WorldWideScience

Sample records for association injury surveillance

  1. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Gymnastics Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen W; Covassin, Tracey; Dick, Randall; Nassar, Lawrence G; Agel, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's gymnastics and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: In the 1988–1989 academic year, 112 schools were sponsoring varsity women's gymnastics teams, with approximately 1550 participants. By 2003–2004, the number of varsity teams had decreased 23% to 86, involving 1380 participants. Significant participation reductions during this time were particularly apparent in Divisions II and III. Main Results: A significant annual average decrease was noted in competition (−4.0%, P < .01) but not in practice (−1.0%, P = .35) injury rates during the sample period. Over the 16 years, the rate of injury in competition was more than 2 times higher than in practice (15.19 versus 6.07 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures; rate ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 2.8). A total of 53% of all competition and 69% of all practice injuries were to the lower extremity. A participant was almost 6 times more likely to sustain a knee internal derangement injury in competition than in practice (rate ratio = 5.7, 95% CI = 4.5, 7.3) and almost 3 times more likely to sustain an ankle ligament sprain (rate ratio = 2.7, 95% CI = 2.1, 3.4). The majority of competition injuries (approximately 70%) resulted from either landings in floor exercises or dismounts. Recommendations: Gymnasts with a previous history of ankle sprain should either wear an ankle brace or use prophylactic tape on their ankles to decrease the risk of recurrent injury. Preventive efforts may incorporate more neuromuscular training and core stability programs in the off-season and preseason conditioning to enhance proper landing and skill mechanics. Equipment manufacturers are encouraged to reevaluate the design of the landing mats to allow for better absorption of forces. PMID:17710171

  2. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (TBISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had developed and maintains a surveillance system to understand the magnitude and characteristics of hospitalized and fatal traumatic brain injuries in the United State...

  3. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  4. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) On-line

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a national probability sample of hospitals. Patient information is collected for every emergency...

  6. Injury & illness surveillance study: London 2012 Olympic Summer Games

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Injury surveillance provides not only important epidemiological information, but also direction for injury prevention. During the 2004 Olympic Games, the eight international team sports federations (FIBA, FIFA, FINA, the FIH, the FIVB, IBAF, the IHF and the ISF) participated in a study on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in all 14 team sport tournaments using an established injury-surveillance system. The acceptance and compliance of the project was excellent, as demonstrated by ...

  7. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2010 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. CPSC’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a national probability sample of hospitals in the U.S. and its territories. Patient information is...

  8. Application of an injury surveillance system to injuries at an industrial facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C S; Cloeren, M; Schwartz, B S

    1993-08-01

    We developed a computerized surveillance database employing the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and sampled three months of nonfatal injuries at a large industrial facility. Data from 197 injury visits to the plant medical department were collected. With the addition of some new AIS codes for injuries specific to the workplace, most injuries could be coded and severity scores calculated with good interrater reliability. Neither Maximum AIS nor Injury Severity Score (ISS) predicted restricted or lost work time. Because of its ease of automation and reliability, the AIS can serve as a useful tool for occupational injury surveillance, but its current severity scoring system is not predictive of disability. PMID:8357458

  9. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. Injury surveillance at a national multi-sport event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C; Cunningham, S

    1996-06-01

    The 1994 Australian Universities Games represents a multi-sport event which featured 5106 participants competing in nineteen sports. Injury surveillance was conducted by means of the injury Surveillance Form, which recorded time, mechanism, site, type and severity of injury, as well as initial treatment and referral patterns. Over six days of competition, 1177 presentations with injury were recorded, sustained by 994 athletes or 19.5% of all participating athletes. Tae kwon do and hockey were the sports with the greatest incidence of injury. Haematomas, muscle strains and ligament sprains were the most common injuries, with contact and overuse the most common mechanisms of injury. Mild injuries dominated and severe injuries were uncommon. 75% of injuries were initially assessed and treated by a nurse, first aid officer or sports trainer; 15% by a physiotherapist and 10% by a doctor. The authors' recommendation is that such a team of medical staff should be an integral part of any large sporting event, whether participants are professionals or amateurs. Additionally, they need to be supported by facilities and services such as central clinics, a nearby x-ray centre, a nearby hospital and an ambulance/first aid transport network. PMID:8836476

  4. Rugby World Cup 2003 injury surveillance project

    OpenAIRE

    Best, J.; McIntosh, A; Savage, T.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To study match injury patterns and incidence during the Rugby World Cup 2003 (RWC 2003); to compare these patterns and rates with comparative rugby injury data; and to assess differences between teams playing at different levels (eight finalists v 12 non-finalists).

  5. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Antonios Douros; Elisabeth Bronder; Frank Andersohn; Andreas Klimpel; Reinhold Kreutz; Edeltraut Garbe; Juliane Bolbrinker

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake ...

  6. Injury Surveillance Among NASA Astronauts Using the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. D.; Laughlin, M. S.; Eudy, D. L.; Wear, M. L.; VanBaalen, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform physically demanding tasks and risk incurring musculoskeletal injuries during both groundbased training and missions. Increased injury rates throughout the history of the U.S. space program have been attributed to numerous factors, including an aging astronaut corps, increased Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training to construct the International Space Station, and improved clinical operations that promote injury prevention and reporting. With NASA program changes through the years (including retirement of the Shuttle program) and an improved training environment (including a new astronaut gym), there is no surveillance program to systematically track injury rates. A limited number of research projects have been conducted over the past 20 years to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries: (1) to evaluate orthopedic injuries from 1987 to 1995, (2) to describe upper extremity injuries, (3) to evaluate EVA spacesuit training related injuries, and (4) to evaluate in-flight musculoskeletal injuries. Nevertheless, there has been no consistently performed comprehensive assessment of musculoskeletal injuries among astronauts. The Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix was introduced at the 2001 meeting of the International Collaborative Effort (ICE) on Injury Statistics. The Matrix proposes a standardized method of classifying body region by nature of injury. Diagnoses are coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and complexity of the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix to classify and track musculoskeletal injuries among NASA astronauts.

