WorldWideScience
1

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (TBISS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had developed and maintains a surveillance system to understand the magnitude and characteristics of hospitalized and fatal traumatic brain injuries in the United State...

2

NATIONAL ELECTRONIC INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NEISS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is collaborating with the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to expand the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to collect data on all typ...

3

2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

4

2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-05-19

5

2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-09-12

6

2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-10-26

7

2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-03-06

8

2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-09-26

9

2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-06-20

10

2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-08-16

11

2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-10-05

12

Brain Injury Association of America  

Science.gov (United States)

... 6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or ... we announced that the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) and the Brain Injury Research Center at ...

13

2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2010-12-15

14

2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2010-12-01

15

2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2009-06-30

16

Injury surveillance in a rugby tournament.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To investigate injuries in international rugby football. METHODS--All injuries that led to temporary stoppage of the game or to the substitution of a player during the Rugby World Cup prequalifying tournament were recorded. Six matches were played, involving the Arabian Gulf, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. RESULTS--47 injuries were recorded, giving an injury rate of eight per match. The number of injuries decreased from 38.3% in the first matches to 23.4% in the final ones. The most...

Wekesa, M.; Asembo, J. M.; Njororai, W. W.

1996-01-01

17

Use of Washington State newspapers for submersion injury surveillance  

OpenAIRE

Objectives—To evaluate the usefulness of newspapers as a surveillance tool for submersion injury, the proportion of submersion events and important details reported in Washington State newspapers was determined. It was also determined whether a letter sent to newspaper editors to encourage reporting changed the proportion and content of reported submersion events.

Baullinger, J.; Quan, L.; Bennett, E.; Cummings, P.; Williams, K.

2001-01-01

18

Injury Surveillance Among NASA Astronauts Using the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix  

Science.gov (United States)

Astronauts perform physically demanding tasks and risk incurring musculoskeletal injuries during both groundbased training and missions. Increased injury rates throughout the history of the U.S. space program have been attributed to numerous factors, including an aging astronaut corps, increased Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training to construct the International Space Station, and improved clinical operations that promote injury prevention and reporting. With NASA program changes through the years (including retirement of the Shuttle program) and an improved training environment (including a new astronaut gym), there is no surveillance program to systematically track injury rates. A limited number of research projects have been conducted over the past 20 years to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries: (1) to evaluate orthopedic injuries from 1987 to 1995, (2) to describe upper extremity injuries, (3) to evaluate EVA spacesuit training related injuries, and (4) to evaluate in-flight musculoskeletal injuries. Nevertheless, there has been no consistently performed comprehensive assessment of musculoskeletal injuries among astronauts. The Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix was introduced at the 2001 meeting of the International Collaborative Effort (ICE) on Injury Statistics. The Matrix proposes a standardized method of classifying body region by nature of injury. Diagnoses are coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and complexity of the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix to classify and track musculoskeletal injuries among NASA astronauts.

Murray, J. D.; Laughlin, M. S.; Eudy, D. L.; Wear, M. L.; VanBaalen, M. G.

2014-01-01

19

Aboriginal Community-Centered Injury Surveillance: A Community-Based Participatory Process Evaluation  

OpenAIRE

While injuries are a leading health concern for Aboriginal populations, injury rates and types vary substantially across bands. The uniqueness of Aboriginal communities highlights the importance of collecting community-level injury surveillance data to assist with identifying local injury patterns, setting priorities for action and evaluating programs. Secwepemc First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada, implemented the Injury Surveillance Project using the Aboriginal Community-Ce...

Brussoni, Mariana; Olsen, Lise L.; Joshi, Pamela

2011-01-01

20

2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

21

2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

22

2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-24

23

Work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam: a national reporting system model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam's Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system. PMID:24028255

Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H; Leamon, Tom B; Binh, Ta Thi Tuyet; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

2013-11-01

24

2007 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-05-20

25

2006 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-03-27

26

2010 Nevada National Security Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-07-28

27

2010 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-08-31

28

2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-05-16

29

2006 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-04-17

30

2010 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-08-16

31

2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-07-28

32

2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2011-08-16

33

2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2008-06-13

34

The impact of playing in matches while injured on injury surveillance findings in professional football.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to analyze the frequency, nature, and consequences of footballers playing matches while injured, and to examine the impact on injury surveillance findings. High levels of inter-rater reliability and content validity were established for a tool designed to document players who were already injured at the start of a match. The tool was implemented in three English football teams (a Championship, League 1, and League 2 team) for one season, using a "time loss" definition of injury. One hundred forty-three matches were surveyed, revealing 102 match appearances by players who were already injured. Almost half of all games featured at least one injured player, with episodes of playing with injury occurring more frequently and lasting longer in League 2 players compared with higher level players. No association was observed between the number of injured players starting matches and match outcome [?(2) (4, N = 143)?= 3.27, P = 0.514]. Fifteen percent of all injury episodes captured were only through prospective documentation of playing while injured. The findings show that both traumatic and overuse injuries are managed by footballers through competitive matches, and have important implications for aiding understanding of the epidemiology of injury in professional football. PMID:24118123

Hammond, L E; Lilley, J M; Pope, G D; Ribbans, W J

2014-06-01

35

2003 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the East Tennessee Technology Park (K-25).The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

36

Injury surveillance in low-resource settings using Geospatial and Social Web technologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive public health gains have benefited high-income countries in recent decades, however, citizens of low and middle-income countries (LMIC have largely not enjoyed the same advancements. This is in part due to the fact that public health data - the foundation for public health advances - are rarely collected in many LMIC. Injury data are particularly scarce in many low-resource settings, despite the huge associated burden of morbidity and mortality. Advances in freely-accessible and easy-to-use information and communication (ICT technology may provide the impetus for increased public health data collection in settings with limited financial and personnel resources. Methods and Results A pilot study was conducted at a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa to assess the utility and feasibility of using free (non-licensed, and easy-to-use Social Web and GeoWeb tools for injury surveillance in low-resource settings. Data entry, geocoding, data exploration, and data visualization were successfully conducted using these technologies, including Google Spreadsheet, Mapalist, BatchGeocode, and Google Earth. Conclusion This study examined the potential for Social Web and GeoWeb technologies to contribute to public health data collection and analysis in low-resource settings through an injury surveillance pilot study conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. The success of this study illustrates the great potential for these technologies to be leveraged for public health surveillance in resource-constrained environments, given their ease-of-use and low-cost, and the sharing and collaboration capabilities they afford. The possibilities and potential limitations of these technologies are discussed in relation to the study, and to the field of public health in general.

Schuurman Nadine

2010-05-01

37

2008 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2010-10-26

38

2003 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Y-12. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

39

2003 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for the Hanford site. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The prpogram is part of DOE's commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers and includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-24

40

2003 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Los Alamos National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-04

41

2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

42

2003 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Pantex Plant. DOE is commited to assuring the health and safety of its workers. This includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-05

43

2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-05

44

2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-24

45

2003 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Kansas City Plant. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-04

46

2003 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-05-23

47

2003 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Brookhaven National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-02

48

2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-04

49

Occupational injury surveillance: A study in a metal smelting industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An investigation of occupational injury was undertaken in a metal smelting industry to examine the occurrence and nature of occupational accidents where analysis of occupational injury records was carried out. At the same time, all the workers were interviewed to collect data in relation to personal and occupational characteristics. With this information, the study aimed to examine the role of different factors in the causation of occupational accidents. High incidence of superficial injuries of limbs due mostly to stepping / striking against objects and overexertion / wrong movements of the workers and the frequent association of handling of small tools with work injuries, observed in this study indicated the role of human error in these accidents and highlighted the necessity of proper safety training of the workers. This study also highlighted the need of elevated safety status during summer months and in evening and night shifts (more so in the second half. Moreover, this study could categorize some high-risk groups e.g. young workers, less-experienced workers, obese workers, workers having smoking / chewing habits etc, who need special attention so far as workplace safety is concerned.

Saha Asim

2007-01-01

50

Trends in paediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries: An injury surveillance study at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) from 1992 to 2005  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Sport- and recreation-related injuries are a major source of morbidity in the paediatric population. Long-term trends for these injuries are largely unknown. METHODS: A traumatic injury surveillance system (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) was used to examine the demographics and trends of paediatric sports injuries in children who presented to or were directly admitted to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) emergency department or intensive care unit from 1992 to 2005. RESULTS: Over the 14-year study period, there was a significant increase in sport- and recreation-related injuries among patients who presented to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital. Of 104,414 injuries between 1992 and 2005, 27,466 were related to sports and recreational activities. The number of sport-related injuries increased by 28%, while all-cause injuries did not change significantly. Males comprised 68% of the sport-related injuries, and both sexes displayed an increasing trend over time. Cycling, basketball, soccer and ice hockey were the top four injury-causing activities. The main body parts injured were the face, head and digits. CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric sports injuries significantly increased at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital over the 14-year study period. This is likely due to increased sport participation, increased risk associated with certain sports, or both. Trends in paediatric sports injury may be predicted by changes in popular media, possibly allowing prevention programs to help to avoid these injuries before they occur. PMID:22468125

Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Singhal, Ash

2011-01-01

51

Poisson Regression Analysis of Illness and Injury Surveillance Data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) uses illness and injury surveillance to monitor morbidity and assess the overall health of the work force. Data collected from each participating site include health events and a roster file with demographic information. The source data files are maintained in a relational data base, and are used to obtain stratified tables of health event counts and person time at risk that serve as the starting point for Poisson regression analysis. The explanatory variables that define these tables are age, gender, occupational group, and time. Typical response variables of interest are the number of absences due to illness or injury, i.e., the response variable is a count. Poisson regression methods are used to describe the effect of the explanatory variables on the health event rates using a log-linear main effects model. Results of fitting the main effects model are summarized in a tabular and graphical form and interpretation of model parameters is provided. An analysis of deviance table is used to evaluate the importance of each of the explanatory variables on the event rate of interest and to determine if interaction terms should be considered in the analysis. Although Poisson regression methods are widely used in the analysis of count data, there are situations in which over-dispersion occurs. This could be due to lack-of-fit of the regression model, extra-Poisson variation, or both. A score test statistic and regression diagnostics are used to identify over-dispersion. A quasi-likelihood method of moments procedure is used to evaluate and adjust for extra-Poisson variation when necessary. Two examples are presented using respiratory disease absence rates at two DOE sites to illustrate the methods and interpretation of the results. In the first example the Poisson main effects model is adequate. In the second example the score test indicates considerable over-dispersion and a more detailed analysis attributes the over-dispersion to extra-Poisson variation. The R open source software environment for statistical computing and graphics is used for analysis. Additional details about R and the data that were used in this report are provided in an Appendix. Information on how to obtain R and utility functions that can be used to duplicate results in this report are provided.

Frome E.L., Watkins J.P., Ellis E.D.

2012-12-12

52

A successful model of road traffic injury surveillance in a developing country: process and lessons learnt  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide with 90% of global mortality concentrated in the low and middle income countries. RTI surveillance is recommended to define the burden, identify high risk groups, plan intervention and monitor their impact. Despite its stated importance in the literature, very few examples of sustained surveillance systems are reported from low income countries. This paper shares the experience of ...

Razzak Junaid; Shamim Muhammad; Mehmood Amber; Hussain Syed; Ali Mir; Jooma Rashid

2012-01-01

53

Occupational injury surveillance: A study in a metal smelting industry  

OpenAIRE

An investigation of occupational injury was undertaken in a metal smelting industry to examine the occurrence and nature of occupational accidents where analysis of occupational injury records was carried out. At the same time, all the workers were interviewed to collect data in relation to personal and occupational characteristics. With this information, the study aimed to examine the role of different factors in the causation of occupational accidents. High incidence of superficial injuries...

Saha Asim; Kumar Sunil; Vasudevan D

2007-01-01

54

A profile of Injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (?12 hours stay in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. Results The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29% and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%. The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Conclusions Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.

Wainiqolo Iris

2012-12-01

55

Alaska's model program for surveillance and prevention of occupational injury deaths.  

OpenAIRE

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established its Alaska Field Station in Anchorage in 1991 after identifying Alaska as the highest-risk state for traumatic worker fatalities. Since then, the Field Station, working in collaboration with other agencies, organizations, and individuals, has established a program for occupational injury surveillance in Alaska and formed interagency working groups to address the risk factors leading to occupational death and injury ...

Conway, G. A.; Lincoln, J. M.; Husberg, B. J.; Manwaring, J. C.; Klatt, M. L.; Thomas, T. K.

1999-01-01

56

Collecting injury surveillance data in low- and middle-income countries: the Cape Town Trauma Registry pilot.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injury is a major public health issue, responsible for 5 million deaths each year, equivalent to the total mortality caused by HIV, malaria and tuberculosis combined. The World Health Organisation estimates that of the total worldwide deaths due to injury, more than 90% occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Despite the burden of injury sustained by LMIC, there are few continuing injury surveillance systems for collection and analysis of injury data. We describe a hospital-based trauma surveillance instrument for collection of a minimum data-set for calculating common injury scoring metrics including the Abbreviated Injury Scale and the Injury Severity Score. The Cape Town Trauma Registry (CTTR) is designed for injury surveillance in low-resource settings. A pilot at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town was conducted for one month to demonstrate the feasibility of systematic data collection and analysis, and to explore challenges of implementing a trauma registry in a LMIC. Key characteristics of the CTTR include: ability to calculate injury severity, key minimal data elements, expansion to include quality indicators and minimal drain on human resources based on few fields. The CTTR provides a strategy to describe the distribution and consequences of injury in a high trauma volume, low-resource environment. PMID:20938854

Schuurman, Nadine; Cinnamon, Jonathan; Matzopoulos, Richard; Fawcett, Vanessa; Nicol, Andrew; Hameed, S Morad

2011-01-01

57

Surveillance for community-associated Clostridium difficile--Connecticut, 2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium difficile is a well-known cause of hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea and is associated with increased health-care costs, prolonged hospitalizations, and increased patient morbidity. Previous antimicrobial use, especially use of clindamycin or ciprofloxacin, is the primary risk factor for development of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) because it disrupts normal bowel flora and promotes C. difficile overgrowth. Historically, CDAD has been associated with elderly hospital in-patients or long-term--care facility (LTCF) residents. Since 2000, a strain of C. difficile that has been identified as North American pulsed-field type 1 (NAP1) and produces an extra toxin (binary toxin) and increased amounts of toxins A and B has caused increased morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. During 2005, related strains caused severe disease in generally healthy persons in the community at a rate of 7.6 cases per 100,000 population, suggesting that traditional risk factors for C. difficile might not always be factors in development of community-associated CDAD (CA-CDAD). Cases of CA-CDAD are not nationally reportable, and population-based data at a statewide level have not been reported previously. In 2006, the Connecticut Department of Public Health (DPH) implemented a statewide surveillance system to assess the burden of CA-CDAD and to determine the descriptive epidemiology, trends, and risk factors for this disease. This report describes that surveillance system and summarizes results from the first year of surveillance. The findings indicated the presence of occasionally severe CDAD among healthy persons living in the community, including persons with no established risk factors for infection. Clinicians should consider a diagnosis of CA-CDAD in outpatients with severe diarrhea, even in the absence of established risk factors. In addition, continued surveillance is needed to determine trends in occurrence and whether more toxigenic strains are having an increasing impact in the community and in the hospital setting. PMID:18385641

2008-04-01

58

The Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program: a framework for the timely data collection on head injury secondary to suspected child maltreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent and nature of head injury secondary to child maltreatment in Canada is inadequately understood. These cases, although reasonably rare, are of great clinical importance as a large proportion of them result in death or permanent neurologic deficits. Internationally, published incidence data may underestimate the extent of the problem because of the failure of professionals to recognize and report inflicted head injury. National data on head injury secondary to suspected child maltreatment can inform educational efforts for early detection, guide prevention strategies, and be a foundation for the development of policies and programs to effectively address the needs of victims and their families. The Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program is described as a system for active surveillance of uncommon high-impact conditions and is ideally suited to the collection of data on head injury secondary to child maltreatment. PMID:18374264

Bennett, Susan; Grenier, Danielle; Medaglia, Andrea

2008-04-01

59

Prostatic surgery associated acute kidney injury  

OpenAIRE

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with extended hospital stays, high risks of in-hospital and long-term mortality, and increased risk of incident and progressive chronic kidney disease. Patients with urological diseases are a high-risk group for AKI owing to the coexistence of obstructive uropathy, older age, and preexistent chronic kidney disease. Nonetheless, precise data on the incidence and outcomes of postoperative AKI in urological procedures are lacking. Benign prostatic hyperpla...

Costalonga, Elerson Carlos; Costa E Silva, Vero?nica Torres; Caires, Renato; Hung, James; Yu, Luis; Burdmann, Emmanuel A.

2014-01-01

60

A surveillance of needle-stick injuries amongst student nurses at the University of Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Needle-stick injuries have the potential to change a student nurse’s life; yet they are dealt with covertly and many go unreported. This could create difficulties when evaluating a curriculum, because potential risk issues in nursing education might go undetected. In addition, needlestick injuries are inherently preventable occupational health hazards. The fact that there has been, until now, no information available on the incidence of, and context in which needlestick injuries occur amongst student nurses in Namibia, is of particular concern for nurse educators in that country. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the incidence of needle-stick injuries and to describe the context of their occurrences. A framework known as Haddon’s matrix made it possible to approach this survey from both an occupational and a nursing education perspective.

The questionnaire was completed by 198 students and it was found that, during 2008 alone, 17% of student nurses sustained needle-stick injuries, but only 55% of these reported it. In addition, in 55% of the occasions on which the student nurses were injured, they were not accompanied by a registered nurse. The recommendations made are based on the three phases of Haddon’s matrix, namely pre-injury, injury and post-injury phases. These recommendations focussed on student accompaniment by registered nurses, the completion of reflective exercises, sensitisation sessions before placement in clinical areas, as well as the utilisation of independent student counsellors.

Opsomming

Enige naaldprik-insident kan ‘n groot omwenteling in ‘n student-verpleegkundige se lewe te weeg bring. Ten spyte hiervan word sodanige insidente nie openlik hanteer nie, en dikwels word dit nie eers gerapporteer nie. Dit mag egter kurrikulering-evaluerings kompliseer want potensiële risiko-aspekte in verpleegonderwys mag dalk nie geidentifisser word nie. Naaldprik-ongelukke is in wese beroepsgesondheidsaspekte, wat inherent voorkombaar is. Dit was dan ook ‘n bron van kommmer onder verpleegopvoeders in Namibië, aangesien geen inligting beskikbaar was oor die voorkoms en konteks van naaldprik-ongelukke onder student-verpleegkundiges in Namibië nie. Die doel van hierdie studie was dus on die voorkoms en konteks waarbinne naaldprik-ongelukke plaasvind te beskryf. Daar was reeds a raamwerk beskikbaar, naamlik die Haddon-matriks. Diè raamwerk het dit moontlik gemaak om die opname te benader vanuit sowel ‘n beroepsgesondheids-perspektief as ‘n verpleegopvoedkundige perspektief.

Die vraelys is voltooi deur 198 studente en van die bevindings was dat gedurende 2008 alleen, 17% van die student-verpleegkundiges naaldprik-insidente gehad het, maar dat slegs 55% van die beseerdes dit aangemeld het. Daar is ook gevind dat in 55% van die gevalle, hulle nie deur ‘n geregistreerde verpleegkundige vergesel was nie. Aanbevelings wat gemaak is, is gebaseer op die drie fases van die Haddon-matriks, naamlik die voor-beserings-fase, die beseringsfase en die na-beserings-fase. Die aanbevelings is gefokus op student-begeleiding, reflektiewe oefeninge, sensitiseringsessies voor die plasings in kliniese areas, asook ondersteuning van ‘n onafhanklike berader.

How to cite this article: Small, L., Pretorius, L., Walters, A. & Ackerman,M.J., 2011, ‘A surveillance of needle-stick injuries amongst student nurses at the University of Namibia’, Health SA Gesondheid 16(1, Art. #507, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.4102/hsag.v161.507

 

Maria J. Ackerman

2011-02-01

61

FARM FAMILY HEALTH AND HAZARD SURVEILLANCE  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIOSH Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance (FFHHS) Cooperative Agreement Program was developed to respond to Congress's concern that agricultural workers and their families experience a disproportionate share of disease and injury associated with the chemical, biologica...

62

Quality of Life Following Brain Injury: Perspectives from Brain Injury Association of America State Affiliates  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: to examine the perspectives of brain injury professionals concerning family members' feelings about the quality of life experienced by individuals with brain injuries. Participants: participating in the study were 28 individuals in leadership positions with the state affiliates of the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA). Methods:…

Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Tucker, Mark

2012-01-01

63

Injury surveillance in low-resource settings using Geospatial and Social Web technologies  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Extensive public health gains have benefited high-income countries in recent decades, however, citizens of low and middle-income countries (LMIC) have largely not enjoyed the same advancements. This is in part due to the fact that public health data - the foundation for public health advances - are rarely collected in many LMIC. Injury data are particularly scarce in many low-resource settings, despite the huge associated burden of morbidity and mortality. Advances in free...

Schuurman Nadine; Cinnamon Jonathan

2010-01-01

64

Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is a common and serious postoperative complication of cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and it is the second most common cause of AKI in the intensive care unit. Although the complication has been associated with the use of CPB, the etiology is likely multifactorial and related to intraoperative and early postoperative management including pharmacologic therapy. To date, very little evidence from randomized trials supporting specific interventions to protect from or prevent AKI in broad cardiac surgery populations has been found. The definition of AKI employed by investigators influences not only the incidence of CSA-AKI, but also the identification of risk variables. The advent of novel biomarkers of kidney injury has the potential to facilitate the subclinical diagnosis of CSA-AKI, the assessment of its severity and prognosis, and the early institution of interventions to prevent or reduce kidney damage. Further studies are needed to determine how to optimize cardiac surgical procedures, CPB parameters, and intraoperative and early postoperative blood pressure and renal blood flow to reduce the risk of CSA-AKI. No pharmacologic strategy has demonstrated clear efficacy in the prevention of CSA-AKI; however, some agents, such as the natriuretic peptide nesiritide and the dopamine agonist fenoldopam, have shown promising results in renoprotection. It remains unclear whether CSA-AKI patients can benefit from the early institution of such pharmacologic agents or the early initiation of renal replacement therapy. PMID:24454314

Mao, Huijuan; Katz, Nevin; Ariyanon, Wassawon; Blanca-Martos, Lourdes; Adýbelli, Zelal; Giuliani, Anna; Danesi, Tommaso Hinna; Kim, Jeong Chul; Nayak, Akash; Neri, Mauro; Virzi, Grazia Maria; Brocca, Alessandra; Scalzotto, Elisa; Salvador, Loris; Ronco, Claudio

2013-01-01

65

Epidemiology of Collegiate Injuries for 15 Sports: Summary and Recommendations for Injury Prevention Initiatives  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To summarize 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for 15 sports and to identify potential modifiable risk factors to target for injury prevention initiatives.

Hootman, Jennifer M.; Dick, Randall; Agel, Julie

2007-01-01

66

Documentation of Associated Injuries Occurring With Radial Head Fracture  

OpenAIRE

We believe a better way is needed to accurately describe the spectrum of associated injuries that commonly occur in conjunction with a radial head fracture. A review of our institution’s experience with 333 radial head fractures from 1997 to 2002 documented 88 (26%) associated injuries. Based on this clinical experience, our goal was to develop an accurate and comprehensive description of associated injuries. A shorthand suffix method first recognizes the type of radial head fracture with t...

Riet, Roger P.; Morrey, Bernard F.

2008-01-01

67

Pathophysiology of battlefield associated traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

As more data is accumulated from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF in Afghanistan), it is becoming increasing evident that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious and highly prevalent battle related injury. Although traditional TBIs such as closed head and penetrating occur in the modern battle space, the most common cause of modern battle related TBI is exposure to explosive blast. Many believe that explosive blast TBI is unique from the other forms of TBI. This is because the physical forces responsible for explosive blast TBI are different than those for closed head TBI and penetrating TBI. The unique force associated with explosive blast is the blast shock pressure wave. This shock wave occurs over a very short period, milliseconds, and has a specific profile known as the Freidlander curve. This pressure-time curve is characterized by an initial very rapid up-rise followed by a longer decay that reaches a negative inflection point before returning to baseline. This is important as the effect of this shock pressure on brain parenchyma is distinct. The diffuse interaction of the pressure wave with the brain leads to a complex cascade of events that affects neurons, axons, glia cells, and vasculature. It is only by properly studying this disease will meaningful therapies be realized. PMID:22703708

Duckworth, Josh L; Grimes, Jamie; Ling, Geoffrey S F

2013-02-01

68

Upper limb injuries associated with rock climbing.  

OpenAIRE

Four cases of upper limb injuries secondary to rock-climbing or training for rock climbing are presented. All four cases had diagnosis and treatment delayed because of unawareness of the range of injuries seen in high grade rock climbing.

Bannister, P.; Foster, P.

1986-01-01

69

Understanding perceptions of injury risk associated with playing junior cricket.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preventing sports injuries in children is important, but there is limited information about children's perceptions of injury risk or their injury beliefs and attitudes. This study investigated injury risk perceptions in a sample of junior sports participants across different age levels of play. Junior cricket players (n=284, aged 8-16) completed a survey about their injury risk perceptions. Survey questions asked about players' perceived injury risk to themselves compared to cricketers in general, as well as their perceived injury risk across different playing position, ground condition, and protective equipment use scenarios. Chi-square analysis found that risk perceptions were significantly higher in U12 and U14 players for both batting and fielding compared to U16 players and that U16 players had a higher risk perception associated with bowling. Players tended to see themselves as less likely to be injured than cricketers in general and perceived there to be a high risk of injury when fielding close to the batter and a comparatively low risk of injury when fielding in the outfield. Junior players also perceived there to be a high injury risk associated with playing on hard and bumpy grounds. Despite their relatively accurate perceptions of risk and appreciation for the importance of protective equipment, junior players need continual reminding of the importance of safety strategies by coaches and others. Coaches need to inform players that fielding injuries can occur anywhere on the ground, and include skills practice accordingly. PMID:20620110

White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F; Dennis, Rebecca; Siesmaa, Emma

2011-03-01

70

Use of surveillance data for prevention of healthcare-associated infection: risk adjustment and reporting dilemmas.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Healthcare-associated or nosocomial infection (HCAI) is of increasing importance to healthcare providers and the public. Surveillance is crucial but must be adjusted for risk, especially when used for interhospital comparisons or for public reporting.

O'Neill, Eoghan

2009-08-01

71

Atendimentos de emergência por acidentes na Rede de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes: Brasil, 2006 / Unintentional injuries at the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System: Brazil, 2006  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 2006, o Ministério da Saúde implantou a Rede de Serviços Sentinelas de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes (Rede VIVA) a fim de descrever os atendimentos de emergência por violências e acidentes, principalmente as lesões de menor gravidade que não implicam mortes ou internações. Neste artigo, de [...] screvem-se as características dos atendimentos de emergência por acidentes realizados nesses serviços. Estudo descritivo, de corte transversal, realizado em 35 municípios com os maiores coeficientes de morbimortalidade por causas externas. Os dados foram coletados durante trinta dias consecutivos em plantões alternados de doze horas. Registraram-se 41.677 atendimentos por acidentes, com predomínio de homens (64,8%), pessoas de 20 a 29 anos de idade (22,9%) e com baixa escolaridade (56,8%). As quedas (40,2%) foram a principal causa, seguidas dos acidentes de transporte (26,6%). Os locais de ocorrência mais frequentes foram via pública (36,2%) e residência (33,7%). As partes do corpo mais atingidas foram membros superiores (38,1%), membros inferiores (37,6%) e cabeça/face (25,7%). A vigilância sentinela de violências e acidentes permite coletar dados em tempo hábil sobre eventos menos graves, cujo conhecimento é fundamental para o planejamento de medidas preventivas. Abstract in english In 2006, the Brazilian Ministry of Health established the Injury Surveillance System Network in Sentinel Services (Rede VIVA) to describe data on injuries victims treated at emergency departments (ED), especially minor injuries which do not cause deaths and hospitalization. This study describes the [...] characteristics of unintentional injuries victims treated in these EDs by means of a transversal descriptive study with data coming from EDs located in 35 municipalities with the highest injury rates. The data were collected during 30 consecutive days in an alternated 12-hour shift. There were a total of 41,677 patients with unintentional injuries, mainly among males (64.8%), people aged 20 to 29 years (23.0%) and low level of education (45.8%). Falls were the main cause (40.1% overall), followed by transport related injuries (26.6% overall). The more frequent place of occurrence were public streets (36.3% overall) and residences (33.6% overall). The body parts most affected were upper members (42.7%), lower members (42.0%) and head/face (29.2%). The injury surveillance in sentinel services allows collecting timeless data about minor cases which is essential for planning and implementing preventive measures.

Márcio Dênis Medeiros, Mascarenhas; Marta Maria Alves da, Silva; Deborah Carvalho, Malta; Lenildo de, Moura; Vilma Pinheiro, Gawryszewski; Valter Chaves, Costa; Maria de Fátima Marinho, Souza; Otaliba Libânio de, Morais Neto.

1657-16-01

72

Atendimentos de emergência por acidentes na Rede de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes: Brasil, 2006 Unintentional injuries at the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System: Brazil, 2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em 2006, o Ministério da Saúde implantou a Rede de Serviços Sentinelas de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes (Rede VIVA a fim de descrever os atendimentos de emergência por violências e acidentes, principalmente as lesões de menor gravidade que não implicam mortes ou internações. Neste artigo, descrevem-se as características dos atendimentos de emergência por acidentes realizados nesses serviços. Estudo descritivo, de corte transversal, realizado em 35 municípios com os maiores coeficientes de morbimortalidade por causas externas. Os dados foram coletados durante trinta dias consecutivos em plantões alternados de doze horas. Registraram-se 41.677 atendimentos por acidentes, com predomínio de homens (64,8%, pessoas de 20 a 29 anos de idade (22,9% e com baixa escolaridade (56,8%. As quedas (40,2% foram a principal causa, seguidas dos acidentes de transporte (26,6%. Os locais de ocorrência mais frequentes foram via pública (36,2% e residência (33,7%. As partes do corpo mais atingidas foram membros superiores (38,1%, membros inferiores (37,6% e cabeça/face (25,7%. A vigilância sentinela de violências e acidentes permite coletar dados em tempo hábil sobre eventos menos graves, cujo conhecimento é fundamental para o planejamento de medidas preventivas.In 2006, the Brazilian Ministry of Health established the Injury Surveillance System Network in Sentinel Services (Rede VIVA to describe data on injuries victims treated at emergency departments (ED, especially minor injuries which do not cause deaths and hospitalization. This study describes the characteristics of unintentional injuries victims treated in these EDs by means of a transversal descriptive study with data coming from EDs located in 35 municipalities with the highest injury rates. The data were collected during 30 consecutive days in an alternated 12-hour shift. There were a total of 41,677 patients with unintentional injuries, mainly among males (64.8%, people aged 20 to 29 years (23.0% and low level of education (45.8%. Falls were the main cause (40.1% overall, followed by transport related injuries (26.6% overall. The more frequent place of occurrence were public streets (36.3% overall and residences (33.6% overall. The body parts most affected were upper members (42.7%, lower members (42.0% and head/face (29.2%. The injury surveillance in sentinel services allows collecting timeless data about minor cases which is essential for planning and implementing preventive measures.

Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas

2009-12-01

73

Atendimentos de emergência por acidentes na Rede de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes: Brasil, 2006 / Unintentional injuries at the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System: Brazil, 2006  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 2006, o Ministério da Saúde implantou a Rede de Serviços Sentinelas de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes (Rede VIVA) a fim de descrever os atendimentos de emergência por violências e acidentes, principalmente as lesões de menor gravidade que não implicam mortes ou internações. Neste artigo, de [...] screvem-se as características dos atendimentos de emergência por acidentes realizados nesses serviços. Estudo descritivo, de corte transversal, realizado em 35 municípios com os maiores coeficientes de morbimortalidade por causas externas. Os dados foram coletados durante trinta dias consecutivos em plantões alternados de doze horas. Registraram-se 41.677 atendimentos por acidentes, com predomínio de homens (64,8%), pessoas de 20 a 29 anos de idade (22,9%) e com baixa escolaridade (56,8%). As quedas (40,2%) foram a principal causa, seguidas dos acidentes de transporte (26,6%). Os locais de ocorrência mais frequentes foram via pública (36,2%) e residência (33,7%). As partes do corpo mais atingidas foram membros superiores (38,1%), membros inferiores (37,6%) e cabeça/face (25,7%). A vigilância sentinela de violências e acidentes permite coletar dados em tempo hábil sobre eventos menos graves, cujo conhecimento é fundamental para o planejamento de medidas preventivas. Abstract in english In 2006, the Brazilian Ministry of Health established the Injury Surveillance System Network in Sentinel Services (Rede VIVA) to describe data on injuries victims treated at emergency departments (ED), especially minor injuries which do not cause deaths and hospitalization. This study describes the [...] characteristics of unintentional injuries victims treated in these EDs by means of a transversal descriptive study with data coming from EDs located in 35 municipalities with the highest injury rates. The data were collected during 30 consecutive days in an alternated 12-hour shift. There were a total of 41,677 patients with unintentional injuries, mainly among males (64.8%), people aged 20 to 29 years (23.0%) and low level of education (45.8%). Falls were the main cause (40.1% overall), followed by transport related injuries (26.6% overall). The more frequent place of occurrence were public streets (36.3% overall) and residences (33.6% overall). The body parts most affected were upper members (42.7%), lower members (42.0%) and head/face (29.2%). The injury surveillance in sentinel services allows collecting timeless data about minor cases which is essential for planning and implementing preventive measures.

Márcio Dênis Medeiros, Mascarenhas; Marta Maria Alves da, Silva; Deborah Carvalho, Malta; Lenildo de, Moura; Vilma Pinheiro, Gawryszewski; Valter Chaves, Costa; Maria de Fátima Marinho, Souza; Otaliba Libânio de, Morais Neto.

1657-16-01

74

Injuries in Patients with Epilepsy and Some Factors Associated with Injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate injuries in patients with epilepsyand some factors associated with injury.Methods: This study included 126 epileptic patients who attended a neurology outpatient clinic of a hospital between March 2009 and March 2010. Data were collected using a patient information form and an injury evaluation form. The data were evaluated using percentage, mean and the Chi square test. Results: 82.5% of patients have sustained injury due to an epileptic seizure. Soft tissue injuries were the most common (70.2%, followed by head injury (61.5%, dental and tongue injury (%58.6, burns (24%, and orthopaedic injury (21.2%.The most common site of burns were the upper extremities and the face (36% and 24%, respectively. Burns occurred during cooking in 32% of cases. Five patients had upper extremity fractures. Four patients faced the risk of bathtub drowning. The injuries usually occurred at home. The significant risk factors for injury were generalized tonic-clonic seizures and high frequency of seizures. Twenty-six patients were taken to the emergency unit due to an injury.Conclusion: Injury is a common problem in patients with epilepsy. Dental and tongue injury was the most common seizure-related injury. The risk factors were generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and high frequency of seizures. Patients with epilepsy can lead normal lives but certain precautions are needed to prevent seizure-related injuries. (Arc¬hi¬ves of Neu¬ropsy¬chi¬atry 2013; 50: 269-273

Mukadder MOLLAO?LU

2013-09-01

75

[Elbow problems associated with sports injuries in children].  

Science.gov (United States)

Elbow problems associated with sports injuries may result from overuse, micro- or macrotraumas. Overuse injuries are frequent and are often closely related to mechanical characteristics of sports. Sports-related elbow injuries mainly occur in sports involving throwing such as baseball and javelin throwing, which require forced valgus and extension of the elbow, predisposing it to overuse injuries. Overuse injuries in child athletes are generally defined as Little League elbow, the most common of which are medial epicondyle apophysitis, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radial head deformation, flexion contractures, and injuries to the olecranon. Most of these injuries can be healed without or with minimal sequelae by early diagnosis and proper treatment. Therefore, mechanisms of, and risk factors for, elbow problems encountered in pediatric athletes should be well-understood in order to avoid the risks for a permanent deformity in the child's anatomy. PMID:15187462

Demirhan, Mehmet; Güne?li, Taner

2004-01-01

76

U.S. Department of Energy, Illness and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health Summary, 1995-2004  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program has created an opportunity to assess illness and injury rates and patterns among workers at participating sites for well over a decade. The Worker Health Summary introduces an additional perspective on worker health with the introduction of analyses comparing the experience of sites in different program offices and a focus on time trends covering a decade of worker illness and injury experience. These analyses by program office suggest that illness and injury patterns among National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) workers diverge in many ways from those seen among Environmental Management (EM) and Science workers for reasons not yet understood. These differences will receive further investigation in future special focus studies, as will other findings of interest. With the time depth now available in our data, the Worker Health Summary reveals an additional nuance in worker health trends: changing health patterns in a specialized and skilled but aging work force. Older workers are becoming an increasing percentage of the work force, and their absence rates for diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are increasing as well. The impact of these emerging health issues, if properly addressed, can be managed to maintain or even enhance worker health and productivity. Prevention strategies designed to reduce the toll of these health conditions appear warranted, and this report gives us an indication of where to focus them. The analyses that follow reflect the Illness and Injury Surveillance Program’s continued commitment to apply a public health perspective in protecting the health of DOE’s work force.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-01

77

Chronic disease surveillance systems within the US Associated Pacific Island jurisdictions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, illness and death due to chronic disease in the US Associated Pacific Islands (USAPI) jurisdictions have dramatically increased. Effective chronic disease surveillance can help monitor disease trends, evaluate public policy, prioritize resource allocation, and guide program planning, evaluation, and research. Although chronic disease surveillance is being conducted in the USAPI, no recently published capacity assessments for chronic disease surveillance are available. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of existing USAPI chronic disease data sources and identify jurisdictional capacity for chronic disease surveillance. The assessment included a chronic disease data source inventory, literature review, and review of surveillance documentation available from the web or through individual jurisdictions. We used the World Health Organization's Health Metric Network Framework to assess data source quality and to identify jurisdictional capacity. Results showed that USAPI data sources are generally aligned with widely accepted chronic disease surveillance indicators and use standardized data collection methodology to measure chronic disease behavioral risks, preventive practices, illness, and death. However, all jurisdictions need to strengthen chronic disease surveillance through continued assessment and expanded support for valid and reliable data collection, analysis and reporting, dissemination, and integration among population-based and institution-based data sources. For sustained improvement, we recommend investment and technical assistance in support of a chronic disease surveillance system that integrates population-based and institution-based data sources. An integrated strategy that bridges and links USAPI data sources can support evidence-based policy and population health interventions. PMID:21672410

Hosey, Gwen; Ichiho, Henry; Satterfield, Dawn; Dankwa-Mullan, Irene; Kuartei, Stevenson; Rhee, Kyu; Belyeu-Camacho, Tayna; deBrum, Ione; Demei, Yorah; Lippwe, Kipier; Luces, Patrick Solidum; Roby, Faiese

2011-07-01

78

Treatment of vascular injuries associated with limb fractures.  

OpenAIRE

INTRODUCTION: The goal of therapy in all patients with combined orthopaedic and vascular injuries of the extremities is salvage of a functional limb. In this study, we have evaluated our experience with a subset of patients who had a combination of vascular injury and limb fracture. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of 192 patients with vascular injuries of the lower and upper limbs associated with bone fractures were reviewed. Of these, 168 were males and 24 were females; the mean age was 26...

Cakir, Omer; Subasi, Mehmet; Erdem, Kemalettin; Eren, Nesimi

2005-01-01

79

Direct cost associated with acquired brain injury in Ontario  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) from traumatic and non traumatic causes is a leading cause of disability worldwide yet there is limited research summarizing the health system economic burden associated with ABI. The objective of this study was to determine the direct cost of publicly funded health care services from the initial hospitalization to three years post-injury for individuals with traumatic (TBI) and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI) in Ontario Canada. Methods A popu...

Chen Amy; Bushmeneva Ksenia; Zagorski Brandon; Colantonio Angela; Parsons Daria; Wodchis Walter P

2012-01-01

80

[Hemodynamic disorders in isolated craniocerebral injuries and craniocerebral injuries associated with injuries of the musculoskeletal system].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemodynamic disorders were studied in 60 patients with isolated craniocerebral injury and in 145 patients with craniocerebral injury and injury to the locomotor apparatus. The authors studied the changes in the mean dynamic arterial pressure, the cardiac contraction rate, the cardiac output, the general peripheral vascular resistance to blood flow, and the circulation volume. It was found that in isolated craniocerebral injury the circulation volume deficiency does not exceed 13%, the mean dynamic arterial pressure and the cardiac output increase. In cases of craniocerebral injury combined with injury to the locomotor apparatus the required level of the mean dynamic arterial pressure is maintained by a higher cardiac output and an increase in the general peripheral vascular resistance to the blood flow. The changes in hemodynamic indices including the circulating volume deficiency depend on the degree of injury to the locomotor apparatus and of craniocerebral injury. PMID:3984618

Virozub, I D; Kalinkin, O G; Tantsiura, V P

1985-01-01

81

U.S. Department of Energy Illness, and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health At A Glance, 1995-2004  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program (IISP) has monitored the health of contractor workers at selected DOE sites since 1990. For the first time, the IISP has sufficient data to describe, in a collective manner, the health trends occurring among workers at a number of DOE sites during a 10-year period. This brief report and the more detailed Worker Health Summary assess illness and injury trends of DOE workers according to gender, age, occupational group, and program office over the 10-year period, 1995 through 2004. During this time, over 137,000 individual contractor workers were employed at the 15 DOE sites participating in the IISP.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

2007-10-01

82

Use of statewide emergency department surveillance data to assess incidence of animal bite injuries among humans in North Carolina.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE--To determine incidence of animal bite injuries among humans in North Carolina by use of statewide emergency department visit data; to evaluate incidence rates on the basis of age, sex, urbanicity, biting species, and month for selected species; and to characterize bite-related emergency department visits. DESIGN--Retrospective cohort and cross-sectional study. SAMPLE--Records of 38,971 incident animal bite-related emergency department visits in North Carolina from 2008 to 2010. PROCEDURES--Emergency department visits were selected for inclusion by means of external-cause-of-injury codes assigned with an international coding system and keyword searches of chief complaint and triage notes. Rates were calculated with denominators obtained from census data. Cross-sectional analysis of incident emergency department visits was performed. RESULTS--By the age of 10, a child in North Carolina had a 1 in 50 risk of dog bite injury requiring an emergency department visit. Incidence rates for dog bites were highest for children ? 14 years of age, whereas the incidence rate for cat bites and scratches was highest among individuals > 79 years of age. Lifetime risk of cat bite or scratch injury requiring an emergency department visit was 1 in 60 for the population studied. Rabies postexposure prophylaxis was administered during 1,664 of 38,971 (4.3%) incident visits. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE--Emergency department visit surveillance data were used to monitor species-specific bite incidence statewide and in various subpopulations. Emergency department surveillance data may be particularly useful to public health veterinarians. Results may inform and renew interest in targeted animal bite prevention efforts. PMID:24548236

Rhea, Sarah K; Weber, David J; Poole, Charles; Waller, Anna E; Ising, Amy I; Williams, Carl

2014-03-01

83

Injuries Associated with All-Terrain Vehicles  

OpenAIRE

All-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding has become very popular over the past decade. Several reports have shown that ATV riding can cause injury. Poor machine design, rider inexperience, inappropriate riding, carrying passengers, alcohol consumption, and use of ATVs by children have been identified as causes of injury. Three- and four-wheel ATVs demand considerable rider skill and caution, requirements which users may not appreciate. Physicians have an important role in recording and reporting ATV-...

Lawton, Louis J.

1987-01-01

84

Bowel injury associated with pelvic radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation therapists have to deal with the difficulty to give an efficient radiation dose to the tumor without generating unacceptable normal tissue injury. Acute reactions are experienced in most of the patients and are characterized by diarrhea resulting from intestinal mucosal injury. In some cases, intestinal wall fibrosis may develop, with hazard of occlusion syndrome. The only therapeutic recourse consists of surgical resection of the injured bowel

85

Unintentional Childhood Injury Patterns, Odds, and Outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. METHODS: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years. RESULTS: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention priorities could include home, road and school safety; especially dissemination and uptake of proven interventions. Burns should be focus of domestic injury prevention among under-fives. Commercial passenger motorcycles require better regulation and control.

Emilio Ovuga

2011-01-01

86

Molecular Identification of Aspergillus Species Collected for the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network?  

OpenAIRE

A large aggregate collection of clinical isolates of aspergilli (n = 218) from transplant patients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis was available from the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network, a 6-year prospective surveillance study. To determine the Aspergillus species distribution in this collection, isolates were subjected to comparative sequence analyses by use of the internal transcribed spacer and ?-tubulin regions. Aspergillus fumigatus was the predominan...

