the global CO{sub 2} measurement network, fluxes were a priori aggregated on sub-continental regions and distributed on a fixed spatial pattern within these regions. Only one flux coefficient per month for each region was optimized. With this strong constraint, estimated fluxes can be biased by non-perfect distribution of fluxes within each region (aggregation error). Therefore, flux estimation at model resolution is being developed where the hard constraint of a fixed distribution within a region is replaced by a soft constraint of covariances between flux uncertainties. The use of continuous observations from an increasing number of measurement sites offers a new challenge for inverse modelers. We investigate the use of daily averaged observations to infer daily CO{sub 2} fluxes at model resolution over Europe. We have developed a global synthesis Bayesian inversion to invert daily fluxes at model resolution (50 x 50 km over Europe) from daily averaged CO{sub 2} concentrations. We have obtained estimated fluxes for the year 2001 over Europe using the 10 European continuous sites from the AEROCARB network. The global atmospheric model LMDZt is used with a nested grid over Europe. It is necessary to add a priori spatial and temporal correlations between flux errors to constrain the Bayesian inversion. We present the impact on estimated fluxes of three different spatial correlations based on
Cheung, Mark C. M.; Boerner, P.; Schrijver, C. J.; Testa, P.; Chen, F.; Peter, H.; Malanushenko, A.
2015-07-01
We present a new method for performing differential emission measure (DEM) inversions on narrow-band EUV images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The method yields positive definite DEM solutions by solving a linear program. This method has been validated against a diverse set of thermal models of varying complexity and realism. These include (1) idealized Gaussian DEM distributions, (2) 3D models of NOAA Active Region 11158 comprising quasi-steady loop atmospheres in a nonlinear force-free field, and (3) thermodynamic models from a fully compressible, 3D MHD simulation of active region (AR) corona formation following magnetic flux emergence. We then present results from the application of the method to AIA observations of Active Region 11158, comparing the region's thermal structure on two successive solar rotations. Additionally, we show how the DEM inversion method can be adapted to simultaneously invert AIA and Hinode X-ray Telescope data, and how supplementing AIA data with the latter improves the inversion result. The speed of the method allows for routine production of DEM maps, thus facilitating science studies that require tracking of the thermal structure of the solar corona in time and space.
Study of a Vegetation Index Based on HJ CCD Data's top-of-atmosphere reflectance and FPAR Inversion
The Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR)absorbed by plant canopies is a key parameter for monitoring crop condition and estimating crop yield. In general, it is necessary to obtain Top of Canopy (TOC) reflectance from optical remote sensing data in digital number through atmospheric correction procedures before retrieving FPAR. However, there are a few of uncertainties that existe in the process of atmosphere correction and reduced the quality of TOC. This paper presents a vegetation index based on Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance derived from HJ-1 CCD satellite for estimating direct crop FPAR. The vegetation index (HJVI) was designed based on the simulated results of a canopy-atmosphere radiative transfer model, including TOA reflectance and corresponded FPAR. The HJVI had taken the advantages of information in the green, the red and the near-infrared spectral domainswith with a aim of reducing the atmospheric effect and enhancing the sensitive to green vegetation. The HJVI was used to estimate soybean FPAR directly and validated using field measurements. The result indicated that the inversion algorithm produced a good relationship between the prediction and measurement (R2 = 0.546, RMSE = 0.083) and the HJVI showed high potential for estimating FPAR based on the HJ-1 TOA reflectance directly
Welp, Lisa R.; Patra, Prabir K.; Rödenbeck, Christian; Nemani, Rama; Bi, Jian; Piper, Stephen C.; Keeling, Ralph F.
2016-07-01
Warmer temperatures and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last several decades have been credited with increasing vegetation activity and photosynthetic uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere in the high northern latitude ecosystems: the boreal forest and arctic tundra. At the same time, soils in the region have been warming, permafrost is melting, fire frequency and severity are increasing, and some regions of the boreal forest are showing signs of stress due to drought or insect disturbance. The recent trends in net carbon balance of these ecosystems, across heterogeneous disturbance patterns, and the future implications of these changes are unclear. Here, we examine CO2 fluxes from northern boreal and tundra regions from 1985 to 2012, estimated from two atmospheric inversions (RIGC and Jena). Both used measured atmospheric CO2 concentrations and wind fields from interannually variable climate reanalysis. In the arctic zone, the latitude region above 60° N excluding Europe (10° W-63° E), neither inversion finds a significant long-term trend in annual CO2 balance. The boreal zone, the latitude region from approximately 50-60° N, again excluding Europe, showed a trend of 8-11 Tg C yr-2 over the common period of validity from 1986 to 2006, resulting in an annual CO2 sink in 2006 that was 170-230 Tg C yr-1 larger than in 1986. This trend appears to continue through 2012 in the Jena inversion as well. In both latitudinal zones, the seasonal amplitude of monthly CO2 fluxes increased due to increased uptake in summer, and in the arctic zone also due to increased fall CO2 release. These findings suggest that the boreal zone has been maintaining and likely increasing CO2 sink strength over this period, despite browning trends in some regions and changes in fire frequency and land use. Meanwhile, the arctic zone shows that increased summer CO2 uptake, consistent with strong greening trends, is offset by increased fall CO2 release, resulting in a net neutral
Full text: An account on recent progress in the inverse modelling of pollutants with first order chemistry (tracers, radionuclides, etc.) is given. The methods, which are variational and whose general principles have been presented in earlier EGU assemblies, are fundamentally nonlinear. They are meant to perform efficiently on the reconstruction of sources of accidental type (typically ETEX, Chernobyl.) In this report, the emphasis is put on two recent developments: First, the problem of finding the total released mass through nonlinear methods is first studied. Because the positivity of sources is taken into account, a non-zero prior mass scale appears in the background term. The cost function has a nonquadratic dependence on this parameter. This rules out many known parameter estimation techniques, when one has to choose this parameter prior to the inversion. Secondly, a posterior analysis of the retrieved source and retrieved errors is then conducted. It generalizes well-known data assimilation results that make use of the Hessian of the cost function. Closely related is the second order sensitivity analysis on the source and retrieved errors, of special significance for inverse modelling. (author)
Eckhardt, S.; Prata, A. J.; Seibert, P.; Stebel, K.; Stohl, A.
2008-07-01
An analytical inversion method has been developed to estimate the vertical profile of SO2 emissions from volcanic eruptions. The method uses satellite-observed total SO2 columns and an atmospheric transport model (FLEXPART) to exploit the fact that winds change with altitude thus, the position and shape of the volcanic plume bear information on its emission altitude. The method finds the vertical emission distribution which minimizes the total difference between simulated and observed SO2 columns while also considering a priori information. We have tested the method with the eruption of Jebel at Tair, Yemen, on 30 September 2007 for which a comprehensive observational data set from various satellite instruments (AIRS, OMI, SEVIRI, CALIPSO) is available. Using satellite data from the first 24 h after the eruption for the inversion, we found an emission maximum near 16 km above sea level (a.s.l.), and secondary maxima near 5, 9, 12 and 14 km a.s.l. 60% of the emission occurred above the tropopause. The emission profile obtained in the inversion was then used to simulate the transport of the plume over the following week. The modeled plume agrees very well with SO2 total columns observed by OMI, and its altitude agrees with CALIPSO aerosol observations to within 1 2 km. The inversion result is robust against various changes in both the a priori and the observations. Even when using only SEVIRI data from the first 15 h after the eruption, the emission profile was reasonably well estimated. The method is computationally very fast. It is therefore suitable for implementation within an operational environment, such as the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers, to predict the threat posed by volcanic ash for air traffic. It could also be helpful for assessing the sulfur input into the stratosphere, be it in the context of volcanic processes or also for proposed geo-engineering techniques to counteract global warming.
S. Pfeifer
2012-09-01
Full Text Available We analyze an ensemble of seven XCO2 retrieval algorithms for SCIAMACHY and GOSAT. The ensemble spread can be interpreted as regional uncertainty and can help to identify locations for new TCCON validation sites. Additionally, we introduce the ensemble median algorithm EMMA combining individual soundings of the seven algorithms into one new dataset. The ensemble takes advantage of the algorithms' independent developments. We find ensemble spreads being often <1 ppm but rising up to 2 ppm especially in the tropics and East Asia. On the basis of gridded monthly averages, we compare EMMA and all individual algorithms with TCCON and CarbonTracker model results (potential outliers, north/south gradient, seasonal (peak-to-peak amplitude, standard deviation of the difference. Our findings show that EMMA is a promising candidate for inverse modeling studies. Compared to CarbonTracker, the satellite retrievals find consistently larger north/south gradients (by 0.3 ppm–0.9 ppm and seasonal amplitudes (by 1.5 ppm–2.0 ppm.
Haynes, Korey; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather
2015-01-01
We present observations of two occultations of the extrasolar planet WASP-33b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the HST, which allow us to constrain the temperature structure and composition of its dayside atmosphere. WASP-33b is the most highly irradiated hot Jupiter discovered to date, and the only exoplanet known to orbit a delta-Scuti star. We observed in spatial scan mode to decrease instrument systematic effects in the data, and removed fluctuations in the data due to stellar pulsations. The RMS for our final, binned spectrum is approximately 1.05 times the photon noise. We compare our final spectrum, along with previously published photometric data, to atmospheric models of WASP-33b spanning a wide range in temperature profiles and chemical compositions. We find that the data require models with an oxygen-rich chemical composition and a temperature profile that increases at high altitude. We also find that our spectrum displays an excess in the measured flux towards short wavelengths that is best...
Basu, Sourish; Bharat Miller, John; Lehman, Scott
2016-05-01
National annual total CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels are likely known to within 5-10 % for most developed countries. However, uncertainties are inevitably larger (by unknown amounts) for emission estimates at regional and monthly scales, or for developing countries. Given recent international efforts to establish emission reduction targets, independent determination and verification of regional and national scale fossil fuel CO2 emissions are likely to become increasingly important. Here, we take advantage of the fact that precise measurements of 14C in CO2 provide a largely unbiased tracer for recently added fossil-fuel-derived CO2 in the atmosphere and present an atmospheric inversion technique to jointly assimilate observations of CO2 and 14CO2 in order to simultaneously estimate fossil fuel emissions and biospheric exchange fluxes of CO2. Using this method in a set of Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), we show that given the coverage of 14CO2 measurements available in 2010 (969 over North America, 1063 globally), we can recover the US national total fossil fuel emission to better than 1 % for the year and to within 5 % for most months. Increasing the number of 14CO2 observations to ˜ 5000 per year over North America, as recently recommended by the National Academy of Science (NAS) (Pacala et al., 2010), we recover monthly emissions to within 5 % for all months for the US as a whole and also for smaller, highly emissive regions over which the specified data coverage is relatively dense, such as for the New England states or the NY-NJ-PA tri-state area. This result suggests that, given continued improvement in state-of-the art transport models, a measurement program similar in scale to that recommended by the NAS can provide for independent verification of bottom-up inventories of fossil fuel CO2 at the regional and national scale. In addition, we show that the dual tracer inversion framework can detect and minimize biases in
Pison, I.
2005-12-15
Atmospheric pollution at a regional scale is the result of various interacting processes: emissions, chemistry, transport, mixing and deposition of gaseous species. The forecast of air quality is then performed by models, in which the emissions are taken into account through inventories. The simulated pollutant concentrations depend highly on the emissions that are used. Now inventories that represent them have large uncertainties. Since it would be difficult today to improve their building methodologies, there remains the possibility of adding information to existing inventories. The optimization of emissions uses the information that is available in measurements to get the inventory that minimizes the difference between simulated and measured concentrations. A method for the inversion of anthropogenic emissions at a regional scale, using network measurements and based on the CHIMERE model and its adjoint, was developed and validated. A kriging technique allows us to optimize the use of the information available in the concentration space. Repeated kriging-optimization cycles increase the quality of the results. A dynamical spatial aggregation technique makes it possible to further reduce the size of the problem. The NO{sub x} emissions from the inventory elaborated by AIRPARIF for the Paris area were inverted during the summers of 1998 and 1999, the events of the ESQUIF campaign being studied in detail. The optimization reduces large differences between simulated and measured concentrations. Generally, however, the confidence level of the results decreases with the density of the measurement network. Therefore, the results with the higher confidence level correspond to the most intense emission fluxes of the Paris area. On the whole domain, the corrections to the average emitted mass and to the matching time profiles are consistent with the estimate of 15% obtained during the ESQUIF campaign. (author)
Piper, Stephen C; Keeling, Charles D.; HEIMANN Martin; Stewart, Elisabeth F
2001-01-01
A three-dimensional tracer inversion model is described that couples atmospheric CO2 transport with prescribed and adjustable source/sink components of the global car- bon cycle to predict atmospheric CO2 concentration and 13C/12C isotopic ratio taking account of exchange fluxes of atmospheric CO2 with the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans. Industrial CO2 emissions are prescribed from fuel production data. Transport of CO2 is prescribed by a model, TM2, that employs 9 vertical levels from ...