  7. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. Concordance between childhood injury diagnoses from two sources: an injury surveillance system and a physician billing claims database

    OpenAIRE

    Kostylova, A; Swaine, B; Feldman, D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To determine the concordance between injury diagnoses (head injury (HI), probable HI, or orthopedic injury) for children visiting an emergency department for an injury using two data sources: an injury surveillance system (Canadian Hospitals Injury Research and Prevention Program, CHIRPP) and a physician billing claims database (Régie de l'assurance maladie de Québec, RAMQ), and (2) to determine the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic and procedure codes in billing claim...

  11. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  12. Tumor-Associated Glycans and Immune Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas Pashov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in cell surface glycosylation are a hallmark of the transition from normal to inflamed and neoplastic tissue. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs challenge our understanding of immune tolerance, while functioning as immune targets that bridge innate immune surveillance and adaptive antitumor immunity in clinical applications. T-cells, being a part of the adaptive immune response, are the most popular component of the immune system considered for targeting tumor cells. However, for TACAs, T-cells take a back seat to antibodies and natural killer cells as first-line innate defense mechanisms. Here, we briefly highlight the rationale associated with the relative importance of the immune surveillance machinery that might be applicable for developing therapeutics.

  13. 2006 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2007 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2010 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2007 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2006 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2010 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2010 Nevada National Security Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2007 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2006 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  7. Limitations of child injury data from the CPSC's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System: the case of baby walker related data.

    OpenAIRE

    H. B. Weiss

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The US Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a primary source for children's consumer product injury surveillance data in the US. Differing interpretations of the emergency department based NEISS baby walker data by various parties prompted this detailed examination, reclassification, and analysis of the NEISS data to explain these discrepancies. METHODS: Case selection was performed by searching the NEISS 1982-91 database f...

  8. Railway associated injuries in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Razzak, Junaid A

    2010-03-01

    Pakistan is ranked 12th worldwide for passenger kilometres (km) travelled by railway network. The objective of this study was to assess the railway network related morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Reported deaths and injuries due to this network were extracted from two secondary datasets: (1) an international disaster database and (2) ambulance log registers for the city of Karachi. Over the period from 1997 to 2006, a total of 11 railway disasters resulted in 449 deaths and 840 injuries. An estimated 2.05 passengers died and another 3.84 passengers were injured per billion km travelled in Pakistan, a rate six times higher than Western European countries. The ambulance log showed that one person died every two weeks in Karachi over a period from September 2007 to Jun 2008 (N = 26). The male-to-female ratio of all injury victims (N = 50) was 9:1 with a mean age of 35.6 years. Surveillance of these injuries is essential to implement prevention and control measures in Pakistan. PMID:19787521

  9. Global childhood unintentional injury surveillance in four cities in developing countries: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan A Hyder

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and nature of childhood injuries and to explore the risk factors for such injuries in low-income countries by using emergency department (ED surveillance data. METHODS: This pilot study represents the initial phase of a multi-country global childhood unintentional injury surveillance (GCUIS project and was based on a sequential sample of children 5 years, 32 (2% were < 1 year old. Injuries were especially frequent (34% during the morning hours. They occurred in and around the home in 56% of the cases, outside while children played in 63% and during trips in 11%. Of all the injuries observed, 913 (56% involved falls; 350 (22%, road traffic injuries; 210 (13%, burns; 66 (4%, poisoning; and 20 (1%, near drowning or drowning. Falls occurred most often from stairs or ladders; road traffic injuries most often involved pedestrians; the majority of burns were from hot liquids; poisonings typically involved medicines, and most drowning occurred in the home. The mean injury severity score was highest for near drowning or drowning (11, followed closely by road traffic injuries (10. There were 6 deaths, of which 2 resulted from drowning, 2 from falls and 2 from road traffic injuries. CONCLUSION: Hospitals in low-income countries bear a substantial burden of childhood injuries, and systematic surveillance is required to identify the epidemiological distribution of such injuries and understand their risk factors. Methodological standardization for surveillance across countries makes it possible to draw international comparisons and identify common issues.

  10. 2003 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the East Tennessee Technology Park (K-25).The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. Injury surveillance in an accident and emergency department: a year in the life of CHIRPP

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, A.; STONE, D; Doraiswamy, N; Ramsay, L.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The design of childhood injury prevention programmes is hindered by a dearth of valid and reliable information on injury frequency, cause, and outcome. A number of local injury surveillance systems have been developed to address this issue. One example is CHIRPP (Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program), which has been imported into the accident and emergency department at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow. This paper examines a y...

  12. Occupational injury surveillance: A study in a metal smelting industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Asim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of occupational injury was undertaken in a metal smelting industry to examine the occurrence and nature of occupational accidents where analysis of occupational injury records was carried out. At the same time, all the workers were interviewed to collect data in relation to personal and occupational characteristics. With this information, the study aimed to examine the role of different factors in the causation of occupational accidents. High incidence of superficial injuries of limbs due mostly to stepping / striking against objects and overexertion / wrong movements of the workers and the frequent association of handling of small tools with work injuries, observed in this study indicated the role of human error in these accidents and highlighted the necessity of proper safety training of the workers. This study also highlighted the need of elevated safety status during summer months and in evening and night shifts (more so in the second half. Moreover, this study could categorize some high-risk groups e.g. young workers, less-experienced workers, obese workers, workers having smoking / chewing habits etc, who need special attention so far as workplace safety is concerned.