Balajee, S. Arunmozhi; Kano, Rui; Baddley, John W.; Moser, Stephen A.; Marr, Kieren A.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Andes, David; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Peterson, Stephen; Brandt, Mary E.; Pappas, Peter G.; Chiller, Tom

2009-01-01

87

Factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries, Thika, Kenya  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the severity of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries in a public hospital in Thika district, Kenya. METHODS: Road crash victims attending the Thika district hospital, a 265-bed public hospital, emergency room were recruited consecutively between 10th August 2009 and 15th November 2009. Epidemiologic and clinical information was collected from medical charts and through interview with the victims or surrogates using a semi-structured questionnaire. Injuries were graded as severe or non-severe based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS. Independent factors associated with injury severity were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 32.4 years, three quarters were between 20-49 years-old and 73% (219 were male. Nineteen percent (56/300 of the victims had severe injury. Five percent (15 had head injury while 38% (115 had fractures. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians and two-wheel users comprised 33% (99/300 of the victims. Vulnerable road users (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.0-3.9, road crashes in rainy weather (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.3-6.5 and night time crashes (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.1-3.9 were independent risk factors for sustaining severe injury. CONCLUSION: Severe injury was associated with vulnerable road users, rainy weather and night time crashes. Interventions and measures such as use of reflective jackets and helmets by two wheel users and enhanced road visibility could help reduce the severity of road traffic injuries

Osoro Mogaka Eric

2011-03-01

88

Complement activation and kidney injury molecule-1-associated proximal tubule injury in severe preeclampsia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kidney injury with proteinuria is a characteristic feature of preeclampsia, yet the nature of injury in specific regions of the nephron is incompletely understood. Our study aimed to use existing urinary biomarkers to describe the pattern of kidney injury and proteinuria in pregnancies affected by severe preeclampsia. We performed a case-control study of pregnant women from Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2012 to 2013. We matched cases of severe preeclampsia (n=25) 1:1 by parity and gestational age to 2 control groups with and without chronic hypertension. Urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 and complement components (C3a, C5a, and C5b-9) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and other markers (albumin, ?2 microglobulin, cystatin C, epithelial growth factor, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, osteopontin, and uromodulin) were measured simultaneously with a multiplex electrochemiluminescence assay. Median values between groups were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and correlations with Spearman correlation coefficient. Analysis of urinary markers revealed higher excretion of albumin and kidney injury molecule-1 and lower excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and epithelial growth factor in severe preeclampsia compared with chronic hypertension and healthy controls. Among subjects with severe preeclampsia, urinary excretion of complement activation products correlated most closely with kidney injury molecule-1, a specific marker of proximal tubule injury (C5a: r=0.60; P=0.001; and C5b-9: r=0.75; P<0.0001). Taken together, we describe a pattern of kidney injury in severe preeclampsia that is characterized by glomerular impairment and complement-mediated inflammation and injury, possibly localized to the proximal tubule in association with kidney injury molecule-1. PMID:24958504

Burwick, Richard M; Easter, Sarah Rae; Dawood, Hassan Y; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Fichorova, Raina N; Feinberg, Bruce B

2014-10-01

89

A surveillance of needle-stick injuries amongst student nurses at the University of Namibia  

OpenAIRE

Needle-stick injuries have the potential to change a student nurse’s life; yet they are dealt with covertly and many go unreported. This could create difficulties when evaluating a curriculum, because potential risk issues in nursing education might go undetected. In addition, needlestick injuries are inherently preventable occupational health hazards. The fact that there has been, until now, no information available on the incidence of, and context in which needlestick injuries occur among...

Ackerman, Maria J.; Althea Walters; Louise Pretorius; Louis Small

2011-01-01

90

MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: associated findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors investigated the associated findings and their value in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in MR image. The knee MR images of 47 patients with ACL injury (complete;24, partial;23) and 61 patients with normal ACL confirmed by the knee arthroscopy or operation were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of anterior translocation of tibia and the degree of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) buckling were evaluated. The prevalence and pattern of associated adjacent bone, ligament and meniscus injuries were studied. The means(± 2 standard errors) of anterior translocation were different significantly in statistical analysis (? < 0.001, student t-test) between injury group (7.51 ± 1.16 mm) and normal group (-0.56 ± 0.92mm). In the level of 5mm of anterior translocation for the criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 78.7%, 89.5%, 84.3% for each. The means of PCL buckling ratio were also different statistically between injury group(0.23 ± 0.02) and normal group(0.17 ± 0.01)(? < 0.001). In the level of 0.20 for diagnostic criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 71.4%, 83.6%, 78.4% for each. Thirty one medial meniscus tear (66%), thirteen lateral meniscus tear (28%), ten medial collateral ligament injury (28%), one PCL injury(2%) were associated with ACL injury. The twenty nine bone marrow changes were found in twenty patients (43%) which included acutely injured seven patients. In acute y injured seven patients. In acute cases, the bone marrow changes were depicted as diffuse or focal high signal intensity lesions in lateral femoral or tibial condyles in contrast to the changes in chronic cases depicted as focal low signal intensity lesions in variable location. Lateral femoral condylar notch depression were found in nine patients (19%) and avulsion fractures of anterior tibial spine in four patients(9%). The associated findings with ACL injury (anterior translocation, buckling of PCL, associated bone, ligament and meniscus injuries) are considered to be helpful in the diagnosis of ACL injury on Knee MR images, when the findings of anterior cruciate ligament itself are not confirmative

91

MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: associated findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Authors investigated the associated findings and their value in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in MR image. The knee MR images of 47 patients with ACL injury (complete;24, partial;23) and 61 patients with normal ACL confirmed by the knee arthroscopy or operation were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of anterior translocation of tibia and the degree of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) buckling were evaluated. The prevalence and pattern of associated adjacent bone, ligament and meniscus injuries were studied. The means({+-} 2 standard errors) of anterior translocation were different significantly in statistical analysis ({rho} < 0.001, student t-test) between injury group (7.51 {+-} 1.16 mm) and normal group (-0.56 {+-} 0.92mm). In the level of 5mm of anterior translocation for the criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 78.7%, 89.5%, 84.3% for each. The means of PCL buckling ratio were also different statistically between injury group(0.23 {+-} 0.02) and normal group(0.17 {+-} 0.01)({rho} < 0.001). In the level of 0.20 for diagnostic criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 71.4%, 83.6%, 78.4% for each. Thirty one medial meniscus tear (66%), thirteen lateral meniscus tear (28%), ten medial collateral ligament injury (28%), one PCL injury(2%) were associated with ACL injury. The twenty nine bone marrow changes were found in twenty patients (43%) which included acutely injured seven patients. In acute cases, the bone marrow changes were depicted as diffuse or focal high signal intensity lesions in lateral femoral or tibial condyles in contrast to the changes in chronic cases depicted as focal low signal intensity lesions in variable location. Lateral femoral condylar notch depression were found in nine patients (19%) and avulsion fractures of anterior tibial spine in four patients(9%). The associated findings with ACL injury (anterior translocation, buckling of PCL, associated bone, ligament and meniscus injuries) are considered to be helpful in the diagnosis of ACL injury on Knee MR images, when the findings of anterior cruciate ligament itself are not confirmative.

Han, Gi Seok; Kang, Heung Sik; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Chu Wan; Cho, Kyu Hyung; Seong, Sang Cheol [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1995-04-15

92

Landmine associated injuries in children in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to examine trends of injuries due to landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) and to determine problems during and after the treatment of children and adolescent victims in Turkey. Data from the records of 23 children injured from landmines and UXO were analyzed from April 2001 to October 2008. Cases consist of 21 (91.3%) males and two (8.7%) females with a mean age of 12.8 years. Cause of injury was landmine explosion in 20 (87.0%) and UXO in three (13.0%) cases. Injuries in upper and lower extremities were determined in eight (34.8%) children. Hand amputation was the result in 10 (43.5%) children where in two cases a leg, in one case an eye, in one case a hand and arm, in two cases a hand and leg, in one case an eye and a leg and in three cases a hand and eye were lost. One case of death was recorded from UXO with an autopsy performed. Contaminated areas in our region should be cleared according to international contracts to prevent injuries in children, centers providing rehabilitation services should be established and policies regarding social support for child victims should be ascertained. PMID:19782317

Can, Muhammet; Yildirimcan, Humeyra; Ozkalipci, Onder; Melek, Mehmet; Edirne, Yesim; Bicer, Umit; Uner, Huseyin Bulent

2009-11-01

93

MR imaging of medial collateral ligament injury and associated internal knee joint injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of medial collateral ligament injury of the knee, we used MR imaging to evaluate the characteristic findings in MCL tears and the frequency of associated knee joint injury. We retrospectively reviewed 26 patients within four weeks of MCL injury, analysed MR findings and correlated them with surgical findings. We evaluated discontinuity, heterogeneous signal intensity of MCL, thin band- like low signal intensity at MCL, facial edema, loss of clear demarcation of adjacent fat also combined bone injury, meniscus injury and other ligament injury. Complete MCL tears were present in 14 patients and partial tears in 12. Complete tears showed discontinuity of MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in 11 patients(79%);proximal MCL tears are more common than distal tears. Partial tears showed thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in seven patients (58%);all patient s with MCL injury showed fascial edema;in 12 patients there was loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. We could not, however, distinguish between complete tears and partial tears when MCL showed heterogeneous high signal intensity. Combined bone injury in MCL tears was found in eight patients(62%);the most common sites of this were the lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau. There was associated injury involving other ligaments(ACL:50%;PCL:27%). Combing other ligaments(ACL:50%;PCL:27%). Combined meniscus injury in MCL tears was present in 17 patients and the most common meniscus site(50%) is the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Complete MCL tears showed discontinuity of MCL and partial tears showed a thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL. All patients with MCL injury showed fascial edema, and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. Various other injuries combine with MCL tears. MR imaging is therefore useful in the evaluation of medial collateral ligament injury and asssociated knee joint injury

94

A surveillance of needle-stick injuries amongst student nurses at the University of Namibia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Needle-stick injuries have the potential to change a student nurse's life; yet they are dealt with covertly and many go unreported. This could create difficulties when evaluating a curriculum, because potential risk issues in nursing education might go undetected. In addition, needle-stick injuries [...] are inherently preventable occupational health hazards. The fact that there has been, until now, no information available on the incidence of, and context in which needle-stick injuries occur amongst student nurses in Namibia, is of particular concern for nurse educators in that country. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the incidence of needle-stick injuries and to describe the context of their occurrences. A framework known as Haddon's matrix made it possible to approach this survey from both an occupational and a nursing education perspective. The questionnaire was completed by 198 students and it was found that, during 2008 alone, 17% of student nurses sustained needle-stick injuries, but only 55% of these reported it. In addition, in 55% of the occasions on which the student nurses were injured, they were not accompanied by a registered nurse. The recommendations made are based on the three phases of Haddon's matrix, namely pre-injury, injury and post-injury phases. These recommendations focussed on student accompaniment by registered nurses, the completion of reflective exercises, sensitisation sessions before placement in clinical areas, as well as the utilisation of independent student counsellors.

Louis, Small; Louise, Pretorius; Althea, Walters; Maria J., Ackerman.

95

Injury associated with methamphetamine use: A review of the literature  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This paper reviews the literature exploring issues around methamphetamine and injury. There was a paucity of peer reviewed quantitative research and a lack of large scale epidemiological studies. Further sources described cases and others described injury risk as part of an overall review of methamphetamine misuse. Thus, a number of limitations and potential biases exist within the literature. The main areas where associations were noted or extrapolated with methamphetamine use and i...

Wheeler Amanda; Coggan Carolyn; Bennett Sara; Sheridan Janie; McMillan Karen

2006-01-01

96

Eye injury risk associated with remote control toy helicopter blades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eye injuries can be caused by a variety of consumer products and toys. Recently, indoor remote controlled (RC) toy helicopters have become very popular. The purpose of this study is to quantify eye injury risk associated with five commercially available RC toy helicopter blades. An experimental matrix of 25 tests was developed to test five different RC toy helicopter blades at full battery power on six postmortem human eyes. A pressure sensor inserted through the optic nerve measured intraocular pressure. Corneal abrasion was assessed post-impact using fluorescein dye. Intraocular pressure was correlated to injury risk for hyphema, lens damage, retinal damage, and globe rupture using published risk functions. All tests resulted in corneal abrasions; however, no other injuries were observed. The 25 tests produced an increase intraocular pressure between 15.2 kPa and 99.3 kPa (114.3 mmHg and 744.7 mmHg). Calculated blade velocities ranged between 16.0 m/s and 25.4 m/s. Injury risk for hyphema was a maximum of 0.2%. Injury risk for lens damage, retinal damage, and globe rupture was 0.0% for all tests. Blade design parameters such as length and mass did not affect the risk of eye injury. This is the first study to quantify the risk of eye injury from RC toy helicopter blades. While corneal abrasions were observed, more serious eye injuries were neither observed nor predicted to have occurred. Results from this study are critical for establishing safe design thresholds for RC toy helicopter blades so that more serious injuries can be prevented. PMID:22846260

Alphonse, Vanessa D; Kemper, Andrew R; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

2012-01-01

97

Hospital costs associated with agricultural machinery injuries in Ontario.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assist those responsible for agricultural safety, we: (1) piloted an approach to costing hospitalized farm injuries; and, (2) described ambulance and inpatient costs associated with these injuries in Ontario. Hospital discharge records (hospital separations) for farm machinery injuries in Ontario (n = 1,610) were identified by ICD9-CM E-codes for 1985-1993. Ambulance costs were estimated by the Ontario Ministry of Health. For each case, the hospital costs were calculated by multiplying the case-specific resource intensity weight by the average inpatient cost per weighted case. The costs (1993 Canadian dollars) ranged from $768 to $62,643 and totaled $6.9 million over the study period. Males accounted for 89.8% of the total costs. Tractor injuries accounted for a large proportion of costs (34.3%). The median costs per case varied by type of machinery, ranging from $2,043 for ploughs/disks to $3,366 for augers. Entanglement injuries were responsible for the largest proportion of costs (40.7%), while tractor rollovers accounted for the highest median cost ($3,065). Although these figures represent a fraction of the total costs associated with farm injuries, the results provide one basis from which to justify and target preventive initiatives. This approach to costing may also be widely applicable to other health issues. PMID:9327074

Hartling, L; Pickett, W; Dorland, J; Brison, R J

1997-11-01

98

Impact of associated injuries in the Floating knee: A retrospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Floating knee injuries are usually associated with other significant injuries. Do these injuries have implications on the management of the floating knee and the final outcome of patients? Our study aims to assess the implications of associated injuries in the management and final outcome of floating knee. Methods 29 patients with floating knees were assessed in our institution. A retrospective analysis of medical records and radiographs were done and all associated injuries were identified. The impact of associated injuries on delay in initial surgical management, delay in rehabilitation & final outcome of the floating knee were assessed. Results 38 associated injuries were noted. 7 were associated with ipsilateral knee injuries. Lower limb injuries were most commonly associated with the floating knee. Patients with some associated injuries had a delay in surgical management and others a delay in post-operative rehabilitation. Knee ligament and vascular injuries were associated with poor outcome. Conclusion The associated injuries were quite frequent with the floating knee. Some of the associated injuries caused a delay in surgical management and post-operative rehabilitation. In assessment of the final outcome, patients with associated knee and vascular injuries had a poor prognosis. Majority of the patients with associated injuries had a good or excellent outcome.

Yesupalan Rajam S

2009-01-01

99

[Fractures of the humerus in multiple injuries (comparison with the same injury in a group of single injuries/associated injuries).].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors compare retrospectively, based on material of the Research Institute of Traumatology and Special Surgery in Brno (1985-1990), a group of 13 patients who suffered fractures of the diaphysis of the humerus as part of a multiple injury with a group of 29 patients who suffered the same injury as a monotrauma or associated injury. Both groups are characterized, the therapeutic approach is described as well as the complications which developed. The patients were checked on average after 45 months following the injury (12-96 months) and the results are reviewed. The authors consider the groups comparable and the results achieved in the two groups equivalent. Based on the submitted work they are convinced that casualties with fractures of the diaphysis of the humerus as part of a multiple injury are no worse looked after in their department than casualties with a single injury. Key words: fractures of the diaphysis of the humerus, polytrauma vs. monotrauma/associated injuries, comparison of results. PMID:20444382

Palarcík, J; Bucek, P; Michek, L; Vlach, O

1994-01-01

100

Liver injury associated with ketoconazole: review of the published evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The azole antifungal agent ketoconazole has been available since 1981 for the treatment of fungal infections. In 2013, the American Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency issued warnings or prohibitions against the clinical use of oral ketoconazole due to the risk of liver injury which may lead to liver transplantation or death. From the available published evidence it is difficult to determine the actual incidence or prevalence of liver injury during clinical use of ketoconazole as an antifungal. Hepatic injury, when it occurs, is generally evident as asymptomatic and reversible abnormalities of liver function tests. However, serious liver injury has been reported. Alternatives to ketoconazole (such as itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, and terbinafine) are available, but improved safety with respect to liver injury risk is not clearly established. We are not aware of published reports of significant ketoconazole-associated liver injury in volunteer study participants when ketoconazole has been used as a CYP3A inhibitor in the context of clinical research on drug metabolism. Possible alternatives to ketoconazole as prototype CYP3A inhibitors include ritonavir and potentially itraconazole, but not clarithromycin. PMID:25216238

Greenblatt, H Karl; Greenblatt, David J

2014-12-01

101

Hyperoxic acute lung injury and ventilator-induced/associated lung injury: new insights into intracellular signaling pathways  

OpenAIRE

In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), supportive therapy with mechanical ventilation and oxygen is often life saving. Further acute lung injury however, is an unfortunate consequence of oxygen therapy as well as mechanical injury secondary to ventilator induced/associated lung injury (VI/ALI). In this issue of Critical Care, Li et al. expand on the intra-cellular signaling pathways regulating interactions between injury cascades resulting from hyperoxia and high tidal v...

Dos Santos, Claudia C.

2007-01-01

102

Emergency room visits for work-related injuries: characteristics and associated factors - Capitals and the Federal District, Brazil, 2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Work-related injuries, often classified as occupational injuries (OI), stand out among visits due to external causes (accidents and violence) in health services. To describe the characteristics and factors associated with emergency room visits for OI, a cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Survey of Violence and Injuries in Emergency Services (VIVA Inquérito 2011) in 24 state capitals and the Federal District. The prevalence of treatment for OI and prevalence ratios (PR) with confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) were calculated. There were 29,463 emergency room visits due to accidental injuries in the population above 18 years of age. The prevalence of OI was 33.4% and was positively and significantly associated with the male gender, age 30-59 years old, industrial workers, agricultural sector or repair and maintenance services. The occurrence of OI was significantly higher in attendance for objects falling on people (PR = 3.37, 95% CI 2.80 to 4.05) and injuries due to perforating object (PR = 3.01, 95% CI 2.50-3.65). The results support the surveillance of external causes and direct public policies to promote occupational health. PMID:25760108

Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves de; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Gómez, Carlos Minayo

2015-03-01

103

Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56% with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injuries received financial assistance from workers compensation claims, 36% did not apply for financial assistance and 5% applied but did not receive any financial assistance. The most common types of workplace injuries incurred were: sprains and strains (30%, chronic joint/muscle conditions (18% and cuts/open wounds (16% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. The total economic cost from workplace injuries in Australia for the 2005-06 financial year was estimated at $57.5 billion, representing 5.9% of GDP for the financial year (Australian Safety and Compensation Council, 2009. Workplace injuries also incur immeasurable personal costs to Australian workers and their families. Individual lives are altered, even lost; individual hopes and dreams of a better life are shattered. Family roles, responsibilities and relationships become strained due to changes in income earnings and the imposed challenging needs for increased social support and increased caring needs within the home due to workplace injury. Why do Australian workers get injured in their workplaces? Is it due to their individual worker factors, or is it due to social factors associated with their work and workplace? While individual worker factors, such as: gender, age, personality, ethnicity, and substance use, do contribute to workplace injuries and fatalities, broader social and organizational workplace factors, such as: workload, work hours, work environment, safety culture, provision of quality supervision, and provision of occupational health and safety training, socially structure, and influence individual worker attitudes and behaviours in workplace injury and fatalities.

Ashwin Kumar

2011-08-01

104

Surveillance of potential associations between occupations and causes of death in Canada, 1965-91  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To detect unsuspected associations between workplace situations and specific causes of death in Canada. METHODS: An occupational surveillance system was established consisting of a cohort of 457,224 men and 242,196 women employed between 1965 and 1971, constituting about 10% of the labour force in Canada at that time. Mortality between 1965 and 1991 has been determined by computerised record linkage with the Canadian mortality database. Through regression analysis, associatio...

Aronson, K. J.; Howe, G. R.; Carpenter, M.; Fair, M. E.

1999-01-01

105

Occult bony lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine bony lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on 55 knees with ACL injuries. With respect to the period between ACL injuries and MR imaging, the knees were divided into acute (within one month), subacute (from one month to one year) and chronic (over one year) groups, containing 19, 16 and 20 knees, respectively. Occult bony lesions not shown in roentgenography were observed more frequently in the acute group (13/19) than in the other two groups (subacute group, 5/16; chronic group, 1/20), located in the lateral compartment of the knee joint. In the acute group, bony lesions had high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on proton density images. In the subacute and chronic groups, bony lesions were less pronounced and had low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. These findings suggest that bony lesions are frequently associated with and occur simultaneously with ACL injury. (author)

106

Nutritional parameters are associated with mortality in acute kidney injury  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a nutritional assessment of acute kidney injury patients and to identify the relationship between nutritional markers and outcomes. METHOD: This was a prospective and observational study. Patients who were hospitalized at the Hospital of Botucatu School of Medicine were evaluated between January 2009 and December 2011. We evaluated a total of 133 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute kidney injury and a clinical presentation suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. We explored the associations between clinical, laboratory and nutritional markers and in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding and selection bias. RESULTS: Non-survivor patients were older (67±14 vs. 59±16 years) and exhibited a higher prevalence of sepsis (57.1 vs. 21.4%) and higher Acute Tubular Necrosis-Individual Severity Scores (0.60±0.22 vs. 0.41±0.21) than did survivor patients. Based on the multivariable analysis, laboratorial parameters such as blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein were associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 1.013, p?=?0.0052; OR: 1.050, p?=?0.01, respectively), and nutritional parameters such as low calorie intake, higher levels of edema, lower resistance based on bioelectrical impedance analysis and a more negative nitrogen balance were significantly associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 0.950, p?=?0.01; OR: 1.138, p?=?0.03; OR: 0.995, p?=?0.03; OR: 0.934, p?=?0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In acute kidney injury patients, a nutritional assessment seems to identify nutritional markers that are associated with outcome. In this study, a low caloric intake, higher C-reactive protein levels, the presence of edema, a lower resistance measured during a bioelectrical impedance analysis and a lower nitrogen balance were significantly associated with risk of death in acute kidney injury patients. PMID:25029579

Berbel, Marina Nogueira; de Góes, Cassiana Regina; Balbi, André Luis; Ponce, Daniela

2014-01-01

107

Endothelial Glycocalyx Damage is Associated with Leptospirosis Acute Kidney Injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis is a common disease in tropical countries, and the kidney is one of the main target organs. Membrane proteins of Leptospira are capable of causing endothelial damage in vitro, but there have been no studies in humans evaluating endothelial glycocalyx damage and its correlation with acute kidney injury (AKI). We performed a cohort study in an outbreak of leptospirosis among military personnel. AKI was diagnosed in 14 of 46 (30.4%) patients. Leptospirosis was associated with higher levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; 483.1 ± 31.7 versus 234.9 ± 24.4 mg/L, P leptospirosis-associated AKI had increased level of syndecan-1 (112.1 ± 45.4 versus 41.5 ± 11.7 ng/mL, P = 0.021) and ICAM-1 (576.9 ± 70.4 versus 434.9 ± 35.3, P = 0.034) compared with leptospirosis patients with no AKI. Association was verified between syndecan-1 and ICAM-1 with serum creatinine elevation and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels. This association remained even after multivariate analysis including other AKI-associated characteristics. Endothelial injury biomarkers are associated with leptospirosis-associated renal damage. PMID:25624405

Libório, Alexandre Braga; Braz, Marcelo Boecker Munoz; Seguro, Antonio Carlos; Meneses, Gdayllon C; Neves, Fernanda Macedo de Oliveira; Pedrosa, Danielle Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

2015-03-01

108

Death Associated Protein Kinases: Molecular Structure and Brain Injury  

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Full Text Available Perinatal brain damage underlies an important share of motor and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, visual dysfunction and epilepsy. Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have revealed that factors such as inflammation, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress contribute considerably to both white and grey matter injury in the immature brain. A member of the death associated protein kinase (DAPk family, DAPk1, has been implicated in cerebral ischemic damage, whereby DAPk1 potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity through interaction with the NR2BR subunit. DAPk1 also mediate a range of activities from autophagy, membrane blebbing and DNA fragmentation ultimately leading to cell death. DAPk mRNA levels are particularly highly expressed in the developing brain and thus, we hypothesize that DAPk1 may play a role in perinatal brain injury. In addition to reviewing current knowledge, we present new aspects of the molecular structure of DAPk domains, and relate these findings to interacting partners of DAPk1, DAPk-regulation in NMDA-induced cerebral injury and novel approaches to blocking the injurious effects of DAPk1.

Claire Thornton

2013-07-01

109

Direct cost associated with acquired brain injury in Ontario  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired Brain Injury (ABI from traumatic and non traumatic causes is a leading cause of disability worldwide yet there is limited research summarizing the health system economic burden associated with ABI. The objective of this study was to determine the direct cost of publicly funded health care services from the initial hospitalization to three years post-injury for individuals with traumatic (TBI and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI in Ontario Canada. Methods A population-based cohort of patients discharged from acute hospital with an ABI code in any diagnosis position in 2004 through 2007 in Ontario was identified from administrative data. Publicly funded health care utilization was obtained from several Ontario administrative healthcare databases. Patients were stratified according to traumatic and non-traumatic causes of brain injury and whether or not they were discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation center. Health system costs were calculated across a continuum of institutional and community settings for up to three years after initial discharge. The continuum of settings included acute care emergency departments inpatient rehabilitation (IR complex continuing care home care services and physician visits. All costs were calculated retrospectively assuming the government payer’s perspective. Results Direct medical costs in an ABI population are substantial with mean cost in the first year post-injury per TBI and nTBI patient being $32132 and $38018 respectively. Among both TBI and nTBI patients those discharged to IR had significantly higher treatment costs than those not discharged to IR across all institutional and community settings. This tendency remained during the entire three-year follow-up period. Annual medical costs of patients hospitalized with a brain injury in Ontario in the first follow-up year were approximately $120.7 million for TBI and $368.7 million for nTBI. Acute care cost accounted for 46-65% of the total treatment cost in the first year overwhelming all other cost components. Conclusions The main finding of this study is that direct medical costs in ABI population are substantial and vary considerably by the injury cause. Although most expenses occur in the first follow-up year ABI patients continue to use variety of medical services in the second and third year with emphasis shifting over time from acute care and inpatient rehabilitation towards homecare physician services and long-term institutional care. More research is needed to capture economic costs for ABI patients not admitted to acute care.

Chen Amy

2012-08-01

110

Change in injuries associated with safety belt laws.  

Science.gov (United States)

Statewide crash data bases from nine states were subjected to time series analyses to detect changes in injuries associated with onset of seat belt laws in the respective states. In each of 18 analyses involving drivers covered by the law observed casualties were below the number forecast on the basis of prior experience and assuming that no law had been enacted. In the case of others, not covered by the law, observed injuries were equally often above or below forecast. Relative to covered drivers not only were the numbers below forecast, but in 12 of the 18 instances there was a statistically significant indication of an abrupt decrease the month the law began. PMID:1820750

Campbell, B J; Stewart, J R; Reinfurt, D W

1991-02-01

111

Associated injuries in patients with facial fractures: a review of 604 patients  

OpenAIRE

Facial fractures may be associated with concomitant lesions of other parts of body with some of these injuries being life-threatening. This retrospective study reports the types of associated injury and the factors influencing their occurrence, in patients with facial fractures. In 18.2% of 604 patients, one associated injury at least was recorded. The most common associated injury was cranial trauma (9.9%), followed by limbs fractures (9.1%), chest trauma (2%), spine injury (0.5%) and eye ba...

Be?ogo, Rasmane?; Dakoure?, Patrick; Savadogo, Le?on Blaise; Coulibaly, Antoine Toua; Ouoba, Kampadilemba

2013-01-01

112

Nutritional parameters are associated with mortality in acute kidney injury  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a nutritional assessment of acute kidney injury patients and to identify the relationship between nutritional markers and outcomes. METHOD: This was a prospective and observational study. Patients who were hospitalized at the Hospital of Botuca [...] tu School of Medicine were evaluated between January 2009 and December 2011. We evaluated a total of 133 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute kidney injury and a clinical presentation suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. We explored the associations between clinical, laboratory and nutritional markers and in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding and selection bias. RESULTS: Non-survivor patients were older (67±14 vs. 59±16 years) and exhibited a higher prevalence of sepsis (57.1 vs. 21.4%) and higher Acute Tubular Necrosis-Individual Severity Scores (0.60±0.22 vs. 0.41±0.21) than did survivor patients. Based on the multivariable analysis, laboratorial parameters such as blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein were associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 1.013, p?=?0.0052; OR: 1.050, p?=?0.01, respectively), and nutritional parameters such as low calorie intake, higher levels of edema, lower resistance based on bioelectrical impedance analysis and a more negative nitrogen balance were significantly associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 0.950, p?=?0.01; OR: 1.138, p?=?0.03; OR: 0.995, p?=?0.03; OR: 0.934, p?=?0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In acute kidney injury patients, a nutritional assessment seems to identify nutritional markers that are associated with outcome. In this study, a low caloric intake, higher C-reactive protein levels, the presence of edema, a lower resistance measured during a bioelectrical impedance analysis and a lower nitrogen balance were significantly associated with risk of death in acute kidney injury patients.

Marina Nogueira, Berbel; Cassiana Regina, de Góes; André Luis, Balbi; Daniela, Ponce.

2014-07-01

113

Space radiation-associated lung injury in a murine model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite considerable progress in identifying health risks to crewmembers related to exposure to galactic/cosmic rays and solar particle events (SPE) during space travel, its long-term effects on the pulmonary system are unknown. We used a murine risk projection model to investigate the impact of exposure to space-relevant radiation (SR) on the lung. C3H mice were exposed to (137)Cs gamma rays, protons (acute, low-dose exposure mimicking the 1972 SPE), 600 MeV/u (56)Fe ions, or 350 MeV/u (28)Si ions at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Animals were irradiated at the age of 2.5 mo and evaluated 23.5 mo postirradiation, at 26 mo of age. Compared with age-matched nonirradiated mice, SR exposures led to significant air space enlargement and dose-dependent decreased systemic oxygenation levels. These were associated with late mild lung inflammation and prominent cellular injury, with significant oxidative stress and apoptosis (caspase-3 activation) in the lung parenchyma. SR, especially high-energy (56)Fe or (28)Si ions markedly decreased sphingosine-1-phosphate levels and Akt- and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, depleted anti-senescence sirtuin-1 and increased biochemical markers of autophagy. Exposure to SR caused dose-dependent, pronounced late lung pathological sequelae consistent with alveolar simplification and cellular signaling of increased injury and decreased repair. The associated systemic hypoxemia suggested that this previously uncharacterized space radiation-associated lung injury was functionally significant, indicating that further studies are needed to define the risk and to develop appropriate lung-protective countermeasures for manned deep space missions. PMID:25526737

Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Arguiri, Evguenia; Schweitzer, Kelly S; Berdyshev, Evgeny V; McCarthy, Maureen; Corbitt, Astrid; Alwood, Joshua S; Yu, Yongjia; Globus, Ruth K; Solomides, Charalambos C; Ullrich, Robert L; Petrache, Irina

2015-03-01

114

A proposta da rede de serviços sentinela como estratégia da vigilância de violências e acidentes The injury surveillance system based on sentinel health services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No Brasil, as bases de dados oficiais permitem o monitoramento da mortalidade e internações no SUS, decorrentes dos acidentes e violências. É preciso conhecer a magnitude e o perfil dessas causas que demandam os serviços de emergência, bem como identificar alguns problemas ocultos tais como as violências doméstica e sexual. O propósito deste artigo é apresentar a proposta do Ministério da Saúde de implantação da Rede de Serviços Sentinela de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes - Rede VIVA, iniciada em 2006, que visa complementar o sistema de informações existente para a vigilância dessas causas. Para obter um quadro mais completo do problema e atender à legislação vigente no País, foram estabelecidos dois componentes: 1 Vigilância de acidentes e violências em emergências hospitalares selecionadas: coleta em um mês a cada ano, através de uma amostra; 2 Vigilância das violências sexual, doméstica e/ou outras violências interpessoais em serviços de referência: coleta universal e contínua. O estabelecimento da Rede VIVA foi realizado pelo Ministério da Saúde em parceria com as Secretarias Estaduais e Municipais de Saúde a partir de critérios previamente estabelecidos. A adesão ao projeto foi acima das expectativas, todas as regiões do Brasil foram representadas.In Brazil, the official data sets allow monitoring the impact of injury deaths and injury hospitalization in the public health system. But it is necessary to gather more information about the magnitude and the characteristics of injuries at Emergency Departments (ED, as well as to identify some hidden problems, such as domestic and sexual violence. The purpose of this article is to present the new Injury Surveillance System based on Sentinel Health Services, carried out by the Ministry of Health in order to broaden the knowledge of these causes.To have a more accurate picture of injuries and to enforce the law which made mandatory the information about violence against women in the country, the measures to be taken were twofold: 1 injury surveillance in ED, carried out in chosen services, collecting one-month data yearly, through a sample; 2 domestic, sexual and interpersonal violence surveillance carried out in violence reference services, through universal and continuous data collection, involving a larger number of services. The implementation of that Health Sentinel Services Network has been conducted by the Ministry of Health in partnership with the State and Municipal Health Departments based on pre-established criteria. The adherence to the project has been taken place all over Brazil.

Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

2006-01-01

115

Rock climbing injury rates and associated risk factors in a general climbing population.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to examine injury rates and associated risk factors in a representative sample of climbers. A random sample (n=606) of the Swedish Climbing Association members was sent a postal survey, with an effective response rate of 63%. Self-reported data regarding climbing history, safety practices and retrospective accounts of injury events (recall period 1.5 years) were obtained. Descriptive statistical methods were used to calculate injury incidences, and a two-step method including zero-inflated Poisson's regression analysis of re-injuries was used to determine the combination of risk factors that best explained individual injury rates. Overall, 4.2 injuries per 1000 climbing hours were reported, overuse injuries accounting for 93% of all injuries. Inflammatory tissue damages to fingers and wrists were the most common injury types. The multivariate analysis showed that overweight and practicing bouldering generally implied an increased primary injury risk, while there was a higher re-injury risk among male climbers and a lower risk among the older climbers. The high percentage of overuse injuries implies that climbing hours and loads should be gradually and systematically increased, and climbers regularly controlled for signs and symptoms of overuse. Further study of the association between body mass index and climbing injury is warranted. PMID:19508652

Backe, S; Ericson, L; Janson, S; Timpka, T

2009-12-01

116

Surveillance of febrile patients in a district and evaluation of their spatiotemporal associations: a pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an undifferentiated clinical feature that may enhance the sensitivity of syndromic surveillance systems. By studying the spatiotemporal associations of febrile patients, it may allow early detection of case clustering that indicates imminent threat of infectious disease outbreaks in the community. Methods We captured consecutive emergency department visits that led to hospitalization in a district hospital in Hong Kong during the period of 12 Sep 2005 to 14 Oct 2005. We recorded demographic data, provisional diagnoses, temperature on presentation and residential location for each patient-episode, and geocoded the residential addresses. We applied Geographical Information System technology to study the geographical distribution these cases, and their associations within a 50-m buffer zone spatially. A case cluster was defined by three or more spatially associated febrile patients within each three consecutive days. Results One thousand and sixty six patient-episodes were eligible for analysis; 42% of them had fever (>37°C; oral temperature on presentation. Two hundred and four patient-episodes (19.1% came from residential care homes for elderly (RCHE. We detected a total of 40 case clusters during the study period. Clustered cases were of older age; 57 (33.3% were residents of RCHE. We found a median of 3 patients (range: 3 - 8 and time span of 3 days (range: 2 - 8 days in each cluster. Twenty five clusters had 2 or more patients living in the same building block; 18 of them were from RCHE. Conclusions It is technically feasible to perform surveillance on febrile patients and studying their spatiotemporal associations. The information is potentially useful for early detection of impending infectious disease threats.

Lee Lap-yip

2010-02-01

117

Renal neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury in the rat  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a highly predictive biomarker of acute kidney injury. To understand the role of NGAL in renal injury during sepsis, we investigated the temporal changes and biological sources of NGAL in a rat model of acute kidney injury, and explored the relationship between renal inflammation, humoral NGAL and NGAL expression during endotoxemia. Methods To induce acute renal injury, rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 3.5 ...

Han Mei; Li Ying; Liu Maodong; Li Yingmin; Cong Bin

2012-01-01

118

Facebook Surveillance of Former Romantic Partners: Associations with PostBreakup Recovery and Personal Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship. PMID:22946958

2012-01-01

119

Facebook surveillance of former romantic partners: associations with postbreakup recovery and personal growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship. PMID:22946958

Marshall, Tara C

2012-10-01

120

Abdominal aortic injury associated with transverse lumbar spine fracture--imaging findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association of abdominal aortic injury with transverse fractures of the lumbar spine is not well recognized. Three cases are presented with description of a mechanism common to both injuries that may explain this association--that of distraction and hyperflexion, such as occurs in seat-belt injuries. Whenever a transverse lumbar spine fracture following such a mechanism of injury is recognized, the co-existence of an injury to the abdominal aorta should be excluded by aortography if there is any doubt concerning the integrity of the peripheral pulses. This is best performed prior to laparotomy for any associated intraperitoneal injuries. Repeated clinical examination may detect deterioration in those cases with initially normal pulses. Ultimately, detection of the aortic injury rests on a high index of suspicion. PMID:8536393

Reaney, S M; Parker, M S; Mirvis, S E; Bundschuh, C V; Luebbert, P D; Vingan, H L

1995-12-01

121

Prospective surveillance of drain-associated meningitis/ventriculitis in a neurosurgery and a neurologic intensive care unit.  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objectives: There are currently no data available on drain-associated infection occurrence related to the number of drainage-days, and thus drain-associated infection rates. Therefore, we conducted a prospective surveillance study to determine drain-associated infection rates and drainage-days of hospital-acquired external ventricular drain- (EVD) and lumbar drain- (LD) associated meningitis/ventriculitis in a neurosurgery (NSICU) and a neurologic intensive care unit (NICU...

Scheithauer, Simone; Bu?rgel, Uli; Ryang, Yu-mi; Koch, Susann; Schiefer, Johannes; Ha?fner, Helga; Haase, Gerhard; Lemmen, Sebastian Werner

2009-01-01

122

Revisiting acute liver injury associated with herbalife products.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the November 27, 2010 issue of the World Journal of Hepatology (WJH), three case reports were published which involved patients who had consumed various dietary supplements and conventional foods generally marketed as weight loss products. The reference to Herbalife products as contaminated and generally comparable to all dietary supplements or weight loss products is not scientifically supported. The authors provided an insufficient amount of information regarding patient histories, concomitant medications and other compounds, dechallenge results, and product specifications and usage. This information is necessary to fully assess the association of Herbalife products in the WJH case reports. Therefore, the article does not objectively support a causal relationship between the reported cases of liver injury and Herbalife products or ingredients. PMID:22059112

Appelhans, Kristy; Smith, Casey; Bejar, Ezra; Henig, Y Steve

2011-10-27

123

Revisiting acute liver injury associated with herbalife products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the November 27, 2010 issue of the World Journal of Hepatology (WJH, three case reports were published which involved patients who had consumed various dietary supplements and conventional foods generally marketed as weight loss products. The reference to Herbalife products as contaminated and generally comparable to all dietary supplements or weight loss products is not scientifically supported. The authors provided an insufficient amount of information regarding patient histories, concomitant medications and other compounds, dechallenge results, and product specifications and usage. This information is necessary to fully assess the association of Herbalife products in the WJH case reports. Therefore, the article does not objectively support a causal relationship between the reported cases of liver injury and Herbalife products or ingredients.

Kristy Appelhans

2011-01-01

124

A novel data association scheme for LEO space debris surveillance based on a double fence radar system  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing amount of space debris threatens to seriously deteriorate and damage space-based instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environments. Therefore, LEO space debris surveillance systems must be developed to provide situational awareness in space and issue warnings of collisions with LEO space debris. In this paper, a double fence radar system is proposed as an emerging paradigm for LEO space debris surveillance. This system exhibits several unique and promising characteristics compared with existing surveillance systems. In this paper, we also investigate the data association scheme for LEO space debris surveillance based on a double fence radar system. We also perform a theoretical analysis of the performance of our proposed scheme. The superiority and the effectiveness of our novel data association scheme is demonstrated by experimental results. The data used in our experiments is the LEO space debris catalog produced by the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) up to 2009, especially for scenarios with high densities of LEO space debris, which were primarily produced by the collisions between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251. We hope that our work will stimulate and benefit future work on LEO space debris surveillance approaches and enable construction of the double fence radar system.

Huang, Jian; Hu, Weidong; Xin, Qin; Guo, Weiwei

2012-12-01

125

The association of the rapid assessment of supervision scale score and unintentional childhood injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supervisory neglect is often considered in medical settings when a child presents with an unintentional injury. The Rapid Assessment of Supervision Scale (RASS) is a clinical decision-making tool for the assessment of supervision of young children. As the next step in the development of the RASS, we assessed the association of RASS scores with unintentional injury. This study was a secondary analysis of data from a case-crossover study, which examined the association of parental supervision and unintentional injury in children. Data on supervision characteristics for 3 time periods for each child were available, that is, one injury scenario and two "control" time periods when no injury occurred. Blinded to injury status, four raters independently evaluated adequacy of supervision in 132 supervision scenarios using the RASS. The individual RASS scores of the four raters and the group (mean) RASS score of the four raters were evaluated for associations with injury status. Individual scores from three of the four raters demonstrated significant associations of increasing RASS scores with injury. Increasing group RASS scores (odds ratio = 2.8; 95% confidence interval [1.5, 5.1]) were associated with greater likelihood of injury. Further testing may result in a tool that aids medical personnel in the evaluation of adequacy of supervision. PMID:25601937

Anderst, James; Teran, Paul; Dowd, M Denise; Simon, Steve; Schnitzer, Patricia

2015-05-01

126

Spinal cord injury and its association with blunt head trauma  

OpenAIRE

Wellingson S Paiva, Arthur MP Oliveira, Almir F Andrade, Robson LO Amorim, Leonardo JO Lourenço, Manoel J TeixeiraDivision of Neurosurgery, University of São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Severe and moderate head injury can cause misdiagnosis of a spinal cord injury, leading to devastating long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors involving spine trauma and moderate-to-severe brain injury.Methods: A prospective study involving 1617 patien...

Ws, Paiva; Amp, Oliveira; Af, Andrade; Rl, Amorim; Lourenço L; Mj, Teixeira

2011-01-01

127

Vigilancia epidemiológica de infecciones asociadas a la asistencia sanitaria / Epidemiological surveillance of healthcare-associated infections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: la vigilancia epidemiológica es una herramienta útil para identificar el riesgo de adquirir una infección asociada a la asistencia sanitaria en los hospitales y los factores de riesgo relacionados. Objetivo: demostrar los resultados de la vigilancia epidemiológica de infecciones en el [...] Hospital General Abel Santamaría Cuadrado de la provincia Pinar del Río. Material y método: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, prospectivo. El universo de estudio quedó constituido por los 25786 pacientes egresados en el año 2012 y la muestra por los 578 pacientes que adquirieron una infección asociada a la asistencia sanitaria. Se utilizaron las variables: servicio de procedencia, localización de la infección, microorganismo aislado y defunción. La información se obtuvo mediante la revisión de historias clínicas, registros de microbiología, registros de anatomía patológica y certificados de defunción. Resultados: se obtuvo una tasa global de infección de 2,2 por cada 100 egresos del servicio. El 47,5% de los pacientes con infecciones tuvo una afección respiratoria. Las enterobacterias fueron los gérmenes de mayor frecuencia de aislamiento, predominando entre ellos la E. Coli y el enterobacter. El riesgo de morir por infecciones asociadas a la asistencia fue de 4 por 1000 egresos hospitalarios, con un letalidad de un 20,1%. Conclusiones: la vigilancia epidemiológica mostró ser efectiva para la identificación de infecciones asociadas a la asistencia, con una tasa de incidencia hospitalaria adecuada, siendo más frecuentes las infecciones respiratorias sobre todo por enterobacterias, con una mortalidad y letalidad adecuada para este tipo de hospital. Abstract in english Introduction: epidemiological surveillance is useful for identifying the risk of acquiring in hospitals a healthcare-associated infection and other related risk factors. Objective: show the results of epidemiological surveillance of infections in Abel Santamaría Cuadrado General Hospital of Pinar de [...] l Río Province. Material and method: An observational, descriptive, prospective study. The study group was composed of the 25 786 patients discharged in 2012 and the sample, by the 578 patients who acquired an infection associated to healthcare. The following variables were used: service of origin, location of infection, isolated organism and death. The information was obtained by reviewing medical, microbiology and pathological anatomy records and death certificates. Results: a generalized infection rate of 2.2 per 100 discharges from service was obtained. 47.5% of patients with infections had a respiratory condition. Enterobacteria were germs isolated the most, predominantly including E. coli and Enterobacter. The risk of dying from healthcare-associated infections was 4 per 1000 hospital discharges with a fatality rate of 20.1%. Conclusions: epidemiological surveillance was effective for identifying healthcare-associated infections with an adequate rate of hospital incidence, being more frequent respiratory infections, especially Enterobacteriaceae, with mortality and lethality suitable for this type of hospital.