NICOLE: NLTE Stokes Synthesis/Inversion Code
Socas-Navarro, H.
2015-08-01
NICOLE, written in Fortran 90, seeks the model atmosphere that provides the best fit to the Stokes profiles (in a least-squares sense) of an arbitrary number of simultaneously-observes spectral lines from solar/stellar atmospheres. The inversion core used for the development of NICOLE is the LORIEN engine (the Lovely Reusable Inversion ENgine), which combines the SVD technique with the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization method to solve the inverse problem.
J. Haase
Full Text Available Radio occultation measurements made with a receiver inside the Earth’s atmosphere can be inverted, assuming local spherical symmetry, with an Abel transform to provide an estimate of the atmospheric refractive index profile. The measurement geometry is closely related to problems encountered when inverting seismic time-travel data and solar occultation measurements, where the Abel solution is well known. The method requires measuring both rays that originate from above and below the local horizon of the receiver. The Abel transform operates on a profile of "partial bending angles" found by subtracting the positive elevation measurement from the negative elevation value with the same impact parameter. In principle, the refractive index profile can be derived from measurements with a single frequency GPS receiver because the ionospheric bending is removed when the partial bending angle is evaluated.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature – Radio science (remote sensing
2007-01-01
This media offers the student a chance to review how to exploit differential flatness of the system and emply inverse dynamics in the virtual domain to compute the states and controls that were not approximated with the reference functions. Last modified: 5/18/2009
Pedersen, Jesper Grønnegaard
The largest wind turbines today often reach heights where traditional models of the wind speed and how it varies with height no longer can be expected to apply. For accurate assessment of wind energy resources and loads on wind turbines, there is a need for better understanding of the flow of air...... above the atmospheric surface layer. Continuous and detailed measurements of mean winds and turbulence above the surface layer are expensive and difficult to obtain. Computational fluid dynamics modelling of the atmospheric flow can be an attractive alternative or supplement to field experiments. In...
Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Turner, David P [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Stinson, Graham [Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Heath, Linda S. [USDA Forest Service; De Jong, Bernardus [ECOSUR; McConkey, Brian G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Birdsey, Richard A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Pan, Yude [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL
2012-01-01
We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000 2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a 327 252 TgC yr1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (248 TgC yr1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (297 TgC yr1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated tobe a small net source (+18 TgC yr1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventorybased estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is 511 TgC yr1 and 931 TgC yr1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional 239 TgC yr1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.
Hayes, Daniel J.; Turner, David P.; Stinson, Graham; McGuire, A. David; Wei, Yaxing; West, Tristram O.; Heath, Linda S.; de Jong, Bernardus; McConkey, Brian G.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Kurz, Werner A.; Jacobson, Andrew R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Pan, Yude; Post, W. Mac; Cook, Robert B.
2012-01-01
We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000–2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a -327 ± 252 TgC yr-1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (-248 TgC yr-1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (-297 TgC yr-1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr-1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated to be a small net source (+18 TgC yr-1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventory-based estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is -511 TgC yr-1 and -931 TgC yr-1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional -239 TgC yr-1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.
Inversion of GPS meteorology data
K. Hocke
Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically
Inverse problems of geophysics
This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given
Mesoscale inversion of carbon sources and sinks
Inverse methods at large scales are used to infer the spatial variability of carbon sources and sinks over the continents but their uncertainties remain large. Atmospheric concentrations integrate the surface flux variability but atmospheric transport models at low resolution are not able to simulate properly the local atmospheric dynamics at the measurement sites. However, the inverse estimates are more representative of the large spatial heterogeneity of the ecosystems compared to direct flux measurements. Top-down and bottom-up methods that aim at quantifying the carbon exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere correspond to different scales and are not easily comparable. During this phD, a mesoscale inverse system was developed to correct carbon fluxes at 8 km resolution. The high resolution transport model MesoNH was used to simulate accurately the variability of the atmospheric concentrations, which allowed us to reduce the uncertainty of the retrieved fluxes. All the measurements used here were observed during the intensive regional campaign CERES of May and June 2005, during which several instrumented towers measured CO2 concentrations and fluxes in the South West of France. Airborne measurements allowed us to observe concentrations at high altitude but also CO2 surface fluxes over large parts of the domain. First, the capacity of the inverse system to correct the CO2 fluxes was estimated using pseudo-data experiments. The largest fraction of the concentration variability was attributed to regional surface fluxes over an area of about 300 km around the site locations depending on the meteorological conditions. Second, an ensemble of simulations allowed us to define the spatial and temporal structures of the transport errors. Finally, the inverse fluxes at 8 km resolution were compared to direct flux measurements. The inverse system has been validated in space and time and showed an improvement of the first guess fluxes from a vegetation model
Inverse Quadratic Transportation Problem
Jalilzadeh, Afrooz; Hamedani, Erfan Yazdandoost
2014-01-01
Many research has been conducted about quadratic programming and inverse optimization. In this paper we present the combination aspect of these subjects, applying on transportation problem. First, we obtain the inverse form of quadratic tranportation problem under $L_1$ norm by using duality as well as introducing the optimal value. Then, we do the same process for inverse quadratic transportation problem (IQTP) under $L_\\infty$ norm.
Acute puerperal uterine inversion
Objective: To determine the frequency, causes, clinical presentations, management and maternal mortality associated with acute puerperal inversion of the uterus. Materials and Methods: All the patients who developed acute puerperal inversion of the uterus either in or outside the JPMC were included in the study. Patients of chronic uterine inversion were not included in the present study. Abdominal and vaginal examination was done to confirm and classify inversion into first, second or third degrees. Results: 57036 deliveries and 36 acute uterine inversions occurred during the study period, so the frequency of uterine inversion was 1 in 1584 deliveries. Mismanagement of third stage of labour was responsible for uterine inversion in 75% of patients. Majority of the patients presented with shock, either hypovolemic (69%) or neurogenic (13%) in origin. Manual replacement of the uterus under general anaesthesia with 2% halothane was successfully done in 35 patients (97.5%). Abdominal hysterectomy was done in only one patient. There were three maternal deaths due to inversion. Conclusion: Proper education and training regarding placental delivery, diagnosis and management of uterine inversion must be imparted to the maternity care providers especially to traditional birth attendants and family physicians to prevent this potentially life-threatening condition. (author)
Gladwell, Graham ML
2011-01-01
The papers in this volume present an overview of the general aspects and practical applications of dynamic inverse methods, through the interaction of several topics, ranging from classical and advanced inverse problems in vibration, isospectral systems, dynamic methods for structural identification, active vibration control and damage detection, imaging shear stiffness in biological tissues, wave propagation, to computational and experimental aspects relevant for engineering problems.
Labouze, Xavier
2013-01-01
The Inverse 3-SAT problem is known to be coNP Complete. This article shows a new interesting way to solve directly the problem by using closure under resolution and partial assignment properties. An algorithm is proposed which lets solve the (co)Inverse 3-SAT problem.
Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions
Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten
In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....
0-Semidistributive Inverse Semigroups
田振际
2004-01-01
@@ For an inverse semigroup S, the set L(S) of all inverse subsemigroups (including the empty set) of S forms a lattice with respect to intersection denoted as usual by ∩ and union, where the union is the inverse subsemigroup generated by inverse subsemigroups A, B of S. The set LF(S) of all full inverse subsemigroups of S forms a complete sublattice of L(S), with Es as zero element (Es is the set of all idempotent of S)(see [3,5,6]). Note, that if S a group, then LF(S)=L(S), its lattice of all subgroups of S. If S = G0 is a group with adjoined zero, then clearly LF(S) ≌ L(G).
Analysis of Temperature Distributions in Nighttime Inversions
Telyak, Oksana; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei
2015-04-01
Adequate prediction of temperature inversion in the atmospheric boundary layer is one of prerequisites for successful forecasting of meteorological parameters and severe weather events. Examples include surface air temperature and precipitation forecasting as well as prediction of fog, frosts and smog with hazardous levels of atmospheric pollution. At the same time, reliable forecasting of temperature inversions remains an unsolved problem. For prediction of nighttime inversions over some specific territory, it is important to study characteristic features of local circulation cells formation and to properly take local factors into account to develop custom modeling techniques for operational use. The present study aims to investigate and analyze vertical temperature distributions in tropospheric inversions (isotherms) over the territory of Belarus. We study several specific cases of formation, evolution and decay of deep nighttime temperature inversions in Belarus by means of mesoscale numerical simulations with WRF model, considering basic mechanisms of isothermal and inverse temperature layers formation in the troposphere and impact of these layers on local circulation cells. Our primary goal is to assess the feasibility of advance prediction of inversions formation with WRF. Modeling results reveal that all cases under consideration have characteristic features of radiative inversions (e.g., their formation times, development phases, inversion intensities, etc). Regions of "blocking" layers formation are extensive and often spread over the entire territory of Belarus. Inversions decay starts from the lowermost (near surface) layer (altitudes of 5 to 50 m). In all cases, one can observe formation of temperature gradients that substantially differ from the basic inversion gradient, i.e. the layer splits into smaller layers, each having a different temperature stratification (isothermal, adiabatic, etc). As opposed to various empirical techniques as well as
Inversion flachseismischer Wellenfeldspektren
Forbriger, Thomas
2001-01-01
In dieser Arbeit stelle ich ein neues Verfahren zur Inversion flachseismischer Wellenfelder vor. Die Inversion erfolgt in zwei Schritten. Zunächst wird ein Phasenslowness-Frequenz-Spektrum (omega,p-Spektrum) der Seismogramme bestimmt. In einem zweiten Schritt werden dieses Spektrum und die Laufzeiten der Ersteinsätze gemeinsam zu einem rein Tiefen-abhängigen Modell der seismischen Geschwindigkeiten und der Diskontinuitäten des untersuchten Mediums invertiert. Typische flachseismische Messunge...
Inversion of Stokes Profiles with Systematic Effects
Ramos, A Asensio; Gonzalez, M J Martinez; Yabar, A Pastor
2016-01-01
Quantitative thermodynamical, dynamical and magnetic properties of the solar and stellar plasmas are obtained by interpreting their emergent non-polarized and polarized spectrum. This inference requires the selection of a set of spectral lines particularly sensitive to the physical conditions in the plasma and a suitable parametric model of the solar/stellar atmosphere. Nonlinear inversion codes are then used to fit the model to the observations. However, the presence of systematic effects like nearby or blended spectral lines, telluric absorption or incorrect correction of the continuum, among others, can strongly affect the results. We present an extension to current inversion codes that can deal with these effects in a transparent way. The resulting algorithm is very simple and can be applied to any existing inversion code with the addition of a few lines of code as an extra step in each iteration.
Sharp spatially constrained inversion
Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.; Kirkegaard, Casper C.; Auken, Esben
We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted by...... using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes this by......, the results are compatible with the data and, at the same time, favor sharp transitions. The focusing strategy can also be used to constrain the 1D solutions laterally, guaranteeing that lateral sharp transitions are retrieved without losing resolution. By means of real and synthetic datasets, sharp...
Mosegaard, Klaus
For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on ou...
Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion
Saragiotis, Christos
2011-01-01
The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.
Bayesian seismic AVO inversion
Buland, Arild
2002-07-01
A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S
Intersections, ideals, and inversion
Vasco, D.W.
1998-10-01
Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.
Intersections, ideals, and inversion
Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly one dimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons
Iterative image restoration using approximate inverse preconditioning.
Nagy, J G; Plemmons, R J; Torgersen, T C
1996-01-01
Removing a linear shift-invariant blur from a signal or image can be accomplished by inverse or Wiener filtering, or by an iterative least-squares deblurring procedure. Because of the ill-posed characteristics of the deconvolution problem, in the presence of noise, filtering methods often yield poor results. On the other hand, iterative methods often suffer from slow convergence at high spatial frequencies. This paper concerns solving deconvolution problems for atmospherically blurred images by the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm, where a new approximate inverse preconditioner is used to increase the rate of convergence. Theoretical results are established to show that fast convergence can be expected, and test results are reported for a ground-based astronomical imaging problem. PMID:18285203
Inverse Degree and Connectivity
MA Xiao-ling; TIAN Ying-zhi
2013-01-01
Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G),order n =丨V(G)丨,minimum degree δ(G) and connectivity κ(G).The graph G is called maximally connected if κ(G) =δ(G).Define the inverse degree of G with no isolated vertices as R(G) =Σv∈V(G)1/d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of the vertex v.We show that G is maximally connected if R(G) ＜ 1 + 2/δ + n-2δ+1/(n-1)(n-3).
