WorldWideScience
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Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Men's Lacrosse Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for men's lacrosse and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: During the sample period, the number of sponsoring institutions and the number of participants in men's college lacrosse grew significantly. Overall, an average of 18% of NCAA institutions participated in the annual NCAA Injury Surveillance System data collection for this sport. Main Results: Over the sample period, athletes were almost 4 times more likely to sustain injuries in games than in practices (12.58 versus 3.24 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures [A-Es], rate ratio = 3.9, 95% confidence interval = 3.7, 4.1). Approximately half of all game (48.1%) and practice (58.7%) injuries were to the lower extremity, followed by the upper extremity (26.2% in games, 16.9% in practices), and the head and neck (11.7% in games, 6.2% in practices). In games and practices, the most common injuries were ankle ligament sprains (11.3% and 16.4%, respectively). The disparity among preseason, regular-season, and postseason injuries may be due to athlete acclimatization to the rigors of the sport throughout the season. Changes in helmet design may account for the rise in the concussion rate since the 1995–1996 season. Recommendations: We recommend research into the mechanism of head injuries and the implications of design changes to protective helmets, as well as further investigation of the best designs for shoulder and chest protection. PMID:17710174

Dick, Randall; Romani, William A; Agel, Julie; Case, Jim G; Marshall, Stephen W

2007-01-01

2

Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Lacrosse Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance data for women's lacrosse and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: Women's lacrosse is a fast-paced, primarily noncontact sport. Participation in collegiate women's lacrosse almost doubled between the 1988–1989 and 2003–2004 seasons. Lacrosse equipment consists of sticks made of wood or a synthetic material and a hard rubber ball. Until recently, mouth guards were the only required protective equipment. Main Results: Collegiate women's lacrosse game injury rates increased over the 16-year study period. More than 60% of all severe game injuries were lower extremity sprains and strains and knee internal derangements, most frequently the result of noncontact incidents. The most common injury scenarios by injury mechanism and player activity were no contact while ball handling (16.4%) and contact from a stick while ball handling (10.5%). Contact from a stick or a ball accounted for 5.6% and 5.2% of injuries sustained during shooting activities, respectively. Approximately 22% of all game and 12% of all practice injuries involved the head and neck. Contact from a stick accounted for the majority (56.0%) of above-the-neck injuries in games; contact from the ball accounted for 20.0% of these injuries. Participants had 5 times the risk of sustaining a concussion in a game as in a practice (0.70 versus 0.15 injuries per 1000 athletic-exposures, rate ratio = 4.7, 95% confidence interval = 3.8, 6.5). Recommendations: To reduce the lower extremity injuries that comprise the greatest injury burden in women's lacrosse, future researchers should evaluate proprioceptive, plyometric, and balance training interventions designed specifically for female players. Other research areas of great interest involve determining whether protective eyewear (mandated in 2004) reduces injuries to the eye, orbit, and nasal area and identifying any unintended consequences of the mandate, such as increased risk of injuries to other areas of the face or more aggressive play. PMID:17710175

Dick, Randall; Lincoln, Andrew E; Agel, Julie; Carter, Elizabeth A; Marshall, Stephen W; Hinton, Richard Y

2007-01-01

3

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (TBISS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had developed and maintains a surveillance system to understand the magnitude and characteristics of hospitalized and fatal traumatic brain injuries in the United State...

4

NATIONAL ELECTRONIC INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NEISS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is collaborating with the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to expand the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to collect data on all typ...

5

2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

6

2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-06-13

7

2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-10-26

8

2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-03-06

9

2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

2009-07-16

10

2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-08-16

11

2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-09-12

12

2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-10-05

13

2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-05-19

14

2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-08-20

15

2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-06-20

16

2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-09-26

17

2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-05-14

18

2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-07-31

19

2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-07-31

20

2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-04-24

21

2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-06-29

22

2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-06-30

23

2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-12-10

24

2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-09-17

25

2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2010-12-15

26

2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-07-13

27

2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2010-08-19

28

2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-10-05

29

2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-05-05

30

2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2010-12-01

31

2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2010-11-23

32

2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-09-29

33

2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-09-22

34

2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2010-11-24

35

2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-02-04

36

The establishment of a Jamaican all-injury surveillance system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of injuries on the Jamaican health care system is a growing problem. Based on the successful implementation of a Violence-Related Injury Surveillance System (VRISS) in the Accident and Emergency (A&E) department of the Kingston Public Hospital (KPH), Ministry of Health (MOH) officials decided to expand the system to the Jamaica Injury Surveillance System (JISS), allowing for the surveillance of both intentional and unintentional injuries. A working group designed the expanded injury surveillance system based on the International Classification of External Causes of Injury. The expanded system allowed for the collection of data on all injuries seen in the A&E departments by adding four injury projects to the computerized A&E registration process. These were (1) unintentional injury, (2) violence-related injury, (3) suicide attempt (also known as intentional self-harm) and (4) motor vehicle-related injuries. The expanded JISS was implemented at the KPH and four additional hospitals across the island. The geographic distribution of these hospitals provided a reflection of rural and urban, highland and coastal communities and their distinctive injury profiles. Data collected at registration were printed on trauma sheets and reviewed by medical staff before being incorporated into the patient's record. Monthly reports detailing demographics and summary statistics were generated and made available at the local and national level. By monitoring the national injury profile, the JISS provides data to support needed policy changes to minimize the impact of injuries on the health services and on the health of the population. PMID:12613100

Ward, Elizabeth; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Gordon, Georgiana; Ashley, Deanna; McCartney, Trevor

2002-12-01

37

A multinational injury surveillance system pilot project in Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the development of a pilot project to test the implementation of an epidemiological surveillance system for intentional (violent) and non-intentional injuries, at emergency departments in selected hospitals in five African countries applying the World Health Organization's guidelines. We outline obstacles and opportunities encountered during the process. By definition, a surveillance system systematically collects, reviews, and evaluates information to understand the context in which specific injuries occur. Implementation in diverse sociocultural environments in Zambia, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, and Kenya has provided an opportunity to gather reliable data on injuries for comparisons between these countries. Analysis of the detailed information may permit researchers to generate evidence-based recommendations. Addressed to public authorities, and health authorities in particular, they can help address injury incidence in their communities from a public health perspective. PMID:17955008

Zavala, Diego E; Bokongo, Simon; John, Ime A; Mpanga, Senoga Ismail; Mtonga, Robert E; Aminu, Zakari Mohammed; Odhiambo, Walter; Olupot-Olupot, Peter

2007-12-01

38

Enhancing surveillance of injuries and disease among agricultural youth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public health surveillance is fundamental to monitoring trends and for planning, implementation, and evaluation of health conditions in order to develop appropriate prevention and control programs. Farms and ranches are places where work and home life intersect in a unique way where risks are shared between work, home, and leisure. Public health surveillance systems have not been adapted to include agricultural youth as a subset at high risk of injuries and illnesses. Occupational health surveillance is used to monitor work-related illnesses and injuries but most have not allowed for continuous monitoring of agricultural-related illnesses, injuries, and disability. Limited evaluation of data sets available for surveillance or periodic reporting of disease, disability, medical care utilization, and risk factors relevant for youth living and working on farms and ranches other than traumatic injuries has been published. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current most commonly used databases and their limitations, and to list potentially relevant databases and their limitations, as well as making recommendations to augment their usefulness in monitoring trends among youth living and working on farms and ranches. PMID:22490024

Stallones, Lorann

2012-01-01

39

Injury Surveillance Among NASA Astronauts Using the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix  

Science.gov (United States)

Astronauts perform physically demanding tasks and risk incurring musculoskeletal injuries during both groundbased training and missions. Increased injury rates throughout the history of the U.S. space program have been attributed to numerous factors, including an aging astronaut corps, increased Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training to construct the International Space Station, and improved clinical operations that promote injury prevention and reporting. With NASA program changes through the years (including retirement of the Shuttle program) and an improved training environment (including a new astronaut gym), there is no surveillance program to systematically track injury rates. A limited number of research projects have been conducted over the past 20 years to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries: (1) to evaluate orthopedic injuries from 1987 to 1995, (2) to describe upper extremity injuries, (3) to evaluate EVA spacesuit training related injuries, and (4) to evaluate in-flight musculoskeletal injuries. Nevertheless, there has been no consistently performed comprehensive assessment of musculoskeletal injuries among astronauts. The Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix was introduced at the 2001 meeting of the International Collaborative Effort (ICE) on Injury Statistics. The Matrix proposes a standardized method of classifying body region by nature of injury. Diagnoses are coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and complexity of the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix to classify and track musculoskeletal injuries among NASA astronauts.

Murray, J. D.; Laughlin, M. S.; Eudy, D. L.; Wear, M. L.; VanBaalen, M. G.

2014-01-01

40

Aboriginal Community-Centered Injury Surveillance: A Community-Based Participatory Process Evaluation  

OpenAIRE

While injuries are a leading health concern for Aboriginal populations, injury rates and types vary substantially across bands. The uniqueness of Aboriginal communities highlights the importance of collecting community-level injury surveillance data to assist with identifying local injury patterns, setting priorities for action and evaluating programs. Secwepemc First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada, implemented the Injury Surveillance Project using the Aboriginal Community-Ce...

Brussoni, Mariana; Olsen, Lise L.; Joshi, Pamela

2011-01-01

41

Surveillance of work-related cold injuries using workers' compensation claims.  

Science.gov (United States)

The usefulness of workers' compensation claims for the surveillance of occupational injuries was evaluated by analyzing claims for cold injury. Five hundred ten claims filed in 1983 from 23 states participating in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Supplementary Data System and an additional 147 claims filed with the Division of Safety and Hygiene of the Industrial Commission of Ohio from Jan 1, 1984, to June 30, 1985, were examined. As expected, the number of injuries per winter day increased as temperature decreased and wind speed increased. The rate of injury began to increase when temperatures fell below 10 degrees F and wind speeds exceeded 10 mph. These weather conditions were milder than previously published cold hazard charts suggest. Frostbite injuries of the lower extremities occurred at milder temperatures, required more lost workdays, and were more costly than cold injuries to the head and face or to the upper extremities. Industries with the highest rates of injury included agriculture, oil and gas extraction, trucking and warehousing, protective services, and interurban transportation. Injuries during nonwinter months involved the processing, distribution, and preparation of food. Vehicle breakdown or contact with water, gasoline, alcohol, or cold water were noted as contributing factors on many of the compensation claims. This probe suggests that claims for workers' compensation adequately reflect the expected association of environmental factors and the occurrence of cold injury. PMID:2956381

Sinks, T; Mathias, C G; Halperin, W; Timbrook, C; Newman, S

1987-06-01

42

2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

43

2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-24

44

2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

45

Concordance between childhood injury diagnoses from two sources: an injury surveillance system and a physician billing claims database  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: (1) To determine the concordance between injury diagnoses (head injury (HI), probable HI, or orthopedic injury) for children visiting an emergency department for an injury using two data sources: an injury surveillance system (Canadian Hospitals Injury Research and Prevention Program, CHIRPP) and a physician billing claims database (Régie de l'assurance maladie de Québec, RAMQ), and (2) to determine the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic and procedure codes in billing cla...

Kostylova, A.; Swaine, B.; Feldman, D.

2005-01-01

46

Brain Injury Association of America  

Science.gov (United States)

... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. Individuals who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

47

Validity of a surveillance system for childhood injuries in a rural block of Tamilnadu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Childhood injuries are increasingly getting the attention of public health experts following WHO?s report on global burden of diseases. Surveillance is an important component of control of any disease and effectiveness of the surveillance system depends upon completeness of the information about occurrence of the health related events to the public health authorities. Aims: This study aimed to set up a surveillance system for childhood injuries and validate it by a survey and thereafter estimate the incidence of childhood injuries using capture recapture method. Settings and Design: Observational study design. Materials and Methods: Passive surveillance system for childhood injuries was created for 26,811 children of less than fourteen years of Kaniyambadi block and it was validated by cross sectional study at the end of surveillance period. Using these two independent information systems, capture recapture method was applied to find out the possible incidence of injuries in the given population at a given period of time. Statistics: Chi square, Lincoln Peterson formula for capture re-capture method. Results: Surveillance and survey for childhood injuries identified 13.59/1000 child-years (CI: 11.86 -15.32 and 341.89/1000 child-years (CI: 254.46-429.33 of injury rates, respectively. Conclusion: Passive surveillance system underreports childhood injuries markedly but it does identify childhood injuries of serious nature.

Sivamani M

2009-01-01

48

Injury in China: a systematic review of injury surveillance studies conducted in Chinese hospital emergency departments  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Injuries represent a significant and growing public health concern in China. This Review was conducted to document the characteristics of injured patients presenting to the emergency department of Chinese hospitals and to assess of the nature of information collected and reported in published surveillance studies. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE and China Academic Journals supplemented with a hand search of journals was perfor...

Taylor Colman; Hammond Naomi; Yu James; Fitzharris Michael; Wu Yangfeng; Finfer Simon; Myburgh John

2011-01-01

49

2010 Nevada National Security Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-07-28

50

2006 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-05-13

51

2010 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-08-31

52

2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-06-13

53

2006 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-04-17

54

2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-05-16

55

2007 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-05-20

56

2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-07-28

57

2006 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-03-27

58

2010 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-08-16

59

2003 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the East Tennessee Technology Park (K-25).The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

60

Injury surveillance in an accident and emergency department: a year in the life of CHIRPP  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND—The design of childhood injury prevention programmes is hindered by a dearth of valid and reliable information on injury frequency, cause, and outcome. A number of local injury surveillance systems have been developed to address this issue. One example is CHIRPP (Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program), which has been imported into the accident and emergency department at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow. This paper examines a...

Morrison, A.; Stone, D.; Doraiswamy, N.; Ramsay, L.

1999-01-01

61

Injury surveillance in low-resource settings using Geospatial and Social Web technologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive public health gains have benefited high-income countries in recent decades, however, citizens of low and middle-income countries (LMIC have largely not enjoyed the same advancements. This is in part due to the fact that public health data - the foundation for public health advances - are rarely collected in many LMIC. Injury data are particularly scarce in many low-resource settings, despite the huge associated burden of morbidity and mortality. Advances in freely-accessible and easy-to-use information and communication (ICT technology may provide the impetus for increased public health data collection in settings with limited financial and personnel resources. Methods and Results A pilot study was conducted at a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa to assess the utility and feasibility of using free (non-licensed, and easy-to-use Social Web and GeoWeb tools for injury surveillance in low-resource settings. Data entry, geocoding, data exploration, and data visualization were successfully conducted using these technologies, including Google Spreadsheet, Mapalist, BatchGeocode, and Google Earth. Conclusion This study examined the potential for Social Web and GeoWeb technologies to contribute to public health data collection and analysis in low-resource settings through an injury surveillance pilot study conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. The success of this study illustrates the great potential for these technologies to be leveraged for public health surveillance in resource-constrained environments, given their ease-of-use and low-cost, and the sharing and collaboration capabilities they afford. The possibilities and potential limitations of these technologies are discussed in relation to the study, and to the field of public health in general.

Schuurman Nadine

2010-05-01

62

2009 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2010-07-09

63

2008 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-12-11

64

2007 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-06-30

65

2007 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-03-04

66

2007 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-07-01

67

2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-12-14

68

2003 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Y-12. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

69

2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-24

70

2003 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Brookhaven National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-02

71

2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-05

72

2003 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for the Hanford site. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The prpogram is part of DOE's commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers and includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-24

73

2003 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Pantex Plant. DOE is commited to assuring the health and safety of its workers. This includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-05

74

2003 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Kansas City Plant. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-04

75

2003 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

76

2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

77

2003 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Los Alamos National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-04

78

2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-04

79

Occupational injury surveillance: A study in a metal smelting industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An investigation of occupational injury was undertaken in a metal smelting industry to examine the occurrence and nature of occupational accidents where analysis of occupational injury records was carried out. At the same time, all the workers were interviewed to collect data in relation to personal and occupational characteristics. With this information, the study aimed to examine the role of different factors in the causation of occupational accidents. High incidence of superficial injuries of limbs due mostly to stepping / striking against objects and overexertion / wrong movements of the workers and the frequent association of handling of small tools with work injuries, observed in this study indicated the role of human error in these accidents and highlighted the necessity of proper safety training of the workers. This study also highlighted the need of elevated safety status during summer months and in evening and night shifts (more so in the second half. Moreover, this study could categorize some high-risk groups e.g. young workers, less-experienced workers, obese workers, workers having smoking / chewing habits etc, who need special attention so far as workplace safety is concerned.

Saha Asim

2007-01-01

80

Injuries associated with infant walkers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1999, an estimated 8800 children younger than 15 months were treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States for injuries associated with infant walkers. Thirty-four infant walker-related deaths were reported from 1973 through 1998. The vast majority of injuries occur from falls down stairs, and head injuries are common. Walkers do not help a child learn to walk; indeed, they can delay normal motor and mental development. The use of warning labels, public education, adult supervision during walker use, and stair gates have all been demonstrated to be insufficient strategies to prevent injuries associated with infant walkers. To comply with the revised voluntary standard (ASTM F977-96), walkers manufactured after June 30, 1997, must be wider than a 36-in doorway or must have a braking mechanism designed to stop the walker if 1 or more wheels drop off the riding surface, such as at the top of a stairway. Because data indicate a considerable risk of major and minor injury and even death from the use of infant walkers, and because there is no clear benefit from their use, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on the manufacture and sale of mobile infant walkers. If a parent insists on using a mobile infant walker, it is vital that they choose a walker that meets the performance standards of ASTM F977-96 to prevent falls down stairs. Stationary activity centers should be promoted as a safer alternative to mobile infant walkers. PMID:11533353

2001-09-01

81

Understanding unintentional childhood home injuries: pilot surveillance data from Karachi, Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Childhood injuries, an important public health issue, globally affects more than 95% of children living in low-and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of childhood unintentional injuries in Karachi, Pakistan with a specific focus on those occurring within the home environment. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a childhood unintentional injury surveillance database setup in the emergency ...

Zia Nukhba; Khan Uzma R; Razzak Junaid A.; Puvanachandra Prasanthi; Hyder Adnan A

2012-01-01

82

The relevance of WHO injury surveillance guidelines for evaluation: learning from the aboriginal community-centered injury surveillance system (ACCISS) and two institution-based systems  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Over the past three decades, the capacity to develop and implement injury surveillance systems (ISS) has grown worldwide and is reflected by the diversity of data gathering environments in which ISS operate. The capacity to evaluate ISS, however, is less advanced and existing evaluation guidelines are ambiguous. Furthermore, the applied relevance of these guidelines to evaluate ISS operating in various settings is unclear. The aim of this paper was to exam...

Auer Anna M; Dobmeier Teresa M; Ja, Haglund Bo; Tillgren Per

2011-01-01

83

A profile of Injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (?12 hours stay in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. Results The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29% and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%. The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Conclusions Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.

Wainiqolo Iris

2012-12-01

84

Alaska's model program for surveillance and prevention of occupational injury deaths.  

OpenAIRE

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established its Alaska Field Station in Anchorage in 1991 after identifying Alaska as the highest-risk state for traumatic worker fatalities. Since then, the Field Station, working in collaboration with other agencies, organizations, and individuals, has established a program for occupational injury surveillance in Alaska and formed interagency working groups to address the risk factors leading to occupational death and injury ...

Conway, G. A.; Lincoln, J. M.; Husberg, B. J.; Manwaring, J. C.; Klatt, M. L.; Thomas, T. K.

1999-01-01

85

Slipping and tripping: fall injuries in adults associated with rugs and carpets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falls are a leading cause of unintentional injury among adults age 65 years and older. Loose, unsecured rugs and damaged carpets with curled edges, are recognized environmental hazards that may contribute to falls. To characterize nonfatal, unintentional fall-related injuries associated with rugs and carpets in adults aged 65 years and older. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of surveillance data of injuries treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs during 2001–2008. We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program, which collects data from a nationally representative stratified probability sample of 66 U.S. hospital EDs. Sample weights were used to make national estimates. RESULTS: Annually, an estimated 37,991 adults age 65 years or older were treated in U.S. EDs for falls associated with carpets (54.2% and rugs (45.8%. Most falls (72.8% occurred at home. Women represented 80.2% of fall injuries. The most common location for fall injuries in the home was the bathroom (35.7%. Frequent fall injuries occurred at the transition between carpet/rug and non-carpet/rug, on wet carpets or rugs, and while hurrying to the bathroom. CONCLUSIONS: Fall injuries associated with rugs and carpets are common and may cause potentially severe injuries. Older adults, their caregivers, and emergency and primary care physicians should be aware of the significant risk for fall injuries and of environmental modifications that may reduce that risk.

Tony Rosen

2013-01-01

86

A successful model of road traffic injury surveillance in a developing country: process and lessons learnt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs are one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide with 90% of global mortality concentrated in the low and middle income countries. RTI surveillance is recommended to define the burden, identify high risk groups, plan intervention and monitor their impact. Despite its stated importance in the literature, very few examples of sustained surveillance systems are reported from low income countries. This paper shares the experience of setting up an urban RTI surveillance program in the emergency departments of five major hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Method We describe the process of establishing a surveillance system including assembling a multi-institution research group, developing a data collection methodology, carrying out data collection and analysis and dissemination of information to the relevant stakeholders. In the absence of a road safety agency, the surveillance system required developing individual partnerships with industry, police, city government, media and many other stakeholders. Impact of the surveillance is demonstrated by some initiatives in the local trauma system and improvements in road design to effect hazard reduction. Conclusion We demonstrated that a functional RTI surveillance program can be established, and effectively managed in a developing country, despite lack of infrastructure and limitation of resources. Data utilization in the absence of well defined road safety infrastructure within the government is a challenge. More effective actions are hampered by the limited capacity in the transport and health sectors to do in-depth analysis through road safety audits and trauma registries.

Razzak Junaid

2012-05-01

87

Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

88

Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

2004-08-01

89

A Framework for Infection Control Surveillance Using Association Rules  

OpenAIRE

Surveillance of antibiotic resistance and nosocomial infections is one of the most important functions of a hospital infection control program. We employed the association rule method for automatically identifying new, unexpected, and potentially interesting patterns in hospital infection control. We hypothesized that mining for low-support, low-confidence rules would detect unexpected outbreaks caused by a small number of cases. To build a framework, we preprocessed the data and added new te...

Ma, Lili; Tsui, Fu-chiang; Hogan, William R.; Wagner, Michael M.; Ma, Haobo

2003-01-01

90

Podocyte Injury Associated with Mutant ?-Actinin-4  

OpenAIRE

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is an important cause of proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome in humans. The pathogenesis of FSGS may be associated with glomerular visceral epithelial cell (GEC; podocyte) injury, leading to apoptosis, detachment, and “podocytopenia”, followed by glomerulosclerosis. Mutations in ?-actinin-4 are associated with FSGS in humans. In cultured GECs, ?-actinin-4 mediates adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics. FSGS-associated ?-actinin-4 mutants show incre...

Cybulsky, Andrey V.; Kennedy, Chris R. J.

2011-01-01

91

How adequate are emergency department home and leisure injury surveillance systems for cross-country comparisons in Europe?  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess whether the emergency department (ED) injury surveillance systems in Europe are suitable for cross-country comparisons. For this, the ED injury surveillance systems in Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and the UK (England, Wales) were considered. Standardised injury incidence and healthcare utilisation indices were calculated and the influence of measurement bias due to data collection and sampling differences, as well as trauma policy and health systems characteristics were assessed. The results showed that there was an over 3-fold variation of the grossly estimated incidence for home and leisure injuries (HLIs), with the highest values observed in England and Greece (111 and 104 per 1000 person years), and the lowest in Ireland and the Netherlands (27 and 48 per 1000 person years). The ranking of countries changed, however, when only injuries with an inherent need for ED treatment were considered (selected radiological verifiable fractures) with Austria topping the table followed by Greece and England. Thus, it is concluded that the naive use of ED injury surveillance systems for cross-country comparisons should be discouraged, as this is subject to measurement bias. Nevertheless, the observed variation in the healthcare utilisation and injury incidence, particularly among children and older people, indicates the potential to reduce the burden of HLI in Europe. PMID:20182937

Meerding, Willem Jan; Polinder, Suzanne; Lyons, Ronan A; Petridou, Eleni Th; Toet, Hidde; van Beeck, F; Mulder, Saakje

2010-03-01

92

[Associated injuries in severe pelvic trauma].  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a marked increase in the incidence of pelvic fractures over the last few years. Associated injuries to the urogenital and vascular system as well as nerve injuries worsen the prognosis. Over a five year period 126 patients with severe pelvic trauma were treated. Out of these 39 (30.9%) sustained additional peripelvic injuries and represent the study sample. Type B injuries according to the AO classification occurred in 16 (41%) patients, type C fractures in 23 (59%) patients. The spleen, liver and kidney were the most frequently injured organs (58.9%), followed by urogenital lesions (46.6%), nerve injuries (25.6%) and vascular lesions (15.3%). The most common extrapelvic lesions were thoracic injuries in 56.4% and severe head injuries (GCS < 8) in 33.3%. The mean Hannover Polytrauma score was 35.6 points, the mean Injury Severity Score 27.6 points. Osteosynthesis was performed in 21 pelvic ring fractures (53%), eight procedures (50%) in type B fractures and 13 (56%) in type C fractures. In type B injuries the anterior pelvic ring was stabilized with a tension band wiring in four cases, in two patients with an external fixator and with plate osteosynthesis in one case. In type C injuries the external fixator was applied as the only stabilizing procedure in six patients. In four cases the anterior ring was fixed with tension band wiring or plates and the dorsal aspect of the pelvic ring with sacral bars. Three patients had their additional acetabular fracture plated through a anterior approach. All surviving 28 patients were followed up for an average of 18 months (range 7-59 months) after the trauma. The patients were classified using the pelvic outcome score proposed by the German Society of Trauma Surgery. 53.4% of the type B fractures showed a good clinical outcome, 47.6% a poor outcome. 15.4% with type C fractures presented with a good outcome, 84.6% with a poor outcome. 80% of the type B and 23% of the type C fractures had a good radiological outcome. 20% of type B and 77% of type C injuries had a poor radiological outcome. Five patients (12.8%) sustained persistent urological symptoms. Three of these had urinary dysfunction, two used permanent cystotomies due to their severe neurological deficit after a head injury. Ten patients with nerve injuries at the time of trauma suffered long term neurological dysfunction of the lumbosacral plexus. The mortality rate was 28%. Seven patients died in the emergency room due to uncontrollable bleeding, four in the intensive care unit from multi-organ failure. The management of complex pelvic trauma consists of fracture treatment and interdisciplinary treatment of the associated injury. Lesions of the abdominal organs or of major vessels must be addressed first if hemodynamic instability is present. Injuries to smaller vessels can be embolized percutaneously. Urinary bladder ruptures are treated as an emergency, urethral lesions electively after four to six weeks. We recommend external fixation of the pelvis in the acute phase for control of both the osseous instability and control of haemorrhage through external compression. The treatment of choice for the anterior pelvic ring is tension band wiring or plating. If this is contraindicated due to an open fracture external fixation is the treatment of choice. Type C fractures require posterior ring stabilization which should be postponed until four days post admission. PMID:10969545

Siegmeth, A; Müllner, T; Kukla, C; Vécsei, V

2000-07-01

93

Comparative evaluation of different modes of a national accident and emergency department-based injury surveillance system: Jamaican experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two injury surveillance systems in operation in the Accident and Emergency departments of public hospitals in Jamaica. The evaluation was conducted at 12 hospitals across Jamaica offering varying levels of service delivery. It was designed in three phases: (1) a retrospective review of surveillance system data; (2) prospective process evaluation; (3) system environment evaluation. These data were analysed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the manual Accident & Emergency Statistical Report (A&ESR) versus the computer-based Patient administration system/Jamaica injury surveillance system (PAS/JISS), and to determine an injury registration rate. Results showed a variation from 8% to 27% in injury registration rates at the hospitals reviewed. The sensitivity of the computer-based PAS ranged from 29.7% to 97.1% while the sensitivity of the manual system ranged from 22.1% to 100%. The computer-based system generally detected a greater percentage of injuries. Problems were identified with missing data fields in the computer-based system, while problems of recording and transcription were identified in the manually-based system. Recommendations were made to improve data quality in both data collection systems. Although shortcomings were identified with the A&ESR, the system is performing the function for which it was designed, that of tracking A&E workload. The PAS/JISS is more user-friendly and a truer reflection of the injury situation. PMID:12613102

Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Holder, Yvette; Gordon, Georgiana

2002-12-01

94

Implementing a hospital-based violence-related injury surveillance system--a background to the Jamaican experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Violence, a leading cause of injuries and death, is recognized as a major public health problem. In 1996, injuries were the second leading cause of hospitalizations in Jamaica. The estimated annual cost of in-patient care for injuries was 11.6 million US dollars. To develop strategies to reduce the impact of violence-related injuries on Jamaican health care resources, the Ministry of Health, Division of Health Promotion and Protection (MOH/DHPP) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies Mona, designed and implemented a violence-related injury surveillance system (VRISS) at Kingston Public Hospital (KPH). In 1998, the VRISS, based on the International Classification of External Cause of Injury (ICECI), was implemented in the accident and emergency (A&E) department of Jamaica's tertiary care hospital, KPH. VRISS collects demographic, method and circumstance of injury, victim-perpetrator relationship and patient's discharge status data. From 8/1/98 to 7/31/99, data on 6,107 injuries were collected. Injuries occurred primarily among males aged 25-44 years. Most injuries (54%; 3171) were caused by use of a sharp object. Nearly half (49%; 2992) were perpetrated by acquaintances. The majority, 70% (4,252), were the result of a fight or argument and 17% were admitted to the hospital. The VRISS utilized A&E department data to characterize violence-related injuries in Jamaica, a resource-limited environment. These data will be used to guide intervention development to reduce violence-related injuries in Jamaica. PMID:12613103

Ward, Elizabeth; Durant, Tonji; Thompson, Martie; Gordon, Georgiana; Mitchell, Wayne; Ashley, Deanna

2002-12-01

95

FARM FAMILY HEALTH AND HAZARD SURVEILLANCE  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIOSH Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance (FFHHS) Cooperative Agreement Program was developed to respond to Congress's concern that agricultural workers and their families experience a disproportionate share of disease and injury associated with the chemical, biologica...

96

Psychosocial and physical factors associated with lower extremity injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increasing availability of modern occupant restraints, more drivers and passengers are surviving high-energy crashes. However, a large number, especially those involved in frontal and offset frontal crashes, incur disabling lower extremity injuries. In the past, not much attention was paid to these injuries, as they were usually not life threatening. Despite the low AIS scores associated with injuries to the lower extremities, they pose a major physical and psychological burden on patients' and their ability to return to pre-crash functioning. Associated injuries, such as mild brain injuries, and psychosocial factors such as depression, also influence the long-term outcome. PMID:12361514

Read, Kathleen M; Burgess, Andrew R; Dischinger, Patricia C; Kufera, Joseph A; Kerns, Timothy J; Ho, Shiu M; Burch, Cynthia

2002-01-01

97

Intratubular hemoglobin casts in hemolysis-associated acute kidney injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kidney injury is a complication of intravascular hemolysis associated with many forms of hemolytic disease. Reports of kidney biopsy findings in patients with hemolysis-related kidney injury have focused primarily on the accumulation of hemosiderin pigment within proximal tubular epithelial cells (hemosiderosis), a feature of chronic hemolysis. The nephrotoxic effects of hemoglobin include direct cytotoxicity to tubular cells, but hemoglobin also can precipitate in distal nephron segments, forming obstructive casts. We present a case of hemolysis-associated tubular injury, characterized by acute onset of intravascular hemolysis followed by acute kidney injury with acute tubular injury and abundant intratubular casts containing hemoglobin. PMID:25441434

Khalighi, Mazdak A; Henriksen, Kammi J; Chang, Anthony; Meehan, Shane M

2015-02-01

98

Motor Vehicle Crash-Associated Eye Injuries Presenting to U. S. Emergency Departments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs are a leading cause of injury in the United States (U.S.. Detailed knowledge of MVC eye injuries presenting to U.S. emergency departments (ED will aid clinicians in diagnosis and management. The objective of the study was to describe the incidence, risk factors, and characteristics of non-fatal motor vehicle crash-associated eye injuries presenting to U.S. EDs from 2001 to 2008. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP from 2001 to 2008 to assess the risk of presenting to an ED with a MVC-associated eye injury in relation to specific occupant characteristics, including age, gender, race/ethnicity, disposition, and occupant (driver/passenger status. Results: From 2001 to 2008, an estimated 75,028 MVC-associated eye injuries presented to U.S. EDs. The annual rate of ED-treated eye injuries resulting from MVCs declined during this study period. Males accounted for 59.6% of eye injuries (95% confidence interval [CI] 56.2%-63.0%. Rates of eye injury were highest among 15-19 year olds (5.8/10,000 people; CI 4.3-6.0/10,000 and among African Americans (4.5/10,000 people; CI 2.0-7.1/10,000. Drivers of motor vehicles accounted for 62.2% (CI 58.3%-66.1% of ED-treated MVC eye injuries when occupant status was known. Contusion/Abrasion was the most common diagnosis (61.5%; CI 56.5%-66.4%. Among licensed U.S. drivers, 16-24 year olds had the highest risk (3.7/10,000 licensed drivers; CI 2.6-4.8/10,000. Conclusion: This study reports a decline in the annual incidence of ED-treated MVC-associated eye injuries. The risk of MVC eye injury is greatest among males, 15 to 19 year olds and African Americans. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:693-700

Grayson W. Armstrong

2014-09-01

99

Injury associated with methamphetamine use: A review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the literature exploring issues around methamphetamine and injury. There was a paucity of peer reviewed quantitative research and a lack of large scale epidemiological studies. Further sources described cases and others described injury risk as part of an overall review of methamphetamine misuse. Thus, a number of limitations and potential biases exist within the literature. The main areas where associations were noted or extrapolated with methamphetamine use and injury were around driving and violence. Other associations with injury related to methamphetamine manufacture. There was also circumstantial evidence for third party injury (that is injury to those not specifically involved in drug use or drug manufacture; however, the available data are inadequate to confirm these associations/risks.

Wheeler Amanda

2006-03-01

100

Road traffic injuries in one local health unit in the Lazio region: results of a surveillance system integrating police and health data  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective Different sources are available for the surveillance of Road Traffic injuries (RTI, but studied individually they present several limits. In this paper we present the results of a surveillance integrating healthcare data with the data gathered by the municipal police in the southeastern area of Rome (630,000 inhabitants during the year 2003. Methods The Municipal police RTI reports, which list the exact location, circumstances and some risk factor of the crash, were searched in the emergency visit, hospitalization and mortality databases, to integrate them with the information on health consequences. A multivariate analysis was conducted to evaluate risk factors (crash circumstances, age ad gender of the casualty associated with hospital admission following a RTI. Mapping of RTI locations was created. The locations with higher risk of accidents with severe health consequences and at higher risk for pedestrians were identified. Results According to police records 4571 RTI occurred in 2003, 75% of which led to emergency department admissions. Sixteen percent of these emergency visits ended in hospitalization, and 44 deaths were reported within 30 days of the event, most of which occurred in young men. The people with the highest risk of hospitalization after an RTI were the cyclists, pedestrians and followed by people on two-wheeled vehicles. The type of crash with the highest risk of hospitalization was head-on collision. Geographical analyses showed four clusters with higher severity of RTI. Specific attention was paid to pedestrian injuries. Analyzing the locations of RTIs involving pedestrians permitted us to rank the most dangerous streets. The roads at high risk for pedestrians identified problems in the bus stop constructions and in the placement of the zebra pedestrian crossings. Conclusion This study proves the feasibility of an integrated surveillance system of RTI by using routinely collected local data. The high-risk locations identified with the geographic analyses method in this study highlighted infrastructural problems, suggesting immediate preventive interventions.

Camilloni Laura

2009-04-01

101

Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries. PMID:24885879

2014-05-01

102

Association Rules and Data Mining in Hospital Infection Control and Public Health Surveillance  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objectives: The authors consider the problem of identifying new, unexpected, and interesting patterns in hospital infection control and public health surveillance data and present a new data analysis process and system based on association rules to address this problem.

Brossette, Stephen E.; Sprague, Alan P.; Hardin, J. Michael; Waites, Ken B.; Jones, Warren T.; Moser, Stephen A.

1998-01-01

103

Use of surveillance data for prevention of healthcare-associated infection: risk adjustment and reporting dilemmas.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Healthcare-associated or nosocomial infection (HCAI) is of increasing importance to healthcare providers and the public. Surveillance is crucial but must be adjusted for risk, especially when used for interhospital comparisons or for public reporting.

O'Neill, Eoghan

2009-08-01

104

Characterization plan for routine waste from surveillance and maintenance of 221-U and associated facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This characterization plan describes how to collect samples, gather radiological survey information, and identify what chemical/radiological analyses are necessary to characterize routine waste generated during surveillance and maintenance of 221-U and associated facilities

105

U.S. Department of Energy Illness, and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health At A Glance, 1995-2004  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program (IISP) has monitored the health of contractor workers at selected DOE sites since 1990. For the first time, the IISP has sufficient data to describe, in a collective manner, the health trends occurring among workers at a number of DOE sites during a 10-year period. This brief report and the more detailed Worker Health Summary assess illness and injury trends of DOE workers according to gender, age, occupational group, and program office over the 10-year period, 1995 through 2004. During this time, over 137,000 individual contractor workers were employed at the 15 DOE sites participating in the IISP.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-01

106

Urinary Dysfunctions Associated With Spinal Cord Injury  

OpenAIRE

After the Second World War, urinary dysfunctions due to spinal cord injury had gained more importance and the life expectancy and quality of life of the patients had increased due to the improvements in this field. The management and follow-up period of urinary dysfunctions can be examined in three stages: initial stage after the injury, rehabilitation stage and long-term follow-up stage. Urodynamic and videourodynamic evaluations are the gold standards in the diagnosis. Bladder filling press...

Koc?er, Serdar; Erhan, Belgin

2012-01-01

107

Bowel injury associated with pelvic radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation therapists have to deal with the difficulty to give an efficient radiation dose to the tumor without generating unacceptable normal tissue injury. Acute reactions are experienced in most of the patients and are characterized by diarrhea resulting from intestinal mucosal injury. In some cases, intestinal wall fibrosis may develop, with hazard of occlusion syndrome. The only therapeutic recourse consists of surgical resection of the injured bowel

108

Use of statewide emergency department surveillance data to assess incidence of animal bite injuries among humans in North Carolina.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE--To determine incidence of animal bite injuries among humans in North Carolina by use of statewide emergency department visit data; to evaluate incidence rates on the basis of age, sex, urbanicity, biting species, and month for selected species; and to characterize bite-related emergency department visits. DESIGN--Retrospective cohort and cross-sectional study. SAMPLE--Records of 38,971 incident animal bite-related emergency department visits in North Carolina from 2008 to 2010. PROCEDURES--Emergency department visits were selected for inclusion by means of external-cause-of-injury codes assigned with an international coding system and keyword searches of chief complaint and triage notes. Rates were calculated with denominators obtained from census data. Cross-sectional analysis of incident emergency department visits was performed. RESULTS--By the age of 10, a child in North Carolina had a 1 in 50 risk of dog bite injury requiring an emergency department visit. Incidence rates for dog bites were highest for children ? 14 years of age, whereas the incidence rate for cat bites and scratches was highest among individuals > 79 years of age. Lifetime risk of cat bite or scratch injury requiring an emergency department visit was 1 in 60 for the population studied. Rabies postexposure prophylaxis was administered during 1,664 of 38,971 (4.3%) incident visits. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE--Emergency department visit surveillance data were used to monitor species-specific bite incidence statewide and in various subpopulations. Emergency department surveillance data may be particularly useful to public health veterinarians. Results may inform and renew interest in targeted animal bite prevention efforts. PMID:24548236

Rhea, Sarah K; Weber, David J; Poole, Charles; Waller, Anna E; Ising, Amy I; Williams, Carl

2014-03-01

109

Factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries, Thika, Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the severity of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries in a public hospital in Thika district, Kenya. METHODS: Road crash victims attending the Thika district hospital, a 265-bed public hospital, emergency room were recruited consecutively between 10th August 2009 and 15th November 2009. Epidemiologic and clinical information was collected from medical charts and through interview with the victims or surrogates using a semi-structured questionnaire. Injuries were graded as severe or non-severe based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS. Independent factors associated with injury severity were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 32.4 years, three quarters were between 20-49 years-old and 73% (219 were male. Nineteen percent (56/300 of the victims had severe injury. Five percent (15 had head injury while 38% (115 had fractures. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians and two-wheel users comprised 33% (99/300 of the victims. Vulnerable road users (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.0-3.9, road crashes in rainy weather (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.3-6.5 and night time crashes (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.1-3.9 were independent risk factors for sustaining severe injury. CONCLUSION: Severe injury was associated with vulnerable road users, rainy weather and night time crashes. Interventions and measures such as use of reflective jackets and helmets by two wheel users and enhanced road visibility could help reduce the severity of road traffic injuries

Osoro Mogaka Eric

2011-03-01

110

Activities associated with injuries in initial entry training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have not reported activities associated with injuries in initial entry training (IET) because these data were seldom available in medical records and not contained in electronic databases. This investigation obtained activities associated with outpatient encounters in IET recorded by primary medical care providers at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Data were entered into a standard database that included fields for diagnosis and activity associated with the injury. Fifty percent of the new injury encounters (i.e., exclusive of follow-ups) were not associated with a specific event but were reported as having a gradual onset. Other activities included physical training (16%), road marching (15%), confidence/obstacle courses (5%), and barracks activities (3%). Risks per unit of training time were estimated at 13, 62, and 97 injuries per hour for physical training, road marching, and the confidence/obstacle courses, respectively. The most frequently recorded diagnoses were joint pain (27%), strains (15%), blisters (14%), sprains (13%), and tendonitis (12%). The types of injuries and their anatomical locations were similar to those reported in other IET investigations, although blister-related encounters were higher. This investigation identifies activities with the highest risk of injury in IET and those that should be targeted for injury prevention efforts. PMID:23756007

Knapik, Joseph J; Graham, Bria S; Rieger, Jennifer; Steelman, Ryan; Pendergrass, Timothy

2013-05-01

111

Effect of standardized surveillance of intensive care unit-acquired infections on ventilator-associated pneumonia incidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a multicenter surveillance of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections, adjusted ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence diminished by -1.0% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.8 to -0.2; P = .02) in ICUs with continuous surveillance but increased by +16.1% (95% CI, 0.5%-34.1%; P = .04) in the year following surveillance disruption, suggesting a preventive effect of surveillance on VAP. PMID:25203184

Bénet, Thomas; Ecochard, René; Voirin, Nicolas; Machut, Anaïs; Lepape, Alain; Savey, Anne; Vanhems, Philippe

2014-10-01

112

MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: associated findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors investigated the associated findings and their value in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in MR image. The knee MR images of 47 patients with ACL injury (complete;24, partial;23) and 61 patients with normal ACL confirmed by the knee arthroscopy or operation were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of anterior translocation of tibia and the degree of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) buckling were evaluated. The prevalence and pattern of associated adjacent bone, ligament and meniscus injuries were studied. The means(± 2 standard errors) of anterior translocation were different significantly in statistical analysis (? < 0.001, student t-test) between injury group (7.51 ± 1.16 mm) and normal group (-0.56 ± 0.92mm). In the level of 5mm of anterior translocation for the criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 78.7%, 89.5%, 84.3% for each. The means of PCL buckling ratio were also different statistically between injury group(0.23 ± 0.02) and normal group(0.17 ± 0.01)(? < 0.001). In the level of 0.20 for diagnostic criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 71.4%, 83.6%, 78.4% for each. Thirty one medial meniscus tear (66%), thirteen lateral meniscus tear (28%), ten medial collateral ligament injury (28%), one PCL injury(2%) were associated with ACL injury. The twenty nine bone marrow changes were found in twenty patients (43%) which included acutely injured seven patients. In acute y injured seven patients. In acute cases, the bone marrow changes were depicted as diffuse or focal high signal intensity lesions in lateral femoral or tibial condyles in contrast to the changes in chronic cases depicted as focal low signal intensity lesions in variable location. Lateral femoral condylar notch depression were found in nine patients (19%) and avulsion fractures of anterior tibial spine in four patients(9%). The associated findings with ACL injury (anterior translocation, buckling of PCL, associated bone, ligament and meniscus injuries) are considered to be helpful in the diagnosis of ACL injury on Knee MR images, when the findings of anterior cruciate ligament itself are not confirmative

113

MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: associated findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Authors investigated the associated findings and their value in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in MR image. The knee MR images of 47 patients with ACL injury (complete;24, partial;23) and 61 patients with normal ACL confirmed by the knee arthroscopy or operation were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of anterior translocation of tibia and the degree of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) buckling were evaluated. The prevalence and pattern of associated adjacent bone, ligament and meniscus injuries were studied. The means({+-} 2 standard errors) of anterior translocation were different significantly in statistical analysis ({rho} < 0.001, student t-test) between injury group (7.51 {+-} 1.16 mm) and normal group (-0.56 {+-} 0.92mm). In the level of 5mm of anterior translocation for the criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 78.7%, 89.5%, 84.3% for each. The means of PCL buckling ratio were also different statistically between injury group(0.23 {+-} 0.02) and normal group(0.17 {+-} 0.01)({rho} < 0.001). In the level of 0.20 for diagnostic criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 71.4%, 83.6%, 78.4% for each. Thirty one medial meniscus tear (66%), thirteen lateral meniscus tear (28%), ten medial collateral ligament injury (28%), one PCL injury(2%) were associated with ACL injury. The twenty nine bone marrow changes were found in twenty patients (43%) which included acutely injured seven patients. In acute cases, the bone marrow changes were depicted as diffuse or focal high signal intensity lesions in lateral femoral or tibial condyles in contrast to the changes in chronic cases depicted as focal low signal intensity lesions in variable location. Lateral femoral condylar notch depression were found in nine patients (19%) and avulsion fractures of anterior tibial spine in four patients(9%). The associated findings with ACL injury (anterior translocation, buckling of PCL, associated bone, ligament and meniscus injuries) are considered to be helpful in the diagnosis of ACL injury on Knee MR images, when the findings of anterior cruciate ligament itself are not confirmative.