Vicente Mario, Pacheco Licor; Dianelys de la Caridad, Gutiérrez Castañeda; Marly, Serradet Gómez.

2014-06-01

128

Towards improved animal models of neonatal white matter injury associated with cerebral palsy  

OpenAIRE

Newborn neurological injuries are the leading cause of intellectual and motor disabilities that are associated with cerebral palsy. Cerebral white matter injury is a common feature in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), which affects full-term infants, and in periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), which affects preterm infants. This article discusses recent efforts to model neonatal white matter injury using mammalian systems. We emphasize that a comprehensive understanding of oligodendrocyte...

Silbereis, John C.; Huang, Eric J.; Back, Stephen A.; Rowitch, David H.

2010-01-01

129

Factors associated with discharge destination from acute care after acquired brain injury in Ontario, Canada  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to examine factors associated with discharge destination after acquired brain injury in a publicly insured population using the Anderson Behavioral Model as a framework. Methods We utilized a retrospective cohort design. Inpatient data from provincial acute care records from fiscal years 2003/4 to 2006/7 with a diagnostic code of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI) in Ontario, Canada were obtained for the study. Using...

Chen Amy Y; Zagorski Brandon; Parsons Daria; Vander Laan Rika; Chan Vincy; Colantonio Angela

2012-01-01

130

Inhalational lung injury associated with humidifier "white dust".  

Science.gov (United States)

Humidifiers are commonly used in the community to relieve symptoms associated with acute respiratory infections in young children; however, clear benefits of these devices have not been documented. The Environmental Protection Agency has not found any adverse health effects related to humidifier use. We report here the case of a young infant with significant accidental inhalational lung injury related to dispersal of mineral dust from an ultrasonic home-use humidifier. The clinical consequences included prolonged hypoxemia, tachypnea, and failure to thrive. Radiography revealed pneumonitis, and pulmonary-function testing showed a nonreversible mild obstructive ventilatory defect. Because of persistent symptoms, evolution of failure to thrive, and nonresponse to inhaled and short courses of systemic glucocorticoids, an aggressive management approach was successfully pursued with high-dose pulse steroid therapy, which could be a potential therapeutic approach for similar patients. In addition, this case raises important questions about the safety of exposing infants and young children to humidifiers and emphasizes the need for further study. PMID:21199854

Daftary, Ameet S; Deterding, Robin R

2011-02-01

131

Using mortuary statistics in the development of an injury surveillance system in Ghana / Utilisation des statistiques des morgues d'hôpital dans la mise au point d'un système de surveillance des traumatismes au Ghana / Uso de estadísticas de depósitos de cadáveres para desarrollar un sistema de vigilancia de los traumatismos en Ghana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Desarrollar un programa piloto destinado a mejorar la exactitud de los registros de las defunciones por traumatismos en un depósito de cadáveres. MÉTODOS: Se procedió a mejorar el sistema de registro de las defunciones por traumatismos en la morgue del Hospital Docente Komfo Anokye, en Kum [...] asi, Ghana, en 1996, procediendo para ello a crear una base de datos prospectivos. RESULTADOS: Se observó un incremento del número de defunciones por traumatismos notificadas anualmente, de las 72 registradas antes de 1995 a las 633 de 1996-1999. Los traumatismos representaban el 8,6% de todas las defunciones registradas en la morgue, y el 12% de las defunciones registradas en el intervalo de 15 a 59 años; el 80% de las defunciones causadas por traumatismos se produjeron fuera del hospital, y por tanto no aparecían reflejadas en las estadísticas hospitalarias. El 88% de las defunciones por traumatismos estaban relacionadas con el transporte, y en el 50% de los casos las víctimas eran peatones. CONCLUSIÓN: Los traumatismos eran una causa importante de mortalidad en este entorno urbano de África, sobre todo entre los adultos en edad activa. Usando métodos sencillos y baratos se consiguió hacer más completa y precisa la notificación de las defunciones asociadas a traumatismos en un depósito de cadáveres. Esta fuente de datos podría ser una contribución importante a un sistema de vigilancia de los traumatismos, junto con los archivos hospitalarios y los informes de la policía sobre los accidentes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To develop, in a mortuary setting, a pilot programme for improving the accuracy of records of deaths caused by injury. METHODS: The recording of injury-related deaths was upgraded at the mortuary of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana, in 1996 through the creation of a prosp [...] ectively gathered database. FINDINGS: There was an increase in the number of deaths reported annually as attributable to injury from 72 before 1995 to 633 in 1996-99. Injuries accounted for 8.6% of all deaths recorded in the mortuary and for 12% of deaths in the age range 15-59 years; 80% of deaths caused by injury occurred outside the hospital and thus would not have been indicated in hospital statistics; 88% of injury-related deaths were associated with transport, and 50% of these involved injuries to pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS: Injury was a significant cause of mortality in this urban African setting, especially among adults of working age. The reporting of injury-related deaths in a mortuary was made more complete and accurate by means of simple inexpensive methods. This source of data could make a significant contribution to an injury surveillance system, along with hospital records and police accident reports.

Jason, London; Charles, Mock; Francis A., Abantanga; Robert E., Quansah; K.A., Boateng.

132

Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries  

OpenAIRE

636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56%) with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people) and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people) age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injur...

Ashwin Kumar

2011-01-01

133

The prevalence and impact of overuse injuries in five Norwegian sports: Application of a new surveillance method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the true extent and severity of overuse injuries in sport, largely because of methodological challenges involved in recording them. This study assessed the prevalence of overuse injuries among Norwegian athletes from five sports using a newly developed method designed specifically for this purpose. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire was distributed weekly by e-mail to 45 cross-country skiers, 98 cyclists, 50 floorball players, 55 handball players, and 65 volleyball players for 13 weeks. The prevalence of overuse problems at the shoulder, lower back, knee, and anterior thigh was monitored throughout the study and summary measures of an injury severity score derived from athletes' questionnaire responses were used to gauge the relative impact of overuse problems in each area. The area where overuse injuries had the greatest impact was the knee in volleyball where, on average, 36% of players had some form of complaint (95% CI 32-39%). Other prevalent areas included the shoulder in handball (22%, 95% CI 16-27%) the knee in cycling (23%, 95% CI 17-28%), and the knee and lower back in floorball (27%, 95% CI 24-31% and 29%, 95% CI 25-33%, respectively). PMID:24684525

Clarsen, B; Bahr, R; Heymans, M W; Engedahl, M; Midtsundstad, G; Rosenlund, L; Thorsen, G; Myklebust, G

2014-03-30

134

Fatal Injuries Associated with Alcohol Use Among Youth and Adults: 1990-1998  

Science.gov (United States)

The major objective of this study was to compare trends in three types of fatal injuries associated with alcohol use among youth under the legal drinking age and among adults of legal drinking age from 1990-1998. The fatal injuries investigated included homicide, suicide, and motor vehicle-traffic deaths. Results were: (1) motor vehicle-traffic…

Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Fabian, Lindsey E. A.; Harwood, Eileen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

2004-01-01

135

Excessive Progression in Weekly Running Distance and Risk of Running-related Injuries : An Association Modified by Type of Injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Study Design An explorative 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury is modified by type of injury. Background It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. Methods A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners, who started a self-structured running regimen, were provided a global positioning system (GPS) watch. After each running session during the study period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups based on their progression in weekly running distance: less than 10% (including regression), 10 to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. Results A total of 202 runners sustained a running-related injury. Using Cox regression analysis, no statistically significant differences in injury rates were found acrossthe 3 exposure groups. An increased rate of distance-related injuries (patellofemoral pain, iliotibial band syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, gluteus medius injury, greater trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those progressing their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those progressing less than 10% (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.59 [95% CI: 0.96 to 2.66], P = 0.07). Conclusion Novice runners progressing their running distance by more than 30% over a 2-week period seem to be more vulnerable to distance-related injuries than runners increasing their running distance by less than 10%. Owing to the exploratory nature of the present study, randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these results, and more experimental studies are needed to validate the assumptions. Still, novice runners may be well advised to progress their weekly distances by less than 30% per week over a 2-week period. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 25 August2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.5164.

Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, Erik Thorlund

2014-01-01

136

Surveillance of multidrug resistance-associated genes in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from elderly patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective?To understand the status of multidrug resistance-associated genes carried by Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from elderly patients in our hospital in order to provide a basis for surveillance of drug-resistance and inflection control. Methods?One hundred and twenty A. baumannii isolates were collected from elderly patients between 2008 and 2010. The mean age of the patients was 85 (65 to 95 years. Whonet 5.6 software was used to analyze the resistance rate of 16 antimicrobial agents. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the sequencing method were adopted to detect 10 kinds of resistance genes (blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA- 23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaTEM, blaampC, armA, ISAba1, intI 1, and intI 2. The corresponding resistance gene profiling(RGP was analyzed and designated according to the status of resistance genes. Results?The resistance rates to the remaining 15 kinds of antibiotics varied between 70.8% and 97.5%, with the exception of the sensitivity rate to polymyxin B by up to more than 90%. The positivity rates of blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaTEM, blaampC, armA, ISAba1 and intI 1 were 100%, 81.7%, 0.8%, 10.8%, 91.7%, 81.7%, 86.7%, and 83.3% respectively. A total of 18 kinds of drug-resistant gene maps were found, but blaOXA-24-like and intI 2 were not detected. Among these gene maps, the rate of RGP1 (blaOXA-23-like+blaampC+armA+ISAba1+ intI 1 was as high as 60.8%. Conclusions A. baumannii isolates from elderly patients have a higher carrying rate of drug-resistant genes, resulting in severe multidrugresistant conditions. Therefore, full-time infection control personnel and clinical physicians should actively participate in the surveillance, prevention, and control of infections caused by A. baumannii in the elderly.

Zhe DONG

2012-03-01

137

Kidney injury associated with telavancin dosing regimen in an animal model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The elevation of serum creatinine levels is a concern with telavancin therapy. We examined the onset of kidney injury associated with telavancin in an animal model. Urine samples were collected at baseline and daily to determine the concentrations of kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), a marker for early kidney injury. When a clinically relevant exposure of telavancin was given daily to rats, some differences in kidney injury were attributed to the dosing regimen. Further investigations of alternative telavancin dosing regimens are warranted. PMID:25712358

Tam, Vincent H; Ledesma, Kimberly R; Bowers, Dana R; Zhou, Jian; Truong, Luan D

2015-05-01

138

[Hypoxic brain injuries notified to the Danish Patient Insurance Association during 1992-2004. Secondary publication  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated the files of the Danish Patient Insurance Association for newborns suffering from hypoxic brain injuries. From 1992 to 2004, a total of 127 approved claims concerning peripartum hypoxic injury were registered. Thirty-eight newborns died and the majority of the 89 surviving children suffered major handicaps, primarily cerebral palsy. In 69 of the cases, misinterpretation of or late action in response to an abnormal cardiotocography caused the hypoxic brain injuries. All injuries could potentially have been avoided using established obstetric practice Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/1

Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.

2008-01-01

139

Characteristics and associated factors with sports injuries among children and adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in childr [...] en and adolescents. METHOD: Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. RESULTS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice.

Franciele M., Vanderlei; Luiz C. M., Vanderlei; Fabio N., Bastos; Jayme, Netto Júnior; Carlos M., Pastre.

2014-12-01

140

Cellular therapies for treating pain associated with spinal cord injury  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Spinal cord injury leads to immense disability and loss of quality of life in human with no satisfactory clinical cure. Cell-based or cell-related therapies have emerged as promising therapeutic potentials both in regeneration of spinal cord and mitigation of neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury. This article reviews the various options and their latest developments with an update on their therapeutic potentials and clinical trialing.

Leung Lawrence

2012-01-01

141

Bucillamine, a thiol antioxidant, prevents transplantation-associated reperfusion injury  

OpenAIRE

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious potential threat to outcomes in organ transplantation and other clinical arenas in which there is temporary interruption of blood flow. I/R is a frequent cause of primary failure in organ transplantation. We hypothesized that the antioxidant bucillamine, a potent sulfhydryl donor, would protect against I/R injury in high-risk organ transplants. Because livers subjected to prolonged ischemia and very fatty livers are highly susceptible to severe I...

Amersi, Farin; Nelson, Sally K.; Shen, Xiu Da; Kato, Hirohisa; Melinek, Judy; Kupiec-weglinski, Jerzy W.; Horwitz, Lawrence D.; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Horwitz, Marcus A.

2002-01-01

142

Facebook Surveillance of Former Romantic Partners: Associations with PostBreakup Recovery and Personal Growth  

OpenAIRE

Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associat...

Marshall, Tara C.

2012-01-01

143

Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks. PMID:21457433

Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

2011-05-01

144

In Vitro Echinocandin Susceptibility of Aspergillus Isolates from Patients Enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network?  

OpenAIRE

We determined the echinocandin minimum effective concentration (MEC) values for caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin against 288 Aspergillus isolates prospectively collected from transplant patients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis between 2001 and 2006 as part of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET). We demonstrated that the vast majority of Aspergillus isolates had MEC values at or below the epidemiological cutoff values for caspofungin, mi...

Lockhart, Shawn R.; Zimbeck, Alicia J.; Baddley, John W.; Marr, Kieren A.; Andes, David R.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Ito, James I.; Pappas, Peter G.; Chiller, Tom

2011-01-01

145

Home-Related Head Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

... Divans 39,016 12. Desks, Chests, Bureaus or Buffets 35,040 13. Rugs or Carpets (not specified) ... National Injury Information Clearinghouse; National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Product Summary Report—Head Injuries Only—Calendar ...

146

White matter injury is associated with impaired gaze in premature infants  

OpenAIRE

Periventricular leukomalacia is a risk factor for visual impairment in children born prematurely. The impact of diffuse white matter injury detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on early visual function is unknown. We developed two five-point visual gaze scores to analyze the association between this clinical assessment and white matter injury in 93 premature neonates less than 34 weeks gestational age at birth. Older gestational age was associated with higher values of the two gaze sc...

Glass, Hannah C.; Fujimoto, Shinji; Ceppi-cozzio, Camilla; Bartha, Agnes I.; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Barkovich, A. James; Glidden, David V.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Miller, Steven P.

2008-01-01

147

Association football injuries to the brain. A preliminary report.  

OpenAIRE

In 1975 the authors sent a questionnaire to all players in the Norwegian First Division League Clubs to record the incidence of head injuries due to heading. The conclusion of the questionnaire is that there seems to be a low percentage of serious head injuries. None of the players had been operated on for epi- or subdural hematoma or other brain damage and only a few have had concussion due to heading. In sixty per cent of the players a full neurological examination and EEG recording was und...

Tysvaer, A.; Storli, O.

1981-01-01

148

Requirements for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 in limb ischemia/reperfusion injury and associated lung injury.  

OpenAIRE

Ischemia in rat hind limbs followed by reperfusion results in local as well as remote organ (lung) injury characterized by increased vascular permeability (125I-labeled bovine serum albumin leakage) and hemorrhage (51Cr-labeled rat erythrocytes extravasation) in skeletal muscle and lung, together with an associated increased tissue content of myeloperoxidase, reflecting neutrophil accumulation. Within 60 minutes of reperfusion following ischemia, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), inter...

Seekamp, A.; Warren, J. S.; Remick, D. G.; Till, G. O.; Ward, P. A.

1993-01-01

149

MR imaging of tibial plateau fractures : evaluation of fracture types and associated soft tissue injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing fracture types and soft tissue injuries associated with tibial plateau fractures. MRI was performed in 38 patients with tibial plateau fractures, each of which was classified according to the Schatzker system. We evaluated MR images and assessed the prevalence of each fracture type and accompanying soft tissue injuries. We also assessed whether ligamentous injury correlated with the extent of articular depression, splitting, and comminution. In 24 patients, diagnosis was based on MRI and operative or arthroscopic findings, and in 14 patients, on MRI alone. The totals of fracture types I, II, III, IV, V and VI were 4(11%), 15(39%), 6(16%), 4(11%), 4(11%), and 5 cases (13%), respectively. In 30 cases (79%), there were associated ligamentous or meniscal injuries. Medial collateral ligaments and lateral menisci were injured in 17(45%) and 14 cases (37%), respectively. Type II and IV fracture patterns were associated with soft tissue injuries in 14 of 15 cases (93%) and 4 of 4 cases (100%), respectively. As the extent of articular depression increased and the extent of bony comminution decreased, there was an increased prevalence of accompanying ligamentous injuries. In tibial plateau fractures, MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality for the evaluation of both fracture type and accompanying ligamentous or meniscal injuries

150

MR imaging of tibial plateau fractures : evaluation of fracture types and associated soft tissue injuries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing fracture types and soft tissue injuries associated with tibial plateau fractures. MRI was performed in 38 patients with tibial plateau fractures, each of which was classified according to the Schatzker system. We evaluated MR images and assessed the prevalence of each fracture type and accompanying soft tissue injuries. We also assessed whether ligamentous injury correlated with the extent of articular depression, splitting, and comminution. In 24 patients, diagnosis was based on MRI and operative or arthroscopic findings, and in 14 patients, on MRI alone. The totals of fracture types I, II, III, IV, V and VI were 4(11%), 15(39%), 6(16%), 4(11%), 4(11%), and 5 cases (13%), respectively. In 30 cases (79%), there were associated ligamentous or meniscal injuries. Medial collateral ligaments and lateral menisci were injured in 17(45%) and 14 cases (37%), respectively. Type II and IV fracture patterns were associated with soft tissue injuries in 14 of 15 cases (93%) and 4 of 4 cases (100%), respectively. As the extent of articular depression increased and the extent of bony comminution decreased, there was an increased prevalence of accompanying ligamentous injuries. In tibial plateau fractures, MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality for the evaluation of both fracture type and accompanying ligamentous or meniscal injuries.

Lee, Geon; Heo, Chan; Kim, Yong Jo; Kwon, Hyeok Po; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Kim, Won Ho [Dong Kang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeong Hwan [Taegu Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

1997-05-01

151

Ventilator-associated pneumonia in a teaching hospital in Tehran and use of the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Software.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common health-care-associated infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and computer-assisted diagnosis and surveillance is called for. The frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was assessed prospectively during a 6-month period in the ICUs of a teaching hospital in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. To determine the accuracy of the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (INIS) system, patient data were input to the software and compared with physicians' judgement. The frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was 21.6%, or 9.96 episodes per 1000 ventilator days. The duration of admission to the ICU, duration of mechanical ventilator and number of re-intubations were significantly higher in patients who developed pneumonia. The INIS system identified 100% of cases, with no false-positive or false-negative results. Compared with developed countries, the frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was high in our ICUs, and INIS software was accurate in diagnosing nosocomial infection. PMID:24313153

Afhami, Sh; Hadadi, A; Khorami, E; Seifi, A; Bazaz, N Esmailpour

2013-10-01

152

Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Wolkin A , Schnall AH , Law R , Schier J . Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-4 . PMID:25205009

Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

2014-10-01

153

Associated injuries and mechanism of atlanto-occipital dislocation caused by trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injuries associated with traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) leading to death were analyzed in 11 patients, nine injured by traffic accidents, of which five were victims of car-pedestrian accidents. On admission, unconsciousness and respiratory arrest were noted in all patients, and cardiac arrest in nine. Skull and cervical roentgenograms revealed enlargement of the retropharyngeal space due to injury of the vertebral artery or its branches in nine patients, atlanto-axial dislocation (C-1-C-2 separation) in four, and skull fracture in four. Computed tomography demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the upper cervical and posterior fossa in nine patients, fourth ventricular hematoma in seven, and atlas fracture in three. SAH and ventricular hematoma were due to craniocervical injury. Other common injuries were injury of face and head excluding the mandibular region in 10 patients, mandibular fracture in three, severe chest injuries in eight, and intraperitoneal bleeding in two. The overall outcome was poor. Nine patients died within 13 hours of admission, one was diagnosed as brain dead 8 days after the accident, and the other one survived in a persistent vegetative state. Early death is probably caused by associated severe injuries, i.e. chest injuries and intraperitoneal bleeding rather than AOD. Although injury of the mandibular region is known to be associated with AOD, head, breast, and abdominal trauma may also lead to neck hyperextension-flexion in various directions. Whatever the direct cause, a distractive force to the craniocervical joint by hyperextension-flexion appears to be important in the mechanism of AOD. PMID:7566383

Imaizumi, T; Sohma, T; Hotta, H; Teto, I; Imaizumi, H; Kaneko, M

1995-06-01

154

Muscle spasms associated with Sudeck's atrophy after injury.  

OpenAIRE

Four patients developed abnormal involuntary movements of a limb after injury. All subsequently developed sympathetic algodystrophy with Sudeck's atrophy and then abnormal muscle spasms or jerks of the affected limb, lasting years. Sympathetic block in three patients did not relieve the abnormal movements. Two patients obtained partial recovery spontaneously, but the other two required surgery for relief. The pathophysiology of this condition remains to be determined but the evidence suggests...

Marsden, C. D.; Rothwell, J. C.

1984-01-01

155

Tears of anterior cruciate ligament and associated injury in the knee joint: MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the characteristic findings in tears of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and associated injury at MR imaging. We reviewed the findings of MR images and the corresponding arthroscopic results of 32 patients with ACL tears. We evaluated the signal intensity and contour of ACL surrounding bony structures, menisci and associated injury of the knee joint. Complete ACL tears were present in 25 patients and partial ACL tears were in 7 patients. Complete ACL tears showed heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of the ACL in 14 patients (56%) and without bulging or absence in 11 patients(44%). Most patients torn ACL with contour bulging(12/14) had bone bruise, but only one patient torn ACL without bulging contour had bone bruise. ACL with thin continuous low signal band surrounding heterogenously increased signal intensity suggests partial tear which was seen in three patients of seven proved partial ACL tears. Combined bone injury in ACL tear were in 23 patients (73%) and most of these(22/23) were at midportion of lateral notch of femur and/or posterior portion of lateral tibial plateu. Deepening of lateral notch of femur were noted in 17 patients(53%). Associated injuries of the other ligaments of knee joint were buckling of the posterior cruciate ligament(16/32, 50%) and tears of the medial collateral ligament(11/32, 34%). Posterior horns of menisci were more frequent site of combined injury within meniscient site of combined injury within menisci in patients with ACL tear. Acute tearing of ACL in MRI is seen as heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of ACL and combined bone bruises. Patients with torn ACL frequently have various combined injury. In patient with knee injury, these associated or ancillary findings suggest that ACL tear is present

156

Non-Traumatic Anterior Dislocation of a Total Knee Replacement Associated with Neurovascular Injury  

OpenAIRE

Prosthetic total knee replacements rarely dislocate. When dislocation does occur, it is usually in a posterior direction in association with a posterior stabilised, cruciate-sacrificing prosthesis. Neurovascular injury is unusual. In this report, we describe a case of anterior dislocation of a cruciate-retaining total knee replacement in a 67-year-old woman. The dislocation occurred in the absence of overt trauma and resulted in severe neurovascular injury.

Aderinto, Joseph; Gross, Allan E.; Rittenhouse, Bryan

2009-01-01

157

Factores asociados con la intencionalidad en las lesiones de causa externa / Intent-associated factors in injuries of external cause  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El aumento de las lesiones intencionales y no intencionales se ha convertido en un apremiante problema de salud pública. Recientemente se hizo énfasis en la importancia de estudiar las "causas" de la violencia para conocer cómo combatirlas. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar los f [...] actores asociados con la intencionalidad de las lesiones. Materiales y métodos: Se diseñó un estudio analítico basado en los registros obtenidos del sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica de lesiones de causa externa del Hospital Mario Correa Rengifo de Cali, Colombia. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes y se calcularon estadísticas descriptivas y medidas de asociación. Resultados: Entre el total de 5236 personas que ingresaron con lesiones de causa externa entre noviembre de 2003 y diciembre de 2005, se encontró que 64,0% eran lesiones no intencionales, 32,6% intencionales interpersonales y 1,6% intencionales autoinflingidas. La intencionalidad tiene asociación positiva con sexo masculino (OR: 3,33), ingesta de bebidas alcohólicas (OR: 8,89), consumo de psicofármacos (OR: 5,61), lesiones penetrantes profundas (OR 23,85) y trauma en abdomen (OR 7.90), tórax (OR 7,00), sistémico (OR 2,19) y cuello (OR 1,88). Se observó que las lesiones intencionales tienen puntajes más bajos de RTS que las no intencionales (OR: 2,32). Conclusiones: sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica permite a las instituciones de salud evaluar la morbimortalidad de su población para definir políticas de intervención. Este estudio encontró que la intencionalidad de las lesiones de causa externa tiene una fuerte asociación con consumo de alcohol y otros psicotrópicos. Las características de los factores asociados con lesiones de causa externa permiten implementar integralmente acciones preventivas y educativas en la comunidad, con el propósito de disminuir la ocurrencia de estas lesiones y por tanto la pérdida de vidas. Abstract in english Introduction: The increase in the incidence of intentional and nonintentional injuries has become an important public health problem. There has been a recent emphasis on the importance of investigating the «causes» of violence in order to define how to prevent them. The purpose of the present study [...] was to identify factors associated with intentional injuries. Materials and methods: An analytic study was designed based on the registry of the epidemiologic surveillance system of Hospital Mario Correa Rengifo, Cali, Colombia. All patients were included and the descriptive and association measures were calculated. Results: Among the 5,236 persons that were seen because of injuries of external cause in the period November 2003-December 2005, we found that 64% were nonintentional, 32.6% were interpersonal intentional, and 1.6% were self-inflicted. Intentional lesions exhibited positive association with the male sex (OR 8.89), alcohol and or illegal drug consumption (OR 5.61), penetrating stab wounds (OR 23.85), abdominal trauma (OR 7.90), thoracic trauma (OR 7.00), systemic trauma (OR 2.19), and cervical trauma (OR 1.88). Intentional lesions showed a lower Revised Trauma Score (RTS) in comparison with nonintentional lesions (OR 2.32). Conclusions: The hospital epidemiologic surveillance systems permit the evaluation of morbidity and mortality rates and patterns of traumatic lesions of external cause, intentional or nonintentional. Alcohol and illegal drug consumption increase several times the risk of having an intentional lesion and a lesion of greater severity. This information serves the governments to generate preventive programs with the purpose of identifying modifiable variables oriented towards the abolition of violent injuries, especially during weekends.

Mónica, Bejarano Castro; Luis Fernando, Rendón; Martha Cristina, Rojas; Carlos Andrés, Durán; Maribel, Albornoz.

2006-12-01

158

Hepatoxicity associated with weight-loss supplements: A case for better post-marketing surveillance  

OpenAIRE

There is a growing number of case reports of hepatoxicity from the widely marketed weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut, which contains the botanical ingredient Garcinia cambogia. These case reports may substantially undercount the true magnitude of harm. Based on the past experience with harmful dietary supplements, US regulators should assume the more precautionary approach favored by Canada and Europe. Lacking effective adverse event surveillance for supplements, or the requirements to prove ...

Ano Lobb

2009-01-01

159

Acute kidney injury in non-severe pneumonia is associated with an increased immune response and lower survival  

OpenAIRE

While sepsis is a leading cause of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients, the relationship between immune response and acute kidney injury in less severely ill patients with infection is not known. Here we studied the epidemiology, 1-year mortality, and immune response associated with acute kidney injury in 1836 hospitalized patients with community-acquired severe and non-severe pneumonia. Acute kidney injury developed in 631 patients of whom 329 had severe and 302 had non-severe sep...

Murugan, Raghavan; Karajala-subramanyam, Vijay; Lee, Minjae; Yende, Sachin; Kong, Lan; Carter, Melinda; Angus, Derek C.; Kellum, John A.

2009-01-01

160

Intestinal Injury Currents Associated with Mesenteric Ischemia and Reperfusion  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-invasive method of detecting mesenteric ischemia is presented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of arterial reperfusion on these injury currents. The small bowel of New Zealand white rabbits was exteriorized and the mesenteric blood flow interrupted. Experiments were conducted in three groups, control (n = 3), ischemia (n = 6) and reperfusion following ischemia (n = 5). The subject's position was modulated in and out of the biological field detection range of a SQUID magnetometer. The changes in magnetic field amplitude for the experimental groups were 9.3% and 31.0% for the control and the ischemia groups respectively. The reperfusion group first exhibited a decrease of 17.4% from pre-ischemic to the ischemic period followed by an increase of 13.9% of the ischemic value after re-establishing perfusion. It is concluded that injury currents in GI smooth muscle that appear during ischemia are reduced to pre-ischemic levels during reperfusion.

Cordova, T.; Bradshaw, L. A.; O'Mahony, G. P.; Gallucci, M. R.; Berch, B.; Richards, W. O.

2006-09-01

161

Tears of anterior cruciate ligament and associated injury in the knee joint: MR imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the characteristic findings in tears of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and associated injury at MR imaging. We reviewed the findings of MR images and the corresponding arthroscopic results of 32 patients with ACL tears. We evaluated the signal intensity and contour of ACL surrounding bony structures, menisci and associated injury of the knee joint. Complete ACL tears were present in 25 patients and partial ACL tears were in 7 patients. Complete ACL tears showed heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of the ACL in 14 patients (56%) and without bulging or absence in 11 patients(44%). Most patients torn ACL with contour bulging(12/14) had bone bruise, but only one patient torn ACL without bulging contour had bone bruise. ACL with thin continuous low signal band surrounding heterogenously increased signal intensity suggests partial tear which was seen in three patients of seven proved partial ACL tears. Combined bone injury in ACL tear were in 23 patients (73%) and most of these(22/23) were at midportion of lateral notch of femur and/or posterior portion of lateral tibial plateu. Deepening of lateral notch of femur were noted in 17 patients(53%). Associated injuries of the other ligaments of knee joint were buckling of the posterior cruciate ligament(16/32, 50%) and tears of the medial collateral ligament(11/32, 34%). Posterior horns of menisci were more frequent site of combined injury within menisci in patients with ACL tear. Acute tearing of ACL in MRI is seen as heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of ACL and combined bone bruises. Patients with torn ACL frequently have various combined injury. In patient with knee injury, these associated or ancillary findings suggest that ACL tear is present.

Kim, Eui Jong; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Ahn, Jin Whan; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1994-03-15

162

National influences on catheter-associated bloodstream infection rates: practices among national surveillance networks participating in the European HELICS project.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was performed to evaluate associations between organisational characteristics, routine practices and the incidence densities of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CVC-BSI rates) in European intensive care units (ICUs) as part of the HELICS project (Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance). Questionnaires were sent to ICUs participating in the national nosocomial infection surveillance networks in 2004. The national networks were asked for the CVC-BSI rates of the ICUs participating for the time period 2003--2004. Univariate and multivariate risk factor analyses were performed to identify which practices had the greatest impact on CVC-BSI rates. A total of 526 ICUs from 10 countries sent data on organisational characteristics and practices, demonstrating wide variation in care. CVC-BSI rates were also provided for 288 ICUs from five countries. This made it possible to include 1383444 patient days, 969897 CVC days and 1935 CVC-BSI cases in the analysis. Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that the categorical variables of country [odds ratio (OR) varying per country from OR: 2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-10.2; to OR: 12.8; 95% CI: 4.4-37.5; in reference to the country with the lowest CVC-BSI rates] and type of hospital 'university' (OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.02-4.25) were independent risk factors for high CVC-BSI rates. Substantial variation existed in CVC-BSI prevention activities, surveillance methods and estimated CVC-BSI rates among the European countries. Differences in cultural, social and legal perspectives as well as differences between healthcare systems are crucial in explaining these differences. PMID:18799236

Hansen, S; Schwab, F; Behnke, M; Carsauw, H; Heczko, P; Klavs, I; Lyytikäinen, O; Palomar, M; Riesenfeld Orn, I; Savey, A; Szilagyi, E; Valinteliene, R; Fabry, J; Gastmeier, P

2009-01-01

163

Factors associated with occupational injury severity in the New South Wales underground coal mining industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between a large number of mine and mine worker characteristics and injury severity was examined using multiple regression techniques. The study was based on data extracted from the New South Wales (N.S.W.) Joint Coal Board`s computer based accident/incident reporting system describing 21,372 non-fatal, lost-time injurious incidents that occurred in the N.S.W. underground coal mining industry during the 4 year period from 1 July 1986 to 30 June 1990. The number of days lost as a result of an injurious incident was the best available proxy measure of injury severity. Over the study period, the number of days post per 100,000 tonnes of raw coal production declined by 73%. Over the same period, injurious incidents involving more than 20 days off work, which constituted only 16% of all injurious incidents in underground mines, resulted in 75% of the total days lost for the whole N.S.W. underground coal mining industry. Factors that had practical importance and that were significantly associated with injury severity included mine worker`s age, part of the body injured, type of accident, agency of accident, and mine worker activity. Factors not important or not significant in their relationship with injury severity were: time into shift, previous hours worked, mine location of incident, occupation, work experience, frequency of task, shift, and mining region. This study suggests that factors related to the susceptibility of a mine worker`s body tissue to damage or repair, and factors related to the concentration of energy on the mine worker by vehicle and environmental characteristics are important determinants of injury severity. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

Hull, B.P.; Leigh, J.; Driscoll, T.R.; Mandryk, J. [National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit

1996-05-01

164

The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previ [...] ous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

Gustavo Goncalves, Arliani; Paulo Santoro, Belangero; Jose Luiz, Runco; Moisés, Cohen.

1707-17-01

165

Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Young people are a risk to themselves and other road users, as motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of their death. A thorough understanding of the most important factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young drivers is important for designing well-targeted restrictive measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred. The analysis examined a comprehensive set of single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes involving at least one 15–24year-old driver in New Zealand between 2002 and 2011 that resulted in minor, serious or fatal injuries. A mixed logit model accounting for heterogeneity and heteroscedasticity in the propensity to injury severity outcomes and for correlation between serious and fatal injuries proved a better fit than a binary and a generalized ordered logit. Results show that the young drivers’ behavior, the presence of passengers and the involvement of vulnerable road users were the most relevant factors associated with higher injury severity in both single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes. Seatbelt non-use, inexperience and alcohol use were the deadliest behavioral factors in single-vehicle crashes, while fatigue, reckless driving and seatbelt non-use were the deadliest factors in two-vehicle crashes. The presence of passengers in the young drivers’ vehicle, and in particular a combination of males and females, dramatically increased the probability of serious and fatal injuries. The involvement of vulnerable road users, in particular on rural highways and open roads, considerably amplified the probability of higher crash injury severity.

Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal

2014-01-01

166

Hepatotoxicity associated with sulfasalazine in inflammatory arthritis: A case series from a local surveillance of serious adverse events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous reporting systems for adverse drug reactions (ADRs are handicapped by under-reporting and limited detail on individual cases. We report an investigation from a local surveillance for serious adverse drug reactions associated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs that was triggered by the occurrence of liver failure in two of our patients. Methods Serious ADR reports have been solicited from local clinicians by regular postcards over the past seven years. Patients', who had hepatotoxicity on sulfasalazine and met a definition of a serious ADR, were identified. Two clinicians reviewed structured case reports and assessed causality by consensus and by using a causality assessment instrument. The likely frequency of hepatotoxicity with sulfasalazine was estimated by making a series of conservative assumptions. Results Ten cases were identified: eight occurred during surveillance. Eight patients were hospitalised, two in hepatic failure – one died after a liver transplant. All but one event occurred within 6 weeks of treatment. Seven patients had a skin rash, three eosinophilia and one interstitial nephritis. Five patients were of Black British of African or Caribbean descent. Liver enzymes showed a hepatocellular pattern in four cases and a mixed pattern in six. Drug-related hepatotoxicity was judged probable or highly probable in 8 patients. The likely frequency of serious hepatotoxicity with sulfasalazine was estimated at 0.4% of treated patients. Conclusion Serious hepatotoxicity associated with sulfasalazine appears to be under-appreciated and intensive monitoring and vigilance in the first 6 weeks of treatment is especially important.

Rankin Elizabeth

2008-04-01

167

Hepatoxicity associated with weight-loss supplements: A case for better post-marketing surveillance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing number of case reports of hepatoxicity from the widely marketed weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut, which contains the botanical ingredient Garcinia cambogia. These case reports may substantially undercount the true magnitude of harm. Based on the past experience with harmful dietary supplements, US regulators should assume the more precautionary approach favored by Canada and Europe. Lacking effective adverse event surveillance for supplements, or the requirements to prove safety prior to coming to the market, case reports such as those summarized here assume added importance.

Ano Lobb

2009-04-01

168

Flexion-distraction injuries of the lumbar spine and associated abdominal trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent experience with flexion-distraction injuries of the lumbar spine associated with blunt abdominal trauma and the use of a lap belt alone has caused us to review our experience over the last 7 years. Eighteen patients were identified, with an average age of 22 years, and an average followup of 34 months. Fifteen were involved in motor vehicle accidents, with 11 being single-vehicle accidents. Of note, 12 of the 15 were rear seat passengers with lap belts only. Twelve patients suffered abdominal injury, seven requiring operative intervention, mainly for hollow viscus injury. In three patients, a delay of 24 hours or more occurred before recognition of intra-abdominal pathology requiring surgical therapy. One patient had an unrecognized spinal fracture for 2 weeks after abdominal surgery for a perforated viscus. The spinal injury was carefully assessed and analyzed for prognostic factors. Six were graded excellent, five good, four fair, and one poor. One case of paraplegia associated with avulsion of the spinal cord from distraction is reported. Prognostic factors included the amount of facet joint involvement and the degree of initial kyphosis. Those having greater than 17 degrees of kyphosis had a poor prognosis. Early recognition of the constellation of injuries involving the spine and abdomen associated with the use of the lap belt is recommended with surgery to the spinal fracture as outlined. PMID:2325176

LeGay, D A; Petrie, D P; Alexander, D I

1990-04-01

169

The Sterile Inflammation in the Exacerbation of HBV-Associated Liver Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Exacerbation of hepatitis B virus-associated liver injury is characterized by abnormal immune response which not only mobilizes specific antiviral effects but also poses a potentially lethal nonspecific sterile inflammation to the host. How nonspecific sterile inflammation is triggered after the preexisting injury caused by specific immune injury remains elusive. In the setting of sterile inflammation, endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns are released by stressed and dying hepatocytes, which alarm the immune system through their potential pattern recognition receptors and related signaling pathways, orchestrate the influx of diverse cytokines, and ultimately amplify liver destruction. This review highlights current knowledge about the sterile hepatic inflammation in the exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B. PMID:25892853

Yang, Qiao; Shi, Yu; Yang, Ying; Lou, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

2015-01-01

170

Neonatal Injury at Cephalic Vaginal Delivery: A Retrospective Analysis of Extent of Association with Shoulder Dystocia  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To describe the risk factors and labor characteristics of Clavicular fracture (CF) and brachial plexus injury (BPI); and compare antenatal and labor characteristics and prognosis of obstetrical BPI associated with shoulder dystocia with obstetrical BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia. Methods This retrospective study consisted of women who gave birth to an infant with a fractured clavicle or BPI between January 2009 and June 2013. Antenatal and neonatal data were compared between groups. The control group (1300) was composed of the four singleton vaginal deliveries that immediately followed each birth injury. A multivariable logistic regression model, with backward elimination, was constructed in order to find independent risk factors associated with BPI and CF. A subgroup analysis involved comparison of features of BPI cases with or without associated shoulder dystocia. Results During the study period, the total number of vaginal deliveries was 44092. The rates of CF, BPI and shoulder dystocia during the study period were 0,6%, 0,16% and 0,29%, respectively. In the logistic regression model, shoulder dystocia, GDM, multiparity, gestational age >42 weeks, protracted labor, short second stage of labor and fetal birth weight greater than 4250 grams increased the risk of CF independently. Shoulder dystocia and protracted labor were independently associated with BPI when controlled for other factors. Among neonates with BPI whose injury was not associated with shoulder dystocia, five (12.2%) sustained permanent injury, whereas one neonate (4.5%) with BPI following shoulder dystocia sustained permanent injury (p?=?0.34). Conclusion BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia might have a higher rate of concomitant CF and permanent sequelae. PMID:25144234

Iskender, Cantekin; Kaymak, Oktay; Erkenekli, Kudret; Ustunyurt, Emin; Uygur, Dilek; Yakut, Halil Ibrahim; Danisman, Nuri

2014-01-01

171

A rare presentation of flexor digitorum profundus type V avulsion injury with associated intra-articular fracture: A case report  

OpenAIRE

Traumatic avulsions of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon are associated with young adults engaged in athletic activities such as football and rugby. The current report presents a case involving a 30-year-old man with traumatic avulsion of his flexor digitorum profundus and associated intra-articular distal phalangeal fracture secondary to injury during martial arts – an unusual cause of this injury. Increased attention to injuries acquired during this form of sporting activity is sugges...

Rizis, D.; Mahoney, Jl

2011-01-01

172

Injury-associated reacquiring of intestinal stem cell function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epithelial layer of the intestine relies upon stem cells for maintaining homeostasis and regeneration. Two types of stem cells are currently defined in intestinal crypts: the cycling crypt base columnar cells and quiescent cells. Though several candidate markers and regulators of rapidly cycling and quiescent stem cells have been identified so far, the exact nature of quiescent cells is still questionable since investigations mainly focused on candidate markers rather than the label-retaining population itself. Recent results, however, have strengthened the argument for functional plasticity. Using a lineage tracing strategy label-retaining cells (LRCs) of the intestinal epithelium were marked, then followed by a pulse-chase analysis it was found that during homeostasis, LRCs were Lgr5-positive and were destined to become Paneth and neuroendocrine cells. Nevertheless, it was demonstrated that LRCs are capable of clonogenic growth by recall to the self-renewing pool of stem cells in case of epithelial injury. These new findings highlight on the hierarchical and spatial organization of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and the important plasticity of progenitors during tissue regeneration, moreover, provide a motivation for studying their role in disorders like colorectal cancer. PMID:25717233

Sipos, Ferenc; M?zes, Györgyi

2015-02-21

173

Sharps injuries among radiographers: Dangers associated with opening bottles of contrast agent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Injuries associated with the use of glass bottles in the healthcare setting have been largely overlooked in the literature. Such injuries are sustained if the glass is broken, but more often during the opening of the bottles, either directly on the sharp edges of the aluminium crimp-top seals or indirectly when another instrument is used to prise open the bottle after the crimp-top opening mechanism fails. Such injuries are not inconsequential; of sharps injuries (excluding those caused by hollow-bore needles), an estimated 16% are caused by glass and a further 15% by other sharp items. Furthermore, any puncture wound in the healthcare setting carries a threat of transmission of infectious blood-borne diseases. This survey is the first of its kind to be done in Europe, and offers an insight into the risk of bottle-opening associated injuries in radiology departments. Results: The findings indicate that radiographers/technologists are injured up to 24.4 times (±22.2) a year during the opening of glass bottles of contrast agents, translating into 3.5 h a month of lost time in an average radiology department of 24.4 radiographers or technologists; although almost half (47%) of the injuries draw blood, few are reported and the respondents in this survey were generally unconcerned by the risks. Conclusion: The injuries discussed can be a nuisance and disturb the workflow of the department and are, importantly, avoidable, with polymer bottles available that pose nith polymer bottles available that pose no threat during opening or when damaged

174

The Analysis of Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures Associated Injuries in Emergency Department  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Persons with epilepsy are believed to be at greater risk of incurring accidental injury than those without seizures. During generalized seizures the individual is unable to utilize protective reflexes during falls and may consequently suffer head, orthopedic, or soft tissue injury. Our aim is to evaluate the spectrum of trauma in epilepsy patients presenting to our emergency department as a result of generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patient records collected between January 2004 and December 2007 at the Emergency Department of Dicle University Medical School. All patients aged 15 years or more with epilepsy and trauma due to generalized tonic clonic seizures were included in the study. Records were analyzed for age, gender, type of injury, sufficiency of anti-epileptic medication, and mortality. Results: The average age of the 51 patients included in the study was 26.02±9.86 years, range 15-52 years. Thirty-three patients (64.7% were male; the male female ratio was 1.83. Soft tissue injuries were the most common injury (26 instances. Head trauma, cuts, dental and tongue injuries were less common. Blood levels of anti-epileptic medication were in the therapeutic range in 9 (17.6% patients, while 42 (82.4% had sub therapeutic levels for effective treatment. Four (7.8% of the patients died. The trauma in 2 mortalities involved burns; remaining deaths were associated with submersion injury and fall (subarachnoidal hemorrhage. Conclusions: There was no significant association between sub therapeutic levels of anti-epileptic medication and mortality.