Jingyun Yang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Cohen's kappa and weighted kappa statistics are the conventional methods used frequently in measuring agreement for categorical responses. In this paper, through the perspective of a generalized inverse, we propose an alternative general framework of the fixed-effects modeling of Cohen's weighted kappa, proposed by Yang and Chinchilli (2011. Properties of the proposed method are provided. Small sample performance is investigated through bootstrap simulation studies, which demonstrate good performance of the proposed method. When there are only two categories, the proposed method reduces to Cohen's kappa.
Mosegaard, Klaus
2012-01-01
For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our...... ability to produce efficient search algorithms. Such algorithms may be completely problem-independent (which is the case for the so-called 'meta-heuristics' or 'blind-search' algorithms), or they may be designed with the structure of the concrete problem in mind. We show that pure meta-heuristics are...
Multiscale full waveform inversion
Fichtner, Andreas; Trampert, Jeannot; Cupillard, Paul; Saygin, Erdinc; Taymaz, Tuncay; Capdeville, Yann; Villaseñor, Antonio
2013-07-01
We develop and apply a full waveform inversion method that incorporates seismic data on a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, thereby constraining the details of both crustal and upper-mantle structure. This is intended to further our understanding of crust-mantle interactions that shape the nature of plate tectonics, and to be a step towards improved tomographic models of strongly scale-dependent earth properties, such as attenuation and anisotropy. The inversion for detailed regional earth structure consistently embedded within a large-scale model requires locally refined numerical meshes that allow us to (1) model regional wave propagation at high frequencies, and (2) capture the inferred fine-scale heterogeneities. The smallest local grid spacing sets the upper bound of the largest possible time step used to iteratively advance the seismic wave field. This limitation leads to extreme computational costs in the presence of fine-scale structure, and it inhibits the construction of full waveform tomographic models that describe earth structure on multiple scales. To reduce computational requirements to a feasible level, we design a multigrid approach based on the decomposition of a multiscale earth model with widely varying grid spacings into a family of single-scale models where the grid spacing is approximately uniform. Each of the single-scale models contains a tractable number of grid points, which ensures computational efficiency. The multi-to-single-scale decomposition is the foundation of iterative, gradient-based optimization schemes that simultaneously and consistently invert data on all scales for one multi-scale model. We demonstrate the applicability of our method in a full waveform inversion for Eurasia, with a special focus on Anatolia where coverage is particularly dense. Continental-scale structure is constrained by complete seismic waveforms in the 30-200 s period range. In addition to the well-known structural elements of the Eurasian mantle
Markus Spiliotis
Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.
Inversion amalgam chronopotentiometry
The review deals with the theoretical principles of the method of inversion amalgam chronopotentiometry. The transition times and the potential-time relations for the electrochemical dissolution of amalgams under galvanostatic conditions are analysed and the applications of the method in electroanalytical practise, in the study of the kinetics of electrode processes and adsorption, in the determination of the numbers of electrons involved in the reaction and diffusion coefficients, and in the study of complex formation, corrosion of amalgams, etc. are examined in detail. The fundamentals of the theory of electrode processes complicated by preceding, subsequent, and simultaneous chemical reactions are described. The possibilities and advantages of the method of amalgam chronopotentiometry in relation to other electrochemical procedures are indicated
Ahriche, Amine; Nasri, Salah
2016-01-01
We present a minimal model that simultaneously accounts for neutrino masses and the origin of dark matter (DM) and where the electroweak phase transition is strong enough to allow for electroweak baryogenesis. The Standard Model is enlarged with a Majorana fermion, three generations of chiral fermion pairs, and a single complex scalar that plays a central role in DM production and phenomenology, neutrino masses, and the strength of the phase transition. All the new fields are singlets under the SM gauge group. Neutrino masses are generated via a new variant of radiative inverse seesaw where the required small mass term is generated via loops involving DM and no large hierarchy is assumed among the mass scales. The model offers all the advantage of low-scale neutrino mass models as well as a viable dark matter candidate that is testable with direct detection experiments.
It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination
Wavelet Sparse Approximate Inverse Preconditioners
Chan, Tony F.; Tang, W.-P.; Wan, W. L.
1996-01-01
There is an increasing interest in using sparse approximate inverses as preconditioners for Krylov subspace iterative methods. Recent studies of Grote and Huckle and Chow and Saad also show that sparse approximate inverse preconditioner can be effective for a variety of matrices, e.g. Harwell-Boeing collections. Nonetheless a drawback is that it requires rapid decay of the inverse entries so that sparse approximate inverse is possible. However, for the class of matrices that, come from elliptic PDE problems, this assumption may not necessarily hold. Our main idea is to look for a basis, other than the standard one, such that a sparse representation of the inverse is feasible. A crucial observation is that the kind of matrices we are interested in typically have a piecewise smooth inverse. We exploit this fact, by applying wavelet techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse in the wavelet basis. We shall justify theoretically and numerically that our approach is effective for matrices with smooth inverse. We emphasize that in this paper we have only presented the idea of wavelet approximate inverses and demonstrated its potential but have not yet developed a highly refined and efficient algorithm.
Holocaust inversion and contemporary antisemitism.
Klaff, Lesley D
2014-01-01
One of the cruellest aspects of the new antisemitism is its perverse use of the Holocaust as a stick to beat 'the Jews'. This article explains the phenomenon of 'Holocaust Inversion', which involves an 'inversion of reality' (the Israelis are cast as the 'new' Nazis and the Palestinians as the 'new' Jews) and an 'inversion of morality' (the Holocaust is presented as a moral lesson for, or even a moral indictment of, 'the Jews'). Holocaust inversion is a form of soft-core Holocaust denial, yet...
Generating Generalized Inverse Gaussian Random Variates by Fast Inversion
Leydold, Josef; Hörmann, Wolfgang
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that for the fast numerical inversion of the (generalized) inverse Gaussian distribution two algorithms based on polynomial interpolation are well-suited. Their precision is close to machine precision and they are much faster than the bisection method recently proposed by Y. Lai. (author´s abstract)
Waveform inversion of acoustic waves for explosion yield estimation
Kim, K.; Rodgers, A.
2016-07-01
We present a new waveform inversion technique to estimate the energy of near-surface explosions using atmospheric acoustic waves. Conventional methods often employ air blast models based on a homogeneous atmosphere, where the acoustic wave propagation effects (e.g., refraction and diffraction) are not taken into account, and therefore, their accuracy decreases with increasing source-receiver distance. In this study, three-dimensional acoustic simulations are performed with a finite difference method in realistic atmospheres and topography, and the modeled acoustic Green's functions are incorporated into the waveform inversion for the acoustic source time functions. The strength of the acoustic source is related to explosion yield based on a standard air blast model. The technique was applied to local explosions (structure. The presented method can be extended to explosions recorded at far distance provided proper meteorological specifications.
Lidar measurements of mesospheric temperature inversion at a low latitude
V. Siva Kumar
Full Text Available The Rayleigh lidar data collected on 119 nights from March 1998 to February 2000 were used to study the statistical characteristics of the low latitude mesospheric temperature inversion observed over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, India. The occurrence frequency of the inversion showed semiannual variation with maxima in the equinoxes and minima in the summer and winter, which was quite different from that reported for the mid-latitudes. The peak of the inversion layer was found to be confined to the height range of 73 to 79 km with the maximum occurrence centered around 76 km, with a weak seasonal dependence that fits well to an annual cycle with a maximum in June and a minimum in December. The magnitude of the temperature deviation associated with the inversion was found to be as high as 32 K, with the most probable value occurring at about 20 K. Its seasonal dependence seems to follow an annual cycle with a maximum in April and a minimum in October. The observed characteristics of the inversion layer are compared with that of the mid-latitudes and discussed in light of the current understanding of the source mechanisms.
Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology
Inverse problem in hydrogeology
Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.
2005-03-01
The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le
Zhang, D. L.
2013-01-01
To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.
Inverse fracture network modelling
The basic problem in analyzing flow and transport in fractured rock is that the flow may be largely governed by a poorly connected network of fractures. Flow in such a system cannot be modeled with traditional modelling techniques. Fracture network models also have a limitation, in that they are based on geological data on fracture geometry even though it is known that only a small portion of fractures observed is hydraulically active. This paper discusses a new technique developed for treating the problem as well as presents a modelling example carried out to apply it. The approach is developed in Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and it treats the fracture zone as an 'equivalent discontinuum'. The discontinuous nature of the problem is represented through flow on a partially filled lattice. An equivalent discontinuum model is constructed by adding and removing conductive elements through a statistical inverse technique called 'simulated annealing'. The fracture network model is 'annealed' until the modified systems behaves like the observed. The further development of the approach continues at LBL and in a joint LBL/VTT collaboration project the possibilities to apply the technique in Finnish conditions are investigated
Inverse Problems of Thermoelectricity
Anatychuk, L. I.; Luste, O. J.; Kuz, R. V.; Strutinsky, M. N.
2011-05-01
Classical thermoelectricity is based on the use of the Seebeck and Thomson effects that occur in the near-contact areas between n- and p-type materials. A conceptually different approach to thermoelectric power converter design that is based on the law of thermoelectric induction of currents is also known. The efficiency of this approach has already been demonstrated by its first applications. More than 10 basically new types of thermoelements were discovered with properties that cannot be achieved by thermocouple power converters. Therefore, further development of this concept is of practical interest. This paper provides a classification and theory for solving the inverse problems of thermoelectricity that form the basis for devising new thermoelement types. Computer methods for their solution for anisotropic and inhomogeneous media are elaborated. Regularities related to thermoelectric current excitation in anisotropic and inhomogeneous media are established. The possibility of obtaining eddy currents of a particular configuration through control of the temperature field and material parameters for the creation of new thermo- element types is demonstrated for three-dimensional (3D) models of anisotropic and inhomogeneous media.
Multiscale Modelling and Inverse Problems
Nolen, J; Stuart, A M
2010-01-01
The need to blend observational data and mathematical models arises in many applications and leads naturally to inverse problems. Parameters appearing in the model, such as constitutive tensors, initial conditions, boundary conditions, and forcing can be estimated on the basis of observed data. The resulting inverse problems are often ill-posed and some form of regularization is required. These notes discuss parameter estimation in situations where the unknown parameters vary across multiple scales. We illustrate the main ideas using a simple model for groundwater flow. We will highlight various approaches to regularization for inverse problems, including Tikhonov and Bayesian methods. We illustrate three ideas that arise when considering inverse problems in the multiscale context. The first idea is that the choice of space or set in which to seek the solution to the inverse problem is intimately related to whether a homogenized or full multiscale solution is required. This is a choice of regularization. The ...
Multidimensional NMR Inversion without Kronecker Products: Multilinear Inversion
Medellín, David; Torres-Verdín, Carlos
2016-01-01
Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that require large amounts of memory, making the inversion intractable for personal computers. Finally, incorporating arbitrary regularization terms is not possible using the Lawson-Hanson (LH) or the Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithms. We develop a minimization-based inversion method that circumvents the above problems by using multilinear forms to perform multidimensional NMR inversion without using kernel compression or Kronecker products. The new method is memory efficient, requiring less than 0.1% of the memory required...
Parameter estimation and inverse problems
Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H
2011-01-01
Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems, 2e provides geoscience students and professionals with answers to common questions like how one can derive a physical model from a finite set of observations containing errors, and how one may determine the quality of such a model. This book takes on these fundamental and challenging problems, introducing students and professionals to the broad range of approaches that lie in the realm of inverse theory. The authors present both the underlying theory and practical algorithms for solving inverse problems. The authors' treatment is approp
Inverse Doppler Effects in Flute
Zhao, Xiao P; Liu, Song; Shen, Fang L; Li, Lin L; Luo, Chun R
2015-01-01
Here we report the observation of the inverse Doppler effects in a flute. It is experimentally verified that, when there is a relative movement between the source and the observer, the inverse Doppler effect could be detected for all seven pitches of a musical scale produced by a flute. Higher tone is associated with a greater shift in frequency. The effect of the inverse frequency shift may provide new insights into why the flute, with its euphonious tone, has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.
On the feasibility of inversion methods based on models of urban sky glow
Multi-wavelength imaging luminance photometry of sky glow provides a huge amount of information on light pollution. However, the understanding of the measured data involves the combination of different processes and data of radiation transfer, atmospheric physics and atmospheric constitution. State-of-the-art numerical radiation transfer models provide the possibility to define an inverse problem to obtain information on the emission intensity distribution of a city and perhaps the physical properties of the atmosphere. We provide numerical tests on the solvability and feasibility of such procedures. - Highlights: • A method of urban sky glow inversion is introduced based on Monte-Carlo calculations. • Imaging photometry can provide enough information for basic inversions. • The inversion technique can be used to construct maps of light pollution. • The inclusion of multiple scattering in the models plays an important role
Uterine Inversion; A case report.