Han, Gi Seok; Kang, Heung Sik; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Chu Wan; Cho, Kyu Hyung; Seong, Sang Cheol [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1995-04-15

114

MR imaging of medial collateral ligament injury and associated internal knee joint injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of medial collateral ligament injury of the knee, we used MR imaging to evaluate the characteristic findings in MCL tears and the frequency of associated knee joint injury. We retrospectively reviewed 26 patients within four weeks of MCL injury, analysed MR findings and correlated them with surgical findings. We evaluated discontinuity, heterogeneous signal intensity of MCL, thin band- like low signal intensity at MCL, facial edema, loss of clear demarcation of adjacent fat also combined bone injury, meniscus injury and other ligament injury. Complete MCL tears were present in 14 patients and partial tears in 12. Complete tears showed discontinuity of MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in 11 patients(79%);proximal MCL tears are more common than distal tears. Partial tears showed thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in seven patients (58%);all patient s with MCL injury showed fascial edema;in 12 patients there was loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. We could not, however, distinguish between complete tears and partial tears when MCL showed heterogeneous high signal intensity. Combined bone injury in MCL tears was found in eight patients(62%);the most common sites of this were the lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau. There was associated injury involving other ligaments(ACL:50%;PCL:27%). Combing other ligaments(ACL:50%;PCL:27%). Combined meniscus injury in MCL tears was present in 17 patients and the most common meniscus site(50%) is the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Complete MCL tears showed discontinuity of MCL and partial tears showed a thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL. All patients with MCL injury showed fascial edema, and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. Various other injuries combine with MCL tears. MR imaging is therefore useful in the evaluation of medial collateral ligament injury and asssociated knee joint injury

115

Injuries Associated with the 580 km University Student Grand Voluntary Road March: Focus on Foot Injuries  

OpenAIRE

College student volunteers (n = 142) completed a 580 km road march for 21 consecutive days. Each volunteer carried a backpack that weighed 14.1 ± 1.4 kg on the average. We investigated the incidence and location of blisters associated with the road march using a foot map along with other injuries. Overall, 95.1% of the subjects (135 of 142) sustained one or more injuries. All injured subjects had foot blisters, and 18% had other foot injuries. The most common locations of blister development...

Choi, Sang-cheon; Min, Young-gi; Lee, In-soo; Yoon, Gi-ho; Kang, Bo-ra; Jung, Yoon-seok; Cho, Joon-pil; Kim, Gi-woon

2013-01-01

116

Relapsing Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Pegfilgrastim  

OpenAIRE

We report a previously unrecognized complication of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) after the administration of pegfilgrastim with biopsy findings of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) and tubular necrosis. A 51-year-old white female with a history of breast cancer presented to the hospital with nausea, vomiting and dark urine 2 weeks after her third cycle of cyclophosphamide and docetaxel along with pegfilgrastim. She was found to have AKI with a serum creatinine (Cr) level of 6....

Arora, Swati; Bhargava, Arpit; Jasnosz, Katherine; Clark, Barbara

2012-01-01

117

Temporal associations between disordered eating and nonsuicidal self-injury: examining symptom overlap over 1 year.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disordered eating (DE) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) commonly co-occur. This study compared several models of the longitudinal relationship between DE and NSSI, including concurrent and prospective models, and examined the possible moderating roles of self-objectification, impulsivity, and emotion dysregulation in these relationships. Individuals with NSSI (N=197) recruited from online forums completed measures of NSSI and DE every 3 months for 1 year. We tested the associations between NSSI and DE using hierarchical linear models. Results supported a concurrent relationship, wherein frequency of NSSI positively covaried with concurrent DE severity. Body surveillance moderated the concurrent relationship between NSSI and DE. Individuals who engaged in more body surveillance endorsed high levels of DE pathology, whereas those lower in body surveillance engaged in more frequent NSSI only at higher levels of DE. In addition, whereas DE did not prospectively predict NSSI, frequency of NSSI predicted more severe DE 3 months later. The prospective relationship between DE and later NSSI was moderated by emotion dysregulation, such that highly dysregulated individuals had a stronger relationship between DE and later NSSI, whereas this relationship was not significant among individuals low in emotion dysregulation. These findings add valuable information regarding the co-occurrence of self-damaging behaviors. PMID:25526840

Turner, Brianna J; Yiu, Angelina; Layden, Brianne K; Claes, Laurence; Zaitsoff, Shannon; Chapman, Alexander L

2015-01-01

118

Prevention of injury associated with rotating action machines  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND Repeated analyses of the Swedish national workers’ compensation claims data material in the Occupational No-Fault Liability Insurance Scheme have pointed to the high incidence of severe hand injury associated with getting caught in rotating (drilling, milling, boring, turning, grinding) machines in the metal manufacturing and engineering industry (Jedeskog & Larsson, 1988; Larsson, 1990; Persson, 1992). In an analysis of all permanently disabling injuries sustained in the Swe...

Larsson, Tore J.; Bra?felt, Olle; Astervik, Magnus; Knutsson, Eric

2001-01-01

119

Triceps tendon avulsion and associated injuries of the elbow.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rupture or avulsion of the triceps tendon is very rare but concomitant elbow injuries with avulsion of the triceps tendon are even rarer. In this study, an extraordinary and unusual injury combination (radial head and trochlear fracture associated with triceps tendon avulsion), which happened during a fall onto the elbow with outstretched hand, was identified and has been discussed in the literature. PMID:23667221

Canbora, Kerem; Ozyurek, Selahattin; Gumussuyu, Gurkan; Kose, Ozkan

2013-01-01

120

Massive venous injuries associated with penetrating wounds of the liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of eleven patients with major venous and associated liver injuries has been summarized. Aggressive resuscitation includes early operative intervention. Repair of venous injury can be effected if hemorrhage is contained and stepwise exposure instituted. The critical steps in management include: 1) thoraco-abdominal exposure; 2) intermittent occlusion of the porta hepatis; 3) total liver mobilization; 4) judicious use of cava-hepatic bypass. PMID:1159871

Burns, R P; Britt, L G

1975-09-01

121

Impact of associated injuries in the Floating knee: A retrospective study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Floating knee injuries are usually associated with other significant injuries. Do these injuries have implications on the management of the floating knee and the final outcome of patients? Our study aims to assess the implications of associated injuries in the management and final outcome of floating knee. Methods 29 patients with floating knees were assessed in our institution. A retrospective analysis of medical records and radiographs were done and all associated injuries were identified. The impact of associated injuries on delay in initial surgical management, delay in rehabilitation & final outcome of the floating knee were assessed. Results 38 associated injuries were noted. 7 were associated with ipsilateral knee injuries. Lower limb injuries were most commonly associated with the floating knee. Patients with some associated injuries had a delay in surgical management and others a delay in post-operative rehabilitation. Knee ligament and vascular injuries were associated with poor outcome. Conclusion The associated injuries were quite frequent with the floating knee. Some of the associated injuries caused a delay in surgical management and post-operative rehabilitation. In assessment of the final outcome, patients with associated knee and vascular injuries had a poor prognosis. Majority of the patients with associated injuries had a good or excellent outcome.

Yesupalan Rajam S

2009-01-01

122

Adult-onset tics associated with peripheral injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the cases of two patients with adult-onset, simple, nonvarying tic disorder that commenced after a peripheral (non-CNS) injury. The first patient is a 38-year-old man who suffered a right facial injury when his car fell off its jack while he was working underneath. Bilateral facial twitching began hours after the trauma and was characterized as a sniffinglike gesture. The movements waxed and waned, were suppressible, and were associated with a premonitory sensation. The tics remitted after 9 months but still recur occasionally under stressful situations. The second patient is a 34-year-old man with a 3-year history of abrupt, rapid head-turning movements that began 12 months after a motor vehicle accident in which he injured his neck. The tics continue to wax and wane, are suppressible, and are associated with an urge. Neither patient suffered a head injury or had a family history of Tourette syndrome. Based on the clinical and historical features of these patients, the temporal relationship between the trauma and onset of tics, and the occurrence of tics only in the traumatized region, a causal relationship is possible. These may represent the first reported cases of tic disorder in association with peripheral injury. The mechanism by which the tic disorder resulted from the peripheral injury is unclear, but these patients might have been susceptible individuals and the trauma acted as a trigger. PMID:9399236

Factor, S A; Molho, E S

1997-11-01

123

Is automated electronic surveillance for healthcare-associated infections accurate in the burn unit?  

Science.gov (United States)

As monitoring requirements for healthcare-acquired infection increase, an efficient and accurate method for surveillance has been sought. The authors evaluated the accuracy of electronic surveillance in multiple intensive care unit settings. Data from 500 intensive care unit patients were reviewed to determine the presence of central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). An electronic surveillance report was obtained to determine whether patients had a blood-line nosocomial infection marker or a urine nosocomial infection marker. Manual review was based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. An infection preventionist then reviewed all discrepant cases and made a final determination, which was used as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, false-positive rate, and false-negative rate were then calculated for electronic surveillance. In the burn population the sensitivity of electronic surveillance for CAUTI was 66.66%, specificity 96.5%, false-positive rate 3.44%, false-negative rate 33%; and for CLABSI the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 95%, false-positive rate 4.96%, false-negative rate 0%. In the nonburn population the sensitivity for CAUTI was 50%, specificity 97.9%, false-positive rate 2%, and false-negative rate 30%; and for CLABSI sensitivity was 60%, specificity 98.8%, false-positive rate 1%, and false-negative rate 60%. Burn centers may experience a higher false-positive rate for electronic surveillance of CLABSI and CAUTI than other critical care units. PMID:24121803

Venable, Amanda; Dissanaike, Sharmila

2013-01-01

124

Injury surveillance during a national female youth football tournament in Kenya  

OpenAIRE

Background: Participation of girls in football is growing in Kenya. Football in Kenya is not only a leisure time activity it is also used as a tool for community and individual development. Injuries in developing countries are often neglected. Most epidemiological studies on female youth football players are from Europe or North-America. Epidemiological studies on female youth football players in Africa are limited. Objective: To analyze the incidence, characteristics and circumstance of inju...

Lislevand, Marianne

2010-01-01

125

Myelin-associated inhibitors in axonal growth after CNS injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are multiple barriers to axonal growth after CNS injury. Myelin-associated inhibitors represent one group of barriers extrinsic to the injured neurons. Nogo, MAG and OMgp are three prototypical myelin inhibitors that signal through multiple neuronal receptors to exert growth inhibition. Targeting myelin inhibition alone modulates the compensatory sprouting of uninjured axons but the effect on the regeneration of injured axons is limited. Meanwhile, modulating sprouting, a naturally occurring repair mechanism, may be a more attainable therapeutic goal for promoting functional repair after CNS injury in the near term. PMID:24608164

Geoffroy, Cédric G; Zheng, Binhai

2014-08-01

126

Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56% with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injuries received financial assistance from workers compensation claims, 36% did not apply for financial assistance and 5% applied but did not receive any financial assistance. The most common types of workplace injuries incurred were: sprains and strains (30%, chronic joint/muscle conditions (18% and cuts/open wounds (16% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. The total economic cost from workplace injuries in Australia for the 2005-06 financial year was estimated at $57.5 billion, representing 5.9% of GDP for the financial year (Australian Safety and Compensation Council, 2009. Workplace injuries also incur immeasurable personal costs to Australian workers and their families. Individual lives are altered, even lost; individual hopes and dreams of a better life are shattered. Family roles, responsibilities and relationships become strained due to changes in income earnings and the imposed challenging needs for increased social support and increased caring needs within the home due to workplace injury. Why do Australian workers get injured in their workplaces? Is it due to their individual worker factors, or is it due to social factors associated with their work and workplace? While individual worker factors, such as: gender, age, personality, ethnicity, and substance use, do contribute to workplace injuries and fatalities, broader social and organizational workplace factors, such as: workload, work hours, work environment, safety culture, provision of quality supervision, and provision of occupational health and safety training, socially structure, and influence individual worker attitudes and behaviours in workplace injury and fatalities.

Ashwin Kumar

2011-08-01

127

Pathophysiological aspects of severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury  

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Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process which occurs in severe form in 20% of all patients, out of whom 1596-25% will die. The incidence of severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury (APALI varies from 15% to 55% and its severity varies from mild hypoxemia to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Acute lung injury (ALI and ARDS are the most significant manifestations of extra abdominal dysfunctions in severe acute pancreatitis with mortality rate as high as 60% in the first week of the onset of illness. Different pathophysiological mechanisms of severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury have been described. The role of enzymes, adhesion molecules, neutrophils, fibronectin and various inflammatory mediators has been emphasized. Mechanism of the acute lung injury associated with the acute pancreatitis is very complex and has not been clear yet. There is no specific therapeutic procedure and mortality rate is very high. Therefore, further studies are necessary to address this acute and growing problem in intensive medicine.

Šurbatovi? Maja

2005-01-01

128

Open bicondylar Hoffa fracture associated with extensor mechanism injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cases of open bicondylar Hoffa fracture of the knee associated with extensor mechanism injury are described in two active young patients with multiple fractures. The level of the fracture was determined by the proximal insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament and anterior cruciate ligament in the medial and lateral condyle. The level of the extensor mechanism injury was determined by the degree of flexion of the knee at the moment of impact. No ligament or meniscal tears were found. Open reduction and internal fixation with four lag screws and bone-to-tendon repair of the patellar and quadriceps tendon gave excellent results after more than 2 years of follow-up. The mechanism of injury and the therapeutic implications are discussed, and the literature is reviewed. PMID:15105758

Calmet, J; Mellado, J M; García Forcada, I L; Giné, J

2004-01-01

129

Surveillance of device-associated infections at a teaching hospital in rural Gujarat - India  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Surveillance of hospital-acquired infection (HAI, particularly device-associated infection (DAI, helps in determining the infection rates, risk factors, and in planning the preventive strategies to ensure a quality healthcare in any hospital. The present study was carried out to know the prevalence of DAI in a tertiary care teaching hospital of rural Gujarat. Materials and Methods: A prospective, site-specific surveillance of three common DAIs that is catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI, IV-catheter-related bloodstream infection (IV-CRBSI, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP was carried out between July 2007 and April 2008, in different wards/ICUs. A surveillance plan, with guidelines and responsibilities of nurses, clinicians and microbiologist was prepared. Infection surveillance form for each patient suspected to have DAI was filled. The most representative clinical sample, depending on the type of suspected DAI, was collected using standard aseptic techniques and processed for aerobes and facultative anaerobes. All the isolates were identified and antimicrobial sensitivity testing performed as per CLSI guidelines. An accurate record of total device days for each of the indwelling devices under surveillance was also maintained. Data, collected in the prescribed formats, were analysed on monthly basis; and then, compiled at the end of the study. Descriptive analysis of the data was done and DAI rate was expressed as number of DAI per 1000 device days. Results: The overall infection rate for CA-UTI, IV-CRBSI, and VAP were found to be 0.6, 0.48, and 21.92 per 1000 device days, respectively. The organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, CONS, Enterococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Duration of indwelling devices was found to be the major risk-factor for acquiring DAIs. Low DAI rate might have been due to use of antibiotics, often prophylactic. Active surveillance is quite a tedious and time-consuming process; however the outcome is useful in prevention and control of DAIs.

Singh S

2010-01-01

130

Death Associated Protein Kinases: Molecular Structure and Brain Injury  

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Full Text Available Perinatal brain damage underlies an important share of motor and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, visual dysfunction and epilepsy. Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have revealed that factors such as inflammation, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress contribute considerably to both white and grey matter injury in the immature brain. A member of the death associated protein kinase (DAPk family, DAPk1, has been implicated in cerebral ischemic damage, whereby DAPk1 potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity through interaction with the NR2BR subunit. DAPk1 also mediate a range of activities from autophagy, membrane blebbing and DNA fragmentation ultimately leading to cell death. DAPk mRNA levels are particularly highly expressed in the developing brain and thus, we hypothesize that DAPk1 may play a role in perinatal brain injury. In addition to reviewing current knowledge, we present new aspects of the molecular structure of DAPk domains, and relate these findings to interacting partners of DAPk1, DAPk-regulation in NMDA-induced cerebral injury and novel approaches to blocking the injurious effects of DAPk1.

Claire Thornton

2013-07-01

131

Association between the Number of Injuries Sustained and 12-Month Disability Outcomes: Evidence from the Injury-VIBES Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To determine associations between the number of injuries sustained and three measures of disability 12-months post-injury for hospitalised patients. Methods Data from 27,840 adult (18+ years) participants, hospitalised for injury, were extracted for analysis from the Validating and Improving injury Burden Estimates (Injury-VIBES) Study. Modified Poisson and linear regression analyses were used to estimate relative risks and mean differences, respectively, for a range of outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, GOS-E; EQ-5D and 12-item Short Form health survey physical and mental component summary scores, PCS-12 and MCS-12) according to the number of injuries sustained, adjusted for age, sex and contributing study. Findings More than half (54%) of patients had an injury to more than one ICD-10 body region and 62% had sustained more than one Global Burden of Disease injury type. The adjusted relative risk of a poor functional recovery (GOS-E<7) and of reporting problems on each of the items of the EQ-5D increased by 5–10% for each additional injury type, or body region, injured. Adjusted mean PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores worsened with each additional injury type, or body region, injured by 1.3–1.5 points and 0.5 points, respectively. Conclusions Consistent and strong relationships exist between the number of injury types and body regions injured and 12-month functional and health status outcomes. Existing composite measures of anatomical injury severity such as the NISS or ISS, which use up to three diagnoses only, may be insufficient for characterising or accounting for multiple injuries in disability studies. Future studies should consider the impact of multiple injuries to avoid under-estimation of injury burden. PMID:25501651

Gabbe, Belinda J.; Simpson, Pam M.; Lyons, Ronan A.; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Harrison, James E.; Derrett, Sarah; Polinder, Suzanne; Davie, Gabrielle; Rivara, Frederick P.

2014-01-01

132

Bilateral sacroiliac joint dislocation without associated fracture or anterior pelvic ring injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

SI joint dislocations are serious injuries. They are often associated with posterior fractures or anterior ring disruptions. This case report documents the outcome of a patient with an uncommon injury involving bilateral SI joint dislocation without associated anterior pelvic injuries or posterior pelvic fracture. PMID:15448454

Wright, Vonda; Zelle, Boris A; Prayson, Michael

2004-10-01

133

Surveillance methods for central venous access device-associated infections in Canadian pediatric hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common complication of central venous access device (CVAD) use is infection, which occurs in 3 to 48% of hospitalized patients. It is recommended that regular surveillance of adverse events with CVADs be conducted, expressed as a proportion of 1000 device days and reviewed and acted upon by the institution's infection control committee. In the process of developing a CVAD program the authors attempted to determine the standard of practice at other Canadian pediatric hospitals. A telephone survey of infection control practitioners (ICPS) or CVAD nurses in 15 university-affiliated Canadian pediatric hospitals was conducted using a standard questionnaire. Fourteen hospitals (93%) conduct surveillance for infections associated with CVADS. One program, a pilot project, follows mechanical complications of CVAD use. Eleven centres conduct comprehensive surveillance; in three, selected patients are followed. Only three programs have sufficient staff to follow out-patients. Definitions for CVAD infections varied widely. A positive blood culture from the catheter is sufficient for diagnosis in eight of the 14 centres (57%); the rest use Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or modified CDC criteria. In the four centres where CVAD line days are collected on most or all patients, multiple personnel other than the ICP assist in data collection. Four hospitals report number of infections per 100 discharges, four report absolute number of infections and two use more than one denominator. Surveillance methods rely largely on paper-based chart and microbiology record review; no hospital had access to computerized patient data for direct data retrieval. Eight centres have CVAD committees for policy development, and all 15 have or are developing hospital-wide protocols for CVAD use. Canadian pediatric hospitals recognize the importance of CVAD infections, but it appears that insufficient resources are available to meet recommended data collection methods. Interhospital comparison of rates is not possible at present because of variation in definitions and denominators and in types of patients surveyed. PMID:8555515

Langley, J M; LaRoche, L; Hanakowski, M

1995-01-01

134

Hemoretroperitoneum associated with liver bare area injuries: CT evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In hepatic injury restricted to the postero-superior region of segment VII (bare area), hemoperitoneum may be absent and this condition may be associated with hemoretroperitoneum. The aim of this paper is to present the association between bare area injuries and hemoretroperitoneum evaluated by CT. The CT examinations of 32 patients with blunt liver trauma were reviewed and the number and location of lesions were evaluated. Right lobe involvement was identified, focusing on the bare area lesions. The presence of hemoperitoneum and hemoretroperitoneum were determined. In the 32 patients 44 parenchymal lesions were detected. Segment VII was involved in 16 cases: 5 patients presented an intraparenchymal lesion, 11 patients a lesion emerging to the liver surface. In 8 cases the lesion was localized in the bare area. In the 16 patients presenting a segment-VII lesion, hemoperitoneum was detected in 3 cases, hemoretroperitoneum in 4 cases, and both conditions in 4 cases. A traumatic hepatic lesion may be associated with hemoretroperitoneum rather than hemoperitoneum. This justifies the absence of clinical signals of peritoneal irritation; the negativity of both US scan and peritoneal lavage may cause an inappropriate therapeutic management. Computed tomography yields both the detection of the parenchymal damage and the correct localization of the intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage. (orig.)

Miele, V.; Adami, L. [Department of Radiology, Camillo Hospital, Rome (Italy); Andreoli, C.; De Cicco, M.L.; David, V. [I Chair of Radiology, University ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

2002-04-01

135

Hemoretroperitoneum associated with liver bare area injuries: CT evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In hepatic injury restricted to the postero-superior region of segment VII (bare area), hemoperitoneum may be absent and this condition may be associated with hemoretroperitoneum. The aim of this paper is to present the association between bare area injuries and hemoretroperitoneum evaluated by CT. The CT examinations of 32 patients with blunt liver trauma were reviewed and the number and location of lesions were evaluated. Right lobe involvement was identified, focusing on the bare area lesions. The presence of hemoperitoneum and hemoretroperitoneum were determined. In the 32 patients 44 parenchymal lesions were detected. Segment VII was involved in 16 cases: 5 patients presented an intraparenchymal lesion, 11 patients a lesion emerging to the liver surface. In 8 cases the lesion was localized in the bare area. In the 16 patients presenting a segment-VII lesion, hemoperitoneum was detected in 3 cases, hemoretroperitoneum in 4 cases, and both conditions in 4 cases. A traumatic hepatic lesion may be associated with hemoretroperitoneum rather than hemoperitoneum. This justifies the absence of clinical signals of peritoneal irritation; the negativity of both US scan and peritoneal lavage may cause an inappropriate therapeutic management. Computed tomography yields both the detection of the parenchymal damage and the correct localization of the intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage. (orig.)

136

A proposta da rede de serviços sentinela como estratégia da vigilância de violências e acidentes The injury surveillance system based on sentinel health services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No Brasil, as bases de dados oficiais permitem o monitoramento da mortalidade e internações no SUS, decorrentes dos acidentes e violências. É preciso conhecer a magnitude e o perfil dessas causas que demandam os serviços de emergência, bem como identificar alguns problemas ocultos tais como as violências doméstica e sexual. O propósito deste artigo é apresentar a proposta do Ministério da Saúde de implantação da Rede de Serviços Sentinela de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes - Rede VIVA, iniciada em 2006, que visa complementar o sistema de informações existente para a vigilância dessas causas. Para obter um quadro mais completo do problema e atender à legislação vigente no País, foram estabelecidos dois componentes: 1 Vigilância de acidentes e violências em emergências hospitalares selecionadas: coleta em um mês a cada ano, através de uma amostra; 2 Vigilância das violências sexual, doméstica e/ou outras violências interpessoais em serviços de referência: coleta universal e contínua. O estabelecimento da Rede VIVA foi realizado pelo Ministério da Saúde em parceria com as Secretarias Estaduais e Municipais de Saúde a partir de critérios previamente estabelecidos. A adesão ao projeto foi acima das expectativas, todas as regiões do Brasil foram representadas.In Brazil, the official data sets allow monitoring the impact of injury deaths and injury hospitalization in the public health system. But it is necessary to gather more information about the magnitude and the characteristics of injuries at Emergency Departments (ED, as well as to identify some hidden problems, such as domestic and sexual violence. The purpose of this article is to present the new Injury Surveillance System based on Sentinel Health Services, carried out by the Ministry of Health in order to broaden the knowledge of these causes.To have a more accurate picture of injuries and to enforce the law which made mandatory the information about violence against women in the country, the measures to be taken were twofold: 1 injury surveillance in ED, carried out in chosen services, collecting one-month data yearly, through a sample; 2 domestic, sexual and interpersonal violence surveillance carried out in violence reference services, through universal and continuous data collection, involving a larger number of services. The implementation of that Health Sentinel Services Network has been conducted by the Ministry of Health in partnership with the State and Municipal Health Departments based on pre-established criteria. The adherence to the project has been taken place all over Brazil.

Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

2006-01-01

137

Surfactant-Associated Protein B Is Critical to Survival in Nickel-Induced Injury in Mice  

OpenAIRE

The etiology of acute lung injury is complex and associated with numerous, chemically diverse precipitating factors. During acute lung injury in mice, one key event is epithelial cell injury that leads to reduced surfactant biosynthesis. We have previously reported that transgenic mice that express transforming growth factor ? (TGFA) in the lung were protected during nickel-induced lung injury. Here, we find that the mechanism by which TGFA imparts protection includes maintenance of surfacta...

Bein, Kiflai; Wesselkamper, Scott C.; Liu, Xiangdong; Dietsch, Maggie; Majumder, Nilanjana; Concel, Vincent J.; Medvedovic, Mario; Sartor, Maureen A.; Henning, Lisa N.; Venditto, Carmen; Borchers, Michael T.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Weaver, Timothy E.; Tichelaar, Jay W.; Prows, Daniel R.

2009-01-01

138

Aggravating andmitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denmark is one of the leading cycling nations, where cycling trips constitute a large share of the total trips, and cycling safety assumes a top priority position in the agenda of policy makers. The current study sheds light on the aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity on Danish roads by examining a comprehensive set of accidents involving a cyclist and a collision partner between 2007 and 2011. Method: This study estimates a generalized ordered logit model of the severity of cyclist injuries because of its ability to accommodate the ordered-response nature of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Results: Model estimates show that cyclist fragility (children under 10 years old and elderly cyclists over 60 years of age) and cyclist intoxication are aggravating individual factors,while helmet use is a mitigating factor. Speed limits above 70–80 km/h, slippery road surface, and location of the crash on road sections are aggravating infrastructure factors, while the availability of cycling paths and dense urban development are mitigating factors. Heavy vehicle involvement and conflicts between cyclists going straight or turning left and other vehicles going straight are aggravating vehicle involvement factors. Practical applications: The results are discussed in the context of applied policies, engineering, and traffic management solutions for bicycle safety in Denmark.

Kaplan, Sigal; Vavatsoulas,, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

139

Seatbelt syndrome associated with an isolated rectal injury: case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Seatbelt syndrome is defined as a seatbelt sign associated with a lumbar spine fracture and a bowel perforation. An isolated rectal perforation due to seatbelt syndrome is extremely rare. There is only one case reported in the Danish literature and non in the English literature. A 48-year old front seat restrained passenger was involved in a head-on collision. He had lower abdominal pain and back pain. Seatbelt mark was seen across the lower abdomen. Initial trauma CT scan was normal except for a burst fracture of L5 vertebra which was operated on by internal fixation on the same day. The patient continued to have abdominal pain. A repeated abdominal CT scan on the third day has shown free intraperitoneal air. Laparotomy has revealed a perforation of the proximal part of the rectum below the recto sigmoid junction. Hartmann's procedure was performed. The abdomen was left open. Gradual closure of the abdominal fascia over a period of two weeks was performed. Postoperatively, the patient had temporary urinary retention due to quada equina injury which resolved 10 months after surgery. The presence of a seatbelt sign and a lumbar fracture should raise the possibility of a bowel injury.

Bani-Hashem Ahmed M

2010-02-01

140

Association of prostate cancer risk alleles with unfavourable pathological characteristics in potential candidates for active surveillance  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE To assess whether the carrier status of 35 risk alleles for prostate cancer (CaP) is associated with having unfavourable pathological features in the radical prostatectomy specimen in men with clinically low risk CaP who fulfil commonly accepted criteria as candidates for active surveillance. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied men of European ancestry with CaP who fulfilled the commonly accepted clinical criteria for active surveillance (T1c, prostate-specific antigen < 10 ng/mL, biopsy Gleason ? 6, three or fewer positive cores, ? 50% tumour involvement/core) but instead underwent early radical prostatectomy. We genotyped these men for 35 CaP risk alleles. We defined ‘ unfavourable ’ pathological characteristics to be Gleason ? 7 and/or ? pT2b in their radical prostatectomy specimen. RESULTS In all, 263 men (median age 60 [46 – 72] years) fulfilled our selection criteria for active surveillance, and 58 of 263 (22.1%) were found to have ‘ unfavourable ’ pathological characteristics. The frequencies of three CaP risk alleles (rs1447295 [8q24], P = 0.004; rs1571801 [9q33.2], P = 0.03; rs11228565 [11q13], P = 0.02) were significantly higher in men with ‘ unfavourable ’ pathological characteristics. Two other risk alleles were proportionately more frequent (rs10934853 [3q21], P = 0.06; rs1859962 [17q24], P = 0.07) but did not achieve nominal statistical significance. Carriers of any one of the significantly over-represented risk alleles had twice the likelihood of unfavourable tumour features (P = 0.03), and carriers of any two had a sevenfold increased likelihood (P = 0.001). Receiver – operator curve analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.66, suggesting that the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms carried provided discrimination between men with ‘ favourable ’ and ‘ unfavourable ’ tumour features in their prostatectomy specimen. CONCLUSION In potential candidates for active surveillance, certain CaP risk alleles are more prevalent in patients with ‘ unfavourable ’ pathological characteristics in their radical prostatectomy specimen. PMID:22077888

Kundu, Shilajit; Hu, Qiaoyan; Banks, Jessica A.; Cooper, Phillip; Catalona, William J.

2014-01-01

141

Facebook Surveillance of Former Romantic Partners: Associations with PostBreakup Recovery and Personal Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship. PMID:22946958

2012-01-01

142

Neutrophil structural changes associated with chronic endotoxemia and lung injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies showed that chronic endotoxemia induces thickening of the alveolar wall of rabbits. The present study examines cellular changes associated with this process and attempts to define the role of PMN in this response. Rabbits received i.v. injections of either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline (control), 2-3 times weekly, for 28 weeks. Peripheral blood mature and immature polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell counts were determined on Wright-stained blood smears. Lung histological analysis was performed by both light and electron microscopy. FITC-Maclura pomifera was used to identify type II cells and diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride-H2O2 was employed to localize peroxidase. The results show that the LPS-induced neutrophilia is associated with an increase in the circulating band cells which is consistent with active bone marrow release. PMN in the pulmonary microvessels display structural features characteristic of phagocytosis and active macromolecule synthesis. Endothelial cells, adjacent to these PMN, show numerous coated pits and large inclusions suggestive of endocytosis. The LPS-induced thickening of the alveolar wall is associated with leukocyte migration into the interstitial and alveolar spaces. Some interstitial PMN are fragmented and surrounded by dispersed elements of the connective tissue, while others appear activated and are closely associated with hyperactive fibroblasts and alveolar type II cells. The number of alveolar type II cells has increased twofold. These results show that chronic endotoxemia in rabbits causes structural changes in PMN, endothelium, interstitium, and epithelium. PMN structural changes are consistent with enhanced functional properties and their close association with modified regions of the lung parenchyma suggest that PMN play an important role in the process of this lung injury and repair. PMID:9368188

Klut, M E; van Eeden, S F; Hogg, J C

1998-01-01

143

Spinal cord injury and its association with blunt head trauma  

OpenAIRE

Wellingson S Paiva, Arthur MP Oliveira, Almir F Andrade, Robson LO Amorim, Leonardo JO Lourenço, Manoel J TeixeiraDivision of Neurosurgery, University of São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Severe and moderate head injury can cause misdiagnosis of a spinal cord injury, leading to devastating long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors involving spine trauma and moderate-to-severe brain injury.Methods: A prospective study involving 1617 patien...

Ws, Paiva; Amp, Oliveira; Af, Andrade; Rl, Amorim; Lourenço L; Mj, Teixeira

2011-01-01

144

Monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms associated with aquatic animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code recommends that programmes forthe monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms associated with aquatic animals be initiated by the appropriate authorities. This paper discusses the classes of bacteria to be studied in such programmes and the methods of sample collection to be employed. It also discusses the susceptibility test protocols appropriate for use in such programmes, the interpretive criteria that should be applied to the data they generate and the form in which the output of such programmes should be reported. The authors argue that it is essential that all monitoring and surveillance programmes should employ standardised and internationally harmonised susceptibility test methods to the greatest extent possible. With respect to bacteria capable of infecting aquatic animals, it is recommended that the set of consensus-based standards and guidelines published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute be adopted as the basis for international harmonisation of test protocols, as they are significantly more developed than any alternatives. It is further recommended that, for the purpose of evaluating antimicrobial resistance trends, such as emerging resistance, the data generated by these protocols should be interpreted by the application of epidemiological cut-off values. However, as yet, internationally agreed cut-off values have been produced for only one species. Thus, for many species, authorities will be obliged to set their own local and laboratory-specific cut-off values. It is recommended that laboratories use a statistical and standardised method of establishing such local cut-off values. Internationally harmonised standard test protocols and interpretive criteria have, to a large extent, been developed to monitor antimicrobial resistance in bacterial species capable of infecting humans. These methods can also be applied to microorganisms capable of infecting humans that are isolated from aquatic animals reared for human consumption or for sale as companion animals. PMID:24547661

Smith, P; Alday-Sanz, V; Matysczak, J; Moulin, G; Lavilla-Pitogo, C R; Prater, D

2013-08-01

145

Occupational transmission of hepatitis C in healthcare workers and factors associated with seroconversion: UK surveillance data.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aims were to describe a case series of occupationally acquired hepatitis C (HCV) infections in UK healthcare workers and examine factors associated with transmission using exposure data reported to the Health Protection Agency between July 1997 and December 2007. Fifteen reported cases of documented HCV seroconversion occurred after percutaneous exposure, the majority from hollow-bore needles used in the source patient's vein or artery and contaminated with blood or blood-stained fluid. The seroconversion rate was 2.2% (14/626). In multivariable analysis of healthcare workers with percutaneous exposure to blood or blood-stained fluid, we demonstrate that blood sampling procedures (odds ratio [OR], 5.75; 95% CI, 1.33-24.91; P = 0.01) and depth of injury (OR for deep vs superficial injury, 21.99; 95% CI, 2.02-239.61; P = 0.02) are independently associated with a greater risk of HCV seroconversion. This is the first UK study of occupationally acquired HCV in healthcare workers. It has reinforced our knowledge of risk factors for HCV transmission. Most of these exposures and transmissions were preventable. Healthcare employers should provide regular education on the risks of occupational exposure and prevention through standard infection control procedures. They should ensure the availability of effective prevention measures and facilitate prompt reporting and adequate follow-up of exposures. PMID:22329374

Tomkins, S E; Elford, J; Nichols, T; Aston, J; Cliffe, S J; Roy, K; Grime, P; Ncube, F M

2012-03-01

146

The diversity of wound presentation associated with freon contact frostbite injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report two cases of patients presenting with chemical frostbite-like injuries to the hands and wrists after contact exposure to Freon liquid. Although the history and initial physical presentations were quite similar, the severity of these injuries varied widely from superficial bullae to deep tissue injuries, requiring skin grafting and amputation of several digits. Freon is a widely used coolant in refrigerators, air conditioners, freezers, and water coolers, with a boiling point of -41°C. Although several cases of Freon-induced inhalational injury have been reported, few case reports of Freon-associated contact skin injury exist in the literature. The authors detail the broad diversity of injuries resulting from Freon contact as well as the first report of severe Freon injury necessitating skin grafting and amputation of multiple digits. PMID:20661149

Wisler, James W; Wisler, Jonathan R; Coffey, Rebecca; Miller, Sidney F

2010-01-01

147

A neuromuscular mechanism of posttraumatic osteoarthritis associated with ACL injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury leads to early-onset osteoarthritis. Quadriceps weakness is a consequence of ACL injury and is considered to result from arthrogenic inhibition (AMI). AMI is the neurological "shutdown" of muscles surrounding an injured joint, preventing full activation, reducing strength, and promoting atrophy. As quadriceps function is critical for energy absorption, its dysfunction may contribute to posttraumatic osteoarthritis. PMID:19550206

Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; Thomas, Abbey C

2009-07-01

148

Out of hospital cardiac arrest and associated injury.  

OpenAIRE

Three patients are described who sustained injuries around the time of a collapse that led to out of hospital cardiac arrest. In this group of patients the importance of taking a complete medical history and recording the circumstances of the syncopal episode cannot be overemphasised. If cardiac output is successfully restored the possibility of occult traumatic injury must be considered in high risk patients.

Jones, A. I.; Stuart, M. J.; Gray, A. J.

1998-01-01

149

Prevalence of Comorbidity and its Association with Traumatic Brain Injury and Outcomes in Older Adults  

OpenAIRE

The study aims were to examine the association between age, comorbidity, and cause of injury in older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI); and to determine which comorbidities relate to mortality, length of stay, and functional outcome at hospital discharge, controlling for initial injury severity, age, and sex. A retrospective cohort study design was used; clinical and outcome trauma registry data were obtained for 196 adults 55 and older with TBI. The majority had at least one comorbid...

Thompson, Hilaire J.; Dikmen, Sureyya; Temkin, Nancy

2011-01-01

150

Acute kidney injury associated with Plasmodium malariae infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to current estimates, Plasmodium malariae is not very common in Senegal, as more than 98% of malaria cases are suspected to be due to Plasmodium falciparum. However, it is possible that other malarial species are being under-reported or misdiagnosed. This is a report of a case of P. malariae in a 30-year-old man previously hospitalized with acute kidney injury after treatment with quinine and re-hospitalized three months later. He was diagnosed with renal cortical necrosis post malaria treatment. Plasmodium malariae was identified with light microscope and confirmed using species-specific small-subunit rRNA (ssrRNA) amplification.The patient was treated for malaria with intravenous quinine for seven days, followed by three days of oral treatment; the bacterial infection was treated using ceftriaxone during the first hospitalization and ciprofloxacin associated with ceftriaxone the second time. He also had four rounds of dialysis after which he partially recovered the renal function. Given the complications that can be caused by P. malariae infection, it should be systematically looked for, even if the predominant species is P. falciparum in Senegal. PMID:24906879

Badiane, Aida S; Diongue, Khadim; Diallo, Seydou; Ndongo, Aliou A; Diedhiou, Cyrille K; Deme, Awa B; Ma, Diallo; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Seck, Mame C; Dieng, Therese; Ndir, Omar; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndiaye, Daouda

2014-01-01

151

Inhalational lung injury associated with humidifier "white dust".  

Science.gov (United States)

Humidifiers are commonly used in the community to relieve symptoms associated with acute respiratory infections in young children; however, clear benefits of these devices have not been documented. The Environmental Protection Agency has not found any adverse health effects related to humidifier use. We report here the case of a young infant with significant accidental inhalational lung injury related to dispersal of mineral dust from an ultrasonic home-use humidifier. The clinical consequences included prolonged hypoxemia, tachypnea, and failure to thrive. Radiography revealed pneumonitis, and pulmonary-function testing showed a nonreversible mild obstructive ventilatory defect. Because of persistent symptoms, evolution of failure to thrive, and nonresponse to inhaled and short courses of systemic glucocorticoids, an aggressive management approach was successfully pursued with high-dose pulse steroid therapy, which could be a potential therapeutic approach for similar patients. In addition, this case raises important questions about the safety of exposing infants and young children to humidifiers and emphasizes the need for further study. PMID:21199854

Daftary, Ameet S; Deterding, Robin R

2011-02-01

152

Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries  

OpenAIRE

636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56%) with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people) and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people) age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injur...