Ayhan OZHASENEKLER

2010-01-01

175

Postconcussional disorder and PTSD symptoms of military-related traumatic brain injury associated with compromised neurocircuitry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common combat injury, often through explosive blast, and produces heterogeneous brain changes due to various mechanisms of injury. It is unclear whether the vulnerability of white matter differs between blast and impact injury, and the consequences of microstructural changes on neuropsychological function are poorly understood in military TBI patients. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques were used to assess the neurocircuitry in 37 U.S. service members (29 mild, 7 moderate, 1 severe; 17 blast and 20 nonblast), who sustained a TBI while deployed, compared to 14 nondeployed, military controls. High-dimensional deformable registration of MRI diffusion tensor data was followed by fiber tracking and tract-specific analysis along with region-of-interest analysis. DTI results were examined in relation to post-concussion and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The most prominent white matter microstructural injury for both blast and nonblast patients was in the frontal fibers within the fronto-striatal (corona radiata, internal capsule) and fronto-limbic circuits (fornix, cingulum), the fronto-parieto-occipital association fibers, in brainstem fibers, and in callosal fibers. Subcortical superior-inferiorly oriented tracts were more vulnerable to blast injury than nonblast injury, while direct impact force had more detrimental effects on anterior-posteriorly oriented tracts, which tended to cause heterogeneous left and right hemispheric asymmetries of white matter connectivity. The tractography using diffusion anisotropy deficits revealed the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cerebellar-cortical (CSTCC) networks, where increased post-concussion and PTSD symptoms were associated with low fractional anisotropy in the major nodes of compromised CSTCC neurocircuitry, and the consequences on cognitive function were explored as well. PMID:24038816

Yeh, Ping-Hong; Wang, Binquan; Oakes, Terrence R; French, Louis M; Pan, Hai; Graner, John; Liu, Wei; Riedy, Gerard

2014-06-01

176

Spatial dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and associated boll injury in southeastern cotton fields.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grid sampling (one sample per 0.40 ha) in 12 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields for stink bugs and boll injury caused by stink bug feeding was conducted in 2007 and 2008 in South Carolina and Georgia. The main species collected using the beat cloth method were the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (69%); brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (18%); and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (14%), respectively. The inverted distance weighted interpolation method and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs analyses showed spatial variability in both boll injury and stink bug densities. Four of five fields with field-average boll injury exceeding 15% had a combination of either soybean or peanut adjacent to the cotton field of interest. The Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs index of dispersion for stink bug densities and boll injury averaged over the season indicated significant aggregation at the 5% error rate in only one and four analyses (combinations of fields, species, and life stages) of a total of 54 in 2007 and 2008, respectively. By sampling date, overall indices of dispersion for boll injury data indicated significant aggregation in four of the 63 date-field combinations at the 5% error rate. Across years, overall indices of spatial association between boll injury and stink bug densities were significant in 17 of 69 analyses, with positive associations detected in seven of 12 fields; these data suggest that spatial distribution of stink bugs in cotton fields does not always coincide with boll injury. PMID:20550811

Reay-Jones, F P F; Toews, M D; Greene, J K; Reeves, R B

2010-06-01

177

Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functions of Non Suicidal Self-Injury: Associations with Emotional and Social Functioning  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the functions of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has important implications for the development and refinement of theoretical models and treatments of NSSI. Emotional and social vulnerabilities associated with five common functions of NSSI-emotion relief (ER), feeling generation (FG), self-punishment (SP), interpersonal influence…

Turner, Brianna J.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Layden, Brianne K.

2012-01-01

178

Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma. Methods: This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results: Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79% with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54% followed by fall from height (30%. Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62% followed by headache (33%. Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%. Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries. Conclusion: Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.

Rajendra Prasad

2009-01-01

179

Successful Mitigation of Delayed Intestinal Radiation Injury Using Pravastatin is not Associated with Acute Injury Improvement or Tumor Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate whether pravastatin mitigates delayed radiation-induced enteropathy in rats, by focusing on the effects of pravastatin on acute cell death and fibrosis according to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and collagen inhibition. Methods and Materials: Mitigation of delayed radiation-induced enteropathy was investigated in rats using pravastatin administered in drinking water (30 mg/kg/day) 3 days before and 14 days after irradiation. The ileum was irradiated locally after surgical exteriorization (X-rays, 19 Gy). Acute apoptosis, acute and late histologic alterations, and late CTGF and collagen deposition were monitored by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and colorimetric staining (6 h, 3 days, 14 days, 15 weeks, and 26 weeks after irradiation). Pravastatin antitumor action was studied in HT-29, HeLa, and PC-3 cells by clonogenic cell survival assays and tumor growth delay experiments. Results: Pravastatin improved delayed radiation enteropathy in rats, whereas its benefit in acute and subacute injury remained limited (6 h, 3 days, and 14 days after irradiation). Delayed structural improvement was associated with decreased CTGF and collagen deposition but seemed unrelated to acute damage. Indeed, the early apoptotic index increased, and severe subacute structural damage occurred. Pravastatin elicited a differential effect, protecting normal intestine but not tumors from radiation injury. Conclusion: Pravastatin provides effectiv Conclusion: Pravastatin provides effective protection against delayed radiation enteropathy without interfering with the primary antitumor action of radiotherapy, suggesting that clinical transfer is feasible

180

Governmental surveillance system of healthcare-associated infection in Brazil / Governmental surveillance system of healthcare-associated infection in Brazil / Sistemas gubernamentales de vigilancia de las infecciones relacionadas con la atención a la salud en brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo:Este estudo objetivou descrever a estrutura dos sistemas governamentais de vigilância de Infecções relacionadas à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS) nos Estados do Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Método: Estudo transversal, descritivo e exploratório, com coleta de dados por meio de duas fases: caracteriza [...] ção das estruturas de assistência à saúde e do sistema de vigilância de IRAS. Resultados: As equipes governamentais para a prevenção e controle de IRAS em cada Estado variou de um a seis membros, tendo pelo menos um enfermeiro. Todos os Estados implantaram um sistema de vigilância próprio. Os sistemas de informação foram classificados em cadeia (n=2), círculo (n=4) e roda (n=1). Conclusão: Foram identificadas variações na estrutura e fluxo de informação dos sistemas governamentais de vigilância, podendo limitar sua uniformização em âmbito nacional. O presente estudo aponta a necessidade de estabelecer requisitos mínimos em políticas públicas para orientar o desenvolvimento dos sistemas de vigilância de IRAS.? Abstract in spanish ?Objetivo: El presente estudio ha tenido como objetivo describir la estructura de los sistemas gubernamentales de vigilancia de las Infecciones Relacionadas con la Atención a la Salud (IRAS) en Sureste y Sur de Brasil. Método: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y exploratorio, con recolección de datos [...] en dos fases: caracterización de las estructuras de asistencia a la salud y del sistema de vigilancia de las IRAS. Resultados: Los equipos gubernamentales para la prevención y el control de las IRAS en cada Estado variaron de uno a seis miembros, con al menos un enfermero. Todos los Estados implantaron su propio sistema de vigilancia. Los sistemas de información fueron clasificados en cadena (n = 2), círculo (n = 4) y rueda (n = 1). Conclusión: Se han identificado variaciones en la estructura y el flujo de información de los sistemas gubernamentales de vigilancia que pueden limitar su uniformización en ámbito nacional. Este estudio apunta la necesidad de establecer requisitos mínimos en políticas públicas para guiar el desarrollo de los sistemas de vigilancia de las IRAS.? Abstract in english ?Objective: This study aimed to describe the structure of governmental surveillance systems for Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI) in the Brazilian Southeastern and Southern States. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory study, with data collection by means of two-phases: characte [...] rization of the healthcare structure and of the HAI surveillance system. Results: The governmental teams for prevention and control of HAI in each State ranged from one to six members, having at least one nurse. All States implemented their own surveillance system. The information systems were classified into chain (n=2), circle (n=4) or wheel (n=1). Conclusion: Were identified differences in the structure and information flow from governmental surveillance systems, possibly limiting a nationwide standardization. The present study points to the need for establishing minimum requirements in public policies, in order to guide the development of HAI surveillance systems.?

Cassimiro Nogueira, Junior; Maria Clara, Padoveze; Rúbia Aparecida, Lacerda.

2014-08-01

181

Association of CYP2C9*2 with Bosentan-Induced Liver Injury  

OpenAIRE

Bosentan (Tracleer®) is an endothelin receptor antagonist prescribed for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Its use is limited by drug-induced liver injury (DILI). To identify genetic markers of DILI, association analyses were performed on 56 Caucasian PAH patients receiving bosentan. Twelve functional polymorphisms in five genes (ABCB11, ABCC2, CYP2C9, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3) implicated in bosentan pharmacokinetics were tested for associations with ALT, AST and DILI. After ad...

Markova, Svetlana M.; Marco, Teresa; Bendjilali, Nasrine; Kobashigawa, Erin A.; Mefford, Joel; Sodhi, Jasleen; Le, Hoa; Zhang, Chenghong; Halladay, Jason; Rettie, Allan E.; Khojasteh, Cyrus; Mcglothlin, Dana; Wu, Alan H. B.; Hsueh, Wen-chi; Witte, John S.

2013-01-01

182

Self-injurious behavior and eating disorders: the extent and nature of the association.  

OpenAIRE

We have reviewed the literature on the association between self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and eating disorders from the psychological-behavioral perspective. Our aims were to investigate the extent and possible reasons for the association. A literature search was conducted using the following electronic databases (1989-2005): Medline, PsychInfo and EMBASE. References in identified articles were also screened. The reported occurrence of SIB in eating disorder patients ranged between 25.4% and ...

Svirko, E.; Hawton, K.

2007-01-01

183

Protection from radiation-associated small bowel injury with the aid of an absorbable mesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation associated small bowel injury results from aggressive treatment of pelvic malignancies with radiation therapy. The incidence increases when radiation therapy follows pelvic surgery due to adhesions that form between the small bowel and the operated site. Application of an absorbable polyglycolic acid mesh to keep the small bowel from descending into the pelvis and around the operated site prevents this complication. Use to date in humans and non-human primates has not been associated with any complications.

Devereux, D.F.

1986-01-01

184

Protection from radiation-associated small bowel injury with the aid of an absorbable mesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation associated small bowel injury results from aggressive treatment of pelvic malignancies with radiation therapy. The incidence increases when radiation therapy follows pelvic surgery due to adhesions that form between the small bowel and the operated site. Application of an absorbable polyglycolic acid mesh to keep the small bowel from descending into the pelvis and around the operated site prevents this complication. Use to date in humans and non-human primates has not been associated with any complications

185

MicroRNA changes in rat mesentery and serum associated with drug-induced vascular injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Regulatory miRNAs play a role in vascular biology and are involved in biochemical and molecular pathways dysregulated during vascular injury. Collection and integration of functional miRNA data into these pathways can provide insight into pathogenesis at the site of injury; the same technologies applied to biofluids may provide diagnostic or surrogate biomarkers. miRNA was analyzed from mesentery and serum from rats given vasculotoxic compounds for 4 days. Fenoldopam, dopamine and midodrine each alter hemodynamics and are associated with histologic evidence of vascular injury, while yohimbine is vasoactive but does not cause histologic evidence of vascular injury in rat. There were 38 and 35 miRNAs altered in a statistically significant manner with a fold change of 2 or greater in mesenteries of fenoldopam- and dopamine-dosed rats, respectively, with 9 of these miRNAs shared. 10 miRNAs were altered in rats given midodrine; 6 were shared with either fenoldopam or dopamine. In situ hybridization demonstrated strong expression and co-localization of miR-134 in affected but not in adjacent unaffected vessels. Mesenteric miRNA expression may provide clarity or avenues of research into mechanisms involved in vascular injury once the functional role of specific miRNAs becomes better characterized. 102 miRNAs were altered in serum from rats with drug-induced vascular injury. 10 miRNAs were commonly altered in serum from dopamine and either fenoldopam or midodrine dosed rats; 18 of these 102 were also altered in mesenteries from rats with drug-induced vascular injury, suggesting their possible utility as peripheral biomarkers. -- Highlights: ? Mesentery and serum were examined from rats given vasoactive compounds for 4 days. ? 72 miRNAs were altered in mesenteries from rats with vascular injury. ? miR-134 was localized to affected but not adjacent unaffected vessels. ? 102 miRNAs were changed in serum from rats with vascular injury. ? 18 miRNAs changed in both mesenteries and serum from rats with vascular injury.

Thomas, Roberta A., E-mail: Roberta.A.Thomas@gsk.com; Scicchitano, Marshall S.; Mirabile, Rosanna C.; Chau, Nancy T.; Frazier, Kendall S.; Thomas, Heath C.

2012-08-01

186

MicroRNA changes in rat mesentery and serum associated with drug-induced vascular injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regulatory miRNAs play a role in vascular biology and are involved in biochemical and molecular pathways dysregulated during vascular injury. Collection and integration of functional miRNA data into these pathways can provide insight into pathogenesis at the site of injury; the same technologies applied to biofluids may provide diagnostic or surrogate biomarkers. miRNA was analyzed from mesentery and serum from rats given vasculotoxic compounds for 4 days. Fenoldopam, dopamine and midodrine each alter hemodynamics and are associated with histologic evidence of vascular injury, while yohimbine is vasoactive but does not cause histologic evidence of vascular injury in rat. There were 38 and 35 miRNAs altered in a statistically significant manner with a fold change of 2 or greater in mesenteries of fenoldopam- and dopamine-dosed rats, respectively, with 9 of these miRNAs shared. 10 miRNAs were altered in rats given midodrine; 6 were shared with either fenoldopam or dopamine. In situ hybridization demonstrated strong expression and co-localization of miR-134 in affected but not in adjacent unaffected vessels. Mesenteric miRNA expression may provide clarity or avenues of research into mechanisms involved in vascular injury once the functional role of specific miRNAs becomes better characterized. 102 miRNAs were altered in serum from rats with drug-induced vascular injury. 10 miRNAs were commonly altered in serum from dopamine and either fenoldopam or midodrine dosed rats; 18 of these 102 were also altered in mesenteries from rats with drug-induced vascular injury, suggesting their possible utility as peripheral biomarkers. -- Highlights: ? Mesentery and serum were examined from rats given vasoactive compounds for 4 days. ? 72 miRNAs were altered in mesenteries from rats with vascular injury. ? miR-134 was localized to affected but not adjacent unaffected vessels. ? 102 miRNAs were changed in serum from rats with vascular injury. ? 18 miRNAs changed in both mesenteries and serum from rats with vascular injury.

187

The Association of Pneumonia with Clinical Outcome in Patients with Inhalation Injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Inhalation injury is a particularly lethal form of thermal burn injury, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Pneumonia is a common complication of inhalation injury, due to the increased susceptibility of lungs that have been stripped of their biologic defense mechanisms, as well as the general susceptibility of the burn population to infections. While older series suggest that pneumonia is associated with worse mortality and morbidity, recent reports suggest that this may not be the case in all populations. Methods: We attempted to clarify the impact of pneumonia in terms of mortality, length of mechanical ventilation, need for tracheostomy, and discharge disposition, in patients admitted with inhalation injury by performing a retrospective review of patients admitted to a regional burn center 2002-2009. Burn registry and electronic chart review were used to obtain demographic, clinical and outcome data. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to compare outcomes in patients who developed pneumonia versus those who did not. Results: The study cohort comprised 166 patients, of whom 21 (13% were diagnosed with pneumonia. Development of pneumonia was not predicted by age, surface area burned or other complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Surprisingly, pneumonia was associated with reduced inpatient mortality (p = 0.006. However, patients who developed pneumonia were also more likely to have prolonged ventilator dependence (19 vs 5 days, p

Sharmila Dissanaike

2013-01-01

188

Dexamethasone protects from renal ischemia/reperfusion injury: a possible association with SGK-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous experimental data suggest that steroids might have protective effects during hypoxic/ischemic injury of various organs. In this study, the association between dexamethason (Dexa) treatment and the anti-apoptotic SGK-1 was tested in ischemic renal injury. In vitro, HK-2 cells were exposed to 24 h hypoxia, and the effect of Dexa incubation on SGK-1 expression / activation and on cell death was studied. In an in vivo rat model of unilateral renal IR, animals were treated with Dexa, and serum renal function parameters, tissue injury and SGK-1 expression and localization were examined after different reperfusion times (2 h, 4 h and 24 h). Dexa at a dose of 2 mg/L exerted a protective effect on cell survival assessed by LDH release and vital staining paralleled by marked up-regulation of SGK-1. In rats, 2 mg/kg Dexa treatment 24 h prior to ischemia resulted in less severe tissue injury and ameliorated urea nitrogen levels 24 h after reperfusion. Furthermore, SGK-1 expression and phosphorylation were higher in Dexa animals demonstrated by Western blot and immunofluorescence technique. Our results provide novel data on the signalling mechanism of Dexa under hypoxia / ischemia and further support that Dexa emerges as an attractive pharmacological agent for the prevention of ischemic injury. PMID:23524182

Rusai, Krisztina; Prokai, A; Juanxing, C; Meszaros, K; Szalay, B; Pásti, K; Müller, V; Heemann, U; Lutz, J; Tulassay, T; Szabo, A J

2013-06-01

189

Superior compliance with a neuromuscular training programme is associated with fewer ACL injuries and fewer acute knee injuries in female adolescent football players: secondary analysis of an RCT  

OpenAIRE

Background Little is known about the influence of compliance with neuromuscular training (NMT) on the knee injury rate in football. Aim To evaluate team and player compliance with an NMT programme in adolescent female football and to study the association between compliance and acute knee injury rates. Methods Prospective cohort study based on a cluster randomised controlled trial on players aged 12–17?years with 184 intervention teams (2471 players) and 157 control teams (2085 players). ...

Ha?gglund, Martin; Atroshi, Isam; Wagner, Philippe; Walden, Markus

2013-01-01

190

Electronic Surveillance  

Science.gov (United States)

The FBI maintains a Web site (1) that explains the purposes and ramifications of the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA). In addition to discussing the telecommunication industry's role in supporting the act, the site defines electronic surveillance and offers several documents regarding associated legal issues. An excellent source for government surveillance information comes from the Center for Democracy and Technology (2). The material includes an overview of wiretapping and details about government interceptions of Internet communications. Shortly after the terrorist attacks, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency began the Total Information Awareness (TIA) Program. This highly controversial project is introduced by the American Civil Liberties Union (3). The site does a good job of describing the objectives of the TIA, and several links to other sources of information are given. In a technical paper published in August 2002 (4), researchers show that optical emanations from telecommunications devices can be monitored remotely. Light emitting diodes, often used as indicators in modems and other data transfer equipment, flash in distinct patterns that could compromise otherwise secure data transmission. Despite being easy to exploit, the authors point out that this vulnerability would generally be simple to fix. A news story from May 16, 2003 (5) highlights a recent US Government report stating that secure telephones can be wiretapped nearly as easily as standard phones. The article is accompanied by links to the original report and an essay on security. Companies often monitor employee computer and email activity. A law professor from Bentley College writes about workplace privacy in an essay from 2003 (6). Citing a number of hypothetical examples, the author weighs the employees' rights versus those of the company. The technical implementation of the aforementioned CALEA is described in a detailed article from May 2003 (7). The needs of law enforcement are compared to what is achieved with the resulting systems and technology, and a few statistics are included to show that electronic surveillance can be effective. Lastly, an article from PC World (8) reports that the US Government is seeking to increase its surveillance of email and Web usage. The article includes a link to the 120-page draft of the Domestic Security Enhancement Act of 2003.

Leske, Cavin.

191

Does alcohol intoxication protect patients from severe injury and reduce hospital mortality? The association of alcohol consumption with the severity of injury and survival in trauma patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcohol-related motor vehicle collisions are a major cause of mortality in trauma patients. This prospective observational study investigated the influence of antecedent alcohol use on outcomes in trauma patients who survived to reach the hospital. From 2005 to 2011, all patients who were older than 18 years and were admitted as a result of motor vehicle crashes were included. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was routinely measured for each patient on admission. Patients were divided into four groups based on their BAC level, which included nondrinking, BAC less than 100, BAC 100 to 200, and BAC 200 mg/dL or greater. Patient demographics, physical status and injury severity on admission, length of hospital stay, and outcome were compared between the groups. Odds ratios of having a severe injury, prolonged hospital stay, and mortality were estimated. Patients with a positive BAC had an increased risk of sustaining craniofacial and thoracoabdominal injuries. Odds ratios of having severe injuries (Injury Severity Score [ISS] 16 or greater) and a prolonged hospital stay were also increased. However, for those patients whose ISS was 16 or greater and who also had a brain injury, risk of fatality was significantly reduced if they were intoxicated (BAC 200 mg/dL or greater) before injury. Alcohol consumption does not protect patients from sustaining severe injuries nor does it shorten the length of hospital stay. However, there were potential survival benefits related to alcohol consumption for patients with brain injuries but not for those without brain injuries. Additional research is required to investigate the mechanism of this association further. PMID:24351358

Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Su, Li-Ting; Wang, Yu-Chun; Fu, Chih-Yuan; Lo, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Chiu-Hsiu

2013-12-01

192

Feasibility of Serial Saliva Collection for Surveillance of Swimming-Associated Illness  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND. The symptoms of many swimming-associated illnesses overlap, and clinical diagnoses often require serum or stool samples. Therefore, it has been difficult to determine the contributions of different etiologic agents to swimming-associated illness. OBJECTIVES. We collec...

193

Eye tracking detects disconjugate eye movements associated with structural traumatic brain injury and concussion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disconjugate eye movements have been associated with traumatic brain injury since ancient times. Ocular motility dysfunction may be present in up to 90% of patients with concussion or blast injury. We developed an algorithm for eye tracking in which the Cartesian coordinates of the right and left pupils are tracked over 200?sec and compared to each other as a subject watches a short film clip moving inside an aperture on a computer screen. We prospectively eye tracked 64 normal healthy noninjured control subjects and compared findings to 75 trauma subjects with either a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan (n=13), negative head CT (n=39), or nonhead injury (n=23) to determine whether eye tracking would reveal the disconjugate gaze associated with both structural brain injury and concussion. Tracking metrics were then correlated to the clinical concussion measure Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in trauma patients. Five out of five measures of horizontal disconjugacy were increased in positive and negative head CT patients relative to noninjured control subjects. Only one of five vertical disconjugacy measures was significantly increased in brain-injured patients relative to controls. Linear regression analysis of all 75 trauma patients demonstrated that three metrics for horizontal disconjugacy negatively correlated with SCAT3 symptom severity score and positively correlated with total Standardized Assessment of Concussion score. Abnormal eye-tracking metrics improved over time toward baseline in brain-injured subjects observed in follow-up. Eye tracking may help quantify the severity of ocular motility disruption associated with concussion and structural brain injury. PMID:25582436

Samadani, Uzma; Ritlop, Robert; Reyes, Marleen; Nehrbass, Elena; Li, Meng; Lamm, Elizabeth; Schneider, Julia; Shimunov, David; Sava, Maria; Kolecki, Radek; Burris, Paige; Altomare, Lindsey; Mehmood, Talha; Smith, Theodore; Huang, Jason H; McStay, Christopher; Todd, S Rob; Qian, Meng; Kondziolka, Douglas; Wall, Stephen; Huang, Paul

2015-04-15

194

The use of a biodegradable mesh to prevent radiation-associated small-bowel injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-associated small bowel injury occurs in up to 50% of patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy following pelvic cancer surgery. We describe our experience using a biodegradable mesh that allows the small bowel to be supported above the pelvic inlet and is totally absorbed following radiation therapy. Between 1985 and 1989, 45 procedures were performed in patients with carcinoma of the rectum (anterior resection in 15 patients, abdominoperineal resection in 23 patients, pelvic exenteration in six patients, and proctocolectomy in one patient). In 30 patients a polyglycolic acid (Dexon) mesh was used, and in 15 patients a polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) mesh was used. Forty-four patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The mean (+/- SEM) dose was 56.8 +/- 18.4 Gy. There were no immediate complications related to the mesh. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 53 months (median follow-up, 34 months). With the exception of two patients who had a polyglactin 910 mesh and who developed bowel obstruction due to adhesions under the anterior abdominal wall, there has been no documented incidence of clinical radiation-associated small bowel injury. The use of the absorbable mesh may permit us to use higher doses of postoperative radiotherapy without the associated hazard of radiation-associated small bowel injury

195

The use of a biodegradable mesh to prevent radiation-associated small-bowel injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation-associated small bowel injury occurs in up to 50% of patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy following pelvic cancer surgery. We describe our experience using a biodegradable mesh that allows the small bowel to be supported above the pelvic inlet and is totally absorbed following radiation therapy. Between 1985 and 1989, 45 procedures were performed in patients with carcinoma of the rectum (anterior resection in 15 patients, abdominoperineal resection in 23 patients, pelvic exenteration in six patients, and proctocolectomy in one patient). In 30 patients a polyglycolic acid (Dexon) mesh was used, and in 15 patients a polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) mesh was used. Forty-four patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The mean (+/- SEM) dose was 56.8 +/- 18.4 Gy. There were no immediate complications related to the mesh. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 53 months (median follow-up, 34 months). With the exception of two patients who had a polyglactin 910 mesh and who developed bowel obstruction due to adhesions under the anterior abdominal wall, there has been no documented incidence of clinical radiation-associated small bowel injury. The use of the absorbable mesh may permit us to use higher doses of postoperative radiotherapy without the associated hazard of radiation-associated small bowel injury.

Dasmahapatra, K.S.; Swaminathan, A.P. (Comprehensive Surgical Associates, Perth Amboy, NJ (USA))

1991-03-01

196

Surveillance of travel-associated gastrointestinal infections in Norway, 2009-2010: are they all actually imported?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS) includes variables related to travel for clinicians to fill when notifying travel-associated infections. We measured the completeness and validated the travel-history information for salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and shigellosis reported in 2009-2010. Of all 8,978 selected infections in MSIS, 8,122 (91%) were reported with place of infection of which 5,236 (65%) were notified as acquired abroad, including 5,017 with symptoms. Of these, 2,972 (59%) notifications had information on both date of arrival in Norway and date of symptom onset, so time between travel and illness onset could be assessed. Taking in account the incubation period, of the 1,435 infections reported as travel-associated and for which symptom onset occurred after return to Norway, 1,404 (98%) would have indeed been acquired abroad. We found a high level of completeness for the variable 'place of infection'. Our evaluation suggests that the validity of this information is high. However, incomplete data in the variables 'return date to Norway' and 'date of symptoms onset', only allowed assessment of the biological plausibility of being infected abroad for 59% of the cases. We encourage clinicians to report more complete travel information. High quality information on travel-associated gastrointestinal infections is crucial for understanding trends in domestic and imported cases and evaluating implemented control measures. PMID:23078812

Guzman-Herrador, B; Vold, L; Nygard, K

2012-01-01

197

Grb2-associated binder 1 is essential for cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have shown recently that endothelial Grb-2-associated binder 1 (Gab1), an intracellular scaffolding adaptor, has a protective effect against limb ischemia via mediating angiogenic signaling pathways. However, the role of Gab1 in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. In this study, we show that Gab1 is required for cardioprotection against I/R injury. I/R injury led to remarkable phosphorylation of Gab1 in cardiomyocytes. Compared with controls, the mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Gab1 gene (CGKO mice) exhibited an increase in infarct size and a decrease in cardiac function after I/R injury. Consistently, in hearts of CGKO mice subjected to I/R, the activation of caspase 3 and myocardial apoptosis was markedly enhanced whereas the activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which are critical for cardiomyocyte survival, was attenuated. Oxidative stress is regarded as a major contributor to myocardial I/R injury. To examine the role of Gab1 in oxidative stress directly, isolated adult cardiomyocytes were subject to oxidant hydrogen peroxide and the cardioprotective effects of Gab1 were confirmed. Furthermore, we found that the phosphorylation of Gab1 and Gab1-mediated activation of Akt and MAPK by oxidative stress was suppressed by ErbB receptor and Src kinase inhibitors, accompanied by an increase in apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, our results suggest that Gab1 is essential for cardioprotection against I/R oxidative injury via mediating survival signaling. PMID:24951957

Sun, Lulu; Chen, Chao; Jiang, Beibei; Li, Yanli; Deng, Qiuping; Sun, Min; An, Xiangbo; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Rongli; Lu, Yao; Zhu, De-Sheng; Huo, Yingqing; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Zhang, Youyi; Luo, Jincai

2014-07-01

198

IL-6 trans-signaling promotes pancreatitis-associated lung injury and lethality  

OpenAIRE

Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory disease with a high mortality rate. Although typically seen in individuals with sepsis, ALI is also a major complication in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The pathophysiology of SAP-associated ALI is poorly understood, but elevated serum levels of IL-6 is a reliable marker for disease severity. Here, we used a mouse model of acute pancreatitis–associated (AP-associated) ALI to determine the role of IL-6 in ALI lethality. Il6-deficient mice had a ...

Zhang, Hong; Neuhoefer, Patrick; Song, Liang; Rabe, Bjoern; Lesina, Marina; Kurkowski, Magdalena U.; Treiber, Matthias; Wartmann, Thomas; Regne?r, Sara; Thorlacius, Henrik; Saur, Dieter; Weirich, Gregor; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Halangk, Walter; Mizgerd, Joseph P.

2013-01-01

199

Advances in ventilator-associated lung injury: prevention is the target.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanical ventilation (MV) is the main supportive treatment in respiratory failure due to different etiologies. However, MV might aggravate ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI). Four main mechanisms leading to VALI are: 1) increased stress and strain, induced by high tidal volume (VT); 2) increased shear stress, i.e. opening and closing, of previously atelectatic alveolar units; 3) distribution of perfusion and 4) biotrauma. In severe acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, low VT, higher levels of positive end expiratory pressure, long duration prone position and neuromuscular blockade within the first 48 hours are associated to a better outcome. VALI can also occur by using high VT in previously non injured lungs. We believe that prevention is the target to minimize injurious effects of MV. This review aims to describe pathophysiology of VALI, the possible prevention and treatment as well as monitoring MV to minimize VALI. PMID:24601663

Sutherasan, Yuda; D'Antini, Davide; Pelosi, Paolo

2014-04-01

200

[An infant with acute subdural hematoma after a minor head injury associated with arachnoid cyst].  

Science.gov (United States)

A ten-month-old male infant fell onto the floor from a chair of 50 cm in height and hit his head on the day before hospitalization. He was admitted due to acute subdural hematoma, which was associated with arachnoid cyst. Head CT conducted on the 4th day confirmed that the hematoma had not enlarged. After discharge, enlargement of the hematoma was detected on MR imaging conducted on the 65th day after injury, followed by the diminution without surgical treatment. MR images were obtained on the 192nd day. In the case of head injury associated with arachnoid cyst, the risk of subdural hematoma as well as its ensuing enlargement in subacute or chronic phase needs to be considered. PMID:24620428

Kuniyoshi, Yasutaka; Kamura, Azusa; Yasuda, Sumie

2014-01-01

201

MR imaging of the combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament tears: focussing on the ratterns of injuries and associated findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the patterns of injuries and frequency of associated findings on MR imaging in patients with both anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)tears;to compare the associated findings, as seen on MR imaging, in cases with both ACL and PCL tears with those with ACL or PCL tears. Ten patients with compbined ACL and PCL tears, 16 with ACL tears and 18 with PCL tears, all confirmed by arthroscopy or open surgery, were involved in this study. To identify the associated knee injuries, MR images were retrospectively evaluated. In ten patients with combined ACL and PCL tears, open surgery led to the identification of six complete ACL tears (60%), four partial ACL tears (40%), eitht complete PCL tears (80%) and two partial PCL tears (20%). Injuries associated with these combined tears, and revealed by MR imaging, comprised six medial collateral ligament injuries (60%), six lateral collateral ligament jnjuries (60%), five medial meniscal injuries (50%), three lateral meniscal injuries (30%), nine bony injuries (90%), two posterior capsular injuries (20%), and three popliteus muscle injuries (30%). The frequency of popliteus muscle injury was significantly different (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test) between the group with both ACL and PCL tears and that with ACL or PCL tears. Associated findings in patients with combined ACL and PCL tears are more frequent than in those with ACL or PCL tears. In cases involving combined ACL and PCL tears, associaolving combined ACL and PCL tears, associated findings-as seen on MR images-should thus be carefully examined

202

Injury of anterior cruciate ligament with associated bony lesions: MR image  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the characteristic MR findings in injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with associated bony lesions. We reviewed MR findings and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative results of 48 patients with ACL injuries, and evaluated ACL signal intensity and contour. In associated bony lesions, we determined the location of avulsion fracture and bony bruise. Complete ACL tears were seen in 27 cases, partial tears in 13, and avulsion injury in eight. Complete tears showed heterogeneously increased signal intensity with contour bulging in ten cases (37%), and combined bony lesion in 14 (52%). ACL with a thin continous low signal intensity band surrounding heterogeneously-increased signal intensity suggested partial tears, and was seen in three of 13 proven cases (23%) of partial ACL tears;combined bony lesion was seen in four such cases(31%). There were eight cases of avulsion fracture;the most frequent site was the anterolateral portion of the tibial spine (n=6). The most frequent sites of bony lesion were at the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle (n=6), and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=6);the next most frequent site was the anterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=5). Tearing of the ACL was seen on MRI as ligament discontinuity, and heterogeneously increased signal intensity with ACL contour bulging. The most frequent sites of associated bony lesions were the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle, and the n of the lateral femoral condyle, and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau. In associated bony lesions, bony contusion suggested ACL tearing, but avulsion fracture suggested ligament avulsion injury without tear

203

Furosemide is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients  

OpenAIRE

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU) and if there is an association between the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (...

Levi, T. M.; Rocha, M. S.; Almeida, D. N.; Martins, R. T. C.; Silva, M. G. C.; Santana, N. C. P.; Sanjuan, I. T.; Cruz, C. M. S.

2012-01-01

204

Synuclein accumulation is associated with cell-specific neuronal death after spinal cord injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal cord injury axotomizes neurons and induces many of them to die, whereas others survive. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that lead to neuronal death after injury as a first step toward developing better strategies for increasing neuronal survival and functional recovery. However, the intrinsic molecular pathways that govern whether an injured neuron lives or dies remain surprisingly unclear. To address this question, we took advantage of the large size of giant reticulospinal (RS) neurons in the brain of the lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. We report that axotomy of giant RS neurons induces a select subset of them to accumulate high levels of synuclein, a synaptic vesicle-associated protein whose abnormal accumulation is linked to Parkinson's disease. Injury-induced synuclein accumulation occurred only in neurons that were classified as "poor survivors" by both histological and Fluoro-Jade C staining. In contrast, post-injury synuclein immunofluorescence remained at control levels in neurons that were identified as "good survivors." Synuclein accumulation appeared in the form of aggregated intracellular inclusions. Cells that accumulated synuclein also exhibited more ubiquitin-containing inclusions, similar to what occurs during disease states. When synuclein levels and cell vitality were measured in the same neurons, it became clear that synuclein accumulation preceded and strongly correlated with subsequent neuronal death. Thus, synuclein accumulation is identified as a marker and potential risk factor for forthcoming neuronal death after axotomy, expanding its implications beyond the neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22120153

Busch, David J; Morgan, Jennifer R

2012-06-01

205

Incidence of work injuries amongst Danish adolescents and their association with work environment factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. METHODS: We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from a birth cohort comprising all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3,687) living in Ringkjobing County, Denmark. The questionnaire contained items on self-reported number of accidents and number of working hours in both rounds and on work environment factors in the second round. RESULTS: Approximately 5% of the adolescents who held a job, experienced a work injury at the age of 17. This equals an incidence of 65 accidents per million working hours. Most adolescents had decent working conditions, although nearly half reported that their work was heavy, monotonous or psychologically demanding. Heavy work, high psychological demands and low social support increased the risk of experiencing work injuries after adjustment for a number of factors. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of work injuries among adolescents appears to be higher than the incidence among their older colleagues. Lack of social support from management significantly raised adolescents' risk of experiencing a work injury. This suggests that more direct supervision may be a good way of preventing accidents in this age group

Rasmussen, K.; Hansen, C. D.

2011-01-01

206

Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Poor Health in HIV Clinic Patient Population: A Behavioral Surveillance Study  

OpenAIRE

Previous research reports that populations with HIV consume higher rates of alcohol than general population. This cross-sectional study (n = 391) was conducted to measure alcohol consumption, factors associated with consumption, and the relationship between alcohol and HIV viral loads among individuals receiving HIV care. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with being male, lower education attainment, and lacking a current HAART prescription. Additionally, among those currently on HA...

Shacham, Enbal; Agbebi, Abayomi; Stamm, Kate; Overton, E. Turner

2011-01-01

207

Inhaled beta-2 agonist salbutamol and acute lung injury: an association with improvement in acute lung injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction ?2 agonists have several properties that could be beneficial in acute lung injury (ALI). We therefore chose to study the effect of inhaled ?2 agonist use (salbutamol) on duration and severity of ALI. Methods We undertook a retrospective chart review of 86 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients with ALI, who had varying exposure to inhaled salbutamol. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the average daily dose of inhaled salbutamol they received ('high dose' ? 2.2 mg/day and 'low dose' <2.2 mg/day). Severity of ALI and non-pulmonary organ dysfunction was compared between the groups by calculating the days alive and free of ALI and other organ dysfunctions. Results The high dose and low dose groups received a mean of 3.72 mg and 0.64 mg salbutamol per day, respectively. The high dose salbutamol group had significantly more days alive and free of ALI than the low dose group (12.2 ± 4.4 days versus 7.6 ± 1.9 days, p = 0.02). There were no associations between dose of ? agonist and non-pulmonary organ dysfunctions. High dose salbutamol (p = 0.04), APACHE II score (p = 0.02), and cause of ALI (p = 0.02) were independent variables associated with number of days alive and free of ALI in a multivariate linear regression model. Conclusion Our retrospective study suggests that salbutamol, an inhaled ?2 agonist, is associated with a shorter duration and lower severity of ALI. A dose greater than 2.2 mg/day of inhaled salbutamol could be a minimal effective dose to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:16420663

Manocha, Sanjay; Gordon, Anthony C; Salehifar, Ebrahim; Groshaus, Horacio; Walley, Keith R; Russell, James A

2006-01-01

208

The Role of Particulate Matter-Associated Zinc in Cardiac Injury in Rats  

OpenAIRE

Background: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity; however, causative components are unknown. Zinc is a major element detected at high levels in urban air.Objective We investigated the role of PM-associated zinc in cardiac injury. Methods: We repeatedly exposed 12- to 14-week-old male Wistar Kyoto rats intratracheally (1×/week for 8 or16 weeks) to a) saline (control); b) PM having no soluble zinc (Mount St. Helens ash, MSH); or c) who...

Kodavanti, Urmila P.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Gilmour, Peter S.; Wallenborn, J. Grace; Mandavilli, Bhaskar S.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Runge, Marschall S.; Karoly, Edward D.; Peddada, Shyamal; Jaskot, Richard; Richards, Judy H.; Thomas, Ronald; Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Nyska, Abraham; Christiani, David C.

2008-01-01

209

Factors Associated With Length of Stay and Hospital Charges among Pediatric Burn Injury in Kermanshah, West of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

This study highlights that the independent predictors affecting hospital costs and LOS associated with pediatric burn injury in Kermanshah. Also, our study indicates the BBS was the main factors affecting hospital costs and LOS for the study population. 

Satar Rezaei

2015-01-01

210

ICD-9 Codes and Surveillance for Clostridium difficile–associated Disease  

OpenAIRE

We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare Clostridium difficile–associated disease rates determined by C. difficile–toxin assays and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes. The correlation between toxin assay results and ICD-9 codes was good (? = 0.72, p

Dubberke, Erik R.; Reske, Kimberly A.; Mcdonald, L. Clifford; Fraser, Victoria J.

2006-01-01

211

Quinolinic acid is increased in CSF and associated with mortality after traumatic brain injury in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested the hypothesis that quinolinic acid, a tryptophan-derived N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist produced by macrophages and microglia, would be increased in CSF after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans, and that this increase would be associated with outcome. We also sought to determine whether therapeutic hypothermia reduced CSF quinolinic acid after injury. Samples of CSF (n = 230) were collected from ventricular catheters in 39 patients (16 to 73 years old) during the first week after TBI, (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] standard neurointensive care. Quinolinic acid was measured by mass spectrometry. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare CSF quinolinic acid concentrations with age, gender, GCS, time after injury, mortality, and treatment (hypothermia versus normothermia). Quinolinic acid concentration in CSF increased maximally to 463 +/- 128 nmol/L (mean +/- SEM) at 72 to 83 hours after TBI. Normal values for quinolinic acid concentration in CSF are less than 50 nmol/L. Quinolinic acid concentration was increased 5- to 50-fold in many patients. There was a powerful association between time after TBI and increased quinolinic acid (P < 0.00001), and quinolinic acid was higher in patients who died than in survivors (P = 0.003). Age, gender, GCS, and treatment (32 degrees C versus 37 degrees C) did not correlate with CSF quinolinic acid. These data reveal a large increase in quinolinic acid concentration in CSF after TBI in humans and raise the possibility that this macrophage-derived excitotoxin may contribute to secondary damage. PMID:9626184

Sinz, E H; Kochanek, P M; Heyes, M P; Wisniewski, S R; Bell, M J; Clark, R S; DeKosky, S T; Blight, A R; Marion, D W

1998-06-01

212

The association of functional oral intake and pneumonia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and onset time of pneumonia for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the early phase of rehabilitation and to identify parameters associated with the risk of pneumonia. DESIGN: Observational retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Subacute rehabilitation department in a university hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=173) aged 16 to 65 years with severe TBI who were admitted during a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the brain injury unit as soon as they ventilate spontaneously. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pneumonia. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the patients admitted to the brain injury unit were in treatment for pneumonia; pneumonia developed in 12% of the patients during rehabilitation; the condition occurred within 19 days of admission in all but 1 patient. Of these patients, 81% received nothing by mouth. Three factors identified patients at highest risk of pneumonia: Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 9 (1 day after cessation of sedation); Rancho Los Amigos Scale score less than 3 (on admission); and no oral intake on admission. Having a tracheotomy tube and/or feeding tube was also associated with a higher occurrence of pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe TBI, 27% had pneumonia at transfer from the intensive care unit. Pneumonia developed in only 12% of the participants during rehabilitation. Patients with a low level of consciousness and patients with a tracheotomy tube or feeding tube had a higher likelihood of pneumonia.

Hansen, Trine Schow; Larsen, Klaus

2008-01-01

213

Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) predicts renal injury in acute decompensated cardiac failure: a prospective observational study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Acute Decompensated Cardiac Failure (ADCF) is frequently associated with deterioration in renal function. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is an early marker of kidney injury. We aimed to determine if NGAL measured at admission predicts in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI) in ADCF. Methods A prospective observational study measured NGAL and B-natriuretic peptide (BNP) from patients with ADCF presenting to two tertiary hospitals. Patients received standard...

Macdonald Stephen; Arendts Glenn; Nagree Yusuf; Xu Xiao-Fang

2012-01-01

214

Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

Katherine Chaplin

2011-05-01

215

Infection rates, fevers, and associated factors in pediatric severe traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Infections can increase medical costs and worsen patient outcomes. Our aims in pediatric severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) patients were to determine the infection and fever rates, and to report on associated clinical, imaging, treatment, and outcome factors. We included 180 sTBI patients (presedation Glasgow Coma Scale ? 8 and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale ? 4) admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit. Overall, 17% of sTBI patients (n=30 of 180) developed 36 infections, consisting primarily of urinary tract infections (UTIs; n=13 of 36) and ventilator-associated pneumonias (n=11 of 36). Most infections were nosocomial, occurring >2 days after admission. Fever was found in 36% of sTBI patients during the first few hospital days, but fewer than 7% of patients had infections. Infections occurred more frequently in sTBI patients who were older, heavier, and with a higher injury severity score (ISS; pventilator-free days, greater hospital lengths of stays, and were less likely to be discharged home. Logistic regression demonstrated that infections were independently associated with use of hypertonic saline (odds ratio [OR], 4.46; p=0.001) and higher ISS (OR, 1.05; p=0.028). In summary, infections were prevalent in sTBI patients and were associated with greater head-imaging abnormalities and use of ICP-lowering therapies. Hypertonic saline administration was strongly associated with infection, but further analyses are required to determine the nature of this relationship. Fever was a poor indicator of infection after sTBI. PMID:24093309

Alharfi, Ibrahim M; Charyk Stewart, Tanya; Al Helali, Ibrahim; Daoud, Hani; Fraser, Douglas D

2014-03-01

216

Computed tomography of traumatic abdominal wall hernia and associated deceleration injuries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomographic CT examinations of 15 cases of abdominal wall hernia due to abdominal trauma; 13 patients had been injured in motor vehicle accidents (11 of those were belted in). All hernias were correctly identified on CT and confirmed intraoperatively. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia proved an important indicator of associated visceral injury, especially to the bowel (n = 6) and mesentery (n = 10). Careful review of the bowel and mesentery should thus be undertaken when disruption of the abdominal wall is documented. Radiologists should be aware, however, that CT findings may correlate poorly with severity of injury in these areas. In these instances, close clinical correlation and, sometimes, rescanning may be necessary. (author)

Hickey, N.A.; Ryan, M.F.; Hamilton, P.A.; Bloom, C.; Murphy, J.P. [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brenneman, F. [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Surgery, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2002-06-01

217

Bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee joint MRI : relationship between its location and associated injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the location of bone signal abnormality and associated injury, as seen on MR, in patients with acute knee joint injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with acute knee injury and bone signal abnormalities on MR were included in this study. The femur and tibia were each divided into six compartments, namely the anteromedial, medial, posteromedial,anterolateral, lateral, and posterolateral ; these were obtained in each knee joint. We evaluated the location of bone signal abnormality and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative findings of injury to ligaments and menisci. Cases with signal abnormalities involving more than three compartments were excluded. Results : Bone signal abnormalities were demonstrated in 51 compartments. Most(84%, 43/51) were noted in the lateral half of the knee joint, the most common location being the tibio- posterolateral compartment(13/51). The femoro-lateral(11/51) and tibio- anterolateral compartment(8/51) were the next most common locations. All cases(13/13)with bone signal abnormality in the tibio- posterolateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament,while 9 of 11 cases(81%) with abnormality in the femoro- lateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the tibio- anterolateral compartment had tears at the posterior cruciate ligament ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint had tears at the medial collateral ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the medial half of the knee joint had tears at the medial meniscus, but no lateral meniscal tear was found. Among patients with signal abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint, the tear was lateral meniscal in nine of 43 cases(21%) and medial meniscal in six of 43(14%). Conclusion : The location of bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee MR, inpatients with acute knee joint injury could be an important finding suggesting associated injury.

Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Baek Hyun; Jung, Hoe Seok; Na, Eui Sung; Seol, Hye Young; Cha, In Ho; Lim, Hong Chul [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-07-01

218

Bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee joint MRI : relationship between its location and associated injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the location of bone signal abnormality and associated injury, as seen on MR, in patients with acute knee joint injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with acute knee injury and bone signal abnormalities on MR were included in this study. The femur and tibia were each divided into six compartments, namely the anteromedial, medial, posteromedial,anterolateral, lateral, and posterolateral ; these were obtained in each knee joint. We evaluated the location of bone signal abnormality and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative findings of injury to ligaments and menisci. Cases with signal abnormalities involving more than three compartments were excluded. Results : Bone signal abnormalities were demonstrated in 51 compartments. Most(84%, 43/51) were noted in the lateral half of the knee joint, the most common location being the tibio- posterolateral compartment(13/51). The femoro-lateral(11/51) and tibio- anterolateral compartment(8/51) were the next most common locations. All cases(13/13)with bone signal abnormality in the tibio- posterolateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament,while 9 of 11 cases(81%) with abnormality in the femoro- lateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the tibio- anterolateral compartment had tears at the posterior cruciate ligament ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality i ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint had tears at the medial collateral ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the medial half of the knee joint had tears at the medial meniscus, but no lateral meniscal tear was found. Among patients with signal abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint, the tear was lateral meniscal in nine of 43 cases(21%) and medial meniscal in six of 43(14%). Conclusion : The location of bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee MR, inpatients with acute knee joint injury could be an important finding suggesting associated injury

219

VGLUT2 controls heat and punctuate hyperalgesia associated with nerve injury via TRPV1-Cre primary afferents  

Science.gov (United States)

Nerve injury induces a state of prolonged thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in the innervated area, causing distress in affected individuals. Nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity is partially due to increased activity and thereby sustained release of neurotransmitters from the injured fibers. Glutamate, a prominent neurotransmitter in primary afferents, plays a major role in development of hypersensitivity. Glutamate is packed in vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) to enable controlled release upon depolarization. While a role for peripheral VGLUTs in nerve injury-induced pain is established, their contribution in specific peripheral neuronal populations is unresolved. We investigated the role of VGLUT2, expressed by transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) fibers, in nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity. Our data shows that removal of Vglut2 from Trpv1-Cre neurons using transgenic mice abolished both heat and punctuate hyperalgesia associated with nerve injury. In contrast, the development of cold hypersensitivity after nerve injury was unaltered. Here, we show that, VGLUT2-mediated glutamatergic transmission from Trpv1-Cre neurons selectively mediates heat and mechanical hypersensitivity associated with nerve injury. Our data clarifies the role of the Trpv1-Cre population and the dependence of VGLUT2-mediated glutamatergic transmission in nerve injury-induced hyperalgesia. PMID:25615623

Rogoz, Katarzyna; Stjärne, Ludvig; Kullander, Klas; Lagerström, Malin C.

2015-01-01

220

Association of initial CT findings with quality-of-life outcomes for traumatic brain injury in children  

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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired disability in children and adolescents. To demonstrate the association between specific findings on initial noncontrast head CT and long-term outcomes in children who have suffered TBI. This was an IRB-approved prospective study of children ages 2-17 years treated in emergency departments for TBI and who underwent a head CT as part of the initial work-up (n = 347). The change in quality of life at 12 months after injury was measured by the PedsQL scale. Children with TBI who had intracranial injuries identified on the initial head CT had a significantly lower quality-of-life scores compared to children with TBI whose initial head CTs were normal. In multivariate analysis, children whose initial head CT scans demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, midline shift {>=}5 mm, hemorrhagic shear injury, abnormal cisterns or subdural hematomas {>=}3 mm had lower quality of life scores 1 year after injury than children whose initial CTs did not have these same injuries. Associations exist between findings from the initial noncontrast head CT and quality of life score 12 months after injury in children with TBI. (orig.)

Swanson, Jonathan O. [Seattle Children' s Hospital and University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Vavilala, Monica S.; Wang, Jin; Rivara, Frederick P. [Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle, WA (United States); Pruthi, Sumit [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt University, Department of Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Fink, James [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Jaffe, Kenneth M. [University of Washington, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Dennis [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pediatrics, Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Koepsell, Thomas [University of Washington, Department of Epidemiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Temkin, Nancy [University of Washington, Biostatistics, Seattle, WA (United States)

2012-08-15

221

Association of initial CT findings with quality-of-life outcomes for traumatic brain injury in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired disability in children and adolescents. To demonstrate the association between specific findings on initial noncontrast head CT and long-term outcomes in children who have suffered TBI. This was an IRB-approved prospective study of children ages 2-17 years treated in emergency departments for TBI and who underwent a head CT as part of the initial work-up (n = 347). The change in quality of life at 12 months after injury was measured by the PedsQL scale. Children with TBI who had intracranial injuries identified on the initial head CT had a significantly lower quality-of-life scores compared to children with TBI whose initial head CTs were normal. In multivariate analysis, children whose initial head CT scans demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, midline shift ?5 mm, hemorrhagic shear injury, abnormal cisterns or subdural hematomas ?3 mm had lower quality of life scores 1 year after injury than children whose initial CTs did not have these same injuries. Associations exist between findings from the initial noncontrast head CT and quality of life score 12 months after injury in children with TBI. (orig.)

222

The Warfighter Associate: decision-support software agent for the management of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assets  

Science.gov (United States)

A unique and promising intelligent agent plug-in technology for Mission Command Systems— the Warfighter Associate (WA)— is described that enables individuals and teams to respond more effectively to the cognitive challenges of Mission Command, such as managing limited intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assets and information sharing in a networked environment. The WA uses a doctrinally-based knowledge representation to model role-specific workflows and continuously monitors the state of the operational environment to enable decision-support, delivering the right information to the right person at the right time. Capabilities include: (1) analyzing combat events reported in chat rooms and other sources for relevance based on role, order-of-battle, time, and geographic location, (2) combining seemingly disparate pieces of data into meaningful information, (3) driving displays to provide users with map based and textual descriptions of the current tactical situation, and (4) recommending courses of action with respect to necessary staff collaborations, execution of battle-drills, re-tasking of ISR assets, and required reporting. The results of a scenario-based human-in-the-loop experiment are reported. The underlying WA knowledge-graph representation serves as state traces, measuring aspects of Soldier decision-making performance (e.g. improved efficiency in allocating limited ISR assets) across runtime as dynamic events unfold on a simulated battlefield.

Buchler, Norbou; Marusich, Laura R.; Sokoloff, Stacey

2014-06-01

223

Hard ticks (Ixodidae) in Romania: surveillance, host associations, and possible risks for tick-borne diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ticks and tick-borne diseases represent a great concern worldwide. Despite this, in Romania the studies regarding this subject has just started, and the interest of medical personnel, researchers, and citizens is increasing. Because the geographical range of many tick-borne diseases started to extend as consequences of different biological and environmental factors, it is important to study the diversity of ticks species, especially correlated with host associations. A total number of 840 ticks were collected between 1 April and 1 November 2010, from 66 animals, from 17 species in 11 counties, spread all over Romania. Four Ixodidae species were identified: Dermacentor marginatus (49.2%), Ixodes ricinus (48.3%), Hyalomma marginatum (2.4%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.1%). The obtained results indicate that D. marginatus is the most abundant tick species and I. ricinus is the most prevalent. As both of them are important vectors for human and animal diseases, the present paper discusses the associated risks for tick-borne diseases. PMID:22033737

Dumitrache, M O; Gherman, C M; Cozma, Vasile; Mircean, V; Györke, A; Sándor, A D; Mihalca, A D

2012-05-01

224

Admission to hospital following head injury in England: Incidence and socio-economic associations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Head injury in England is common. Evidence suggests that socio-economic factors may cause variation in incidence, and this variation may affect planning for services to meet the needs of those who have sustained a head injury. Methods Socio-economic data were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics and merged with Hospital Episodes Statistics obtained from the Department of Health. All patients admitted for head injury with ICD-10 codes S00.0–S09.9 during 2001–2 and 2002–3 were included and collated at the level of the extant Health Authorities (HA for 2002, and Primary Care Trust (PCT for 2003. Incidence was determined, and cluster analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to look at patterns and associations. Results 112,718 patients were admitted during 2001–2 giving a hospitalised incidence rate for England of 229 per 100,000. This rate varied across the English HA's ranging from 91–419 per 100,000. The rate remained unchanged for 2002–3 with a similar magnitude of variation across PCT's. Three clusters of HA's were identified from the 2001–2 data; those typical of London, those of the Shire counties, and those of Other Urban authorities. Socio-economic factors were found to account for a high proportion of the variance in incidence for 2001–2. The same pattern emerged for 2002–3 at the PCT level. The use of public transport for travel to work is associated with a decreased incidence and lifestyle indicators, such as the numbers of young unemployed, increase the incidence. Conclusion Head injury incidence in England varies by a factor of 4.6 across HA's and PCT's. Planning head injury related services at the local level thus needs to be based on local incidence figures rather than regional or national estimates. Socio-economic factors are shown to be associated with admission, including travel to work patterns and lifestyle indicators, which suggests that incidence is amenable to policy initiatives at the macro level as well as preventive programmes targeted at key groups.

Tennant Alan

2005-03-01

225

Excessive progression in weekly running distance and risk of running-related injuries : an association which varies according to type of injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Study Design An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. Background It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. Methods A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. Results A total of 202 runners sustained a running-related injury. Using Cox regression analysis, no statistically significant differences in injury rates were found across the 3 exposure groups. An increased rate of distance-related injuries (patellofemoral pain, iliotibial band syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, gluteus medius injury, greater trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those who progressed their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those who progressed less than 10% (hazard ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.66; P = .07). Conclusion Novice runners who progressed their running distance by more than 30% over a 2-week period seem to be more vulnerable to distance-related injuries than runners who increase their running distance by less than 10%. Owing to the exploratory nature of the present study, randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these results, and more experimental studies are needed to validate the assumptions. Still, novice runners may be well advised to progress their weekly distances by less than 30% per week over a 2-week period. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 1b-. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(10):739-747. Epub 25 August 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.5164.

Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Parner, Erik Thorlund

2014-01-01

226

Healthcare-associated infections in pediatric cancer patients: results of a prospective surveillance study from university hospitals in Germany and Switzerland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric cancer patients face an increased risk of healthcare-associated infection (HAI. To date, no prospective multicenter studies have been published on this topic. Methods Prospective multicenter surveillance for HAI and nosocomial fever of unknown origin (nFUO with specific case definitions and standardized surveillance methods. Results 7 pediatric oncology centers (university facilities participated from April 01, 2001 to August 31, 2005. During 54,824 days of inpatient surveillance, 727 HAIs and nFUOs were registered in 411 patients. Of these, 263 (36% were HAIs in 181 patients, for an incidence density (ID (number of events per 1,000 inpatient days of 4.8 (95% CI 4.2 to 5.4; range 2.4 to 11.7; P Conclusion Our study confirmed that pediatric cancer patients are at an increased risk for specific HAIs. The prospective surveillance of HAI and comparison with cumulative multicenter results are indispensable for targeted prevention of these adverse events of anticancer treatment.

Rutkowski Stefan

2008-05-01

227

Surveillance of artemether-lumefantrine associated Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 gene polymorphisms in Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-malarials is a major public health problem worldwide. After deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) there have been reports of reduced sensitivity to ACT by malarial parasites in South-East Asia. In Tanzania, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) is the recommended first-line drug in treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This study surveyed the distribution of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased parasite tolerance to ALu, in Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 687 Plasmodium falciparum positive dried blood spots on filter paper and rapid diagnostic test strips collected by finger pricks from patients attending health facilities in six regions of Tanzania mainland between June 2010 and August 2011 were used. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to detect Pfmdr1 SNPs N86Y, Y184F and D1246Y. RESULTS: There were variations in the distribution of Pfmdr1 polymorphisms among regions. Tanga region had exceptionally high prevalence of mutant alleles, while Mbeya had the highest prevalence of wild type alleles. The haplotype YFY was exclusively most prevalent in Tanga (29.6%) whereas the NYD haplotype was the most prevalent in all other regions. Excluding Tanga and Mbeya, four, most common Pfmdr1 haplotypes did not vary between the remaining four regions (chi2 = 2.3, p = 0.512). The NFD haplotype was the second most prevalent haplotype in all regions, ranging from 17% - 26%. CONCLUSION: This is the first country-wide survey on Pfmdr1 mutations associated with ACT resistance. Distribution of individual Pfmdr1 mutations at codons 86, 184 and 1246 varies throughout Tanzanian regions. There is a general homogeneity in distribution of common Pfmdr1 haplotypes reflecting strict implementation of ALu policy in Tanzania with overall prevalence of NFD haplotype ranging from 17 to 26% among other haplotypes. With continuation of ALu as first-line drug this haplotype is expected to keep rising, thus there is need for continued pharmacovigilance studies to monitor any delayed parasite clearance by the drug.

Kavishe, Reginald A; Paulo, Petro

2014-01-01

228

Frequency and functions of non-suicidal self-injury: Associations with suicidal thoughts and behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has found associations between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), yet the nature of this relationship remains equivocal. The goal of the present study was to examine how lifetime NSSI frequency and individual NSSI functions relate to a history of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Data were collected via a large (N=13,396) web-based survey of university students between the ages of 18 and 29. After demographics and psychiatric conditions were controlled for, we found a positive curvilinear relationship between NSSI frequency and each of the suicide outcomes. When examined among those with STBs, bipolar disorder and problematic substance use remained positively associated with risk for suicide attempt, but not NSSI. Analyses of individual NSSI functions showed differential associations with STBs of varying severity. Specifically, nearly every NSSI function was significantly related to suicide attempt, with functions related to avoiding committing suicide, coping with self-hatred, and feeling generation (anti-dissociation) showing the strongest risks for suicide attempt. From both clinical and research perspectives, these findings suggest the importance of assessing multiple reasons for engaging in self-injury. PMID:25592979

Paul, Elise; Tsypes, Aliona; Eidlitz, Laura; Ernhout, Carrie; Whitlock, Janis

2015-02-28

229

Methylene Blue Attenuates Traumatic Brain Injury-Associated Neuroinflammation and Acute Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with cerebral edema, blood brain barrier breakdown, and neuroinflammation that contribute to the degree of injury severity and functional recovery. Unfortunately, there are no effective proactive treatments for limiting immediate or long-term consequences of TBI. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylene blue (MB), an antioxidant agent, in reducing inflammation and behavioral complications associated with a diffuse brain injury. Here we show that immediate MB infusion (intravenous; 15–30 minutes after TBI) reduced cerebral edema, attenuated microglial activation and reduced neuroinflammation, and improved behavioral recovery after midline fluid percussion injury in mice. Specifically, TBI-associated edema and inflammatory gene expression in the hippocampus were significantly reduced by MB at 1?d post injury. Moreover, MB intervention attenuated TBI-induced inflammatory gene expression (interleukin [IL]-1?, tumor necrosis factor ?) in enriched microglia/macrophages 1?d post injury. Cell culture experiments with lipopolysaccharide-activated BV2 microglia confirmed that MB treatment directly reduced IL-1? and increased IL-10 messenger ribonucleic acid in microglia. Last, functional recovery and depressive-like behavior were assessed up to one week after TBI. MB intervention did not prevent TBI-induced reductions in body weight or motor coordination 1–7?d post injury. Nonetheless, MB attenuated the development of acute depressive-like behavior at 7?d post injury. Taken together, immediate intervention with MB was effective in reducing neuroinflammation and improving behavioral recovery after diffuse brain injury. Thus, MB intervention may reduce life-threatening complications of TBI, including edema and neuroinflammation, and protect against the development of neuropsychiatric complications. PMID:25070744

Fenn, Ashley M.; Skendelas, John P.; Moussa, Daniel N.; Muccigrosso, Megan M.; Popovich, Phillip G.; Lifshitz, Jonathan

2015-01-01

230

Methylene blue attenuates traumatic brain injury-associated neuroinflammation and acute depressive-like behavior in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with cerebral edema, blood brain barrier breakdown, and neuroinflammation that contribute to the degree of injury severity and functional recovery. Unfortunately, there are no effective proactive treatments for limiting immediate or long-term consequences of TBI. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylene blue (MB), an antioxidant agent, in reducing inflammation and behavioral complications associated with a diffuse brain injury. Here we show that immediate MB infusion (intravenous; 15-30 minutes after TBI) reduced cerebral edema, attenuated microglial activation and reduced neuroinflammation, and improved behavioral recovery after midline fluid percussion injury in mice. Specifically, TBI-associated edema and inflammatory gene expression in the hippocampus were significantly reduced by MB at 1 d post injury. Moreover, MB intervention attenuated TBI-induced inflammatory gene expression (interleukin [IL]-1?, tumor necrosis factor ?) in enriched microglia/macrophages 1 d post injury. Cell culture experiments with lipopolysaccharide-activated BV2 microglia confirmed that MB treatment directly reduced IL-1? and increased IL-10 messenger ribonucleic acid in microglia. Last, functional recovery and depressive-like behavior were assessed up to one week after TBI. MB intervention did not prevent TBI-induced reductions in body weight or motor coordination 1-7 d post injury. Nonetheless, MB attenuated the development of acute depressive-like behavior at 7 d post injury. Taken together, immediate intervention with MB was effective in reducing neuroinflammation and improving behavioral recovery after diffuse brain injury. Thus, MB intervention may reduce life-threatening complications of TBI, including edema and neuroinflammation, and protect against the development of neuropsychiatric complications. PMID:25070744

Fenn, Ashley M; Skendelas, John P; Moussa, Daniel N; Muccigrosso, Megan M; Popovich, Phillip G; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Eiferman, Daniel S; Godbout, Jonathan P

2015-01-15

231

Cardiopulmonary Bypass is Associated with Hemolysis and Acute Kidney Injury in Neonates, Infants and Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective This pilot study assesses the degree of hemolysis induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and determines its association with acute kidney injury (AKI) in pediatric patients. Further, it evaluates the degree to which the use of urinary biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C correlate with the presence of AKI and hemolysis following CPB. Design Prospective observational study Setting A 13-bed pediatric cardiac intensive care unit in a university hospital Patients Children undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of CPB Interventions None Measurements and Main Results Blood and urine samples were obtained at multiple time points before and after CPB. Hemolysis was assessed by measuring levels of plasma hemoglobin and haptoglobin. AKI was defined as a doubling in serum creatinine from preoperative baseline and by using the pediatric-modified RIFLE criteria. Urinary NGAL and Cystatin C levels were measured. A total of 40 patients (range: 3 days to 4.8 years) were enrolled. Plasma hemoglobin levels increased markedly on separation from CPB with a concurrent decrease in haptoglobin. This was associated with an increase in protein oxidation in the plasma. Hemolysis was more evident in younger patients with a longer duration of bypass and in those requiring a blood-primed circuit. 40% of patients had a doubling in serum creatinine and 88% of patients developed acute kidney injury when defined by the pediatric-modified RIFLE criteria. Controlling for CPB time, persistently elevated levels of plasma hemoglobin were associated with a 5 fold increase in AKI. Further, urinary NGAL measured 2 hours after separation from CPB was associated with AKI and with elevations in plasma hemoglobin. Conclusions CPB in pediatric patients results in significant hemolysis, which is associated with the development of AKI. The biomarker NGAL correlates with both AKI and hemolysis in this population. PMID:24394997

Mamikonian, Lara S.; Mamo, Lisa B.; Smith, P. Brian; Koo, Jeannie; Lodge, Andrew J.; Turi, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

232

Injury Data Collection and Analysis - The NEISS Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to demonstrate a model for injury data collection and analysis programs which includes an approach to describe the epidemiology of the product related injury problem. (MLB)

Shumlansky, Joseph W.

1974-01-01

233

ATLAS OF INJURIES IN THE U.S. ARMED FORCES  

Science.gov (United States)

The database was initiated to determine the size of the problem of injuries in the military; document rates and trends of injury fatalities, disabilities, and hospitalizations; and identify information sources with potential for use in conducting injury surveillance and preventio...

234

Early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia incidence in intensive care units: a surveillance-based study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP within the first 48 hours of intensive care unit (ICU stay has been poorly investigated. The objective was to estimate early-onset VAP occurrence in ICUs within 48 hours after admission. Methods We analyzed data from prospective surveillance between 01/01/2001 and 31/12/2009 in 11 ICUs of Lyon hospitals (France. The inclusion criteria were: first ICU admission, not hospitalized before admission, invasive mechanical ventilation during first ICU day, free of antibiotics at admission, and ICU stay ? 48 hours. VAP was defined according to a national protocol. Its incidence was the number of events per 1,000 invasive mechanical ventilation-days. The Poisson regression model was fitted from day 2 (D2 to D8 to incident VAP to estimate the expected VAP incidence from D0 to D1 of ICU stay. Results Totally, 367 (10.8% of 3,387 patients in 45,760 patient-days developed VAP within the first 9 days. The predicted cumulative VAP incidence at D0 and D1 was 5.3 (2.6-9.8 and 8.3 (6.1-11.1, respectively. The predicted cumulative VAP incidence was 23.0 (20.8-25.3 at D8. The proportion of missed VAP within 48 hours from admission was 11% (9%-17%. Conclusions Our study indicates underestimation of early-onset VAP incidence in ICUs, if only VAP occurring ? 48 hours are considered to be hospital-acquired. Clinicians should be encouraged to develop a strategy for early detection after ICU admission.

Lepape Alain

2011-09-01

235

Child Injury in Europe : scope, circumstances and association with country-level housing conditions and economic disparities  

OpenAIRE

Background: Injuries are a major cause of social inequality in child health in Europe and the leading cause of mortality. There is a need for information to assist in developing a coordinated policy action to tackle these problems Aims: This thesis aims to increase knowledge about child home injuries in the European context and the role played by housing conditions at country level in the association between country economic level and income disparity and child safety. Methods: Fo...

Sengo?lge, Mathilde

2012-01-01

236

Distinctive response of CNS glial cells in oro-facial pain associated with injury, infection and inflammation  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Oro-facial pain following injury and infection is frequently observed in dental clinics. While neuropathic pain evoked by injury associated with nerve lesion has an involvement of glia/immune cells, inflammatory hyperalgesia has an exaggerated sensitization mediated by local and circulating immune mediators. To better understand the contribution of central nervous system (CNS) glial cells in these different pathological conditions, in this study we sought to characterize functional p...

Ribeiro-da-Silva Alfredo; Zhao Yuan; Lee SeungHwan; Zhang Ji

2010-01-01

237

Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activated Protein Kinase 2 Regulates Actin Polymerization and Vascular Leak in Ventilator Associated Lung Injury  

OpenAIRE

Mechanical ventilation, a fundamental therapy for acute lung injury, worsens pulmonary vascular permeability by exacting mechanical stress on various components of the respiratory system causing ventilator associated lung injury. We postulated that MK2 activation via p38 MAP kinase induced HSP25 phosphorylation, in response to mechanical stress, leading to actin stress fiber formation and endothelial barrier dysfunction. We sought to determine the role of p38 MAP kinase and its downstream eff...

Damarla, Mahendra; Hasan, Emile; Boueiz, Adel; Le, Anne; Pae, Hyun Hae; Montouchet, Calypso; Kolb, Todd; Simms, Tiffany; Myers, Allen; Kayyali, Usamah S.; Gaestel, Matthias; Peng, Xinqi; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Damico, Rachel; Hassoun, Paul M.

2009-01-01

238

Identification of indicator proteins associated with flooding injury in soybean seedlings using label-free quantitative proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flooding injury is one of the abiotic constraints on soybean growth. An experimental system established for evaluating flooding injury in soybean seedlings indicated that the degree of injury is dependent on seedling density in floodwater. Dissolved oxygen levels in the floodwater were decreased by the seedlings and correlated with the degree of injury. To understand the molecular mechanism responsible for the injury, proteomic alterations in soybean seedlings that correlated with severity of stress were analyzed using label-free quantitative proteomics. The analysis showed that the abundance of proteins involved in cell wall modification, such as polygalacturonase inhibitor-like and expansin-like B1-like proteins, which may be associated with the defense system, increased dependence on stress at both the protein and mRNA levels in all organs during flooding. The manner of alteration in abundance of these proteins was distinct from those of other responsive proteins. Furthermore, proteins also showing specific changes in abundance in the root tip included protein phosphatase 2A subunit-like proteins, which are possibly involved in flooding-induced root tip cell death. Additionally, decreases in abundance of cell wall synthesis-related proteins, such as cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase and cellulose synthase-interactive protein-like proteins, were identified in hypocotyls of seedlings grown for 3 days after flooding, and these proteins may be associated with suppression of growth after flooding. These flooding injury-associated proteins can be defined as indicator proteins for severity of flooding stress in soybean. PMID:23659366

Nanjo, Yohei; Nakamura, Takuji; Komatsu, Setsuko

2013-11-01

239

The association between traumatic dental injuries and atypical external root resorption in maxillary primary incisors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atypical root resorption (ARR), which is observed on radiographs of primary incisors, has been reported in the dental literature to result from digit sucking; thus ignoring any association between ARR and traumatic dental injuries (TDI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the contributions of sucking habits and TDI to external ARR in primary incisors. A history of dental trauma was assessed based on clinical and radiographic findings. Periapical radiographs of the premaxilla were evaluated for the presence of ARR. The presence or history of sucking habits was based on parents' report. Data were collected from files of 727 patients with a mean age of 52 months. Sixty-four children (8.8%) presented ARR in one or both central incisors. All 64 had experienced some type of TDI. Five hundred and forty-nine (76%) of the children had sucking habits; of them, 501 were pacifier-suckers and 48 digit suckers. Digit sucking was found in only 4 (6%) of the 64 children presenting ARR. These findings support the association of traumatic dental injury, and not of digit sucking, with ARR in primary incisors. PMID:25283588

Holan, Gideon; Yodko, Elizabeth; Sheinvald-Shusterman, Kineret

2015-02-01

240

[Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO)].  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, much attention has been paid to respiratory complications of transfusion. Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined as an acute lung injury that is temporally associated with blood transfusion. TRALI is one of the leading causes of mortality. Although the etiology of TRALI is not fully understood, one of its main causes is thought to be anti-leukocyte antibodies, such as HLA antibody or HNA antibody. A precautionary male-predominant plasma strategy has been implemented in many developed countries, which has resulted in considerable achievements in reducing the incidence of TRALI. Meanwhile, transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) has emerged as a major differential diagnosis of TRALI. TACO is a well-known complication of transfusion, which has been considered not as a side effect of transfusion but a result of erroneous medical practice. It has long been an under-reported complication of transfusion and has not been investigated scientifically. Recent data on transfusion mortality from the Food and Drug Administration revealed that TACO was the second highest cause of death in the United States. Our data also suggested a steep increase in the reported cases of TACO in Japan. Precautionary measures should also be implemented for this emerging complication. PMID:23947178

Okazaki, Hitoshi

2013-05-01

241

Assessment of the association between overweight/obesity and traumatic dental injury among Brazilian schoolchildren  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a associacao entre o sobrepeso/obesidade e a ocorrencia do trauma dentario entre escolares de 7 a 14 anos de idade. Caracterizou-se como um estudo transversal realizado com 590 escolares de escolas publicas de Campina Grande, Brasil. Utilizou-se como criteri [...] o de diagnostico para traumatismo dentario a classificacao proposta por O’Brien (1994) e para sobrepeso/obesidade o indice IMC. Os exames clinicos foram feitos por dois examinadores previamente calibrados (Kappa intra e inter de 0,87 e 0,90, respectivamente). Os testes estatisticos utilizados foram Qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher (significancia de 5%). Os individuos sem sobrepeso/obesidade apresentaram mais lesoes de trauma dentario que aqueles com sobrepeso/obesidade (13,3% vs 8,7%). Quando estratificada a amostra em relacao ao sexo, idade e grupo etnico, o traumatismo dentario foi mais prevalente entre criancas/adolescentes sem sobrepeso/obesidade, com excecao do grupo etnico, que apresentaram prevalencias similares. No grupo total nao foi observada associacao entre sobrepeso/obesidade e trauma dentario (p=0,253). A presenca de sobrepeso/obesidade em escolares de 7 a 14 anos nao foi associada ao traumatismo dentario. A analise da atividade fisica pode ser um fator importante para melhor elucidar a tematica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between overweight/obesity and the occurrence of traumatic dental injury among schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 590 students at public schools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. The classifi [...] cation proposed by O’Brien (1994) was used for the diagnosis of traumatic dental injury. Overweight/obesity was determined based on the body mass index. Clinical examinations were performed by two examiners who had undergone a calibration exercise (Kappa statistics of 0.87 and 0.90 for intra-examiner and inter-examiner, respectively). Data analysis involved the chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test with a 5% level of significance. Traumatic dental injury was less prevalent among the schoolchildren with overweight/obesity than those without this condition (8.7% and 13.3%, respectively). When the sample was stratified by gender and age, traumatic dental injury was also more prevalent among schoolchildren without overweight/obesity. When the sample was stratified based on ethnicity, prevalence rates were similar between those with and without overweight/obesity. In the overall sample, no significant association was found between overweight/obesity and traumatic dental injury (p = 0.253). Overweight/obesity among schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years was not associated with traumatic dental injury in this study. The analysis of physical activity may be important to gain a better understanding of this finding.

Veruska M, Martins; Raulison V, Sousa; Eveline S, Rocha; Rafaella B, Leite; Monalisa C, Gomes; Ana F, Granville-Garcia.

2014-05-01

242

INJURIES IN AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL: A Review of the Literature  

OpenAIRE

Background: Australian Rules Football is one of the most popular sports in Australia. Successful injury prevention relies on injury surveillance to establish the extent of injuries, to monitor injury patterns and to evaluate prevention strategies. Despite the popularity of participation at the community level, few injury surveillance studies have been published, so a detailed review of the literature is vital. There is limited information available outside of the elite level. Injury statistic...

Hoskins, Wayne T.; Pollard, Henry

2003-01-01

243

Medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns and associated pathology in lateral patella dislocation: an MRI study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateral Patella dislocations are common injuries seen in the active and young adult populations. Our study focus was to evaluate medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL injury patterns and associated knee pathology using Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies. Methods MRI studies taken at one imaging site between January, 2007 to January, 2008 with the final diagnosis of patella dislocation were screened for this study. Of the 324 cases that were found, 195 patients with lateral patellar dislocation traumatic enough to cause bone bruises on the lateral femoral trochlea and the medial facet of the patella were selected for this study. The MRI images were reviewed by three independent observers for location and type of MPFL injury, osteochondral defects, loose bodies, MCL and meniscus tears. The data was analyzed as a single cohort and by gender. Results This study consisted of 127 males and 68 females; mean age of 23 yrs. Tear of the MPFL at the patellar attachment occurred in 93/195 knees (47%, at the femoral attachment in 50/195 knees (26%, and at both the femoral and patella attachment sites in 26/195 knees (13%. Attenuation of the MPFL without rupture occurred in 26/195 knees (13%. Associated findings included loose bodies in 23/195 (13%, meniscus tears 41/195 (21%, patella avulsion/fracture in 14/195 (7%, medial collateral ligament sprains/tears in 37/195 (19% and osteochondral lesions in 96/195 knees (49%. Statistical analysis showed females had significantly more associated meniscus tears than the males (27% vs. 17%, p = 0.04. Although not statistically significant, osteochondral lesions were seen more in male patients with acute patella dislocation (52% vs. 42%, p = 0.08. Conclusion Patients who present with lateral patella dislocation with the classic bone bruise pattern seen on MRI will likely rupture the MPFL at the patellar side. Females are more likely to have an associated meniscal tear than males; however, more males have underlying osteochondral lesions. Given the high percentage of associated pathology, we recommend a MRI of the knee in all patients who present with acute patella dislocation.

Guerrero Patrick

2009-07-01

244

Albumin administration is associated with acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery: a propensity score analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

IntroductionThe risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the use of albumin-containing fluids compared to starches in the surgical intensive care setting remains uncertain. We evaluated the adjusted risk of AKI associated with colloids following cardiac surgery.MethodsWe performed a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery in a tertiary care center from 2008 to 2010. We assessed crystalloid and colloid administration until 36 hours postoperatively. AKI was defined by the Risk Injury Failure Loss and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE risk) and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage 1 serum creatinine criterion within 96 hours postoperatively.ResultsOur cohort included 984 patients with a baseline glomerular filtration rate of 72¿±¿19 ml/min/1.73 m2. Twenty-three percent had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), 31% were diabetics and 23% underwent valvular surgery. The incidence of AKI was 5.3% with RIFLE and 12.0% with AKIN. AKI was associated with a reduced LVEF, diuretic use, anemia, valvular surgery, duration of extracorporeal circulation, hemodynamic instability, and the use of albumin, pentastarch 10% and transfusions. There was an important dose-dependent AKI risk with the administration of albumin, which also paralleled a higher prevalence of concomitant risk factors of AKI. To address any indication bias, we derived a propensity score predicting the likelihood to receive albumin, matching 141 cases to 141 controls with a similar risk profile. In this analysis, albumin was associated with an increased AKI risk (RIFLE Risk 12% versus 5%, P =0.03 and AKIN stage 1 28% versus 13%, P =0.002). We repeated this methodology in subjects without postoperative hemodynamic instability and still identified an association between the use of albumin and AKI.ConclusionsAlbumin administration was associated with a dose-dependent risk of AKI and remained significant using a propensity score methodology. Future studies should address the safety of albumin-containing fluids on kidney function in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:25394836

Frenette, Anne; Bouchard, Josée; Bernier, Pascaline; Charbonneau, Annie; Nguyen, Long; Rioux, Jean-Philippe; Troyanov, Stéphan; Williamson, David R

2014-11-14

245

Annual report for Hanford Site: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupational and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities.This report provides the final summary for the Hanford Reservation.

NONE

1998-01-01

246

Amended annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations and do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated work activities. This report provides a final summary for BNL.

NONE

1998-12-31

247

Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for EG&G Rocky Flats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences resulting from illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This report presents the 1994 morbidity data for the Rocky Flats plant.

NONE

1994-12-31

248

The association between dietary lifestyles and hepatocellular injury in Japanese workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum, relevant to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, has been often reported from Asian countries and the U.S., and it may be associated with lifestyle behavior. To clarify whether specific dietary behavior is associated with hepatocellular injury, we explored liver markers and dietary lifestyles (e.g., breakfast-skipping, eating for lunch, and snacking) in 1,809 male employees, aged 19-59 years, belonging to a health insurance union of automobile dealerships in Japan. ALT, ?-glutamyltransferase, and asparate aminotransferase (AST) were positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI) (P 30 IU/L), after adjusting for possible confounders including age, BMI, and drinking, were 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75) at 1-2 times/week and 1.47 (1.07-2.01) at ? 3 times/week, compared to those who seldom ate instant noodles. Likewise, the OR of the ingestion at ? 3 times/week to ?-glutamyltransferase elevation (> 50 IU/L) was 1.42 (1.02-1.99), but the OR to elevated AST (> 30 IU/L) was not statistically significant. Habitual ethanol intake was significantly associated with hepatocellular injury, though the threshold of daily ethanol intake differed among liver markers. Despite the low OR, habitual instant noodle ingestion for lunch is associated with ALT elevation. Since the average content of saturated fatty acids in instant noodles is considerably high among cereal foods in Japan, workers with this habit should be advised to avoid having unbalanced diets. PMID:24284330

Iwata, Toyoto; Arai, Kaori; Saito, Norimitsu; Murata, Katsuyuki

2013-01-01

249

Analysis of 127 peripartum hypoxic brain injuries from closed claims registered by the Danish Patient Insurance Association  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: One of the most feared complications in medicine is hypoxic brain damage to a newborn. The authors investigated the circumstances of registered peripartum hypoxic brain injuries in order to identify potential opportunities to improve patient safety and prevent injuries. METHODS: The authors retrospectively investigated peripartum hypoxic brain injuries registered by the Danish Patient Insurance Association. RESULTS: From 1992 to 2004, 127 approved claims concerning peripartum hypoxic brain injuries were registered and subsequently analysed. Thirty-eight newborns died, and a majority of the 89 surviving children suffered from major handicaps, primarily cerebral palsy. In 69 of the cases, misinterpretation of or late action on an abnormal cardiotocography (CTG) were the reasons for the majority of the hypoxic brain injuries. CONCLUSIONS: All injuries could potentially have been avoided using established obstetric practice. CTGs are often misinterpreted. In the authors' opinion, education and training in CTG interpretation is essential. The use of ST-analysis of the fetus ECG (STAN) could probably reduce the number of these injuries Udgivelsesdato: 2008

Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.

2008-01-01

250

Two Patients with Osteochondral Injury of the Weight-Bearing Portion of the Lateral Femoral Condyle Associated with Lateral Dislocation of the Patella  

OpenAIRE

Complications of patellar dislocation include osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle and patella. Most cases of osteochondral injury occur in the anterior region, which is the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle. We describe two patients with osteochondral injury of the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle associated with lateral dislocation of the patella. The patients were 18- and 11-year-old females. Osteochondral injury occurred on the w...

Nakagawa, Shuji; Arai, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Atsumi, Satoru; Ichimaru, Shohei; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

2014-01-01

251

IL-6 trans-signaling promotes pancreatitis-associated lung injury and lethality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory disease with a high mortality rate. Although typically seen in individuals with sepsis, ALI is also a major complication in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The pathophysiology of SAP-associated ALI is poorly understood, but elevated serum levels of IL-6 is a reliable marker for disease severity. Here, we used a mouse model of acute pancreatitis-associated (AP-associated) ALI to determine the role of IL-6 in ALI lethality. Il6-deficient mice had a lower death rate compared with wild-type mice with AP, while mice injected with IL-6 were more likely to develop lethal ALI. We found that inflammation-associated NF-?B induced myeloid cell secretion of IL-6, and the effects of secreted IL-6 were mediated by complexation with soluble IL-6 receptor, a process known as trans-signaling. IL-6 trans-signaling stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3 and production of the neutrophil attractant CXCL1 in pancreatic acinar cells. Examination of human samples revealed expression of IL-6 in combination with soluble IL-6 receptor was a reliable predictor of ALI in SAP. These results demonstrate that IL-6 trans-signaling is an essential mediator of ALI in SAP across species and suggest that therapeutic inhibition of IL-6 may prevent SAP-associated ALI. PMID:23426178

Zhang, Hong; Neuhöfer, Patrick; Song, Liang; Rabe, Björn; Lesina, Marina; Kurkowski, Magdalena U; Treiber, Matthias; Wartmann, Thomas; Regnér, Sara; Thorlacius, Henrik; Saur, Dieter; Weirich, Gregor; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Halangk, Walter; Mizgerd, Joseph P; Schmid, Roland M; Rose-John, Stefan; Algül, Hana

2013-03-01

252

Farm activities associated with eye injuries in the Agricultural Health Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Farmers are at risk for work-related eye injuries, some of which can be very serious. This study describes the farm activities that were related to eye injury in a group of 36 Iowa farmers in the Agricultural Health Study who sustained 40 farmwork-related eye injuries requiring medical advice or treatment. Farm activities of grinding or cutting metal accounted for 11 (27.5%) of the eye injuries, welding for 3 (7.5%), and drilling for 2 (5%). The other 24 eye injuries were related to diverse farm activities. One injury was caused by an animal. Only one injury was caused by a chemical exposure. Foreign body in the eye was the most frequent type of eye injury overall, accounting for 32 (80%) of the eye injuries. Of those, 20 were metallic foreign bodies. Although none of the injuries required hospitalization, 10 eye injuries (25%) resulted in the farmer missing 1 to 5 days of work. At least three injuries occurred while farmers were wearing safety glasses/goggles. These results suggest that farmers are at risk for eye injury from activities such as grinding and cutting metal, welding, and drilling and from other diverse activities on the farm for which eye hazards may not have been anticipated. In addition, these findings have implications for use of appropriate eye protection during all farm activities. PMID:19042689

Sprince, Nancy L; Zwerling, Craig; Whitten, Paul S; Lynch, Charles F; Burmeister, Leon F; Gillette, Patricia P; Thu, Kendall; Alavanja, Michael C R

2008-01-01

253

Posterior cruciate ligament injury: characteristics and associations of most frequent injuries / Lesoes do ligamento cruzado posterior: caracteristicas e associacoes mais frequentes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a prevalência das lesões do ligamento cruzado posterior (LCP) e suas combinações e correlações com o mecanismo e a ocorrência de luxação evidente e fratura associada. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de 85 lesões do LCP operadas entre 2003 e 2010. Diagnóstico por meio do exame [...] físico e da radiografia dinâmica, confrontados com achados cirúrgicos. RESULTADOS: Lesões que envolveram o LCP foram mais prevalentes nos homens (78,8%) com média de idade de 33 anos. A causa principal foi o acidente de trânsito (73,80%), dos quais 49,4% de motocicleta. Lesão isolada do LCP ocorreu em 15,3% dos casos e combinada em 84,7%. Dentre as lesões isoladas, nove foram avulsões ósseas (10,6%). O ligamento mais associado às lesões do LCP foi o cruzado anterior (48,2%), seguido da lesão combinada do LCP com o ligamento colateral lateral/canto póstero-lateral (22,4%). Fraturas estiveram mais associadas à combinação LCP + LCL/CPL e não apareceram nas lesões do LCP + ligamento colateral medial/canto póstero-medial. Complicações além de fraturas: lesão de nervo periférico (4,8%) e vascular (1,2%). Luxação evidente no primeiro atendimento (16,7%), mais prevalente na combinação LCP + LCA + LCM/CPM (44,4%). Metade dos pacientes foi operada na fase aguda. Houve diferença estatística significativa (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and combinations of PCL injuries and their correlations with the mechanism, the occurrence of evident dislocation and associated fracture. METHOD: A retrospective study of 85 lesions of PCL operated between 2003 and 2010. Diagnosis by physical examinati [...] on and dynamic radiography, compared with surgical findings. RESULTS: Injuries involving the PCL were more prevalent in men (78.8%) with a mean age of 33 years. The main cause was traffic accidents (73.80%), and (49.4%) motorcycle. Isolated PCL injury occurred in (15.3%) cases, and combined (84.7%). Among the isolated lesions, bone avulsions were nine (10.6%). The most associated PCL injuries were the ACL (48.2%), followed by LCL PCL/PLC (22.4%). Fractures were more associated with combining PCL + LCL/PLC injuries and did not appear in the PCL + MCL/PMC. Complications beyond fractures: peripheral nerve injury (4.8%) and vascular (1.2%). Evident dislocation in primary care (16.7%) was more prevalent in combined ACL + PCL + MCL/PMC (44.4%). Half the patients were operated during the acute phase. There was a statistically significant difference (p

Marco Tulio Lopes, Caldas; Gilberto Ferreira, Braga; Samuel Lopes, Mendes; Juliano Martins da, Silveira; Robson Massi, Kopke.

2013-09-01

254

Medical and environmental surveillance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparisons and contrasts are made between medical and environmental surveillance in New Jersey. These two approaches can be used together to address questions of association and prevention in occupational and environmental medicine, a field that needs to be expanded. PMID:7800285

Schaub, E A; Bisesi, M S

1994-10-01

255

TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

256

Mineral-associated hepatic injury: a report of seven cases with X-ray microanalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The patterns of hepatic injury associated with various minerals were studied in seven patients. The subjects included one patient who was a sandblaster (silica by inhalation), one patient who was a dental laboratory technician (silica and chromium-cobalt alloy by inhalation), one patient with inhalational talcum powder abuse, and four chronic intravenous (IV) drug abusers (talc by IV injection). In all cases, the liver was examined by light and polarizing microscopy, and by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis. In the two patients with silica exposure, silica-containing sclerohyaline nodules were diffusely present in portal tracts and lobules. Both chromium-cobalt alloy and silica were present in the dental technician. In contrast, in all cases of talc exposure, aggregates of talc-laden macrophages were present in portal and centrilobular areas. Three IV drug abusers and the talcum powder abuser had histologic evidence of chronic hepatitis, most probably of viral etiology. We conclude that mineral type plays an important role in the pathogenesis and fibrogenesis of hepatic lesions. Compared with silica, talc primarily elicits a macrophage response without granuloma formation or fibrosis. Hepatic silicosis is a rare complication in dental laboratory technicians, and chromium-cobalt alloy may contribute to hepatic injury and fibrosis in this setting. PMID:1743695

Liu, Y C; Tomashefski, J; McMahon, J T; Petrelli, M

1991-11-01

257

Radial nerve injury associated with humeral shaft fracture: a retrospective study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: To determine the profile of patients with humeral diaphyseal fractures in a tertiary hospital. Methods: We conducted a survey from January 2010 to July 2012, including data from [...] patients classified under humeral diaphyseal fracture (S42.3) according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The variables analyzed were: age, gender, presence of radial nerve injury, causal agent and the type of treatment carried out. Results: The main causes of trauma were car accidents. The radial nerve lesion was present in some cases and was caused by the same trauma that caused the fracture or iatrogenic injury. Most of these fractures occurred in the middle third of humeral diaphysis and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: The profile of patients with fracture of humeral shaft, in this specific sample, was composed mainly of adult men involved in traffic accidents; the associated radial nerve lesion was present in most of these fractures and its cause was strongly related to the trauma mechanism. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study.