Bouchikhi, C; Saadi, H; Fakhir, B; Chaara, H; Bouguern, H; Banani, A; Melhouf, Ma
2008-01-01
The puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and severe complication occurring in the third stage of labour. The mechanisms are not completely known. However, extrinsic factors such as oxytocic arrests after a prolonged labour, umbilical cord traction or abdominal expression are pointed. Other intrinsic factors such as primiparity, uterine hypotonia, various placental localizations, fundic myoma or short umbilical cord were also reported. The diagnosis of the uterine inversion is mainly supported by clinical symptoms. It is based on three elements: haemorrhage, shock and a strong pelvic pain. The immediate treatment of the uterine inversion is required. It is based on a medical reanimation associated with firstly a manual reduction then surgical treatment using various techniques. We report an observation of a 25 years old grand multiparous patient with a subacute uterine inversion after delivery at home. PMID:21516244
Statistical perspectives on inverse problems
Andersen, Kim Emil
interior of an object from electrical boundary measurements. One part of this thesis concerns statistical approaches for solving, possibly non-linear, inverse problems. Thus inverse problems are recasted in a form suitable for statistical inference. In particular, a Bayesian approach for regularisation is...... obtained by assuming that the a priori beliefs about the solution before having observed any data can be described by a prior distribution. The solution to the statistical inverse problem is then given by the posterior distribution obtained by Bayes' formula. Hence the solution of an ill-posed inverse...... problem is given in terms of probability distributions. Posterior inference is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and new, powerful simulation techniques based on e.g. coupled Markov chains and simulated tempering is developed to improve the computational efficiency of the overall simulation...
Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies
Page, Morgan T.
2011-01-01
Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.
Parameter estimation and inverse problems
Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H
2005-01-01
Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...
Uterine Inversion; A case report
C, Bouchikhi; H, Saadi; B, Fakhir; H, Chaara; H, Bouguern; A, Banani; Melhouf MA
2008-01-01
The puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and severe complication occurring in the third stage of labour. The mechanisms are not completely known. However, extrinsic factors such as oxytocic arrests after a prolonged labour, umbilical cord traction or abdominal expression are pointed. Other intrinsic factors such as primiparity, uterine hypotonia, various placental localizations, fundic myoma or short umbilical cord were also reported. The diagnosis of the uterine inversion is mainly supporte...
-Colour Self-Inverse Compositions
Geetika Narang; A K Agarwal
2006-08-01
MacMahon’s definition of self-inverse composition is extended to -colour self-inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence relations, generating functions and a summation formula are obtained. Two new binomial identities with combinatorial meaning are also given.
Thermal measurements and inverse techniques
Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M
2011-01-01
With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe
Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...
The mesospheric inversion layer and sprites
Fadnavis, S; Singh, R P
2009-01-01
The vertical structure of temperature observed by SABER (Sounding of Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) aboard TIMED (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) and sprites observations made during the Eurosprite 2003 to 2007 observational campaign were analyzed. Sprite observations were made at two locations in France, namely Puy de Dome in the French Massif Central and at the Pic du Midi in the French Pyrenees. It is observed that the vertical structure of temperature shows evidence for a Mesospheric Inversion Layer (MIL) on those days on which sprites were observed. A few events are also reported in which sprites were not recorded, although there is evidence of a MIL in the vertical structure of the temperature. It is proposed that breaking gravity waves produced by convective thunderstorms facilitate the production of (a) sprites by modulating the neutral air-density and (b) MILs via the deposition of energy. The same proposition has been used to explain observations of lig...
Multidimensional NMR inversion without Kronecker products: Multilinear inversion
Medellín, David; Ravi, Vivek R.; Torres-Verdín, Carlos
2016-08-01
Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that require large amounts of memory, making the inversion intractable for personal computers. Finally, incorporating arbitrary regularization terms is not possible using the Lawson-Hanson (LH) or the Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithms. We develop a minimization-based inversion method that circumvents the above problems by using multilinear forms to perform multidimensional NMR inversion without using kernel compression or Kronecker products. The new method is memory efficient, requiring less than 0.1% of the memory required by the LH or BRD methods. It can also be extended to arbitrary dimensions and adapted to include non-separable kernels, linear constraints, and arbitrary regularization terms. Additionally, it is easy to implement because only a cost function and its first derivative are required to perform the inversion.
Seager, S
2010-01-01
At the dawn of the first discovery of exoplanets orbiting sun-like stars in the mid-1990s, few believed that observations of exoplanet atmospheres would ever be possible. After the 2002 Hubble Space Telescope detection of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere, many skeptics discounted it as a one-object, one-method success. Nevertheless, the field is now firmly established, with over two dozen exoplanet atmospheres observed today. Hot Jupiters are the type of exoplanet currently most amenable to study. Highlights include: detection of molecular spectral features; observation of day-night temperature gradients; and constraints on vertical atmospheric structure. Atmospheres of giant planets far from their host stars are also being studied with direct imaging. The ultimate exoplanet goal is to answer the enigmatic and ancient question, "Are we alone?" via detection of atmospheric biosignatures. Two exciting prospects are the immediate focus on transiting super Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of M-dwarfs, and u...
Cloud detection by inversion of MAX-DOAS measurements
Nasse, Jan-Marcus; Zielcke, Johannes; Friess, Udo; Lampel, Johannes; König-Langlo, Gert; Platt, Ulrich
2015-01-01
Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAXDOAS)is a widely used technique for the detection of atmospheric trace gases, e.g. NO2, SO2, but also for the oxygen collision complex O4, whose atmospheric distribution is well known. By comparing measured O4 differential slant column densities (dSCDs) with modelled ones, information on aerosol distributions and optical properties can be gained. In combination with a radiative transfer model, an inversion of measured dSCDs allows th...
Airborne CCD photometer observations of Pluto's June 9, 1988 stellar occultation have yielded an occultation lightcurve, probing two regions on the sunrise limb 2000 km apart, which reveals an upper atmosphere overlying an extinction layer with an abrupt upper boundary. The extinction layer may surround the entire planet. Attention is given to a model atmosphere whose occultation lightcurve closely duplicates observations; fits of the model to the immersion and emersion lightcurves exhibit no significant derived atmosphere-structure differences. Assuming a pure methane atmosphere, surface pressures of the order of 3 microbars are consistent with the occultation data. 43 references
Chalmers, J Alan
1957-01-01
Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d
Global CO2 flux estimation using GOSAT: An inter-comparison of inversion results
Houweling, S.; Basu, S.; Chevallier, F.; Feng, L.; Ganshin, A.; Maksyutov, S.; Palmer, P. I.; Peylin, P.; Poussi, Z.; Takagi, H.; Zhuravlev, R.
2012-12-01
A unique global data archive is under construction of total column CO2 measurements retrieved from the Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite, currently spanning more than three years of data. Several groups are investigating the application of these data to global atmospheric inverse modelling for studying the global carbon cycle. It is known from inverse modeling using surface measurements that the robustness of the inversion-estimated fluxes is best analyzed using a multi-model approach. So far, this has not been demonstrated for inversions using satellite data, but but some of the known sources of uncertainty are difficult to account for in a single inversion, such as transport model uncertainties and differences between retrieval methods. We have organized an inversion inter-comparison experiment to investigate whether, despite these uncertainties, robust signals of sources and sinks can be inferred from the GOSAT data. The current experiment allows full freedom in inversion set-up in order to avoid limiting the range of possible outcomes. Each participating group is free to use their preferred inversion set-up, transport model, and measurements, but is asked to report in a common format and for a common time period of one year to allow one-to-one comparison. We will present an overview of the status of the experiment, including a preliminary synthesis of large-scale CO2 fluxes from a statistical analysis of the ensemble of inversion results and verification of the performance of the inversions using independent measurements.
Global inversion for anisotropy during full-waveform inversion
Debens, H. A.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.
2015-12-01
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a powerful tool for quantitative estimation of high-resolution high-fidelity models of subsurface seismic parameters, typically P-wave velocity. The solution to FWI's posed nonlinear inverse problem is obtained via an iterative series of linearized local updates to a start model, assuming this model lies within the basin of attraction to the global minimum. Thanks to many successful published applications to three-dimensional (3D) field datasets, its advance has been rapid and driven in large-part by the oil and gas industry. The consideration of seismic anisotropy during FWI is of vital importance, as it holds influence over both the kinematics and dynamics of seismic waveforms. If not appropriately taken into account then inadequacies in the anisotropy model are likely to manifest as significant error in the recovered velocity model. Conventionally, anisotropic FWI employs either an a priori anisotropy model, held fixed during FWI, or it uses a multi-parameter local inversion scheme to recover the anisotropy as part of the FWI; both of these methods can be problematic. Constructing an anisotropy model prior to FWI often involves intensive (and hence expensive) iterative procedures, such as travel-time tomography or moveout velocity analysis. On the other hand, introducing multiple parameters to FWI itself increases the complexity of what is already an underdetermined inverse problem. We propose that global rather than local FWI can be used to recover the long-wavelength acoustic anisotropy model, and that this can then be followed by more-conventional local FWI to recover the detailed model. We validate this approach using a full 3D field dataset, demonstrating that it avoids problems associated to crosstalk that can bedevil local inversion schemes, and reconciles well with in situ borehole measurements. Although our approach includes a global inversion for anisotropy, it is nonetheless affordable and practical for 3D field data.
Evaluation of simplified evaporation duct refractivity models for inversion problems
Saeger, J. T.; Grimes, N. G.; Rickard, H. E.; Hackett, E. E.
2015-10-01
To assess a radar system's instantaneous performance on any given day, detailed knowledge of the meteorological conditions is required due to the dependency of atmospheric refractivity on thermodynamic properties such as temperature, water vapor, and pressure. Because of the significant challenges involved in obtaining these data, recent efforts have focused on development of methods to obtain the refractivity structure inversely using radar measurements and radar wave propagation models. Such inversion techniques generally use simplified refractivity models in order to reduce the parameter space of the solution. Here the accuracy of three simple refractivity models is examined for the case of an evaporation duct. The models utilize the basic log linear shape classically associated with evaporation ducts, but each model depends on various parameters that affect different aspects of the profile, such as its shape and duct height. The model parameters are optimized using radiosonde data, and their performance is compared to these atmospheric measurements. The optimized models and data are also used to predict propagation using a parabolic equation code with the refractivity prescribed by the models and measured data, and the resulting propagation patterns are compared. The results of this study suggest that the best log linear model formulation for an inversion problem would be a two-layer model that contains at least three parameters: duct height, duct curvature, and mixed layer slope. This functional form permits a reasonably accurate fit to atmospheric measurements as well as embodies key features of the profile required for correct propagation prediction with as few parameters as possible.
Optimization and geophysical inverse problems
Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.
2000-10-01
A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness
Optimization for nonlinear inverse problem
The nonlinear inversion of geophysical data in general does not yield a unique solution, but a single model, representing the investigated field, is preferred for an easy geological interpretation of the observations. The analyzed region is constituted by a number of sub-regions where the multi-valued nonlinear inversion is applied, which leads to a multi-valued solution. Therefore, combining the values of the solution in each sub-region, many acceptable models are obtained for the entire region and this complicates the geological interpretation of geophysical investigations. In this paper are presented new methodologies, capable to select one model, among all acceptable ones, that satisfies different criteria of smoothness in the explored space of solutions. In this work we focus on the non-linear inversion of surface waves dispersion curves, which gives structural models of shear-wave velocity versus depth, but the basic concepts have a general validity. (author)
The Transmuted Inverse Exponential Distribution
Pelumi Oguntunde
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This article introduces a two-parameter probability model which represents another generalization of the Inverse Exponential distribution by using the quadratic rank transmuted map. The proposed model is named Transmuted Inverse Exponential (TIE distribution and its statistical properties are systematically studied. We provide explicit expressions for its moments, moment generating function, quantile function, reliability function and hazard function. We estimate the parameters of the TIE distribution using the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE. The hazard function of the model has an inverted bathtub shape and we propose the usefulness of the TIE distribution in modeling breast cancer and bladder cancer data sets.
Inverse Interval Matrix: A Survey
Rohn, Jiří; Farhadsefat, R.
2011-01-01
Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 704-719. E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * inverse interval matrix * NP-hardness * enclosure * unit midpoint * inverse sign stability * nonnegative invertibility * absolute value equation * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www. math .technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol22_pp704-719.pdf
-Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem
F. A. Abd El-Salam
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.
Inverse problems Tikhonov theory and algorithms
Ito, Kazufumi
2014-01-01
Inverse problems arise in practical applications whenever one needs to deduce unknowns from observables. This monograph is a valuable contribution to the highly topical field of computational inverse problems. Both mathematical theory and numerical algorithms for model-based inverse problems are discussed in detail. The mathematical theory focuses on nonsmooth Tikhonov regularization for linear and nonlinear inverse problems. The computational methods include nonsmooth optimization algorithms, direct inversion methods and uncertainty quantification via Bayesian inference. The book offers a c
A General Systems Theory for Atmospheric Flows and Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution
Selvam, A. M.