Ashwin Kumar

2011-01-01

153

The prevalence and impact of overuse injuries in five Norwegian sports: Application of a new surveillance method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the true extent and severity of overuse injuries in sport, largely because of methodological challenges involved in recording them. This study assessed the prevalence of overuse injuries among Norwegian athletes from five sports using a newly developed method designed specifically for this purpose. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire was distributed weekly by e-mail to 45 cross-country skiers, 98 cyclists, 50 floorball players, 55 handball players, and 65 volleyball players for 13 weeks. The prevalence of overuse problems at the shoulder, lower back, knee, and anterior thigh was monitored throughout the study and summary measures of an injury severity score derived from athletes' questionnaire responses were used to gauge the relative impact of overuse problems in each area. The area where overuse injuries had the greatest impact was the knee in volleyball where, on average, 36% of players had some form of complaint (95% CI 32-39%). Other prevalent areas included the shoulder in handball (22%, 95% CI 16-27%) the knee in cycling (23%, 95% CI 17-28%), and the knee and lower back in floorball (27%, 95% CI 24-31% and 29%, 95% CI 25-33%, respectively). PMID:24684525

Clarsen, B; Bahr, R; Heymans, M W; Engedahl, M; Midtsundstad, G; Rosenlund, L; Thorsen, G; Myklebust, G

2014-03-30

154

Excessive Progression in Weekly Running Distance and Risk of Running-related Injuries : An Association Modified by Type of Injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Study Design An explorative 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury is modified by type of injury. Background It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. Methods A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners, who started a self-structured running regimen, were provided a global positioning system (GPS) watch. After each running session during the study period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups based on their progression in weekly running distance: less than 10% (including regression), 10 to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. Results A total of 202 runners sustained a running-related injury. Using Cox regression analysis, no statistically significant differences in injury rates were found acrossthe 3 exposure groups. An increased rate of distance-related injuries (patellofemoral pain, iliotibial band syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, gluteus medius injury, greater trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those progressing their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those progressing less than 10% (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.59 [95% CI: 0.96 to 2.66], P = 0.07). Conclusion Novice runners progressing their running distance by more than 30% over a 2-week period seem to be more vulnerable to distance-related injuries than runners increasing their running distance by less than 10%. Owing to the exploratory nature of the present study, randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these results, and more experimental studies are needed to validate the assumptions. Still, novice runners may be well advised to progress their weekly distances by less than 30% per week over a 2-week period. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 25 August2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.5164.

Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, Erik Thorlund

2014-01-01

155

Using mortuary statistics in the development of an injury surveillance system in Ghana / Utilisation des statistiques des morgues d'hôpital dans la mise au point d'un système de surveillance des traumatismes au Ghana / Uso de estadísticas de depósitos de cadáveres para desarrollar un sistema de vigilancia de los traumatismos en Ghana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Desarrollar un programa piloto destinado a mejorar la exactitud de los registros de las defunciones por traumatismos en un depósito de cadáveres. MÉTODOS: Se procedió a mejorar el sistema de registro de las defunciones por traumatismos en la morgue del Hospital Docente Komfo Anokye, en Kum [...] asi, Ghana, en 1996, procediendo para ello a crear una base de datos prospectivos. RESULTADOS: Se observó un incremento del número de defunciones por traumatismos notificadas anualmente, de las 72 registradas antes de 1995 a las 633 de 1996-1999. Los traumatismos representaban el 8,6% de todas las defunciones registradas en la morgue, y el 12% de las defunciones registradas en el intervalo de 15 a 59 años; el 80% de las defunciones causadas por traumatismos se produjeron fuera del hospital, y por tanto no aparecían reflejadas en las estadísticas hospitalarias. El 88% de las defunciones por traumatismos estaban relacionadas con el transporte, y en el 50% de los casos las víctimas eran peatones. CONCLUSIÓN: Los traumatismos eran una causa importante de mortalidad en este entorno urbano de África, sobre todo entre los adultos en edad activa. Usando métodos sencillos y baratos se consiguió hacer más completa y precisa la notificación de las defunciones asociadas a traumatismos en un depósito de cadáveres. Esta fuente de datos podría ser una contribución importante a un sistema de vigilancia de los traumatismos, junto con los archivos hospitalarios y los informes de la policía sobre los accidentes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To develop, in a mortuary setting, a pilot programme for improving the accuracy of records of deaths caused by injury. METHODS: The recording of injury-related deaths was upgraded at the mortuary of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana, in 1996 through the creation of a prosp [...] ectively gathered database. FINDINGS: There was an increase in the number of deaths reported annually as attributable to injury from 72 before 1995 to 633 in 1996-99. Injuries accounted for 8.6% of all deaths recorded in the mortuary and for 12% of deaths in the age range 15-59 years; 80% of deaths caused by injury occurred outside the hospital and thus would not have been indicated in hospital statistics; 88% of injury-related deaths were associated with transport, and 50% of these involved injuries to pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS: Injury was a significant cause of mortality in this urban African setting, especially among adults of working age. The reporting of injury-related deaths in a mortuary was made more complete and accurate by means of simple inexpensive methods. This source of data could make a significant contribution to an injury surveillance system, along with hospital records and police accident reports.

Jason, London; Charles, Mock; Francis A., Abantanga; Robert E., Quansah; K.A., Boateng.

156

[Hypoxic brain injuries notified to the Danish Patient Insurance Association during 1992-2004. Secondary publication  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated the files of the Danish Patient Insurance Association for newborns suffering from hypoxic brain injuries. From 1992 to 2004, a total of 127 approved claims concerning peripartum hypoxic injury were registered. Thirty-eight newborns died and the majority of the 89 surviving children suffered major handicaps, primarily cerebral palsy. In 69 of the cases, misinterpretation of or late action in response to an abnormal cardiotocography caused the hypoxic brain injuries. All injuries could potentially have been avoided using established obstetric practice Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/1

Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.

2008-01-01

157

Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks. PMID:21457433

Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

2011-05-01

158

MR imaging of the posterior cruciate ligament: normal, abnormal, and associated injury patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) of the knee has received little attention in the radiology literature, but its importance in knee stability has come under close scrutiny in recent years. Unrepaired injury of the PCL can lead to chronic instability and early joint degeneration. Three major mechanisms of trauma that involves the PCL are posterior displacement of the tibia in a flexed knee, hyperextension, and rotation combined with an adduction or abduction force. The spectrum of PCL injuries includes partial tear or intrasubstance injury, complete ligamentous rupture, and avulsion of the PCL insertion site on the posterior tibia. Associated injuries include injury of other ligaments, meniscal tear, bone injury, and joint effusion. PCL rupture is easily identified with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging by using simple signal intensity and structural characteristics. Because clinical and arthroscopic assessment of the PCL can be difficult, MR imaging can be valuable for evaluating the acutely injured knee when operative repair of the PCL is being considered. PMID:7624562

Sonin, A H; Fitzgerald, S W; Hoff, F L; Friedman, H; Bresler, M E

1995-05-01

159

Surveillance of multidrug resistance-associated genes in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from elderly patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective?To understand the status of multidrug resistance-associated genes carried by Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from elderly patients in our hospital in order to provide a basis for surveillance of drug-resistance and inflection control. Methods?One hundred and twenty A. baumannii isolates were collected from elderly patients between 2008 and 2010. The mean age of the patients was 85 (65 to 95 years. Whonet 5.6 software was used to analyze the resistance rate of 16 antimicrobial agents. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the sequencing method were adopted to detect 10 kinds of resistance genes (blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA- 23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaTEM, blaampC, armA, ISAba1, intI 1, and intI 2. The corresponding resistance gene profiling(RGP was analyzed and designated according to the status of resistance genes. Results?The resistance rates to the remaining 15 kinds of antibiotics varied between 70.8% and 97.5%, with the exception of the sensitivity rate to polymyxin B by up to more than 90%. The positivity rates of blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaTEM, blaampC, armA, ISAba1 and intI 1 were 100%, 81.7%, 0.8%, 10.8%, 91.7%, 81.7%, 86.7%, and 83.3% respectively. A total of 18 kinds of drug-resistant gene maps were found, but blaOXA-24-like and intI 2 were not detected. Among these gene maps, the rate of RGP1 (blaOXA-23-like+blaampC+armA+ISAba1+ intI 1 was as high as 60.8%. Conclusions A. baumannii isolates from elderly patients have a higher carrying rate of drug-resistant genes, resulting in severe multidrugresistant conditions. Therefore, full-time infection control personnel and clinical physicians should actively participate in the surveillance, prevention, and control of infections caused by A. baumannii in the elderly.

Zhe DONG

2012-03-01

160

A potential causal association mining algorithm for screening adverse drug reactions in postmarketing surveillance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early detection of unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in postmarketing surveillance saves lives and prevents harmful consequences. We propose a novel data mining approach to signaling potential ADRs from electronic health databases. More specifically, we introduce potential causal association rules (PCARs) to represent the potential causal relationship between a drug and ICD-9 (CDC. (2010). International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9). [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/icd/icd9.html) coded signs or symptoms representing potential ADRs. Due to the infrequent nature of ADRs, the existing frequency-based data mining methods cannot effectively discover PCARs. We introduce a new interestingness measure, potential causal leverage, to quantify the degree of association of a PCAR. This measure is based on the computational, experience-based fuzzy recognition-primed decision (RPD) model that we developed previously (Y. Ji, R. M. Massanari, J. Ager, J. Yen, R. E. Miller, and H. Ying, "A fuzzy logic-based computational recognition-primed decision model," Inf. Sci., vol. 177, pp. 4338-4353, 2007) on the basis of the well-known, psychology-originated qualitative RPD model (G. A. Klein, "A recognition-primed decision making model of rapid decision making," in Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods, 1993, pp. 138-147). The potential causal leverage assesses the strength of the association of a drug-symptom pair given a collection of patient cases. To test our data mining approach, we retrieved electronic medical data for 16,206 patients treated by one or more than eight drugs of our interest at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Detroit between 2007 and 2009. We selected enalapril as the target drug for this ADR signal generation study. We used our algorithm to preliminarily evaluate the associations between enalapril and all the ICD-9 codes associated with it. The experimental results indicate that our approach has a potential to better signal potential ADRs than risk ratio and leverage, two traditional frequency-based measures. Among the top 50 signal pairs (i.e., enalapril versus symptoms) ranked by the potential causal-leverage measure, the physicians on the project determined that eight of them probably represent true causal associations. PMID:21435986

Ji, Yanqing; Ying, Hao; Dews, Peter; Mansour, Ayman; Tran, John; Miller, Richard E; Massanari, R Michael

2011-05-01

161

Survey of laser injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Laser use is pervasive and steadily expanding both in the private sector and the Department of Defense (DoD). For more than 20 years, Rockwell Laser Industries, the U.S. Army, and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health have separately collected data on injuries occurring during, or resultant from, the use of lasers. However, data from these sources is incomplete and has not recently undergone a thorough compiling, statistical analysis, review and summarization. It is our belief that in order to evaluate current related medical surveillance, safety and training procedures, this data needs such an examination. Persons maintaining these databases were contacted and any available data on laser injury was collected. The data was analyzed and examined for pertinent similarities and differences among a wide range of parameters. We summarize these findings in this paper and also comment on the injuries, current safety measures and injury reporting protocols associated with laser use.

Johnson, Thomas E.; Dunn, J. C., II; Roach, William P.

2002-06-01

162

Sport associated eye injury: a casualty department survey.  

OpenAIRE

A survey was performed of all patients attending the combined Glasgow Eye Infirmary and Western Infirmary Eye Casualty Department with sports injuries. During an 18-month period a total of 246 patients presented with such injuries. Football was responsible for 110 (44.7%), rugby for 24 (9.8%), squash for 19 (7.7%), badminton for 16 (6.5%), and skiing for 9 (3.7%), and 68 (27.6%) were caused by other sports. One hundred and sixty-two patients (65.8%) had superficial or surrounding soft tissue ...

Macewen, C. J.

1987-01-01

163

Prevalence of comorbidity and its association with traumatic brain injury and outcomes in older adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aims were to examine the association between age, comorbidity, and cause of injury in older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI); and to determine which comorbidities relate to mortality, length of stay, and functional outcome at hospital discharge, controlling for initial injury severity, age, and sex. A retrospective cohort study design was used; clinical and outcome trauma registry data were obtained for 196 adults 55 and older with TBI. The majority had at least one comorbid condition (e.g., hypertension, alcohol abuse). In-hospital mortality was 31%. Among the oldest-old, motor vehicle collisions and falls were significantly associated with specific chronic diseases. Prior myocardial infarction was significantly associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death. Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Scale score were predictive of discharge function, but comorbidity did not add significantly to the model. Primary TBI prevention efforts in older adults must consider the impact of comorbidity and cause of injury, particularly in the oldest-old. Alcohol abuse is common in older adults with TBI; screening should be conducted and interventions developed to prevent future injury. Future study is warranted to understand the interplay between pathophysiology of comorbid disease and injury and how to best manage rehabilitation within the context of aging. PMID:22165997

Thompson, Hilaire J; Dikmen, Sureyya; Temkin, Nancy

2012-01-01

164

Muscle spasms associated with Sudeck's atrophy after injury.  

OpenAIRE

Four patients developed abnormal involuntary movements of a limb after injury. All subsequently developed sympathetic algodystrophy with Sudeck's atrophy and then abnormal muscle spasms or jerks of the affected limb, lasting years. Sympathetic block in three patients did not relieve the abnormal movements. Two patients obtained partial recovery spontaneously, but the other two required surgery for relief. The pathophysiology of this condition remains to be determined but the evidence suggests...

Marsden, C. D.; Rothwell, J. C.

1984-01-01

165

Cervical spinal cord injury associated with near-drowning does not increase pneumonia risk or mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Body surfing accidents (BSA) can cause cervical spinal cord injuries (CSCIs) that are associated with near-drowning (ND). The submersion injury from a ND can result in aspiration and predispose to pulmonary complications. We predicted a worse outcome (particularly the development of pneumonia) in patients with CSCIs associated with ND. A retrospective review was performed of patients who were treated at Eastern Virginia Medical School for a CSCI resulting from a blunt mechanism. Data collected included basic demographic data, data regarding injury and in-hospital outcomes, and discharge data, including discharge disposition. Statistics were performed using ?(2) and Student t test. In 2003 to 2008, 141 patients were treated for CSCIs with inclusion criteria. Thirty patients (21%) had an associated ND (BSA) and 111 patients (79%) did not (BLT). The cohorts were similar in mean age (BSA, 45 years; BLT, 50 years; P = 0.16) and male gender distribution (BSA, 93%; BLT, 79%; P = 0.13). The cohorts were similar in injury severity using Injury Severity Score (BSA, 22; BLT, 24; P = 0.65). The cohorts were similar in rates of developing pneumonia (BSA, 3%; BLT, 12%; P = 0.31). The rate of infection was significantly higher in the cohort without an associated near-drowning (BSA, 10%; BLT, 32%; P = 0.033). The mean intensive care unit stay (BSA, 3.5 days; BLT, 11.3 days; P = 0.057) and the rate of mortality were similar (BSA, 10%; BLT, 10% P = 0.99). Those patients with an associated ND had a shorter hospital stay (BSA, 5.7 days; BLT, 22.2 days; P = 0.007) and a better chance of being discharged home (BSA, 57%; BLT, 27%; P = 0.004). CSCIs after a BSA do better than their counterparts without an associated ND. CSCIs associated with ND appear to be isolated injuries with minimal pulmonary involvement despite submersion injuries. PMID:21679550

Butler, Thomas; Shin, Susanna; Collins, Jay; Britt, Rebecca C; Reed, Scott F; Weireter, Leonard J; Britt, L D

2011-04-01

166

Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Wolkin A , Schnall AH , Law R , Schier J . Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-4 . PMID:25205009

Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

2014-10-01

167

The associations between school bullying, psychological injuries in the family and health oucomes among students  

OpenAIRE

Aims of the study–to investigate the associations between school bullying, psychological injuries in the family and health outcomes among students. Methods Questionnaire information on bullying by methods of D. Olweus, Norwegian scientist. The psychological state was measured by the sense of coherence, self-esteem, loneliness, happiness, and communication skills. Health outcomes were headache, stomach ache, back pain, anxiety, etc. Family injuries were stress in the family, domestic vio...

Vareikiene, Inga

2006-01-01

168

Tears of anterior cruciate ligament and associated injury in the knee joint: MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the characteristic findings in tears of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and associated injury at MR imaging. We reviewed the findings of MR images and the corresponding arthroscopic results of 32 patients with ACL tears. We evaluated the signal intensity and contour of ACL surrounding bony structures, menisci and associated injury of the knee joint. Complete ACL tears were present in 25 patients and partial ACL tears were in 7 patients. Complete ACL tears showed heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of the ACL in 14 patients (56%) and without bulging or absence in 11 patients(44%). Most patients torn ACL with contour bulging(12/14) had bone bruise, but only one patient torn ACL without bulging contour had bone bruise. ACL with thin continuous low signal band surrounding heterogenously increased signal intensity suggests partial tear which was seen in three patients of seven proved partial ACL tears. Combined bone injury in ACL tear were in 23 patients (73%) and most of these(22/23) were at midportion of lateral notch of femur and/or posterior portion of lateral tibial plateu. Deepening of lateral notch of femur were noted in 17 patients(53%). Associated injuries of the other ligaments of knee joint were buckling of the posterior cruciate ligament(16/32, 50%) and tears of the medial collateral ligament(11/32, 34%). Posterior horns of menisci were more frequent site of combined injury within meniscient site of combined injury within menisci in patients with ACL tear. Acute tearing of ACL in MRI is seen as heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of ACL and combined bone bruises. Patients with torn ACL frequently have various combined injury. In patient with knee injury, these associated or ancillary findings suggest that ACL tear is present

169

Characteristics and associated factors with sports injuries among children and adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in childr [...] en and adolescents. METHOD: Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. RESULTS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice.

Franciele M., Vanderlei; Luiz C. M., Vanderlei; Fabio N., Bastos; Jayme, Netto Júnior; Carlos M., Pastre.

2014-12-01

170

A roentgenographic study of the posterior urethral injury associated with pelvic bone fracture in male  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author analyzed detailed pattern of pelvic bone fracture in 52 cases of posterior urethral injury associated with pelvic bone fracture in male. The relationship between fracture and urethral injury was reviewed in 38 cases who received retrograde urethography at the time of injury. The pattern of urethral injury due to pelvic bone fracture was newly classified. The results were as follows: 1. In age distribution, the most common was 5th decade (26.9%). 2 . The most frequent type of pelvic rami fracture was two rami fracture (52%). 3. There was no case with only the superior ramus fracture, and all cases were associated with inferior ramus fracture with or without superior ramus fracture. 4. In inferior ramus fracture, the ratio of ischial ramus fracture to pubic ramus fracture was 46.1 : 17.4. 5. In cases with only the ischial ramus or pubic ramus fracture, unilateral fracture exceed bilateral fracture (44.2 : 19.3). 6. The bladder rupture was found in 10 among the total 52 cases, 9 of which were associated with superior ramus fracture, and 8 were extraperitoneal type. 7. The most common type of urethral injury was Tpye III (73.7%), and followed by Type II (10.5%), Type I (7.9%), and Type IV (7.9%). 8. These results strongly suggested that the superior ramus fracture was related to bladder rapture, and inferior ramus fracture to urethal injury

171

Acute kidney injury associated with metamizole sodium ingestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metamizole sodium, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been widely used in the last 100 years. Its efficacy as an analgesic and antipyretic is unquestionable. Only few cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by metamizole sodium were reported in the medical literature. We report 11 adult patients with AKI that resulted from metamizole sodium ingestion. The data suggest a good prognosis in these cases of AKI. Renal biopsies, corticosteroids treatment, or renal replacement therapy seem to be not necessary. Hydration was sufficient to ensure spontaneous recovery. PMID:21446784

Hassan, Kamal; Khazim, Khalid; Hassan, Fadi; Hassan, Shadi

2011-01-01

172

Acute kidney injury associated with Plasmodium malariae infection  

OpenAIRE

According to current estimates, Plasmodium malariae is not very common in Senegal, as more than 98% of malaria cases are suspected to be due to Plasmodium falciparum. However, it is possible that other malarial species are being under-reported or misdiagnosed. This is a report of a case of P. malariae in a 30-year-old man previously hospitalized with acute kidney injury after treatment with quinine and re-hospitalized three months later. He was diagnosed with renal cortical necrosis post mala...

Badiane, Aida S.; Diongue, Khadim; Diallo, Seydou; Ndongo, Aliou A.; Diedhiou, Cyrille K.; Deme, Awa B.; Ma, Diallo; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Seck, Mame C.; Dieng, Therese; Ndir, Omar; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndiaye, Daouda

2014-01-01

173

Acute kidney injury in non-severe pneumonia is associated with an increased immune response and lower survival  

OpenAIRE

While sepsis is a leading cause of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients, the relationship between immune response and acute kidney injury in less severely ill patients with infection is not known. Here we studied the epidemiology, 1-year mortality, and immune response associated with acute kidney injury in 1836 hospitalized patients with community-acquired severe and non-severe pneumonia. Acute kidney injury developed in 631 patients of whom 329 had severe and 302 had non-severe sep...

Murugan, Raghavan; Karajala-subramanyam, Vijay; Lee, Minjae; Yende, Sachin; Kong, Lan; Carter, Melinda; Angus, Derek C.; Kellum, John A.

2010-01-01

174

Device-associated nosocomial infection surveillance in a Turkish pediatric intensive care unit  

OpenAIRE

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate invasive device-related nosocomial infection rate in a Turkish pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Material and Method: Two hundred forty patient included in the prospective active surveillance study that was conducted in Bak?rköy Dr. Sadi Konuk Research and Training Hospital PICU department between January 2008 and July 2009. Center of Disease Control methodology has been used for data collecting and calculating rates. Results: Eleven invasive...

Esra ?evketo?lu; Bülent Durdu; Özlem Aç?kgöz; Leyla Günay; Aysun Bulgur; Sami Hatipo?lu

2010-01-01

175

ASTM standards associated with PWR and BWR power plant licensing, operation and surveillance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper considers ASTM Standards that are available, under revision, and are being considered in support of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) licensing, regulation, operation, surveillance and life attainment. The current activities of ASTM Committee E10 and its Subcommittees E10.02 and current activities of ASTM Committee E10 and its Subcommittees E10.02 and E10.05 and their Task Groups (TG) are described. A very important aspect of these efforts is the preparation, revision, and balloting of standards identified in the ASTM E706 Standard on Master Matrix for Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessel (PV) Surveillance Standards. The current version (E706-87) of the Master Matrix identifies 21 ASTM LWR physics-dosimetry-metallurgy standards for Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and Support Structure (SS) surveillance programs, whereas, for the next revision 34 standards are identified. The need for national and international coordination of Standards Technology Development, Transfer and Training (STDTT) is considered in this and other Symposium papers that address specific standards related physics-dosimetry-metallurgy issues. 69 refs

176

Surfactant-associated protein B is critical to survival in nickel-induced injury in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The etiology of acute lung injury is complex and associated with numerous, chemically diverse precipitating factors. During acute lung injury in mice, one key event is epithelial cell injury that leads to reduced surfactant biosynthesis. We have previously reported that transgenic mice that express transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) in the lung were protected during nickel-induced lung injury. Here, we find that the mechanism by which TGFA imparts protection includes maintenance of surfactant-associated protein B (SFTPB) transcript levels and epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent signaling in distal pulmonary epithelial cells. This protection is complex and not accompanied by a diminution in inflammatory mediator transcripts or additional stimulation of antioxidant transcripts. In mouse lung epithelial (MLE-15) cells, microarray analysis demonstrated that nickel increased transcripts of genes enriched in MTF1, E2F-1, and AP-2 transcription factor-binding sites and decreased transcripts of genes enriched in AP-1-binding sites. Nickel also increased Jun transcript and DNA-binding activity, but decreased SFTPB transcript. Expression of SFTPB under the control of a doxycycline-sensitive promoter increased survival during nickel-induced injury as compared with control mice. Together, these findings support the idea that maintenance of SFTPB expression is critical to survival during acute lung injury. PMID:19131640

Bein, Kiflai; Wesselkamper, Scott C; Liu, Xiangdong; Dietsch, Maggie; Majumder, Nilanjana; Concel, Vincent J; Medvedovic, Mario; Sartor, Maureen A; Henning, Lisa N; Venditto, Carmen; Borchers, Michael T; Barchowsky, Aaron; Weaver, Timothy E; Tichelaar, Jay W; Prows, Daniel R; Korfhagen, Thomas R; Hardie, William D; Bachurski, Cindy J; Leikauf, George D

2009-08-01

177

Fracture of the anteromedial tibial plateau associated with posterolateral complex injury: case study and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report an unusual case of anteromedial tibial plateau compression fracture following hyperextension and forced varus of the knee, resulting in an anterior bone fragment large enough to require osteosynthesis. This uncommon lesion was associated with posterolateral complex injury, diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while both cruciate ligaments were preserved. After proceeding with tibial plateau osteosynthesis, a peroneal tendon allograft was used for supplementation repair of the lateral collateral ligament and biceps tendon in a single surgical intervention. Tibial plateau fractures are often associated with soft-tissue involvement, mainly of the anterior cruciate ligament and external meniscus. Posterolateral complex injuries also occur with a mechanism of forced varus and hyperextension. These lesions require an accurate diagnosis to avoid future knee instability; moreover, adequate treatment in the acute phase provides a better functional outcome. Physicians should suspect associated posterolateral complex injury when an anteromedial tibial plateau fracture is diagnosed. MRI allows adequate diagnosis and permits surgical treatment in one procedure. PMID:23288728

Conesa, Xavier; Minguell, Joan; Cortina, Josep; Castellet, Enric; Carrera, Lluís; Nardi, Joan; Cáceres, Enric

2013-12-01

178

Prevention and management of infections associated with combat-related head and neck injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maxillofacial injuries constitute 16% of all war-related injuries. This review focuses on data available from military and civilian studies to provide evidence-based recommendations for the modification of infections associated with combat-related injuries to the head and neck. The major emphasis of this review is on the study of subsequent infection, perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis, debridement of devitalized tissue, optimal time to wound closure to achieve a water tight seal, wound irrigation with removal of debris and gross contaminants, fracture fixation, and removal of ocular foreign bodies with intravitreal antibiotics. Further studies are needed in combat-related injuries to the head and neck in military personnel to provide the highest evidence-based medicine recommendations. PMID:18316971

Petersen, Kyle; Hayes, David K; Blice, Jeffrey P; Hale, Robert G

2008-03-01

179

Tears of anterior cruciate ligament and associated injury in the knee joint: MR imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the characteristic findings in tears of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and associated injury at MR imaging. We reviewed the findings of MR images and the corresponding arthroscopic results of 32 patients with ACL tears. We evaluated the signal intensity and contour of ACL surrounding bony structures, menisci and associated injury of the knee joint. Complete ACL tears were present in 25 patients and partial ACL tears were in 7 patients. Complete ACL tears showed heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of the ACL in 14 patients (56%) and without bulging or absence in 11 patients(44%). Most patients torn ACL with contour bulging(12/14) had bone bruise, but only one patient torn ACL without bulging contour had bone bruise. ACL with thin continuous low signal band surrounding heterogenously increased signal intensity suggests partial tear which was seen in three patients of seven proved partial ACL tears. Combined bone injury in ACL tear were in 23 patients (73%) and most of these(22/23) were at midportion of lateral notch of femur and/or posterior portion of lateral tibial plateu. Deepening of lateral notch of femur were noted in 17 patients(53%). Associated injuries of the other ligaments of knee joint were buckling of the posterior cruciate ligament(16/32, 50%) and tears of the medial collateral ligament(11/32, 34%). Posterior horns of menisci were more frequent site of combined injury within menisci in patients with ACL tear. Acute tearing of ACL in MRI is seen as heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of ACL and combined bone bruises. Patients with torn ACL frequently have various combined injury. In patient with knee injury, these associated or ancillary findings suggest that ACL tear is present.

Kim, Eui Jong; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Ahn, Jin Whan; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1994-03-15

180

The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previ [...] ous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

Gustavo Goncalves, Arliani; Paulo Santoro, Belangero; Jose Luiz, Runco; Moisés, Cohen.

1707-17-01

181

Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Young people are a risk to themselves and other road users, as motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of their death. A thorough understanding of the most important factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young drivers is important for designing well-targeted restrictive measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred. The analysis examined a comprehensive set of single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes involving at least one 15-24 year-old driver in New Zealand between 2002 and 2011 that resulted in minor, serious or fatal injuries. A mixed logit model accounting for heterogeneity and heteroscedasticity in the propensity to injury severity outcomes and for correlation between serious and fatal injuries proved a better fit than a binary and a generalized ordered logit. Results show that the young drivers' behavior, the presence of passengers and the involvement of vulnerable road users were the most relevant factors associated with higher injury severity in both single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes. Seatbelt non-use, inexperience and alcohol use were the deadliest behavioral factors in single-vehicle crashes, while fatigue, reckless driving and seatbelt non-use were the deadliest factors in two-vehicle crashes. The presence of passengers in the young drivers' vehicle, and in particular a combination of males and females, dramatically increased the probability of serious and fatal injuries. The involvement of vulnerable road users, in particular on rural highways and open roads, considerably amplified the probability of higher crash injury severity. PMID:24456849

Weiss, Harold B; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo G

2014-04-01

182

Principles in the management of arterial injuries associated with fracture/dislocations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten out of 355 patients admitted with fracture and/or dislocations of long bones secondary to blunt trauma had associated vascular injuries. The clinical recognition of the associated vascular injury and its vertification of arteriography, Doppler study or surgical exploration resulted in early vascular repair and limb salvage. The controversial aspects of bone stabilization followed by vascular repair versus primary vascular repari, skeletal traction and delayed internal fixation together with fasciotomy-fibulectomy are discussed. Our results with the injuries seen justify the principle of bone stabilization followed by vascular repair, particularly since a team effort resulted in little time lost prior to circulatory restoration. The problems following vascular repair-namely anterior compartment snydrome, acute renal failure and cardiac arrest are present with their principles of management. PMID:1190866

Sher, M H

1975-11-01

183

Neonatal Injury at Cephalic Vaginal Delivery: A Retrospective Analysis of Extent of Association with Shoulder Dystocia  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To describe the risk factors and labor characteristics of Clavicular fracture (CF) and brachial plexus injury (BPI); and compare antenatal and labor characteristics and prognosis of obstetrical BPI associated with shoulder dystocia with obstetrical BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia. Methods This retrospective study consisted of women who gave birth to an infant with a fractured clavicle or BPI between January 2009 and June 2013. Antenatal and neonatal data were compared between groups. The control group (1300) was composed of the four singleton vaginal deliveries that immediately followed each birth injury. A multivariable logistic regression model, with backward elimination, was constructed in order to find independent risk factors associated with BPI and CF. A subgroup analysis involved comparison of features of BPI cases with or without associated shoulder dystocia. Results During the study period, the total number of vaginal deliveries was 44092. The rates of CF, BPI and shoulder dystocia during the study period were 0,6%, 0,16% and 0,29%, respectively. In the logistic regression model, shoulder dystocia, GDM, multiparity, gestational age >42 weeks, protracted labor, short second stage of labor and fetal birth weight greater than 4250 grams increased the risk of CF independently. Shoulder dystocia and protracted labor were independently associated with BPI when controlled for other factors. Among neonates with BPI whose injury was not associated with shoulder dystocia, five (12.2%) sustained permanent injury, whereas one neonate (4.5%) with BPI following shoulder dystocia sustained permanent injury (p?=?0.34). Conclusion BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia might have a higher rate of concomitant CF and permanent sequelae. PMID:25144234

Iskender, Cantekin; Kaymak, Oktay; Erkenekli, Kudret; Ustunyurt, Emin; Uygur, Dilek; Yakut, Halil Ibrahim; Danisman, Nuri

2014-01-01

184

The Analysis of Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures Associated Injuries in Emergency Department  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Persons with epilepsy are believed to be at greater risk of incurring accidental injury than those without seizures. During generalized seizures the individual is unable to utilize protective reflexes during falls and may consequently suffer head, orthopedic, or soft tissue injury. Our aim is to evaluate the spectrum of trauma in epilepsy patients presenting to our emergency department as a result of generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patient records collected between January 2004 and December 2007 at the Emergency Department of Dicle University Medical School. All patients aged 15 years or more with epilepsy and trauma due to generalized tonic clonic seizures were included in the study. Records were analyzed for age, gender, type of injury, sufficiency of anti-epileptic medication, and mortality. Results: The average age of the 51 patients included in the study was 26.02±9.86 years, range 15-52 years. Thirty-three patients (64.7% were male; the male female ratio was 1.83. Soft tissue injuries were the most common injury (26 instances. Head trauma, cuts, dental and tongue injuries were less common. Blood levels of anti-epileptic medication were in the therapeutic range in 9 (17.6% patients, while 42 (82.4% had sub therapeutic levels for effective treatment. Four (7.8% of the patients died. The trauma in 2 mortalities involved burns; remaining deaths were associated with submersion injury and fall (subarachnoidal hemorrhage. Conclusions: There was no significant association between sub therapeutic levels of anti-epileptic medication and mortality.

Ayhan OZHASENEKLER

2010-01-01

185

Successful Mitigation of Delayed Intestinal Radiation Injury Using Pravastatin is not Associated with Acute Injury Improvement or Tumor Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate whether pravastatin mitigates delayed radiation-induced enteropathy in rats, by focusing on the effects of pravastatin on acute cell death and fibrosis according to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and collagen inhibition. Methods and Materials: Mitigation of delayed radiation-induced enteropathy was investigated in rats using pravastatin administered in drinking water (30 mg/kg/day) 3 days before and 14 days after irradiation. The ileum was irradiated locally after surgical exteriorization (X-rays, 19 Gy). Acute apoptosis, acute and late histologic alterations, and late CTGF and collagen deposition were monitored by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and colorimetric staining (6 h, 3 days, 14 days, 15 weeks, and 26 weeks after irradiation). Pravastatin antitumor action was studied in HT-29, HeLa, and PC-3 cells by clonogenic cell survival assays and tumor growth delay experiments. Results: Pravastatin improved delayed radiation enteropathy in rats, whereas its benefit in acute and subacute injury remained limited (6 h, 3 days, and 14 days after irradiation). Delayed structural improvement was associated with decreased CTGF and collagen deposition but seemed unrelated to acute damage. Indeed, the early apoptotic index increased, and severe subacute structural damage occurred. Pravastatin elicited a differential effect, protecting normal intestine but not tumors from radiation injury. Conclusion: Pravastatin provides effectiv Conclusion: Pravastatin provides effective protection against delayed radiation enteropathy without interfering with the primary antitumor action of radiotherapy, suggesting that clinical transfer is feasible

186

Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases  

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Full Text Available Background: Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma. Methods: This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results: Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79% with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54% followed by fall from height (30%. Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62% followed by headache (33%. Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%. Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries. Conclusion: Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.

Rajendra Prasad

2009-01-01

187

Case report and cohort analysis of drug-induced liver injury associated with daptomycin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A patient receiving daptomycin developed asymptomatic transaminitis and hyperbilirubinemia without concurrent multiorgan dysfunction or elevation of his creatinine kinase level. After ruling out other etiologies, the liver injury was attributed to daptomycin and was subsequently resolved. A single-center retrospective cohort analysis of baseline and follow-up liver function panels (n = 614) from all admissions from 2008 to 2013 during which daptomycin was administered did not reveal any other cases of probable or definite drug-induced liver injury associated with daptomycin. PMID:24820087

Bohm, Nicole; Makowski, Charles; Machado, Mario; Davie, Adam; Seabrook, Nelson; Wheless, Lee; Bevill, Benjamin; Clark, Bradley; Kyle, T Rogers

2014-08-01

188

Protection from radiation-associated small bowel injury with the aid of an absorbable mesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation associated small bowel injury results from aggressive treatment of pelvic malignancies with radiation therapy. The incidence increases when radiation therapy follows pelvic surgery due to adhesions that form between the small bowel and the operated site. Application of an absorbable polyglycolic acid mesh to keep the small bowel from descending into the pelvis and around the operated site prevents this complication. Use to date in humans and non-human primates has not been associated with any complications

189

MicroRNA changes in rat mesentery and serum associated with drug-induced vascular injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regulatory miRNAs play a role in vascular biology and are involved in biochemical and molecular pathways dysregulated during vascular injury. Collection and integration of functional miRNA data into these pathways can provide insight into pathogenesis at the site of injury; the same technologies applied to biofluids may provide diagnostic or surrogate biomarkers. miRNA was analyzed from mesentery and serum from rats given vasculotoxic compounds for 4 days. Fenoldopam, dopamine and midodrine each alter hemodynamics and are associated with histologic evidence of vascular injury, while yohimbine is vasoactive but does not cause histologic evidence of vascular injury in rat. There were 38 and 35 miRNAs altered in a statistically significant manner with a fold change of 2 or greater in mesenteries of fenoldopam- and dopamine-dosed rats, respectively, with 9 of these miRNAs shared. 10 miRNAs were altered in rats given midodrine; 6 were shared with either fenoldopam or dopamine. In situ hybridization demonstrated strong expression and co-localization of miR-134 in affected but not in adjacent unaffected vessels. Mesenteric miRNA expression may provide clarity or avenues of research into mechanisms involved in vascular injury once the functional role of specific miRNAs becomes better characterized. 102 miRNAs were altered in serum from rats with drug-induced vascular injury. 10 miRNAs were commonly altered in serum from dopamine and either fenoldopam or midodrine dosed rats; 18 of these 102 were also altered in mesenteries from rats with drug-induced vascular injury, suggesting their possible utility as peripheral biomarkers. -- Highlights: ? Mesentery and serum were examined from rats given vasoactive compounds for 4 days. ? 72 miRNAs were altered in mesenteries from rats with vascular injury. ? miR-134 was localized to affected but not adjacent unaffected vessels. ? 102 miRNAs were changed in serum from rats with vascular injury. ? 18 miRNAs changed in both mesenteries and serum from rats with vascular injury.

190

The Association of Pneumonia with Clinical Outcome in Patients with Inhalation Injury  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Inhalation injury is a particularly lethal form of thermal burn injury, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Pneumonia is a common complication of inhalation injury, due to the increased susceptibility of lungs that have been stripped of their biologic defense mechanisms, as well as the general susceptibility of the burn population to infections. While older series suggest that pneumonia is associated with worse mortality and morbidity, recent reports suggest that this may not be the case in all populations. Methods: We attempted to clarify the impact of pneumonia in terms of mortality, length of mechanical ventilation, need for tracheostomy, and discharge disposition, in patients admitted with inhalation injury by performing a retrospective review of patients admitted to a regional burn center 2002-2009. Burn registry and electronic chart review were used to obtain demographic, clinical and outcome data. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to compare outcomes in patients who developed pneumonia versus those who did not. Results: The study cohort comprised 166 patients, of whom 21 (13% were diagnosed with pneumonia. Development of pneumonia was not predicted by age, surface area burned or other complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Surprisingly, pneumonia was associated with reduced inpatient mortality (p = 0.006. However, patients who developed pneumonia were also more likely to have prolonged ventilator dependence (19 vs 5 days, p

Sharmila Dissanaike

2013-01-01

191

Governmental surveillance system of healthcare-associated infection in Brazil / Governmental surveillance system of healthcare-associated infection in Brazil / Sistemas gubernamentales de vigilancia de las infecciones relacionadas con la atención a la salud en brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo:Este estudo objetivou descrever a estrutura dos sistemas governamentais de vigilância de Infecções relacionadas à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS) nos Estados do Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Método: Estudo transversal, descritivo e exploratório, com coleta de dados por meio de duas fases: caracteriza [...] ção das estruturas de assistência à saúde e do sistema de vigilância de IRAS. Resultados: As equipes governamentais para a prevenção e controle de IRAS em cada Estado variou de um a seis membros, tendo pelo menos um enfermeiro. Todos os Estados implantaram um sistema de vigilância próprio. Os sistemas de informação foram classificados em cadeia (n=2), círculo (n=4) e roda (n=1). Conclusão: Foram identificadas variações na estrutura e fluxo de informação dos sistemas governamentais de vigilância, podendo limitar sua uniformização em âmbito nacional. O presente estudo aponta a necessidade de estabelecer requisitos mínimos em políticas públicas para orientar o desenvolvimento dos sistemas de vigilância de IRAS.? Abstract in spanish ?Objetivo: El presente estudio ha tenido como objetivo describir la estructura de los sistemas gubernamentales de vigilancia de las Infecciones Relacionadas con la Atención a la Salud (IRAS) en Sureste y Sur de Brasil. Método: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y exploratorio, con recolección de datos [...] en dos fases: caracterización de las estructuras de asistencia a la salud y del sistema de vigilancia de las IRAS. Resultados: Los equipos gubernamentales para la prevención y el control de las IRAS en cada Estado variaron de uno a seis miembros, con al menos un enfermero. Todos los Estados implantaron su propio sistema de vigilancia. Los sistemas de información fueron clasificados en cadena (n = 2), círculo (n = 4) y rueda (n = 1). Conclusión: Se han identificado variaciones en la estructura y el flujo de información de los sistemas gubernamentales de vigilancia que pueden limitar su uniformización en ámbito nacional. Este estudio apunta la necesidad de establecer requisitos mínimos en políticas públicas para guiar el desarrollo de los sistemas de vigilancia de las IRAS.? Abstract in english ?Objective: This study aimed to describe the structure of governmental surveillance systems for Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI) in the Brazilian Southeastern and Southern States. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory study, with data collection by means of two-phases: characte [...] rization of the healthcare structure and of the HAI surveillance system. Results: The governmental teams for prevention and control of HAI in each State ranged from one to six members, having at least one nurse. All States implemented their own surveillance system. The information systems were classified into chain (n=2), circle (n=4) or wheel (n=1). Conclusion: Were identified differences in the structure and information flow from governmental surveillance systems, possibly limiting a nationwide standardization. The present study points to the need for establishing minimum requirements in public policies, in order to guide the development of HAI surveillance systems.?

Cassimiro Nogueira, Junior; Maria Clara, Padoveze; Rúbia Aparecida, Lacerda.

2014-08-01

192

Association between cognitive impairments and anxiety disorders following traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the association between cognitive impairment and anxiety disorders following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-six participants recruited from a rehabilitation hospital completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition) and cognitive tests at one year post injury. Prevalence of anxiety disorder was 27.3%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the attention/working memory, information processing, and executive functions models were significantly associated with anxiety disorder. The memory model was not significant. Processing speed emerged as the strongest model associated with anxiety disorder. The role of cognitive impairment in the etiology of anxiety disorders after TBI is discussed, and treatment implications are explored. PMID:24303952

Gould, Kate Rachel; Ponsford, Jennie Louise; Spitz, Gershon

2014-01-01

193

Feasibility of Serial Saliva Collection for Surveillance of Swimming-Associated Illness  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND. The symptoms of many swimming-associated illnesses overlap, and clinical diagnoses often require serum or stool samples. Therefore, it has been difficult to determine the contributions of different etiologic agents to swimming-associated illness. OBJECTIVES. We collec...