Flávia Pessoni Faleiros Macêdo, Ricci; Rafael Inácio, Barbosa; Valéria Meirelles Carril, Elui; Cláudio Henrique, Barbieri; Nilton, Mazzer; Marisa de Cássia Registro, Fonseca.

2015-02-01

258

Protective effects of carbenoxolone are associated with attenuation of oxidative stress in ischemic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating evidence has suggested that the gap junction plays an important role in the determination of cerebral ischemia, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we assessed the effect of a gap-junction blocker, carbenoxolone (CBX), on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury and the possible mechanisms. By using the transient cerebral ischemia model induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h, we found that pre-administration of CBX (25 mg/kg, intracerebroventricular injection, 30 min before cerebral ischemic surgery) diminished the infarction size in rats. And this was associated with a decrease of reactive oxygen species generation and inhibition of the activation of astrocytes and microglia. In PC12 cells, H2O2 treatment induced more coupling and apoptosis, while CBX partly inhibited the opening of gap junctions and improved the cell viability. These results suggest that cerebral ischemia enhances the opening of gap junctions. Blocking the gap junction with CBX may attenuate the brain injury after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion by partially contributing to amelioration of the oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:23650049

Zhang, Lang; Li, Yu-Min; Jing, Yu-Hong; Wang, Shao-Yu; Song, Yan-Feng; Yin, Jie

2013-06-01

259

Cinnabar-induced subchronic renal injury is associated with increased apoptosis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to explore the role of apoptosis in cinnabar-induced renal injury in rats. To test this role, rats were dosed orally with cinnabar (1?g/kg/day) for 8 weeks or 12 weeks, and the control rats were treated with 5% carboxymethylcellulose solution. Levels of urinary mercury (UHg), renal mercury (RHg), serum creatinine (SCr), and urine kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) were assessed, and renal pathology was analyzed. Apoptotic cells were identified and the apoptotic index was calculated. A rat antibody array was used to analyze expression of cytokines associated with apoptosis. Results from these analyses showed that UHg, RHg, and urine KIM-1, but not SCr, levels were significantly increased in cinnabar-treated rats. Renal pathological changes in cinnabar-treated rats included vacuolization of tubular cells, formation of protein casts, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and increase in the number of apoptotic tubular cells. In comparison to the control group, expression of FasL, Fas, TNF-?, TRAIL, activin A, and adiponectin was upregulated in the cinnabar-treated group. Collectively, our results suggest that prolonged use of cinnabar results in kidney damage due to accumulation of mercury and that the underlying mechanism involves apoptosis of tubular cells via a death receptor-mediated pathway. PMID:25629042

Wang, Ying; Wang, Dapeng; Wu, Jie; Wang, Bohan; Gao, Xianhui; Wang, Liangjun; Ma, Honglin

2015-01-01

260

77 FR 73366 - Secondary Service Connection for Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

...unemployment, and premature death. Under 38 U.S.C...Affairs, ``Traumatic Brain Injury: Definition and...Affairs, ``Traumatic Brain Injury: Definition and...for Service-Connected Death. [[Page 73369

2012-12-10

261

The Association between Sleep and Injury among School-Aged Children in Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background. A good night's sleep plays a key role in diseases resistance, injury prevention, and mood stability. The objective of this study was to examine relationship between sleep problems and accidental injury occurrences in school-aged children. Method. A retrospective study was conducted for comparing two groups of children. Children who have experienced injuries for at least two times during an academic year are the participants in the injury group (IG) and those who have not experienc...

Forugh Rafii; Fatemeh Oskouie; Mahnaz Shoghi

2013-01-01

262

Prevalence of chest trauma, associated injuries and mortality: a level I trauma centre experience  

OpenAIRE

A review of prospectively collected data in our trauma unit for the years 1998–2003 was undertaken. Adult patients who suffered multiple trauma with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of ?16, admitted to hospital for more than 72 hours and with sustained blunt chest injuries were included in the study. Demographic details including pre-hospital care, trauma history, admission vital signs, blood transfusions, details of injuries and their abbreviated injury scores (AIS), operations, length of ...

Veysi, Veysi T.; Nikolaou, Vassilios S.; Paliobeis, Christos; Efstathopoulos, Nicolas; Giannoudis, Peter V.

2009-01-01

263

Annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory 1994 epidemiologic surveillance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-80 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

NONE

1997-01-01

264

Factors associated with current versus lifetime self-injury among high school and college students.  

Science.gov (United States)

We sought to identify factors associated with current versus lifetime nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and factors that show consonant and distinct relationships with current NSSI for adolescents and young adults. Data came from a population-based survey of high school students (n = 9,985) and a national survey of college students (n = 7,801). Among both samples, factors associated with current NSSI included male gender, younger age, greater depressive symptoms, more hopelessness, and being the victim of a verbal or physical assault. For high school students, greater anxiety, and for college students, identifying as non-White, negative perceptions of one's weight, a same-sex sexual experience, and involvement in dating violence also distinguished the groups. Findings suggest that clinical and research assessments of lifetime NSSI might not extend to current behavior, and some differences exist in the factors associated with current behavior between adolescents and young adults. Clinical practice and prevention programming efforts should target certain intrapersonal and interpersonal factors associated with current NSSI among younger students during stressful transition periods in their lives, such as entering high school or college, when they might consider initiating or continuing this behavior. PMID:25169623

Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J

2015-02-01

265

Risk Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behavior among a National Sample of Undergraduate College Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality among undergraduates represent important public health issues. This analysis identified risk factors that distinguished 3 groups, those who reported no history of self-harm; self-injury, but no suicide attempts (NSSI only); and self-injury and a suicide attempt (NSSI + SA) in the past year.…

Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.

2015-01-01

266

Systematic review and comparison of pharmacologic therapies for neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sonya J Snedecor,1 Lavanya Sudharshan,1 Joseph C Cappelleri,2 Alesia Sadosky,3 Pooja Desai,4 Yash J Jalundhwala,5 Marc Botteman1 1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Global Research and Development, Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA; 3Biostatistics, Pfizer, New York, NY, USA; 4College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 5Pharmacy Administration, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Background: Management of neuropathic pain (NeP associated with spinal cord injury (SCI is difficult. This report presents a systematic literature review and comparison of the efficacy and safety of pharmacologic therapies for treating SCI-associated NeP. Methods: Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched through December 2011 for randomized, blinded, and controlled clinical trials of SCI-associated NeP meeting predefined inclusion criteria. Efficacy outcomes of interest were pain reduction on the 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS or 100 mm visual analog scale and proportion of patients achieving ?30% or ?50% pain reduction. Discontinuations and adverse events (AEs were also assessed, for which Bayesian meta-analytic indirect comparisons were performed. Results: Of the nine studies included in the analysis, samples were <100 patients, except for one pregabalin study (n = 136. Standard errors for the NRS outcome were often not reported, precluding quantitative comparisons across treatments. Estimated 11-point NRS pain reduction relative to placebo was –1.72 for pregabalin, –1.65 for amitriptyline, –1.0 for duloxetine, –1 (median for levetiracetam, –0.27 for gabapentin, 1 (median for lamotrigine, and 2 for dronabinol. Risk ratios relative to placebo for 30% improvement were 0.71 for levetiracetam and 2.56 for pregabalin, and 0.94 and 2.91, respectively, for 50% improvement. Meta-analytic comparisons showed significantly more AEs with pregabalin and tramadol compared with placebo, and no differences between placebo and any treatment for discontinuations. Conclusions: Studies of SCI-associated NeP were few, small, and reported insufficient data for quantitative comparisons of efficacy. However, available data suggested pregabalin was associated with more favorable efficacy for all outcome measures examined, and that the risks of AEs and discontinuations were found to be similar among the therapies. Keywords: neuropathic pain, spinal cord injury, systematic review, indirect comparison, pharmacologic management

Snedecor SJ

2013-07-01

267

Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry METHODS: The study included data sets of annual sales of local anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent, prilocaine 3 percent, and articaine 4 percent sold in cartridges. RESULTS: The study results showed a highly significant overrepresentation of NSDs associated with articaine 4 percent, in particular with mandibular blocks. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of NSDs was disproportionate to the market share of three of the four drugs in both national registry data and clinical data. These findings indicate that the main cause of injury was neurotoxicity resulting from administration of the local anesthetic rather than the needle penetration. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians may consider avoiding use of high-concentration (4 percent) anesthetic formulations fo

Hillerup, SØren; Jensen, Rigmor H

2011-01-01

268

Evaluating the Association of Workplace Psychosocial Stressors with Occupational Injury, Illness, and Assault  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective This research project characterizes occupational injuries, illnesses, and assaults (OIIAs) as a negative outcome associated with worker exposure to generalized workplace abuse/harassment, sexual harassment, and job threat and pressure. Methods Data were collected in a nationwide random-digit-dial telephone survey conducted during 2003–2004. There were 2,151 study interviews conducted in English and Spanish. Analyses included cross tabulation with Pearson’s Chi-Square, and logistic regression analyses. Results Three hundred fifty-one (351) study participants reported having an OIIA during the 12 months preceding the study. Occurrences of generalized workplace harassment (O.R.= 1.53; CI = 1.33 – 1.75, p? 0.05), sexual harassment (O.R.= 1. 18; CI = 1.04 –1.34, p? 0.05), and job pressure and threat (O.R.=1.26; CI = 1.10–1.45, p? 0.05), were significantly associated with reporting an OIIA. Conclusions The psychosocial environment is significantly associated with an increased risk of OIIA. Further research is needed to understand causal pathways and to explore potential interventions. PMID:21154106

Brown, Lezah P.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Sokas, Rosemary K.; Conroy, Lorraine; Freels, Sally; Swanson, Naomi G.

2014-01-01

269

Evaluating the association of workplace psychosocial stressors with occupational injury, illness, and assault.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research project characterizes occupational injuries, illnesses, and assaults (OIIAs) as a negative outcome associated with worker exposure to generalized workplace abuse/harassment, sexual harassment, and job threat and pressure. Data were collected in a nationwide random-digit-dial telephone survey conducted during 2003-2004. There were 2151 study interviews conducted in English and Spanish. Analyses included cross tabulation with Pearson's Chi-Square and logistic regression analyses. Three hundred and fifty-one study participants reported having an OIIA during the 12 months preceding the study. Occurrences of generalized workplace harassment (OR = 1.53; CI = 1.33-1.75, p ? 0.05); sexual harassment (OR = 1. 18; CI = 1.04-.34, p ? 0.05); and job pressure and threat (OR = 1.26; CI = 1.10-1.45, p ? 0.05) were significantly associated with reporting an OIIA. The psychosocial environment is significantly associated with an increased risk of OIIA. Further research is needed to understand causal pathways and to explore potential interventions. PMID:21154106

Brown, Lezah P; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Sokas, Rosemary K; Conroy, Lorraine; Freels, Sally; Swanson, Naomi G

2011-01-01

270

Risk of injury associated with rugby union played on artificial turf.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to compare the incidence, nature, and cause of injuries sustained in rugby union played on artificial turf and grass. The study comprised a two-season investigation of match injuries sustained by six teams competing in Hong Kong's Division 1 and training injuries sustained by two teams in the English Premiership. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement on epidemiological studies of injuries in rugby union. There were no significant differences in the overall incidence (rate ratio = 1.42; P = 0.134) or severity (P = 0.620) of match injuries sustained on the two surfaces. The lower limb and joint (non-bone)/ligament injuries were the most common location and type of match injury on both surfaces; the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries was nearly four times higher on artificial turf than grass but the difference was not statistically significant (rate ratio = 3.82; P = 0.222). There were no significant differences in the overall incidence (rate ratio = 1.36; P = 0.204) or severity (P = 0.302) of training injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass. The lower limb and muscle/tendon injuries were the most common location and type of training injury on both surfaces. The results indicate that the overall risks of injury on artificial turf are not significantly different from those experienced on grass; however, the difference in the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries on the two surfaces is worthy of further study. PMID:20391085

Fuller, Colin W; Clarke, Lucy; Molloy, Michael G

2010-03-01

271

Association between age at diagnosis and degree of liver injury in hepatitis C  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction: A population-based survey conducted in Brazilian capital cities found that only 16% of the population had ever been tested for hepatitis C. These data suggest that much of the Brazilian population with HCV infection remains undiagnosed. The distribution of age ranges at diagnosis and [...] its association with the degree of hepatitis C are still unknown in Brazilian patients. Material and methods: Patients with HCV infection, diagnosed by HCV RNA (Amplicor-HCV, Roche), were included in the study. Patients with HBV or HIV coinfection, autoimmune diseases, or alcohol intake > 20 g/day were excluded. HCV genotyping was performed by sequence analysis, and viral load by quantitative RT-PCR (Amplicor, Roche). The METAVIR classification was used to assess structural liver injury. The Chi-square (?2) test and student's t-test were used for between-group comparisons. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for analysing the correlation between parameters. Results: A total of 525 charts were reviewed. Of the patients included, 49.5% were male, only 10% of the patients were aged less than 30 years; peak prevalence of HCV infection occurred in the 51-to-60 years age range. Genotype 1 accounted for 65.4% of the cases. Information on HCV subtype was obtained in 227 patients; 105 had subtype 1a and 122 had 1b. According to the degree of structural liver injury, 8.3% had F0, 23.4% F1, 19.8% F2, 11.9% F3, and 36.5% F4. Age at diagnosis of hepatitis correlated significantly with fibrosis (rs = 0.307, p

Ana Cláudia de, Oliveira; Ana Clara, Bortotti; Nathália Neves, Nunes; Ibrahin A.H. El, Bacha; Edison Roberto, Parise.

2014-09-01

272

Phytosterols promote liver injury and Kupffer cell activation in parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a serious complication of PN in infants who do not tolerate enteral feedings, especially those with acquired or congenital intestinal diseases. Yet, the mechanisms underlying PNALD are poorly understood. It has been suggested that a component of soy oil (SO) lipid emulsions in PN solutions, such as plant sterols (phytosterols), may be responsible for PNALD, and that use of fish oil (FO)-based lipid emulsions may be protective. We used a mouse model of PNALD combining PN infusion with intestinal injury to demonstrate that SO-based PN solution causes liver damage and hepatic macrophage activation and that PN solutions that are FO-based or devoid of all lipids prevent these processes. We have furthermore demonstrated that a factor in the SO lipid emulsions, stigmasterol, promotes cholestasis, liver injury, and liver macrophage activation in this model and that this effect may be mediated through suppression of canalicular bile transporter expression (Abcb11/BSEP, Abcc2/MRP2) via antagonism of the nuclear receptors Fxr and Lxr, and failure of up-regulation of the hepatic sterol exporters (Abcg5/g8/ABCG5/8). This study provides experimental evidence that plant sterols in lipid emulsions are a major factor responsible for PNALD and that the absence or reduction of plant sterols is one of the mechanisms for hepatic protection in infants receiving FO-based PN or lipid minimization PN treatment. Modification of lipid constituents in PN solutions is thus a promising strategy to reduce incidence and severity of PNALD. PMID:24107776

El Kasmi, Karim C; Anderson, Aimee L; Devereaux, Michael W; Vue, Padade M; Zhang, Wujuan; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Karpen, Saul J; Sokol, Ronald J

2013-10-01

273

Phytosterols Promote Liver Injury and Kupffer Cell Activation in Parenteral Nutrition–Associated Liver Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Parenteral nutrition–associated liver disease (PNALD) is a serious complication of PN in infants who do not tolerate enteral feedings, especially those with acquired or congenital intestinal diseases. Yet, the mechanisms underlying PNALD are poorly understood. It has been suggested that a component of soy oil (SO) lipid emulsions in PN solutions, such as plant sterols (phytosterols), may be responsible for PNALD, and that use of fish oil (FO)–based lipid emulsions may be protective. We used a mouse model of PNALD combining PN infusion with intestinal injury to demonstrate that SO-based PN solution causes liver damage and hepatic macrophage activation and that PN solutions that are FO-based or devoid of all lipids prevent these processes. We have furthermore demonstrated that a factor in the SO lipid emulsions, stigmasterol, promotes cholestasis, liver injury, and liver macrophage activation in this model and that this effect may be mediated through suppression of canalicular bile transporter expression (Abcb11/BSEP, Abcc2/MRP2) via antagonism of the nuclear receptors Fxr and Lxr, and failure of up-regulation of the hepatic sterol exporters (Abcg5/g8/ABCG5/8). This study provides experimental evidence that plant sterols in lipid emulsions are a major factor responsible for PNALD and that the absence or reduction of plant sterols is one of the mechanisms for hepatic protection in infants receiving FO-based PN or lipid minimization PN treatment. Modification of lipid constituents in PN solutions is thus a promising strategy to reduce incidence and severity of PNALD. PMID:24107776

El Kasmi, Karim C.; Anderson, Aimee L.; Devereaux, Michael W.; Vue, Padade M.; Zhang, Wujuan; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Karpen, Saul J.; Sokol, Ronald J.

2014-01-01

274

U.S. Department of Energy Office of Health, Safety and Security Illness and Injury Surveillance Program Worker Health at a Glance, 2000-2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Worker Health at a Glance, 2000 – 2009 provides an overview of selected illness and injury patterns among the current DOE contractor workforce that have emerged over the 10-years covered by this report. This report is a roll-up of data from 16 individual DOE sites, assigned to one of three program offices (Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration). In this report, an absences is defined as 40 or more consecutive work hours (5+ calendar days) off the job. Shorter absences were not included.

none,

2013-01-23

275

Volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal joint in association with a Bennett's fracture of the thumb: a rare injury pattern.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We describe a case of volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal (CMC) joint in association with a Bennett\\'s fracture of the thumb following a motorcycle accident. Volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal joint is an exceedingly rare but easily missed injury, with only a few reported cases in the literature. This report highlights the importance of a true lateral radiograph and close scrutiny of the film to detect this injury. Closed reduction supplemented with Kirschner wire fixation restored normal anatomical relations and achieved an excellent clinical result.

Dillon, J P

2012-02-03

276

Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

Chaiana Piovesan

2012-10-01

277

Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI) in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months wer [...] e included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals). The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

Chaiana, Piovesan; Renata Saraiva, Guedes; Luciano, Casagrande; Thiago Machado, Ardenghi.

2012-10-01

278

Post-partum sequential occurrence of two diverse transfusion reactions (transfusion associated circulatory overload and transfusion related acute lung injury)  

OpenAIRE

Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) are two dissimilar pathological conditions associated with transfusion of blood products where the time course of the events and clinical presentation overlap leading to uncertainty in establishing the diagnosis and initiating the treatment, which otherwise differs. We encountered a case where a patient of post-partum hemorrhage developed TACO in the immediate post-operative period due to aggr...

Haldar, Rudrashish; Samanta, Sukhen

2013-01-01

279

Noncontingent Reinforcement as Treatment for Food Refusal and Associated Self-Injury  

OpenAIRE

We examined the use of noncontingent reinforcement to decrease self-injury and increase bite acceptance in a child who exhibited food refusal. First, a brief functional analysis suggested that self-injury was maintained by escape from food presentation. Next, we evaluated an intervention that involved noncontingent access to a video during feeding sessions. Results of the intervention showed a decrease in self-injury and an increase in bite acceptance.

Wilder, David A.; Normand, Matthew; Atwell, Julie

2005-01-01

280

Association of injurious falls with disability outcomes and nursing home admissions in community-living older persons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the deleterious effects of injurious falls relative to those of other disabling conditions or whether these effects are driven largely by hip fractures. From a cohort of 754 community-living elders of New Haven, Connecticut, we matched 122 hospitalizations for an injurious fall (59 hip-fracture and 63 other fall-related injuries) to 241 non-fall-related hospitalizations. Participants (mean age: 85.7 years) were evaluated monthly for disability in 13 activities and admission to a nursing home from 1998 to 2010. For both hip-fracture and other fall-related injuries, the disability scores were significantly greater during each of the first 6 months after hospitalization than for the non-fall-related admissions, with adjusted risk ratios at 6 months of 1.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 1.7) for hip fracture and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2, 1.6) for other fall-related injuries. The likelihood of having a long-term nursing home admission was considerably greater after hospitalization for a hip fracture and other fall-related injury than for a non-fall-related reason, with adjusted odds ratios of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.3, 8.3) and 3.2 (95% CI: 1.3, 7.8), respectively. Relative to other conditions leading to hospitalization, hip-fracture and other fall-related injuries are associated with worse disability outcomes and a higher likelihood of long-term nursing home admissions. PMID:23548756

Gill, Thomas M; Murphy, Terrence E; Gahbauer, Evelyne A; Allore, Heather G

2013-08-01

281

Air surveillance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

Patton, G.W.

1995-06-01

282

Air surveillance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

283

Rinderpest surveillance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

284

A Critical Role for Muscle Ring Finger-1 in Acute Lung Injury–associated Skeletal Muscle Wasting  

Science.gov (United States)

Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a debilitating condition associated with severe skeletal muscle weakness that persists in humans long after lung injury has resolved. The molecular mechanisms underlying this condition are unknown. Objectives: To identify the muscle-specific molecular mechanisms responsible for muscle wasting in a mouse model of ALI. Methods: Changes in skeletal muscle weight, fiber size, in vivo contractile performance, and expression of mRNAs and proteins encoding muscle atrophy–associated genes for muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1) and atrogin1 were measured. Genetic inactivation of MuRF1 or electroporation-mediated transduction of miRNA-based short hairpin RNAs targeting either MuRF1 or atrogin1 were used to identify their role in ALI-associated skeletal muscle wasting. Measurements and Main Results: Mice with ALI developed profound muscle atrophy and preferential loss of muscle contractile proteins associated with reduced muscle function in vivo. Although mRNA expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1 and atrogin1, was increased in ALI mice, only MuRF1 protein levels were up-regulated. Consistent with these changes, suppression of MuRF1 by genetic or biochemical approaches prevented muscle fiber atrophy, whereas suppression of atrogin1 expression was without effect. Despite resolution of lung injury and down-regulation of MuRF1 and atrogin1, force generation in ALI mice remained suppressed. Conclusions: These data show that MuRF1 is responsible for mediating muscle atrophy that occurs during the period of active lung injury in ALI mice and that, as in humans, skeletal muscle dysfunction persists despite resolution of lung injury. PMID:22312013

Files, D. Clark; D'Alessio, Franco R.; Johnston, Laura F.; Kesari, Priya; Aggarwal, Neil R.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Mock, Jason R.; Simmers, Jessica L.; DeGorordo, Antonio; Murdoch, Jared; Willis, Monte S.; Patterson, Cam; Tankersley, Clarke G.; Messi, Maria L.; Liu, Chun; Delbono, Osvaldo; Furlow, J. David; Bodine, Sue C.; Cohn, Ronald D.; King, Landon S.

2012-01-01

285

‘Extreme’ vasculobiliary injuries: association with fundus-down cholecystectomy in severely inflamed gallbladders  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Extreme vasculobiliary injuries usually involve major hepatic arteries and portal veins. They are rare, but have severe consequences, including rapid infarction of the liver. The pathogenesis of these injuries is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of injury through an analysis of clinical records, particularly the operative notes of the index procedure. Methods Biliary injury databases in two institutions were searched for data on extreme vasculobiliary injuries. Operative notes for the index procedure (cholecystectomy) were requested from the primary institutions. These notes and the treatment records of the tertiary centres to which the patients had been referred were examined. Radiographs from the primary institutions, when available, as well as those from the tertiary centres, were studied. Results Eight patients with extreme vasculobiliary injuries were found. Most had the following features in common. The operation had been started laparoscopically and converted to an open procedure because of severe chronic or acute inflammation. Fundus-down cholecystectomy had been attempted. Severe bleeding had been encountered as a result of injury to a major portal vein and hepatic artery. Four patients have required right hepatectomy and one had required an orthotopic liver transplant. Four of the eight patients have died and one remains under treatment. Conclusions Extreme vasculobiliary injuries tend to occur when fundus-down cholecystectomy is performed in the presence of severe inflammation. Contractive inflammation thickens and shortens the cystic plate, making separation of the gallbladder from the liver hazardous. PMID:22151444

Strasberg, Steven M; Gouma, Dirk J

2012-01-01

286

Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the Surveillance Committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2009: general view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the purpose of nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC) started a survey in 2006. From 2009, JSC continued the survey in collaboration with the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology. The fourth-year survey was conducted during the period from January and April 2009 by the three societies. A total of 684 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 635 strains (130 Staphylococcus aureus, 127 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 123 Haemophilus influenzae, 70 Moraxella catarrhalis, 78 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 103 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A maximum of 45 antibacterial agents including 26 ?-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with ?-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), four aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was as high as 58.5 %, and that of penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) was 6.3 % and 0.0 %, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 21.1 % of them were found to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 18.7 % to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 5.7 % to be ?-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. A high frequency (76.5 %) of ?-lactamase-producing strains has been suspected in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates. Four (3.2 %) extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae were found among 126 strains. Four isolates (2.5 %) of P. aeruginosa were found to be metallo-?-lactamase-producing strains, including three (1.9 %) suspected multi-drug resistant strains showing resistance against imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Continuous national surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis. PMID:22766652

Watanabe, Akira; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Kohno, Shigeru; Aoki, Nobuki; Oguri, Toyoko; Sato, Junko; Muratani, Tetsuro; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Koashi, Naoto; Kozuki, Tsuneo; Komoto, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshisaburo; Tsuji, Toshikatsu; Terada, Michinori; Nakanishi, Kunio; Hattori, Rikizo; Hirako, Yukio; Maruo, Akinori; Minamitani, Shinichi; Morita, Kohei; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Honda, Yasuhito; Sasaoka, Shoichi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Hideki; Sugai, Atsuko; Miki, Makoto; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takasaki, Jin; Konosaki, Hisami; Aoki, Yasuko; Shoji, Michi; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Katono, Yasuhiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Saionji, Katsu; Miyazawa, Naoki; Sato, Yoshimi; Watanuki, Yuji; Kudo, Makoto; Ehara, Shigeru; Tsukada, Hiroki; Imai, Yumiko; Watabe, Nobuei; Aso, Sakura; Honma, Yasuo; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Yamagishi, Yuka; Takesue, Yoshio; Wada, Yasunao; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Mitsuno, Noriko; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Uno, Kenji; Sano, Reiko; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takaya, Mariko; Kuwabara, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Doi, Masao; Shimizu, Satomi; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Kadota, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Honda, Junichi; Fujita, Masaki; Iwata, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Ezaki, Takayuki; Onodera, Shoichi; Kusachi, Shinya; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Michio; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Niki, Yoshihito; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

2012-10-01

287

Is There an Association between Traumatic Dental Injury and Social Capital, Binge Drinking and Socioeconomic Indicators among Schoolchildren?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Traumatic dental injury is defined as trauma caused by forces on a tooth with variable extent and severity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of traumatic dental injury and its association with overjet, lip protection, sex, socioeconomic status, social capital and binge drinking among 12-year-old students. Research Design and Method A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 633 12-year-old students. Data were collected through a clinical exam and self-administered questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was determined based on mother’s schooling and household income. The Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) were used to measure social capital and binge drinking, respectively. Results The prevalence of traumatic dental injury was 29.9% (176/588). Traumatic dental injury was more prevalent among male adolescents (p = 0.010), those with overjet greater than 5 mm (p < 0.001) and those with inadequate lip protection (p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, overjet [OR = 3.80 (95% CI: 2.235–6.466), p < 0.0001], inadequate lip protection [OR = 5.585 (95% CI: 3.654–8.535), p < 0.0001] and binge drinking [OR = 1.93 (95% CI: 1.21–3.06), p = 0.005] remained significantly associated with traumatic dental injury. Conclusions The present findings suggest that a high level of total social capital and trust are not associated with TDI in adolescents, unlike binge drinking. The effects of social and behavioral factors on TDI are not well elucidated. Therefore, further research involving other populations and a longitudinal design is recommended. PMID:25719561

de Paiva, Haroldo Neves; Paiva, Paula Cristina Pelli; de Paula Silva, Carlos José; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Kawachi, Ichiro; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

2015-01-01

288

Daño pulmonar agudo asociado a ventilación mecánica / Ventilator associated acute lung injury  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La importancia de la asistencia mecánica ventilatoria (AMV) en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) es indiscutible; sin embargo, su uso está ligado con complicaciones como neumonía nosocomial y deterioro del rendimiento cardiaco, que en algunas ocasiones ponen en peligro la vida del enfermo. Una [...] de las complicaciones más graves es el daño pulmonar asociado a la ventilación mecánica (DPVM). El DPVM se caracteriza por la presencia de edema pulmonar rico en proteínas. Se recomienda establecer cierto número de estrategias de protección pulmonar (EPP) para prevenir este tipo de lesión. Una vez instituidas, las EPP han demostrado una disminución de la mortalidad de aproximadamente 10%. Abstract in english Mechanical ventilation plays a central role In the critical care setting; but its use is closely related with some life threatening complications as nosocomial pneumonia and low cardiac performance. One of the most severe complications is called ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) and it includ [...] es: Barotrauma, volutrauma, atelectrauma, biotrauma and oxygen-mediated toxic effects and it is related with an inflammatory response secondary to the stretching and recruitment process of alveoli within mechanical ventilation. The use of some protective ventilatory strategies has lowered the mortality rate 10% approximately.

Silvio Antonio, Ñamendys-Silva; Juan Gabriel, Posadas-Calleja.

2005-06-01

289

Maternal, fetal and renal outcomes of pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury requiring dialysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury (PAKI) is encountered frequently in developing countries. We evaluated the maternal, fetal and renal outcomes in women with PAKI who needed at least one session of dialysis. Of the total of 98 cases (mean age 28.85 ± 5.13 years; mean parity 2.65 ± 1.28) of PAKI, the most common cause of PAKI was postabortal sepsis. Eighteen patients died; those with oligoanuria, sepsis and central nervous system (CNS) involvement were at greater risk of mortality. The relative risk (RR) of neonatal mortality was lower after with full-term delivery (RR: 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.96, P = 0.02) compared to preterm delivery. Of the 80 surviving patients, 60 (75%) patients achieved complete recovery of renal function at the end of 3 months; and of the remaining 14 had presumed (n = 4) or, biopsy-proven (n = 10) acute patchy cortical necrosis. The RR of non-recovery of renal function was high (RR: 24.7, 95% CI: 3.4- 179.5) in patients who did not recover at 6 weeks. Of the 14 patients with cortical necrosis, 3 (21.42%) became independent of dialysis at 6 months. PAKI patients should be watched for dialysis independency for 6 months. PMID:25838643

Krishna, A; Singh, R; Prasad, N; Gupta, A; Bhadauria, D; Kaul, A; Sharma, R K; Kapoor, D

2015-01-01

290

Impact of Education and Process Surveillance on Device-Associated Health Care-Associated Infection Rates in a Turkish ICU: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of process and outcome surveillance on rates of device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAI in an intensive care unit (ICU in Turkey over a four-year period.Material and Methods: An open label, prospective cohort, active DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted on 685 patients admitted to the ICU of a university hospital in Turkey from January 2004 to December 2007, implementing the methodology developed by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. DA-HAI rates were recorded according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN definitions. We analyzed the rates of DA-HAI, mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI, as well as microorganism profile, extra length of stay, and hand hygiene compliance. Pooled DA-HAI rates were calculated and compared by year.Results: The DA-HAI rate per 100 patients declined as follows: for 2004, the DA-HAI rate was 58.4%; for 2005, it was 38.9%; for 2006, it was 34.8%; and for 2007, it was 10.9%. The DA-HAI rate per 1,000 bed-days also declined: for 2004, it was 42.8, and for 2007 it was 10.7. The rates decreased from 25.8 to 13.4 for VAP; from 29.9 to 25.0 for CLA-BSI; and from 9.2 to 6.2 for CAUTI cases per 1,000 device-days during the study period. Conclusion: Process and outcome surveillance of DA-HAI significantly reduced DA-HAI.

Ahmet Dilek

2012-03-01

291

Effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Palm olein oil (PO, obtained from refining of palm oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant vitamins and is widely used as oil in diet in many parts of the world including India. Palm oil has been reported to have beneficial effects in oxidative stress associated with hypertension and arterial thrombosis. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the etiopathology of myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI which is a common sequel of ischemic heart disease. Antioxidants have potent therapeutic effects on both ischemic heart disease and ischemic-reperfusion injury. Information on the effect of PO on ischemic-reperfusion injury is, however, lacking. In the present study, the effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with IRI was investigated in an isolated rat heart model. Wistar rats (150–200 gm of either sex were divided into three different groups (n = 16. Rats were fed with palm olein oil supplemented commercial rat diet, in two different doses [5% v / w (PO 5 and 10% v / w (PO 10 of diet] for 30 days. Control rats (C were fed with normal diet. After 30 days, half the rats from each group were subjected to in vitro myocardial IRI (20 min of global ischemia, followed by 40 min of reperfusion. Hearts from all the groups were then processed for biochemical and histopathological studies. One way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test was applied to test for significance and values are expressed as mean ± SE (p Results There was a significant increase in myocardial catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities with no significant change in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS only in group PO 5 as compared to group C. There was no light microscopic evidence of tissue injury. A significant rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of myocardial endogenous antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GPx along with significant myocyte injury was observed in control rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (C IR. Hearts from palm olein oil fed rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (PO 5 IR and PO 10 IR were protected from increase in TBARS and depletion of endogenous antioxidants as compared to C IR group. No significant myocyte injury was present in the treated groups. Conclusions The present study demonstrated for the first time that dietary palm olein oil protected rat heart from oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury.

Dinda Amit

2004-11-01

292

Information surveillance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biological weapons are within reach of individuals, small groups, terrorist organizations, as well as nations. With pervasive integration of civilian and military populations worldwide, the ill winds of biological warfare stand to affect military troops and civilians alike. A variety of technologies are emerging - such as pathogen detection devices, streaming internet characterization tools, information exploitation techniques, automated feature extraction, and ubiquitous wireless communication - that can help. These technologies, if taken together within an integrated analytical framework, could make possible the monitoring of diverse parameters that may indicate a change in the state of health of a given population - either the emergence of a naturally occurring disease or the outbreak of a disease as a result of hostile intent. This presentation will discuss the application of new information surveillance tools and technologies as they apply to health and disease monitoring, particularly within the context of potential terrorist or hostile nation use of biological warfare. Although discussed within the specific context of health surveillance, the tools and processes described here are generally applicable within other domains of subject matter expertise.

Seiders, Barbara AB; McQuerry, Dennis L.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Rybka, Anthony J.

2002-07-15

293

Effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Palm olein oil (PO), obtained from refining of palm oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant vitamins and is widely used as oil in diet in many parts of the world including India. Palm oil has been reported to have beneficial effects in oxidative stress associated with hypertension and arterial thrombosis. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the etiopathology of myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI) which is a common sequel of ischemic heart dise...

Dinda Amit; Thomas Mathew; Sood Subeena; Narang Deepak; Maulik Subir

2004-01-01

294

Association between systemic hemodynamics and septic acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study.  

OpenAIRE

INTRODUCTION: The role of systemic hemodynamics in the pathogenesis of septic acute kidney injury (AKI) has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between systemic hemodynamics and new or persistent of AKI in severe sepsis. METHODS: A retrospective study between 2006 and 2010 was performed in a surgical ICU in a teaching hospital. AKI was defined as development (new AKI) or persistent AKI during the five days following admission based on the Ac...

Legrand, Matthieu; Dupuis, Claire; Simon, Christelle; Gayat, Etienne; Mateo, Joaquim; Lukaszewicz, Anne-claire; Payen, Didier

2013-01-01

295

Traumatic dental injuries and their association with malocclusion in the primary dentition of Irish children.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

This study sought to establish the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition of Irish children and to investigate the relationship between dental trauma and non-nutritive sucking habits.

Norton, Eimear

2012-02-01

296

Factors associated with self-reported arthritis 7 to 24 years after a traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to profile characteristics of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who self-reported arthritis 7 to 24 yr. post-injury. Pre- and post-injury socio-demographic factors, injury-related factors, and postinjury standardized assessments measuring health, activity, and participation outcomes were assessed in a retrospective cohort study of 274 participants. The group self-reporting arthritis had significantly more sleep disturbances, poorer overall health, lower mental health and physical function, and decreased productivity. Also, they were older and reported a shorter length of loss of consciousness from TBI. These resulted suggest that musculoskeletal complaints from long-term survivors of TBI sholud be addressed in post-acute care and could guide future research on arthritis in the TBI population. PMID:24724527

Ocampo-Chan, Sharon; Badley, Elizabeth; Dawson, Deirdre R; Ratcliff, Graham; Colantonio, Angela

2014-02-01

297

Insuficiência renal aguda associada à leptospirose / Leptospirosis-associated acute kidney injury  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A leptospirose é a zoonose mais importante do mundo. Os pacientes são tipicamente homens jovens. Vários fatores estão envolvidos na insuficiência renal aguda (IRA) na leptospirose, incluindo ação nefrotóxica direta da leptospira, hiperbilirrubinemia, rabdomiólise e hipovolemia. Os principais achados [...] histológicos são nefrite intersticial aguda e necrose tubular aguda. A IRA na leptospirose é geralmente não oligúrica e hipocalêmica. Alterações da função tubular precedem a queda na taxa de filtração glomerular, o que poderia explicar a alta frequência de hipocalemia. O tratamento antibiótico é eficaz nas fases precoces e tardias e/ou graves. Para pacientes críticos com IRA na leptospirose, as seguintes condutas são recomendadas: hemodiálise precoce e diária; baixa infusão de volume (devido ao risco de hemorragia pulmonar), e estratégias de proteção pulmonar. A mortalidade na IRA associada à leptospirose está em torno de 22%. Abstract in english Leptospirosis is the most important zoonosis in the world. Patients are typically young men. Several factors are involved in acute kidney injury (AKI) in leptospirosis, including direct nephrotoxic action of the leptospira, hyperbilirubinemia, rhabdomyolysis and hypovolemia. The major histological f [...] indings are acute interstitial nephritis and acute tubular necrosis. Leptospirosis-induced AKI is usually nonoliguric and hypokalemic. Tubular function abnormalities precede a decline in the glomerular filtration rate, which could explain the high frequency of hypokalemia. Antibiotic treatment is efficient in the early and late and/or severe phases. For critically ill leptospirosis patients, the following measures are recommended: early and daily hemodialysis; low volume infusion (due to the risk of pulmonary hemorrhage); and lung-protective strategies. Mortality in leptospirosis-associated AKI is around 22%.

Elizabeth De Francesco, Daher; Krasnalhia Lívia Soares de, Abreu; Geraldo Bezerra da, Silva Junior.

2010-12-01

298

Furosemide is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients  

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU) and if there is an association between the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (75 females and 57 males, average age 64 years) remained for analysis. Most exclusions were related to ICU discharge in the first 24?h. Laboratory, sociodemographic and clinical data were collected until the development of AKI, medical discharge or patient death. The incidence of AKI was 55% (95%CI = 46-64). The predictors of AKI found by univariate analysis were septic shock: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.36-7.14; use of furosemide: OR = 3.27, 95%CI = 1.57-6.80, and age: OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 1.00-1.04. Analysis of the subgroup of patients with septic shock showed that the odds ratio of furosemide was 5.5 (95%CI = 1.16-26.02) for development of AKI. Age, use of furosemide, and septic shock were predictors of AKI in critically ill patients. Use of furosemide in the subgroup of patients with sepsis/septic shock increased (68.4%) the chance of development of AKI when compared to the sample as a whole (43.9%) PMID:22641414

Levi, T.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Almeida, D.N.; Martins, R.T.C.; Silva, M.G.C.; Santana, N.C.P.; Sanjuan, I.T.; Cruz, C.M.S.

2012-01-01

299

Furosemide is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients  

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Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU and if there is an association between the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (75 females and 57 males, average age 64 years remained for analysis. Most exclusions were related to ICU discharge in the first 24 h. Laboratory, sociodemographic and clinical data were collected until the development of AKI, medical discharge or patient death. The incidence of AKI was 55% (95%CI = 46-64. The predictors of AKI found by univariate analysis were septic shock: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.36-7.14; use of furosemide: OR = 3.27, 95%CI = 1.57-6.80, and age: OR = 1.02 (95%CI = 1.00-1.04. Analysis of the subgroup of patients with septic shock showed that the odds ratio of furosemide was 5.5 (95%CI = 1.16-26.02 for development of AKI. Age, use of furosemide, and septic shock were predictors of AKI in critically ill patients. Use of furosemide in the subgroup of patients with sepsis/septic shock increased (68.4% the chance of development of AKI when compared to the sample as a whole (43.9%.

T.M. Levi

2012-09-01

300

Furosemide is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU) and if there is an association between [...] the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (75 females and 57 males, average age 64 years) remained for analysis. Most exclusions were related to ICU discharge in the first 24 h. Laboratory, sociodemographic and clinical data were collected until the development of AKI, medical discharge or patient death. The incidence of AKI was 55% (95%CI = 46-64). The predictors of AKI found by univariate analysis were septic shock: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.36-7.14; use of furosemide: OR = 3.27, 95%CI = 1.57-6.80, and age: OR = 1.02 (95%CI = 1.00-1.04). Analysis of the subgroup of patients with septic shock showed that the odds ratio of furosemide was 5.5 (95%CI = 1.16-26.02) for development of AKI. Age, use of furosemide, and septic shock were predictors of AKI in critically ill patients. Use of furosemide in the subgroup of patients with sepsis/septic shock increased (68.4%) the chance of development of AKI when compared to the sample as a whole (43.9%).

T.M., Levi; M.S., Rocha; D.N., Almeida; R.T.C., Martins; M.G.C., Silva; N.C.P., Santana; I.T., Sanjuan; C.M.S., Cruz.

2012-09-01

301

Association between alendronate, serum alkaline phosphatase level, and heterotopic ossification in individuals with spinal cord injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context/objective Only sparse evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of oral alendronate (ALN) in the prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effect of oral ALN intake on the appearance of HO in patients with SCI. Study design Retrospective database review. Setting A Spinal Cord Unit at a Rehabilitation Hospital. Participants Two hundred and ninety-nine patients with SCI during acute inpatient rehabilitation. Interventions Administration of oral ALN. Outcome measures The incidence of HO during rehabilitation was compared between patients with SCI receiving oral ALN (n = 125) and patients with SCI not receiving oral ALN (n = 174). The association between HO and/or ALN intake with HO risk factors and biochemical markers of bone metabolism were also explored. Results HO developed in 19 male patients (6.35%), however there was no significant difference in the incidence of HO in patients receiving oral ALN or not. The mean odds ratio of not developing versus developing HO given ALN exposure was 0.8. Significant correlation was found between abnormal serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels and HO appearance (P < 0.001) as well as normal serum ALP and ALN intake (P < 0.05). Conclusion Even though there was no direct prevention of HO in patients with SCI by oral ALN intake, abnormal serum ALP was found more frequently in patients with HO development and without oral ALN intake. This evidence could suggest that ALN may play a role in preventing HO, especially in patients with acute SCI with increasing levels of serum ALP. PMID:24820653

Ploumis, Avraam; Donovan, Jayne M; Olurinde, Mobolaji O; Clark, Dana M; Wu, Jason C; Sohn, Douglas J; O'Connor, Kevin C

2015-03-01

302

Forensic epidemiologic and biomechanical analysis of a pelvic cavity blowout injury associated with ejection from a personal watercraft (jet-ski).  