2009-01-01
Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover pattern and inverse power law form for power spectra of meteorological parameters such as windspeed, temperature, rainfall etc. Inverse power law form for power spectra indicate long-range spacetime correlations or non-local connections and is a signature of selforganised criticality generic to dynamical systems in nature such as river flows, population dynamics, heart...
The inverse electro-oculogram.
Doft, B H; Burns, S A; Elsner, A.
1982-01-01
An electro-oculogram ratio of less than one was found to be caused by limited ocular excursions under photopic conditions in a patient with a rod-cone dystrophy. Because this inverse electro-oculogram ratio was not caused by a decrease in standing potential under photopic conditions, it should be considered an artefact.
Exponential family and inverse problems
Gottvald, Aleš
Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003 - (Rudnicki, M.; Wiak, S.), s. - ISBN 1-4020-1506-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 526 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : exponential family * inverse problems * Bayes' theorem Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information
Topological evolution and inverse problems
Gottvald, Aleš
Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003 - (Rudnicki, M.; Wiak, S.), s. - ISBN 1-4020-1506-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 526 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : topological evolution * inverse problems * Cartan's exterior calculus Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information
Topological evolution and inverse problems
Gottvald, Aleš
Lodz: IMET, 2002, s. 12. [OIPE. LODZ (PL), 12.09.2002-14.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 526 Grant ostatní: AIP(XC) KONTAKT 57/2000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : topological evolution * inverse problems Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information
On Inverse Methodologies of ECT
Gottvald, Aleš
Brno: Institute of Scientific Instruments of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 1996. s. 29. [Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism /4./. 19.06.1996-21.06.1996, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/95/0282
Exponential family and inverse problems
Gottvald, Aleš
Lodz: IMET, 2002, s. 13. [OIPE. LODZ (PL), 12.09.2002-14.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 526 Grant ostatní: AIP(XC) KONTAKT 57/2000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : exponential family * inverse problems Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information
Inverse Problems in Data Analysis
Kůrková, Věra
2006-01-01
Roč. 82, č. 4 (2006), s. 41-48. ISSN 0033-2097 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : learning from data * inverse problem * regularization * reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
Zhu, Q.; Zhuang, Q.; D. Henze; Bowman, K.; M. Chen; Liu, Y.; He, Y.; Matsueda, H.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; W. Oechel
2014-01-01
Regional net carbon fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems could be estimated with either biogeochemistry models by assimilating surface carbon flux measurements or atmospheric CO2 inversions by assimilating observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we combine the ecosystem biogeochemistry modeling and atmospheric CO2 inverse modeling to investigate the magnitude and spatial distribution of the terrestrial ecosystem CO2 sources and sinks. First, we constrain a terrestri...
Wilson, Chris; Chipperfield, Martyn; Gloor, Emanuel
2010-05-01
Knowledge of fluxes from terrestrial carbon reservoirs is currently uncertain. While the atmospheric burden and oceanic uptake of carbon are well understood, evidence points to a large land sink, equivalent in size to the atmospheric sink. However, neither the nature nor the location of this land reservoir is well known. Atmospheric transport models, such as the CTM TOMCAT, predict the forward transport of carbon in the atmosphere by numerically solving tracer transport equations with respect to conditions based upon observed data. However, if an 'adjoint' to the CTM is created, it can be used to solve the inverse problem of investigating the nature of carbon sources and sinks using information about atmospheric carbon patterns i.e. inverse transport modelling. Due to recent and imminent improvements in remote sensing of atmospheric CO2, there will soon be thorough high-resolution data available which can be used in order to constrain the results from inverse transport modelling. In this work we describe the creation of the adjoint of the TOMCAT CTM and its application to the inverse modeling of carbon fluxes. The inverse model is created through methods involving matrix inversion and iterative minimisation of a cost function involving surface carbon fluxes.
Kinch, Sofie
2011-01-01
This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design......” implications and qualities of the approach are identified through concrete examples of a design case, which also investigates the qualities and implications of addressing atmospheres both as design concern and user experience....
Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fortney, Jonathan; Barman, Travis
2014-01-01
The study of exoplanetary atmospheres is one of the most exciting and dynamic frontiers in astronomy. Over the past two decades ongoing surveys have revealed an astonishing diversity in the planetary masses, radii, temperatures, orbital parameters, and host stellar properties of exoplanetary systems. We are now moving into an era where we can begin to address fundamental questions concerning the diversity of exoplanetary compositions, atmospheric and interior processes, and formation histories, just as have been pursued for solar system planets over the past century. Exoplanetary atmospheres provide a direct means to address these questions via their observable spectral signatures. In the last decade, and particularly in the last five years, tremendous progress has been made in detecting atmospheric signatures of exoplanets through photometric and spectroscopic methods using a variety of space-borne and/or ground-based observational facilities. These observations are beginning to provide important constraints...
Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr
2015-01-01
. Nevertheless, people’s experience of the environment is sought manipulated in a variety of contexts, often without offering a less ‘true’ experience of a situation than if it had not been manipulated by people. In fact, orchestrations of space are often central to sociality, politics and aesthetics. This...... introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...
Neural-estimator for the surface emission rate of atmospheric gases
Paes, F. F.; Velho, H. F. Campos
2009-01-01
The emission rate of minority atmospheric gases is inferred by a new approach based on neural networks. The neural network applied is the multi-layer perceptron with backpropagation algorithm for learning. The identification of these surface fluxes is an inverse problem. A comparison between the new neural-inversion and regularized inverse solution id performed. The results obtained from the neural networks are significantly better. In addition, the inversion with the neural netwroks is fster...
Determination of evaporation duct heights by an inverse method
Douvenot, R.; Fabbro, V.; Bourlier, C.; Saillard, J.; Fuchs, H.-H.; Essen, H.; Förster, J.
2007-10-01
The detection and tracking of naval targets, including low RCS objects like inflatable boats requires a thorough knowledge of the propagation properties of the maritime boundary layer. Models are in existence, which allow a prediction of the propagation factor using the parabolic equation algorithm. As a necessary input the refractive index of the atmosphere has to be known. This parameter, however, is strongly influenced by the actual atmospheric conditions, characterized mainly by air-sea temperature difference, humidity and air pressure. An approach was initiated to retrieve the vertical profile of the refractive index from sea clutter data. The method is based on the LS-SVM (Least-Squares Support Vector Machines) theory and has already been validated on simulated data. Here an inversion method to determine propagation factors is presented based upon data measured during the Vampira campaign conducted as a multinational approach over a transmission path across the Baltic Sea. As the propagation factor has been measured on two reference reflectors mounted onboard a naval vessel at different heights, the results can be combined in order to increase the accuracy of the inversion system. The paper discusses results achieved with the inversion method.
Hedland, D. A.; Degonia, P. K.
1974-01-01
The RAE-1 spacecraft inversion performed October 31, 1972 is described based upon the in-orbit dynamical data in conjunction with results obtained from previously developed computer simulation models. The computer simulations used are predictive of the satellite dynamics, including boom flexing, and are applicable during boom deployment and retraction, inter-phase coast periods, and post-deployment operations. Attitude data, as well as boom tip data, were analyzed in order to obtain a detailed description of the dynamical behavior of the spacecraft during and after the inversion. Runs were made using the computer model and the results were analyzed and compared with the real time data. Close agreement between the actual recorded spacecraft attitude and the computer simulation results was obtained.
Novel approach to Abel inversion
Simple yet versatile, physically valid emissivity functions for peaked and hollow profiles with only two determinable parameters are proposed for performing Abel inversion. The advantages of the proposed functions have been explored. The inversion is very fast, accurate, convenient, and viable, in contrast to the existing methods. The validation of these functions has been confirmed by using simulated data under various conditions. The error in the process has been computed and found to depend on the functional form of the model emissivity. A comprehensive comparison has been drawn with the existing method and it has been found to offer a definite advantage over the existing technique in some respects, especially for real time applications. Limitation of this technique has also been discussed. The soft x-ray and visible light emissivity profile of SINP tokamak has been successfully obtained by using this method
Southern California Adjoint Source Inversions
Tromp, J.; Kim, Y.
2007-12-01
Southern California Centroid-Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions with 9 components (6 moment tensor elements, latitude, longitude, and depth) are sought to minimize a misfit function computed from waveform differences. The gradient of a misfit function is obtained based upon two numerical simulations for each earthquake: one forward calculation for the southern California model, and an adjoint calculation that uses time-reversed signals at the receivers. Conjugate gradient and square-root variable metric methods are used to iteratively improve the earthquake source model while reducing the misfit function. The square-root variable metric algorithm has the advantage of providing a direct approximation to the posterior covariance operator. We test the inversion procedure by perturbing each component of the CMT solution, and see how the algorithm converges. Finally, we demonstrate full inversion capabilities using data for real Southern California earthquakes.
Tiling Spaces are Inverse Limits
Sadun, Lorenzo
2002-01-01
Let M be an arbitrary Riemannian homogeneous space, and let Omega be a space of tilings of M, with finite local complexity (relative to some symmetry group Gamma) and closed in the natural topology. Then Omega is the inverse limit of a sequence of compact finite-dimensional branched manifolds. The branched manifolds are (finite) unions of cells, constructed from the tiles themselves and the group Gamma. This result extends previous results of Anderson and Putnam, of Ormes, Radin and Sadun, of...
On the Inverse Radon Transform
Chvála, František
Praha : Humusoft, 2007, s. 1-6. ISBN 978-80-7080-658-6. [Annual Conference Proceedings - Technical Computing Prague 2007 /15./. Prague (CZ), 14.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : inverse Radon transform * Radon transform Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics www.humusoft.cz/akce/matlab07
ISIR: Independent Sliced Inverse Regression
Li, Kevin
2013-01-01
International audience In this paper we consider a semiparametric regression model involving a $p$-dimensional explanatory variable ${\\mathbf{x}}$ and including a dimension reduction of ${\\mathbf{x}}$ via an index $B'{\\mathbf{x}}$. In this model, the main goal is to estimate $B$ and to predict the real response variable $Y$ conditionally to ${\\mathbf{x}}$. A standard approach is based on sliced inverse regression (SIR). We propose a new version of this method: the independent sliced invers...
Inverse Design of Electron Lens
无
2001-01-01
The inverae design of electron lens is reelized by two different methods in this paper. One isdamped leastsquare method and the other is the artificial neural network method. Their merits and defects are discussed accordingto our calculation results in the psper. In the condition of selecting the learning samples properly, the artificial neuralnetwork has obvious advantages in the inverse design of electron lens. It is an effective method to solve the inversedesign problem in the electron optic system.
Iribarne, J V
1973-01-01
The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...
Stenslund, Anette
awareness. Subsequently, visitor interviews revealed how a museum-staged hospital atmosphere of an art installation was directly addressed owing to its smell. Curiously, this observation speaks against prevailing literature portraying smell as the ‘mute sense’, and what is more, the museum display did not...... alter smell curatorially. Rather, smell was gestured through non-olfactory effects and it was put in words metonymically, gesturing a reversibly synaesthetic atmosphere of a hospital. Visitor conversations revealed how smell could be poignantly picked up in situ, yet not until frequenting the museum...
Generalized Inverses of Matrices over Rings
韩瑞珠; 陈建龙
1992-01-01
Let R be a ring,*be an involutory function of the set of all finite matrices over R. In this pa-per,necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a matrix to have a (1,3)-inverse,(1,4)-inverse,or Morre-Penrose inverse,relative to *.Some results about generalized inverses of matrices over division rings are generalized and improved.
An elegant 3-basis for inverse semigroups
Araujo, Joao
2010-01-01
It is well known that in every inverse semigroup the binary operation and the unary operation of inversion satisfy the following three identities: \\[ \\quad x=(xx')x \\qquad \\quad (xx')(y'y)=(y'y)(xx') \\qquad \\quad (xy)z=x(yz'')\\,. \\] The goal of this note is to prove the converse, that is, we prove that every unary semigroup satisfying these three identities is an inverse semigroup and the unary operation coincides with the usual inversion on such semigroups.
From time inversion to nonlinear QED
Jin, Wei Min
2000-01-01
In Minkowski flat space-time, it is perceived that time inversion is unitary rather than antiunitary, with energy being a time vector changing sign under time inversion. The Dirac equation, in the case of electromagnetic interaction, is not invariant under unitary time inversion, giving rise to a ``Klein paradox''. To render unitary time inversion invariance, a nonlinear wave equation is constructed, in which the ``Klein paradox'' disappears. In the case of Coulomb interaction, the revised no...