194

Radioactive waste disposal areas and associated environmental surveillance data at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental surveillance data have been collected around radioactive waste disposal areas for the past thirty years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The wealth of data collected around the ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds is presented in this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the solid waste burial grounds in detail along with the environmental monitoring data. The various monitoring systems are reviewed, and the liquid discharge trends are discussed. Monitoring at White Oak Dam, the last liquid control point for the Laboratory, was started in the late 1940's and is continuing. Presently, a network of five environmental monitoring stations is in operation to monitor the radionuclide content of surface waters in the White Oak Creek watershed. Facts observed during the lifetime of the disposal sites include: (1) a large amount of 106Ru released during 1959 to 1964 due to the fact that Conasauga shale did not retain this element as well as it retained other radionuclides. (2) Large quantities of tritiated water have been released to the Clinch River in recent years, but, from a practical standpoint, little can be done to inhibit or control these releases. (3) A general downward trend in the number of curies released has been observed for all other radionuclides. A number of corrective measures that have been initiated at ORNL to reduce the radioactive liquid discharges are outlined in the paper

195

[An infant with acute subdural hematoma after a minor head injury associated with arachnoid cyst].  

Science.gov (United States)

A ten-month-old male infant fell onto the floor from a chair of 50 cm in height and hit his head on the day before hospitalization. He was admitted due to acute subdural hematoma, which was associated with arachnoid cyst. Head CT conducted on the 4th day confirmed that the hematoma had not enlarged. After discharge, enlargement of the hematoma was detected on MR imaging conducted on the 65th day after injury, followed by the diminution without surgical treatment. MR images were obtained on the 192nd day. In the case of head injury associated with arachnoid cyst, the risk of subdural hematoma as well as its ensuing enlargement in subacute or chronic phase needs to be considered. PMID:24620428

Kuniyoshi, Yasutaka; Kamura, Azusa; Yasuda, Sumie

2014-01-01

196

MR imaging of the combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament tears: focussing on the ratterns of injuries and associated findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the patterns of injuries and frequency of associated findings on MR imaging in patients with both anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)tears;to compare the associated findings, as seen on MR imaging, in cases with both ACL and PCL tears with those with ACL or PCL tears. Ten patients with compbined ACL and PCL tears, 16 with ACL tears and 18 with PCL tears, all confirmed by arthroscopy or open surgery, were involved in this study. To identify the associated knee injuries, MR images were retrospectively evaluated. In ten patients with combined ACL and PCL tears, open surgery led to the identification of six complete ACL tears (60%), four partial ACL tears (40%), eitht complete PCL tears (80%) and two partial PCL tears (20%). Injuries associated with these combined tears, and revealed by MR imaging, comprised six medial collateral ligament injuries (60%), six lateral collateral ligament jnjuries (60%), five medial meniscal injuries (50%), three lateral meniscal injuries (30%), nine bony injuries (90%), two posterior capsular injuries (20%), and three popliteus muscle injuries (30%). The frequency of popliteus muscle injury was significantly different (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test) between the group with both ACL and PCL tears and that with ACL or PCL tears. Associated findings in patients with combined ACL and PCL tears are more frequent than in those with ACL or PCL tears. In cases involving combined ACL and PCL tears, associaolving combined ACL and PCL tears, associated findings-as seen on MR images-should thus be carefully examined

197

MR imaging of the combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament tears: focussing on the ratterns of injuries and associated findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the patterns of injuries and frequency of associated findings on MR imaging in patients with both anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)tears;to compare the associated findings, as seen on MR imaging, in cases with both ACL and PCL tears with those with ACL or PCL tears. Ten patients with compbined ACL and PCL tears, 16 with ACL tears and 18 with PCL tears, all confirmed by arthroscopy or open surgery, were involved in this study. To identify the associated knee injuries, MR images were retrospectively evaluated. In ten patients with combined ACL and PCL tears, open surgery led to the identification of six complete ACL tears (60%), four partial ACL tears (40%), eitht complete PCL tears (80%) and two partial PCL tears (20%). Injuries associated with these combined tears, and revealed by MR imaging, comprised six medial collateral ligament injuries (60%), six lateral collateral ligament jnjuries (60%), five medial meniscal injuries (50%), three lateral meniscal injuries (30%), nine bony injuries (90%), two posterior capsular injuries (20%), and three popliteus muscle injuries (30%). The frequency of popliteus muscle injury was significantly different (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test) between the group with both ACL and PCL tears and that with ACL or PCL tears. Associated findings in patients with combined ACL and PCL tears are more frequent than in those with ACL or PCL tears. In cases involving combined ACL and PCL tears, associated findings-as seen on MR images-should thus be carefully examined.

Kwon, Seon Young; Choi, Chang Lak; Park, Dal Soo; Park, Eun Hee; Lee, Sang Ho; Song, Mun Kab; Lee, Kwang Won [Eulji Medical College, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-09-01

198

Injury of anterior cruciate ligament with associated bony lesions: MR image  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the characteristic MR findings in injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with associated bony lesions. We reviewed MR findings and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative results of 48 patients with ACL injuries, and evaluated ACL signal intensity and contour. In associated bony lesions, we determined the location of avulsion fracture and bony bruise. Complete ACL tears were seen in 27 cases, partial tears in 13, and avulsion injury in eight. Complete tears showed heterogeneously increased signal intensity with contour bulging in ten cases (37%), and combined bony lesion in 14 (52%). ACL with a thin continous low signal intensity band surrounding heterogeneously-increased signal intensity suggested partial tears, and was seen in three of 13 proven cases (23%) of partial ACL tears;combined bony lesion was seen in four such cases(31%). There were eight cases of avulsion fracture;the most frequent site was the anterolateral portion of the tibial spine (n=6). The most frequent sites of bony lesion were at the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle (n=6), and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=6);the next most frequent site was the anterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=5). Tearing of the ACL was seen on MRI as ligament discontinuity, and heterogeneously increased signal intensity with ACL contour bulging. The most frequent sites of associated bony lesions were the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle, and the n of the lateral femoral condyle, and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau. In associated bony lesions, bony contusion suggested ACL tearing, but avulsion fracture suggested ligament avulsion injury without tear

199

Injury of anterior cruciate ligament with associated bony lesions: MR image  

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To evaluate the characteristic MR findings in injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with associated bony lesions. We reviewed MR findings and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative results of 48 patients with ACL injuries, and evaluated ACL signal intensity and contour. In associated bony lesions, we determined the location of avulsion fracture and bony bruise. Complete ACL tears were seen in 27 cases, partial tears in 13, and avulsion injury in eight. Complete tears showed heterogeneously increased signal intensity with contour bulging in ten cases (37%), and combined bony lesion in 14 (52%). ACL with a thin continous low signal intensity band surrounding heterogeneously-increased signal intensity suggested partial tears, and was seen in three of 13 proven cases (23%) of partial ACL tears;combined bony lesion was seen in four such cases(31%). There were eight cases of avulsion fracture;the most frequent site was the anterolateral portion of the tibial spine (n=6). The most frequent sites of bony lesion were at the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle (n=6), and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=6);the next most frequent site was the anterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=5). Tearing of the ACL was seen on MRI as ligament discontinuity, and heterogeneously increased signal intensity with ACL contour bulging. The most frequent sites of associated bony lesions were the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle, and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau. In associated bony lesions, bony contusion suggested ACL tearing, but avulsion fracture suggested ligament avulsion injury without tear.

Kim, Soon; Oh, Yeon Hee; Lee, Chang Wook [Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Min [Chungbuk Univ. College of Medicine, Chongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Sung Woo [Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1997-05-01

200

Botulinum toxin injection for bruxism associated with brain injury: Case report  

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Full Text Available Bruxism is involuntary grinding of the teeth and can occur as a complication of brain injury. If untreated, bruxism can lead to severe occlusal trauma. Herein, we present a patient with traumatic brain injury and nocturnal bruxism that was treated with botulinum toxin injection. A 21 yr old male patient with traumatic brain injury from a car accident was admitted to our inpatient rehabilitation unit. He had a history of coma for 2 wk in the intensive care unit. The initial cranial computed tomography scan indicated a superior thalamic hemorrhage. On admission to our department 3 mo postinjury, his mental status was good and he was able to walk without assistance, but he had mild ataxia. He complained about severe teeth grinding at night, which began 2 mo postinjury. Botulinum toxin-A was injected into the masseter muscles (20 U in each muscle and temporalis muscles (15 U in each muscle bilaterally. A decrease in bruxism was reported within 3 d. Clinical improvement persisted at assessment 4 mo posttreatment. Botulinum toxin injection can be used as an effective treatment for bruxism associated with brain injury.

Serdar Kesikburun, MD

2014-07-01

201

Astrocytes and microglia in acute cerebral injury underlying cerebral palsy associated with preterm birth.  

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Cerebral palsy is one of the most devastating consequences of brain injury around the time of birth, and nearly a third of cases are now associated with premature birth. Compared with term babies, preterm babies have an increased incidence of complications that may increase the risk of disability, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The response to injury is highly dependent on brain maturity, and although cellular vulnerability is well documented, there is now evidence that premyelinating axons are also particularly sensitive to ischemic injury. In this review, we will explore recent evidence highlighting a central role for glia in mediating increased risk of disability in premature infants, including excessive activation of microglia and opening of astrocytic gap junction hemichannels in spreading injury after brain ischemia, in part likely involving release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and overactivation of purinergic receptors, particularly in white matter. We propose the hypothesis that inflammation-induced opening of connexin hemichannels is a key regulating event that initiates a vicious circle of excessive ATP release, which in turn propagates activation of purinergic receptors on microglia and astrocytes. This suggests that developing effective neuroprotective strategies for preterm infants requires a detailed understanding of glial responses. PMID:24336433

Mallard, Carina; Davidson, Joanne O; Tan, Sidhartha; Green, Colin R; Bennet, Laura; Robertson, Nicola J; Gunn, Alistair Jan

2014-01-01

202

Incidence of work injuries amongst Danish adolescents and their association with work environment factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. METHODS: We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from a birth cohort comprising all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3,687) living in Ringkjobing County, Denmark. The questionnaire contained items on self-reported number of accidents and number of working hours in both rounds and on work environment factors in the second round. RESULTS: Approximately 5% of the adolescents who held a job, experienced a work injury at the age of 17. This equals an incidence of 65 accidents per million working hours. Most adolescents had decent working conditions, although nearly half reported that their work was heavy, monotonous or psychologically demanding. Heavy work, high psychological demands and low social support increased the risk of experiencing work injuries after adjustment for a number of factors. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of work injuries among adolescents appears to be higher than the incidence among their older colleagues. Lack of social support from management significantly raised adolescents' risk of experiencing a work injury. This suggests that more direct supervision may be a good way of preventing accidents in this age group

Rasmussen, K.; Hansen, C. D.

2011-01-01

203

Inhaled beta-2 agonist salbutamol and acute lung injury: an association with improvement in acute lung injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction ?2 agonists have several properties that could be beneficial in acute lung injury (ALI). We therefore chose to study the effect of inhaled ?2 agonist use (salbutamol) on duration and severity of ALI. Methods We undertook a retrospective chart review of 86 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients with ALI, who had varying exposure to inhaled salbutamol. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the average daily dose of inhaled salbutamol they received ('high dose' ? 2.2 mg/day and 'low dose' <2.2 mg/day). Severity of ALI and non-pulmonary organ dysfunction was compared between the groups by calculating the days alive and free of ALI and other organ dysfunctions. Results The high dose and low dose groups received a mean of 3.72 mg and 0.64 mg salbutamol per day, respectively. The high dose salbutamol group had significantly more days alive and free of ALI than the low dose group (12.2 ± 4.4 days versus 7.6 ± 1.9 days, p = 0.02). There were no associations between dose of ? agonist and non-pulmonary organ dysfunctions. High dose salbutamol (p = 0.04), APACHE II score (p = 0.02), and cause of ALI (p = 0.02) were independent variables associated with number of days alive and free of ALI in a multivariate linear regression model. Conclusion Our retrospective study suggests that salbutamol, an inhaled ?2 agonist, is associated with a shorter duration and lower severity of ALI. A dose greater than 2.2 mg/day of inhaled salbutamol could be a minimal effective dose to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:16420663

Manocha, Sanjay; Gordon, Anthony C; Salehifar, Ebrahim; Groshaus, Horacio; Walley, Keith R; Russell, James A

2006-01-01

204

Factors associated with discharge destination from acute care after acquired brain injury in Ontario, Canada  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to examine factors associated with discharge destination after acquired brain injury in a publicly insured population using the Anderson Behavioral Model as a framework. Methods We utilized a retrospective cohort design. Inpatient data from provincial acute care records from fiscal years 2003/4 to 2006/7 with a diagnostic code of traumatic brain injury (TBI and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI in Ontario, Canada were obtained for the study. Using multinomial logistic regression models, we examined predisposing, need and enabling factors from inpatient records in relation to major discharge outcomes such as discharge to home, inpatient rehabilitation and other institutionalized care. Results Multinomial logistic regression revealed that need factors were strongly correlated with discharge destinations overall. Higher scores on the Charlson Comorbidity Index were associated with discharge to other institutionalized care in the nTBI population. Length of stay and special care days were identified as markers for severity and were both strongly positively correlated with discharge to other institutionalized care and inpatient rehabilitation, compared to discharge home, in both nTBI and TBI populations. Injury by motor vehicle collisions was found to be positively correlated with discharge to inpatient rehabilitation and other institutionalized care for patients with TBI. Controlling for need factors, rural location was associated with discharge to home versus inpatient rehabilitation. Conclusions These findings show that need factors (Charlson Comorbidity Index, length of stay, and number of special care days are most significant in terms of discharge destination. However, there is evidence that other factors such as rural location and access to supplemental insurance (e.g., through motor vehicle insurance may influence discharge destination outcomes as well. These findings should be considered in creating more equitable access to healthcare services across the continuum of care.

Chen Amy Y

2012-03-01

205

Factors Associated With Length of Stay and Hospital Charges among Pediatric Burn Injury in Kermanshah, West of Iran  

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This study highlights that the independent predictors affecting hospital costs and LOS associated with pediatric burn injury in Kermanshah. Also, our study indicates the BBS was the main factors affecting hospital costs and LOS for the study population. 

Satar Rezaei

2015-01-01

206

Nutritional surveillance*  

OpenAIRE

The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means “to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations”. Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need f...

Mason, John B.; Mitchell, Janice T.

1983-01-01

207

Persistent maritime surveillance using multi-sensor feature association and classification  

Science.gov (United States)

In maritime operational scenarios, such as smuggling, piracy, or terrorist threats, it is not only relevant who or what an observed object is, but also where it is now and in the past in relation to other (geographical) objects. In situation and impact assessment, this information is used to determine whether an object is a threat. Single platform (ship, harbor) or single sensor information will not provide all this information. The work presented in this paper focuses on the sensor and object levels that provide a description of currently observed objects to situation assessment. For use of information of objects at higher information levels, it is necessary to have not only a good description of observed objects at this moment, but also from its past. Therefore, currently observed objects have to be linked to previous occurrences. Kinematic features, as used in tracking, are of limited use, as uncertainties over longer time intervals are so large that no unique associations can be made. Features extracted from different sensors (e.g., ESM, EO/IR) can be used for both association and classification. Features and classifications are used to associate current objects to previous object descriptions, allowing objects to be described better, and provide position history. In this paper a description of a high level architecture in which such a multi-sensor association is used is described. Results of an assessment of the usability of several features from ESM (from spectrum), EO and IR (shape, contour, keypoints) data for association and classification are shown.

van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; Schwering, Piet B. W.; Liem, Kwan D.; Schleijpen, Ric

2012-06-01

208

The association of functional oral intake and pneumonia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and onset time of pneumonia for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the early phase of rehabilitation and to identify parameters associated with the risk of pneumonia. DESIGN: Observational retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Subacute rehabilitation department in a university hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=173) aged 16 to 65 years with severe TBI who were admitted during a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the brain injury unit as soon as they ventilate spontaneously. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pneumonia. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the patients admitted to the brain injury unit were in treatment for pneumonia; pneumonia developed in 12% of the patients during rehabilitation; the condition occurred within 19 days of admission in all but 1 patient. Of these patients, 81% received nothing by mouth. Three factors identified patients at highest risk of pneumonia: Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 9 (1 day after cessation of sedation); Rancho Los Amigos Scale score less than 3 (on admission); and no oral intake on admission. Having a tracheotomy tube and/or feeding tube was also associated with a higher occurrence of pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe TBI, 27% had pneumonia at transfer from the intensive care unit. Pneumonia developed in only 12% of the participants during rehabilitation. Patients with a low level of consciousness and patients with a tracheotomy tube or feeding tube had a higher likelihood of pneumonia.

Hansen, Trine Schow; Larsen, Klaus

2008-01-01

209

Endothelin-1 Is Increased in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Associated with Unfavorable Outcomes in Children after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury  

OpenAIRE

Severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with unfavorable outcomes secondary to injury from activation of the inflammatory cascade, the release of excitotoxic neurotransmitters, and changes in the reactivity of cerebral vessels, causing ischemia. Hypoperfusion of injured brain tissues after TBI is also associated with unfavorable outcomes. Therapeutic hypothermia is an investigational treatment strategy for use in patients with severe TBI that has shown differential effects...

Salonia, Rosanne; Empey, Philip E.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Klamerus, Megan; Ozawa, Haishin; Wagner, Amy K.; Ruppel, Randall; Bell, Michael J.; Feldman, Keri; Adelson, P. David; Clark, Robert S. B.; Kochanek, Patrick M.

2010-01-01

210

Computed tomography of traumatic abdominal wall hernia and associated deceleration injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomographic CT examinations of 15 cases of abdominal wall hernia due to abdominal trauma; 13 patients had been injured in motor vehicle accidents (11 of those were belted in). All hernias were correctly identified on CT and confirmed intraoperatively. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia proved an important indicator of associated visceral injury, especially to the bowel (n = 6) and mesentery (n = 10). Careful review of the bowel and mesentery should thus be undertaken when disruption of the abdominal wall is documented. Radiologists should be aware, however, that CT findings may correlate poorly with severity of injury in these areas. In these instances, close clinical correlation and, sometimes, rescanning may be necessary. (author)

211

Bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee joint MRI : relationship between its location and associated injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the location of bone signal abnormality and associated injury, as seen on MR, in patients with acute knee joint injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with acute knee injury and bone signal abnormalities on MR were included in this study. The femur and tibia were each divided into six compartments, namely the anteromedial, medial, posteromedial,anterolateral, lateral, and posterolateral ; these were obtained in each knee joint. We evaluated the location of bone signal abnormality and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative findings of injury to ligaments and menisci. Cases with signal abnormalities involving more than three compartments were excluded. Results : Bone signal abnormalities were demonstrated in 51 compartments. Most(84%, 43/51) were noted in the lateral half of the knee joint, the most common location being the tibio- posterolateral compartment(13/51). The femoro-lateral(11/51) and tibio- anterolateral compartment(8/51) were the next most common locations. All cases(13/13)with bone signal abnormality in the tibio- posterolateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament,while 9 of 11 cases(81%) with abnormality in the femoro- lateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the tibio- anterolateral compartment had tears at the posterior cruciate ligament ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality i ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint had tears at the medial collateral ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the medial half of the knee joint had tears at the medial meniscus, but no lateral meniscal tear was found. Among patients with signal abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint, the tear was lateral meniscal in nine of 43 cases(21%) and medial meniscal in six of 43(14%). Conclusion : The location of bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee MR, inpatients with acute knee joint injury could be an important finding suggesting associated injury

212

Bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee joint MRI : relationship between its location and associated injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the location of bone signal abnormality and associated injury, as seen on MR, in patients with acute knee joint injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with acute knee injury and bone signal abnormalities on MR were included in this study. The femur and tibia were each divided into six compartments, namely the anteromedial, medial, posteromedial,anterolateral, lateral, and posterolateral ; these were obtained in each knee joint. We evaluated the location of bone signal abnormality and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative findings of injury to ligaments and menisci. Cases with signal abnormalities involving more than three compartments were excluded. Results : Bone signal abnormalities were demonstrated in 51 compartments. Most(84%, 43/51) were noted in the lateral half of the knee joint, the most common location being the tibio- posterolateral compartment(13/51). The femoro-lateral(11/51) and tibio- anterolateral compartment(8/51) were the next most common locations. All cases(13/13)with bone signal abnormality in the tibio- posterolateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament,while 9 of 11 cases(81%) with abnormality in the femoro- lateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the tibio- anterolateral compartment had tears at the posterior cruciate ligament ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint had tears at the medial collateral ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the medial half of the knee joint had tears at the medial meniscus, but no lateral meniscal tear was found. Among patients with signal abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint, the tear was lateral meniscal in nine of 43 cases(21%) and medial meniscal in six of 43(14%). Conclusion : The location of bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee MR, inpatients with acute knee joint injury could be an important finding suggesting associated injury.

Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Baek Hyun; Jung, Hoe Seok; Na, Eui Sung; Seol, Hye Young; Cha, In Ho; Lim, Hong Chul [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-07-01

213

Association of initial CT findings with quality-of-life outcomes for traumatic brain injury in children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired disability in children and adolescents. To demonstrate the association between specific findings on initial noncontrast head CT and long-term outcomes in children who have suffered TBI. This was an IRB-approved prospective study of children ages 2-17 years treated in emergency departments for TBI and who underwent a head CT as part of the initial work-up (n = 347). The change in quality of life at 12 months after injury was measured by the PedsQL scale. Children with TBI who had intracranial injuries identified on the initial head CT had a significantly lower quality-of-life scores compared to children with TBI whose initial head CTs were normal. In multivariate analysis, children whose initial head CT scans demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, midline shift {>=}5 mm, hemorrhagic shear injury, abnormal cisterns or subdural hematomas {>=}3 mm had lower quality of life scores 1 year after injury than children whose initial CTs did not have these same injuries. Associations exist between findings from the initial noncontrast head CT and quality of life score 12 months after injury in children with TBI. (orig.)

Swanson, Jonathan O. [Seattle Children' s Hospital and University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Vavilala, Monica S.; Wang, Jin; Rivara, Frederick P. [Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle, WA (United States); Pruthi, Sumit [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt University, Department of Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Fink, James [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Jaffe, Kenneth M. [University of Washington, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Dennis [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pediatrics, Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Koepsell, Thomas [University of Washington, Department of Epidemiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Temkin, Nancy [University of Washington, Biostatistics, Seattle, WA (United States)

2012-08-15

214

Association of initial CT findings with quality-of-life outcomes for traumatic brain injury in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired disability in children and adolescents. To demonstrate the association between specific findings on initial noncontrast head CT and long-term outcomes in children who have suffered TBI. This was an IRB-approved prospective study of children ages 2-17 years treated in emergency departments for TBI and who underwent a head CT as part of the initial work-up (n = 347). The change in quality of life at 12 months after injury was measured by the PedsQL scale. Children with TBI who had intracranial injuries identified on the initial head CT had a significantly lower quality-of-life scores compared to children with TBI whose initial head CTs were normal. In multivariate analysis, children whose initial head CT scans demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, midline shift ?5 mm, hemorrhagic shear injury, abnormal cisterns or subdural hematomas ?3 mm had lower quality of life scores 1 year after injury than children whose initial CTs did not have these same injuries. Associations exist between findings from the initial noncontrast head CT and quality of life score 12 months after injury in children with TBI. (orig.)

215

Admission to hospital following head injury in England: Incidence and socio-economic associations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Head injury in England is common. Evidence suggests that socio-economic factors may cause variation in incidence, and this variation may affect planning for services to meet the needs of those who have sustained a head injury. Methods Socio-economic data were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics and merged with Hospital Episodes Statistics obtained from the Department of Health. All patients admitted for head injury with ICD-10 codes S00.0–S09.9 during 2001–2 and 2002–3 were included and collated at the level of the extant Health Authorities (HA for 2002, and Primary Care Trust (PCT for 2003. Incidence was determined, and cluster analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to look at patterns and associations. Results 112,718 patients were admitted during 2001–2 giving a hospitalised incidence rate for England of 229 per 100,000. This rate varied across the English HA's ranging from 91–419 per 100,000. The rate remained unchanged for 2002–3 with a similar magnitude of variation across PCT's. Three clusters of HA's were identified from the 2001–2 data; those typical of London, those of the Shire counties, and those of Other Urban authorities. Socio-economic factors were found to account for a high proportion of the variance in incidence for 2001–2. The same pattern emerged for 2002–3 at the PCT level. The use of public transport for travel to work is associated with a decreased incidence and lifestyle indicators, such as the numbers of young unemployed, increase the incidence. Conclusion Head injury incidence in England varies by a factor of 4.6 across HA's and PCT's. Planning head injury related services at the local level thus needs to be based on local incidence figures rather than regional or national estimates. Socio-economic factors are shown to be associated with admission, including travel to work patterns and lifestyle indicators, which suggests that incidence is amenable to policy initiatives at the macro level as well as preventive programmes targeted at key groups.

Tennant Alan

2005-03-01

216

Association between posttraumatic stress, depression, and functional impairments in adolescents 24 months after traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The degree to which postinjury posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depressive symptoms in adolescents are associated with cognitive and functional impairments at 12 and 24 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not yet known. The current study used a prospective cohort design, with baseline assessment and 3-, 12-, and 24-month followup, and recruited a cohort of 228 adolescents ages 14-17 years who sustained either a TBI (n = 189) or an isolated arm injury (n = 39). Linear mixed-effects regression was used to assess differences in depressive and PTSD symptoms between TBI and arm-injured patients and to assess the association between 3-month PTSD and depressive symptoms and cognitive and functional outcomes. Results indicated that patients who sustained a mild TBI without intracranial hemorrhage reported significantly worse PTSD (Hedges g = 0.49, p = .01; Model R(2) = .38) symptoms across time as compared to the arm injured control group. Greater levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with poorer school (?(2) = .07, p = .03; Model R(2) = .36) and physical (?(2) = .11, p = .01; Model R(2) = .23) functioning, whereas greater depressive symptoms were associated with poorer school (?(2) = .06, p = .05; Model R(2) = .39) functioning. PMID:22729979

O'Connor, Stephen S; Zatzick, Douglas F; Wang, Jin; Temkin, Nancy; Koepsell, Thomas D; Jaffe, Kenneth M; Durbin, Dennis; Vavilala, Monica S; Dorsch, Andrea; Rivara, Frederick P

2012-06-01

217

The Warfighter Associate: decision-support software agent for the management of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assets  

Science.gov (United States)

A unique and promising intelligent agent plug-in technology for Mission Command Systems— the Warfighter Associate (WA)— is described that enables individuals and teams to respond more effectively to the cognitive challenges of Mission Command, such as managing limited intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assets and information sharing in a networked environment. The WA uses a doctrinally-based knowledge representation to model role-specific workflows and continuously monitors the state of the operational environment to enable decision-support, delivering the right information to the right person at the right time. Capabilities include: (1) analyzing combat events reported in chat rooms and other sources for relevance based on role, order-of-battle, time, and geographic location, (2) combining seemingly disparate pieces of data into meaningful information, (3) driving displays to provide users with map based and textual descriptions of the current tactical situation, and (4) recommending courses of action with respect to necessary staff collaborations, execution of battle-drills, re-tasking of ISR assets, and required reporting. The results of a scenario-based human-in-the-loop experiment are reported. The underlying WA knowledge-graph representation serves as state traces, measuring aspects of Soldier decision-making performance (e.g. improved efficiency in allocating limited ISR assets) across runtime as dynamic events unfold on a simulated battlefield.

Buchler, Norbou; Marusich, Laura R.; Sokoloff, Stacey

2014-06-01

218

ERG Protein Expression in Diagnostic Specimens Is Associated with Increased Risk of Progression During Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Compelling biomarkers identifying prostate cancer patients with a high risk of progression during active surveillance (AS) are needed. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between ERG expression at diagnosis and the risk of progression during AS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study included 265 patients followed on AS with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements, clinical examinations, and 10-12 core rebiopsies from 2002 to 2012 in a prospectively maintained database. ERG immunohistochemical staining was performed on diagnostic paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed sections with a ready-to-use kit (anti-ERG, EPR3864). Men were characterised as ERG positive if a minimum of one tumour focus demonstrated ERG expression. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Overall AS progression was defined as clinical progression: increased clinical tumour category ?cT2b by digital rectal examination and ultrasound, and/or histopathologic progression: upgrade of Gleason score, more than threepositive cores or bilateral positive cores, and/or PSA progression: PSA doubling time <3 yr. Risk of progression was analysed using multiple cause-specific Cox regression and stratified cumulative incidences (Aalen-Johansen method). Curatively intended treatment, watchful waiting, and death without progression were treated as competing events. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 121 of 142 ERG-negative and 96 of 123 ERG-positive patients had complete diagnostic information. In competing risk models, the ERG-positive group showed significantly higher incidences of overall AS progression (p<0.0001) and of the subgroups PSA progression (p<0.0001) and histopathologic progression (p<0.0001). The 2-yr cumulative incidence of overall AS progression was 21.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.3-29.1) in the ERG-negative group compared with 58.6% (95% CI, 48.7-68.5) in the ERG-positive group. ERG positivity was a significant predictor of overall AS progression in multiple Cox regression (hazard ratio: 2.45; 95% CI, 1.62-3.72; p<0.0001). The main limitation of this study is its observational nature. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, ERG positivity at diagnosis can be used to estimate the risk of progression during AS. If confirmed, ERG status can be used to individualise AS programmes. PATIENT SUMMARY: The tissue biomarker ERG identifies active surveillance patients with an increased risk of disease progression.

Berg, Kasper Drimer; Vainer, Ben

2014-01-01

219

Hard ticks (Ixodidae) in Romania: surveillance, host associations, and possible risks for tick-borne diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ticks and tick-borne diseases represent a great concern worldwide. Despite this, in Romania the studies regarding this subject has just started, and the interest of medical personnel, researchers, and citizens is increasing. Because the geographical range of many tick-borne diseases started to extend as consequences of different biological and environmental factors, it is important to study the diversity of ticks species, especially correlated with host associations. A total number of 840 ticks were collected between 1 April and 1 November 2010, from 66 animals, from 17 species in 11 counties, spread all over Romania. Four Ixodidae species were identified: Dermacentor marginatus (49.2%), Ixodes ricinus (48.3%), Hyalomma marginatum (2.4%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.1%). The obtained results indicate that D. marginatus is the most abundant tick species and I. ricinus is the most prevalent. As both of them are important vectors for human and animal diseases, the present paper discusses the associated risks for tick-borne diseases. PMID:22033737

Dumitrache, M O; Gherman, C M; Cozma, Vasile; Mircean, V; Györke, A; Sándor, A D; Mihalca, A D

2012-05-01

220

Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER. VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1 a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2 an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs and targets of interest (TOIs by movement type and geolocation; and (3 a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV. VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

Riad I. Hammoud

2014-10-01

221

Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports. PMID:25340453

Hammoud, Riad I.; Sahin, Cem S.; Blasch, Erik P.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Wang, Tao

2014-01-01

222

Erythropoietin reduces acute lung injury and multiple organ failure/dysfunction associated to a scald-burn inflammatory injury in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Erythropoietin (EPO) is an endogenous regulator of erythropoiesis and is given exogenously as a replacement therapy for selected red blood cell disorders. In the past years, EPO has been emerging as a multifunctional, cytoprotective cytokine with anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. We aimed to evaluate the cytoprotective effect of rhEPO (recombinant human EPO) treatment on a rat model of multiorgan dysfunction induced by thermal injury. rhEPO was administered at 1000 U/kg (i.v.) 5 min prior to induction of injury and significantly reduced multiorgan dysfunction markers (liver, kidney, lung, serum cytokine levels). In the lung, rhEPO reduced: histological signs of tissue injury, inflammatory/injury markers on the bronchoalveolar fluid, neutrophil chemotaxis/infiltration, GSK-3? activation, and apoptosis. Our study showed that erythropoietin has the potential to exhibit pleiotropic cytoprotective effects and that it might be an interesting pharmacological strategy in the modulation of acute lung injury, such as the one associated to severe burn. PMID:25270658

Rocha, Joao; Eduardo-Figueira, Maria; Barateiro, Andreia; Fernandes, Adelaide; Brites, Dora; Pinto, Rui; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Sepodes, Bruno

2015-02-01

223

Healthcare-associated infections in pediatric cancer patients: results of a prospective surveillance study from university hospitals in Germany and Switzerland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric cancer patients face an increased risk of healthcare-associated infection (HAI. To date, no prospective multicenter studies have been published on this topic. Methods Prospective multicenter surveillance for HAI and nosocomial fever of unknown origin (nFUO with specific case definitions and standardized surveillance methods. Results 7 pediatric oncology centers (university facilities participated from April 01, 2001 to August 31, 2005. During 54,824 days of inpatient surveillance, 727 HAIs and nFUOs were registered in 411 patients. Of these, 263 (36% were HAIs in 181 patients, for an incidence density (ID (number of events per 1,000 inpatient days of 4.8 (95% CI 4.2 to 5.4; range 2.4 to 11.7; P Conclusion Our study confirmed that pediatric cancer patients are at an increased risk for specific HAIs. The prospective surveillance of HAI and comparison with cumulative multicenter results are indispensable for targeted prevention of these adverse events of anticancer treatment.

Rutkowski Stefan

2008-05-01

224

An immunohistochemical panel to assess ultraviolet radiation-associated oxidative skin injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation results in a significant loss in years of healthy life, approximately 1.5 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and is associated with greater than 60,000 deaths annually worldwide that are attributed to melanoma and other skin cancers. Currently, there are no standardized biomarkers or assay panels to assess oxidative stress skin injury patterns in human skin exposed to ionizing radiation. Using biopsy specimens from chronic solar UV-exposed and UV-protected skin, we demonstrate that UV radiation-induced oxidative skin injury can be evaluated by an immunohistochemical panel that stains 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) to assess DNA adducts, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) to assess lipid peroxidation, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to assess protein damage. We believe this panel contains the necessary cellular biomarkers to evaluate topical agents, such as sunscreens and anti-oxidants that are designed to prevent oxidative skin damage and may reduce UV-associated skin aging, carcinogenesis, and inflammatory skin diseases. We envision that this panel will become an important tool for researchers developing topical agents to protect against UV radiation and other oxidants and ultimately lead to reductions in lost years of healthy life, DALYs, and annual deaths associated with UV radiation. PMID:24809881

Mamalis, Andrew; Fiadorchanka, Natallia; Adams, Lauren; Serravallo, Melissa; Heilman, Edward; Siegel, Daniel; Brody, Neil; Jagdeo, Jared

2014-05-01

225

Acute radial nerve injury associated with an automatic blood pressure monitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perioperative radial nerve injury is a rare anesthetic complication, and is rarely seen in association with the use of an automatic blood pressure monitor. As far as we know, only one case has been reported. Here, we report a 26-year-old healthy, lean female who sustained acute radial nerve palsy after appendectomy. A dropped wrist improved 5 days later. The cause of the radial neuropathy is discussed. We recommend that when an automatically cycling blood pressure monitor is used on a lean patient, caution should be taken against such a complication. PMID:19762307

Swei, Shan-Chung; Liou, Chuang-Chyun; Liu, Heng-Hao; Hung, Pei-Ching

2009-09-01

226

Surveillance of artemether-lumefantrine associated Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 gene polymorphisms in Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-malarials is a major public health problem worldwide. After deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) there have been reports of reduced sensitivity to ACT by malarial parasites in South-East Asia. In Tanzania, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) is the recommended first-line drug in treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This study surveyed the distribution of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased parasite tolerance to ALu, in Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 687 Plasmodium falciparum positive dried blood spots on filter paper and rapid diagnostic test strips collected by finger pricks from patients attending health facilities in six regions of Tanzania mainland between June 2010 and August 2011 were used. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to detect Pfmdr1 SNPs N86Y, Y184F and D1246Y. RESULTS: There were variations in the distribution of Pfmdr1 polymorphisms among regions. Tanga region had exceptionally high prevalence of mutant alleles, while Mbeya had the highest prevalence of wild type alleles. The haplotype YFY was exclusively most prevalent in Tanga (29.6%) whereas the NYD haplotype was the most prevalent in all other regions. Excluding Tanga and Mbeya, four, most common Pfmdr1 haplotypes did not vary between the remaining four regions (chi2 = 2.3, p = 0.512). The NFD haplotype was the second most prevalent haplotype in all regions, ranging from 17% - 26%. CONCLUSION: This is the first country-wide survey on Pfmdr1 mutations associated with ACT resistance. Distribution of individual Pfmdr1 mutations at codons 86, 184 and 1246 varies throughout Tanzanian regions. There is a general homogeneity in distribution of common Pfmdr1 haplotypes reflecting strict implementation of ALu policy in Tanzania with overall prevalence of NFD haplotype ranging from 17 to 26% among other haplotypes. With continuation of ALu as first-line drug this haplotype is expected to keep rising, thus there is need for continued pharmacovigilance studies to monitor any delayed parasite clearance by the drug.

Kavishe, Reginald A; Paulo, Petro

2014-01-01

227

Methylene blue attenuates traumatic brain injury-associated neuroinflammation and acute depressive-like behavior in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with cerebral edema, blood brain barrier breakdown, and neuroinflammation that contribute to the degree of injury severity and functional recovery. Unfortunately, there are no effective proactive treatments for limiting immediate or long-term consequences of TBI. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylene blue (MB), an antioxidant agent, in reducing inflammation and behavioral complications associated with a diffuse brain injury. Here we show that immediate MB infusion (intravenous; 15-30 minutes after TBI) reduced cerebral edema, attenuated microglial activation and reduced neuroinflammation, and improved behavioral recovery after midline fluid percussion injury in mice. Specifically, TBI-associated edema and inflammatory gene expression in the hippocampus were significantly reduced by MB at 1?d post injury. Moreover, MB intervention attenuated TBI-induced inflammatory gene expression (interleukin [IL]-1?, tumor necrosis factor ?) in enriched microglia/macrophages 1?d post injury. Cell culture experiments with lipopolysaccharide-activated BV2 microglia confirmed that MB treatment directly reduced IL-1? and increased IL-10 messenger ribonucleic acid in microglia. Last, functional recovery and depressive-like behavior were assessed up to one week after TBI. MB intervention did not prevent TBI-induced reductions in body weight or motor coordination 1-7?d post injury. Nonetheless, MB attenuated the development of acute depressive-like behavior at 7?d post injury. Taken together, immediate intervention with MB was effective in reducing neuroinflammation and improving behavioral recovery after diffuse brain injury. Thus, MB intervention may reduce life-threatening complications of TBI, including edema and neuroinflammation, and protect against the development of neuropsychiatric complications. PMID:25070744

Fenn, Ashley M; Skendelas, John P; Moussa, Daniel N; Muccigrosso, Megan M; Popovich, Phillip G; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Eiferman, Daniel S; Godbout, Jonathan P

2015-01-15

228

Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Subclinical Myocardial Injury in the Community. The ARIC-SHHS Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether more severe OSA, measured by the Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI), is associated with subclinical myocardial injury and increased myocardial wall stress. Methods: A total of 1,645 participants (62.5 ± 5.5 yr and 54% women) free of coronary heart disease and heart failure and participating in both the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities and the Sleep Heart Health Studies underwent overnight polysomnography and measurement of high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Measurements and Main Results: OSA severity was defined using conventional clinical categories: none (RDI ? 5), mild (RDI 5–15), moderate (RDI 15–30), and severe (RDI > 30). Hs-TnT, but not NT-proBNP, was associated with OSA after adjusting for 17 potential confounders (P = 0.02). Over a median of 12.4 (interquartile range, 11.6–13.1) years follow-up, hs-TnT was related to risk of death or incident heart failure in all OSA categories (P ? 0.05 in each category). Conclusions: In middle-aged to older individuals, OSA severity is independently associated with higher levels of hs-TnT, suggesting that subclinical myocardial injury may play a role in the association between OSA and risk of heart failure. OSA was not associated with NT-proBNP levels after adjusting for multiple possible confounders. PMID:24156237

Roca, Gabriela Querejeta; Redline, Susan; Punjabi, Naresh; Claggett, Brian; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Solomon, Scott D.

2013-01-01

229

A road traffic injury surveillance system using combined data sources in Peru / Sistema de vigilancia de traumatismos por accidentes de tránsito con fuentes de datos combinadas en el Perú  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Con el liderazgo del Ministerio de Salud, en el 2007 se estableció un sistema hospitalario nacional de vigilancia de traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito en unidades centinela de todo el Perú. Los datos de vigilancia se extraen de tres fuentes diferentes (registros hospitalarios, info [...] rmes policiales e informes del seguro del vehículo) e incluyen los traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito atendidos inicialmente en las salas de urgencia. Se usa un único formulario de recopilación de datos para registrar la información sobre los heridos, las características del hecho relacionadas con el conductor o los conductores de los vehículos y del vehículo o los vehículos involucrados. Los datos se analizan periódicamente y se comunican a todos los participantes del sistema de vigilancia. Los resultados indicaron que los hombres adultos jóvenes (de 15 a 29 años) fueron los más afectados por traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito y con mayor frecuencia eran los conductores de los vehículos que participaron en la colisión. Los ocupantes de vehículos de cuatro ruedas representaron la mitad de los casos en la mayoría de las zonas del país y los peatones lesionados en el hecho representaron prácticamente la otra mitad. El sistema establecido en el Perú podría servir de modelo del uso de múltiples fuentes de datos para la vigilancia a nivel nacional de traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito. Según los resultados de este estudio, los retos de un sistema de este tipo consisten en mantener y aumentar la participación de las unidades de vigilancia de todo el país y determinar las intervenciones de prevención adecuadas en el nivel local según los datos obtenidos. Abstract in english A national hospital-based nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance system was established at sentinel units across Peru in 2007 under the leadership of the Ministry of Health. Surveillance data are drawn from three different sources (hospital records, police reports, and vehicle insurance reports) [...] and include nonfatal road traffic injuries initially attended at emergency rooms. A single data collection form is used to record information about the injured, event characteristics related to the driver of the vehicle(s), and the vehicle(s). Data are analyzed periodically and disseminated to all surveillance system participants. Results indicated young adult males (15-29 years old) were most affected by nonfatal road traffic injuries and were most often the drivers of the vehicles involved in the collision. Four-wheeled vehicle occupants comprised one-half of cases in most regions of the country, and pedestrians injured in the event accounted for almost another half. The system established in Peru could serve as a model for the use of multiple data sources in national nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance. Based on this study, the challenges of this type of system include sustaining and increasing participation among sentinel units nationwide and identifying appropriate prevention interventions at the local level based on the resulting data.