Science.gov (United States)

Jet-propelled personal watercraft (PWC) or jet-skis have become increasingly popular. The means of propulsion of PWC, which is a jet of water forced out of small nozzle at the rear of the craft, combined with a high risk of falling off of the seat and into close proximity with the water jet stream, raise the potential for a unique type of injury mechanism. The most serious injuries associated with PWC falls are those that occur when the perineum passes in close proximity to the jet nozzle and the high-pressure water stream enters the vaginal or rectal orifice. We describe the forensic investigation into a case of an anovaginal "blowout" injury in a passenger who was ejected from the rear seat position of a PWC and subsequently suffered life-threatening injuries to the pelvic organs. The investigation included a biomechanical analysis of the injury mechanism, a summary of prior published reports of internal pelvic injuries resulting from PWC falls as well as other water sports and activities, and a comparison of the severity of the injuries resulting from differing mechanisms using the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) NISS values for reported PWC injuries [not including the NISS of 38 in this case study] were 11.2 (± 9.5), while the mean value for reported water-skiing falls was half that of the PWC group at 5.6 (± 5.2). It was concluded that the analyzed injuries were unique to a PWC ejection versus other previously described non-PWC-associated water sport injuries. It is recommended that PWC manufacturers help consumers understand the potential risks to passengers with highly visible warnings and reduce injury risk with revised seat design, and/or passenger seat "deadman" switches. PMID:22925030

Freeman, Michael D; Everson, Todd M; Kohles, Sean S

2013-01-01

303

A decreased volume of the medial tibial spine is associated with an increased risk of suffering an anterior cruciate ligament injury for males but not females.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of tibial plateau subchondral bone and articular cartilage slope have been associated with the risk of suffering anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Such single-plane measures of the tibial plateau may not sufficiently characterize its complex, three-dimensional geometry and how it relates to knee injury. Further, the tibial spines have not been studied in association with the risk of suffering a non-contact ACL injury. We questioned whether the geometries of the tibial spines are associated with non-contact ACL injury risk, and if this relationship is different for males and females. Bilateral MRI scans were acquired on 88 ACL-injured subjects and 88 control subjects matched for sex, age and sports team. Medial and lateral tibial spine geometries were characterized with measurements of length, width, height, volume and anteroposterior location. Analyses of females revealed no associations between tibial spine geometry and risk of ACL injury. Analyses of males revealed that an increased medial tibial spine volume was associated with a decreased risk of ACL injury (OR?=?0.667 per 100?mm(3) increase). Smaller medial spines could provide less resistance to internal rotation and medial translation of the tibia relative to the femur, subsequently increasing ACL strains and risk of ACL injury. PMID:24962098

Sturnick, Daniel R; Argentieri, Erin C; Vacek, Pamela M; DeSarno, Michael J; Gardner-Morse, Mack G; Tourville, Timothy W; Slauterbeck, James R; Johnson, Robert J; Shultz, Sandra J; Beynnon, Bruce D

2014-11-01

304

Toy-related injuries among children treated in US Emergency Departments, 1990-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the epidemiology of injuries associated with toys among US children by analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. During 1990-2011, an estimated 3278073 (95% confidence interval = 2762281-3793865) children treated in US emergency departments for toy-related injuries, averaging 149003 cases annually. The annual injury rate per 10000 children increased significantly by 39.9% from 18.88 in 1990 to 26.42 in 2011. The number and rate of injuries peaked at age 2 years; 63.4% of patients were male; and 80.3% of injuries occurred at home. Ride-on toys accounted for 34.9% of injuries and 42.5% of hospital admissions. This study is the first to comprehensively investigate toy-related injuries among children using a nationally representative data set. The increasing number and rate of toy-related injuries to children, especially those associated with ride-on toys, underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent these injuries. PMID:25452624

Abraham, Vihas M; Gaw, Christopher E; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

2015-02-01

305

Mitogen activated protein kinase activated protein kinase 2 regulates actin polymerization and vascular leak in ventilator associated lung injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanical ventilation, a fundamental therapy for acute lung injury, worsens pulmonary vascular permeability by exacting mechanical stress on various components of the respiratory system causing ventilator associated lung injury. We postulated that MK2 activation via p38 MAP kinase induced HSP25 phosphorylation, in response to mechanical stress, leading to actin stress fiber formation and endothelial barrier dysfunction. We sought to determine the role of p38 MAP kinase and its downstream effector MK2 on HSP25 phosphorylation and actin stress fiber formation in ventilator associated lung injury. Wild type and MK2(-/-) mice received mechanical ventilation with high (20 ml/kg) or low (7 ml/kg) tidal volumes up to 4 hrs, after which lungs were harvested for immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and lung permeability assays. High tidal volume mechanical ventilation resulted in significant phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, MK2, HSP25, actin polymerization, and an increase in pulmonary vascular permeability in wild type mice as compared to spontaneous breathing or low tidal volume mechanical ventilation. However, pretreatment of wild type mice with specific p38 MAP kinase or MK2 inhibitors abrogated HSP25 phosphorylation and actin polymerization, and protected against increased lung permeability. Finally, MK2(-/-) mice were unable to phosphorylate HSP25 or increase actin polymerization from baseline, and were resistant to increases in lung permeability in response to HV(T) MV. Our results suggest that p38 MAP kinase and its downstream effector MK2 mediate lung permeability in ventilator associated lung injury by regulating HSP25 phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:19240800

Damarla, Mahendra; Hasan, Emile; Boueiz, Adel; Le, Anne; Pae, Hyun Hae; Montouchet, Calypso; Kolb, Todd; Simms, Tiffany; Myers, Allen; Kayyali, Usamah S; Gaestel, Matthias; Peng, Xinqi; Reddy, Sekhar P; Damico, Rachel; Hassoun, Paul M

2009-01-01

306

Apoptosis induced by cryo-injury in human colorectal cancer cells is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryotherapy, a method of in situ ablation, is used in the treatment of colorectal liver metastases with variable results. During the treatment, the central area of treated tumor undergoes necrotic destruction by lethal cryo-injury; however, the cellular response of tumor exposed to sublethal cryo-injury at the peripheral zone is unclear. In our study, we have identified the induction of apoptosis by cryo-injury at -10 degrees C in 4 colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29, HCT116, KM12C and KM12SM). The apoptosis was characterized by chromatin condensation, transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and cytokeratin 18, and activation of caspase-3. The occurrence and intensity of cryo-induced apoptosis did not correlate with the functional status of p53 in the cell lines studied. The expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L)) and pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bcl-X(S), Bad, and Bak) in response to cryo-injury varied in this cell line panel. The basal level of Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio correlated inversely to the apoptotic rate. We further demonstrated that Bax level decreased in cytosol and increased in mitochondria, followed by a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential after cryo-injury in HT29 cells. These findings indicate that cryo-injury induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells via disruption of mitochondrial integrity. The cryo-induced apoptosis was also identified in a nude mouse tumor xenograft model. Our elucidation of the apoptosis pathway induced by cryo-injury implies that synergistic combination of cryosurgery with pharmacological agents that augment of apoptosis induction may have clinical relevance in treating colorectal liver metastasis. PMID:12471619

Yang, Weng-Lang; Addona, Tommaso; Nair, Deepak G; Qi, Lixin; Ravikumar, T S

2003-01-20

307

Boll injury and yield losses in cotton associated with brown stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) during flowering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), was infested on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., plants during reproductive stages to determine the effects on boll injury and seedcotton yield. During each week in 2002 and 2003, significantly more bolls with > or = 1 injured locule, bolls with > or = 2 injured locules, and bolls with discolored lint were recorded on stink bug-infested plants compared with that on noninfested plants. Significantly fewer bolls displayed external injury on the boll exocarp compared with bolls with only internal locule injury. Boll injury was significantly underestimated by the presence of external symptomology. The boll population increased 6.6- and 5.1-fold from weeks 1-5 in 2002 and 2003, respectively. There was a corresponding 6.2- and 4.6-fold increase in 2002 and 2003, respectively, for total bolls injured from weeks 1-5. Percentage of boll injury ranged from 10.7 (week 4) to 27.4 (week 2) in 2002 and from 9.2 (week 3) to 16.0 (week 2) in 2003. Percentage of injury was greatest during weeks 1 and 2 in both years and also in week 5 in 2002. Brown stink bug significantly reduced seedcotton yield of bolls present on cotton plants during weeks 1, 2, and 5 in 2002 and in weeks 4 and 5 in 2003. However, total seedcotton yield, as a function of bolls exposed to brown stink bug and subsequent bolls produced on plant in the absence of stink bugs, was not significantly different for plots infested during weeks 1-4 in 2002 and weeks 1-3 in 2003. Flowering period and boll population influence the severity of stink bug injury on seedcotton yield. Infestation timing and number of bolls should be considered, in addition to insect densities, when initiating treatments against brown stink bug. PMID:15666747

Willrich, M M; Leonard, B R; Gable, R H; Lamotte, L R

2004-12-01

308

Clinical features of gastroduodenal injury associated with long-term low-dose aspirin therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Low-dose aspirin (LDA is clinically used for the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events with the advent of an aging society. On the other hand, a very low dose of aspirin (10 mg daily decreases the gastric mucosal prostaglandin levels and causes significant gastric mucosal damage. The incidence of LDA-induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury and bleeding has increased. It has been noticed that the incidence of LDA-induced gastrointestinal hemorrhage has increased more than that of non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID-induced lesions. The pathogenesis related to inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 includes reduced mucosal flow, reduced mucus and bicarbonate secretion, and impaired platelet aggregation. The pathogenesis related to inhibition of COX-2 involves reduced angiogenesis and increased leukocyte adherence. The pathogenic mechanisms related to direct epithelial damage are acid back diffusion and impaired platelet aggregation. The factors associated with an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal (GI complications in subjects taking LDA are aspirin dose, history of ulcer or upper GI bleeding, age > 70 years, concomitant use of non-aspirin NSAIDs including COX-2-selective NSAIDs, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. Moreover, no significant differences have been found between ulcer and non-ulcer groups in the frequency and severity of symptoms such as nausea, acid regurgitation, heartburn, and bloating. It has been shown that the ratios of ulcers located in the body, fundus and cardia are significantly higher in bleeding patients than the ratio of gastroduodenal ulcers in patients taking LDA. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the risk of developing gastric and duodenal ulcers. In contrast to NSAID-induced gastrointestinal ulcers, a well-tolerated histamine H2-receptor antagonist is reportedly effective in prevention of LDA-induced gastrointestinal ulcers. The eradication of H. pylori is equivalent to treatment with omeprazole in preventing recurrent bleeding. Continuous aspirin therapy for patients with gastrointestinal bleeding may increase the risk of recurrent bleeding but potentially reduces the mortality rates, as stopping aspirin therapy is associated with higher mortality rates. It is very important to prevent LDA-induced gastroduodenal ulcer complications including bleeding, and every effort should be exercised to prevent the bleeding complications.

Junichi Iwamoto

2013-01-01

309

Emergency room visits for work-related injuries: characteristics and associated factors - Capitals and the Federal District, Brazil, 2011 / Atendimentos de emergência por lesões relacionadas ao trabalho: características e fatores associados - Capitais e Distrito Federal, Brasil, 2011  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Lesões relacionadas ao trabalho, geralmente classificadas como acidentes de trabalho (AT), destacam-se dentre atendimentos por causas externas (acidentes e violência) nos serviços de saúde. Para descrever as características e os fatores associados aos atendimentos de emergência por AT, realizou-se e [...] studo transversal com dados do Inquérito de Violências e Acidentes em Serviços de Emergência (VIVA Inquérito 2011), em 24 capitais e no Distrito Federal. Estimaram-se prevalências de atendimentos por AT e razões de prevalência (RP) com respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Foram incluídos 29.463 atendimentos de emergência por causas acidentais na população a partir de 18 anos de idade. A prevalência de AT foi de 33,4% e apresentou associação positiva e significante com sexo masculino, faixa etária de 30 a 59 anos, ser trabalhador de indústrias, setor agropecuário ou serviços de reparação e manutenção. A ocorrência de AT foi significativamente maior nos atendimentos por queda de objeto sobre pessoa (RP = 3,37; IC95% 2,80-4,05) e ferimento por objeto perfurocortante (RP = 3,01; IC95% 2,50-3,65). Os resultados podem subsidiar a vigilância de causas externas e direcionar políticas públicas voltadas para a promoção da saúde do trabalhador. Abstract in english Work-related injuries, often classified as occupational injuries (OI), stand out among visits due to external causes (accidents and violence) in health services. To describe the characteristics and factors associated with emergency room visits for OI, a cross-sectional study was conducted using data [...] from the Survey of Violence and Injuries in Emergency Services (VIVA Inquérito 2011) in 24 state capitals and the Federal District. The prevalence of treatment for OI and prevalence ratios (PR) with confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) were calculated. There were 29,463 emergency room visits due to accidental injuries in the population above 18 years of age. The prevalence of OI was 33.4% and was positively and significantly associated with the male gender, age 30-59 years old, industrial workers, agricultural sector or repair and maintenance services. The occurrence of OI was significantly higher in attendance for objects falling on people (PR = 3.37, 95% CI 2.80 to 4.05) and injuries due to perforating object (PR = 3.01, 95% CI 2.50-3.65). The results support the surveillance of external causes and direct public policies to promote occupational health.

Márcio Dênis Medeiros, Mascarenhas; Mariana Gonçalves de, Freitas; Rosane Aparecida, Monteiro; Marta Maria Alves da, Silva; Deborah Carvalho, Malta; Carlos Minayo, Gómez.

2015-03-01

310

Gastrointestinal injury associated with NSAID use: a case study and review of risk factors and preventative strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents and are among the most commonly used classes of medications worldwide. However, their use has been associated with potentially serious dose-dependent gastrointestinal (GI) complications such as upper GI bleeding. GI complications resulting from NSAID use are among the most common drug side effects in the United States, due to the widespread use of NSAIDs. The risk of upper GI complications can occur even with short-term NSAID use, and the rate of events is linear over time with continued use. Although gastroprotective therapies are available, they are underused, and patient and physician awareness and recognition of some of the factors influencing the development of NSAID-related upper GI complications are limited. Herein, we present a case report of a patient experiencing a gastric ulcer following NSAID use and examine some of the risk factors and potential strategies for prevention of upper GI mucosal injuries and associated bleeding following NSAID use. These risk factors include advanced age, previous history of GI injury, and concurrent use of medications such as anticoagulants, aspirin, corticosteroids, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Strategies for prevention of GI injuries include anti-secretory agents, gastroprotective agents, alternative NSAID formulations, and nonpharmacologic therapies. Greater awareness of the risk factors and potential therapies for GI complications resulting from NSAID use could help improve outcomes for patients requiring NSAID treatment. PMID:25653559

Goldstein, Jay L; Cryer, Byron

2015-01-01

311

New thoughts on the origin of Pellegrini-Stieda: the association of PCL injury and medial femoral epicondylar periosteal stripping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past 100 years, Pellegrini-Stieda disease has been described as calcification and ossification within the tibial collateral ligament, although these typical radiographic findings are often located more superior than the most proximal extent of the ligament. In this article, we demonstrate four magnetic resonance imaging cases of knee trauma with complete posterior cruciate ligament tear or avulsion, each demonstrating that injury to the medial collateral ligamentous complex can involve significant stripping of the tissue proximal to the medial epicondyle. Classic radiographic findings of Pellegrini-Stieda calcifications can be caused by stripping of the femoral periosteum proximal to the femoral attachment of the tibial collateral ligament, which appears to be associated with a complete posterior cruciate ligament injury. (orig.)

312

Injuries in women's professional soccer  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The injury data from the first two seasons of the Women's United Soccer Association (WUSA) were analysed to determine the injury incidence, anatomic location of injuries, and relation of player position.

Giza, E.; Mithofer, K.; Farrell, L.; Zarins, B.; Gill, T.; Drawer, S.

2005-01-01

313

Concurrent outbreaks of Shigella sonnei and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections associated with parsley: implications for surveillance and control of foodborne illness.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the globalization of the food supply and the development of extensive food distribution networks have increased the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks involving multiple states or countries. In particular, outbreaks associated with fresh produce have emerged as an important public health concern. During July and August 1998, eight restaurant-associated outbreaks of shigellosis caused by a common strain of Shigella sonnei occurred in the United States and Canada. The outbreak strain was characterized by unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Epidemiologic investigation determined that the illness was associated with the ingestion of parsley at four restaurants; at the other four restaurants, the majority of the people who contracted the illness ate parsley. Isolates from patrons in two unrelated restaurant-associated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) outbreaks in Minnesota shared a common serotype and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. Parsley was the implicated or suspected source of both ETEC outbreaks. In each of the outbreak-associated restaurants, parsley was chopped, held at room temperature, and used as an ingredient or garnish for multiple dishes. Infected food workers at several restaurants may also have contributed to the propagation of the outbreak. The sources of parsley served in outbreak-associated restaurants were traced, and a 1,600-acre farm in Baja California, Mexico, was identified as a likely source of the parsley implicated in six of the seven Shigella outbreaks and as a possible source of the parsley implicated in the two ETEC outbreaks. Global food supplies and large distribution networks demand strengthened laboratory and epidemiologic capacity to enable state and local public health agencies to conduct foodborne disease surveillance and to promote effective responses to multistate outbreaks. PMID:12696674

Naimi, Timothy S; Wicklund, Julie H; Olsen, Sonja J; Krause, Gerard; Wells, Joy G; Bartkus, Joanne M; Boxrud, David J; Sullivan, Maureen; Kassenborg, Heidi; Besser, John M; Mintz, Eric D; Osterholm, Michael T; Hedberg, Craig W

2003-04-01

314

Association between nationality and occupational injury risk on Danish non-passenger merchant ships  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Maritime occupational accidents can be determined by several factors, among which human characteristics play a crucial role. Worker's safety behaviour depends on individual physical and mental characteristics as well as on his/her social and cultural background. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime Authority were collected. Publicly available employment data were used to calculate the cumulative incidence rates for Danish, non-Danish European Union (EU) and non-EU employees working on non-passenger ships. Crude injury rates and rates adjusted for occupational status were statistically compared. RESULTS: The majority of accidents happened to Danish and non-EU workers on non-passenger ships. The injury rate varied around 70 per 1000 among Danish seafarers, while the rate for non-Danish employees was about 30 per 1000. Crude and adjusted relative risk was found significantly lower for EU (0.33-0.46;0.26-0.39) and for non-EU (0.41-0.53; 0.54-0.65) workers compared to Danish seafarers. The difference decreased, but remained significant in most cases for serious injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational injury rates show considerable nationality differences as reported from non-passenger ships registered under the Danish flag. The differences can only be partly explained by varying reporting practices. The findings confirm the results of previous studies and point out the need for effective interventions in the high-risk groups.

Adam, B.

2013-01-01

315

The first description of severe anemia associated with acute kidney injury and adult minimal change disease: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute kidney injury in the setting of adult minimal change disease is associated with proteinuria, hypertension and hyperlipidemia but anemia is usually absent. Renal biopsies exhibit foot process effacement as well as tubular interstitial inflammation, acute tubular necrosis or intratubular obstruction. We recently managed a patient with unique clinical and pathological features of minimal change disease, who presented with severe anemia and acute kidney injury, an association not previously reported in the literature. Case presentation A 60-year-old Indian-American woman with a history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus for 10 years presented with progressive oliguria over 2 days. Laboratory data revealed severe hyperkalemia, azotemia, heavy proteinuria and progressively worsening anemia. Urine eosinophils were not seen. Emergent hemodialysis, erythropoietin and blood transfusion were initiated. Serologic tests for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative. Complement levels (C3, C4 and CH50 were normal. Renal biopsy unexpectedly displayed 100% foot process effacement. A 24-hour urine collection detected 6.38 g of protein. Proteinuria and anemia resolved during six weeks of steroid therapy. Renal function recovered completely. No signs of relapse were observed at 8-month follow-up. Conclusion Adult minimal change disease should be considered when a patient presents with proteinuria and severe acute kidney injury even when accompanied by severe anemia. This report adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in addition to steroid therapy, prompt initiation of erythropoietin therapy may facilitate full recovery of renal function in acute kidney injury.

Qian Yimei

2009-01-01

316

Elective cesarean section to prevent anal incontinence and brachial plexus injuries associated with macrosomia--a decision analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to determine the cost-effectiveness of a policy of elective C-section for macrosomic infants to prevent maternal anal incontinence, urinary incontinence, and newborn brachial plexus injuries. We used a decision analytic model to compare the standard of care with a policy whereby all primigravid patients in the United States would undergo an ultrasound at 39 weeks gestation, followed by an elective C-section for any fetus estimated at > or =4500 g. The following clinical consequences were considered crucial to the analysis: brachial plexus injury to the newborn; maternal anal and urinary incontinence; emergency hysterectomy; hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion; and maternal mortality. Our outcome measures included (1) number of brachial plexus injuries or cases of incontinence averted, (2) incremental monetary cost per 100,000 deliveries, (3) expected quality of life of the mother and her child, and (4) "quality-adjusted life years" (QALY) associated with the two policies. For every 100,000 deliveries, the policy of elective C-section resulted in 16.6 fewer permanent brachial plexus injuries, 185.7 fewer cases of anal incontinence, and cost savings of $3,211,000. Therefore, this policy would prevent one case of anal incontinence for every 539 elective C-sections performed. The expected quality of life associated with the elective C-section policy was also greater (quality of life score 0.923 vs 0.917 on a scale from 0.0 to 1.0 and 53.6 QALY vs 53.2). A policy whereby primigravid patients in the United States have a 39 week ultrasound-estimated fetal weight followed by C-section for any fetuses > or =4500 g appears cost effective. However, the monetary costs in our analysis were sensitive to the probability estimates of urinary incontinence following C-section and vaginal delivery and the cost estimates for urinary incontinence, vaginal delivery, and C-section. PMID:15647962

Culligan, Patrick J; Myers, John A; Goldberg, Roger P; Blackwell, Linda; Gohmann, Stephan F; Abell, Troy D

2005-01-01

317

Treatment with neutralising antibody against cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) protects rats against acute pancreatitis associated lung injury  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND—Lung injury manifest clinically as adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality following acute pancreatitis (AP). Neutrophils play a critical role in the progression of AP to ARDS. C-x-C chemokines are potent neutrophil chemoattractants and activators and have been implicated in AP.?AIMS—To evaluate the effect of blocking the C-x-C chemokine, cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC), in AP on pancreatic inflammation and the associated lung injury in rats.?METHODS—AP was induced by hourly intraperitoneal injections of caerulein. Goat anti-CINC antibody was administered either before or after starting caerulein injections to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects, respectively. Severity of AP was determined by measuring plasma amylase, pancreatic water content, and pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as a measure of neutrophil sequestration in the pancreas. Lung injury was determined by measurement of pulmonary microvascular permeability and lung MPO activity.?RESULTS—Treatment with anti-CINC antibody had little effect on caerulein induced pancreatic damage. However, it reduced the caerulein mediated increase in lung MPO activity as well as lung microvascular permeability when administered either prophylactically (lung MPO (fold increase over control): 1.53 (0.21) v 3.30 (0.46), p<0.05; microvascular permeability (L/P%): 0.42 (0.07) v 0.77 (0.11), p<0.05) or therapeutically (lung MPO (fold increase over control): 2.13 (0.10) v 4.42 (0.65), p<0.05; microvascular permeability (L/P%): 0.31 (0.05) v 0.79 (0.13), p<0.05).?CONCLUSION—Treatment with anti-CINC antibody afforded significant protection against pancreatitis associated lung injury. These results suggest that CINC plays an important role in the systemic inflammatory response in AP.???Keywords: chemokines; acute pancreatitis; caerulein; adult respiratory distress syndrome PMID:11076884

Bhatia, M; Brady, M; Zagorski, J; Christmas, S; Campbell, F; Neoptolemos, J; Slavin, J

2000-01-01

318

Association between Head Injury and Helmet Use in Alpine Skiers: Cohort Study from a Swiss Level I Trauma Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between helmet use during alpine skiing and incidence and severity of head injuries was analyzed. All patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center for traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) sustained from skiing accidents during the seasons 2000-2001 and 2010-2011 were eligible. Primary outcome was the association between helmet use and severity of TBI measured by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), computed tomography (CT) results, and necessity of neurosurgical intervention. Of 1362 patients injured during alpine skiing, 245 (18%) sustained TBI and were included. TBI was fatal in 3%. Head injury was in 76% minor (Glasgow Coma Scale, 13-15), 6% moderate, and 14% severe. Number and percentage of TBI patients showed no significant trend over the investigated seasons. Forty-five percent of the 245 patients had pathological CT findings and 26% of these required neurosurgical intervention. Helmet use increased from 0% in 2000-2001 to 71% in 2010-2011 (panalysis, comparing TBI in patients with or without a helmet, showed an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.44 (p=0.430) for suffering moderate-to-severe head injury in helmet users. Analyses comparing off-piste to on-slope skiers revealed a significantly increased OR among off-piste skiers of 7.62 (p=0.004) for sustaining a TBI requiring surgical intervention. Despite increases in helmet use, we found no decrease in severe TBI among alpine skiers. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant difference in TBI with regard to helmet use, but increased risk for off-piste skiers. The limited protection of helmets and dangers of skiing off-piste should be targeted by prevention programs. PMID:25244343

Baschera, Dominik; Hasler, Rebecca M; Taugwalder, David; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis; Raabe, Andreas

2015-04-15

319

Group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin expression is associated with injury of lung epithelial cells.  

OpenAIRE

Group B streptococci (GBS) are the leading cause of serious bacterial infection in newborns. Early-onset disease is heralded by pneumonia and lung injury, and the lung may serve as a portal of entry for GBS into the bloodstream. To examine a potential role for GBS beta-hemolysin in lung epithelial injury, five wild-type strains varying in beta-hemolysin expression were chosen, along with five nonhemolytic (NH) and five hyperhemolytic (HH) variants of these strains derived by chemical or trans...

Nizet, V.; Gibson, R. L.; Chi, E. Y.; Framson, P. E.; Hulse, M.; Rubens, C. E.

1996-01-01

320

Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

Goldberg, Barry

1989-01-01

321

Role of drug-independent stress factors in liver injury associated with diclofenac intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although a basic understanding of the chemical and biological events leading to idiosyncratic drug toxicity is still lacking, it appears that drug-independent risk factors that increase reactive metabolite formation or alter cellular stress and immune response may be critical determinants in the response to an otherwise non-toxic drug. Thus, we were interested to determine the impact of various drug-independent stress factors - lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C (PIC) or glutathione depletion via buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) - on the toxicity of diclofenac (Dcl), a model drug associated with rare but significant cases of serious hepatotoxicity, and to understand if enhanced toxicity occurs through alterations of drug metabolism and/or modulation of stress response pathways. Co-treatment of rats repeatedly given therapeutic doses of Dcl for 7 days with a single dose of LPS 2h before the last Dcl dose resulted in severe liver toxicity. Neither LPS nor diclofenac alone or in combination with PIC or BSO had such an effect. While it is thought that bioactivation to reactive Dcl acyl glucuronides (AG) and subsequent protein adduct formation contribute to Dcl induced liver injury, LC-MS/MS analyses did not reveal increased formation of 4'- and 5-hydroxy-Dcl, Dcl-AG or Dcl-AG dependent protein adducts in animals treated with LPS/Dcl. Hepatic gene expression analysis suggested enhanced activation of NF?B and MAPK pathways and up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules (IL-1?, TNF-?, CINC-1) by LPS/Dcl and PIC/Dcl, while protective factors (HSPs, SOD2) were down-regulated. LPS/Dcl led to extensive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IFN-?, TNF-?) and factors thought to constitute danger signals (HMGB1, CINC-1) into plasma. Taken together, our results show that Dcl enhanced the inflammatory response induced by LPS - and to a lesser extent by PIC - through up-regulation of pro-inflammatory molecules and down-regulation of protective factors. This suggests sensitization of cells to cellular stress mediated by non-drug-related risk factors by therapeutic doses of Dcl, rather than potentiation of Dcl toxicity by the stress factors. PMID:23939143

Ramm, Susanne; Mally, Angela

2013-10-01

322

Factors associated with antenatal care adequacy in rural and urban contexts-results from two health and demographic surveillance sites in Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal Care (ANC is universally considered important for women and children. This study aims to identify factors, demographic, social and economic, possibly associated with three ANC indicators: number of visits, timing of visits and content of services. The aim is also to compare the patterns of association of such factors between one rural and one urban context in northern Vietnam. Methods Totally 2,132 pregnant women were followed from identification of pregnancy until birth in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS. Information was obtained through quarterly face to face interviews. Results Living in the rural area was significantly associated with lower adequate use of ANC compared to living in the urban area, both regarding quantity (number and timing of visits and content. Low education, living in poor households and exclusively using private sector ANC in both sites and self employment, becoming pregnant before 25 years of age and living in poor communities in the rural area turned out to increase the risk for overall inadequate ANC. High risk pregnancy could not be demonstrated to be associated with ANC adequacy in either site. The medical content of services offered was often inadequate, in relation to the national recommendations, especially in the private sector. Conclusion Low education, low economic status, exclusive use of private ANC and living in rural areas were main factors associated with risk for overall inadequate ANC use as related to the national recommendations. Therefore, interventions focussing on poor and less educated women, especially in rural areas should be prioritized. They should focus the importance of early attendance of ANC and sufficient use of core services. Financial support for poor and near poor women should be considered. Providers of ANC should be educated and otherwise influenced to provide sufficient core services. Adherence to ANC content guidelines must be improved through enhanced supervision, particularly in the private sector.

Tran Toan K

2012-02-01

323

Nail Bed Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

... Picker Videos Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Nail Bed Injuries Email to a friend * required fields ... and customize your collection. DESCRIPTION Injuries to the nail are often associated with damage to other structures ...

324

Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iran is a country with one of the highest rates of traffic crash fatality and injury, and seventy percent of these fatalities happen on rural roads. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors influencing injury severity among drivers involved in crashes on two kinds of major rural roads in Iran: two-lane, two-way roads and freeways. METHODS: According to the dataset, 213569 drivers were involved in rural road crashes in Iran, over the 3 years from 2006 to 2008. The Classification And Regression Tree method (CART was applied for 13 independent variables, and one target variable of injury severity with 3 classes of no-injury, injury and fatality. Some of the independent variables were cause of crash, collision type, weather conditions, road surface conditions, driver's age and gender and seat belt usage. The CART model was trained by 70% of these data, and tested with the rest. RESULTS: It was indicated that seat belt use is the most important safety factor for two-lane, two-way rural roads, but on freeways, the importance of this variable is less. Cause of crash, also turned out to be the next most important variable. The results showed that for two-lane, two-way rural roads, "improper overtaking" and "speeding", and for rural freeways, "inattention to traffic ahead", "vehicle defect", and "movement of pedestrians, livestock and unauthorized vehicles on freeways" are the most serious causes of increasing injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis results revealed seat belt use, cause of crash and collision type as the most important variables influencing the injury severity of traffic crashes. To deal with these problems, intensifying police enforcement by means of mobile patrol vehicles, constructing overtaking lanes where necessary, and prohibiting the crossing of pedestrians and livestock and the driving of unauthorized vehicles on freeways are necessary. Moreover, creating a rumble strip on the two edges of roads, and paying attention to the design consistency of roads can be a helpful factor in order to prevent events such as "overturning" and improve the overall safety of freeways.

Andishe Ranjbari

2012-01-01

325

Vertebral artery injury associated with cervical spine fracture-dislocation. Prevention of distal embolism using coil embolization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the efficacy of coil embolization of the injured vertebral artery associated with fracture-dislocation of the cervical spine for the prevention of embolic stroke. Between 2001 and 2010, 27 patients underwent reduction of the dislocation fracture of the cervical spine. In 4 cases, preoperative MRI revealed disappearance of the flow-void signal of the unilateral vertebral artery in the foramen transversarium, and we performed further investigation of the injury of the vertebral artery with digital subtraction angiography. In all 4 cases, digital subtraction angiography revealed occlusion of the unilateral vertebral artery. After conviction of the existence of colateral cerebral blood flow from the contra-lateral vertebral arteries or external carotid arteries, we embolized the proximal part of the occluded vertebral arteries in endovascular procedures with detachable coils for the prevention of the embolic stroke associated with orthopedical procedures. All patients underwent reduction of the cervical dislocation after coil embolization, and the operations were performed uneventfully. During the follow-up period (66.8 months on the average), there were no episodes of vertebrobasilar infarction. Perioperative and postoperative antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapies were not necessary. Dislocation fracture of the cervical spine is frequently associated with injuries of vertebral artery, and the management of the risk for cerebral infarction remainof the risk for cerebral infarction remains controversial. Preoperative embolization of the injured vertebral artery can be an effective procedure in preventing the embolic stroke caused by orthopedical procedures. (author)

326

Two patients with osteochondral injury of the weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle associated with lateral dislocation of the patella.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complications of patellar dislocation include osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle and patella. Most cases of osteochondral injury occur in the anterior region, which is the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle. We describe two patients with osteochondral injury of the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle associated with lateral dislocation of the patella. The patients were 18- and 11-year-old females. Osteochondral injury occurred on the weight-bearing surface distal to the lateral femoral condyle. The presence of a free osteochondral fragment and osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle was confirmed on MRI and reconstruction CT scan. Treatment consisted of osteochondral fragment fixation or microfracture, as well as patellar stabilization. Osteochondral injury was present in the weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle in both patients, suggesting that the injury was caused by friction between the patella and lateral femoral condyle when the patella was dislocated or reduced at about 90° flexion of the knee joint. These findings indicate that patellar dislocation may occur and osteochondral injury may extend to the weight-bearing portion of the femur even in deep flexion, when the patella is stabilized on the bones of the femoral groove. PMID:25506015

Nakagawa, Shuji; Arai, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Atsumi, Satoru; Ichimaru, Shohei; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

2014-01-01

327

Innovative approaches to application of information technology in disease surveillance and prevention in Western Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe an electronic injury surveillance system that provides data for improving patient care and monitoring injury incidence and distribution patterns. Patients with injuries visiting a rural Kenyan primary care center were enrolled consecutively over 14 months. Injury information was added onto an existing medical record database that captures data for each patient visit. A new injury data encounter form and entry screen were created that included geographical coordinates of the injury site. These coordinates were obtained using a handheld global positioning system (GPS) device, and data were downloaded to the database and linked to each patient. We created digital maps of injury spatial distribution using geography information systems (GIS) software and correlated injury type and location with patients' clinical data. A computerized medical record system, complemented by GIS technology and an injury-specific component, presents a valuable tool for injury surveillance, epidemiology, prevention and control for communities served by a specific health facility. PMID:17258509

Odero, Wilson; Rotich, Joseph; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Ouna, Tom; Tierney, William M

2007-08-01

328

Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardiopulmonary Emergency Department Visits Assessed Through Syndromic Surveillance  

Science.gov (United States)

In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution is...

329

Chronic xerostomia increases esophageal acid exposure and is associated with esophageal injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic xerostomia on parameters of gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. DESIGN: Observational study of a cohort of male patients with xerostomia and age-matched control subjects. SETTING: Tertiary-care Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male patients with chronic xerostomia secondary to radiation for head and neck cancers or medications. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects with comparable alcohol and smoking histories. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Esophageal motility was similar in patients with xerostomia and controls. Clearance of acid from the esophagus and 24-hour intraesophageal pH were markedly abnormal in patients with xerostomia. Symptoms and signs of esophagitis were significantly more frequent in subjects with xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic xerostomia may predispose to esophageal injury, at least in part, by decreasing the clearance of acid from the esophagus and altering 24-hour intraesophageal pH. Esophageal injury is a previously unreported complication of long-term salivary deficiency

330

Acute liver injury associated with the use of herbal preparations containing glucosamine: three case studies  

OpenAIRE

The use of complementary and alternative medicines is becoming increasingly popular in Western society. As a result the number of reported adverse reactions is increasing. Glucosamine is a herbal remedy commonly used to ease joint pain in osteoarthritis, and only two previous reports of hepatotoxicity have been published in the scientific literature. The present report describes three patients who developed acute liver injury following exposure to glucosamine; one patient made a complete reco...

Smith, Aileen; Dillon, John

2009-01-01

331

Clinical features of gastroduodenal injury associated with long-term low-dose aspirin therapy  

OpenAIRE

Low-dose aspirin (LDA) is clinically used for the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events with the advent of an aging society. On the other hand, a very low dose of aspirin (10 mg daily) decreases the gastric mucosal prostaglandin levels and causes significant gastric mucosal damage. The incidence of LDA-induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury and bleeding has increased. It has been noticed that the incidence of LDA-induced gastrointestinal hemorrhage has increased more than t...

Junichi Iwamoto; Yoshifumi Saito; Akira Honda; Yasushi Matsuzaki

2013-01-01

332

Deployment Risk Factors and Postdeployment Health Profiles Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury in Heavy Drinking Veterans  

OpenAIRE

Along with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered one of the “signature wounds” of combat operations in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]), but the role of mTBI in the clinical profiles of Veterans with other comorbid forms of postdeployment psychopathology is poorly understood. The current study explored the deployment risk and postdeployment health profiles of heavy drinking OIF and OEF...

Williams, Joah L.; Mcdevitt-murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.; Crouse, Ellen M.

2012-01-01

333

The Association Between Insurance Status and Cervical Cancer Screening in Community Health Centers: Exploring the Potential of Electronic Health Records for Population-Level Surveillance, 2008–2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States have decreased 67% over the past 3 decades, a reduction mainly attributed to widespread use of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test for cervical cancer screening. In the general population, receipt of cervical cancer screening is positively associated with having health insurance. Less is known about the role insurance plays among women seeking care in community health centers, where screening services are available regardless of insurance status. The objective of our study was to assess the association between cervical cancer screening and insurance status in Oregon and California community health centers by using data from electronic health records. Methods We used bilevel log-binomial regression models to estimate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for receipt of a Pap test by insurance status, adjusted for patient-level demographic factors and a clinic-level random effect. Results Insurance status was a significant predictor of cervical cancer screening, but the effect varied by race/ethnicity and age. In our study uninsured non-Hispanic white women were less likely to receive a Pap test than were uninsured women of other races. Young, uninsured Hispanic women were more likely to receive a Pap test than were young, fully insured Hispanic women, a finding not previously reported. Conclusion Electronic health records enable population-level surveillance in community health centers and can reveal factors influencing use of preventive services. Although community health centers provide cervical cancer screening regardless of insurance status, disparities persist in the association between insurance status and receipt of Pap tests. In our study, after adjusting for demographic factors, being continuously insured throughout the study period improved the likelihood of receiving a Pap test for many women. PMID:24157076

Carlson, Matthew J.; Lapidus, Jodi A.; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

2013-01-01

334

Comparing the impact of socio-demographic factors associated with traffic injury among older road users and the general population in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The increasing number of older road users represents a public health issue because older individuals are more susceptible to traffic injury and mortality than the general population. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors and traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Methods An ecological study was conducted using national data in Japan. Multivariate regression methods were applie...

Nagata Takashi; Takamori Ayako; Berg Hans-Yngve; Hasselberg Marie

2012-01-01

335

Gastrointestinal injury associated with NSAID use: a case study and review of risk factors and preventative strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jay L Goldstein,1 Byron Cryer21Department of Medicine, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, USA; 2Division of Gastroenterology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Dallas VA Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents and are among the most commonly used classes of medications worldwide. However, their use has been associated with potentially serious dose-dependent gastrointestinal (GI complications such as upper GI bleeding. GI complications resulting from NSAID use are among the most common drug side effects in the United States, due to the widespread use of NSAIDs. The risk of upper GI complications can occur even with short-term NSAID use, and the rate of events is linear over time with continued use. Although gastroprotective therapies are available, they are underused, and patient and physician awareness and recognition of some of the factors influencing the development of NSAID-related upper GI complications are limited. Herein, we present a case report of a patient experiencing a gastric ulcer following NSAID use and examine some of the risk factors and potential strategies for prevention of upper GI mucosal injuries and associated bleeding following NSAID use. These risk factors include advanced age, previous history of GI injury, and concurrent use of medications such as anticoagulants, aspirin, corticosteroids, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Strategies for prevention of GI injuries include anti-secretory agents, gastroprotective agents, alternative NSAID formulations, and nonpharmacologic therapies. Greater awareness of the risk factors and potential therapies for GI complications resulting from NSAID use could help improve outcomes for patients requiring NSAID treatment.Keywords: side effects, ulcer, GI bleed, NSAID, gastrointestinal

Goldstein JL

2015-01-01

336

Heart injury following intestinal ischemia reperfusion in rats is attenuated by association of ischemic preconditioning and adenosine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and adenosine as strategies to protect cardiac injury caused by intestinal IR in rats, based on increasing in adenosine bioavailability and improvement of cell energy state by IPC. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to 6 [...] 0 minutes of intestinal ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. Intravenous injections of saline or Adenosine (AD) was administered five minutes before ischemia, five minutes before reperfusion and after 55 minutes reperfusion. Cardiac samples were obtained, fixed in formalin solution, embedded in paraffin, and sections of 5 ?m were stained by hematoxylin-eosin. Histological analysis of myocardium was performed according occurrence of necrosis signs: piknosis, band contraction, eosinophilic cytoplasm, karyorrhexis and vacuolization (score - zero to 5). RESULTS: The groups submitted to ischemia alone (I=4.0), and reperfusion (IR=4.5) showed highest level of lesion compared to the others (I+IPC=3.3, IR+IPC=3.6, I+AD=3.0, IR+AD=3.8). The most interesting result was association of IPC and AD in IR model (IR+IPC+AD=1.2, p=0.002), showing preservation of the heart tissue, with fibers showing typical cross-striations and nuclei characteristics. Rare and small areas of tissue necrosis was observed and suggestion of capillaries congestion. CONCLUSION: Intestinal ischemia reperfusion promotes cardiac tissue injury. Ischemic preconditioning in association with adenosine is an efficient strategy to protect the heart against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

Micaela Frasson, Montero; Rafael, Saurim; Wesley Guedes Sava, Bonservizi; Marcia Kiyomi, Koike; Murched Omar, Taha.

337

Charges associated with pediatric head injuries: A five-year retrospective review of 41 pediatric hospitals in the US.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Brain injuries are a significant public health problem, particularly among the pediatric population. Brain injuries account for a significant portion of pediatric injury deaths, and are the highest contributor to morbidity and mortality in the pediatric and young adult populations. Several studies focus on particular mechanisms of brain injury and the cost of treating brain injuries, but few studies exist in the literature examining the highest contributing mechanisms to pediatr...

Charles Edward McConnel; Brian David Robertson; Sally Green

2013-01-01

338

Urological injuries following trauma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

Bent, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N. [Department of Urology, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fotheringham, T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

2008-12-15

339

Post-partum sequential occurrence of two diverse transfusion reactions (transfusion associated circulatory overload and transfusion related acute lung injury).  

Science.gov (United States)

Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) are two dissimilar pathological conditions associated with transfusion of blood products where the time course of the events and clinical presentation overlap leading to uncertainty in establishing the diagnosis and initiating the treatment, which otherwise differs. We encountered a case where a patient of post-partum hemorrhage developed TACO in the immediate post-operative period due to aggressive resuscitative attempts with blood products. The patient's condition was appropriately diagnosed and was managed according to the clinical scenario, and the condition abated. Subsequently, on the third post-operative day the patient again required blood product transfusions following which the patient developed TRALI, the diagnosis of which was also established and adequate treatment strategy was undertaken. PMID:24339663

Haldar, Rudrashish; Samanta, Sukhen

2013-10-01

340

Acute kidney injury during pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared. PMID:25264696

Van Hook, James W

2014-12-01

341

Alterations in neuronal calcium levels are associated with cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury  

OpenAIRE

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often suffer from a post-traumatic syndrome with deficits in learning and memory. Calcium (Ca2+) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of TBI-induced neuronal death. However, the role of long-term changes in neuronal Ca2+ function in surviving neurons and the potential impact on TBI-induced cognitive impairments are less understood. Here we evaluated neuronal death and basal free intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in acutely isolated rat CA3 hippocampal n...

Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; Sun, David A.; Sombati, Sompong; Baranova, Anya; Wilson, Margaret S.; Attkisson, Elisa; Hamm, Robert J.; Delorenzo, Robert J.

2008-01-01

342

Chronic alcohol excess is associated with selective but reversible injury to type 2B muscle fibres.  

OpenAIRE

Patients drinking more than 100 g alcohol/day for longer than three years develop atrophy of striated muscle fibres. This predominantly affects type 2B fibres which are dependent on anaerobic glycolytic metabolism. Atrophy of type 1 and type 2A fibres, which in addition use aerobic mitochondrial respiration, only occurs in the most severe cases and then only to a lesser degree. Abstention from alcohol reverses the changes in muscle which slowly return to normal. Selective injury to type 2B fi...

Slavin, G.; Martin, F.; Ward, P.; Levi, J.; Peters, T.

1983-01-01

343

NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

344

Global gene expression analysis of rodent motor neurons following spinal cord injury associates molecular mechanisms with development of post-injury spasticity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Spinal cord injury leads to severe problems involving impaired motor, sensory and autonomic functions. After spinal injury there is an initial phase of hypo-reflexia followed by hyper-reflexia, often referred to as spasticity. Previous studies have suggested a relationship between the reappearance of endogenous plateau potentials in motor neurons and the development of spasticity after spinalization. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased excitability of motor neurons and the return of plateau potentials below a spinal cord injury we investigated changes in gene expression in this cell population. We adopted a rat tail-spasticity model with a caudal spinal transection that causes a progressive development of spasticity from its onset after two to three weeks until two months post injury. Gene expression changes of fluorescently identified tail motor neurons were studied 21 and 60 days post injury. The motor neurons undergo substantial transcriptional regulation in response to injury. Thepatterns of differential expression show similarities at both time points, though there are 20 % more differentially expressed genes 60 days compared to 21 days post injury. The study identifies targets of regulation relating to both ion channels and receptors implicated in the endogenous expression of plateaux. The regulation of excitatory and inhibitory signal transduction indicates a shift in the balance towards increased excitability, where the glutamatergic NMDA receptor complex together with cholinergic system is up-regulated and the GABAA receptor system is down-regulated. The genes of the pore-forming proteins Cav1.3 and Nav1.6 were not up-regulated, while genes of proteins such as non-pore forming subunits and intracellular pathways known to modulate receptor and channel trafficking, kinetics and conductivity showed marked regulation. On the basis of the identified changes in global gene expression in motor neurons, the present investigation opens up for new potential targets for treatment of motor dysfunction following spinal cord injury.