An elegant 3-basis for inverse semigroups
Araujo, Joao; Kinyon, Michael
2010-01-01
It is well known that in every inverse semigroup the binary operation and the unary operation of inversion satisfy the following three identities: [\\quad x=(xx')x \\qquad \\quad (xx')(y'y)=(y'y)(xx') \\qquad \\quad (xy)z=x(yz"). ] The goal of this note is to prove the converse, that is, we prove that an algebra of type $$ satisfying these three identities is an inverse semigroup and the unary operation coincides with the usual inversion on such semigroups.
-Colour even Self-Inverse Compositions
Yu-hong Guo
2010-02-01
An -colour even self-inverse composition is defined as an -colour self-inverse composition with even parts. In this paper, we get generating functions, explicit formulas and recurrence formulas for -colour even self-inverse compositions. One new binomial identity is also obtained.
Inverse Computation and the Universal Resolving Algorithm
无
2001-01-01
We survey fundamental concepts for inverse programming and thenpresent the Uni v ersal Resolving Algorithm, an algorithm for inverse computation in a first-orde r , functional programming language. We discuss the key concepts of the algorithm, including a three-step approach based on the notion of a perfect process tree, and demonstrate our implementation with several examples of inverse computation.
SIAM conference on inverse problems: Geophysical applications. Final technical report
NONE
1995-12-31
This conference was the second in a series devoted to a particular area of inverse problems. The theme of this series is to discuss problems of major scientific importance in a specific area from a mathematical perspective. The theme of this symposium was geophysical applications. In putting together the program we tried to include a wide range of mathematical scientists and to interpret geophysics in as broad a sense as possible. Our speaker came from industry, government laboratories, and diverse departments in academia. We managed to attract a geographically diverse audience with participation from five continents. There were talks devoted to seismology, hydrology, determination of the earth`s interior on a global scale as well as oceanographic and atmospheric inverse problems.
R. Locatelli
2013-04-01
Full Text Available A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on the methane emissions estimated by an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, given by 10 different model outputs from the international TransCom-CH4 model exercise, are combined with a prior scenario of methane emissions and sinks, and integrated into the PYVAR-LMDZ-SACS inverse system to produce 10 different methane emission estimates at the global scale for the year 2005. The same set-up has been used to produce the synthetic observations and to compute flux estimates by inverse modelling, which means that only differences in the modelling of atmospheric transport may cause differences in the estimated fluxes. In our framework, we show that transport model errors lead to a discrepancy of 27 Tg CH4 per year at the global scale, representing 5% of the total methane emissions. At continental and yearly scales, transport model errors have bigger impacts depending on the region, ranging from 36 Tg CH4 in north America to 7 Tg CH4 in Boreal Eurasian (from 23% to 48%. At the model gridbox scale, the spread of inverse estimates can even reach 150% of the prior flux. Thus, transport model errors contribute to significant uncertainties on the methane estimates by inverse modelling, especially when small spatial scales are invoked. Sensitivity tests have been carried out to estimate the impact of the measurement network and the advantage of higher resolution models. The analysis of methane estimated fluxes in these different configurations questions the consistency of transport model errors in current inverse systems. For future methane inversions, an improvement in the modelling of the atmospheric transport would make the estimations more accurate. Likewise, errors of the observation covariance matrix should be more consistently prescribed in future inversions in order to limit the impact of transport model errors on estimated methane
Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie
2014-01-01
. As a response to this situation, our design artefact, the interactive furniture Kidkit, invites children to become accustomed to the alarming sounds sampled from the ward while they are waiting in the waiting room. Our design acknowledges how atmospheres emerge as temporal negotiations between the...
Simultaneous time-lapse electrical resistivity inversion
Hayley, Kevin; Pidlisecky, A.; Bentley, L. R.
2011-10-01
Time-lapse monitoring is a powerful tool for observing dynamic changes in the subsurface. In particular it offers the potential for achieving inversion results with increased fidelity through the inclusion of complementary information from multiple time-steps. This inclusion of complementary information can reduce the need for spatial smoothing, without adding inversion artifacts to the resulting images. Commonly used time-lapse inversion methods include the ratio method, cascaded time-lapse inversion, difference inversion and differencing independent inversions. We introduce two additional methods in which both time-lapse data sets are inverted simultaneously. In the first, called temporally constrained time-lapse inversion, inversion of both datasets is done under a single optimization procedure and constraints are added to the regularization to ensure that the changes from one time to another are smooth. In the second method, called simultaneous time-lapse inversion, the inversions at time 1 and time 2 are performed simultaneously and constraints of smoothness and closeness to a reference model are applied to the difference image produced at each iteration, and subsequently, the constraints are updated at each iteration. Through both a numerical and a field example we compare the results of common time-lapse inversion methods as well as the introduced approaches. We found that of the commonly used time-lapse inversion methods the difference inversion method produced the best resolution of time-lapse changes and was the most robust in the presence of noise. However, we found that the alternative approach of simultaneous time-lapse inversion produced the best reconstruction of modeled EC changes in the numerical example and easily interpretable high resolution difference images in the field example. Moreover, there was less tailoring of regularization parameters with our simultaneous time-lapse approach, suggesting that it will lend itself well to an automated
The continuation inverse problem revisited
Huestis, Stephen P.
1998-06-01
The non-uniqueness of the continuation of a finite collection of harmonic potential field data to a level surface in the source-free region forces its treatment as an inverse problem. A formalism is proposed for the construction of continuation functions which are extremal by various measures. The problem is cast in such a form that the inverse problem solution is the potential function on the lowest horizontal surface above all sources, serving as the boundary function for the Dirichlet problem in the upper half-plane. The desired continuation, at the higher level of interest, must then be in the range of the upward continuation operator acting on this boundary function, rather than being allowed the full freedom of itself being part of a Dirichlet problem boundary function. Extremal solutions minimize non-linear functionals of the continuation function, which are re-expressed as different functionals of the boundary function. A crux of the method is that there is no essential distinction between the upward and downward continuation inverse problems to levels above or below data locations. Casting the optimization as a Lagrange multiplier problem leads to an integral equation for the boundary function, which is readily solved in the Fourier domain for a certain class of functionals. The desired extremal continuation is then given by upward continuation. It is found that for some functionals, application of the Lagrange multiplier theorem requires a further restriction on the set of allowable boundary functions: bandlimitedness is a natural choice for the continuation problem. With this imposition, the theory is developed in detail for semi-norm functionals penalizing departure from a constant potential, in the 2-norm and Sobelev norm senses, and illustrated by application for a small synthetic Deep Tow magnetic field data set.
High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion
Li Yong; Wang Xuben; Li Zhirong; Li Qiong; Li Zhengwen
2009-01-01
The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.
Spray formation: an inverse cascade
Ling, Yue; Tryggvason, Gretar; zaleski, Stephane
2015-01-01
We present a study of droplet formation in a gas-liquid mixing layer using direct numerical simulation. It is seen that two mechanisms compete to generate the droplets: fingering at the tip of the waves and hole formation in the thin liquid sheet. The three dimensional liquid structures are much shorter than the longitudinal wavelength of the instability at the first instant of their formation. As time evolves, the structures evolves to larger and larger scales, in a way similar to the inverse cascade of length scales in droplet impact and impact crown formation.
Inverse strategies for molecular design
An 'inverse' molecular design strategy is described to assist in the development of new molecules with optimized properties. This approach is based on a molecular orbital view and can be used to tailor ground state or excited state properties subject to particular constrains. In this scheme, wave functions are sought that optimize a chemical or electronic property, and then a Hamiltonian is constructed that generates these optimized wave functions. Analysis of the chemical properties in the optimized systems may suggest new synthetic targets. Examples are presented that optimize the transition dipole moment in some simple structures. 15 refs., 6 figs
Inverse Problems in Structural Mechanics
Li, Jing
2005-01-01
This dissertation deals with the solution of three inverse problems in structural mechanics. The first one is load updating for finite element models (FEMs). A least squares fitting is used to identify the load parameters. The basic studies are made for geometrically linear and nonlinear FEMs of beams or frames by using a four-noded curved beam element, which, for a given precision, may significantly solve the ill-posed problem by reducing the overall number of degrees of freedom (DOF) of t...
High dimensional linear inverse modelling
Cooper, Fenwick C
2015-01-01
We introduce and demonstrate two linear inverse modelling methods for systems of stochastic ODE's with accuracy that is independent of the dimensionality (number of elements) of the state vector representing the system in question. Truncation of the state space is not required. Instead we rely on the principle that perturbations decay with distance or the fact that for many systems, the state of each data point is only determined at an instant by itself and its neighbours. We further show that all necessary calculations, as well as numerical integration of the resulting linear stochastic system, require computational time and memory proportional to the dimensionality of the state vector.
MIT inverse Compton source concept
Graves, William S.; Brown, W.; Kaertner, Franz X.; Moncton, David E.
2009-01-01
A compact X-ray source based on inverse Compton scattering of a high-power laser on a high-brightness linac beam is described. The facility can operate in two modes: at high (MHz) repetition rate with flux and brilliance similar to that of a beamline at a large 2nd generation synchrotron, but with short ∼1 ps pulses, or as a 10 Hz high flux-per-pulse single-shot machine. It has a small footprint and low cost appropriate for university or industry laboratories. The key enabling technologies ar...
The global atmospheric electrical circuit and climate
Harrison, R G
2004-01-01
Evidence is emerging for physical links among clouds, global temperatures, the global atmospheric electrical circuit and cosmic ray ionisation. The global circuit extends throughout the atmosphere from the planetary surface to the lower layers of the ionosphere. Cosmic rays are the principal source of atmospheric ions away from the continental boundary layer: the ions formed permit a vertical conduction current to flow in the fair weather part of the global circuit. Through the (inverse) solar modulation of cosmic rays, the resulting columnar ionisation changes may allow the global circuit to convey a solar influence to meteorological phenomena of the lower atmosphere. Electrical effects on non-thunderstorm clouds have been proposed to occur via the ion-assisted formation of ultrafine aerosol, which can grow to sizes able to act as cloud condensation nuclei, or through the increased ice nucleation capability of charged aerosols. Even small atmospheric electrical modulations on the aerosol size distribution ca...
Gaisser, Thomas K
2016-01-01
In view of the observation by IceCube of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, it is important to quantify the uncertainty in the background of atmospheric neutrinos. There are two sources of uncertainty, the imperfect knowledge of the spectrum and composition of the primary cosmic rays that produce the neutrinos and the limited understanding of hadron production, including charm, at high energy. This paper is an overview of both aspects.
Towards robust regional estimates of CO_2 sources and sinks using atmospheric transport models
Gurney, Kevin Robert; Randerson, James
2002-01-01
Information about regional carbon sources and sinks can be derived from variations in observed atmospheric CO_2 concentrations via inverse modelling with atmospheric tracer transport models. A consensus has not yet been reached regarding the size and distribution of regional carbon fluxes obtained using this approach, partly owing to the use of several different atmospheric transport models. Here we report estimates of surface–atmosphere CO_2 fluxes from an intercomparison of atmospheric CO_2...
Towards robust regional estimates of CO2 sources and sinks using atmospheric transport models
Randerson, JT; Gurney, KR; Law, RM; Denning, AS; Rayner, PJ; Baker, D.; Bousquet, P.; Bruhwiler, L.; Chen, YH; Ciais, P.; Fan, S.; Fung, IY; Gloor, M.; Heimann, M.; Higuchi, K
2002-01-01
Information about regional carbon sources and sinks can be derived from variations in observed atmospheric CO2 concentrations via inverse modelling with atmospheric tracer transport models. A consensus has not yet been reached regarding the size and distribution of regional carbon fluxes obtained using this approach, partly owing to the use of several different atmospheric transport models(1-9). Here we report estimates of surface- atmosphere CO2 fluxes from an intercomparison of atmospheric ...
[Atmospheric Influences Analysis on the Satellite Passive Microwave Remote Sensing].
Qiu, Yu-bao; Shi, Li-juan; Shi, Jian-cheng; Zhao, Shao-jie
2016-02-01
Passive microwave remote sensing offers its all-weather work capabilities, but atmospheric influences on satellite microwave brightness temperature were different under different atmospheric conditions and environments. In order to clarify atmospheric influences on Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), atmospheric radiation were simulated based on AMSR-E configuration under clear sky and cloudy conditions, by using radiative transfer model and atmospheric conditions data. Results showed that atmospheric water vapor was the major factor for atmospheric radiation under clear sky condition. Atmospheric transmittances were almost above 0.98 at AMSR-E's low frequencies (vapor needed to be corrected when using microwave high-frequency channels to inverse land surface parameters in clear sky condition. But under cloud cover or cloudy conditions, cloud liquid water was the key factor to cause atmospheric radiation. When sky was covered by typical stratus cloud, atmospheric transmittances at 10.7, 18.7 and 36.5 GHz were 0.942, 0.828 and 0.605 respectively. Comparing with the clear sky condition, the down-welling atmospheric radiation caused by cloud liquid water increased up to 75.365 K at 36.5 GHz. It showed that the atmospheric correction under different clouds covered condition was the primary work to improve the accuracy of land surface parameters inversion of passive microwave remote sensing. The results also provided the basis for microwave atmospheric correction algorithm development. Finally, the atmospheric sounding data was utilized to calculate the atmospheric transmittance of Hailaer Region, Inner Mongolia province, in July 2013. The results indicated that atmospheric transmittances were close to 1 at C-band and X-band. 89 GHz was greatly influenced by water vapor and its atmospheric transmittance was not more than 0.7. Atmospheric transmittances in Hailaer Region had a relatively stable value in summer, but had about 0
LHC Report: 2 inverse femtobarns!