  13. 2003 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Y-12. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2008 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2007 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2007 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2009 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-07-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2008 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2007 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-03-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2003 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-02

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Brookhaven National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2003 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2003 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Los Alamos National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2003 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for the Hanford site. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The prpogram is part of DOE's commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers and includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers.

  8. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2003 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Pantex Plant. DOE is commited to assuring the health and safety of its workers. This includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2003 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Kansas City Plant. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2008 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. Injury surveillance in low-resource settings using Geospatial and Social Web technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuurman Nadine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive public health gains have benefited high-income countries in recent decades, however, citizens of low and middle-income countries (LMIC have largely not enjoyed the same advancements. This is in part due to the fact that public health data - the foundation for public health advances - are rarely collected in many LMIC. Injury data are particularly scarce in many low-resource settings, despite the huge associated burden of morbidity and mortality. Advances in freely-accessible and easy-to-use information and communication (ICT technology may provide the impetus for increased public health data collection in settings with limited financial and personnel resources. Methods and Results A pilot study was conducted at a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa to assess the utility and feasibility of using free (non-licensed, and easy-to-use Social Web and GeoWeb tools for injury surveillance in low-resource settings. Data entry, geocoding, data exploration, and data visualization were successfully conducted using these technologies, including Google Spreadsheet, Mapalist, BatchGeocode, and Google Earth. Conclusion This study examined the potential for Social Web and GeoWeb technologies to contribute to public health data collection and analysis in low-resource settings through an injury surveillance pilot study conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. The success of this study illustrates the great potential for these technologies to be leveraged for public health surveillance in resource-constrained environments, given their ease-of-use and low-cost, and the sharing and collaboration capabilities they afford. The possibilities and potential limitations of these technologies are discussed in relation to the study, and to the field of public health in general.

  13. Insurance claims data: a possible solution for a national sports injury surveillance system? An evaluation of data information against ASIDD and consensus statements on sports injury surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Åman, Malin; Forssblad, Magnus; Henriksson-Larsén, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background Before preventive actions can be suggested for sports injuries at the national level, a solid surveillance system is required in order to study their epidemiology, risk factors and mechanisms. There are guidelines for sports injury data collection and classifications in the literature for that purpose. In Sweden, 90% of all athletes (57/70 sports federations) are insured with the same insurance company and data from their database could be a foundation for studies on acute sports i...

  14. The relevance of WHO injury surveillance guidelines for evaluation: learning from the aboriginal community-centered injury surveillance system (ACCISS and two institution-based systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer Anna M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past three decades, the capacity to develop and implement injury surveillance systems (ISS has grown worldwide and is reflected by the diversity of data gathering environments in which ISS operate. The capacity to evaluate ISS, however, is less advanced and existing evaluation guidelines are ambiguous. Furthermore, the applied relevance of these guidelines to evaluate ISS operating in various settings is unclear. The aim of this paper was to examine how the World Health Organization (WHO injury surveillance guidelines have been applied to evaluate systems operating in three different contexts. Methods The attributes of a good surveillance system as well as instructions for conducting evaluations, outlined in the WHO injury surveillance guidelines, were used to develop an analytical framework. Using this framework, a comparative analysis of the application of the guidelines was conducted using; the Aboriginal Community-Centered Injury Surveillance System (ACCISS from Canada, the Shantou-Emergency Department Injury Surveillance Project (S-EDISP from China, and the Yorkhill-Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (Y-CHIRPP imported from Canada and implemented in Scotland. Results The WHO guidelines provide only a basic platform for evaluation. The guidelines over emphasize epidemiologic attributes and methods and under emphasize public health and injury prevention perspectives requiring adaptation for context-based relevance. Evaluation elements related to the dissemination and use of knowledge, acceptability, and the sustainability of ISS are notably inadequate. From a public health perspective, alternative reference points are required for re-conceptualizing evaluation paradigms. This paper offers an ISS evaluation template that considers how the WHO guidelines could be adapted and applied. Conclusions Findings suggest that attributes of a good surveillance system, when used as evaluation metrics, cannot be weighted equally across ISS. In addition, the attribute of acceptability likely holds more relevance than previously recognized and should be viewed as a critical underpinning attribute of ISS. Context-oriented evaluations sensitive to distinct operational environments are more likely to address knowledge gaps related to; understanding links between the production of injury data and its use, and the effectiveness, impact, and sustainability of ISS. Current frameworks are predisposed to disassociating epidemiologic approaches from subjective factors and social processes.

  15. Poisson Regression Analysis of Illness and Injury Surveillance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frome E.L., Watkins J.P., Ellis E.D.