Yliana Rojas, Medina; Victoria, Espitia-Hardeman; Ann M., Dellinger; Manuel, Loayza; Rene, Leiva; Gloria, Cisneros.

2011-03-01

230

Health care costs associated with traumatic brain injury and psychiatric illness in adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cohort design was used to determine the contribution of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and psychiatric illness to health care costs for adolescents and adults in the 3 years following mild or moderate-to-severe TBI compared to a matched cohort without TBI, controlling for confounders. In all, 3756 subjects 15 years or older from a large health maintenance organization database were examined. We identified subjects who sustained a TBI in 1993 (n=939) and selected three control subjects per TBI-exposed subject (n=2817), matched for age, sex, and enrollment at the time of injury. Unadjusted mean costs in 2009-adjusted dollars were compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney U tests, and adjusted mean costs were compared using gamma regression analyses. Average costs were 76% higher in the 3 years after injury for the mild TBI group, and 5.75 times greater for the moderate-to-severe TBI group compared to controls. The presence of psychiatric illness was associated with more than doubling of total costs for both inpatient and outpatient non-mental health care. Gamma regression analyses confirmed significantly higher costs in patients with TBI or psychiatric illness. A significant interaction between moderate-to-severe TBI and psychiatric illness indicated a 3.39 times greater cost among patients with both exposures compared with those exposed to moderate-to-severe TBI without psychiatric illness. TBI and psychiatric illness were each associated with significant increases in health care costs; those with the combination of moderate-to-severe TBI and psychiatric illness had much higher costs than any other group. PMID:22142264

Rockhill, Carol Mary; Jaffe, Kenneth; Zhou, Chuan; Fan, Ming-Yu; Katon, Wayne; Fann, Jesse R

2012-04-10

231

Effect of pentoxifylline on preventing acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery by measuring urinary neutrophil gelatinase - associated lipocalin  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Based on Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, we considered acute kidney injury (AKI) as an absolute increase in the serum creatinine (sCr) level of more than or equal to 0.3 mg/dl or 50%. The introduction of Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (UNGAL) has conferred earlier diagnosis of AKI. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, can suppress the production of some factors of inflammatory response and presu...

Yousefshahi Fardin; Abbasi Kiomars; Khatami Mohammad; Soltaninia Hasan; Shafiee Akbar; Karimi Abbasali; Barkhordari Khosro; Haghighat Babak; Brown Virginia

2011-01-01

232

Interleukin-6 mediates pulmonary vascular permeability in a two-hit model of ventilator-associated lung injury  

OpenAIRE

To test the hypothesis that IL-6 contributes to the development of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI), IL-6-deficient (IL6?/?) and wild-type control (WT) mice received intratracheal hydrochloric acid followed by randomization to MV (MV+IT HCl) or spontaneous ventilation (IT HCl). After 4 hr, injury was assessed by estimation of lung lavage protein concentration and total and differential cell counts, wet/dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary cell death, histologic inflammation score (LIS...

Gurkan, Ozlem U.; He, Chaoxia; Zielinski, Rachel; Rabb, Hamid; King, Landon S.; Dodd-o, Jeffrey M.; D’alessio, Franco R.; Aggarwal, Neil; Pearse, David; Becker, Patrice M.

2011-01-01

233

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Needle Stick Injuries among Registered Nurses in Public Sector Tertiary Care Hospitals of Pakistan '  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Needle stick injuries remain the main cause of Hep B, Hep C and HIV which lead to mortality and morbidity in health care providers especially in nurses all over the world. Although needle stick injuries have been well studied in developed countries, data from developing countries is limited.Aim & Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of needle stick injuries among nurses and its associated factors in public sector tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional survey was conducted in 3 major tertiary care hospitals of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Study duration was from March 2010 to May 2010 (3 months. Two Hundred and Sixteen (216 nurses were selected by simple random sampling with proportionate sampling. All those registered nurses who were working in allied hospitals of Rawalpindi and involved in clinical work were included, while all those who were on administrative positions, students, retired or on maternity leave were excluded from the study. Pre structured questionnaire was used and data was collected by questionnaire having optional choices and few open ended questions. The questionnaire was piloted among thirty nurses in a tertiary care hospital and their comments were incorporated accordingly to redesign the final questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS 16.Results: Sixty Seven (67% of nurses got needle stick injury during job. Almost all (99% nurses said that they didn’t report their injury because of no reporting system in their hospital (p value < 0.05. Injection and needles (72% are the most injury causing instrument and needle stick injuries mostly occurred (81% at bedside and ward (p value < 0.05. Sixty six percent (66% of nurses said that they didn’t attended any educational session, seminar or workshop related to needle stick injuries during their job. Conclusion: The frequency of needle stick injuries among nurses is quite high in public sector hospitals of Rawalpindi Pakistan. Non-reporting and less health education are the main factors leading to needle stick injuries.

Haris Habib

2011-02-01

234

Nucleated red blood cell counts: not associated with brain injury or outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to determine whether an elevated nucleated red blood cell count at birth after perinatal depression is associated with brain injury as measured by (1) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and (2) abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome at 30 months of age. The nucleated red blood cell counts from the first 24 hours of life were statistically analyzed in 33 term infants enrolled in a prospective study of the value of magnetic resonance imaging for the determination of neurodevelopmental outcome after perinatal depression. Nucleated red blood cell counts were elevated in 13/33 (39%). Abnormal outcome (19/33, 54%) was associated with Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-Perinatal Extension (P = 0.04), decreased N-acetylaspartate to choline ratio in the basal ganglia (P = 0.009), and increased lactate to choline ratio in the basal ganglia (P = 0.02), but not with cord pH, Apgar score, or nucleated red blood cell value. In a logistic regression model, increasing nucleated red blood cell counts did not increase the odds of an abnormal outcome at 30 months of age (OR 1.02, P = 0.17). In a population of neonates with perinatal depression, the nucleated red blood cell count at birth does not correlate with magnetic resonance spectroscopy or 30-month neurodevelopmental outcome. The nucleated red blood cell count should not be used as a surrogate marker for subsequent brain injury. PMID:14643387

Hamrick, Shannon E G; Miller, Steven P; Newton, Nancy R; Parer, Julian T; Ferriero, Donna M; Barkovich, A James; Partridge, J Colin

2003-10-01

235

The association between traumatic dental injuries and atypical external root resorption in maxillary primary incisors.  

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Atypical root resorption (ARR), which is observed on radiographs of primary incisors, has been reported in the dental literature to result from digit sucking; thus ignoring any association between ARR and traumatic dental injuries (TDI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the contributions of sucking habits and TDI to external ARR in primary incisors. A history of dental trauma was assessed based on clinical and radiographic findings. Periapical radiographs of the premaxilla were evaluated for the presence of ARR. The presence or history of sucking habits was based on parents' report. Data were collected from files of 727 patients with a mean age of 52 months. Sixty-four children (8.8%) presented ARR in one or both central incisors. All 64 had experienced some type of TDI. Five hundred and forty-nine (76%) of the children had sucking habits; of them, 501 were pacifier-suckers and 48 digit suckers. Digit sucking was found in only 4 (6%) of the 64 children presenting ARR. These findings support the association of traumatic dental injury, and not of digit sucking, with ARR in primary incisors. PMID:25283588

Holan, Gideon; Yodko, Elizabeth; Sheinvald-Shusterman, Kineret

2015-02-01

236

Factors associated with ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae: analysis of South African national surveillance data, 2003 to 2010.  

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It is important to monitor ?-lactam antimicrobial nonsusceptibility trends for Streptococcus pneumoniae to inform empirical treatment guidelines. In this study, we describe penicillin and ceftriaxone susceptibility trends using national laboratory-based pneumococcal surveillance data from 2003 to 2010. A sentinel enhanced-site patient subset (2009 to 2010) contributed to the risk factor and mortality analyses. We included 9,218 invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases for trend analyses and 2,854 IPD cases for risk factor and mortality analyses. Overall, we detected no significant changes in penicillin (patients Gauteng [aOR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.26 to 4.84], and Northern Cape [aOR, 4.52; 95% CI, 1.95 to 10.52] versus KwaZulu-Natal), ?-lactam use within 24 h preceding admission (aOR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.41 to 4.53), and 13-valent vaccine serotypes (aOR, 51.64; 95% CI, 7.18 to 371.71). Among patients ? 5 years of age with meningitis who were treated according to current guidelines, HIV-infected patients (aOR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.32 to 6.54) and patients infected with ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible isolates (aOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.27 to 7.89) had increased mortality rates. Among children <5 years of age with meningitis, mortality was increased in HIV-infected patients (aOR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.56) but not in those with ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible isolates. Penicillin and ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility remained stable over the study period. Ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility was associated with increased mortality among patients ?5 years of age with meningitis. The introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may reduce ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible meningitis. PMID:24687499

von Mollendorf, Claire; Cohen, Cheryl; de Gouveia, Linda; Quan, Vanessa; Meiring, Susan; Feldman, Charles; Klugman, Keith P; von Gottberg, Anne

2014-06-01

237

Early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia incidence in intensive care units: a surveillance-based study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP within the first 48 hours of intensive care unit (ICU stay has been poorly investigated. The objective was to estimate early-onset VAP occurrence in ICUs within 48 hours after admission. Methods We analyzed data from prospective surveillance between 01/01/2001 and 31/12/2009 in 11 ICUs of Lyon hospitals (France. The inclusion criteria were: first ICU admission, not hospitalized before admission, invasive mechanical ventilation during first ICU day, free of antibiotics at admission, and ICU stay ? 48 hours. VAP was defined according to a national protocol. Its incidence was the number of events per 1,000 invasive mechanical ventilation-days. The Poisson regression model was fitted from day 2 (D2 to D8 to incident VAP to estimate the expected VAP incidence from D0 to D1 of ICU stay. Results Totally, 367 (10.8% of 3,387 patients in 45,760 patient-days developed VAP within the first 9 days. The predicted cumulative VAP incidence at D0 and D1 was 5.3 (2.6-9.8 and 8.3 (6.1-11.1, respectively. The predicted cumulative VAP incidence was 23.0 (20.8-25.3 at D8. The proportion of missed VAP within 48 hours from admission was 11% (9%-17%. Conclusions Our study indicates underestimation of early-onset VAP incidence in ICUs, if only VAP occurring ? 48 hours are considered to be hospital-acquired. Clinicians should be encouraged to develop a strategy for early detection after ICU admission.

Lepape Alain

2011-09-01

238

Albumin administration is associated with acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery: a propensity score analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

IntroductionThe risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the use of albumin-containing fluids compared to starches in the surgical intensive care setting remains uncertain. We evaluated the adjusted risk of AKI associated with colloids following cardiac surgery.MethodsWe performed a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery in a tertiary care center from 2008 to 2010. We assessed crystalloid and colloid administration until 36 hours postoperatively. AKI was defined by the Risk Injury Failure Loss and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE risk) and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage 1 serum creatinine criterion within 96 hours postoperatively.ResultsOur cohort included 984 patients with a baseline glomerular filtration rate of 72¿±¿19 ml/min/1.73 m2. Twenty-three percent had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), 31% were diabetics and 23% underwent valvular surgery. The incidence of AKI was 5.3% with RIFLE and 12.0% with AKIN. AKI was associated with a reduced LVEF, diuretic use, anemia, valvular surgery, duration of extracorporeal circulation, hemodynamic instability, and the use of albumin, pentastarch 10% and transfusions. There was an important dose-dependent AKI risk with the administration of albumin, which also paralleled a higher prevalence of concomitant risk factors of AKI. To address any indication bias, we derived a propensity score predicting the likelihood to receive albumin, matching 141 cases to 141 controls with a similar risk profile. In this analysis, albumin was associated with an increased AKI risk (RIFLE Risk 12% versus 5%, P =0.03 and AKIN stage 1 28% versus 13%, P =0.002). We repeated this methodology in subjects without postoperative hemodynamic instability and still identified an association between the use of albumin and AKI.ConclusionsAlbumin administration was associated with a dose-dependent risk of AKI and remained significant using a propensity score methodology. Future studies should address the safety of albumin-containing fluids on kidney function in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:25394836

Frenette, Anne; Bouchard, Josée; Bernier, Pascaline; Charbonneau, Annie; Nguyen, Long; Rioux, Jean-Philippe; Troyanov, Stéphan; Williamson, David R

2014-11-14

239

The association between dietary lifestyles and hepatocellular injury in Japanese workers.  

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Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum, relevant to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, has been often reported from Asian countries and the U.S., and it may be associated with lifestyle behavior. To clarify whether specific dietary behavior is associated with hepatocellular injury, we explored liver markers and dietary lifestyles (e.g., breakfast-skipping, eating for lunch, and snacking) in 1,809 male employees, aged 19-59 years, belonging to a health insurance union of automobile dealerships in Japan. ALT, ?-glutamyltransferase, and asparate aminotransferase (AST) were positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI) (P instant noodle ingestion for lunch to ALT elevation (> 30 IU/L), after adjusting for possible confounders including age, BMI, and drinking, were 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75) at 1-2 times/week and 1.47 (1.07-2.01) at ? 3 times/week, compared to those who seldom ate instant noodles. Likewise, the OR of the ingestion at ? 3 times/week to ?-glutamyltransferase elevation (> 50 IU/L) was 1.42 (1.02-1.99), but the OR to elevated AST (> 30 IU/L) was not statistically significant. Habitual ethanol intake was significantly associated with hepatocellular injury, though the threshold of daily ethanol intake differed among liver markers. Despite the low OR, habitual instant noodle ingestion for lunch is associated with ALT elevation. Since the average content of saturated fatty acids in instant noodles is considerably high among cereal foods in Japan, workers with this habit should be advised to avoid having unbalanced diets. PMID:24284330

Iwata, Toyoto; Arai, Kaori; Saito, Norimitsu; Murata, Katsuyuki

2013-01-01

240

Adult-worn child carriers: a potential risk for injury  

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Objectives—To examine and describe types of injuries associated with adult-worn child carriers and illustrate the need for careful use of these products by parents. Methods—A literature search for the terms infant carriers, backpack carriers, infant slings, baby carriers, and baby slings was conducted. Information was also obtained and tabulated from the three Consumer Product Safety Commission databases: the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), the In-Depth Investigations File, and the Injury/Potential Injury Incident File. Results—No reports of injuries were found in the medical literature. In the NEISS database, 51 injuries were reported between January 1990 and September 1998. Of these injuries, 38 (74.5%) were head traumas and eight (15.7%) were facial trauma. Of the 51 injuries, 11 (22%) required hospitalization. Conclusions—Based on the data presented in this paper, injuries associated with the use of adult-worn child carriers appear to come from three general sources: product appropriateness and design, product condition, and product use. It is important for health care providers to assist in the dissemination of information regarding the safe use of these products to parents in an effort to prevent injuries. PMID:10728544

Frisbee, S.; Hennes, H.

2000-01-01

241

Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.  

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Equine influenza in England and Scotland, Significant numbers of outbreaks of equine herpesvirus 1 neurological disease in the USA, Summary of surveillance testing, April to June 2014. These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:25431382

2014-11-29

242

Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 70 UK cases of atypical myopathy reported First reports of Getah virus disease in Japan since 1979 Summary of surveillance testing, July to September 2014 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust (AHT) and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:25598465

2015-01-17

243

Analysis of 127 peripartum hypoxic brain injuries from closed claims registered by the Danish Patient Insurance Association  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: One of the most feared complications in medicine is hypoxic brain damage to a newborn. The authors investigated the circumstances of registered peripartum hypoxic brain injuries in order to identify potential opportunities to improve patient safety and prevent injuries. METHODS: The authors retrospectively investigated peripartum hypoxic brain injuries registered by the Danish Patient Insurance Association. RESULTS: From 1992 to 2004, 127 approved claims concerning peripartum hypoxic brain injuries were registered and subsequently analysed. Thirty-eight newborns died, and a majority of the 89 surviving children suffered from major handicaps, primarily cerebral palsy. In 69 of the cases, misinterpretation of or late action on an abnormal cardiotocography (CTG) were the reasons for the majority of the hypoxic brain injuries. CONCLUSIONS: All injuries could potentially have been avoided using established obstetric practice. CTGs are often misinterpreted. In the authors' opinion, education and training in CTG interpretation is essential. The use of ST-analysis of the fetus ECG (STAN) could probably reduce the number of these injuries Udgivelsesdato: 2008

Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.

2008-01-01

244

Annual report for Hanford Site: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupational and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities.This report provides the final summary for the Hanford Reservation.

NONE

1998-01-01

245

Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for EG&G Rocky Flats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences resulting from illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This report presents the 1994 morbidity data for the Rocky Flats plant.

NONE

1994-12-31

246

Hypernatremia is associated with increased risk of mortality in pediatric severe traumatic brain injury.  

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Acquired hypernatremia in hospitalized patients is often associated with poorer outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between acquired hypernatremia and outcome in children with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). We performed a retrospective cohort study of all severely injured trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ?12) with sTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] ?8 and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale [MAIS] ?4) admitted to a Pediatric Critical Care Unit ([PCCU]; 2000-2009). In a cohort of 165 patients, 76% had normonatremia (135-150 mmol/L), 18% had hypernatremia (151-160 mmol/L), and 6% had severe hypernatremia (>160 mmol/L). The groups were similar except for lower GCS (p=0.002) and increased incidence of fixed pupil(s) on admission in both hypernatremia groups (p<0.001). Mortality rate was four-fold and six-fold greater with hypernatremia and severe hypernatremia, respectively (p<0.001), and mortality rates were unchanged when patients with fixed pupils or those with central diabetes insipidus were excluded (p<0.001). Hypernatremic patients had fewer ventilator-free days (p<0.001). Survivors with hypernatremia had greater PCCU (p=0.001) and hospital (p=0.031) lengths of stays and were less frequently discharged home (p=0.008). Logistic regression analyses of patient characteristics and sTBI interventions demonstrated that hypernatremia was independently associated with the presence of fixed pupil(s) on admission (odds ratio [OR] 5.38; p=0.003); administration of thiopental (OR 8.64; p=0.014), and development of central diabetes insipidus (OR 5.66; p=0.005). Additional logistic regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between hypernatremia and mortality (OR 6.660; p=0.034). In summary, acquired hypernatremia appears to signal higher risk of mortality in pediatric sTBI and is associated with a higher discharge level of care in sTBI survivors. PMID:23057958

Alharfi, Ibrahim M; Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Kelly, Shawn H; Morrison, Gavin C; Fraser, Douglas D

2013-03-01

247

Factors associated with the likelihood of injury resulting from collisions between four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The specific effects of vehicular type on the likelihood of an injury occurring are relatively unexplored. This study sought to assess the relative risk of injury to occupants of four-wheel drive vehicles and their counterparts in passenger cars. Data for 1143 occupants from all of the 454 crashes in Oklahoma, in 1995 that involved a four-wheel drive vehicle were used. Multiple logistic regression analysis determined the association between potential predictive factors and vehicular injury. Odds ratios revealed occupancy in a passenger car to be a major predictor of the likelihood of injury. Other factors include the driver being female, driving too fast, travel on curved or level roadways, and being hit laterally or from the rear. PMID:12850068

Broyles, Robert W; Narine, Lutchmie; Clarke, S Ross; Baker, Daryl R

2003-09-01

248

Posterior cruciate ligament injury: characteristics and associations of most frequent injuries / Lesoes do ligamento cruzado posterior: caracteristicas e associacoes mais frequentes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a prevalência das lesões do ligamento cruzado posterior (LCP) e suas combinações e correlações com o mecanismo e a ocorrência de luxação evidente e fratura associada. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de 85 lesões do LCP operadas entre 2003 e 2010. Diagnóstico por meio do exame [...] físico e da radiografia dinâmica, confrontados com achados cirúrgicos. RESULTADOS: Lesões que envolveram o LCP foram mais prevalentes nos homens (78,8%) com média de idade de 33 anos. A causa principal foi o acidente de trânsito (73,80%), dos quais 49,4% de motocicleta. Lesão isolada do LCP ocorreu em 15,3% dos casos e combinada em 84,7%. Dentre as lesões isoladas, nove foram avulsões ósseas (10,6%). O ligamento mais associado às lesões do LCP foi o cruzado anterior (48,2%), seguido da lesão combinada do LCP com o ligamento colateral lateral/canto póstero-lateral (22,4%). Fraturas estiveram mais associadas à combinação LCP + LCL/CPL e não apareceram nas lesões do LCP + ligamento colateral medial/canto póstero-medial. Complicações além de fraturas: lesão de nervo periférico (4,8%) e vascular (1,2%). Luxação evidente no primeiro atendimento (16,7%), mais prevalente na combinação LCP + LCA + LCM/CPM (44,4%). Metade dos pacientes foi operada na fase aguda. Houve diferença estatística significativa (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and combinations of PCL injuries and their correlations with the mechanism, the occurrence of evident dislocation and associated fracture. METHOD: A retrospective study of 85 lesions of PCL operated between 2003 and 2010. Diagnosis by physical examinati [...] on and dynamic radiography, compared with surgical findings. RESULTS: Injuries involving the PCL were more prevalent in men (78.8%) with a mean age of 33 years. The main cause was traffic accidents (73.80%), and (49.4%) motorcycle. Isolated PCL injury occurred in (15.3%) cases, and combined (84.7%). Among the isolated lesions, bone avulsions were nine (10.6%). The most associated PCL injuries were the ACL (48.2%), followed by LCL PCL/PLC (22.4%). Fractures were more associated with combining PCL + LCL/PLC injuries and did not appear in the PCL + MCL/PMC. Complications beyond fractures: peripheral nerve injury (4.8%) and vascular (1.2%). Evident dislocation in primary care (16.7%) was more prevalent in combined ACL + PCL + MCL/PMC (44.4%). Half the patients were operated during the acute phase. There was a statistically significant difference (p

Marco Tulio Lopes, Caldas; Gilberto Ferreira, Braga; Samuel Lopes, Mendes; Juliano Martins da, Silveira; Robson Massi, Kopke.

2013-09-01

249

[The mechanisms of formation of liver injuries associated with the blunt abdominal trauma].  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms of liver damage associated with the blunt abdominal trauma are considered based on the analysis of the literature publications. The general characteristic of these mechanisms and the processes underlying the development of liver injuries is presented. It is argued that the mechanisms underlying the formation of damages to the liver differ depending on the form of the traumatic impact, the injurious factor, and the processes leading to the destruction of the hepatic tissue. The main forms of traumatic impact in the case of a blunt abdominal trauma include the strike (blow), pressure, and concussion of the organ while the major traumatic factors are deformation, displacement, and "shock-resistant effects". The mechanisms underlying tissue destruction are compression and stretching. These two mechanisms are responsible for the formation of different variants of liver destruction. The results of the study suggest the necessity of the search for other mechanisms of degradation of the hepatic tissue following a blunt abdominal trauma for the improvement of forensic medical diagnostics of its cause and the underlying mechanism. PMID:23008952

Pigolkin, Iu I; Dubrovina, I A; Dubrovin, I A

2012-01-01

250

Radial nerve injury associated with humeral shaft fracture: a retrospective study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: To determine the profile of patients with humeral diaphyseal fractures in a tertiary hospital. Methods: We conducted a survey from January 2010 to July 2012, including data from [...] patients classified under humeral diaphyseal fracture (S42.3) according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The variables analyzed were: age, gender, presence of radial nerve injury, causal agent and the type of treatment carried out. Results: The main causes of trauma were car accidents. The radial nerve lesion was present in some cases and was caused by the same trauma that caused the fracture or iatrogenic injury. Most of these fractures occurred in the middle third of humeral diaphysis and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: The profile of patients with fracture of humeral shaft, in this specific sample, was composed mainly of adult men involved in traffic accidents; the associated radial nerve lesion was present in most of these fractures and its cause was strongly related to the trauma mechanism. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study.

Flávia Pessoni Faleiros Macêdo, Ricci; Rafael Inácio, Barbosa; Valéria Meirelles Carril, Elui; Cláudio Henrique, Barbieri; Nilton, Mazzer; Marisa de Cássia Registro, Fonseca.

2015-02-01

251

Prevalence of chest trauma, associated injuries and mortality: a level I trauma centre experience  

OpenAIRE

A review of prospectively collected data in our trauma unit for the years 1998–2003 was undertaken. Adult patients who suffered multiple trauma with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of ?16, admitted to hospital for more than 72 hours and with sustained blunt chest injuries were included in the study. Demographic details including pre-hospital care, trauma history, admission vital signs, blood transfusions, details of injuries and their abbreviated injury scores (AIS), operations, length of ...

Veysi, Veysi T.; Nikolaou, Vassilios S.; Paliobeis, Christos; Efstathopoulos, Nicolas; Giannoudis, Peter V.

2009-01-01

252

Factors Associated with Current Versus Lifetime Self-Injury Among High School and College Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

We sought to identify factors associated with current versus lifetime nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and factors that show consonant and distinct relationships with current NSSI for adolescents and young adults. Data came from a population-based survey of high school students (n = 9,985) and a national survey of college students (n = 7,801). Among both samples, factors associated with current NSSI included male gender, younger age, greater depressive symptoms, more hopelessness, and being the victim of a verbal or physical assault. For high school students, greater anxiety, and for college students, identifying as non-White, negative perceptions of one's weight, a same-sex sexual experience, and involvement in dating violence also distinguished the groups. Findings suggest that clinical and research assessments of lifetime NSSI might not extend to current behavior, and some differences exist in the factors associated with current behavior between adolescents and young adults. Clinical practice and prevention programming efforts should target certain intrapersonal and interpersonal factors associated with current NSSI among younger students during stressful transition periods in their lives, such as entering high school or college, when they might consider initiating or continuing this behavior. PMID:25169623

Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J

2014-08-28

253

TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

254

Genetic variants in the TIRAP gene are associated with increased risk of sepsis-associated acute lung injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll like receptors (TLRs signaling pathways, including the adaptor protein Mal encoded by the TIRAP gene, play a central role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. Recently, the TIRAP variants have been described association with susceptibility to inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants in TIRAP are associated with the development of ALI. Methods A case-control collection from Han Chinese of 298 healthy subjects, 278 sepsis-associated ALI and 288 sepsis alone patients were included. Three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the TIRAP gene and two additional SNPs that have previously showed association with susceptibility to other inflammatory diseases were genotyped by direct sequencing. The differences of allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were evaluated between three groups. Results The minor allele frequencies of both rs595209 and rs8177375 were significantly increased in ALI patients compared with both healthy subjects (odds ratio (OR = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI:1.15-1.88, P = 0.0027 and OR = 1.97, 95% CI: (1.38-2.80, P = 0.0001, respectively and sepsis alone patients (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.12-1.85, P = 0.0041 and OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.28-2.57, P = 0.00079, respectively. Haplotype consisting of these two associated SNPs strengthened the association with ALI susceptibility. The frequency of haplotype AG (rs595209A, rs8177375G in the ALI samples was significantly higher than that in the healthy control group (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.46-3.09, P = 0.00006 and the sepsis alone group (OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.52-3.29, P = 0.00003. Carriers of the haplotype CA (rs595209C, rs8177375A had a lower risk for ALI compared with healthy control group (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54-0.88, P = 0.0003 and sepsis alone group (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.91, P = 0.0006. These associations remained significant after adjustment for covariates in multiple logistic regression analysis and for multiple comparisons. Conclusions These results indicated that genetic variants in the TIRAP gene might be associated with susceptibility to sepsis-associated ALI in Han Chinese population. However, the association needs to be replicated in independent studies.

Jiang Jinjun

2010-11-01

255

Evaluation of the criteria for angiotomography indications in the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral arterial injury associated with blunt trauma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Blunt carotid and vertebral artery injury (BCVI occur infrequently. The incidence of this type of injury is difficult to determine as many emergency room patients are neurologically asymptomatic. The statistics have not been reported in Brazil. The objectives of the current study were: To evaluate the accuracy of criteria used to recommend angiotomography in the diagnosis of cervical BCVI in 100 patients with blunt cervical trauma in the trauma services section of a Brazilian quaternary care hospital. Methods During a 30-month (2006-2008, all patients admitted to the emergency room of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo with blunt cervical trauma and potential risk of cervical vessel injury, were subjected to cervical angiotomography to diagnose BCVI. The data analyzed are presented as mean ± standard deviation, and statistical analyses included Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Results During the study period 2467 blunt trauma patients were admitted. In 100 patients that met the criteria for inclusion in the study, angiotomography identified 23 with BCVI, including 17 males and six females. The mean patient age was 34.81 ± 14.84 years. Car crash (49% and car-pedestrian accidents (24% were the most frequent causes of injury. Ten patients had internal carotid artery injuries, two patients had common carotid artery injuries, and 11 patients had vertebral artery injuries. Seven patients presented with Degree I arterial injuries, 10 patients presented with Degree II artery injuries, four patients presented with Degree IV artery injuries, one patient presented with a Degree V artery injury, and one patient had a carotid fistula. Seven out of the 23 patients with BCVI (30.4% presented with cervical vertebrae fractures, and 11 out of the 23 patients with BCVI (47.8% presented with facial fractures (LeFort II and III. Conclusions Although there is no consensus regarding the criteria that should be used to indicate angiotomography for BCVI diagnosis, we conclude that the criteria used in the current study led to a diagnosis of BCVI in 0.93% of 2,467 trauma patients, BCVI injuries were associated with more severe traumas and did not affect mortality.

Almerindo Júnior

2010-06-01

256

Oxidative Stress and Modification of Renal Vascular Permeability Are Associated with Acute Kidney Injury during P. berghei ANKA Infection  

OpenAIRE

Malaria associated-acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. However, the causes that lead to a framework of malaria-associated AKI are still poorly characterized. Some clinical studies speculate that oxidative stress products, a characteristic of Plasmodium infection, as well as proinflammatory response induced by the parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the develop...

Elias, Rosa Maria; Correa-costa, Matheus; Barreto, Claudiene Rodrigues; Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Hayashida, Caroline Y.; Castoldi, A?ngela; Gonc?alves, Giselle Martins; Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barboza, Renato; Rios, Francisco Jose?; Keller, Alexandre Castro; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Hyane, Meire Ioshie; D Impe?rio-lima, Maria Regina; Figueiredo-neto, Anto?nio Martins

2012-01-01

257

Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is proposed as an early marker of kidney injury. We report the association of urinary NGAL with indexes of intraoperative renal hypoperfusion (cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time) and acute kidney injury (AKI) after adult cardiac surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Diagnostic test accuracy. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adult cardiac surgical patients (n = 426) in a single center from 2004 to 2006. INDEX TEST: Urinary NGAL immediately and 3, 18, and 24 hours after cardiac surgery, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. REFERENCE TEST OR OUTCOME: Serum creatinine-based definition for AKI (increase in serum creatinine from preoperative values by >50% or >0.3 mg/dL within 48 hours). RESULTS: Mean urinary NGAL level was 165 +/- 663 (SD) ng/mL preoperatively, peaked immediately after cardiac surgery at 1,490 +/- 102 ng/mL, and remained significantly higher 3, 18, and 24 hours after surgery. 85 patients (20%) developed AKI. Areas under the receiveroperating characteristic curve for urinary NGAL immediately after and 3, 18, and 24 hours later as a predictor for AKI were 0.573 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.506 to 0.640), 0.603 (95% CI, 0.533 to 0.674), 0.611 (95% CI, 0.544 to 0.679), and 0.584 (95% CI, 0.510 to 0.657), respectively. Urinary NGAL, but not serum creatinine, level correlated significantly with cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves for cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time to predict AKI were 0.592 (95% CI, 0.518 to 0.666) and 0.593 (95% CI, 0.523 to 0.665), respectively. LIMITATIONS: Limited sensitivity of changes in serum creatinine levels for kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary NGAL has limited diagnostic accuracy to predict AKI defined by change in serum creatinine after cardiac surgery Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9

Wagener, G.; Gubitosa, G.

2008-01-01

258

Annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory 1994 epidemiologic surveillance  

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Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-80 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

NONE

1997-01-01

259

Association between Serum Malondialdehyde Levels and Mortality in Patients with Severe Brain Trauma Injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract There is a hyperoxidative state in patients with trauma brain injury (TBI). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is an end-product formed during oxidative stress, concretely lipid peroxidation. In small studies (highest sample size 50 patients), higher levels of MDA have been found in nonsurviving than surviving patients with TBI. An association between serum MDA levels and mortality in patients with TBI, however, has not been reported. Thus, the objective of this prospective, observational, multicenter study, performed in six Spanish intensive care units, was to determine whether MDA serum levels are associated with early mortality in a large series of patients with severe TBI. Serum MDA levels were measured in 100 patients with severe TBI on day 1 and in 75 healthy controls. The end-point of the study was 30-day mortality. We found higher serum MDA levels in patients with severe TBI than in healthy controls (pScore, age, and computed tomography findings. Survival analysis showed that patients with serum MDA levels higher than 1.96?nmol/mL presented increased 30-day mortality than patients with lower levels (hazard ratio=3.5; 95% CI=1.43-8.47; p<0.001). Thus, the most relevant new finding of our study, the largest to date on serum MDA levels in patients with severe TBI, was an association between serum MDA levels and early mortality. PMID:25054973

Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; Abreu-González, Pedro; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Cáceres, Juan J; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Lorenzo, José M; Molina, Ismael; Jiménez, Alejandro

2015-01-01

260

Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry METHODS: The study included data sets of annual sales of local anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent, prilocaine 3 percent, and articaine 4 percent sold in cartridges. RESULTS: The study results showed a highly significant overrepresentation of NSDs associated with articaine 4 percent, in particular with mandibular blocks. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of NSDs was disproportionate to the market share of three of the four drugs in both national registry data and clinical data. These findings indicate that the main cause of injury was neurotoxicity resulting from administration of the local anesthetic rather than the needle penetration. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians may consider avoiding use of high-concentration (4 percent) anesthetic formulations fo

Hillerup, SØren; Jensen, Rigmor H

2011-01-01

261

Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics : Needle lesion or neurotoxicity?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry. Methods. The study included data sets of annual sales of local anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent, prilocaine 3 percent, and articaine 4 percent sold in cartridges. Results. The study results showed a highly significant overrepresentation of NSDs associated with articaine 4 percent, in particular with mandibular blocks. Conclusions. The distribution of NSDs was disproportionate to the market share of three of the four drugs in both national registry data and clinical data. These findings indicate that the main cause of injury was neurotoxicity resulting from administration of the local anesthetic rather than the needle penetration. Clinical Implications. Clinicians may consider avoiding use of high-concentration (4 percent) anesthetic formulations for blockanesthesia in the trigeminal area in cases in which there are viable alternatives.

Hillerup, SØren; Jensen, Rigmor H.

2011-01-01

262

Identification and validation of a logistic regression model for predicting serious injuries associated with motor vehicle crashes.  

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A multivariate logistic regression model, based upon National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data for calendar years 1999-2008, was developed to predict the probability that a crash-involved vehicle will contain one or more occupants with serious or incapacitating injuries. These vehicles were defined as containing at least one occupant coded with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than or equal to 15, in planar, non-rollover crash events involving Model Year 2000 and newer cars, light trucks, and vans. The target injury outcome measure was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led National Expert Panel on Field Triage in their recent revision of the Field Triage Decision Scheme (American College of Surgeons, 2006). The parameters to be used for crash injury prediction were subsequently specified by the National Expert Panel. Model input parameters included: crash direction (front, left, right, and rear), change in velocity (delta-V), multiple vs. single impacts, belt use, presence of at least one older occupant (? 55 years old), presence of at least one female in the vehicle, and vehicle type (car, pickup truck, van, and sport utility). The model was developed using predictor variables that may be readily available, post-crash, from OnStar-like telematics systems. Model sensitivity and specificity were 40% and 98%, respectively, using a probability cutpoint of 0.20. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the final model was 0.84. Delta-V (mph), seat belt use and crash direction were the most important predictors of serious injury. Due to the complexity of factors associated with rollover-related injuries, a separate screening algorithm is needed to model injuries associated with this crash mode. PMID:21094304

Kononen, Douglas W; Flannagan, Carol A C; Wang, Stewart C

2011-01-01

263

Phytosterols promote liver injury and Kupffer cell activation in parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease.  

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Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a serious complication of PN in infants who do not tolerate enteral feedings, especially those with acquired or congenital intestinal diseases. Yet, the mechanisms underlying PNALD are poorly understood. It has been suggested that a component of soy oil (SO) lipid emulsions in PN solutions, such as plant sterols (phytosterols), may be responsible for PNALD, and that use of fish oil (FO)-based lipid emulsions may be protective. We used a mouse model of PNALD combining PN infusion with intestinal injury to demonstrate that SO-based PN solution causes liver damage and hepatic macrophage activation and that PN solutions that are FO-based or devoid of all lipids prevent these processes. We have furthermore demonstrated that a factor in the SO lipid emulsions, stigmasterol, promotes cholestasis, liver injury, and liver macrophage activation in this model and that this effect may be mediated through suppression of canalicular bile transporter expression (Abcb11/BSEP, Abcc2/MRP2) via antagonism of the nuclear receptors Fxr and Lxr, and failure of up-regulation of the hepatic sterol exporters (Abcg5/g8/ABCG5/8). This study provides experimental evidence that plant sterols in lipid emulsions are a major factor responsible for PNALD and that the absence or reduction of plant sterols is one of the mechanisms for hepatic protection in infants receiving FO-based PN or lipid minimization PN treatment. Modification of lipid constituents in PN solutions is thus a promising strategy to reduce incidence and severity of PNALD. PMID:24107776

El Kasmi, Karim C; Anderson, Aimee L; Devereaux, Michael W; Vue, Padade M; Zhang, Wujuan; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Karpen, Saul J; Sokol, Ronald J

2013-10-01

264

Association between age at diagnosis and degree of liver injury in hepatitis C  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction: A population-based survey conducted in Brazilian capital cities found that only 16% of the population had ever been tested for hepatitis C. These data suggest that much of the Brazilian population with HCV infection remains undiagnosed. The distribution of age ranges at diagnosis and [...] its association with the degree of hepatitis C are still unknown in Brazilian patients. Material and methods: Patients with HCV infection, diagnosed by HCV RNA (Amplicor-HCV, Roche), were included in the study. Patients with HBV or HIV coinfection, autoimmune diseases, or alcohol intake > 20 g/day were excluded. HCV genotyping was performed by sequence analysis, and viral load by quantitative RT-PCR (Amplicor, Roche). The METAVIR classification was used to assess structural liver injury. The Chi-square (?2) test and student's t-test were used for between-group comparisons. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for analysing the correlation between parameters. Results: A total of 525 charts were reviewed. Of the patients included, 49.5% were male, only 10% of the patients were aged less than 30 years; peak prevalence of HCV infection occurred in the 51-to-60 years age range. Genotype 1 accounted for 65.4% of the cases. Information on HCV subtype was obtained in 227 patients; 105 had subtype 1a and 122 had 1b. According to the degree of structural liver injury, 8.3% had F0, 23.4% F1, 19.8% F2, 11.9% F3, and 36.5% F4. Age at diagnosis of hepatitis correlated significantly with fibrosis (rs = 0.307, p

Ana Cláudia de, Oliveira; Ana Clara, Bortotti; Nathália Neves, Nunes; Ibrahin A.H. El, Bacha; Edison Roberto, Parise.

2014-09-01

265

U.S. Department of Energy Office of Health, Safety and Security Illness and Injury Surveillance Program Worker Health at a Glance, 2000-2009  

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The Worker Health at a Glance, 2000 – 2009 provides an overview of selected illness and injury patterns among the current DOE contractor workforce that have emerged over the 10-years covered by this report. This report is a roll-up of data from 16 individual DOE sites, assigned to one of three program offices (Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration). In this report, an absences is defined as 40 or more consecutive work hours (5+ calendar days) off the job. Shorter absences were not included.

none,

2013-01-23

266

Association of Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Traffic Injuries in Tabriz - Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Nowadays, it is well known that the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not confined to children and adolescents. Recent data showed that a considerable portion of the general adult population may be affected by ADHD. On the other hand, the impact of ADHD on driving performance, a major area of adult life, has gained enthusiasm. More recent studies revealed an association between adult ADHD and undesirable driving problems. This study was performed to determine the association between presence of adult ADHD and traffic injuries. Methods In this case-control study, in a 13 month period, 140 subjects (70 drivers/riders injured in traffic accidents, and 70 age- and sex-matched non traumatic controls) were selected to participate in the study and were placed in two groups. Subjects with psychiatric comorbidities were excluded. The Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) self-report (screening version) was used for screening adult ADHD in both groups. Finally, the occurrence of this condition was compared between the case and control groups. Results Sixty- nine males and one female were recruited in each group with a mean age of 29.31±9.32 (18-61) years in the case and 29.03±9.07 (range: 18-60) years in the control groups (P > 0.05). Previous history of traffic accident was significantly higher in the case group (15.7% vs. 4.3%, P=0.024). The mean driving time in a day was also significantly higher in the case group. In the case group, the scores of CAARS (the ADHD index, ADHD symptoms total, inattentive subscale and hyperactive/impulsive subscale) were positive (higher than 70) in 4.3, 10, 7.1 and 10 percent of patients respectively. Among the controls, the corresponding proportions were 4.3, 14.3, 8.6 and 8.6 percent respectively. The two groups were comparable for the mentioned rates. Conclusion The results of this study revealed no significant association between ADHD and traffic injuries in Tabriz- Iran. PMID:22952523

Amiri, Shahrokh; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayon; Jodeiri Eslami, Arash; Navali, Amir Mohammad; Saedi, Farnaz

2011-01-01

267

Association of Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Traffic Injuries in Tabriz - Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nObjective: Nowadays, it is well known that the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is not confined to children and adolescents. Recent data showed that a considerable portion of the general adult population may be affected by ADHD. On the other hand, the impact of ADHD on driving performance, a major area of adult life, has gained enthusiasm. More recent studies revealed an association between adult ADHD and undesirable driving problems. This study was performed to determine the association between presence of adult ADHD and traffic injuries. "nMethods: In this case-control study, in a 13 month period,  140 subjects (70 drivers/riders injured in traffic accidents ,and 70 age- and sex-matched non traumatic controls were selected to participate in the study and were placed in two groups . Subjects with psychiatric comorbidities were excluded. The Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS self-report (screening version was used for screening adult ADHD in both groups. Finally, the occurrence of this condition was compared between the case and control groups. "nResults: Sixty- nine males and one female were recruited in each group with a mean age of 29.31±9.32 (18-61 years in the case and 29.03±9.07 (range: 18-60 years in the control groups (P > 0.05. Previous history of traffic accident was significantly higher in the case group (15.7% vs. 4.3%, P=0.024. The mean driving time in a day was also significantly higher in the case group. In the case group, the scores of CAARS (the ADHD index, ADHD symptoms total, inattentive subscale and hyperactive/impulsive subscale were positive (higher than 70 in 4.3, 10, 7.1 and 10 percent of patients respectively. Among the controls, the corresponding proportions were 4.3, 14.3, 8.6 and 8.6 percent respectively. The two groups were comparable for the mentioned rates. "nConclusion: The results of this study revealed no significant association between ADHD and traffic injuries in Tabriz- Iran

Arash Jodeiri Eslami

2011-06-01

268

The role of endocrine mechanisms in ventilator-associated lung injury in critically ill patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The critically ill subjects are represented by a heterogeneous group of patients suffering from a life-threatening event of different origin, e.g. trauma, cardiopulmonary failure, surgery or sepsis. The majority of these patients are dependent on the artificial lung ventilation, which means a life-saving chance for them. However, the artificial lung ventilation may trigger ventilation-associated lung injury (VALI). The mechanical ventilation at higher volumes (volutrauma) and pressure (barotrauma) can cause histological changes in the lungs including impairments in the gap and adherens junctions and desmosomes. The injured lung epithelium may lead to an impairment of the surfactant production and function, and this may not only contribute to the pathophysiology of VALI but also to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Other components of VALI are atelectrauma and toxic effects of the oxygen. Collectively, all these effects may result in a lung inflammation associated with a subsequent profibrotic changes, endothelial dysfunction, and activation of the local and systemic endocrine responses such as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The present review is aimed to describe some of the pathophysiologic aspects of VALI providing a basis for novel therapeutic strategies in the critically ill patients. PMID:22808908

Penesova, A; Galusova, A; Vigas, M; Vlcek, M; Imrich, R; Majek, M

2012-07-01

269

Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI) in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months wer [...] e included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals). The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

Chaiana, Piovesan; Renata Saraiva, Guedes; Luciano, Casagrande; Thiago Machado, Ardenghi.