Mike Lamont for the LHC Team
2011-01-01
The LHC is enjoying a confluence of twos. This morning (Friday 5 August) we passed 2 inverse femtobarns delivered in 2011; the peak luminosity is now just over 2 x1033 cm-2s-1; and recently fill 2000 was in for nearly 22 hours and delivered around 90 inverse picobarns, almost twice 2010's total. In order to increase the luminosity we can increase of number of bunches, increase the number of particles per bunch, or decrease the transverse beam size at the interaction point. The beam size can be tackled in two ways: either reduce the size of the injected bunches or squeeze harder with the quadrupole magnets situated on either side of the experiments. Having increased the number of bunches to 1380, the maximum possible with a 50 ns bunch spacing, a one day meeting in Crozet decided to explore the other possibilities. The size of the beams coming from the injectors has been reduced to the minimum possible. This has brought an increase in the peak luminosity of about 50% and the 2 x 1033 cm...
MOSES Inversions using Multiresolution SMART
Rust, Thomas; Fox, Lewis; Kankelborg, Charles; Courrier, Hans; Plovanic, Jacob
2014-06-01
We present improvements to the SMART inversion algorithm for the MOSES imaging spectrograph. MOSES, the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph, is a slitless extreme ultraviolet spectrograph designed to measure cotemporal narrowband spectra over a wide field of view via tomographic inversion of images taken at three orders of a concave diffraction grating. SMART, the Smooth Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique, relies on a global chi squared goodness of fit criterion, which enables overfit and underfit regions to "balance out" when judging fit quality. "Good" reconstructions show poor fits at some positions and length scales. Here we take a multiresolution approach to SMART, applying corrections to the reconstruction at positions and scales where correction is warranted based on the noise. The result is improved fit residuals that more closely resemble the expected noise in the images. Within the multiresolution framework it is also easy to include a regularized deconvolution of the instrument point spread functions, which we do. Different point spread functions among MOSES spectral orders results in spurious doppler shifts in the reconstructions, most notable near bright compact emission. We estimate the point spread funtions from the data. Deconvolution is done using the Richardson-Lucy method, which is algorithmically similar to SMART. Regularization results from only correcting the reconstruction at positions and scales where correction is warranted based on the noise. We expect the point spread function deconvolution to increase signal to noise and reduce systematic error in MOSES reconstructions.
Instrument developments for inverse photoemission
Experimental developments principally concerning electron sources for inverse photoemission are presented. The specifications of the electron beam are derived from experiment requirements, taking into account the limitations encountered (space charge divergence). For a wave vector resolution of 0.2 A-1, the maximum current is 25 microA at 20 eV. The design of a gun providing such a beam in the range 5 to 50 eV is presented. Angle-resolved inverse photoemission experiments show angular effects at 30 eV. For an energy of 10 eV, angular effects should be stronger, but the low efficiency of the spectrometer in this range makes the experiments difficult. The total energy resolution of 0.3 eV is the result mainly of electron energy spread, as expected. The electron sources are based on field effect electron emission from a cathode consisting of a large number of microtips. The emission arises from a few atomic cells for each tip. The ultimate theoretical energy spread is 0.1 eV. This value is not attained because of an interface resistance problem. A partial solution of this problem allows measurement of an energy spread of 0.9 eV for a current of 100 microA emitted at 60 eV. These cathodes have a further advantage in that emission can occur at a low temperature
The seismic reflection inverse problem
The seismic reflection method seeks to extract maps of the Earth's sedimentary crust from transient near-surface recording of echoes, stimulated by explosions or other controlled sound sources positioned near the surface. Reasonably accurate models of seismic energy propagation take the form of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, in which the coefficients represent the spatial distribution of various mechanical characteristics of rock (density, stiffness, etc). Thus the fundamental problem of reflection seismology is an inverse problem in partial differential equations: to find the coefficients (or at least some of their properties) of a linear hyperbolic system, given the values of a family of solutions in some part of their domains. The exploration geophysics community has developed various methods for estimating the Earth's structure from seismic data and is also well aware of the inverse point of view. This article reviews mathematical developments in this subject over the last 25 years, to show how the mathematics has both illuminated innovations of practitioners and led to new directions in practice. Two themes naturally emerge: the importance of single scattering dominance and compensation for spectral incompleteness by spatial redundancy. (topical review)
Inverse problems in systems biology
Systems biology is a new discipline built upon the premise that an understanding of how cells and organisms carry out their functions cannot be gained by looking at cellular components in isolation. Instead, consideration of the interplay between the parts of systems is indispensable for analyzing, modeling, and predicting systems' behavior. Studying biological processes under this premise, systems biology combines experimental techniques and computational methods in order to construct predictive models. Both in building and utilizing models of biological systems, inverse problems arise at several occasions, for example, (i) when experimental time series and steady state data are used to construct biochemical reaction networks, (ii) when model parameters are identified that capture underlying mechanisms or (iii) when desired qualitative behavior such as bistability or limit cycle oscillations is engineered by proper choices of parameter combinations. In this paper we review principles of the modeling process in systems biology and illustrate the ill-posedness and regularization of parameter identification problems in that context. Furthermore, we discuss the methodology of qualitative inverse problems and demonstrate how sparsity enforcing regularization allows the determination of key reaction mechanisms underlying the qualitative behavior. (topical review)
Spectral Inversion of Multi-Line Full-Disk Observations of Quiet Sun Magnetic Fields
Balthasar, H
2012-01-01
Spectral inversion codes are powerful tools to analyze spectropolarimetric observations, and they provide important diagnostics of solar magnetic fields. Inversion codes differ by numerical procedures, approximations of the atmospheric model, and description of radiative transfer. Stokes Inversion based on Response functions (SIR) is an implementation widely used by the solar physics community. It allows to work with different atmospheric components, where gradients of different physical parameters are possible, e.g., magnetic field strength and velocities. The spectropolarimetric full-disk observations were carried out with the Stokesmeter of the Solar Telescope for Operative Predictions (STOP) at the Sayan Observatory on 3 February 2009, when neither an active region nor any other extended flux concentration was present on the Sun. In this study of quiet Sun magnetic fields, we apply the SIR code simultaneously to 15 spectral lines. A tendency is found that weaker magnetic field strengths occur closer to th...
Chahine, M. T.
1977-01-01
A mapping transformation is derived for the inverse solution of nonlinear and linear integral equations of the types encountered in remote sounding studies. The method is applied to the solution of specific problems for the determination of the thermal and composition structure of planetary atmospheres from a knowledge of their upwelling radiance.
Analytic model approach to the inversion of scattering data. [to obtain ozone profile
Green, A. E. S.; Klenk, K. F.
1977-01-01
An analytic model approach is applied to several simple atmospheric inversion problems. This method gives a sharp determination of aerosol size distribution parameters. It is shown that this analytic approach, together with ground level point sampling data measurements, can be used to infer information on the tropospheric ozone profile.
Solution for Ill-Posed Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm by Network Inversion
Takehiko Ogawa
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the context of controlling a robot arm with multiple joints, the method of estimating the joint angles from the given end-effector coordinates is called inverse kinematics, which is a type of inverse problems. Network inversion has been proposed as a method for solving inverse problems by using a multilayer neural network. In this paper, network inversion is introduced as a method to solve the inverse kinematics problem of a robot arm with multiple joints, where the joint angles are estimated from the given end-effector coordinates. In general, inverse problems are affected by ill-posedness, which implies that the existence, uniqueness, and stability of their solutions are not guaranteed. In this paper, we show the effectiveness of applying network inversion with regularization, by which ill-posedness can be reduced, to the ill-posed inverse kinematics of an actual robot arm with multiple joints.
Direct inversion of shallow-water bathymetry from EO-1 hyperspectral remote sensing data
Zhishen Liu; Yan Zhou
2011-01-01
@@ Using the US National Aeronautics and space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing-1 Mission (EO-1)hyperion hyperspectral remote sensing data, we study the shallow-water bathymetry inversion in Smith Island Bay.The fast line-of-sight atmospheric analysis of spectral hypercubes module is applied for atmospheric correction, and principal component analysis method combined with scatter diagram and maximum likelihood classification is used for seabed classification.The diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd is derived using quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA), which performs well in optically deep water.Kd obtained from QAA requires correction, particularly those derived in some coastal areas with optically shallow water and calculated by direct inversion based on radiative transfer theory to obtain the bathymetry.The direct inversion method derives the water depth quickly, and matches the results from optimized algorithm.%Using the US National Aeronautics and space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing-1 Mission (EO-1) hyperion hyperspectral remote sensing data, we study the shallow-water bathymetry inversion in Smith Island Bay.The fast line-of-sight atmospheric analysis of spectral hypercubes module is applied for atmospheric correction, and principal component analysis method combined with scatter diagram and maximum likelihood classification is used for seabed classification.The diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd is derived using quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA), which performs well in optically deep water Kd obtained from QAA requires correction, particularly those derived in some coastal areas with optically shallow water and calculated by direct inversion based on radiative transfer theory to obtain the bathymetry.The direct inversion method derives the water depth quickly, and matches the results from optimized algorithm.
Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets
Davis, K J; Richardson, S J; Miles, N L
2007-03-07
Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2-3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute
Optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism
Wiak, Sławomir
2003-01-01
From 12 to 14 September 2002, the Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) hosted the workshop "Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism". After this bi-annual event, a large number of papers were assembled and combined in this book. During the workshop recent developments and applications in optimization and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields were discussed. The contributions selected for the present volume cover a wide spectrum of inverse and optimal electromagnetic methodologies, ranging from theoretical to practical applications. A number of new optimal and inverse methodologies were proposed. There are contributions related to dedicated software. Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism consists of three thematic chapters, covering: -General papers (survey of specific aspects of optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism), -Methodologies, -Industrial Applications. The book can be useful to students of electrical and electronics engineering, computer sci...
Statistical Inversion of Seismic Noise Inversion statistique du bruit sismique
Adler P. M.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available A systematic investigation of wave propagation in random media is presented. Spectral analysis, inversion of codas and attenuation of the direct wave front are studied for synthetic data obtained in isotropic or anisotropic, 2D or 3D media. A coda inversion process is developed and checked on two sets of real data. In both cases, it is possible to compare the correlation lengths obtained by inversion to characteristic lengths measured on seismic logs, for the full scale seismic survey, or on a thin section, for the laboratory experiment. These two experiments prove the feasibility and the efficiency of the statistical inversion of codas. Correct characteristic lengths can be obtained which cannot be determined by another method. Le problème de la géophysique est la recherche d'informations concernant le sous-sol, dans des signaux sismiques enregistrés en surface ou dans des puits. Ces informations sont habituellement recherchées sous forme déterministe, c'est-à-dire sous la forme de la donnée en chaque point d'une valeur du paramètre étudié. Notre point de vue est différent puisque notre objectif est de déduire certaines propriétés statistiques du milieu, supposé hétérogène, à partir des sismogrammes enregistrés après propagation. Il apparaît alors deux moyens de remplir l'objectif fixé. Le premier est l'analyse spectrale des codas ; cette analyse permet de déterminer les tailles moyennes des hétérogénéités du sous-sol. La deuxième possibilité est l'étude de l'atténuation du front direct de l'onde, qui conduit aussi à la connaissance des longueurs caractéristiques du sous-sol ; contrairement à la première méthode, elle ne semble pas pouvoir être transposée efficacement à des cas réels. Dans la première partie, on teste numériquement la proportionnalité entre le facteur de rétrodiffraction, relié aux propriétés statistiques du milieu, et le spectre des codas. Les distributions de vitesse, à valeur
Inverse Magnetic/Shear Catalysis
McInnes, Brett
2015-01-01
It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark-Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce ``inverse magnetic catalysis'', signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magne...