    2012-12-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) uses illness and injury surveillance to monitor morbidity and assess the overall health of the work force. Data collected from each participating site include health events and a roster file with demographic information. The source data files are maintained in a relational data base, and are used to obtain stratified tables of health event counts and person time at risk that serve as the starting point for Poisson regression analysis. The explanatory variables that define these tables are age, gender, occupational group, and time. Typical response variables of interest are the number of absences due to illness or injury, i.e., the response variable is a count. Poisson regression methods are used to describe the effect of the explanatory variables on the health event rates using a log-linear main effects model. Results of fitting the main effects model are summarized in a tabular and graphical form and interpretation of model parameters is provided. An analysis of deviance table is used to evaluate the importance of each of the explanatory variables on the event rate of interest and to determine if interaction terms should be considered in the analysis. Although Poisson regression methods are widely used in the analysis of count data, there are situations in which over-dispersion occurs. This could be due to lack-of-fit of the regression model, extra-Poisson variation, or both. A score test statistic and regression diagnostics are used to identify over-dispersion. A quasi-likelihood method of moments procedure is used to evaluate and adjust for extra-Poisson variation when necessary. Two examples are presented using respiratory disease absence rates at two DOE sites to illustrate the methods and interpretation of the results. In the first example the Poisson main effects model is adequate. In the second example the score test indicates considerable over-dispersion and a more detailed analysis attributes the over-dispersion to extra-Poisson variation. The R open source software environment for statistical computing and graphics is used for analysis. Additional details about R and the data that were used in this report are provided in an Appendix. Information on how to obtain R and utility functions that can be used to duplicate results in this report are provided.

  16. Fireworks-related injury surveillance in the Philippines: trends in 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bobbie Roca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the annual fireworks-related injury surveillance data collected by the Philippines Department of Health (DOH in 2010–2014 was conducted to describe the profile of such injuries in the Philippines. Surveillance data were collected from DOH’s Online National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and analysed. A case was defined as any person who had sustained injury from fireworks in any form within the 16-day surveillance period (21 December to 5 January and had presented to any of the 50 sentinel hospitals. Of the 4649 cases, there were 4706 fireworks-related injuries involving 5076 anatomic sites in 2010–2014. A significant decrease of cases in 2014 was observed when compared with the previous study years (P = 0.02. The number of cases peaked at public holidays. Males (80% were more commonly injured, and children aged 5 to 14 years were primarily affected (47%. Ignition of illegal fireworks accounted for half (50% of the injuries; most injuries (68% occurred in street settings. The majority of injuries (57% were sustained by fireworks igniters. The most common anatomic injury sites were hands (44%, legs (21% and eyes (14%. Illegal fireworks were related to 100% (4/4 of the deaths and 49% (105/214 of the cases who needed amputations. Fireworks-related injuries declined significantly in 2014. Public awareness campaigns may have contributed to reducing the injury occurrences. As illegal fireworks accounted for all deaths and more than half of the amputations, law enforcement should be directed toward preventing importing, distributing and using illegal fireworks.

  17. Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaidi, Rashid; Basu, Rajit K; Goldstein, Stuart L; Bagshaw, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an epidemic problem. Sepsis has long been recognized as a foremost precipitant of AKI. Sepsis-associated AKI (SA-AKI) portends a high burden of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults with critical illness. Although our understanding of its pathophysiology is incomplete, SA-AKI likely represents a distinct subset of AKI contributed to by a unique constellation of hemodynamic, inflammatory, and immune mechanisms. SA-AKI poses significant clinical challenges for clinicians. To date, no singular effective therapy has been developed to alter the natural history of SA-AKI. Rather, current strategies to alleviate poor outcomes focus on clinical risk identification, early detection of injury, modifying clinician behavior to avoid harm, early appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and surveillance among survivors for the longer-term sequelae of kidney damage. Recent evidence has confirmed that patients no longer die with AKI, but from AKI. To improve the care and outcomes for sufferers of SA-AKI, clinicians need a robust appreciation for its epidemiology and current best-evidence strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:25795495

  18. Comparing pediatric intentional injury surveillance data with data from publicly available sources: consequences for a public health response to violence

    OpenAIRE

    STONE, D; Kharasch, S.; Perron, C.; Wilson, K.; Jacklin, B.; Sege, R

    1999-01-01

    Objective—A hospital based intentional injury surveillance system for youth (aged 3–18) was compared with other publicly available sources of information on youth violence. The comparison addressed whether locally conducted surveillance provides data that are sufficiently more complete, detailed, and timely that clinicians and public health practitioners interested in youth violence prevention would find surveillance worth conducting.

  19. A profile of Injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainiqolo Iris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (≥12 hours stay in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. Results The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29% and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%. The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Conclusions Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.

  20. Alaska's model program for surveillance and prevention of occupational injury deaths.

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, G A; Lincoln, J. M.; Husberg, B J; Manwaring, J C; Klatt, M L; Thomas, T K

    1999-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established its Alaska Field Station in Anchorage in 1991 after identifying Alaska as the highest-risk state for traumatic worker fatalities. Since then, the Field Station, working in collaboration with other agencies, organizations, and individuals, has established a program for occupational injury surveillance in Alaska and formed interagency working groups to address the risk factors leading to occupational death and injury ...

  1. Elevated depressive symptoms and adolescent injury: examining associations by injury frequency, injury type, and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Asbridge, Mark; Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Donald B; Rasic, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Key risk factors for adolescent injury have been well documented, and include structural, behavioural, and psychosocial indicators. While psychiatric distress has been associated with suicidal behaviour and related self-harm, very little research has examined the role of depression in shaping adolescent injury. This study examines the association of elevated depressive symptoms with injury, including total number of injuries and injury type. Gender differences are also considered. ...

  2. Comparison of data sources for the surveillance of work injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mustard, Cameron A; Chambers, Andrea; McLeod, Christopher; Bielecky, Amber; Smith, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of work-related injury and illness presenting to Ontario emergency departments to the incidence of worker's compensation claims reported to the Ontario Workplace Safety & Insurance Board over the period 2004–2008. Methods Records of work-related injury were obtained from two administrative data sources in Ontario for the period 2004–2008: workers' compensation lost-time claims (N=435 336) and records of non-scheduled emergency...