2012-10-01

270

Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

Chaiana Piovesan

2012-10-01

271

The association between age, injury, and survival to hospital among a cohort of injured motorcyclists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the significant increase in mortality among older motorcyclists during the past decade, few studies have addressed specific injuries or mortality rates among all those injured. The purpose of this study is to describe the crash and injury characteristics among a cohort of motorcyclists injured in Maryland, and to determine the influence of age and crash type on mortality, injury patterns, and place of death (scene vs. hospital). Possible biases introduced by studying only those hospitalized are described. Based on the findings, specific injury prevention strategies for older vs. younger riders are proposed. PMID:18184487

Dischinger, Patricia C; Ryb, Gabriel E; Ho, Shiu M; Burch, Cynthia A

2007-01-01

272

Trauma Surveillance in Cape Town, South Africa: An Analysis of 9236 Consecutive Trauma Center Admissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

IMPORTANCE Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In many low- and middle-income countries, formal trauma surveillance strategies have not yet been widely implemented. OBJECTIVE To formalize injury data collection at Groote Schuur Hospital, the chief academic hospital of the University of Cape Town, a level I trauma center, and one of the largest trauma referral hospitals in the world. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This was a prospective study of all trauma admissions from October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011, at Groote Schuur Hospital. A standard admission form was developed with multidisciplinary input and was used for both clinical and data abstraction purposes. Analysis of data was performed in 3 parts: demographics of injury, injury risk by location, and access to and maturity of trauma services. Geographic information science was then used to create satellite imaging of injury "hot spots" and to track referral patterns. Finally, the World Health Organization trauma system maturity index was used to evaluate the current breadth of the trauma system in place. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The demographics of trauma patients, the distribution of injury in a large metropolitan catchment, and the patterns of injury referral and patient movement within the trauma system. RESULTS The minimum 34-point data set captured relevant demographic, geographic, incident, and clinical data for 9236 patients. Data field completion rates were highly variable. An analysis of demographics of injury (age, sex, and mechanism of injury) was performed. Most violence occurred toward males (71.3%) who were younger than 40 years of age (74.6%). We demonstrated high rates of violent interpersonal injury (71.6% of intentional injury) and motor vehicle injury (18.8% of all injuries). There was a strong association between injury and alcohol use, with alcohol implicated in at least 30.1% of trauma admissions. From a systems standpoint, the data suggest a mature pattern of referral consistent with the presence of an inclusive trauma system. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The implementation of injury surveillance at Groote Schuur Hospital improved insights about injury risk based on demographics and neighborhood as well as access to service based on patterns of referral. This information will guide further development of South Africa's already advanced trauma system. PMID:24789507

Nicol, Andrew; Knowlton, Lisa Marie; Schuurman, Nadine; Matzopoulos, Richard; Zargaran, Eiman; Cinnamon, Jonathan; Fawcett, Vanessa; Taulu, Tracey; Hameed, S Morad

2014-04-30

273

Air surveillance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

Patton, G.W.

1995-06-01

274

Disrupted autophagy after spinal cord injury is associated with ER stress and neuronal cell death.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autophagy is a catabolic mechanism facilitating degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles in a lysosome-dependent manner. Autophagy flux is necessary for normal neuronal homeostasis and its dysfunction contributes to neuronal cell death in several neurodegenerative diseases. Elevated autophagy has been reported after spinal cord injury (SCI); however, its mechanism, cell type specificity and relationship to cell death are unknown. Using a rat model of contusive SCI, we observed accumulation of LC3-II-positive autophagosomes starting at posttrauma day 1. This was accompanied by a pronounced accumulation of autophagy substrate protein p62, indicating that early elevation of autophagy markers reflected disrupted autophagosome degradation. Levels of lysosomal protease cathepsin D and numbers of cathepsin-D-positive lysosomes were also decreased at this time, suggesting that lysosomal damage may contribute to the observed defect in autophagy flux. Normalization of p62 levels started by day 7 after SCI, and was associated with increased cathepsin D levels. At day 1 after SCI, accumulation of autophagosomes was pronounced in ventral horn motor neurons and dorsal column oligodendrocytes and microglia. In motor neurons, disruption of autophagy strongly correlated with evidence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. As autophagy is thought to protect against ER stress, its disruption after SCI could contribute to ER-stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Consistently, motor neurons showing disrupted autophagy co-expressed ER-stress-associated initiator caspase 12 and cleaved executioner caspase 3. Together, these findings indicate that SCI causes lysosomal dysfunction that contributes to autophagy disruption and associated ER-stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. PMID:25569099

Liu, S; Sarkar, C; Dinizo, M; Faden, A I; Koh, E Y; Lipinski, M M; Wu, J

2015-01-01

275

Postoperative intubation time is associated with acute kidney injury in cardiac surgical patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

IntroductionAcute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with a poor prognosis. Mechanical ventilation is an important risk factor for developing AKI in critically ill patients. Ventilation with high tidal volumes has been associated with postoperative organ dysfunction in cardiac surgical patients. No data are available about the effects of the duration of postoperative respiratory support in the immediate postoperative period on the incidence of AKI in patients after cardiac surgery.MethodWe performed a secondary analysis of 584 elective cardiac surgical patients enrolled in an observational trial on the association between preoperative cerebral oxygen saturation and postoperative organ dysfunction and analyzed the incidence of AKI in patients with different times to extubation. The latter variable was graded in 4 h intervals (if below 16 h) or equal to or greater than 16 h. AKI was staged according to the AKI-network criteria.ResultsOverall, 165 (28.3%) patients developed AKI (any stage), 43 (7.4%) patients needed renal replacement therapy. Patients developing AKI had a significantly (P RPP) in the first 8 hours after surgery (57.4 mmHg (95%CI: 56.0 to 59.0 mmHg)) than patients with a postoperatively preserved renal function (60.5 mmHg ((95%CI: 59.9 to 61.4 mmHg). The rate of AKI increased from 17.0% in patients extubated within 4 h postoperatively to 62.3% in patients ventilated for more than 16 h (P RPP (OR: 0.963/mmHg; 95%CI: 0.934 to 0.992; P RPP as an established AKI ¿ trigger, and that even a moderate delay of extubation increases AKI risk. If replicated independently, these findings may have relevant implications for clinical care and for further studies aiming at the prevention of cardiac surgery. PMID:25277725

Heringlake, Matthias; Nowak, Yvonne; Schön, Julika; Trautmann, Jens; Berggreen, Astrid; Charitos, Efstratios I; Paarmann, Hauke

2014-10-01

276

Comparing the impact of socio-demographic factors associated with traffic injury among older road users and the general population in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of older road users represents a public health issue because older individuals are more susceptible to traffic injury and mortality than the general population. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors and traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Methods An ecological study was conducted using national data in Japan. Multivariate regression methods were applied to investigate the association of traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users with significant demographic, economic, road traffic, and medical/cultural factors. Results Income per capita, total road length, and alcohol consumption per person were significantly associated with traffic injury and traffic mortality both for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Income per capita and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic mortality for both groups. Meanwhile, for both groups, income per capita was positively associated with traffic injury, while total road length and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic injury. Conclusions The effects of socio-demographic factors on traffic injury and traffic mortality in Japan were similar for both the general population and older road users. The study results suggest that injury preventive measures designed for the general population will be beneficial also for older road users in Japan.

Nagata Takashi

2012-10-01

277

Factors associated with swallowing assessment after oral endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation for acute lung injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rationale: Endotracheal intubation is associated with post-extubation swallowing dysfunction, but no guidelines exist for post-extubation swallowing assessments. Objectives: We evaluated the prevalence, patient demographic and clinical factors, and intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital organizational factors associated with swallowing assessment after oral endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in patients with acute lung injury. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study that evaluates 178 eligible patients with ALI who were mechanically ventilated via oral endotracheal tube, recruited from 13 ICUs at 4 teaching hospitals in Baltimore, MD. Patient demographic and clinical factors, type of ICU, and hospital study site were evaluated for their association with completion of a swallowing assessment both in ICU and after ICU before hospital discharge. Factors significantly associated with a swallow assessment were evaluated in a multivariable logistic regression model. Measurements and Main Results: Before hospital discharge, 79 (44%) patients completed a swallowing assessment: 59 (75%) initiated in ICU, 20 (25%) initiated on hospital ward. Female sex (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.01; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.03, 3.97), orotracheal intubation duration (OR=1.13 per day; 95%CI=1.05, 1.22), and hospital study site (site 3 OR=2.41; 95%CI=1.00, 5.78) were independently associated with swallowing assessment. Although hospital site 3 had a 2-fold increase in swallowing assessments in the ICU, there was no significant difference between hospitals in the frequency of swallowing assessments completed after ICU discharge (p=0.287) and in the proportion of patients failing a swallowing assessment conducted in the ICU (p=0.468) or on the ward (p=0.746). Conclusions: In this multi-site prospective study, female sex, intubation duration, and hospital site were associated with post-extubation swallowing assessment. These results demonstrate variability in practice patterns between institutions and highlight the need to determine the appropriate timing and indications for swallowing assessment and to more fully understanding swallowing dysfunction after intubation. PMID:25387319

Brodsky, Martin B; González-Fernández, Marlís; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Shanholtz, Carl; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

2014-11-11

278

Influenza surveillance.  

OpenAIRE

The main objectives of influenza surveillance are: collection of influenza virus isolates and analysis of their antigenic characteristics so that the most appropriate virus variants can be recommended as constituents of influenza vaccines for use during the next epidemiological season; collection and analysis of information on influenza morbidity and mortality; and earliest possible detection of influenza epidemics. Exact estimates of the specific morbidity and mortality due to influenza are ...

Pereira, M.; Assaad, F. A.; Delon, P. J.

1991-01-01

279

Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

Orchard, J.; Chivers, I.; Aldous, D.; Bennell, K.; Seward, H.

2005-01-01

280

Factors associated with rectovaginal injuries in Holstein dairy cows in a herd in Tehran, Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rectovaginal injuries can result in subsequent infertility in cows. In a retrospective study, records of 147 Holstein cows with evidence of rectovaginal injuries were reviewed to determine the odds ratio (OR) of these injuries and their related risk factors. The study was conducted in a large dairy (typical herd size 1420 cows) in Tehran between the years 1993 and 1996. Period prevalences were 0.4% fistula, 1.9% laceration (third degree), 5.7% pneumovagina, 1.5% urovagina and 0.8% mixed injuries. The highest risk occurred among first-calf heifers. Animals with dystocia, first-calf heifers and male calves were at higher risk for rectovaginal injuries. We concluded that (1) handling dystocia with care might have a substantial role in reducing rectovaginal injuries, (2) first-calf heifers are to be under close observation and care during calving, and (3) because rectovaginal injuries reoccur in the next calving, cows with the history of these injuries should be monitored at the next labor. PMID:10878301

Farhoodi, M; Nowrouzian, I; Hovareshti, P; Bolourchi, M; Nadalian, M G

2000-07-20

281

The spatial epidemiology of trauma: the potential of geographic information science to organize data and reveal patterns of injury and services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite important advances in the prevention and treatment of trauma, preventable injuries continue to impact the lives of millions of people. Motor vehicle collisions and violence claim close to 3 million lives each year worldwide. Public health agencies have promoted the need for systematic and ongoing surveillance as a foundation for successful injury control. Surveillance has been used to quantify the incidence of injury for the prioritization of further research, monitor trends over time, identify new injury patterns, and plan and evaluate prevention and intervention efforts. Advances in capability to handle spatial data and substantial increases in computing power have positioned geographic information science (GIS) as a potentially important tool for health surveillance and the spatial organization of health care, and for informing prevention and acute care interventions. Two themes emerge in the trauma literature with respect to GIS theory and techniques: identifying determinants associated with the risk of trauma to guide injury prevention efforts and evaluating the spatial organization and accessibility of acute trauma care systems. We review the current literature on trauma and GIS research and provide examples of the importance of accounting for spatial scale when using spatial analysis for surveillance. The examples illustrate the effect of scale on incident analysis, the geographic variation of major injury across British Columbia's health service delivery areas (HSDAs) and the rates of variation of injury within individual HSDAs. PMID:18841227

Schuurman, Nadine; Hameed, S Morad; Fiedler, Robert; Bell, Nathaniel; Simons, Richard K

2008-10-01

282

Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL as a biomarker for acute canine kidney injury  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomarkers for the early prediction of canine acute kidney injury (AKI are clinically important. Recently, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL was found to be a sensitive biomarker for the prediction of human AKI at a very early stage and the development of AKI after surgery. However, NGAL has not yet been studied with respect to dog kidney diseases. The application of NGAL canine AKI was investigated in this study. Results The canine NGAL gene was successfully cloned and expressed. Polyclonal antibodies against canine NGAL were generated and used to develop an ELISA for measuring NGAL protein in serum and urine samples that were collected from 39 dogs at different time points after surgery. AKI was defined by the standard method, namely a serum creatinine increase of greater than or equal to 26.5 ?mol/L from baseline within 48 h. At 12 h after surgery, compared to the group without AKI (12 dogs, the NGAL level in the urine of seven dogs with AKI was significantly increased (median 178.4 pg/mL vs. 88.0 pg/mL, and this difference was sustained to 72 h. Conclusion As the increase in NGAL occurred much earlier than the increase in serum creatinine, urine NGAL seems to be able to serve as a sensitive and specific biomarker for the prediction of AKI in dogs.

Lee Ya-Jane

2012-12-01

283

[An adhesion dependent injury of target cell membrane by NK cell surface associated metaloprotease].  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity was assayed with P3-X63-Ag8-U1 (P3U-1) target cells which had been previously demonstrated to release endogenous alkaline phosphatase (AlP) on the attack of lymphocyte-activated killer cells). P3U-1 cells showed a definite sensitivity to the AlP-release test, but no response in the Cr-release test at all. The AlP-release was not inhibited by anti-perforin antibody, benzoate, phenyl-methyl-sulfonyl-fluoride, soybean trypsin inhibitor, Succinyl-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-amino-methyl-coumarin, or gamma-radiation to effector cells, but was inhibited by o-phenanthroline, anti-CD13 antibody, and anti-LFA-1 alpha antibody. The AlP-release from P3U-1, therefore, did not appear to be brought on by the NK cell-derived perforin, hydroxy-radical, granzymes or cytosolic proteases. The inhibition by o-phenanthroline and the antibody for CD13 (aminopeptidase N) or the adhesion factor in NK cells, however, indicated that the membrane of such cells with adhesion ligand to NK cells was probably susceptible to NK cell surface-associated metaloprotease in an adhesion dependent manner to the extent of some injury without complete perforation through the membrane. PMID:8569038

Kasatori, N; Urayama, T; Mori, T; Ishikawa, F

1995-12-01

284

Increased transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) immunoreactivity is independently associated with chronic injury in both consequential and primary radiation enteropathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Radiation enteropathy is characterized by sustained increase in transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) immunoreactivity and connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) hyperplasia that may be responsible for progressive fibrosis and lead to clinical complications. We examined to what extent these chronic molecular and cellular phenomena are associated with acute mucosal breakdown (consequential injury) and/or direct (primary) radiation injury in late-responding compartments. Methods and Materials: Rat small intestine was exposed to 50.4 Gy x-irradiation given either over 18 days (2.8 Gy daily or 5.6 Gy every other day) or 9 days (2.8 Gy twice daily or 5.6 Gy daily). Intestinal complications were recorded and groups of animals were euthanized at 2 and 26 weeks to assess subacute and chronic injury. Histopathologic changes were assessed with a radiation injury scoring system (RIS), total TGF-? immunoreactivity was quantified with computerized image analysis, and CTMC hyperplasia was assessed in toluidine blue-stained sections. Results: TGF-? immunoreactivity and CTMC hyperplasia colocalized in areas of injury and were highly significantly correlated. Increased fraction size and decreased overall treatment time were associated with increased RIS (p < 0.01 and p < 0.00001), increased TGF-? immunoreactivity (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001), and degree of CTMC hyperplasia (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001). Postradiation CTMC numbers increased across treatment groups from 2 to 26 weeks (preatment groups from 2 to 26 weeks (p < 0.01). TGF-? immunoreactivity was independently associated with chronic intestinal wall fibrosis (p = 0.003). Conclusion: This in vivo study supports in vitro evidence linking increased TGF-? immunoreactivity and mast cell hyperplasia and strongly suggests their involvement in the molecular pathogenesis of both primary and consequential radiation enteropathy

285

Effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Palm olein oil (PO, obtained from refining of palm oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant vitamins and is widely used as oil in diet in many parts of the world including India. Palm oil has been reported to have beneficial effects in oxidative stress associated with hypertension and arterial thrombosis. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the etiopathology of myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI which is a common sequel of ischemic heart disease. Antioxidants have potent therapeutic effects on both ischemic heart disease and ischemic-reperfusion injury. Information on the effect of PO on ischemic-reperfusion injury is, however, lacking. In the present study, the effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with IRI was investigated in an isolated rat heart model. Wistar rats (150–200 gm of either sex were divided into three different groups (n = 16. Rats were fed with palm olein oil supplemented commercial rat diet, in two different doses [5% v / w (PO 5 and 10% v / w (PO 10 of diet] for 30 days. Control rats (C were fed with normal diet. After 30 days, half the rats from each group were subjected to in vitro myocardial IRI (20 min of global ischemia, followed by 40 min of reperfusion. Hearts from all the groups were then processed for biochemical and histopathological studies. One way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test was applied to test for significance and values are expressed as mean ± SE (p Results There was a significant increase in myocardial catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities with no significant change in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS only in group PO 5 as compared to group C. There was no light microscopic evidence of tissue injury. A significant rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of myocardial endogenous antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GPx along with significant myocyte injury was observed in control rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (C IR. Hearts from palm olein oil fed rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (PO 5 IR and PO 10 IR were protected from increase in TBARS and depletion of endogenous antioxidants as compared to C IR group. No significant myocyte injury was present in the treated groups. Conclusions The present study demonstrated for the first time that dietary palm olein oil protected rat heart from oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury.

Dinda Amit

2004-11-01

286

Botulinum toxin injection for bruxism associated with brain injury: Case report  

OpenAIRE

Bruxism is involuntary grinding of the teeth and can occur as a complication of brain injury. If untreated, bruxism can lead to severe occlusal trauma. Herein, we present a patient with traumatic brain injury and nocturnal bruxism that was treated with botulinum toxin injection. A 21 yr old male patient with traumatic brain injury from a car accident was admitted to our inpatient rehabilitation unit. He had a history of coma for 2 wk in the intensive care unit. The initial cranial computed to...

Serdar Kesikburun, Md; R?dvan Alaca, Md; Berke Aras, Md; I?lknur Tug?cu, Md; Arif Kenan Tan, Md

2014-01-01

287

Traumatic dental injuries and their association with malocclusion in the primary dentition of Irish children.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

This study sought to establish the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition of Irish children and to investigate the relationship between dental trauma and non-nutritive sucking habits.

Norton, Eimear

2012-02-01

288

Association of Traumatic Dental Injuries with Individual-, Sociodemographic- and School-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to assess the association of untreated traumatic dental injuries (TDI) with individual-, sociodemographic- and school-related factors among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 in the city of Goiania, Brazil. A random sample of 2075 schoolchildren was examined and interviewed. Untreated TDI in the permanent incisors was assessed using the methodology of the Brazilian National Oral Health Survey. Rao-S...

Maria do Carmo Matias Freire; Daniela Nobre Vasconcelos; Alessandra dos Santos Vieira; Júlia Arantes Araújo; Rafael da Silveira Moreira; Maria Fátima Nunes

2014-01-01

289

Multiple-center evaluation of mortality associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a competing risks analysis  

OpenAIRE

INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to assess the association between acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in critically ill patients using an original competing risks approach. METHODS: Unselected patients admitted between 1997 and 2009 to 13 French medical or surgical intensive care units were included in this observational cohort study. AKI was defined according to the RIFLE criteria. The following data were recorded: baseline characteristics, daily serum creatinine level, daily Seque...

Clec H, Christophe; Gonzalez, Fre?de?ric; Lautrette, Alexandre; Nguile-makao, Molie?re; Garrouste-orgeas, Mai?te?; Jamali, Samir; Golgran-toledano, Dany; Descorps-declere, Adrien; Chemouni, Frank; Hamidfar-roy, Rebecca; Azoulay, Elie; Timsit, Jean-franc?ois

2011-01-01

290

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin: a promising biomarker for human acute kidney injury  

OpenAIRE

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious condition, the diagnosis of which depends on serum creatinine measurements. Unfortunately, creatinine is a delayed and unreliable indicator of AKI. The lack of early biomarkers has crippled our ability to translate promising experimental therapies to human AKI. Fortunately, understanding the early stress response of the kidney to acute injuries has revealed a number of potential biomarkers. The discovery, translation and validation of neutroph...

Devarajan, Prasad

2010-01-01

291

The Analysis of Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures Associated Injuries in Emergency Department  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: Persons with epilepsy are believed to be at greater risk of incurring accidental injury than those without seizures. During generalized seizures the individual is unable to utilize protective reflexes during falls and may consequently suffer head, orthopedic, or soft tissue injury. Our aim is to evaluate the spectrum of trauma in epilepsy patients presenting to our emergency department as a result of generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed pat...

Ozhasenekler, Ayhan; Orak, Murat; Ustundag, Mehmet; Gokhan, Servan; Altunci, Yusuf Ali; Guloglu, Cahfer

2010-01-01

292

Mandibular alveolar neurovascular bundle injury associated with impacted third molar surgery  

OpenAIRE

Inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle (IANB) injury is one of the most common complications of third molar removal and involves important medicolegal issues. An accurate preoperative radiographic assessment of surgical difficulty is necessary to correctly plan the removal of impacted third molars and to estimate the risk of IANB injury. Therefore, the preoperative knowledge of the exact location of the third molar roots in relation to the mandibular canal is mandatory. A direct contact betwe...

Gallesio, Cesare

2010-01-01

293

Risk Factors at Birth for Permanent Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury and Associated Osseous Deformities  

OpenAIRE

Purpose. To examine the most prevalent risk factors found in patients with permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) to identify better predictors of injury. Methods. A population-based study was performed on 241 OBPI patients who underwent surgical treatment at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Results. Shoulder dystocia (97%) was the most prevalent risk factor. We found that 80% of the patients in this study were not macrosomic, and 43% weighed less than 4000?g at birth. Th...

Nath, Rahul K.; Nirupama Kumar; Avila, Meera B.; Nath, Devin K.; Melcher, Sonya E.; Eichhorn, Mitchell G.; Chandra Somasundaram

2012-01-01

294

Insuficiência renal aguda associada à leptospirose / Leptospirosis-associated acute kidney injury  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A leptospirose é a zoonose mais importante do mundo. Os pacientes são tipicamente homens jovens. Vários fatores estão envolvidos na insuficiência renal aguda (IRA) na leptospirose, incluindo ação nefrotóxica direta da leptospira, hiperbilirrubinemia, rabdomiólise e hipovolemia. Os principais achados [...] histológicos são nefrite intersticial aguda e necrose tubular aguda. A IRA na leptospirose é geralmente não oligúrica e hipocalêmica. Alterações da função tubular precedem a queda na taxa de filtração glomerular, o que poderia explicar a alta frequência de hipocalemia. O tratamento antibiótico é eficaz nas fases precoces e tardias e/ou graves. Para pacientes críticos com IRA na leptospirose, as seguintes condutas são recomendadas: hemodiálise precoce e diária; baixa infusão de volume (devido ao risco de hemorragia pulmonar), e estratégias de proteção pulmonar. A mortalidade na IRA associada à leptospirose está em torno de 22%. Abstract in english Leptospirosis is the most important zoonosis in the world. Patients are typically young men. Several factors are involved in acute kidney injury (AKI) in leptospirosis, including direct nephrotoxic action of the leptospira, hyperbilirubinemia, rhabdomyolysis and hypovolemia. The major histological f [...] indings are acute interstitial nephritis and acute tubular necrosis. Leptospirosis-induced AKI is usually nonoliguric and hypokalemic. Tubular function abnormalities precede a decline in the glomerular filtration rate, which could explain the high frequency of hypokalemia. Antibiotic treatment is efficient in the early and late and/or severe phases. For critically ill leptospirosis patients, the following measures are recommended: early and daily hemodialysis; low volume infusion (due to the risk of pulmonary hemorrhage); and lung-protective strategies. Mortality in leptospirosis-associated AKI is around 22%.

Elizabeth De Francesco, Daher; Krasnalhia Lívia Soares de, Abreu; Geraldo Bezerra da, Silva Junior.

2010-12-01

295

Furosemide is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU) and if there is an association between [...] the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (75 females and 57 males, average age 64 years) remained for analysis. Most exclusions were related to ICU discharge in the first 24 h. Laboratory, sociodemographic and clinical data were collected until the development of AKI, medical discharge or patient death. The incidence of AKI was 55% (95%CI = 46-64). The predictors of AKI found by univariate analysis were septic shock: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.36-7.14; use of furosemide: OR = 3.27, 95%CI = 1.57-6.80, and age: OR = 1.02 (95%CI = 1.00-1.04). Analysis of the subgroup of patients with septic shock showed that the odds ratio of furosemide was 5.5 (95%CI = 1.16-26.02) for development of AKI. Age, use of furosemide, and septic shock were predictors of AKI in critically ill patients. Use of furosemide in the subgroup of patients with sepsis/septic shock increased (68.4%) the chance of development of AKI when compared to the sample as a whole (43.9%).

T.M., Levi; M.S., Rocha; D.N., Almeida; R.T.C., Martins; M.G.C., Silva; N.C.P., Santana; I.T., Sanjuan; C.M.S., Cruz.

2012-09-01

296

Forensic epidemiologic and biomechanical analysis of a pelvic cavity blowout injury associated with ejection from a personal watercraft (jet-ski).  

Science.gov (United States)

Jet-propelled personal watercraft (PWC) or jet-skis have become increasingly popular. The means of propulsion of PWC, which is a jet of water forced out of small nozzle at the rear of the craft, combined with a high risk of falling off of the seat and into close proximity with the water jet stream, raise the potential for a unique type of injury mechanism. The most serious injuries associated with PWC falls are those that occur when the perineum passes in close proximity to the jet nozzle and the high-pressure water stream enters the vaginal or rectal orifice. We describe the forensic investigation into a case of an anovaginal "blowout" injury in a passenger who was ejected from the rear seat position of a PWC and subsequently suffered life-threatening injuries to the pelvic organs. The investigation included a biomechanical analysis of the injury mechanism, a summary of prior published reports of internal pelvic injuries resulting from PWC falls as well as other water sports and activities, and a comparison of the severity of the injuries resulting from differing mechanisms using the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) NISS values for reported PWC injuries [not including the NISS of 38 in this case study] were 11.2 (± 9.5), while the mean value for reported water-skiing falls was half that of the PWC group at 5.6 (± 5.2). It was concluded that the analyzed injuries were unique to a PWC ejection versus other previously described non-PWC-associated water sport injuries. It is recommended that PWC manufacturers help consumers understand the potential risks to passengers with highly visible warnings and reduce injury risk with revised seat design, and/or passenger seat "deadman" switches. PMID:22925030

Freeman, Michael D; Everson, Todd M; Kohles, Sean S

2013-01-01

297

Brown-Sequard syndrome associated with unusual spinal cord injury by a screwdriver stab wound  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Stab wounds resulting in spinal cord injuries are very rare. In direct central back stabbings, the layers of muscles and the spinal column tends to deflect blades, rarely causing injuries to the spinal cord. We report an unusual case of traumatic spinal cord injury by a screwdriver stab, presented as Brown-Séquard syndrome and discuss possible pitfalls on the surgical treatment. Case report: A 34 year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a group assault with a single screwdriver stab wound on the back. Neurological examination revealed an incomplete Brown-Sequard syndrome, with grade IV motor deficit on the left leg and contralateral hemihypoalgesia below T9 level. Radiological evaluation showed a retained 9 cm screwdriver that entered and trespassed the spinal canal at T6 level, reaching the posterior mediastinum with close relation to the thoracic aorta. Vascular injury could not be excluded. The joint decision between the neurosurgery and the vascular surgery teams was the surgical removal of the screwdriver under direct visualization. A left mini-thoracotomy was performed. Simultaneously, a careful dissection was done and screwdriver was firmly pulled back on the opposite path of entry under direct visualization of the aorta. The neurological deficit was maintained immediately after the surgical procedure. Follow-up visit after 1 year showed minor motor deficit and good healing. Conclusions: It is important to consider all aspects of secondary injury on the surgical planning of penetrating spinal cord injury. The secondary injury can be minimized with multidisciplinary planning of the surgical procedure. PMID:24482724

Beer-Furlan, André Luiz; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Tavares, Wagner Malagó; de Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

2014-01-01

298

Toy-Related Injuries Among Children Treated in US Emergency Departments, 1990-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the epidemiology of injuries associated with toys among US children by analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. During 1990-2011, an estimated 3?278?073 (95% confidence interval = 2?762?281-3?793?865) children <18 years old were treated in US emergency departments for toy-related injuries, averaging 149?003 cases annually. The annual injury rate per 10?000 children increased significantly by 39.9% from 18.88 in 1990 to 26.42 in 2011. The number and rate of injuries peaked at age 2 years; 63.4% of patients were male; and 80.3% of injuries occurred at home. Ride-on toys accounted for 34.9% of injuries and 42.5% of hospital admissions. This study is the first to comprehensively investigate toy-related injuries among children using a nationally representative data set. The increasing number and rate of toy-related injuries to children, especially those associated with ride-on toys, underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent these injuries. PMID:25452624

Abraham, Vihas M; Gaw, Christopher E; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

2015-02-01

299

Clinical features of gastroduodenal injury associated with long-term low-dose aspirin therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Low-dose aspirin (LDA is clinically used for the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events with the advent of an aging society. On the other hand, a very low dose of aspirin (10 mg daily decreases the gastric mucosal prostaglandin levels and causes significant gastric mucosal damage. The incidence of LDA-induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury and bleeding has increased. It has been noticed that the incidence of LDA-induced gastrointestinal hemorrhage has increased more than that of non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID-induced lesions. The pathogenesis related to inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 includes reduced mucosal flow, reduced mucus and bicarbonate secretion, and impaired platelet aggregation. The pathogenesis related to inhibition of COX-2 involves reduced angiogenesis and increased leukocyte adherence. The pathogenic mechanisms related to direct epithelial damage are acid back diffusion and impaired platelet aggregation. The factors associated with an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal (GI complications in subjects taking LDA are aspirin dose, history of ulcer or upper GI bleeding, age > 70 years, concomitant use of non-aspirin NSAIDs including COX-2-selective NSAIDs, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. Moreover, no significant differences have been found between ulcer and non-ulcer groups in the frequency and severity of symptoms such as nausea, acid regurgitation, heartburn, and bloating. It has been shown that the ratios of ulcers located in the body, fundus and cardia are significantly higher in bleeding patients than the ratio of gastroduodenal ulcers in patients taking LDA. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the risk of developing gastric and duodenal ulcers. In contrast to NSAID-induced gastrointestinal ulcers, a well-tolerated histamine H2-receptor antagonist is reportedly effective in prevention of LDA-induced gastrointestinal ulcers. The eradication of H. pylori is equivalent to treatment with omeprazole in preventing recurrent bleeding. Continuous aspirin therapy for patients with gastrointestinal bleeding may increase the risk of recurrent bleeding but potentially reduces the mortality rates, as stopping aspirin therapy is associated with higher mortality rates. It is very important to prevent LDA-induced gastroduodenal ulcer complications including bleeding, and every effort should be exercised to prevent the bleeding complications.

Junichi Iwamoto

2013-01-01

300

C/EBP homologous protein deficiency aggravates acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the pathophysiological role of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP in severe acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. METHODS: A severe acute pancreatitis model was induced with 6 injections of cerulein (Cn, 50 ?g/kg at 1-h intervals, then intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 7.5 mg/kg in CHOP-deficient (Chop-/- mice and wild-type (WT mice. Animals were sacrificed under anesthesia, 3 h or 18 h after LPS injection. Serum amylase, lipase, and cytokines [interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?], pathological changes, acute lung injury, and apoptosis in the pancreas were evaluated. Serum amylase and lipase activities were detected using a medical automatic chemical analyzer. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to evaluate TNF-? and IL-6 levels in mouse serum and lung tissue homogenates. Apoptotic cells in sections of pancreatic tissues were determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL analysis. The mouse carotid arteries were cannulated and arterial blood samples were collected for PaO2 analysis. The oxygenation index was expressed as PaO2/FiO2. RESULTS: Administration of Cn and LPS for 9 and 24 h induced severe acute pancreatitis in Chop-/- and WT mice. When comparing Chop-/- mice and WT mice, we observed that CHOP-deficient mice had greater increases in serum TNF-? (214.40 ± 19.52 pg/mL vs 150.40 ± 16.70 pg/mL; P = 0.037, amylase (4236.40 ± 646.32 U/L vs 2535.30 ± 81.83 U/L; P = 0.041, lipase (1678.20 ± 170.57 U/L vs 1046.21 ± 35.37 U/L; P = 0.008, and IL-6 (2054.44 ± 293.81 pg/mL vs 1316.10 ± 108.74 pg/mL; P = 0.046 than WT mice. The histopathological changes in the pancreases and lungs, decreased PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and increased TNF-? and IL-6 levels in the lungs were greater in Chop-/- mice than in WT mice (pancreas: Chop-/- vs WT mice, hemorrhage, P = 0.005; edema, P = 0.005; inflammatory cells infiltration, P = 0.005; total scores, P = 0.006; lung: hemorrhage, P = 0.017; edema, P = 0.017; congestion, P = 0.017; neutrophil infiltration, P = 0.005, total scores, P = 0.001; PaO2/FiO2 ratio: 393 ± 17.65 vs 453.8, P = 0.041; TNF-?: P = 0.043; IL-6, P = 0.040. Results from TUNEL analysis indicated increased acinar cell apoptosis in mice following the induction of acute pancreatitis. However, Chop-/- mice displayed significantly reduced pancreatic apoptosis compared with the WT mice (201.50 ± 31.43 vs 367.00 ± 47.88, P = 0.016. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CHOP can exert protective effects against acute pancreatitis and limit the spread of inflammatory damage to the lungs.

Te-I Weng

2013-01-01

301

Gastrointestinal injury associated with NSAID use: a case study and review of risk factors and preventative strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents and are among the most commonly used classes of medications worldwide. However, their use has been associated with potentially serious dose-dependent gastrointestinal (GI) complications such as upper GI bleeding. GI complications resulting from NSAID use are among the most common drug side effects in the United States, due to the widespread use of NSAIDs. The risk of upper GI complications can occur even with short-term NSAID use, and the rate of events is linear over time with continued use. Although gastroprotective therapies are available, they are underused, and patient and physician awareness and recognition of some of the factors influencing the development of NSAID-related upper GI complications are limited. Herein, we present a case report of a patient experiencing a gastric ulcer following NSAID use and examine some of the risk factors and potential strategies for prevention of upper GI mucosal injuries and associated bleeding following NSAID use. These risk factors include advanced age, previous history of GI injury, and concurrent use of medications such as anticoagulants, aspirin, corticosteroids, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Strategies for prevention of GI injuries include anti-secretory agents, gastroprotective agents, alternative NSAID formulations, and nonpharmacologic therapies. Greater awareness of the risk factors and potential therapies for GI complications resulting from NSAID use could help improve outcomes for patients requiring NSAID treatment. PMID:25653559

Goldstein, Jay L; Cryer, Byron

2015-01-01

302

The association between a lifetime history of a neck injury in a motor vehicle collision and future neck pain: a population-based cohort study  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this population-based cohort study was to investigate the association between a lifetime history of neck injury from a motor vehicle collision and the development of troublesome neck pain. The current evidence suggests that individuals with a history of neck injury in a traffic collision are more likely to experience future neck pain. However, these results may suffer from residual confounding. Therefore, there is a need to test this association in a large population-based co...

Nolet, Paul S.; Co?te?, Pierre; Cassidy, J. David; Carroll, Linda J.

2010-01-01

303

New thoughts on the origin of Pellegrini-Stieda: the association of PCL injury and medial femoral epicondylar periosteal stripping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past 100 years, Pellegrini-Stieda disease has been described as calcification and ossification within the tibial collateral ligament, although these typical radiographic findings are often located more superior than the most proximal extent of the ligament. In this article, we demonstrate four magnetic resonance imaging cases of knee trauma with complete posterior cruciate ligament tear or avulsion, each demonstrating that injury to the medial collateral ligamentous complex can involve significant stripping of the tissue proximal to the medial epicondyle. Classic radiographic findings of Pellegrini-Stieda calcifications can be caused by stripping of the femoral periosteum proximal to the femoral attachment of the tibial collateral ligament, which appears to be associated with a complete posterior cruciate ligament injury. (orig.)

304

New thoughts on the origin of Pellegrini-Stieda: the association of PCL injury and medial femoral epicondylar periosteal stripping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the past 100 years, Pellegrini-Stieda disease has been described as calcification and ossification within the tibial collateral ligament, although these typical radiographic findings are often located more superior than the most proximal extent of the ligament. In this article, we demonstrate four magnetic resonance imaging cases of knee trauma with complete posterior cruciate ligament tear or avulsion, each demonstrating that injury to the medial collateral ligamentous complex can involve significant stripping of the tissue proximal to the medial epicondyle. Classic radiographic findings of Pellegrini-Stieda calcifications can be caused by stripping of the femoral periosteum proximal to the femoral attachment of the tibial collateral ligament, which appears to be associated with a complete posterior cruciate ligament injury. (orig.)

McAnally, James L.; Southam, Samuel L.; Mlady, Gary W. [University of New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2009-02-15

305

Injuries in women's professional soccer  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The injury data from the first two seasons of the Women's United Soccer Association (WUSA) were analysed to determine the injury incidence, anatomic location of injuries, and relation of player position.

Giza, E.; Mithofer, K.; Farrell, L.; Zarins, B.; Gill, T.; Drawer, S.

2005-01-01

306

Association between nationality and occupational injury risk on Danish non-passenger merchant ships  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Maritime occupational accidents can be determined by several factors, among which human characteristics play a crucial role. Worker's safety behaviour depends on individual physical and mental characteristics as well as on his/her social and cultural background. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime Authority were collected. Publicly available employment data were used to calculate the cumulative incidence rates for Danish, non-Danish European Union (EU) and non-EU employees working on non-passenger ships. Crude injury rates and rates adjusted for occupational status were statistically compared. RESULTS: The majority of accidents happened to Danish and non-EU workers on non-passenger ships. The injury rate varied around 70 per 1000 among Danish seafarers, while the rate for non-Danish employees was about 30 per 1000. Crude and adjusted relative risk was found significantly lower for EU (0.33-0.46;0.26-0.39) and for non-EU (0.41-0.53; 0.54-0.65) workers compared to Danish seafarers. The difference decreased, but remained significant in most cases for serious injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational injury rates show considerable nationality differences as reported from non-passenger ships registered under the Danish flag. The differences can only be partly explained by varying reporting practices. The findings confirm the results of previous studies and point out the need for effective interventions in the high-risk groups.

Adam, B.

2013-01-01

307

Vascular injury associated with blunt trauma without dislocation of the knee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Failure to recognize popliteal artery injury and restore vessel continuity of flow after blunt trauma is a major cause of lower extremity amputation and morbidity. A high index of suspicion and early recognition of the injury are paramount for limb salvage. We experienced a rare case of poplitial artery occlusion with the presence of arterial pulses due to collateral circulation after blunt trauma. Expeditious revascularization was achieved by using posterior approach, allowing two surgical teams to work simultaneously. This case illustrates that, even in the absence of knee dislocation, surgeons must always consider the possibility of a popliteal artery damage whenever a blunt trauma near the knee. PMID:20635459

Kim, Jong-Woo; Sung, Chang-Meen; Cho, Se-Hyun; Hwang, Sun-Chul

2010-09-01

308

Medical expenditures associated with nonfatal occupational injuries among immigrant and U.S.-born workers  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background No national study has investigated whether immigrant workers are less likely than U.S.-workers to seek medical treatment after occupational injuries and whether the payment source differs between two groups. Methods Using the 2004–2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS data, we estimated the annual incidence rate of nonfatal occupational injuries per 100 workers. Logistic regression models were fitted to test whether injured immigrant workers were less likely than U.S.-born workers to seek professional medical treatment after occupational injuries. We also estimated the average mean medical expenditures per injured worker during the 2?year MEPS reference period using linear regression analysis, adjusting for gender, age, race, marital status, education, poverty level, and insurance. Types of service and sources of payment were compared between U.S.-born and immigrant workers. Results A total of 1,909 injured U.S.-born workers reported 2,176 occupational injury events and 508 injured immigrant workers reported 560 occupational injury events. The annual nonfatal incidence rate per 100 workers was 4.0% (95% CI: 3.8%-4.3% for U.S.-born workers and 3.0% (95% CI: 2.6%-3.3% for immigrant workers. Medical treatment was sought after 77.3% (95% CI: 75.1%-79.4% of the occupational injuries suffered by U.S.-born workers and 75.6% (95% CI: 69.8%-80.7% of the occupational injuries suffered by immigrant workers. The average medical expenditure per injured worker in the 2?year MEPS reference period was $2357 for the U.S.-born workers and $2,351 for immigrant workers (in 2009 U.S. dollars, P?=?0.99. Workers’ compensation paid 57.0% (95% CI: 49.4%-63.6% of the total expenditures for U.S.-born workers and 43.2% (95% CI: 33.0%-53.7% for immigrant workers. U.S.-born workers paid 6.7% (95% CI: 5.5%-8.3% and immigrant workers paid 7.1% (95% CI: 5.2%-9.6% out-of-pocket. Conclusions Immigrant workers had a statistically significant lower incidence rate of nonfatal occupational injuries than U.S.-born workers. There was no significant difference in seeking medical treatment and in the mean expenditures per injured worker between the two groups. The proportion of total expenditures paid by workers’ compensation was smaller (marginally significant for immigrant workers than for U.S.-born workers.