Inverse diffusion theory of photoacoustics
This paper analyzes the reconstruction of diffusion and absorption parameters in an elliptic equation from knowledge of internal data. In the application of photoacoustics, the internal data are the amount of thermal energy deposited by high frequency radiation propagating inside a domain of interest. These data are obtained by solving an inverse wave equation, which is well studied in the literature. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines two constitutive parameters in diffusion and Schrödinger equations. Stability of the reconstruction is guaranteed under additional geometric constraints of strict convexity. No geometric constraints are necessary when 2n internal data for well-chosen boundary conditions are available, where n is spatial dimension. The set of well-chosen boundary conditions is characterized in terms of appropriate complex geometrical optics solutions
Bayesian multitask inverse reinforcement learning
Dimitrakakis, Christos
2011-01-01
We generalise the problem of inverse reinforcement learning to multiple tasks, from a set of demonstrations. Each demonstration may represent one expert trying to solve a different task. Alternatively, one may see each demonstration as given by a different expert trying to solve the same task. Our main technical contribution is to solve the problem by formalising it as statistical preference elicitation, via a number of structured priors, whose form captures our biases about the relatedness of different tasks or expert policies. We show that our methodology allows us not only to learn to efficiently from multiple experts but to also effectively differentiate between the goals of each. Possible applications include analysing the intrinsic motivations of subjects in behavioural experiments and imitation learning from multiple teachers.
Inverse approach to design magnets
An inverse approach is always better to design an optimised magnet, where the field profile is known, rather than tuning the geometry of the magnet till the desired profile is achieved. We have developed an optimizer based on standard multi dimensional Newton-Raphson technique. The optimum geometry of a magnet is obtained by a combination of analytical and numerical methods. This code is versatile and can be used to design various magnets used in different applications. Here we present two different cases to show the efficiency of the code. First, we present the design of a solenoid magnet for a.c. susceptibility set up. Second, we describe the design of two pairs of Helmholtz coils for ion beam deflection. (author)
An inverse method was developed to integrate satellite observations of atmospheric pollutant column concentrations and direct sensitivities predicted by a regional air quality model in order to discern biases in the emissions of the pollutant precursors.
Seasonal variation of the mesospheric inversion layer and thunderstorms
Complete text of publication follows. Temperature and ozone volume mixing ratio profiles obtained from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aboard the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) over India and over the open ocean to the south during the period 1991-2001 are analyzed to study the characteristic features of the Mesospheric Inversion Layer (MIL) at 70 to 85 km altitude and its relation with the ozone mixing ratio at this altitude. We have also analyzed both the number of lightning flashes measured by the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) onboard the MicroLab-1 satellite for the period April 1995 - March 2000 and ground-based thunderstorm data collected from 78 widespread Indian observatories for the same period to show that the MIL amplitude and thunderstorm activity are correlated. All the data sets examined exhibit a semiannual variation. The seasonal variation of MIL amplitude and the frequency of occurrence of the temperature inversion indicate a fairly good correlation with the seasonal variation of thunderstorms and the average ozone volume mixing ratio across the inversion layer. The observed correlation between local thunderstorm activity, MIL amplitude and mesospheric ozone volume mixing ratio are explained by the generation, upward propagation and mesospheric absorption of gravity waves produced by thunderstorms.
Graph inverse semigroups: their characterization and completion
David G Jones; Lawson, Mark V
2011-01-01
Graph inverse semigroups generalize the polycyclic inverse monoids and play an important role in the theory of C*-algebras. This paper has two main goals: first, to provide an abstract characterization of graph inverse semigroups; and second, to show how they may be completed, under suitable conditions, to form what we call the Cuntz-Krieger semigroup of the graph. This semigroup is the ample semigroup of a topological groupoid associated with the graph, and the semigroup analogue of the Leav...
Lectures on the inverse scattering method
In a series of six lectures an elementary introduction to the theory of inverse scattering is given. The first four lectures contain a detailed theory of solitons in the framework of the KdV equation, together with the inverse scattering theory of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation. In the fifth lecture the dressing method is described, while the sixth lecture gives a brief review of the equations soluble by the inverse scattering method. (author)
STRUCTURES OF CIRCULANT INVERSE M-MATRICES
Yurui Lin; Linzhang Lu
2007-01-01
In this paper,we present a useful result on the structures of circulant inverse Mis not a positive matrix and not equal to c0I,then A is an inverse M-matrix if and only if there exists a positive integer k,which is a proper factor of n,such that cjk＞0 for The result is then extended to the so-called generalized circulant inverse M-matrices.
Forward model nonlinearity versus inverse model nonlinearity
Mehl, S.
2007-01-01
The issue of concern is the impact of forward model nonlinearity on the nonlinearity of the inverse model. The question posed is, "Does increased nonlinearity in the head solution (forward model) always result in increased nonlinearity in the inverse solution (estimation of hydraulic conductivity)?" It is shown that the two nonlinearities are separate, and it is not universally true that increased forward model nonlinearity increases inverse model nonlinearity. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.
Supersymmetry and the Moebius inversion function
We show that the Moebius inversion function of number theory can be interpreted as the operator (-1)F in quantum field theory. Consequently, we are able to provide physical interpretations for various properties of the Moebius inversion function. These include a physical understanding of the Moebius Inversion Formula and of a result that is equivalent to the prime number theorem. Supersymmetry and the Witten index play a central role in these constructions. (orig.)
Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation
Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome; Erleben, Kenny; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup
We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... estimation system uses a single camera to estimate the motion of a human. The results show that inverse kinematics can significantly speed up the estimation process, while retaining a quality comparable to a full pose motion estimation system. Our novelty lies primarily in use of inverse kinematics to...
Signature Inversion in Odd-odd Nuclei
LIU Min-liang; ZHANG Yu-hu; ZHOU Xiao-hong; GUO Ying-xiang; LEI Xiang-guo; GUO Wen-tao
2009-01-01
Signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei is investigated by using a proton and a neutron coupling to the coherent state of the core.Two parameters are employed in the Hamiltonian to set the energy scales of rotation,neutron-proton coupling and their competition.Typical level staggering is extracted from the calculated level energies.The calculation can approximately reproduce experimental signature inversion.Signature inversion is attributed to the rotational motion and neutronproton residual interaction having reversed signature splitting rules.It is found signature inversion can appear at axially symmetric shape and high-K band.
Perspective: Inverse methods for material design
Jain, Avni; Bollinger, Jonathan A.; Truskett, Thomas M.
2014-01-01
In this Perspective, we highlight several recent studies that illustrate how inverse strategies using appropriate physical models and computational methods can address complex materials design questions.
Inverse Kinematics of a Serial Robot
Amici Cinzia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This work describes a technique to treat the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The inverse kinematics is obtained through the numerical inversion of the Jacobian matrix, that represents the equation of motion of the manipulator. The inversion is affected by numerical errors and, in different conditions, due to the numerical nature of the solver, it does not converge to a reasonable solution. Thus a soft computing approach is adopted to mix different traditional methods to obtain an increment of algorithmic convergence.
Adaptation through chromosomal inversions in Anopheles
Diego eAyala
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Chromosomal inversions have been repeatedly involved in local adaptation in a large number of animals and plants. The ecological and behavioral plasticity of Anopheles species - human malaria vectors - is mirrored by high amounts of polymorphic inversions. The adaptive significance of chromosomal inversions has been consistently attested by strong and significant correlations between their frequencies and a number of phenotypic traits. Here, we provide an extensive literature review of the different adaptive traits associated with chromosomal inversions in the genus Anopheles. Traits having important consequences for the success of present and future vector control measures, such as insecticide resistance and behavioral changes, are discussed.
Analysis of nonlinear channel friction inverse problem
CHENG Weiping; LIU Guohua
2007-01-01
Based on the Backus-Gilbert inverse theory, the singular value decomposition (SVD) for general inverse matrices and the optimization algorithm are used to solve the channel friction inverse problem. The resolution and covari- ance friction inverse model in matrix form is developed to examine the reliability of solutions. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the convergence rate of the general Newton optimization algorithm is in the second-order. The Wiggins method is also incorporated into the algorithm. Using the method, noise can be suppressed effectively, and the results are close to accurate solutions with proper control parameters. Also, the numerical stability can be improved.
Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...
The structure of (L)*-inverse semigroups
REN Xueming; SHUM Karping
2006-01-01
The concepts of (L)*-inverse semigroups and left wreath products of semigroups are introduced. It is shown that the (L)*-inverse semigroup can be described as the left wreath product of a type A semigroup Γ and a left regular band B together with a mapping which maps the semigroup Γ into the endomorphism semigroup End(B). This result generalizes the structure theorem of Yamada for the left inverse semigroups in the class of regular semigroups.We shall also provide a constructed example for the (L)*-inverse semigroups by using the left wreath products.
Annual Patterns of Atmospheric Pollutions and Episodes over Cairo Egypt
Y. Aboel Fetouh; H. El Askary; El Raey, M.; Allali, M; Sprigg, W. A.; M. Kafatos
2013-01-01
The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from the tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES) on board the Aura have been used to assess the dominant component below the inversion layer. In this stu...
DETECTION OF THERMAL EMISSION OF XO-2b: EVIDENCE FOR A WEAK TEMPERATURE INVERSION
We estimate flux ratios of the extrasolar planet XO-2b to its host star XO-2 at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm with Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope to be 0.00081 ± 0.00017, 0.00098 ± 0.00020, 0.00167 ± 0.00036, and 0.00133 ± 0.00049, respectively. The fluxes provide tentative evidence for a weak temperature inversion in the upper atmosphere, the precise nature of which would need to be confirmed by longer wavelength observations. XO-2b substellar flux of 0.76 x 109 erg cm-2 s-1 lies in the predicted transition region between atmospheres with and without upper atmospheric temperature inversion.
Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation
Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun
2015-10-01
Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.
Nielsen, O. F.; Ploug, C.; Mendoza, J. A.; Martínez, K.
2009-05-01
The need for increaseding accuracy and reduced ambiguities in the inversion results has resulted in focus on the development of more advanced inversion methods of geophysical data. Over the past few years more advanced inversion techniques have been developed to improve the results. Real 3D-inversion is time consuming and therefore often not the best solution in a cost-efficient perspective. This has motivated the development of 3D constrained inversions, where 1D-models are constrained in 3D, also known as a Spatial Constrained Inversion (SCI). Moreover, inversion of several different data types in one inversion has been developed, known as Mutually Constrained Inversion (MCI). In this paper a presentation of a Spatial Mutually Constrained Inversion method (SMCI) is given. This method allows 1D-inversion applied to different geophysical datasets and geological information constrained in 3D. Application of two or more types of geophysical methods in the inversion has proved to reduce the equivalence problem and to increase the resolution in the inversion results. The use of geological information from borehole data or digital geological models can be integrated in the inversion. In the SMCI, a 1D inversion code is used to model soundings that are constrained in three dimensions according to their relative position in space. This solution enhances the accuracy of the inversion and produces distinct layers thicknesses and resistivities. It is very efficient in the mapping of a layered geology but still also capable of mapping layer discontinuities that are, in many cases, related to fracturing and faulting or due to valley fills. Geological information may be included in the inversion directly or used only to form a starting model for the individual soundings in the inversion. In order to show the effectiveness of the method, examples are presented from both synthetic data and real data. The examples include DC-soundings as well as land-based and airborne TEM
A Construction of Weakly Inverse Semigroups
Bing Jun YU; Yan LI
2009-01-01
Let S° be an inverse semigroup with semilattice biordered set E° of idempotents and E a weakly inverse biordered set with a subsemilattice Ep = { e ∈ E |(V) f ∈ E, S(f , e)(C) w(e) } isomorphic to E° by θ:Ep→E°. In this paper, it is proved that if(V)f, g∈E, f ←→ ,g(→) f°θ (ζ)s° g°θand there exists a mapping φ from Ep into the symmetric weakly inverse semigroup (ζξ)(E ∪S°) satisfying six appropriate conditions, then a weakly inverse semigroup ∑ can be constructed in (ζξ)(S°), called the weakly inverse hull of a weakly inverse system (S°, E, θ, φ) with I(∑) ≌ S°, E(∑) (≌) E. Conversely,every weakly inverse semigroup can be constructed in this way. Furthermore, a sufficient and necessary condition for two weakly inverse hulls to be isomorphic is also given.
An inversion algorithm for general tridiagonal matrix
Rui-sheng RAN; Ting-zhu HUANG; Xing-ping LIU; Tong-xiang GU
2009-01-01
An algorithm for the inverse of a general tridiagonal matrix is presented. For a tridiagonal matrix having the Doolittle factorization, an inversion algorithm is established.The algorithm is then generalized to deal with a general tridiagonal matrix without any restriction. Comparison with other methods is provided, indicating low computational complexity of the proposed algorithm, and its applicability to general tridiagonal matrices.
Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion
Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...
Approximation of the Inverse -Frame Operator
M R Abdollahpour; A Najati
2011-05-01
In this paper, we introduce the concept of (strong) projection method for -frames which works for all conditional -Riesz frames. We also derive a method for approximation of the inverse -frame operator which is efficient for all -frames. We show how the inverse of -frame operator can be approximated as close as we like using finite-dimensional linear algebra.