  3. Injury caused by airbag VS. injuries associated with airbag deploys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Popa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of airbags systems in motor vehicles designed to transport of persons led in time to a significant decrease of the rate of death among passengers involved in car accidents. However airbag systems are not harmless, it produces lesions that vary in intensity depending on many factors. But decidedly, we can meet injuries associated with the triggering of the airbag system. Therefore, it must be made a clear difference between the two types of injuries, this being particularly important in terms of medico-legal especially regarding the mechanism of injury.

  4. Using local injury surveillance for community-based injury prevention: an analysis of scandinavian WHO safe community and canadian safe community foundation programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Per; Bourne, Michael; Coggan, Carolyn

    2007-03-01

    Injury surveillance is widely recognized as a critical prerequisite for effective injury prevention, yet few studies have investigated its use by community-based injury prevention programmes. This study examined the extent to which local injury data were collected, documented, analysed, linked to injury prevention action and used for evaluation among WHO Safe Communities in Scandinavia (25 programmes) and the Canadian Safe Community Foundation (SCF) network (16 programmes). For each programme, a key informant with relevant local knowledge was selected to respond to an emailed questionnaire. The study demonstrates that community-based injury prevention programmes experience difficulties accessing and effectively utilizing local injury surveillance data. The findings suggest that the responding SCF programmes approach injury prevention more scientifically than the Scandinavian WHO-designated Safe Community programmes, by making greater use of injury surveillance for assessment, integration into prevention strategies and measures, and evaluation. Despite study limitations, such as the low response rate among Canadian programmes and a large number of non-responses to two questions, the results highlight the importance of, and need for, greater use of local injury surveillance. PMID:17624009

  5. Ureteric injuries associated with gynecologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwudiegwu, U; Makinde, O O; Badejo, O A; Okonofua, F E; Ogunniyi, S O

    1991-03-01

    We conducted a review of eight ureteric injuries associated with major gynecologic surgery in seven patients over an 11-year period. Our low incidence of 0.36% is comparable with other reports. Diagnosis was made either intra-operatively or postoperatively. Immediate ureteric repair is advocated for all injuries discovered intra-operatively. Attention to preventive measures both before and during gynecological operations will reduce the incidence of ureteric injuries. PMID:1673940

  6. Descriptive epidemiology of injury cases: findings from a pilot injury surveillance system in Abu Dhabi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Hafizur; Allen, Katharine A; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-06-01

    Considering the high burden of injuries, the Health Authority - Abu Dhabi developed a draft electronic and paper-based injury and poisoning notification system (IPNS) to generate better data on the nature and severity of injuries. The pilot testing and evaluation of IPNS was conducted with the specific objectives to (1) identify the characteristics of injury cases, (2) explore potential risk factors, (3) illustrate the nature and type of data, and (4) the working mechanism of data collection. Data were collected from selected hospitals on patient demographics, injury information and clinical assessment. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Of 4226 injury cases, nearly three-fourths were male, majority were non-UAE nationals, and the mean age was 21.9. Multivariate findings suggested that compared to UAE nationals, non-UAE nationals were 27% more likely to experience fatal, severe or moderate injuries (p = 0.01). Individuals with health insurance were 31% less likely to suffer a fatal, severe or moderate injury compared to those having no health insurance (p < 0.001). This is the first systematically standardised collection of injury data across three facilities in Abu Dhabi, and provides initial information on characteristics and injury risk factors that will help identify the need for evidence-based intervention for injury prevention and control. PMID:25262785

  7. Injury risk is low among world-class volleyball players: 4-year data from the FIVB Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bere, Tone; Kruczynski, Jacek; Veintimilla, Nadge; Hamu, Yuichiro; Bahr, Roald

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the rate and pattern of injuries in international volleyball competition. Objective To describe the risk and pattern of injuries among world-class players based on data from the The International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) (junior and senior, male and female). Methods The FIVB ISS is based on prospective registration of injuries by team medical staff during all major FIVB tournaments (World Championships, World Cup, World Grand Prix, World League, Olympic Games). This paper is based on 4-year data (September 2010 to November 2014) obtained through the FIVB ISS during 32 major FIVB events (23 senior and 9 junior). Results The incidence of time-loss injuries during match play was 3.8/1000 player hours (95% CI 3.0 to 4.5); this was greater for senior players than for junior players (relative risk: 2.04, 1.29 to 3.21), while there was no difference between males and females (1.04, 0.70 to 1.55). Across all age and sex groups, the ankle was the most commonly injured body part (25.9%), followed by the knee (15.2%), fingers/thumb (10.7%) and lower back (8.9%). Injury incidence was greater for centre players and lower for liberos than for other player functions; injury patterns also differed between player functions. Conclusions Volleyball is a very safe sport, even at the highest levels of play. Preventive measures should focus on acute ankle and finger sprains, and overuse injuries in the knee, lower back and shoulder. PMID:26194501

  8. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias; Simon, Judith; Nagenborg, Michael

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...

  9. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  10. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  11. Sciatic Nerve Injury Associated with Acetabular Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Issack, Paul S; Helfet, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Sciatic nerve injuries associated with acetabular fractures may be a result of the initial trauma or injury at the time of surgical reconstruction. Patients may present with a broad range of symptoms ranging from radiculopathy to foot drop. There are several posttraumatic, perioperative, and postoperative causes for sciatic nerve palsy including fracturedislocation of the hip joint, excessive tension or inappropriate placement of retractors, instrument- or implant-related complications, hete...