Xiang Huiyun

2012-08-01

309

Association between head injury and helmet use in alpine skiers: Cohort study from a Swiss level I trauma center.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between helmet use during alpine skiing and incidence and severity of head injuries was analyzed. All patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center for traumatic brain injuries (TBI) sustained due to skiing accidents during the seasons 2000/01-2010/11 were eligible. Primary outcome was the association between helmet use and severity of TBI measured by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), CT-results, and necessity of neurosurgical intervention. Of 1362 patients injured during alpine skiing, 245 (18%) sustained TBI and were included. TBI was fatal in 3%. Head injury was minor (GCS 13-15) in 76%, 6% moderate and 14% severe. Number and percentage of TBI patients showed no significant trend over the investigated seasons. Forty-five percent of the 245 patients had pathological CT-findings and 26% of these required neurosurgical intervention. Helmet use increased from 0% in 2000/2001 to 71% in 2010/2011 (phelmet, showed an adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.44 (p=0.430) for suffering moderate to severe head injury in helmet users. Analyses comparing off-piste to on-slope skiers revealed a significantly increased OR among off-piste skiers of 7.62 (p=0.004) for sustaining a TBI requiring surgical intervention. Despite increases in helmet use we found no decrease in severe TBI among alpine skiers. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant difference in TBI with regard to helmet use, but increased risk for off-piste skiers. The limited protection of helmets and dangers of skiing off-piste should be targeted by prevention programs. Helmet; skiing; head trauma; TBI. PMID:25244343

Baschera, Dominik; Hasler, Rebecca Maria; Taugwalder, David; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis; Raabe, Andreas

2014-09-22

310

The first description of severe anemia associated with acute kidney injury and adult minimal change disease: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute kidney injury in the setting of adult minimal change disease is associated with proteinuria, hypertension and hyperlipidemia but anemia is usually absent. Renal biopsies exhibit foot process effacement as well as tubular interstitial inflammation, acute tubular necrosis or intratubular obstruction. We recently managed a patient with unique clinical and pathological features of minimal change disease, who presented with severe anemia and acute kidney injury, an association not previously reported in the literature. Case presentation A 60-year-old Indian-American woman with a history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus for 10 years presented with progressive oliguria over 2 days. Laboratory data revealed severe hyperkalemia, azotemia, heavy proteinuria and progressively worsening anemia. Urine eosinophils were not seen. Emergent hemodialysis, erythropoietin and blood transfusion were initiated. Serologic tests for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative. Complement levels (C3, C4 and CH50 were normal. Renal biopsy unexpectedly displayed 100% foot process effacement. A 24-hour urine collection detected 6.38 g of protein. Proteinuria and anemia resolved during six weeks of steroid therapy. Renal function recovered completely. No signs of relapse were observed at 8-month follow-up. Conclusion Adult minimal change disease should be considered when a patient presents with proteinuria and severe acute kidney injury even when accompanied by severe anemia. This report adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in addition to steroid therapy, prompt initiation of erythropoietin therapy may facilitate full recovery of renal function in acute kidney injury.

Qian Yimei

2009-01-01

311

Treatment with neutralising antibody against cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) protects rats against acute pancreatitis associated lung injury  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND—Lung injury manifest clinically as adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality following acute pancreatitis (AP). Neutrophils play a critical role in the progression of AP to ARDS. C-x-C chemokines are potent neutrophil chemoattractants and activators and have been implicated in AP.?AIMS—To evaluate the effect of blocking the C-x-C chemokine, cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC), in AP on pancreatic inflammation and the associated lung injury in rats.?METHODS—AP was induced by hourly intraperitoneal injections of caerulein. Goat anti-CINC antibody was administered either before or after starting caerulein injections to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects, respectively. Severity of AP was determined by measuring plasma amylase, pancreatic water content, and pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as a measure of neutrophil sequestration in the pancreas. Lung injury was determined by measurement of pulmonary microvascular permeability and lung MPO activity.?RESULTS—Treatment with anti-CINC antibody had little effect on caerulein induced pancreatic damage. However, it reduced the caerulein mediated increase in lung MPO activity as well as lung microvascular permeability when administered either prophylactically (lung MPO (fold increase over control): 1.53 (0.21) v 3.30 (0.46), p<0.05; microvascular permeability (L/P%): 0.42 (0.07) v 0.77 (0.11), p<0.05) or therapeutically (lung MPO (fold increase over control): 2.13 (0.10) v 4.42 (0.65), p<0.05; microvascular permeability (L/P%): 0.31 (0.05) v 0.79 (0.13), p<0.05).?CONCLUSION—Treatment with anti-CINC antibody afforded significant protection against pancreatitis associated lung injury. These results suggest that CINC plays an important role in the systemic inflammatory response in AP.???Keywords: chemokines; acute pancreatitis; caerulein; adult respiratory distress syndrome PMID:11076884

Bhatia, M; Brady, M; Zagorski, J; Christmas, S; Campbell, F; Neoptolemos, J; Slavin, J

2000-01-01

312

Renal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1 expression in children with acute kidney injury and Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in the serum, urine and renal tissues of children with acute kidney injury (AKI) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (A-on-C). A prospective single-center evaluation of the serum, urine and renal NGAL and KIM-1 levels was performed in a cohort of children. Blood and 5-ml urine samples were collected from each patient for the analysis of NGAL and KIM-1 levels using an ELISA. In addition, the expression of NGAL and KIM-1 in the kidney was examined using immunohistochemistry in patients with A-on-C and HSPN. The expression of serum cystatin C, ?2-macroglobulin and serum creatinine (SCr), as well as urinary ?2-MG and SCr, in the patients with A-on-C was significantly higher than that of HSPN patients, and the expression of NGAL and KIM-1 in the serum and urine in the A-on-C patients was also significantly higher than that of HSPN patients. However, there were no significant differences in the urine protein levels between the two groups. NGAL and KIM-1 were expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells, and the expression of NGAL and KIM-1 in the A-on-C patients was significantly higher than that in HSPN patients. In addition, the urine NGAL and KIM-1 levels were negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate, but there was no significant correlation between the urine NGAL/KIM-1 and urine protein levels. The changes in serum and urine NGAL and KIM-1 levels may be applied to the diagnosis of A-on-C. PMID:24940398

DU, Yue; Hou, Ling; Guo, Jinjie; Sun, Tingting; Wang, Xiuli; Wu, Yubin

2014-05-01

313

Correlation of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin with acute kidney injury in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ML Patel,1 Rekha Sachan,2 Radheyshyam Gangwar,3 Pushpalata Sachan,4 SM Natu51Department of Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 3Department of Critical Care, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 4Department of Physiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 5Department of Pathology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP remain one of the largest single causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, accounting for 16.1% of maternal deaths in developed countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate acute kidney injury (AKI in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and to examine the correlation of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL with acute kidney injury. This prospective case control study was carried out over a period of 1 year. After written, informed consent and ethical clearance, 149 cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were screened, and seven were lost to follow-up. Acute kidney injury was detected in 88 cases and acute renal failure in 30 cases of HDP. Thirty-one healthy pregnant nonhypertensive women were enrolled as controls. Quantitative measurement of serum NGAL levels was done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. As per the Kidney Diseases Improving Global Outcomes International guidelines acute kidney injury network (AKIN, 50 cases (42.37% of AKI stage I, 38 (32.2% cases of AKI stage II, and 30 (25.42% cases of renal failure were detected. Serum NGAL had a positive association with increasing proteinuria. It also had a positive correlation with systolic blood pressure (r~0.36, diastolic blood pressure (r~0.37, and serum creatinine (r~0.4. NGAL was found to be significantly correlated with creatinine in the cases with the value of the correlation coefficient being 0.4. This direct correlation might be a consequence of endothelial dysfunction on which hypertension and proteinuria probably depends.Keywords: hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preeclampsia, eclampsia, serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, acute kidney injury

Patel ML

2013-10-01

314

Constipation Associated with Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior Exhibited by a Child Diagnosed with Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

A functional analysis was conducted to identify the role environmental variables had on the maintenance of self-injury and aggression. At the outset of the evaluation, an abdominal x-ray showed a moderate to large amount of stool throughout the colon (i.e., constipation). Consequently, medication was administered to promote bowel emptying. Initial…

Christensen, Tory J.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Bosch, Joni J.; Falcomata, Terry S.; Luke, Jeffrey R.; Andelman, Marc S.

2009-01-01

315

LUNG INJURY AFTER SILICA INSTILLATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH AN ACCUMULATION OF IRON IN RATS  

Science.gov (United States)

Lung exposures to incompletely chelated iron can result in a neutrophilic alveolitis. We tested the hypothesis that the acute lung inflammatory injury after intratracheal instillation of mineral oxides into rats is proportional to the concentrations of surface iron complexed by t...

316

Linguistic Factors Associated with Self-Inflicted Injury in Borderline Personality Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study builds on previous research, which demonstrated higher levels of depressive and interpersonal conflict language in first-person narrative accounts of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA) in borderline personality disorder. The present study was designed to examine the semantic similarity of time-sequences…

Birdwell, Benjamin Park

2009-01-01

317

Risk Factors at Birth for Permanent Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury and Associated Osseous Deformities  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. To examine the most prevalent risk factors found in patients with permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) to identify better predictors of injury. Methods. A population-based study was performed on 241 OBPI patients who underwent surgical treatment at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Results. Shoulder dystocia (97%) was the most prevalent risk factor. We found that 80% of the patients in this study were not macrosomic, and 43% weighed less than 4000?g at birth. The rate of instrument use was 41% , which is 4-fold higher than the 10% predicted for all vaginal deliveries in the United States. Posterior subluxation and glenoid version measurements in children with no finger movement at birth indicated a less severe shoulder deformity in comparison with those with finger movement. Conclusions. The average birth weight in this study was indistinguishable from the average birth weight reported for all brachial plexus injuries. Higher birth weight does not, therefore, affect the prognosis of brachial plexus injury. We found forceps/vacuum delivery to be an independent risk factor for OBPI, regardless of birth weight. Permanently injured patients with finger movement at birth develop more severe bony deformities of the shoulder than patients without finger movement. PMID:22518326

Nath, Rahul K.; Kumar, Nirupama; Avila, Meera B.; Nath, Devin K.; Melcher, Sonya E.; Eichhorn, Mitchell G.; Somasundaram, Chandra

2012-01-01

318

Donepezil in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction associated with traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholinesterase inhibitors are known to enhance cognitive function among patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. It is quite possible that this clinical benefit may extend to other patient groups, yet this issue awaits further exploration. This study examines the use of the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil in the treatment of patients with a history of brain injury and subsequent cognitive impairment. The sample was comprised of 53 ambulatory psychiatric patients who were receiving care for psychiatric sequelae of brain injury. In this sample, residual cognitive impairment was treated with adjunctive donepezil. This study reports the clinical assessments of this patient sample in outpatient follow-up for up to two years duration. Assessments of cognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Hooper Visual Organization Test were obtained on a subset of this sample (N = 22). Clinician assessment ratings were analyzed for the entire sample. Results indicated an improvement in full-scale IQ (t = 2.5, p = 0.02) score as well as clinician-based ratings (t = 12.2, p < 0.0001). Further research will likely delineate whether specific types of brain injuries are most responsive to cholinesterase inhibitors. These findings suggest that donepezil may enhance clinical response by complementing the medication management of other concomitant psychiatric disturbances related to brain injury. PMID:10984001

Whelan, F J; Walker, M S; Schultz, S K

2000-09-01

319

Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardiopulmonary Emergency Department Visits Assessed through Syndromic Surveillance  

OpenAIRE

Background: In June 2008, burning peat deposits produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina. Although the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution is well established, the health effects associated with exposure to wildfire emissions are less well understood.

Rappold, Ana G.; Stone, Susan L.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Neas, Lucas M.; Kilaru, Vasu J.; Carraway, Martha Sue; Szykman, James J.; Ising, Amy; Cleve, William E.; Meredith, John T.; Vaughan-batten, Heather; Deyneka, Lana; Devlin, Robert B.

2011-01-01

320

Propositions for the implementation and reinforcement of surveillance activities of exposure and risks associated to radon inhalation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report treats exclusively of exposure by inhalation. It expresses the propositions relative to the implantation and the development of an information network allowing to characterize the radon exposures by inhalation and associated risks. (N.C.)

321

Vertebral artery injury associated with cervical spine fracture-dislocation. Prevention of distal embolism using coil embolization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the efficacy of coil embolization of the injured vertebral artery associated with fracture-dislocation of the cervical spine for the prevention of embolic stroke. Between 2001 and 2010, 27 patients underwent reduction of the dislocation fracture of the cervical spine. In 4 cases, preoperative MRI revealed disappearance of the flow-void signal of the unilateral vertebral artery in the foramen transversarium, and we performed further investigation of the injury of the vertebral artery with digital subtraction angiography. In all 4 cases, digital subtraction angiography revealed occlusion of the unilateral vertebral artery. After conviction of the existence of colateral cerebral blood flow from the contra-lateral vertebral arteries or external carotid arteries, we embolized the proximal part of the occluded vertebral arteries in endovascular procedures with detachable coils for the prevention of the embolic stroke associated with orthopedical procedures. All patients underwent reduction of the cervical dislocation after coil embolization, and the operations were performed uneventfully. During the follow-up period (66.8 months on the average), there were no episodes of vertebrobasilar infarction. Perioperative and postoperative antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapies were not necessary. Dislocation fracture of the cervical spine is frequently associated with injuries of vertebral artery, and the management of the risk for cerebral infarction remainof the risk for cerebral infarction remains controversial. Preoperative embolization of the injured vertebral artery can be an effective procedure in preventing the embolic stroke caused by orthopedical procedures. (author)

322

Chronic xerostomia increases esophageal acid exposure and is associated with esophageal injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic xerostomia on parameters of gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. DESIGN: Observational study of a cohort of male patients with xerostomia and age-matched control subjects. SETTING: Tertiary-care Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male patients with chronic xerostomia secondary to radiation for head and neck cancers or medications. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects with comparable alcohol and smoking histories. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Esophageal motility was similar in patients with xerostomia and controls. Clearance of acid from the esophagus and 24-hour intraesophageal pH were markedly abnormal in patients with xerostomia. Symptoms and signs of esophagitis were significantly more frequent in subjects with xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic xerostomia may predispose to esophageal injury, at least in part, by decreasing the clearance of acid from the esophagus and altering 24-hour intraesophageal pH. Esophageal injury is a previously unreported complication of long-term salivary deficiency.

Korsten, M.A.; Rosman, A.S.; Fishbein, S.; Shlein, R.D.; Goldberg, H.E.; Biener, A. (Gastrointestinal Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York (USA))

1991-06-01

323

Chronic xerostomia increases esophageal acid exposure and is associated with esophageal injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic xerostomia on parameters of gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. DESIGN: Observational study of a cohort of male patients with xerostomia and age-matched control subjects. SETTING: Tertiary-care Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male patients with chronic xerostomia secondary to radiation for head and neck cancers or medications. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects with comparable alcohol and smoking histories. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Esophageal motility was similar in patients with xerostomia and controls. Clearance of acid from the esophagus and 24-hour intraesophageal pH were markedly abnormal in patients with xerostomia. Symptoms and signs of esophagitis were significantly more frequent in subjects with xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic xerostomia may predispose to esophageal injury, at least in part, by decreasing the clearance of acid from the esophagus and altering 24-hour intraesophageal pH. Esophageal injury is a previously unreported complication of long-term salivary deficiency

324

Ophthalmoplegia associated with transorbital penetrating brainstem injury by broken fishing pole  

OpenAIRE

Aki Kaneko-Ohtaki, Shigeki Machida, Takeshi Sugawara, Daijiro KurosakaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Iwate, JapanAbstract: We report our findings in a case of ophthalmoplegia caused by a transorbital penetrating brainstem injury. An 8-year-old boy was accidentally injured by a broken fishing fiberglass pole which penetrated through the right orbit and entered the brainstem. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a linear wound that entered and passed thro...

Kaneko-Ohtaki A; Machida S; Sugawara T; Kurosaka D

2011-01-01

325

Preischemic targeting of HIF prolyl hydroxylation inhibits fibrosis associated with acute kidney injury  

OpenAIRE

Acute kidney injury (AKI) due to ischemia is an important contributor to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Key mediators of cellular adaptation to hypoxia are oxygen-sensitive hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), which are regulated by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD)-containing dioxygenases. While activation of HIF protects from ischemic cell death, HIF has been shown to promote fibrosis in experimental models of CKD. The impact of HIF activation on AKI-induced fibrosis has not b...

Kapitsinou, Pinelopi P.; Jaffe, Jonathan; Michael, Mark; Swan, Christina E.; Duffy, Kevin J.; Erickson-miller, Connie L.; Haase, Volker H.

2012-01-01

326

Association of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and heterotopic ossification in spinal cord injury  

OpenAIRE

Our objective was to explore the relationship between low vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Ninety-six subjects with acute or chronic motor complete SCI participated. Levels of serum vitamin D25(OH), calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were collected, and information regarding nutritional patterns and fracture history was obtained from subjects. Evidence of current or previous HO was ascertained thr...

Christina V Oleson, Md; Benjamin J Seidel, Do; Tingting Zhan, Phd

2013-01-01

327

Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI) in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip co...

Chaiana Piovesan; Renata Saraiva Guedes; Luciano Casagrande; Thiago Machado Ardenghi

2012-01-01

328

Improving injury prevention through health information technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health information technology is an emerging area of focus in clinical medicine with the potential to improve injury and violence prevention practice. With injuries being the leading cause of death for Americans aged 1-44 years, greater implementation of evidence-based preventive services, referral to community resources, and real-time surveillance of emerging threats is needed. Through a review of the literature and capturing of current practice in the field, this paper showcases how health information technology applied to injury and violence prevention can lead to strengthened clinical preventive services, more rigorous measurement of clinical outcomes, and improved injury surveillance, potentially resulting in health improvement. PMID:25441230

Haegerich, Tamara M; Sugerman, David E; Annest, Joseph L; Klevens, Joanne; Baldwin, Grant T

2015-02-01

329

Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardiopulmonary Emergency Department Visits Assessed Through Syndromic Surveillance  

Science.gov (United States)

In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution is...

330

The role of cardiovascular disease-associated iron overload in Libby amphibole-induced acute pulmonary injury and inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary toxicity induced by asbestos is thought to be mediated through redox-cycling of fiber-bound and bioavailable iron (Fe). We hypothesized that Libby amphibole (LA)-induced cute lung injury will be exacerbated in rat models of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-associated Fe-overload and oxidative stress. Healthy male Wistar Kyoto (WKY), spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and SH heart failure (SHHF) rats were intratracheally instilled with 0.0, 0.25 or 1.0? mg/rat LA and examined at 1 day, 1 week or 1 month. Although histologically it was not possible to distinguish severity differences between strains in LA-induced initial inflammation and later fibrosis, quantitative assessment of biomarkers showed strain-related differences. LA-induced neutrophilic inflammation was reversible in WKY but persisted more in SH and SHHF. Lung MIP-2 mRNA increased only in WKY at 1 day in response to LA but not in SH and SHHF. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein increased in SH but not WKY at 1 week and 1 month, while ?-glutamyltransferase and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase activities increased in all strains (WKY>SH=SHHF). BALF ferritin levels were high at baseline and increased following LA exposure only in SH and SHHF. Ferritin heavy chain mRNA increased only in SHHF at 1 day. At 1 month ferritin light chain mRNA declined from already high baseline levels in SHHF but increased in WKY and SH suggesting its differential involvement in LA-induced injury in Fe-overload. Unlike WKY, both SHHF and SH failed to increase the lung lining antioxidant, ascorbate, in response to LA. We conclude that underlying CVD-associated Fe-overload is likely linked to persistent lung injury, inflammation and antioxidant decompensation following LA exposure in rats. PMID:21391781

Shannahan, Jonathan; Schladweiler, Mette; Padilla-Carlin, Danielle; Nyska, Abraham; Richards, Judy; Ghio, Andrew; Gavett, Stephen; Kodavanti, Urmila

2011-02-01

331

Gastrointestinal injury associated with NSAID use: a case study and review of risk factors and preventative strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jay L Goldstein,1 Byron Cryer21Department of Medicine, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, USA; 2Division of Gastroenterology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Dallas VA Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents and are among the most commonly used classes of medications worldwide. However, their use has been associated with potentially serious dose-dependent gastrointestinal (GI complications such as upper GI bleeding. GI complications resulting from NSAID use are among the most common drug side effects in the United States, due to the widespread use of NSAIDs. The risk of upper GI complications can occur even with short-term NSAID use, and the rate of events is linear over time with continued use. Although gastroprotective therapies are available, they are underused, and patient and physician awareness and recognition of some of the factors influencing the development of NSAID-related upper GI complications are limited. Herein, we present a case report of a patient experiencing a gastric ulcer following NSAID use and examine some of the risk factors and potential strategies for prevention of upper GI mucosal injuries and associated bleeding following NSAID use. These risk factors include advanced age, previous history of GI injury, and concurrent use of medications such as anticoagulants, aspirin, corticosteroids, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Strategies for prevention of GI injuries include anti-secretory agents, gastroprotective agents, alternative NSAID formulations, and nonpharmacologic therapies. Greater awareness of the risk factors and potential therapies for GI complications resulting from NSAID use could help improve outcomes for patients requiring NSAID treatment.Keywords: side effects, ulcer, GI bleed, NSAID, gastrointestinal

Goldstein JL

2015-01-01

332

Heart injury following intestinal ischemia reperfusion in rats is attenuated by association of ischemic preconditioning and adenosine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and adenosine as strategies to protect cardiac injury caused by intestinal IR in rats, based on increasing in adenosine bioavailability and improvement of cell energy state by IPC. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to 6 [...] 0 minutes of intestinal ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. Intravenous injections of saline or Adenosine (AD) was administered five minutes before ischemia, five minutes before reperfusion and after 55 minutes reperfusion. Cardiac samples were obtained, fixed in formalin solution, embedded in paraffin, and sections of 5 ?m were stained by hematoxylin-eosin. Histological analysis of myocardium was performed according occurrence of necrosis signs: piknosis, band contraction, eosinophilic cytoplasm, karyorrhexis and vacuolization (score - zero to 5). RESULTS: The groups submitted to ischemia alone (I=4.0), and reperfusion (IR=4.5) showed highest level of lesion compared to the others (I+IPC=3.3, IR+IPC=3.6, I+AD=3.0, IR+AD=3.8). The most interesting result was association of IPC and AD in IR model (IR+IPC+AD=1.2, p=0.002), showing preservation of the heart tissue, with fibers showing typical cross-striations and nuclei characteristics. Rare and small areas of tissue necrosis was observed and suggestion of capillaries congestion. CONCLUSION: Intestinal ischemia reperfusion promotes cardiac tissue injury. Ischemic preconditioning in association with adenosine is an efficient strategy to protect the heart against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

Micaela Frasson, Montero; Rafael, Saurim; Wesley Guedes Sava, Bonservizi; Marcia Kiyomi, Koike; Murched Omar, Taha.

333

The short-term association of temperature and rainfall with mortality in Vadu Health and Demographic Surveillance System: a population level time series analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Research in mainly developed countries has shown that some changes in weather are associated with increased mortality. However, due to the lack of accessible data, few studies have examined such effects of weather on mortality, particularly in rural regions in developing countries. Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between temperature and rainfall with daily mortality in rural India. Design: Daily mortality data were obtained from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS in Vadu, India. Daily mean temperature and rainfall data were obtained from a regional meteorological center, India Meteorological Department (IMD, Pune. A Poisson regression model was established over the study period (January 2003–May 2010 to assess the short-term relationship between weather variables and total mortality, adjusting for time trends and stratifying by both age and sex. Result: Mortality was found to be significantly associated with daily ambient temperatures and rainfall, after controlling for seasonality and long-term time trends. Children aged 5 years or below appear particularly susceptible to the effects of warm and cold temperatures and heavy rainfall. The population aged 20–59 years appeared to face increased mortality on hot days. Most age groups were found to have increased mortality rates 7–13 days after rainfall events. This association was particularly evident in women. Conclusion: We found the level of mortality in Vadu HDSS in rural India to be highly affected by both high and low temperatures and rainfall events, with time lags of up to 2 weeks. These results suggest that weather-related mortality may be a public health problem in rural India today. Furthermore, as changes in local climate occur, adaptation measures should be considered to mitigate the potentially negative impacts on public health in these rural communities.

Veena Muralidharan

2012-11-01

334

Urological injuries following trauma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

Bent, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N. [Department of Urology, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fotheringham, T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

2008-12-15

335

Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ?14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged???18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p? Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

Liu Yong

2013-01-01

336

Mechanisms of Injury and Countermeasures for EVA Associated Upper Extremity Medical Issues: Extended Vent Tube Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study is to determine the role that moisture plays in the injury to the fingers and fingernails during EVA training operations in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. Current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU, with a PLSS) as configured in the NBL was used for all testing and a vent tube was extended down a single arm of the crewmember during the test; vent tube was moved between left and right arm to serve as experimental condition being investigated and the other arm served as control condition.

Jones, Jeff; Hoffman, Ron; Harvey, Craig; Bowen, C. K.; Hudy, C. E.; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Gernhardt, Mike; Scheuring, Richard A.

2007-01-01

337

Spinal Cord Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

... motor or sensory function below the injury. A complete injury is indicated by a total lack of sensory ... 6387) Fax: 305-243-6017 National Spinal Cord Injury Association 75-20 Astoria Blvd Suite 120 East Elmhurst, NY 11370-1177 info@spinalcord.org http://www.spinalcord.org Tel: 718-803- ...

338

Global gene expression analysis of rodent motor neurons following spinal cord injury associates molecular mechanisms with development of post-injury spasticity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Spinal cord injury leads to severe problems involving impaired motor, sensory and autonomic functions. After spinal injury there is an initial phase of hypo-reflexia followed by hyper-reflexia, often referred to as spasticity. Previous studies have suggested a relationship between the reappearance of endogenous plateau potentials in motor neurons and the development of spasticity after spinalization. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased excitability of motor neurons and the return of plateau potentials below a spinal cord injury we investigated changes in gene expression in this cell population. We adopted a rat tail-spasticity model with a caudal spinal transection that causes a progressive development of spasticity from its onset after two to three weeks until two months post injury. Gene expression changes of fluorescently identified tail motor neurons were studied 21 and 60 days post injury. The motor neurons undergo substantial transcriptional regulation in response to injury. Thepatterns of differential expression show similarities at both time points, though there are 20 % more differentially expressed genes 60 days compared to 21 days post injury. The study identifies targets of regulation relating to both ion channels and receptors implicated in the endogenous expression of plateaux. The regulation of excitatory and inhibitory signal transduction indicates a shift in the balance towards increased excitability, where the glutamatergic NMDA receptor complex together with cholinergic system is up-regulated and the GABAA receptor system is down-regulated. The genes of the pore-forming proteins Cav1.3 and Nav1.6 were not up-regulated, while genes of proteins such as non-pore forming subunits and intracellular pathways known to modulate receptor and channel trafficking, kinetics and conductivity showed marked regulation. On the basis of the identified changes in global gene expression in motor neurons, the present investigation opens up for new potential targets for treatment of motor dysfunction following spinal cord injury.

Wienecke, Jacob; Westerdahl, Ann-Charlotte

2010-01-01

339

[Liver injuries].  

Science.gov (United States)

Mortality in blunt hepatic trauma is still high, death being most frequently caused by hemorrhage. Associated injuries are present in nearly all cases. A variety of possible surgical procedures allow treatment tailored to fit the individual situation. Even the sophisticated intensive care required by the frequent posttraumatic complications is not a substitute for adequate surgery. PMID:3520808

Glinz, W; Stoffel, D; Zellweger, G; Largiadèr, J

1986-04-26

340

Ophthalmoplegia associated with transorbital penetrating brainstem injury by broken fishing pole  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aki Kaneko-Ohtaki, Shigeki Machida, Takeshi Sugawara, Daijiro KurosakaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Iwate, JapanAbstract: We report our findings in a case of ophthalmoplegia caused by a transorbital penetrating brainstem injury. An 8-year-old boy was accidentally injured by a broken fishing fiberglass pole which penetrated through the right orbit and entered the brainstem. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a linear wound that entered and passed through the pons obliquely and reached the fourth cerebral ventricle and cerebellar vermis. He had a left-sided hemiplegia and left facial nerve palsy and was diagnosed with “one-and-a-half syndrome”. His hemiplegia and left facial nerve palsy resolved in 2 weeks leaving only a left abducens nerve palsy. The eye position and eye movements fully recovered within 3 months. These findings suggest a good prognosis for this type of trauma unless life-threatening changes develop.Keywords: penetrating orbitocranial trauma, trauma, penetrating orbitocranial injury

Kaneko-Ohtaki A

2011-07-01

341

Increased DNase I activity in diabetes might be associated with injury of pancreas.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNase I is an endonuclease responsible to destruction of chromatin during apoptosis. However, its role in diabetes is still unclear. With blood samples from our previous study related to type 2 diabetes, we examined the DNase I activity in the serum of these patients and the role of DNase I in the injury of pancreas was further investigated in rats and INS-1 cells. Serum and pancreatic tissues from human and rats were used for the study. Insulin resistance and diabetes were induced by high fat diet and STZ injection, respectively. DNase I activity was determined by radial enzyme-diffusion method. Expressions of DNase I and caspase-3 in pancreas were determined in rat pancreatic tissues and INS-1 cells. Apoptosis of INS-1 cells was determined by both TUNEL assay and Flow Cytometry. There was a significant elevation of DNase I activity in serum of patients with type 2 diabetes and rats with STZ injection. Moreover, increase in DNase I expression was observed in the pancreas of diabetic person and rats. Furthermore, high glucose induced both DNase I and caspase-3 expression and at the same time increased apoptosis rate of INS-1 cells. In conclusion, elevated DNase I in diabetes may be related to pancreatic injury and could be one of the causes that induce diabetes. PMID:24676545

Zhu, Bin; Gong, Yuewen; Chen, Pengmin; Zhang, Haojun; Zhao, Tingting; Li, Ping

2014-08-01

342

Somatosensory phenotype is associated with thalamic metabolites and pain intensity after spinal cord injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropathic pain is one of the most difficult consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI). The clinical correlates of the underlying mechanisms responsible for neuropathic pain are not well understood, although methods such as quantitative somatosensory testing (QST) or brain imaging have been used to further a mechanism-based understanding of pain. Our previous SCI study demonstrated a significantly lower glutamate-glutamine/myo-inositol ratio (Glx/Ins) in the anterior cingulate cortex in persons with severe neuropathic pain compared with those with less severe neuropathic pain or pain-free, able-bodied controls, suggesting that a combination of decreased glutamatergic metabolism and glial activation may contribute to the development of severe neuropathic pain after SCI. The present study aimed to determine the relationships between somatosensory function below the level of injury and low thalamic Glx/Ins in persons with intense neuropathic pain after SCI. Participants underwent QST and a 3 Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A cluster analysis including SCI participants resulted in 1 group (n = 19) with significantly (P higher Glx/Ins [1.47 ± 0.26]). After correcting for age, QST indicated significantly greater somatosensory function in the HNP group compared with the LNP group. Our results are consistent with research suggesting that damage to, but not abolition of, the spinothalamic tract contributes to development of neuropathic pain after SCI and that secondary inflammatory processes may amplify residual spinothalamic tract signals by facilitation, disinhibition, or sensitization. PMID:25599312

Widerström-Noga, Eva; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Felix, Elizabeth R; Pattany, Pradip M

2015-01-01

343

Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3? (GSK-3?) Attenuates Organ Injury and Dysfunction Associated to Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion and Thermal Injury in the Rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine-threonine kinase discovered decades ago to have an important role in glycogen metabolism. Today, we know that this kinase is involved in the regulation of many cell functions including insulin signalling, specification of cell fate during embryonic development and also the control of cell division and apoptosis. Insulin and TDZD-8 (4-Benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione are inhibitors) of GSK-3? that have been shown to possess organ protective effects in inflammatory-mediated organ injury models. We aimed to evaluate the cytoprotective effect of GSK-3? inhibition on rat models of liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and thermal injury. In the liver I/R model, TDZD-8 and insulin were administered at 5 mg/kg (i.v.) and 1.4 IU/kg (i.v.), respectively, 30 minutes prior to induction of ischemia and led to the significant reduction of the serum concentration of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamiltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. Beneficial effects were found to be independent form blood glucose levels. In the thermal injury model, TDZD-8 was administered at 5 mg/kg (i.v.) 5 minutes prior to induction of injury and significantly reduced multiple organ dysfunction markers (liver, neuromuscular and lung). In the lung, TDZD-8 reduced the histological signs of tissue injury, inflammatory markers (cytokines) and neutrophil chemotaxis/infiltration, reduced GSK-3?, nuclear factor ?-B and Akt activation, reduced caspase-3 and metalloproteinase-9 activation. Our study provides a new insight on the beneficial effects of GSK-3? inhibition on systemic inflammation and further elucidates the mechanism and pathway crosstalks by which TDZD-8 reduces the multiple organ injury elicited by thermal injury. PMID:25394244

Rocha, Joao; Figueira, Maria-Eduardo; Barateiro, Andreia; Fernandes, Adelaide; Brites, Dora; Pinto, Rui; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Sepodes, Bruno

2014-11-12

344

Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 is critical for the development of renal ischemia reperfusion injury and mediates tissue injury in the absence of complement C4.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) has been described as the essential enzyme for the lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation. Since there is strong published evidence indicating that complement activation via the LP critically contributes to ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, we assessed the effect of MASP-2 deficiency in an isogenic mouse model of renal transplantation. The experimental transplantation model used included nephrectomy of the remaining native kidney at d 5 post-transplantation. While wild-type (WT) kidneys grafted into WT recipients (n=7) developed acute renal failure (control group), WT grafts transplanted into MASP-2-deficient recipients (n=7) showed significantly better kidney function, less C3 deposition, and less IR injury. In the absence of donor or recipient complement C4 (n=7), the WT to WT phenotype was preserved, indicating that the MASP-2-mediated damage was independent of C4 activation. This C4-bypass MASP-2 activity was confirmed in mice deficient for both MASP-2 and C4 (n=7), where the protection from postoperative acute renal failure was no greater than in mice with MASP-2 deficiency alone. Our study highlights the role of LP activation in renal IR injury and indicates that injury occurs through MASP-2-dependent activation events independent of C4.-Asgari, E., Farrar, C. A., Lynch, N., Ali, Y. M., Roscher, S., Stover, C., Zhou, W., Schwaeble, W. J., Sacks, S. H. Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 is critical for the development of renal ischemia reperfusion injury and mediates tissue injury in the absence of complement C4. PMID:24868011

Asgari, Elham; Farrar, Conrad A; Lynch, Nicholas; Ali, Youssif M; Roscher, Silke; Stover, Cordula; Zhou, Wuding; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Sacks, Steven H

2014-05-27

345

Higher diastolic blood pressure at admission and antiedema therapy is associated with acute kidney injury in acute ischemic stroke patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hasan Micozkadioglu Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine Hospital of Adana, Baskent University School of Medicine, Adana, Turkey Abstract: Antiedema therapy with mannitol and furosemide is widely used for prevention and management of cerebral edema, elevated intracranial pressure, and cerebral hernia. There are some reports about mannitol and furosemide as risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI. We investigated the risk factors for AKI including antiedema therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients. The subjects were 129 patients with acute ischemic stroke including 56 females and 73 males with a mean age 68.16±12.29 years. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with AKI and without AKI according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. All patients had undergone cranial, carotid, and vertebral artery evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging. The number of patients with AKI was 14 (10.9%. Subjects experiencing atrial fibrillation (P=0.043 and higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP (P=0.032 treated with mannitol (P=0.019 and furosemide (P=0.019 disclosed significant association with AKI. Regression analysis revealed that higher DBP (P=0.029 and management with mannitol (P=0.044 were the risk factors for AKI. Higher DBP at admission is the most important risk factor for AKI. However antiedema therapy should be used carefully in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Serum creatinine levels or estimated glomerular filtration rate should be watched frequently to prevent AKI. Keywords: furosemide, mannitol, renal failure, cerebrovascular disease

Micozkadioglu H

2014-02-01

346

Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

MARQUEZ, D.L.

2000-12-21

347

Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities

348

Distinctive response of CNS glial cells in oro-facial pain associated with injury, infection and inflammation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Oro-facial pain following injury and infection is frequently observed in dental clinics. While neuropathic pain evoked by injury associated with nerve lesion has an involvement of glia/immune cells, inflammatory hyperalgesia has an exaggerated sensitization mediated by local and circulating immune mediators. To better understand the contribution of central nervous system (CNS glial cells in these different pathological conditions, in this study we sought to characterize functional phenotypes of glial cells in response to trigeminal nerve injury (loose ligation of the mental branch, infection (subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide-LPS and to sterile inflammation (subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant-CFA on the lower lip. Each of the three insults triggered a specific pattern of mechanical allodynia. In parallel with changes in sensory response, CNS glial cells reacted distinctively to the challenges. Following ligation of the mental nerve, both microglia and astrocytes in the trigeminal nuclear complex were highly activated, more prominent in the principal sensory nucleus (Pr5 and subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C area. Microglial response was initiated early (days 3-14, followed by delayed astrocytes activation (days 7-28. Although the temporal profile of microglial and astrocyte reaction corresponded respectively to the initiation and chronic stage of neuropathic pain, these activated glial cells exhibited a low profile of cytokine expression. Local injection of LPS in the lower lip skin also triggered a microglial reaction in the brain, which started in the circumventricular organs (CVOs at 5 hours post-injection and diffused progressively into the brain parenchyma at 48 hours. This LPS-induced microglial reaction was accompanied by a robust induction of I?B-? mRNA and pro-inflammatory cytokines within the CVOs. However, LPS induced microglial activation did not specifically occur along the pain signaling pathway. In contrast, CFA injection led to minor microglial morphological changes and an induction of I?B-? mRNA in the CVO regions; a significant increase in IL-1? and IL-6 mRNA started only at 48 hours post-injection, when the induced pain-related behavior started to resolve. Our detailed analysis of CNS glial response clearly revealed that both nerve injury and oro-facial infection/inflammation induced CNS glial activation, but in a completely different pattern, which suggests a remarkable plasticity of glial cells in response to dynamic changes in their microenvironment and different potential involvement of this non-neuronal cell population in pathological pain development.

Ribeiro-da-Silva Alfredo

2010-11-01

349

A spectrum of skeletal anomalies associated with pulmonary agenesis: Possible neural crest injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six cases of unilateral pulmonary agenesis with skeletal and other deformities have been diagnosed in our hospitals. The various pulmonary, spinal, rib and limb anomalies with their possible interrelationships were examined and described in detail and comparison with previously reported cases was made. It became apparent that the limb abnormalities which most constantly involved hypoplasia of the phalanges of a thumb with varying metacarpal and radial anomalies, were ipsilateral to the pulmonary agenesis in all cases. The spinal deformities involved degrees of failure of segementation of T1-T3 with other vertebrae randomly involved. Rib abnormalities also varied and did not necessarily correspond to the same side as the pulmonary agenesis. The concept of the anomalies all being part of a group of neural crest injuries was then explored. (orig.)

350

The association between vibration and vascular injury in rheumatic diseases: A review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Vascular manifestations can be seen early in the pathogenesis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Animal experiments, laboratory and clinical findings indicated that acute or long-term vibration exposure can induce vascular abnormalities. Recent years, in addition to Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), vibration as a risk factor for other rheumatic diseases has also received corresponding considered. This review is concentrated upon the role of vibration in the disease of systemic sclerosis (SSc). In this review, we are going to discuss the main mechanisms which are thought to be important in pathophysiology of vascular injury under the three broad headings of "vascular", "neural" and "intravascular". Aspects on the vibration and vascular inflammation are briefly discussed. And the epidemiological studies related to vibration studies in SSc and other rheumatic diseases are taken into account. PMID:25112484

Wang, Yu-Jie; Huang, Xiao-Lei; Yan, Jun-Wei; Wan, Ya-Nan; Wang, Bing-Xiang; Tao, Jin-Hui; Chen, Bing; Li, Bao-Zhu; Yang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Jing

2015-02-01

351

Microvascular injury of the peribiliary plexus associated with transarterial chemoembolization: a study of surgical specimens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We attempted to evaluate the relationship between transarteiral chemoembolization (TACE) and injury to the peribiliary plexus by evaluating the number of microvessels in peribiliary plexus of surgical specimen. Surgical specimens were obtained from 78 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 22 patients with liver metastases. They were divided into 4 groups (Group 1; hepatocellular carcinoma without TACE [n=30], Group 2; hepatocellular carcinoma receiving preoperative TACE once [n=37], Group 3; hepatocellular carcinoma receiving preoperative TACE more than two times [n=11] and Group 4; metastatic carcinoma of the liver patients without a history of liver disease [n=22]). Immunohistochemical staining for factor VIII-related antigen was performed in all the specimens and the number of microvessels in the inner capillary layer and the outer venous layer of the bile duct (> 200 {mu} m in diameter) was counted. The mean numbers of microvessels in the inner capillary layer were 4.50, 4.08, 1.64 and 2.05, and those in the outer venous layer were 25.23, 20.00, 18.36 and 12.32 for the 4 groups, respectively. The number of microvessels in group 4 was statistically fewer than that of group 1 ({rho} < 0.01). In the hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the number of microvessels was decreased as the number of TACE sessions was increased. The number of microvessels in the peribiliary plexus is increased in chronic liver disease patients. It may be from the increased portal pressure and flow stagnation in the sinusoidal and portal venules. TACE can have an effect on microvascular injury of the peibiliary plexus, and this can be a cause of bile duct necrosis and biloma.

Park, Won Kyu; Bae, Young Kyung; Hwang, Tae Yoon; Cho, Jae Ho; Chang, Jay Chun; Kim, Jae Woon; Jang, Han Won [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2006-11-15

352

No association between q-angle and foot posture with running-related injuries : A 10 week prospective follow-up study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount of running performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if kilometers to running-related injury (RRI) differ among novice runners with different foot postures and Q-angles when running in a neutral running shoe.

JØrgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke

2013-01-01

353

No association between q-angle and foot posture with running-related injuries : a 10 week prospective follow-up study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount of running performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if kilometers to running-related injury (RRI) differ among novice runners with different foot postures and Q-angles when running in a neutral running shoe.

Ramskov, Daniel; Jensen, M L

2013-01-01

354

Sensors for Desert Surveillance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

B. S. Chauhan

2005-10-01

355

What Is Spinal Cord Injury?  