Wienecke, Jacob; Westerdahl, Ann-Charlotte

2010-01-01

345

Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance  

Science.gov (United States)

There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

2002-05-01

346

The association between self-injurious behaviors and autism spectrum disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Noha F Minshawi,1 Sarah Hurwitz,2 Jill C Fodstad,1 Sara Biebl,3 Danielle H Morriss,4 Christopher J McDougle51Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA; 3Child and Adolescent Behavioral Health, Sanford Health, Fargo, ND, USA; 4Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 5Departments of Psychiatry and Pediatrics, Lurie Center for Autism, Massachusetts General Hospital and MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: A key area of concern in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are self-injurious behaviors (SIBs. These are behaviors that an individual engages in that may cause physical harm, such as head banging, or self-biting. SIBs are more common in children with ASD than those who are typically developing or have other neurodevelopmental disabilities. Therefore, it is important that clinicians who work with children with ASD have a solid understanding of SIB. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on the epidemiology of SIB in children with ASD, factors that predict the presence of SIB in this population, and the empirically supported behavioral treatments available.Keywords: self-injury, autism spectrum disorders, applied behavior analysis

Minshawi NF

2014-04-01

347

Utility of a surveillance system to detect associations between work and cancer among women in Canada, 1965-1991.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on the occupation and industry in which 242,196 females worked in Canada between 1965 and 1971 are available from a national survey of employers by Statistics Canada. As an example of the future utility of this cohort, computerized record linkage was conducted with the Canadian National Mortality Data Base through 1979. This article presents selected results. Associations are measured by standardized relative risks. Those meeting specific criteria (two or more observed deaths, relative risk > 2.0, and 95% confidence interval excluding 1.00) include (a) buccal cavity and pharyngeal cancer among mechanics and repairers, tobacco preparers and product makers, and telephone systems industry workers; (b) lung cancer among service station attendants, motor vehicle mechanics, and petroleum refinery workers; and (c) breast cancer among workers manufacturing electrical industrial equipment and printing and publishing industry workers. The mortality experience of the cohort through 1991 is currently being determined by another record linkage, thus providing up to 25 years of follow-up and over 8,500 cancer deaths anticipated among females. PMID:7861260

Aronson, K J; Howe, G R

1994-11-01

348

Containment and surveillance devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

349

Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

MARQUEZ, D.L.

2000-12-21

350

Polymorphism in the protease-activated receptor-4 gene region associates with platelet activation and perioperative myocardial injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protease-activated receptors (PAR)-1 and -4 are the principal receptors for thrombin-mediated platelet activation. Functional genetic variation has been described in the human PAR1 gene, but not in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3). We sought to identify variants in and around F2RL3 and to determine their association with perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. We further explored possible mechanisms for F2RL3 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with PMI including altered receptor expression and platelet activation. Twenty-three SNPs in the F2RL3 gene region were genotyped in two phases in 934 Caucasian subjects. Platelets from 43 subjects (23 major allele, 20 risk allele) homozygous for rs773857 (SNP with the strongest association with PMI) underwent flow cytometry to assess PAR4 receptor number and response to activation by a specific PAR4 activating peptide (AYPGKF) measured by von Willebrand factor (vWf) binding and P-selectin release and PAC-1 binding. We identified a novel association of SNP rs773857 with PMI (OR = 2.4, P = 0.004). rs773857 risk allele homozygotes have significantly increased platelet counts and platelets showed a significant increase in P-selectin release after activation (P = 0.004). We conclude that rs773857 risk allele homozygotes are associated with risk for increased platelet count and hyperactivity. PMID:22228373

Muehlschlegel, Jochen D; Perry, Tjörvi E; Liu, Kuang-Yu; Fox, Amanda A; Smith, Shane A; Lichtner, Peter; Collard, Charles D; Shernan, Stanton K; Hartwig, John H; Body, Simon C; Hoffmeister, Karin M

2012-02-01

351

Polymorphism in the Protease Activated Receptor-4 Gene Region Associates with Platelet Activation and Perioperative Myocardial Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Protease activated receptors (PAR) ?1 and ?4 are the principal receptors for thrombin-mediated platelet activation. Functional genetic variation has been described in the human PAR1 gene, but not in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3). We sought to identify variants in and around F2RL3 and to determine their association with perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. We further explored possible mechanisms for F2RL3 SNP associations with PMI including altered receptor expression and platelet activation. Methods and Results Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the F2RL3 gene region were genotyped in two phases in 934 Caucasian subjects. Platelets from 43 subjects (23 major allele, 20 risk allele) homozygous for rs773857 (SNP with the strongest association with PMI) underwent flow cytometry to assess PAR4 receptor number and response to activation by a specific PAR4 activating peptide (AYPGKF) measured by von Willebrand factor (vWf) binding and P-selectin release and PAC-1 binding. We identified a novel association of SNP rs773857 with PMI (OR 2.4, P=0.004). rs773857 risk allele homozygotes have significantly increased platelet counts and platelets showed a significant increase in P-selectin release after activation (P=0.004). Conclusion We conclude that rs773857 risk allele homozygotes are associated with risk for increased platelet count and hyperactivity. PMID:22228373

Muehlschlegel, Jochen D.; Perry, Tjörvi E.; Liu, Kuang-Yu; Fox, Amanda A.; Smith, Shane; Lichtner, Peter; Collard, Charles D.; Shernan, Stanton K.; Hartwig, John H.; Body, Simon C.; Hoffmeister, Karin M.

2015-01-01

352

The association between urinary kidney injury molecule 1 and urinary cadmium in elderly during long-term, low-dose cadmium exposure: a pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 is a recently discovered early biomarker for renal damage that has been proven to be correlated to urinary cadmium in rats. However, so far the association between urinary cadmium and kidney injury molecule 1 in humans after long-term, low-dose cadmium exposure has not been studied. Methods We collected urine and blood samples from 153 non-smoking men and women aged 60+, living in an area with moderate cadmium pollution from a non-ferrous metal plant for a significant period. Urinary cadmium and urinary kidney injury molecule 1 as well as other renal biomarkers (alpha1-microglobulin, beta2-microglobulin, blood urea nitrogen, urinary proteins and microalbumin were assessed. Results Both before (r = 0.20; p = 0.01 and after (partial r = 0.32; p Conclusions We showed that urinary kidney injury molecule 1 levels are positively correlated with urinary cadmium concentration in an elderly population after long-term, low-dose exposure to cadmium, while other classical markers do not show an association. Therefore, urinary kidney injury molecule 1 might be considered as a biomarker for early-stage metal-induced kidney injury by cadmium.

Dewitte Harrie

2011-09-01

353

Omeprazole attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in mice via aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation and is associated with increased expression of cytochrome P4501A enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) enzymes, which are regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), have been shown to attenuate hyperoxic lung injury in rodents. Omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, used in humans to treat gastric acid-related disorders, induces hepatic CYP1A in vitro. However, the mechanism by which omeprazole induces CYP1A and its impact on CYP1A expression in vivo and hyperoxic lung injury are unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that omeprazole attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in adult wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice by an AhR-mediated induction of pulmonary and hepatic CYP1A enzymes. Accordingly, we determined the effects of omeprazole on pulmonary and hepatic CYP1A expression and hyperoxic lung injury in adult WT and AhR dysfunctional (AhRd) mice. We found that omeprazole attenuated lung injury in WT mice. Attenuation of lung injury by omeprazole paralleled enhanced pulmonary CYP1A1 and hepatic CYP1A2 expression in the omeprazole-treated mice. On the other hand, omeprazole failed to enhance pulmonary CYP1A1 and hepatic CYP1A2 expression and protect against hyperoxic lung injury in AhRd mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that omeprazole attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in mice by AhR-mediated mechanisms, and this phenomenon is associated with induction of CYP1A enzymes. These studies have important implications for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperoxia-induced disorders such as BPD in infants and acute respiratory distress syndrome in older children and adults. PMID:21768223

Shivanna, Binoy; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

2011-10-01

354

Higher diastolic blood pressure at admission and antiedema therapy is associated with acute kidney injury in acute ischemic stroke patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hasan Micozkadioglu Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine Hospital of Adana, Baskent University School of Medicine, Adana, Turkey Abstract: Antiedema therapy with mannitol and furosemide is widely used for prevention and management of cerebral edema, elevated intracranial pressure, and cerebral hernia. There are some reports about mannitol and furosemide as risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI. We investigated the risk factors for AKI including antiedema therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients. The subjects were 129 patients with acute ischemic stroke including 56 females and 73 males with a mean age 68.16±12.29 years. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with AKI and without AKI according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. All patients had undergone cranial, carotid, and vertebral artery evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging. The number of patients with AKI was 14 (10.9%. Subjects experiencing atrial fibrillation (P=0.043 and higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP (P=0.032 treated with mannitol (P=0.019 and furosemide (P=0.019 disclosed significant association with AKI. Regression analysis revealed that higher DBP (P=0.029 and management with mannitol (P=0.044 were the risk factors for AKI. Higher DBP at admission is the most important risk factor for AKI. However antiedema therapy should be used carefully in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Serum creatinine levels or estimated glomerular filtration rate should be watched frequently to prevent AKI. Keywords: furosemide, mannitol, renal failure, cerebrovascular disease

Micozkadioglu H

2014-02-01

355

Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3? attenuates organ injury and dysfunction associated with liver ischemia-reperfusion and thermal injury in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine-threonine kinase discovered decades ago to have an important role in glycogen metabolism. Today, we know that this kinase is involved in the regulation of many cell functions, including insulin signaling, specification of cell fate during embryonic development, and the control of cell division and apoptosis. Insulin and TDZD-8 (4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione) are inhibitors of GSK-3? that have been shown to possess organ-protective effects in inflammatory-mediated organ injury models. We aimed to evaluate the cytoprotective effect of GSK-3? inhibition on rat models of liver ischemia-reperfusion and thermal injury. In the liver ischemia-reperfusion model, TDZD-8 and insulin were administered at 5 mg/kg (i.v.) and 1.4 IU/kg (i.v.), respectively, 30 min before induction of ischemia and led to the significant reduction of the serum concentration of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, ?-glutamyltransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Beneficial effects were found to be independent from blood glucose levels. In the thermal injury model, TDZD-8 was administered at 5 mg/kg (i.v.) 5 min before induction of injury and significantly reduced multiple organ dysfunction markers (liver, neuromuscular, and lung). In the lung, TDZD-8 reduced the histological signs of tissue injury, inflammatory markers (cytokines), and neutrophil chemotaxis/infiltration; reduced GSK-3?, nuclear factor-?B, and Akt activation; reduced caspase-3 and metalloproteinase-9 activation. Our study provides a new insight on the beneficial effects of GSK-3? inhibition on systemic inflammation and further elucidates the mechanism and pathway crosstalks by which TDZD-8 reduces the multiple organ injury elicited by thermal injury. PMID:25394244

Rocha, Joao; Figueira, Maria-Eduardo; Barateiro, Andreia; Fernandes, Adelaide; Brites, Dora; Pinto, Rui; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Sepodes, Bruno

2015-04-01

356

Adaptive changes in the dominant shoulders of female professional overhead athletes: mutual association and relation to shoulder injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of our study was to evaluate adaptive changes in the dominant shoulders of female professional overhead athletes, their mutual association, and relation between adaptive changes and shoulder injury. Thirty-six female professional volleyball and handball players were divided into two groups: 14 athletes were included in the symptomatic group (positive shoulder injury history and specific shoulder tests) and 22 athletes were included in the asymptomatic group (negative shoulder injury history and specific shoulder tests). Clinical examinations with specific shoulder tests, evaluation of rotational mobility, and symptoms of malposition and dyskinesis of the dominant scapula (SICK scapula syndrome) were performed. Glenohumeral rotators were isokinetically tested at 60 and 150°/s, with evaluation of stability ratios and rotator fatigability. On average, the participants had decreased internal rotation (P<0.001) and increased external rotation (P<0.001), lower spiking (P<0.01 at 60 and 150°/s) and conventional ratios (P?0.01 at 60 and 150°/s), lower eccentric external rotator peak torques (eER) (P?0.05 at 60 and 150°/s), and marginally lower eccentric internal rotator peak torques at 60°/s (P=0.061) on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side. The symptomatic group showed decreased ER (P=0.021), higher deficit of dominant eER at 60°/s (P=0.049), and higher fatigability of internal (P=0.013) and external rotators (P=0.028). The athletes with increased ER had more scapular lateralization (?=0.340, P=0.042), higher spiking ratios at 60°/s (?=0.349, P=0.037) and 150°/s (?=0.330, P=0.049), and lower cocking ratios at 60°/s (?=-0.477, P=0.003). Decreased dominant ER, higher deficit of dominant eccentric ER peak torques, and higher dominant rotator fatigability correlate with previous shoulder pain/injury. Different adaptive changes (rotational mobility, SICK scapula signs, and glenohumeral muscular imbalance) are inter-related. As a form of both prevention and rehabilitation for the athletes at risk, we recommend individually adjusted shoulder training on the basis of clinical and isokinetic testing. PMID:23282669

Tonin, Katarina; Stražar, Klemen; Burger, Helena; Vidmar, Gaj

2013-09-01

357

Distinctive response of CNS glial cells in oro-facial pain associated with injury, infection and inflammation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Oro-facial pain following injury and infection is frequently observed in dental clinics. While neuropathic pain evoked by injury associated with nerve lesion has an involvement of glia/immune cells, inflammatory hyperalgesia has an exaggerated sensitization mediated by local and circulating immune mediators. To better understand the contribution of central nervous system (CNS glial cells in these different pathological conditions, in this study we sought to characterize functional phenotypes of glial cells in response to trigeminal nerve injury (loose ligation of the mental branch, infection (subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide-LPS and to sterile inflammation (subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant-CFA on the lower lip. Each of the three insults triggered a specific pattern of mechanical allodynia. In parallel with changes in sensory response, CNS glial cells reacted distinctively to the challenges. Following ligation of the mental nerve, both microglia and astrocytes in the trigeminal nuclear complex were highly activated, more prominent in the principal sensory nucleus (Pr5 and subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C area. Microglial response was initiated early (days 3-14, followed by delayed astrocytes activation (days 7-28. Although the temporal profile of microglial and astrocyte reaction corresponded respectively to the initiation and chronic stage of neuropathic pain, these activated glial cells exhibited a low profile of cytokine expression. Local injection of LPS in the lower lip skin also triggered a microglial reaction in the brain, which started in the circumventricular organs (CVOs at 5 hours post-injection and diffused progressively into the brain parenchyma at 48 hours. This LPS-induced microglial reaction was accompanied by a robust induction of I?B-? mRNA and pro-inflammatory cytokines within the CVOs. However, LPS induced microglial activation did not specifically occur along the pain signaling pathway. In contrast, CFA injection led to minor microglial morphological changes and an induction of I?B-? mRNA in the CVO regions; a significant increase in IL-1? and IL-6 mRNA started only at 48 hours post-injection, when the induced pain-related behavior started to resolve. Our detailed analysis of CNS glial response clearly revealed that both nerve injury and oro-facial infection/inflammation induced CNS glial activation, but in a completely different pattern, which suggests a remarkable plasticity of glial cells in response to dynamic changes in their microenvironment and different potential involvement of this non-neuronal cell population in pathological pain development.

Ribeiro-da-Silva Alfredo

2010-11-01

358

Sensors for Desert Surveillance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

B. S. Chauhan

2005-10-01

359

The management of femur shaft fracture associated with severe traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this article is to describe the management of femoral shaft fractures in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This is a major problem and two questions remain currently of interest: When and how to perform orthopedic surgery in severe TBI patients? The main point of perioperative management remains the prevention of secondary brain insults and the monitoring of intracranial pressure is essential especially in patients with intracranial lesions on the CT-scan. The "double hit" concept, suggesting that surgery by itself might increase the preexisting systemic inflammatory response, gives argument for very early or delayed surgery. Early definitive femoral osteosynthesis, if requires lengthy surgical procedure, does not seem appropriate in this context and "damage-control orthopedics" with external fixation seems to be a good alternative. PMID:23910064

Mrozek, S; Gaussiat, F; Geeraerts, T

2013-01-01

360

The association between vibration and vascular injury in rheumatic diseases: a review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vascular manifestations can be seen early in the pathogenesis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Animal experiments, laboratory and clinical findings indicated that acute or long-term vibration exposure can induce vascular abnormalities. Recent years, in addition to Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), vibration as a risk factor for other rheumatic diseases has also received corresponding considered. This review is concentrated upon the role of vibration in the disease of systemic sclerosis (SSc). In this review, we are going to discuss the main mechanisms which are thought to be important in pathophysiology of vascular injury under the three broad headings of "vascular", "neural" and "intravascular". Aspects on the vibration and vascular inflammation are briefly discussed. And the epidemiological studies related to vibration studies in SSc and other rheumatic diseases are taken into account. PMID:25112484

Wang, Yu-Jie; Huang, Xiao-Lei; Yan, Jun-Wei; Wan, Ya-Nan; Wang, Bing-Xiang; Tao, Jin-Hui; Chen, Bing; Li, Bao-Zhu; Yang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Jing

2015-02-01

361

Sevelamer crystals in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT): a new entity associated with mucosal injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the first description of sevelamer crystals (Renagel and Renvela, Genzyme; phosphate-lowering agents) in the gastrointestinal tract. We prospectively collected cases with novel, histologically identical crystals from 4 major academic centers over a 1-year period and studied pertinent clinicopathologic features. Sevelamer usage in the setting of chronic kidney disease was demonstrated in all cases (n=15 total cases, 7 patients). Sites of involvement included the esophagus (n=2), small bowel (n=2), and colon (n=11). The background mucosa was normal in only 1 case. Notable mucosal abnormality included chronic mucosal damage (n=5), acute inflammation (n=4), inflammatory polyp (n=2), extensive ulceration (n=2), ischemia (n=1), and necrosis (n=1). In general, sevelamer crystals displayed broad, curved, and irregularly spaced "fish scales" with a variably eosinophilic to rusty brown color on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and violet color on periodic acid-Schiff-alcian special staining with diastase (PAS/D). To validate these findings, sevelamer tablets (Renvela) were crushed and submitted for histologic processing; the findings were identical to those in the patient specimens. The possibility of Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) and cholestyramine had been raised in error. However, Kayexalate has narrow, rectangular "fish scales" and is violet on H&E and magenta on PAS/D; cholestyramine lacks internal "fish scales," is bright orange on H&E, variably gray or hot pink on PAS/D, and is unassociated with mucosal injury. Further study is required to determine whether sevelamer plays a causal role in these injuries; however, its crystal is an important mimic of both Kayexalate and choleystyramine. As the history of sevelamer administration was not documented in any pathology requisition, awareness of sevelamer's characteristic morphology is crucial to avoid the diagnostic pitfalls of its mimics. PMID:24061514

Swanson, Benjamin J; Limketkai, Berkeley N; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Nazari, Kamran; Park, Jason Y; Santangelo, William C; Torbenson, Michael S; Voltaggio, Lysandra; Yearsley, Martha M; Arnold, Christina A

2013-11-01

362

Somatosensory phenotype is associated with thalamic metabolites and pain intensity after spinal cord injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropathic pain is one of the most difficult consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI). The clinical correlates of the underlying mechanisms responsible for neuropathic pain are not well understood, although methods such as quantitative somatosensory testing (QST) or brain imaging have been used to further a mechanism-based understanding of pain. Our previous SCI study demonstrated a significantly lower glutamate-glutamine/myo-inositol ratio (Glx/Ins) in the anterior cingulate cortex in persons with severe neuropathic pain compared with those with less severe neuropathic pain or pain-free, able-bodied controls, suggesting that a combination of decreased glutamatergic metabolism and glial activation may contribute to the development of severe neuropathic pain after SCI. The present study aimed to determine the relationships between somatosensory function below the level of injury and low thalamic Glx/Ins in persons with intense neuropathic pain after SCI. Participants underwent QST and a 3 Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A cluster analysis including SCI participants resulted in 1 group (n = 19) with significantly (P pain intensity (6.43 ± 1.63; high neuropathic pain [HNP], and lower Glx/Ins [1.22 ± 0.16]) and another group (n = 35) with lower pain intensity ratings (1.59 ± 1.52, low neuropathic pain [LNP], and higher Glx/Ins [1.47 ± 0.26]). After correcting for age, QST indicated significantly greater somatosensory function in the HNP group compared with the LNP group. Our results are consistent with research suggesting that damage to, but not abolition of, the spinothalamic tract contributes to development of neuropathic pain after SCI and that secondary inflammatory processes may amplify residual spinothalamic tract signals by facilitation, disinhibition, or sensitization. PMID:25599312

Widerström-Noga, Eva; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Felix, Elizabeth R; Pattany, Pradip M

2015-01-01

363

No association between q-angle and foot posture with running-related injuries : a 10 week prospective follow-up study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount of running performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if kilometers to running-related injury (RRI) differ among novice runners with different foot postures and Q-angles when running in a neutral running shoe.

Ramskov, Daniel; Jensen, M L

2013-01-01

364

No association between q-angle and foot posture with running-related injuries : A 10 week prospective follow-up study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount of running performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if kilometers to running-related injury (RRI) differ among novice runners with different foot postures and Q-angles when running in a neutral running shoe.

JØrgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke

2013-01-01

365

Preventable maternal mortality: Geographic/rural-urban differences and associated factors from the population-based maternal mortality surveillance system in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Most maternal deaths in developing countries can be prevented. China is among the 13 countries with the most maternal deaths; however, there has been a marked decrease in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR over the last 3 decades. China's reduction in the MMR has contributed significantly to the global decline of the MMR. This study examined the geographic and rural-urban differences, time trends and related factors in preventable maternal deaths in China during 1996-2005, with the aim of providing reliable evidence for effective interventions. Methods Data were retrieved from the population-based maternal mortality surveillance system in China. Each death was reviewed by three committees to determine whether it was avoidable. The preventable maternal mortality ratio (PMMR, the ratios of PMMR (risk ratio, RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to analyze regional disparities (coastal, inland and remote regions and rural-urban variations. Time trends in the MMR, along with underlying causes and associated factors of death, were also analysed. Results Overall, 86.1% of maternal mortality was preventable. The RR of preventable maternal mortality adjusted by region was 2.79 (95% CI 2.42-3.21 and 2.38 (95% CI: 2.01-2.81 in rural areas compared to urban areas during the 1996-2000 and 2001-2005 periods, respectively. Meanwhile, the RR was the highest in remote areas, which was 4.80(95%CI: 4.10-5.61 and 4.74(95%CI: 3.86-5.83 times as much as that of coastal areas. Obstetric haemorrhage accounted for over 50% of preventable deaths during the 2001-2005 period. Insufficient information about pregnancy among women in remote areas and out-of-date knowledge and skills of health professionals and substandard obstetric services in coastal regions were the factors frequently associated with MMR. Conclusions Preventable maternal mortality and the distribution of its associated factors in China revealed obvious regional differences. The PMMR was higher in underdeveloped regions. In future interventions in remote and inland areas, more emphasis should be placed on improving women's ability to utilize healthcare services, enhancing the service capability of health institutions, and increasing the accessibility of obstetric services. These approaches will effectively lower PMMR in those regions and narrow the gap among the different regions.

Zhou Rong

2011-04-01

366

The usefulness of MRI and arthroscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of soft-tissue injuries associated with split-depression fractures of the lateral tibial condyle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of arthroscopy in the treatment of soft-tissue injuries associated with proximal tibial fractures remains debatable. Our hypothesis was that MRI over-diagnoses clinically relevant associated soft-tissue injuries. This prospective study involved 50 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for a split-depression fracture of the lateral tibial condyle (AO/OTA type B3.1). The mean age of patients was 50 years (23 to 86) and 27 (54%) were female. All patients had MRI and arthroscopy. Arthroscopy identified 12 tears of the lateral meniscus, including eight bucket-handle tears that were sutured and four that were resected, as well as six tears of the medial meniscus, of which five were resected. Lateral meniscal injuries were diagnosed on MRI in four of 12 patients, yielding an overall sensitivity of 33% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11 to 65). Specificity was 76% (95% CI 59 to 88), with nine tears diagnosed among 38 menisci that did not contain a tear. MRI identified medial meniscal injuries in four of six patients, yielding an overall sensitivity of 67% (95% CI 24 to 94). Specificity was 66% (95% CI 50 to 79), with 15 tears diagnosed in 44 menisci that did not contain tears. MRI appears to offer only a marginal benefit as the specificity and sensitivity for diagnosing meniscal injuries are poor in patients with a fracture. There were fewer arthroscopically-confirmed associated lesions than reported previously in MRI studies. PMID:25452365

Parkkinen, M; Madanat, R; Mäkinen, T J; Mustonen, A; Koskinen, S K; Lindahl, J

2014-12-01

367

Evidence-Based Cerebral Vasospasm Surveillance  

OpenAIRE

Subarachnoid hemorrhage related to aneurysmal rupture (aSAH) carries significant morbidity and mortality, and its treatment is focused on preventing secondary injury. The most common—and devastating—complication is delayed cerebral ischemia resulting from vasospasm. In this paper, the authors review the various surveillance technologies available to detect cerebral vasospasm in the days following aSAH. First, evidence related to the most common modalities, including transcranial doppler u...

Mocco, J.; Heather Kistka; Dewan, Michael C.

2013-01-01

368

Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. PMID:24967691

Mosedale, Merrie; Wu, Hong; Kurtz, C Lisa; Schmidt, Stephen P; Adkins, Karissa; Harrill, Alison H

2014-10-01

369

Camp Sports Injuries: Analysis of Causes, Modes and Frequencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the description of sports injuries sustained by campers at summer camps, aged 7-15 years. A sample of 8 camps from the Greek camp population participated in this sport injury surveillance study. Doctors and camp directors completed reports detailing the number of sports injuries events sustained and provided specific information about each event. During the period of the study, 337 sport injury reports were completed. A total of 237 (70.3% boys and 100 (29.7% girls reported having a sport injury. Age of campers sustaining a sport injury was 10-12 years old (60.8%. The frequency of sports injuries was highest during the first camp season. The leading causes of sports injuries in children’s were: falls, crushed by object, collision with other person and slips. Cut/scratch injuries were the most common diagnoses (38.9%. Football, basketball and volleyball were the most frequent sport activities for injuries. Reports based surveillance systems can be successfully used to conducts sport injury surveillance among children attending summer camps. Data collected via such systems can be used to calculate sports injury rates, to describe patterns of sport injury and to identify risk factors for camper – related sport injuries. The results provide necessary information to develop prevention interventions to decrease the number of youth whose camp experiences are negatively affected by sport injury.

Panagiota Papageorgiou

2008-12-01

370

[Case of transfusion-related acute lung injury associated with severe intraoperative hypoxemia].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 39-year-old woman, undergoing debridement and flap reconstruction for a soft tissue infection in an upper limb, developed transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and hypoxemia after an intraoperative transfusion. Perioperatively, she received 8 units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) and 5 units of fresh frozen plasma. Shortly thereafter, hemoglobin oxygen saturation decreased from 100% to 94%, as measured with a pulse oximeter. Chest radiography showed diffuse bilateral pulmonary edema without heart enlargement and echocardiography revealed normal cardiac function. Based on the findings and clinical course, we diagnosed TRALI, started respiratory support with positive endexpiratory pressure ventilation, and administrated sivelestat and dopamine. Hemodynamics and pulmonary vascular permeability were assessed using transpulmonary thermodilution method (PiCCO, PULSION Medical Systems), which enabled determination of cardiac output and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI). EVLWI is useful for quantification of pulmonary edema, a beneficial indicator of cardiorespiratory management. Pulmonary edema improved and the trachea was extubated 34 hours after surgery. Antibodies against HLA were detected in the RBC donor serum sample, and a crossmatch test between the patient lymphocytes and donor serum was positive. We concluded that perioperative transfusion of blood components has a potential to provoke serious TRALI. PMID:18975546

Ito, Taishin; Kusunoki, Shinji; Kawamoto, Masashi

2008-10-01

371

[Boy with Coffin-Lowry syndrome associated with spinal cord injuries].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 12-year-old male patient with Coffin-Lowry syndrome was scheduled for posterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical spinal injuries. The patient had features of Coffin-Lowry syndrome including mental retardation, prominent forehead, a short nose with a wide tip, a wide mouth with full lips, short stature, microcephaly, and kyphoscoliosis. We anticipated major troubles related to anesthesia such as difficult ventilation and intubation, communication difficulty during induction and extubation, and difficulty in using a naso-pharyngeal airway. In addition, we had to stabilize neck alignments during intubation because cervical vertebrae were unstable and spinal cord has already been injured. Therefore, we scheduled slow induction with sevoflurane maintaining spontaneous respiration. As we found the full mouth opening of the patient after the induction, we inserted an intubating laryngeal mask, through which ventilation was successfully maintained. A tracheal tube was inserted through the intubating laryngeal mask. When the surgery was completed, we extubated using a tube introducer in the trachea. As we found that the patient's airway was open, we removed the introducer. In conclusion, with a thorough planning of the anesthetic management, we successfully managed anesthesia for cervical spinal surgery in a patient with Coffin-Lowry syndrome. PMID:24601120

Kawana, Yuki; Okamura, Kenta; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

2014-02-01

372

Prohibitin is associated with antioxidative protection in hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Prohibitin is an evolutionary conserved and pleiotropic protein that has been implicated in various cellular functions, including proliferation, tumour suppression, apoptosis, transcription, and mitochondrial protein folding. We recently demonstrated that prohibitin downregulation results in increased renal interstitial fibrosis. Here we investigated the role of oxidative stress and prohibitin expression in a hypoxia/reoxygenation injury system in renal tubular epithelial cells with lentivirus-based delivery vectors to knockdown or overexpress prohibitin. Our results show that increased prohibitin expression was negatively correlated with reactive oxygen species, malon dialdehyde, transforming-growth-factor-?1, collagen-IV, fibronectin, and apoptosis (r = -0.895, -0.764, -0.798, -0.826, -0.817, -0.735 each P < 0.01), but positively correlated with superoxide dismutase, glutathione and mitochondrial membrane potential (r = 0.807, 0.815, 0.739; each P < 0.01). We postulate that prohibitin acts as a positive regulator of mechanisms that counteract oxidative stress and extracellular matrix accumulation and therefore has an antioxidative effect.

Zhou, Tian-Biao; Qin, Yuan-Han; Lei, Feng-Ying; Huang, Wei-Fang; Drummen, Gregor P. C.

2013-11-01

373

Association of Traumatic Dental Injuries with Individual-, Sociodemographic- and School-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the association of untreated traumatic dental injuries (TDI with individual-, sociodemographic- and school-related factors among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 in the city of Goiania, Brazil. A random sample of 2075 schoolchildren was examined and interviewed. Untreated TDI in the permanent incisors was assessed using the methodology of the Brazilian National Oral Health Survey. Rao-Scott test and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the associations between independent variables and three categories of TDI, using a hierarchical method. Independent variables were children’s sex, self rated color/race and size of incisal overjet, their mother’s level of schooling, and the schools’ type and geographic location. The prevalence of trauma was 17.3% (CI 95% = 15.2–19.4; enamel fractures were the most common TDI (13.1%. In the adjusted model, a higher chance of having two or more teeth with TDI was found among boys, those whose mothers had lowest level of schooling, and those attending schools located in health districts with lower socioeconomic indicators. It was concluded that the prevalence of TDI was low and that it was associated with individual factors as well as the school environments.

Maria do Carmo Matias Freire

2014-09-01

374

Factors associated with inconsistency in self-reported mild traumatic brain injury over time among military personnel in Iraq.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Estimates of the prevalence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) among military personnel and combat veterans rely almost exclusively on retrospective self-reports; however, reliability of these reports has received little attention. Aims To examine the consistency of reporting of mTBI over time and identify factors associated with inconsistent reporting. Method A longitudinal cohort of 948 US National Guard Soldiers deployed to Iraq completed self-report questionnaire screening for mTBI and psychological symptoms while in-theatre 1 month before returning home (time 1, T1) and 1 year later (time 2, T2). Results Most respondents (n = 811, 85.5%) were consistent in their reporting of mTBI across time. Among those who were inconsistent in their reports (n = 137, 14.5%), the majority denied mTBI at T1 and affirmed mTBI at T2 (n = 123, 89.8%). Respondents rarely endorsed mTBI in-theatre and later denied mTBI (n = 14, 10.2% of those with inconsistent reports). Post-deployment post-traumatic stress symptoms and non-specific physical complaints were significantly associated with inconsistent report of mTBI. Conclusions Military service members' self-reports of mTBI are generally consistent over time; however, inconsistency in retrospective self-reporting of mTBI status is associated with current post-traumatic stress symptoms and non-specific physical health complaints. PMID:25614533

Nelson, Nathaniel W; Anderson, Carolyn R; Thuras, Paul; Kehle-Forbes, Shannon M; Arbisi, Paul A; Erbes, Christopher R; Polusny, Melissa A

2015-03-01

375

1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Brookhaven National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at BNL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

NONE

1995-12-31

376

Epidemiological Features of violence-related Injuries in Jamaica  

OpenAIRE

Background: Violence-related injuries are common in Caribbean countries such as Jamaica and are a major cause of mortality and morbidity. The study examined the epidemiology of violence-related injuries and ascertained the extent to which the utilization of violence-related injury reports and surveillances inform health policy and programme planning implementation in Jamaica.

Crawford, Tazhmoye V.; Mcgrowder, Donovan A.; Barnett, Jasper D.; Shaw-sanderson, Jewel H.

2014-01-01

377

Normalized Lactate Load Is Associated with Development of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Who Underwent Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Objective Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury is a major postoperative complication and has long been associated with adverse outcomes. However, the association of lactate and AKI has not been well established. The study aimed to explore the association of normalized lactate load with AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted in a 47-bed ICU of a tertiary academic teaching hospital from July 2012 to January 2014. All patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery were included. Normalized lactate load (L) was calculated by the equation: L=12×(tn?t0)?i=0n(vi+vi+1)×(ti+1?ti), where ti was time point for lactate measurement and vi was the value of lactate. L was transformed by natural log (Lln) to improve its normality. Logistic regression model was fitted by using stepwise method. Scale of Lln was examined by using fractional polynomial approach and potential interaction terms were explored. Results A total of 117 patients were included during study period, including 17 AKI patients and 100 non-AKI patients. In univariate analysis Lln was significantly higher in AKI as compared with non-AKI group (1.43±0.38 vs 1.01±0.45, p = 0.0005). After stepwise selection of covariates, the main effect logistic model contained variables of Lln (odds ratio: 11.1, 95% CI: 1.22–101.6), gender, age, baseline serum creatinine and fluid balance on day 0. Although the two-term fractional polynomial model was the best-fitted model, it was not significantly different from the linear model (Deviance difference = 6.09, p = 0.107). There was no significant interaction term between Lln and other variables in the main effect model. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that Lln is independently associated with postoperative AKI in patients undergoing CPB. There is no significant interaction with early postoperative fluid balance. PMID:25822369

Zhang, Zhongheng; Ni, Hongying

2015-01-01

378

Is a history of work-related low back injury associated with prevalent low back pain and depression in the general population?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role of prior occupational low back injury in future episodes of low back pain and disability in the general population. We conducted a study to determine if a lifetime history of work-related low back injury is associated with prevalent severity-graded low back pain, depressive symptoms, or both, in the general population. Methods We used data from the Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey – a population-based cross-sectional survey mailed to a random, stratified sample of 2,184 Saskatchewan adults 20 to 69 years of age in 1995. Information on the main independent variable was gathered by asking respondents whether they had ever injured their low back at work. Our outcomes, the 6-month period prevalence of severity-graded low back pain and depressive symptoms during the past week, were measured with valid and reliable questionnaires. The associations between prior work-related low back injury and our outcomes were estimated through multinomial and binary multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for age, gender, and other important covariates. Results Fifty-five percent of the eligible population participated. Of the 1,086 participants who responded to the question about the main independent variable, 38.0% reported a history of work-related low back injury. A history of work-related low back injury was positively associated with low intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 3.66; 95%CI, 2.48–5.42, with high intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 4.03; 95%CI, 2.41–6.76, and with high disability low back pain (OR, 6.76; 95%CI, 3.80–12.01. No association was found between a history of work-related low back injury and depression (OR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.55–1.30. Conclusion Our analysis shows an association between past occupational low back injury and increasing severity of prevalent low back pain, but not depression. These results suggest that past work-related low back injury may be an important risk factor for future episodes of low back pain and disability in the general population.

Cassidy J David

2008-02-01

379

Open extensor tendon injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extensor tendons in the dorsum of the hand lie relatively superficially, making open injuries to the extensor mechanism a common source of morbidity. These injuries can range from simple clean lacerations to complex open injuries associated with severe skin and soft tissue loss. Although many advances in the treatment of tendon injuries focused on the flexor tendon, the extensor tendon has begun to receive more attention in recent literature. Knowledge of modern repair techniques and rehabilitation protocols may improve patient outcomes. This Current Concepts article summarizes the treatment of open extensor tendon injuries with a focus on the recent literature. PMID:25557773

Amirtharajah, Mohana; Lattanza, Lisa

2015-02-01

380

Lipoic acid enhances survival of transplanted neural stem cells by reducing transplantation-associated injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Junling Gao,1,* Jason R Thonhoff,1,2,* Tiffany J Dunn,1 Ping Wu1 1Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; 2Department of Neurology, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The efficacy of stem cell-based therapy for neurological diseases depends highly on cell survival post-transplantation. One of the key factors affecting cell survival is the grafting procedure. The current study aims to determine whether needle insertion into intact rat spinal cords creates a hypoxic environment that is prone to lipid peroxidation damage upon reperfusion, and whether an antioxidant protects human neural stem cells (hNSCs both in vitro and post-transplantation into rat spinal cords. We show here that a single needle injection creates a hypoxic environment within the rat spinal cord that peaks at approximately 12 hours before reperfusion occurs. Lipid peroxidation damage at the transplantation site is evident by 48 hours post-needle insertion. In an in vitro model, hypoxia-reperfusion results in apoptotic death of hNSCs. Pretreatment with the antioxidant, ?-lipoic acid, protects hNSCs against hypoxia-reperfusion injury and oxidative stress–mediated cell death. Increasing glutathione, but not Akt signaling, contributes to the protective effect of lipoic acid. Pretreating hNSCs with lipoic acid also increases the cell survival rate 1 month post-transplantation. Further investigation is warranted to develop improved techniques to maximize the survival of transplanted stem cells. Keywords: neural stem cell, transplantation, hypoxia-reperfusion, antioxidant, cell survival, lipoic acid

Gao J

2013-07-01

381

Smart sensing surveillance system  

Science.gov (United States)

Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments and near perimeters and borders. The S4 is compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE®) standards. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

2010-04-01

382

Cerebrospinal fluid volume depletion in chronic whiplash-associated disorders from motor vehicle-related spinal injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume depletion in chronic cases of whiplash-associated disorders, 111In radioisotope (RI) cisternography, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and lumbar MR myelography were consecutively conducted on 460 individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorders resulting from motor vehicle collision (Group A, n=225) and other traumatic injuries (Group B, n=57), spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndromes and other miscellaneous disorders (Group C, n=155), iatrogenic intracranial hypotension syndrome (Group D, n=11), and communicating hydrocephalus (Group E, n=12). Movement of intrathecally administered RI via a lumbar puncture was sequentially scanned at 1, 2 or 3, 5 and 24 hours. A whole body neuroaxis scanned figure showing high spinal parathecal activity at any time was considered to be a CSF leak, if small enough meningeal diverticula evidenced by MR myelography were present. Retention rate (%) of intrathecal RI for each scan was calculated using the formula: (whole body count-urinary bladder count)/whole body count (cpm) at 1 h x 100. All CSF leaks, although having single to multiple poles, were located in the spinal canal. CSF leakage was observed in 99/225 (44%), 24/57 (42%), 61/155 (39%), 9/11 (82%), and 4/12 (33%), in Groups A, B, C, D and E respectively. All CSF leakages was involved with the lumbar spine in Group A, although 20 cases extended to mid-thoracic levels. In Group A, spinal vertebrae were concls. In Group A, spinal vertebrae were concomitantly injured in 7 cases (1 cervical spine dislocation, 1 cervical spine fracture, 2 thoracic and 1 lumbar compression fracture (s), and 2 lumbar disc hernia). CSF leakage for 2 cervical spine injuries was not at the injured site but at the lumbar spinal canal. CSF leakage limited to the lumbar spine involved 22 and 43 cases in groups B and C, respectively. Of all CSF leaks, 24 h retention rates less than 30% accounted for 90% of cases. In Group A, early CSF excretion and less than a 30% retention rate at 24 h was also observed in 37 out of 128 subjects without CSF leakage. In Group A, therefore, over half the individuals were postulated to have CSF volume depletion, with the most vulnerable sites for CSF leakage at lumbar spine levels. CSF leakage and/or depletion is likely to be at least partly responsible for chronic complex complaints in whiplash-associated disorders. (author)

383

Surveillance : Philosophical Inquiries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance.

Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark

384

Handbook of surveillance technologies  

CERN Document Server

From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

Petersen, JK

2012-01-01

385

GM1 improves neurofascin155 association with lipid rafts and prevents rat brain myelin injury after hypoxia-ischemia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available White matter injury characterized by damage to myelin is an important process in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Because the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin, neurofascin 155 (NF155), and its association with lipid rafts are essential for the establishment and stabilization of t [...] he paranodal junction, which is required for tight interaction between myelin and axons, we analyzed the effect of monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) on NF155 expression and its association with lipid rafts after HIBD in Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-15 g, on day 7 post-partum (P7; N = 20 per group). HIBD was induced on P7 and the rats were divided into two groups: one group received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg GM1 three times and the other group an injection of saline. There was also a group of 20 sham-operated rats. After sacrifice, the brains of the rats were removed on P30 and studied by immunochemistry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Staining showed that the saline group had definite rarefaction and fragmentation of brain myelin sheaths, whereas the GM1 group had no obvious structural changes. The GM1 group had 1.9-2.9-fold more GM1 in lipid rafts than the saline group (fraction 3-6; all P

Y.P., Zhang; Q.L., Huang; C.M., Zhao; J.L., Tang; Y.L., Wang.

2011-06-01

386

Lesiones oculares y perioculares asociadas a los traumatismos de órbita / Ocular and periocular injuries associated to orbital trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los traumatismos faciales, en especial cuando se producen fracturas que comprometen la órbita, se relaciona en gran medida con daños de las estructuras blandas oculares y perioculares que pueden ser irreversibles. Por lo tanto, es imperativo sospechar y diagnosticar tempranamente las condiciones que [...] ponen en riesgo el globo ocular y sus estructuras anexas y adyacentes para poder realizar un tratamiento temprano y efectivo y prevenir daños mayores. Presentamos una revisión del tema y el algoritmo de tratamiento utilizado en el Servicio de Cirugía Plástica del Hospital Universitario San Ignacio de Bogotá, Colombia, para detectar y tratar tempranamente lesiones oculares asociadas a los traumatismos faciales, potencialmente catastróficas para la función del ojo. Abstract in english Facial trauma, specially associated to fractures of the orbit, is related to a great extent of damages that can be irreversible to the ocular soft structures. Therefore it is imperative to suspect and to diagnose theese conditions that put in risk the ocular globe and its adjacent structures at an e [...] arly stage, in order to be able to perform rapid and effective treatment to prevent greater damage. We present a review on the subject and the algorithm of treating used at the Service of Plastic Surgery of the Hospital San Ignacio, Bogotá, Colombia, for early detection and treatment of potentially catastrophic injuries to the eye, associated to the facial trauma.

J. C., Zambrano; J. C., Leyva.

2007-12-01

387

Lesiones oculares y perioculares asociadas a los traumatismos de órbita Ocular and periocular injuries associated to orbital trauma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los traumatismos faciales, en especial cuando se producen fracturas que comprometen la órbita, se relaciona en gran medida con daños de las estructuras blandas oculares y perioculares que pueden ser irreversibles. Por lo tanto, es imperativo sospechar y diagnosticar tempranamente las condiciones que ponen en riesgo el globo ocular y sus estructuras anexas y adyacentes para poder realizar un tratamiento temprano y efectivo y prevenir daños mayores. Presentamos una revisión del tema y el algoritmo de tratamiento utilizado en el Servicio de Cirugía Plástica del Hospital Universitario San Ignacio de Bogotá, Colombia, para detectar y tratar tempranamente lesiones oculares asociadas a los traumatismos faciales, potencialmente catastróficas para la función del ojo.Facial trauma, specially associated to fractures of the orbit, is related to a great extent of damages that can be irreversible to the ocular soft structures. Therefore it is imperative to suspect and to diagnose theese conditions that put in risk the ocular globe and its adjacent structures at an early stage, in order to be able to perform rapid and effective treatment to prevent greater damage. We present a review on the subject and the algorithm of treating used at the Service of Plastic Surgery of the Hospital San Ignacio, Bogotá, Colombia, for early detection and treatment of potentially catastrophic injuries to the eye, associated to the facial trauma.

J. C. Zambrano

2007-12-01

388

GM1 improves neurofascin155 association with lipid rafts and prevents rat brain myelin injury after hypoxia-ischemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available White matter injury characterized by damage to myelin is an important process in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD. Because the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin, neurofascin 155 (NF155, and its association with lipid rafts are essential for the establishment and stabilization of the paranodal junction, which is required for tight interaction between myelin and axons, we analyzed the effect of monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1 on NF155 expression and its association with lipid rafts after HIBD in Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-15 g, on day 7 post-partum (P7; N = 20 per group. HIBD was induced on P7 and the rats were divided into two groups: one group received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg GM1 three times and the other group an injection of saline. There was also a group of 20 sham-operated rats. After sacrifice, the brains of the rats were removed on P30 and studied by immunochemistry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Staining showed that the saline group had definite rarefaction and fragmentation of brain myelin sheaths, whereas the GM1 group had no obvious structural changes. The GM1 group had 1.9-2.9-fold more GM1 in lipid rafts than the saline group (fraction 3-6; all P < 0.05 and 0.5-2.4-fold higher expression of NF155 in lipid rafts (fraction 3-5; all P < 0.05. Injection of GM1 increased t