  12. Falls in residential carpentry and drywall installation: findings from active injury surveillance with union carpenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Dement, John M; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Li, Leiming; Cameron, Wilfred

    2003-08-01

    Active injury surveillance was conducted with a large, unionized workforce of residential and drywall carpenters over a 3-year period. Injured carpenters were interviewed by trained carpenter investigators and sites were visited where falls occurred. Qualitative information was collected on exposures, risk perception, training, and mentoring. Falls accounted for 20% of injuries. Same-level falls were often related to weather, carrying objects-sometimes with an obstructed view-housekeeping, terrain of the lot, and speed of work. Falls from height occurred from a variety of work surfaces and involved ladders, scaffolding, roofs, work on other unsecured surfaces, unprotected openings, speed, and weather conditions. Recognized fall protection strategies, such as guardrails, toe boards, tying off to appropriate anchors, and guarding openings, would have prevented many of these falls; these practices were not the norm on many sites. PMID:12915790

  13. Open Calcaneus Fractures and Associated Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Jacob R; Elliott, Mark R; Harris, Anthony M

    2016-01-01

    Open calcaneus fractures are usually the result of high-energy mechanisms and are associated with other orthopedic and whole body system injures. Understanding the difference between open versus closed fractures is essential for the provider, and they must be vigilant for the associated injuries that present with this condition. We performed a retrospective medical record review of 62 patients (64 calcaneus fractures) with open calcaneus fractures from January 2003 to January 2013 presenting at a level 1 trauma center. Sex, age, laterality, mechanism of injury, wound appearance, initial management, and associated injures were recorded. The most common mechanisms were motor vehicle accidents (35 [56.4%]) and falls from >6 ft (15 [24.1%]). Four (6.4%) patients had a posterior tibial artery transection. Eight (12.9%) patients had a femoral shaft fracture, 14 (22.5%) an ipsilateral ankle fracture, 16 (25.8%) a metatarsal fracture, and 11 (17.7%) had associated midfoot fractures. Of the midfoot fractures, 12 (19.3%) patients had a talus fracture and 5 (8.0%) a cuboid fracture. Spinal fractures were present in 9 (14.5%) of the patients, with lumbar fractures occurring in 6 (9.6%) patients. Fifteen (24.1%) patients had associated upper extremity fractures. Thirteen (20.9%) patients had an associated pulmonary injury, including 8 pneumothoraces. Ten (16.1%) patients had a closed head injury and 6 (9.6%) had an abdominal injury. Fifteen (23.4%) patients were treated with percutaneous wire fixation and 7 (10.9%) with open reduction internal fixation. A total of 44 (68.7%) fractures were treated without internal fixation. Overall, 5 (8.0%) patients with an open calcaneus fracture eventually underwent a below-the-knee amputation. Open calcaneus fractures are severe, high-energy injuries with the potential for considerable morbidity to the patient, given the high rate of concomitant orthopedic and whole body system injuries. Type III open injuries have an increased risk of requiring subsequent amputation. The management of these injuries should include intravenous antibiotics, tetanus prophylaxis, and urgent debridement and irrigation. PMID:26243720

  14. Using Surveillance Data to Inform Community Action: The Effect of Alcohol Sale Restrictions on Intentional Injury-related Ambulance Pickups

    OpenAIRE

    Masho, Saba W.; Bishop, Diane L.; Edmonds, Torey; Farrell, Albert D.

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence disproportionately affects inner city, urban minority communities in the USA. This article illustrates the use of surveillance data to inform and evaluate community action directed at this serious problem. Community efforts in response to surveillance data indicating high rates of violence surrounding convenience stores with unrestricted alcohol beverage licenses provided a natural experiment to examine the impact of imposing licensing restrictions on intentional injury rates. ...

  15. Counselees' Expressed Level of Understanding of the Risk Estimate and Surveillance Recommendation are Not Associated with Breast Cancer Surveillance Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albada, Akke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Dijkstra, Henrietta; Wieffer, Ivette; Witkamp, Arjen; Ausems, Margreet G E M

    2016-04-01

    We studied counselees' expressed understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation in the final consultation for breast cancer genetic counseling in relation with their risk perception, worry and cancer surveillance adherence 1 year post-counseling. Consecutive counselees were included from 2008 to 2010. Counselees with an indication for diagnostic DNA-testing for themselves or a breast cancer affected relative were requested to complete online questionnaires before and after counseling and one year after counseling (N = 152-124). Self-reported surveillance was compared to surveillance recommendations. Consultations were videotaped. Counselees' reactions to the risks and recommendations were coded. Statements about the risk perception and surveillance intentions of breast cancer unaffected counselees were transcribed. Associations with outcomes were explored. Almost all breast cancer unaffected counselees (>90 %) reacted to their risk estimate with an utterance indicating understanding and this reaction was not significantly associated with their post-visit risk perception alignment. Over one-third (38.6 %) overestimated their risk post-counseling. Few counselees (5.8 %) expressed surveillance intentions. One year after counseling, about three-quarters (74.0 %) of the breast cancer unaffected counselees had adhered to the surveillance recommendation. Almost one-quarter (23.3 %) had performed more mammograms/MRI scans than recommended, which was associated with prior mammography uptake (n = 47; X (2)  = 5.2; p = .02). Counselees' post-counseling overestimation of their risk, high levels of worry and high surveillance uptake were not reflected in their reactions to the counselor's information during the final visit. PMID:26321750

  16. Patterns of injury associated with automobile airbag use.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, A.A.; BANERJEE, A.

    1998-01-01

    The wide use of automobile airbags has undoubtedly reduced the mortality and the incidence of serious injuries from motor vehicle accidents. However, automobile airbags appear to be associated with a variety of injuries including fatal injuries, ocular injuries, upper limb and chest injuries. Further improvements in airbag design together with education of the general public in their use should help reduce airbag-related injuries.