Science.gov (United States)

... addition, there are two degrees of SCI severity : Complete injury is the situation when the injury is so ... National Spinal Cord Injury Association. Understanding spinal cord injury . Retrieved May 21, 2012, from http://www.spinalcord.org/resource-center/askus/index.php?pg=kb. ...

356

Spinal cord injury causes brain inflammation associated with cognitive and affective changes: role of cell cycle pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) causes chronic neuropathic pain associated with inflammatory changes in thalamic pain regulatory sites. Our recent studies examining chronic pain mechanisms after rodent SCI showed chronic inflammatory changes not only in thalamus, but also in other regions including hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Because changes appeared similar to those in our rodent TBI models that are associated with neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral dysfunction, we examined effects of mouse SCI on cognition, depressive-like behavior, and brain inflammation. SCI caused spatial and retention memory impairment and depressive-like behavior, as evidenced by poor performance in the Morris water maze, Y-maze, novel objective recognition, step-down passive avoidance, tail suspension, and sucrose preference tests. SCI caused chronic microglial activation in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, where microglia with hypertrophic morphologies and M1 phenotype predominated. Stereological analyses showed significant neuronal loss in the hippocampus at 12 weeks but not 8 d after injury. Increased cell-cycle-related gene (cyclins A1, A2, D1, E2F1, and PCNA) and protein (cyclin D1 and CDK4) expression were found chronically in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Systemic administration of the selective cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CR8 after SCI significantly reduced cell cycle gene and protein expression, microglial activation and neurodegeneration in the brain, cognitive decline, and depression. These studies indicate that SCI can initiate a chronic brain neurodegenerative response, likely related to delayed, sustained induction of M1-type microglia and related cell cycle activation, which result in cognitive deficits and physiological depression. PMID:25122899

Wu, Junfang; Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Stoica, Bogdan A; Kumar, Alok; Luo, Tao; Skovira, Jacob; Faden, Alan I

2014-08-13

357

The combined injury syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many situations involving radiation accidents and/or explosion of a nuclear device, a large proportion of the injured will have a variety of injuries, including blunt or penetrating trauma, crush injuries, fractures, burns, or any combination of these in addition to radiation injury. Some estimates place them at 65-70% of the expected casualties. For such clinical conditions, the term ''combined injury'' is used to designate the combination of conventional trauma and radiation injury. The clinicopathological features resulting from this are here referred to as the combined-injury syndrome (CIS). Evidence predicts that the resulting morbidity and mortality associated with the CIS will be greater than the sum of both injuries. Combined injury is a potentially severe and lethal form of multiple trauma. To understand this, one must be familiar with the many effects of radiation on human systems, and how these effects influence the management of trauma victims. This chapter explores these issues

358

Association of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and heterotopic ossification in spinal cord injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our objective was to explore the relationship between low vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and heterotopic ossification (HO in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI. Ninety-six subjects with acute or chronic motor complete SCI participated. Levels of serum vitamin D25(OH, calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH were collected, and information regarding nutritional patterns and fracture history was obtained from subjects. Evidence of current or previous HO was ascertained through chart review. Of the 96 subjects, 12 were found to have developed HO, 11 with serum vitamin D25(OH between 5 and 17 ng/mL. Nine subjects exhibited secondary hyperparathyroidism in the range of 72 to 169 pg/mL. Only one subject demonstrated HO in the absence of low vitamin D. However, many subjects with low vitamin D (5–31 ng/mL did not have hyperparathyroidism or HO. Statistical testing demonstrated a correlation between hyperparathyroidism and HO (>p < 0.001 as well as hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL. Direct correlation between HO and low vitamin D was not observed, but hyperparathyroidism may increase this risk. We believe that those patients who demonstrate low vitamin D and elevated PTH should be screened for HO in addition to beginning vitamin supplementation. Initiating early treatment of low vitamin D to restore therapeutic levels may prevent development of HO.

Christina V. Oleson, MD

2013-12-01

359

[Boy with Coffin-Lowry syndrome associated with spinal cord injuries].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 12-year-old male patient with Coffin-Lowry syndrome was scheduled for posterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical spinal injuries. The patient had features of Coffin-Lowry syndrome including mental retardation, prominent forehead, a short nose with a wide tip, a wide mouth with full lips, short stature, microcephaly, and kyphoscoliosis. We anticipated major troubles related to anesthesia such as difficult ventilation and intubation, communication difficulty during induction and extubation, and difficulty in using a naso-pharyngeal airway. In addition, we had to stabilize neck alignments during intubation because cervical vertebrae were unstable and spinal cord has already been injured. Therefore, we scheduled slow induction with sevoflurane maintaining spontaneous respiration. As we found the full mouth opening of the patient after the induction, we inserted an intubating laryngeal mask, through which ventilation was successfully maintained. A tracheal tube was inserted through the intubating laryngeal mask. When the surgery was completed, we extubated using a tube introducer in the trachea. As we found that the patient's airway was open, we removed the introducer. In conclusion, with a thorough planning of the anesthetic management, we successfully managed anesthesia for cervical spinal surgery in a patient with Coffin-Lowry syndrome. PMID:24601120

Kawana, Yuki; Okamura, Kenta; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

2014-02-01

360

Association of traumatic dental injuries with individual-, sociodemographic- and school-related factors among schoolchildren in midwest Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the association of untreated traumatic dental injuries (TDI) with individual-, sociodemographic- and school-related factors among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 in the city of Goiania, Brazil. A random sample of 2075 schoolchildren was examined and interviewed. Untreated TDI in the permanent incisors was assessed using the methodology of the Brazilian National Oral Health Survey. Rao-Scott test and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the associations between independent variables and three categories of TDI, using a hierarchical method. Independent variables were children's sex, self rated color/race and size of incisal overjet, their mother's level of schooling, and the schools' type and geographic location. The prevalence of trauma was 17.3% (CI 95% = 15.2-19.4); enamel fractures were the most common TDI (13.1%). In the adjusted model, a higher chance of having two or more teeth with TDI was found among boys, those whose mothers had lowest level of schooling, and those attending schools located in health districts with lower socioeconomic indicators. It was concluded that the prevalence of TDI was low and that it was associated with individual factors as well as the school environments. PMID:25247429

Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Vasconcelos, Daniela Nobre; dos Santos Vieira, Alessandra; Araújo, Júlia Arantes; da Silveira Moreira, Rafael; de Fátima Nunes, Maria

2014-09-01

361

Association of Traumatic Dental Injuries with Individual-, Sociodemographic- and School-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the association of untreated traumatic dental injuries (TDI with individual-, sociodemographic- and school-related factors among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 in the city of Goiania, Brazil. A random sample of 2075 schoolchildren was examined and interviewed. Untreated TDI in the permanent incisors was assessed using the methodology of the Brazilian National Oral Health Survey. Rao-Scott test and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the associations between independent variables and three categories of TDI, using a hierarchical method. Independent variables were children’s sex, self rated color/race and size of incisal overjet, their mother’s level of schooling, and the schools’ type and geographic location. The prevalence of trauma was 17.3% (CI 95% = 15.2–19.4; enamel fractures were the most common TDI (13.1%. In the adjusted model, a higher chance of having two or more teeth with TDI was found among boys, those whose mothers had lowest level of schooling, and those attending schools located in health districts with lower socioeconomic indicators. It was concluded that the prevalence of TDI was low and that it was associated with individual factors as well as the school environments.

Maria do Carmo Matias Freire

2014-09-01

362

Predicting prognosis in thermal burns with associated inhalational injury: a systematic review of prognostic factors in adult burn victims.  

Science.gov (United States)

Burn injuries are a significant problem with high associated morbidity and mortality. Those associated with inhalational trauma (IHT) may be associated with higher mortality, but studies on prognosis are small and underpowered. This study was designed to identify prognostic factors that increase the risk of death, to quantify this risk, and to identify existing prognostic models. An electronic search of English-language publications that identify prognostic risk factors in thermal burns including IHT was carried out. Each article was reviewed systematically, and data extraction, quality assessment, and summarization of the articles were performed. Thirteen articles that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria of this study were reviewed. Overall, the mortality rate among burn patients in this review was 13.9% (4-28.3%), with the mortality rate among those with IHT being 27.6% (7.8-28.3%). Those studies with multivariate analyses identified increasing %TBSA, presence of IHT, and increasing age as the strongest predictors for mortality in this patient population. It seems that %TBSA, presence of IHT, and age are the best predictors of mortality among the current published literature on burn prognosis. PMID:20523229

Colohan, Shannon M

2010-01-01

363

Is Lipid Profile Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Formation in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury?  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. The association between serum lipids and bone mineral density (BMD) has been investigated previously but, up to now, these relationships have not yet been described in spinal cord injury (SCI). We tried to assess the correlation between serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and BMD in male subjects with SCI. Methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess BMD in femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, and lumbar vertebras. Blood samples were taken to measure serums lipids and bone biomarkers including osteocalcin, cross-linked type I collagen (CTX), and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP). Partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between mentioned measurements after adjustment for weight and age. Results. We found a positive correlation between HDL and femoral neck BMD (P: 0.004, r = 0.33). HDL was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (P: 0.017, r = ?0.31) which was not in consistency with its relationship with BMD. TC and LDL were not related to CTX, BALP and BMD. Conclusion. This study does not support a strong association between serum lipids and BMD in subjects with SCI. Moreover it seems that positive association between HDL and BMD is not mediated through increased bone formation. PMID:25215260

Sabour, Hadis; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Latifi, Sahar; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Emami Razavi, Seyed-Hassan; Shidfar, Farzad; Vafa, Mohammad Reza; Aghaei Meybodi, Hamidreza

2014-01-01

364

The surveillance error grid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to the data plotted on the CEG and PEG produced risk estimates that were more granular and reflective of a continuously increasing risk scale. The SEG is a modern metric for clinical risk assessments of BG monitor errors that assigns a unique risk score to each monitor data point when compared to a reference value. The SEG allows the clinical accuracy of a BG monitor to be portrayed in many ways, including as the percentages of data points falling into custom-defined risk zones. For modeled data the SEG, compared with the CEG and PEG, allows greater precision for quantifying risk, especially when the risks are low. This tool will be useful to allow regulators and manufacturers to monitor and evaluate glucose monitor performance in their surveillance programs. PMID:25562886

Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

2014-07-01

365

Is a history of work-related low back injury associated with prevalent low back pain and depression in the general population?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role of prior occupational low back injury in future episodes of low back pain and disability in the general population. We conducted a study to determine if a lifetime history of work-related low back injury is associated with prevalent severity-graded low back pain, depressive symptoms, or both, in the general population. Methods We used data from the Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey – a population-based cross-sectional survey mailed to a random, stratified sample of 2,184 Saskatchewan adults 20 to 69 years of age in 1995. Information on the main independent variable was gathered by asking respondents whether they had ever injured their low back at work. Our outcomes, the 6-month period prevalence of severity-graded low back pain and depressive symptoms during the past week, were measured with valid and reliable questionnaires. The associations between prior work-related low back injury and our outcomes were estimated through multinomial and binary multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for age, gender, and other important covariates. Results Fifty-five percent of the eligible population participated. Of the 1,086 participants who responded to the question about the main independent variable, 38.0% reported a history of work-related low back injury. A history of work-related low back injury was positively associated with low intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 3.66; 95%CI, 2.48–5.42, with high intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 4.03; 95%CI, 2.41–6.76, and with high disability low back pain (OR, 6.76; 95%CI, 3.80–12.01. No association was found between a history of work-related low back injury and depression (OR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.55–1.30. Conclusion Our analysis shows an association between past occupational low back injury and increasing severity of prevalent low back pain, but not depression. These results suggest that past work-related low back injury may be an important risk factor for future episodes of low back pain and disability in the general population.

Cassidy J David

2008-02-01

366

Preoperative Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Is Associated with Increased Risk for Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiovascular Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Background and objectives: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly after cardiac surgery. Most patients who undergo cardiac surgery receive long-term treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB). The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term use of ACEI/ARB is associated with an increased incidence of AKI after cardiac surgery.

Arora, Pradeep; Rajagopalam, Srini; Ranjan, Rajiv; Kolli, Hari; Singh, Manpreet; Venuto, Rocco; Lohr, James

2008-01-01

367

Identification of regeneration-associated genes after central and peripheral nerve injury in the adult rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that neurons of the peripheral nervous system have the capacity to regenerate a severed axon leading to functional recovery, whereas neurons of the central nervous system do not regenerate successfully after injury. The underlying molecular programs initiated by axotomized peripheral and central nervous system neurons are not yet fully understood. Results To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration in the nervous system, differential display polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify differentially expressed genes following axotomy of peripheral and central nerve fibers. For this purpose, axotomy induced changes of regenerating facial nucleus neurons, and non-regenerating red nucleus and Clarke's nucleus neurons have been analyzed in an intra-animal side-to-side comparison. One hundred and thirty five gene fragments have been isolated, of which 69 correspond to known genes encoding for a number of different functional classes of proteins such as transcription factors, signaling molecules, homeobox-genes, receptors and proteins involved in metabolism. Sixty gene fragments correspond to genomic mouse sequences without known function. In situ-hybridization has been used to confirm differential expression and to analyze the cellular localization of these gene fragments. Twenty one genes (~15% have been demonstrated to be differentially expressed. Conclusions The detailed analysis of differentially expressed genes in different lesion paradigms provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration and may lead to the identification of genes which play key roles in functional repair of central nervous tissues.

Brook Gary A

2003-05-01

368

1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Brookhaven National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at BNL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

NONE

1995-12-31

369

INJURIES TO THE SPINE -MECHANICS , ANATOMICAL AND ORTHOPEDIC ASPECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vertebral injuries can occur as isolated injuries or may be associated with other injuries. Recognition of the level of injury is important along with the mechanism of injury. The article describes the various types of injuries of the vertebral column along with the main mechanisms and the difference between the types of injuries in the vertebral column.

Ashfaq ul Hassan

2014-09-01

370

INJURIES TO THE SPINE -MECHANICS , ANATOMICAL AND ORTHOPEDIC ASPECTS  

OpenAIRE

Vertebral injuries can occur as isolated injuries or may be associated with other injuries. Recognition of the level of injury is important along with the mechanism of injury. The article describes the various types of injuries of the vertebral column along with the main mechanisms and the difference between the types of injuries in the vertebral column.

Ashfaq ul Hassan; Sajid Shafi; Rahil Muzzafar; Zahida Rasool; Muneeb ul Hassan; Ghulam Hassan; Altaf Hussain

2014-01-01

371

Decreased level of olfactory receptors in blood cells following traumatic brain injury and potential association with tauopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability among children and young adults in the United States. In this study, we explored whether changes in the gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) may provide a clinically assessable "window" into the brain, reflecting molecular alterations following TBI that might contribute to the onset and progression of TBI clinical complications. We identified three olfactory receptor (OR) TBI biomarkers that are aberrantly down-regulated in PBMC specimens from TBI subjects. Down-regulation of these OR biomarkers in PBMC was correlated with the severity of brain injury and TBI-specific symptoms. A two- biomarker panel comprised of OR11H1 and OR4M1 provided the best criterion for segregating the TBI and control cases with 90% accuracy, 83.3% sensitivity, and 100% specificity. We found that the OR biomarkers are ectopically expressed in multiple brain regions, including the entorhinal-hippocampus system known to play an important role in memory formation and consolidation. Activation of OR4M1 led to attenuation of abnormal tau phosphorylation, possibly through JNK signaling pathway. Our results suggested that addition of the two-OR biomarker model to current diagnostic criteria may lead to improved TBI detection for clinical trials, and decreased expression of OR TBI biomarkers might be associated with TBI-induced tauopathy. Future studies exploring the physiological relevance of OR TBI biomarkers in the normal brain and in the brain following TBI will provide a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying TBI and insights into novel therapeutic targets for TBI. PMID:23241557

Zhao, Wei; Ho, Lap; Varghese, Merina; Yemul, Shrishailam; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Gordon, Wayne; Knable, Lindsay; Freire, Daniel; Haroutunian, Vahram; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

2013-01-01

372

Cerebrospinal fluid volume depletion in chronic whiplash-associated disorders from motor vehicle-related spinal injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume depletion in chronic cases of whiplash-associated disorders, 111In radioisotope (RI) cisternography, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and lumbar MR myelography were consecutively conducted on 460 individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorders resulting from motor vehicle collision (Group A, n=225) and other traumatic injuries (Group B, n=57), spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndromes and other miscellaneous disorders (Group C, n=155), iatrogenic intracranial hypotension syndrome (Group D, n=11), and communicating hydrocephalus (Group E, n=12). Movement of intrathecally administered RI via a lumbar puncture was sequentially scanned at 1, 2 or 3, 5 and 24 hours. A whole body neuroaxis scanned figure showing high spinal parathecal activity at any time was considered to be a CSF leak, if small enough meningeal diverticula evidenced by MR myelography were present. Retention rate (%) of intrathecal RI for each scan was calculated using the formula: (whole body count-urinary bladder count)/whole body count (cpm) at 1 h x 100. All CSF leaks, although having single to multiple poles, were located in the spinal canal. CSF leakage was observed in 99/225 (44%), 24/57 (42%), 61/155 (39%), 9/11 (82%), and 4/12 (33%), in Groups A, B, C, D and E respectively. All CSF leakages was involved with the lumbar spine in Group A, although 20 cases extended to mid-thoracic levels. In Group A, spinal vertebrae were concls. In Group A, spinal vertebrae were concomitantly injured in 7 cases (1 cervical spine dislocation, 1 cervical spine fracture, 2 thoracic and 1 lumbar compression fracture (s), and 2 lumbar disc hernia). CSF leakage for 2 cervical spine injuries was not at the injured site but at the lumbar spinal canal. CSF leakage limited to the lumbar spine involved 22 and 43 cases in groups B and C, respectively. Of all CSF leaks, 24 h retention rates less than 30% accounted for 90% of cases. In Group A, early CSF excretion and less than a 30% retention rate at 24 h was also observed in 37 out of 128 subjects without CSF leakage. In Group A, therefore, over half the individuals were postulated to have CSF volume depletion, with the most vulnerable sites for CSF leakage at lumbar spine levels. CSF leakage and/or depletion is likely to be at least partly responsible for chronic complex complaints in whiplash-associated disorders. (author)

373

FTY720 prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury-associated arrhythmias in an ex vivo rat heart model via activation of Pak1/Akt signaling.  

OpenAIRE

Recent studies demonstrated a role of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in the protection against the stress of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In experiments reported here, we have investigated the signaling through the S1P cascade by FTY720, a sphingolipid drug candidate displaying structural similarity to S1P, underlying the S1P cardioprotective effect. In ex vivo rat heart and isolated sinoatrial node models, FTY720 significantly prevented arrhythmic events associated with I/R injury inclu...

Egom, Ee; Ke, Y.; Musa, H.; Mohamed, Tm; Wang, T.; Cartwright, E.; Solaro, Rj; Lei, M.

2010-01-01

374

GM1 improves neurofascin155 association with lipid rafts and prevents rat brain myelin injury after hypoxia-ischemia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english White matter injury characterized by damage to myelin is an important process in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Because the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin, neurofascin 155 (NF155), and its association with lipid rafts are essential for the establishment and stabilization of t [...] he paranodal junction, which is required for tight interaction between myelin and axons, we analyzed the effect of monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) on NF155 expression and its association with lipid rafts after HIBD in Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-15 g, on day 7 post-partum (P7; N = 20 per group). HIBD was induced on P7 and the rats were divided into two groups: one group received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg GM1 three times and the other group an injection of saline. There was also a group of 20 sham-operated rats. After sacrifice, the brains of the rats were removed on P30 and studied by immunochemistry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Staining showed that the saline group had definite rarefaction and fragmentation of brain myelin sheaths, whereas the GM1 group had no obvious structural changes. The GM1 group had 1.9-2.9-fold more GM1 in lipid rafts than the saline group (fraction 3-6; all P

Y.P., Zhang; Q.L., Huang; C.M., Zhao; J.L., Tang; Y.L., Wang.

2011-06-01

375

Are self-reported risk-taking behavior and helmet use associated with injury causes among skiers and snowboarders?  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last 10 years, ski helmet use has steadily increased worldwide. According to the "risk compensation theory," however, studies found that up to one third of skiers and snowboarders self-reported to engage in more risk taking when wearing a ski helmet. Therefore, to evaluate whether self-reported risk taking and ski helmet use affect accident causes on ski slopes, more than 2000 injured skiers and snowboarders were interviewed during the 2011/2012 winter season about accident causes and potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Chi-square tests revealed that ski helmet use did not significantly differ between self-reported risky and cautious people (81% vs 83%). Multivariate regression analysis revealed younger age groups [odds ratios (ORs) 1.8-1.9, P?associated with a riskier behavior on ski slopes. In conclusion, self-reported risk-taking behavior and ski helmet use seem not to be associated with accident causes leading to an injury among recreational skiers and snowboarders. PMID:24237198

Ruedl, G; Burtscher, M; Wolf, M; Ledochowski, L; Bauer, R; Benedetto, K-P; Kopp, M

2015-02-01

376

Basic study on safety conditions for MR imaging. Mechanism of burn injury associated with electrode loops during MR scanning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reports of severe burns associated with the clinical use of MRI scanning have continued to appear. However, the precise mechanism responsible for these injuries has not yet been clarified. Since MR imaging exposes the human body not only to a strong H0 magnetic field but also high-frequency RF pulses (microwave range), and since previously reported burns have occurred only in the area of attachment to monitor cables, the burns have been considered to be due to electro-magnetic induction in the cables caused by the RF pulses. In the study, therefore, using conventional monitor cables, a variety of loops were prepared and the electromagnetic induction within them by RF pulses was checked with an oscilloscope. For a single turn loop (S=0.124 m2) and a 10-roll loop (S=1.24 m2), the peak induced in these loops were 75 V and 45 V, respectively. When a 50 ? resistance was connected to the ends of the loop to make it a closed circuit, the voltages across the 50 ? load were 60 V and 30 V, respectively. Furthermore, even under conditions where a circuit was interrupted at the center of the loop, a similar voltage was observed at the ends of the loop. These results indicate that a simple model of electromagnetic induction in the loop of a monitor cable cannot alone explain the cause of the burns associated with MRI. (author)

377

Decrease in Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Receptor-Associated Death Domain Results from Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation in Obstructive Renal Injury in Rats  

OpenAIRE

Increased expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) is involved in tubulointerstitial cell proliferation and apoptosis in obstructive renal injury. Two TNF? receptors (TNFRs), TNFR1 and TNFR2, are known to exist. On TNF? binding, TNFR1 recruits TNFR-associated death domain (TRADD), an assembly platform to mediate TNFR1 signaling. We investigated postreceptor TRADD regulation in rat kidneys with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Whereas UUO was associated with increased expr...

Misaki, Taro; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Sayuri; Fukasawa, Hirotaka; Togawa, Akashi; Ohashi, Naro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Oda, Toshiaki; Uchida, Chiharu; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Hattori, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Hishida, Akira

2009-01-01

378

Genetic variation in the TNF receptor-associated factor 6 gene is associated with susceptibility to sepsis-induced acute lung injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies showed that overwhelming inflammatory response mediated by the toll-like receptor (TLR-related pathway was important in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. The aim of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in four genes of the TLR signaling pathway were associated with sepsis-induced ALI susceptibility and risk of death in Chinese Han population. Methods Fourteen tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs in MyD88, IRAK1, IRAK4 and TRAF6 were genotyped in samples of sepsis-induced ALI (n?=?272 and sepsis alone patients (n?=?276, and tested for association in this case-control collection. Then, we investigated correlation between the associated SNP and the mRNA expression level of the corresponding gene. And we also investigated correlation between the associated SNP and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-? as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6 concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS ex vivo. The mRNA expression level was determined using real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assays, and concentrations of TNF-? and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results The association analysis revealed that rs4755453, an intronic SNP of TRAF6, was significantly associated with susceptibility to sepsis-induced ALI. The C allele frequency of rs4755453 in the sepsis alone group was significantly higher than that in the sepsis-induced ALI group (P?=?0.00026, odds ratio (OR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.37–0.74. These associations remained significant after adjustment for covariates in multiple logistic regression analysis and for multiple comparisons. TRAF6 mRNA expression levels in PBMCs from homozygotes of the rs4755453G allele were significantly higher than that in heterozygotes and homozygotes of the rs4755453C allele at baseline (P?=?0.012 and P?=?0.003, respectively as well as after LPS stimulation (P?=?0.009 and P?=?0.005. Moreover, the concentrations of TNF-? and IL-6 in cell culture supernatants were also significantly higher in the subjects with rs4755453GG genotype than in subjects with CG and CC genotype. None of the 14 tagSNPs showed associations with risk of death and severity among ALI cases. Conclusions Our findings indicated that common genetic variants in TRAF6 were significantly associated with susceptibility to sepsis-induced ALI in Chinese Han population. This was the first genetic evidence supporting a role for TRAF6 in ALI.

Song Zhenju

2012-08-01

379

Surveillance : Philosophical Inquiries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance.

Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark

380

Association of Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Traffic Injuries in Tabriz - Iran  

OpenAIRE

"nObjective: Nowadays, it is well known that the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not confined to children and adolescents. Recent data showed that a considerable portion of the general adult population may be affected by ADHD. On the other hand, the impact of ADHD on driving performance, a major area of adult life, has gained enthusiasm. More recent studies revealed an association between adult ADHD and undesirable driving problems. This study was performed to determine the...

Arash Jodeiri Eslami; Homayon Sadeghi-Bazargani; Fatemeh Ranjbar; Shahrokh Amiri; Amir mohammad Navali; Farnaz Saedi

2011-01-01

381

Systematic review and comparison of pharmacologic therapies for neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury  

OpenAIRE

Sonya J Snedecor,1 Lavanya Sudharshan,1 Joseph C Cappelleri,2 Alesia Sadosky,3 Pooja Desai,4 Yash J Jalundhwala,5 Marc Botteman1 1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Global Research and Development, Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA; 3Biostatistics, Pfizer, New York, NY, USA; 4College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 5Pharmacy Administration, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Background: Management of neuropathic pain (NeP) associated with spinal c...

Sj, Snedecor; Sudharshan L; Jc, Cappelleri; Sadosky A; Desai P.; Yj, Jalundhwala; Botteman M

2013-01-01

382

Higher urine desmosine levels are associated with mortality in patients with acute lung injury  

OpenAIRE

Desmosine is a stable breakdown product of elastin that can be reliably measured in urine samples. We tested the hypothesis that higher baseline urine desmosine would be associated with higher mortality in 579 of 861 patients included in the recent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trial of lower tidal volume ventilation (1). We also correlated urine desmosine levels with indexes of disease severity. Finally, we assessed whether urine desmosine was lower in patients who received low...

Mcclintock, Dana E.; Starcher, Barry; Eisner, Mark D.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Hayden, Doug L.; Church, Gwynne D.; Matthay, Michael A.

2006-01-01

383

Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

Bisping, L.E.

1995-02-01

384

Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

385

Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design  

Science.gov (United States)

There are multiple factors associated with the mechanism of injury that leads to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Despite the injury prevention measures taken from the 2003 Shoulder Tiger Team recommendations, shoulder injuries and subsequent shoulder surgeries remain relatively unchanged.

Scheuring, Rick; McCulloch, Pat; Van Baalen, Mary; Watson, Richard; Bowen, Steve; Blatt, Terri

2012-01-01

386

Risk of Traumatic Injury Associated with Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation in Medicare Part B Beneficiaries Aged 66-99.  

Science.gov (United States)

Study Design. Retrospective cohort studyObjective. In older adults with a neuromusculoskeletal complaint, to evaluate risk of injury to the head, neck or trunk following an office visit for chiropractic spinal manipulation, as compared to office visit for evaluation by primary care physicianSummary of Background Data. The risk of physical injury due to spinal manipulation has not been rigorously evaluated for older adults, a population particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury in general.Methods. We analyzed Medicare administrative data on Medicare B beneficiaries aged 66-99 with an office visit in 2007 for a neuromusculoskeletal complaint. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, we evaluated for adjusted risk of injury within 7 days, comparing two cohorts: those treated by chiropractic spinal manipulation vs. those evaluated by a primary care physician. We used direct adjusted survival curves to estimate the cumulative probability of injury. In the chiropractic cohort only, we used logistic regression to evaluate the effect of specific chronic conditions on likelihood of injury.Results. The adjusted risk of injury in the chiropractic cohort was lower as compared to the primary care cohort (hazard ratio 0.24; 95% CI 0.23-0.25). The cumulative probability of injury in the chiropractic cohort was 40 injury incidents per 100,000 subjects, as compared to 153 incidents per 100,000 subjects in the primary care cohort. Among subjects who saw a chiropractic physician, the likelihood of injury was increased in those with a chronic coagulation defect, inflammatory spondylopathy, osteoporosis, aortic aneurysm and dissection, or long-term use of anticoagulant therapy.Conclusions. Among Medicare beneficiaries aged 66-99 with an office visit risk for a neuromusculoskeletal problem, risk of injury to the head, neck or trunk within 7 days was 76% lower among subjects with a chiropractic office visit as compared to those who saw a primary care physician. PMID:25494315

Whedon, James M; Mackenzie, Todd A; Phillips, Reed B; Lurie, Jon D

2014-12-01

387

The emergency department in surveillance of attempted suicide: findings and methodologic considerations.  

OpenAIRE

The authors conducted one of the first active, population-based public health surveillance systems for detecting suicide attempts in the United States. Surveillance was conducted in all four hospital emergency departments serving a county suburban to Atlanta, GA, with a population of 426,000. Emergency department staff gathered information from all patients who presented with an intentionally self-inflicted injury (suicide attempt) or with thoughts about self-injury (suicidal ideation). Durin...

Birkhead, G. S.; Galvin, V. G.; Meehan, P. J.; O Carroll, P. W.; Mercy, J. A.

1993-01-01

388

Penetrating and blunt diaphragmatic injuries.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The preoperative diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries is difficult. Most cases are diagnosed during exploration for associated injuries. The case is more difficult after blunt trauma. Repeated chest radiography and gastrointestinal contrast studies can be used for the diagnosis.

Najeeb S. Jabbo

2003-02-01

389

Penetrating eye injuries from writing instruments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Simon P Kelly, Graham MB ReevesThe Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UKPurpose: To consider the potential for ocular injury from writing implements by presenting four such cases, and to consider the incidence of such eye injuries from analysis of a national trauma database.Methods: The Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System was searched for records of eye injuries from writing instruments to provide UK estimates of such injuries. Four patients with ocular penetrating injury from pens or pencils (especially when caused by children, and examined by the authors, are described which illustrate mechanisms of injury.Results: It is estimated that around 748 ocular pen injuries and 892 ocular pencil injuries of undetermined severity occurred annually in the UK during the database surveillance period 2000–2002. No eye injuries from swords, including toy swords and fencing foils, were reported.Conclusion: Ocular perforation sometimes occur from writing instruments that are thrown in the community, especially by children. Implications for policy and prevention are discussed. Non-specialists should have a low threshold for referring patients with eye injuries if suspicious of ocular penetration, even where caused by everyday objects, such as writing instruments.Keywords: eye injury, eye, children, mechanism, writing instruments, prevention

Kelly SP

2011-12-01

390

Soil and vegetation surveillance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

Antonio, E.J.

1995-06-01

391

Inhibitory saccadic dysfunction is associated with cerebellar injury in multiple sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive dysfunction is common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Saccadic eye movement paradigms such as antisaccades (AS) can sensitively interrogate cognitive function, in particular, the executive and attentional processes of response selection and inhibition. Although we have previously demonstrated significant deficits in the generation of AS in MS patients, the neuropathological changes underlying these deficits were not elucidated. In this study, 24 patients with relapsing-remitting MS underwent testing using an AS paradigm. Rank correlation and multiple regression analyses were subsequently used to determine whether AS errors in these patients were associated with: (i) neurological and radiological abnormalities, as measured by standard clinical techniques, (ii) cognitive dysfunction, and (iii) regionally specific cerebral white and gray-matter damage. Although AS error rates in MS patients did not correlate with clinical disability (using the Expanded Disability Status Score), T2 lesion load or brain parenchymal fraction, AS error rate did correlate with performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, neuropsychological tests commonly used in MS. Further, voxel-wise regression analyses revealed associations between AS errors and reduced fractional anisotropy throughout most of the cerebellum, and increased mean diffusivity in the cerebellar vermis. Region-wise regression analyses confirmed that AS errors also correlated with gray-matter atrophy in the cerebellum right VI subregion. These results support the use of the AS paradigm as a marker for cognitive dysfunction in MS and implicate structural and microstructural changes to the cerebellum as a contributing mechanism for AS deficits in these patients. PMID:24038970

Kolbe, Scott C; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Mitchell, Peter J; White, Owen; Egan, Gary F; Fielding, Joanne

2014-05-01

392

Parenteral Fish Oil Improves Outcomes in Patients with Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE The objective was to determine the safety and efficacy of a fish oil-based intravenous lipid emulsion (IFE) in the treatment of PNALD. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) can be a lethal complication in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). IFE based on soybean oil administered with parenteral nutrition (PN) may contribute to its etiology. METHODS We performed an open-labeled trial of a fish-oil IFE in 42 infants with SBS who developed cholestasis (serum direct bilirubin > 2 mg/dL) while receiving soybean IFE. Safety and efficacy outcomes were compared with those from a contemporary cohort of 49 infants with SBS and cholestasis whose PN course included soybean IFE only. The primary efficacy end-point was time to reversal of cholestasis (direct bilirubin ?2 mg/dL). RESULTS Three deaths and 1 liver transplantation occurred in the fish oil cohort, compared to 12 deaths and 6 transplants in the controls (P=0.005). Among survivors not transplanted during PN, cholestasis reversed while receiving PN in 19/38 patients in the fish oil cohort vs. 2/36 patients in the controls. Based on Cox models, subjects receiving fish oil-IFE experienced reversal of cholestasis 6 times faster (95% CI=2.0,37.3) than those receiving soybean IFE. The provision of fish oil IFE was not associated with hypertriglyceridemia, coagulopathy, essential fatty acid deficiency. Moreover, hypertriglyceridemic events and abnormal INR levels were more common among controls. CONCLUSIONS Fish oil IFE is safe, may be effective in treating PNALD, and may reduce mortality and organ transplantation rates in children with SBS. PMID:19661785

Puder, Mark; Valim, Clarissa; Meisel, Jonathan A; Le, Hau D; De Meijer, Vincent E; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Zhou, Jing; Duggan, Christopher; Gura, Kathleen M

2012-01-01

393

Galla Chinensis Attenuates Cigarette Smoke-associated Lung Injury by Inhibiting Recruitment of Inflammatory Cells into the Lung.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation is a common feature in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS)-associated diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of Galla Chinensis (GC) extract on pulmonary inflammatory responses in a CS-exposed mouse model. In vitro studies showed that GC extract reduced MCP-1 production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the lung was significantly inhibited in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the GC-treated mice after 3 weeks of daily CS exposure. GC treatment down-regulated TNF-?, IL-6 and MCP-1 mRNA expression levels in lung tissue. Finally, GC-treated mice showed less emphysematous change of alveolar compared to mice only exposed to CS. Our results show that GC extract reduces lung inflammation and emphysematous change by inhibiting the infiltration of inflammatory cells to the lung. These data indicate that GC extract is a therapeutic candidate for CS-induced lung injury. PMID:25134824

Lee, Hyojung; Yu, Seung-Ryeol; Lim, Dahae; Lee, Hyejung; Jin, Eun-Young; Jang, Young-Pyo; Kim, Jinju

2015-03-01

394

Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities. However, ongoing S and M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations

395

Pólipos de pregas vocais e alterações estruturais mínimas: lesões associadas? Vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations: associated injuries?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pólipos são lesões comuns de pregas vocais. O fonotrauma é o principal fator relacionado com o início desta lesão. A associação entre pólipos de pregas vocais e alterações estruturais mínimas de cobertura mucosa (sulco vocal, cisto epidermóide, ponte de mucosa, microdiafragma laríngeo e vasculodisgenesia foi pouco estudada na literatura, por isso o objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar e analisar essa associação. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Realizamos um estudo retrospectivo com 68 pacientes, idade média de 39,5 anos, operados de pólipo de pregas vocais no período entre janeiro de 1999 e maio de 2003. Procuramos analisar a presença de pólipo de pregas vocais e as possíveis AEMC associadas no levantamento realizado. RESULTADOS: A presença de AEMC associada ao pólipo ocorreu em 16 (23,5% pacientes, sendo que em 8 (50% pacientes o achado foi o sulco vocal (7 sulco estria e 1 sulco bolsa. Em 4 (25% pacientes o achado foi o cisto de prega vocal, em 2 (12,5% pacientes a ponte mucosa, em 1 (6,25% a vasculodisgenesia e em 1 (6,25% paciente o microdiafragma laríngeo. A AEMC era contralateral ao pólipo de prega vocal em 11 pacientes. Dos sulcos, 6 (75% eram contralaterais e dos cistos, 3 (75% eram contralaterais ao pólipo. CONCLUSÃO: A associação entre pólipos de pregas vocais e alterações estruturais mínimas de cobertura mucosa é relativamente freqüente, 23,5% em nosso estudo. A exploração cuidadosa de ambas pregas vocais é essencial no intraoperatório das cirurgias de exérese de pólipo na procura destas alterações estruturais associadas.Polyps are common injuries of the vocal folds. Voice trauma is the main factor related with the onset of this injury. The association between vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations (sulcus, epidermoid cyst, mucosal bridge, laryngeal web and varicosity has been little studied in literature; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to quantify and to analyze this association. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study with 68 patients, mean age 39.5 years, surgically submitted to exeresis of vocal fold polyps in the period between January 1999 and May 2003. We analyzed the presence of vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations. RESULTS: The presence of cover minimum structural alterations associated with the polyp occurred in 16 (23.5% patients. In 8 (50% patients, the finding was sulcus vocalis. In 4 (25% patients, the finding was epidermoid cyst, in 2 (12.5% patients, mucosal bridge, in 1 (6.25%, varicosity and in 1 (6.25% patient, laryngeal web. Cover minimum structural alterations were contralateral to the vocal fold polyp in 11 patients. Of the sulcus, 6 (75% were contralateral and among the cysts, 3 (75% were contralateral to the polyp. CONCLUSION: The association between vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations is relatively frequent and it was 23.5% in our study. Careful intraoperative exploration of vocal folds in search for these alterations is essential.

Flavio Akira Sakae

2004-12-01

396

Pólipos de pregas vocais e alterações estruturais mínimas: lesões associadas? / Vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations: associated injuries?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pólipos são lesões comuns de pregas vocais. O fonotrauma é o principal fator relacionado com o início desta lesão. A associação entre pólipos de pregas vocais e alterações estruturais mínimas de cobertura mucosa (sulco vocal, cisto epidermóide, ponte de mucosa, microdiafragma laríngeo e vasculodisge [...] nesia) foi pouco estudada na literatura, por isso o objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar e analisar essa associação. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Realizamos um estudo retrospectivo com 68 pacientes, idade média de 39,5 anos, operados de pólipo de pregas vocais no período entre janeiro de 1999 e maio de 2003. Procuramos analisar a presença de pólipo de pregas vocais e as possíveis AEMC associadas no levantamento realizado. RESULTADOS: A presença de AEMC associada ao pólipo ocorreu em 16 (23,5%) pacientes, sendo que em 8 (50%) pacientes o achado foi o sulco vocal (7 sulco estria e 1 sulco bolsa). Em 4 (25%) pacientes o achado foi o cisto de prega vocal, em 2 (12,5%) pacientes a ponte mucosa, em 1 (6,25%) a vasculodisgenesia e em 1 (6,25%) paciente o microdiafragma laríngeo. A AEMC era contralateral ao pólipo de prega vocal em 11 pacientes. Dos sulcos, 6 (75%) eram contralaterais e dos cistos, 3 (75%) eram contralaterais ao pólipo. CONCLUSÃO: A associação entre pólipos de pregas vocais e alterações estruturais mínimas de cobertura mucosa é relativamente freqüente, 23,5% em nosso estudo. A exploração cuidadosa de ambas pregas vocais é essencial no intraoperatório das cirurgias de exérese de pólipo na procura destas alterações estruturais associadas. Abstract in english Polyps are common injuries of the vocal folds. Voice trauma is the main factor related with the onset of this injury. The association between vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations (sulcus, epidermoid cyst, mucosal bridge, laryngeal web and varicosity) has been little studied in [...] literature; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to quantify and to analyze this association. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study with 68 patients, mean age 39.5 years, surgically submitted to exeresis of vocal fold polyps in the period between January 1999 and May 2003. We analyzed the presence of vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations. RESULTS: The presence of cover minimum structural alterations associated with the polyp occurred in 16 (23.5%) patients. In 8 (50%) patients, the finding was sulcus vocalis. In 4 (25%) patients, the finding was epidermoid cyst, in 2 (12.5%) patients, mucosal bridge, in 1 (6.25%), varicosity and in 1 (6.25%) patient, laryngeal web. Cover minimum structural alterations were contralateral to the vocal fold polyp in 11 patients. Of the sulcus, 6 (75%) were contralateral and among the cysts, 3 (75%) were contralateral to the polyp. CONCLUSION: The association between vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations is relatively frequent and it was 23.5% in our study. Careful intraoperative exploration of vocal folds in search for these alterations is essential.

Flavio Akira, Sakae; Fernando, Sasaki; Luiz Ubirajara, Sennes; Domingos Hiroshi, Tsuji; Rui, Imamura.

2004-12-01

397

Serum Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin as a Predictor of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically-ill Neonates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early detection of evolving Acute Kidney Injury (AKI in critically ill neonates can lead to better preventive and therapeutic interventions. Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL is a promising biomarker of AKI, which was also shown to increase in inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of serum NGAL (sNGAL as an early marker of evolving AKI in critically-ill neonates with and without sepsis. sNGAL levels were estimated in 60 critically-ill neonates at the time of admission to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, in comparison to 20 healthy matched control. Patients were categorized as sepsis (n = 35 and no-sepsis (n = 25 subgroups on basis of clinical and laboratory criteria. They were subsequently discriminated according to creatinine and urine output criteria of the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN, into AKI (n = 34 and no-AKI (n = 26 subgroups. sNGAL levels were significantly higher in the patient group as compared to control (132.7±67.8 vs. 55±10.3 ng mL-1, p = 0.0001. Elevated levels were comparable between sepsis and no-sepsis groups (130.1±69.4 vs. 136.5±66.6 ng mL-1, p = 0.7 and they positively correlated with 48-hour post-admission serum creatinine (p = 0.0001. Patients of AKI group had significantly higher sNGAL than those of no-AKI group (176.2±55.9 vs. 75.9±28.3 ng mL-1, p = 0.0001. A cut-off value for sNGAL of 117.5 ng mL-1, was predictive of AKI with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 88.5%. It could be speculated that measurement of serum NGAL can serve as a clinically useful marker for early prediction of evolving AKI in critically-ill neonates with and without sepsis.

N.H. Mahmoud

2012-01-01

398