  17. Dental injuries in association with facial fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Lieger, O; Zix, J; Kruse, A.; Iizuka, T.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between dental injuries and facial fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 273 patients examined at a level 1 trauma center in Switzerland from September 2005 until August 2006 who had facial fractures. Medical history and clinical and radiologic examination findings were recorded to evaluate demographics, etiology, presentation, and type of facial fracture, as well as its relationship to dental inj...

  18. Dengue-associated acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, João Fernando Picollo; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is presently the most relevant viral infection transmitted by a mosquito bite that represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious and potentially lethal complication of this disease, and the actual incidence is unknown. In this review, we will assess the most relevant epidemiological and clinical data regarding dengue and the available evidence on the frequency, etiopathogenesis, outcomes and treatment of dengue-associated AKI.

  19. Dengue-associated acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, João Fernando Picollo; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is presently the most relevant viral infection transmitted by a mosquito bite that represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious and potentially lethal complication of this disease, and the actual incidence is unknown. In this review, we will assess the most relevant epidemiological and clinical data regarding dengue and the available evidence on the frequency, etiopathogenesis, outcomes and treatment of dengue-associated AKI. PMID:26613023

  20. Quality of Life Following Brain Injury: Perspectives from Brain Injury Association of America State Affiliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Tucker, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to examine the perspectives of brain injury professionals concerning family members' feelings about the quality of life experienced by individuals with brain injuries. Participants: participating in the study were 28 individuals in leadership positions with the state affiliates of the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA). Methods:…

  1. Quality of Life Following Brain Injury: Perspectives from Brain Injury Association of America State Affiliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Tucker, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to examine the perspectives of brain injury professionals concerning family members' feelings about the quality of life experienced by individuals with brain injuries. Participants: participating in the study were 28 individuals in leadership positions with the state affiliates of the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA). Methods:

  2. Injuries in the North – analysis of 20 years of surveillance data collected by the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh T. Do

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Injury is a major public health concern, particularly for Canadians living in Arctic regions where the harsh physical and social conditions pose additional challenges. Surveillance data collected over the past 2 decades through the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP provide insights into the burden of injuries in certain parts of Canada. Objectives. This study aims to summarize and compare patterns of injuries in the Northwest Territories (NWT and Nunavut to other southern communities across Canada. Methods. Analysis was based on CHIRPP data covering the period 1991–2010. Proportionate injury ratio (PIR and its 95% confidence interval were used to summarize and compare the injury experience of Canadians living in the Arctic regions to other CHIRPP sites across Canada. Results. Between 1991 and 2010, there were 65,116 reported injuries. Approximately 83% of the cases were unintentional in nature; however, significantly higher proportions were observed for assaults and maltreatment (PIR=2.80, 95% CI: 2.72–2.88 among Canadians living in northern communities. Significantly higher proportions were also observed for crushing/amputations (PIR=2.28, 95% CI: 2.14–2.44, poison/toxic effects (PIR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.15–1.28, drowning/asphyxiations (PIR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.33–1.74 and frostbites (PIR=7.39, 95% CI: 6.60–8.28. The use of all-terrain vehicles or snowmobiles also resulted in significantly higher proportions of injuries (PIR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.79–2.09. Conclusions. This study contributes to the limited literature describing injuries in northern communities where the harsh physical and social climates pose additional challenges. Excesses in the proportions identified in this study could be useful in identifying strategies needed to minimize injury risks in northern communities within Canada.

  3. Pathophysiology of battlefield associated traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Josh L; Grimes, Jamie; Ling, Geoffrey S F

    2013-02-01

    As more data is accumulated from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF in Afghanistan), it is becoming increasing evident that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious and highly prevalent battle related injury. Although traditional TBIs such as closed head and penetrating occur in the modern battle space, the most common cause of modern battle related TBI is exposure to explosive blast. Many believe that explosive blast TBI is unique from the other forms of TBI. This is because the physical forces responsible for explosive blast TBI are different than those for closed head TBI and penetrating TBI. The unique force associated with explosive blast is the blast shock pressure wave. This shock wave occurs over a very short period, milliseconds, and has a specific profile known as the Freidlander curve. This pressure-time curve is characterized by an initial very rapid up-rise followed by a longer decay that reaches a negative inflection point before returning to baseline. This is important as the effect of this shock pressure on brain parenchyma is distinct. The diffuse interaction of the pressure wave with the brain leads to a complex cascade of events that affects neurons, axons, glia cells, and vasculature. It is only by properly studying this disease will meaningful therapies be realized. PMID:22703708

  4. Upper limb injuries associated with rock climbing.

    OpenAIRE

    Bannister, P; P. Foster

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of upper limb injuries secondary to rock-climbing or training for rock climbing are presented. All four cases had diagnosis and treatment delayed because of unawareness of the range of injuries seen in high grade rock climbing.

  5. Spinal Musculoskeletal Injuries Associated with Swimming

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Fernandez, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To review the biomechanics of the swimming stroke and examine common injuries which occur in swimming. A review of diagnosis and management strategies of these injuries is also performed. Background: Most injuries and complaints encountered in swimming athletes occur because of repetitive microtrauma or overuse, with many injuries originating from faulty technique and poor swimming biomechanics. As a result, assessment of an injured athlete requires the practitioner to have an und...

  6. Next Generation Surveillance System (NGSS): Field Implementation & Associated Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NGSS is the product of more than five years of development between the IAEA, other Inspectorates, Member State Support Programmes, and commercial vendors. The product of these efforts has now matured into the field implementation stage. This paper details the goals, achievements and challenges experienced during the implementation phase and associated developments of the project. NGSS procurement was subject to the IAEA's stringent procurement policies involving independent third party assessments to assure supplier reliability and competitive pricing controls. More than 1200 surveillance cameras currently installed in facilities worldwide will be replaced by NGSS within the next 4 to 5 years. Joint use procedures have been established taking advantage of the technical capabilities integrated within the design of the NGSS which allow for multiple inspectorates and States to securely and independently share and review data. Utilization of outdated facility infrastructure poses many challenges to implementation efforts; these were met with innovative technical solutions to take advantage of cost benefits allowed in its re-utilization. New partnerships were established with Member States, regulatory bodies and nuclear power plant operators for new nuclear facilities under construction, to address infrastructural requirements spanning the next half century. The utilization of the IAEA's well-established PKI infrastructure enhances data security features and usability with regard to data sharing, key management and joint use of the NGSS system data. Embedded inventory reporting capability aids electronic inventory verification of safeguards equipment, simplifying accountability, configuration control and troubleshooting of installed systems. Current developments ongoing within the project include the design of hardware and software components for use of the system in special applications (e.g., underwater and outdoor installations, mechanism to authenticate external sensors). The lessons learned within the project can contribute a great deal to future developments and continued implementation efforts. (author)

  7. Use of surveillance data for prevention of healthcare-associated infection: risk adjustment and reporting dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Eoghan

    2009-08-01

    Healthcare-associated or nosocomial infection (HCAI) is of increasing importance to healthcare providers and the public. Surveillance is crucial but must be adjusted for risk, especially when used for interhospital comparisons or for public reporting.

  8. Injury associated with methamphetamine use: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler Amanda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the literature exploring issues around methamphetamine and injury. There was a paucity of peer reviewed quantitative research and a lack of large scale epidemiological studies. Further sources described cases and others described injury risk as part of an overall review of methamphetamine misuse. Thus, a number of limitations and potential biases exist within the literature. The main areas where associations were noted or extrapolated with methamphetamine use and injury were around driving and violence. Other associations with injury related to methamphetamine manufacture. There was also circumstantial evidence for third party injury (that is injury to those not specifically involved in drug use or drug manufacture; however, the available data are inadequate to confirm these associations/risks.

  9. Injury associated with methamphetamine use: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Janie; Bennett, Sara; Coggan, Carolyn; Wheeler, Amanda; McMillan, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature exploring issues around methamphetamine and injury. There was a paucity of peer reviewed quantitative research and a lack of large scale epidemiological studies. Further sources described cases and others described injury risk as part of an overall review of methamphetamine misuse. Thus, a number of limitations and potential biases exist within the literature. The main areas where associations were noted or extrapolated with methamphetamine use and injury were around driving and violence. Other associations with injury related to methamphetamine manufacture. There was also circumstantial evidence for third party injury (that is injury to those not specifically involved in drug use or drug manufacture); however, the available data are inadequate to confirm these associations/risks. PMID:16571134

  10. U.S. Department of Energy, Illness and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health Summary, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program has created an opportunity to assess illness and injury rates and patterns among workers at participating sites for well over a decade. The Worker Health Summary introduces an additional perspective on worker health with the introduction of analyses comparing the experience of sites in different program offices and a focus on time trends covering a decade of worker illness and injury experience. These analyses by program office suggest that illness and injury patterns among National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) workers diverge in many ways from those seen among Environmental Management (EM) and Science workers for reasons not yet understood. These differences will receive further investigation in future special focus studies, as will other findings of interest. With the time depth now available in our data, the Worker Health Summary reveals an additional nuance in worker health trends: changing health patterns in a specialized and skilled but aging work force. Older workers are becoming an increasing percentage of the work force, and their absence rates for diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are increasing as well. The impact of these emerging health issues, if properly addressed, can be managed to maintain or even enhance worker health and productivity. Prevention strategies designed to reduce the toll of these health conditions appear warranted, and this report gives us an indication of where to focus them. The analyses that follow reflect the Illness and Injury Surveillance Program’s continued commitment to apply a public health perspective in protecting the health of DOE’s work force.

  11. MR imaging of medial collateral ligament injury and associated internal knee joint injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of medial collateral ligament injury of the knee, we used MR imaging to evaluate the characteristic findings in MCL tears and the frequency of associated knee joint injury. We retrospectively reviewed 26 patients within four weeks of MCL injury, analysed MR findings and correlated them with surgical findings. We evaluated discontinuity, heterogeneous signal intensity of MCL, thin band- like low signal intensity at MCL, facial edema, loss of clear demarcation of adjacent fat also combined bone injury, meniscus injury and other ligament injury. Complete MCL tears were present in 14 patients and partial tears in 12. Complete tears showed discontinuity of MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in 11 patients(79%);proximal MCL tears are more common than distal tears. Partial tears showed thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in seven patients (58%);all patient s with MCL injury showed fascial edema;in 12 patients there was loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. We could not, however, distinguish between complete tears and partial tears when MCL showed heterogeneous high signal intensity. Combined bone injury in MCL tears was found in eight patients(62%);the most common sites of this were the lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau. There was associated injury involving other ligaments(ACL:50%;PCL:27%). Combined meniscus injury in MCL tears was present in 17 patients and the most common meniscus site(50%) is the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Complete MCL tears showed discontinuity of MCL and partial tears showed a thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL. All patients with MCL injury showed fascial edema, and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. Various other injuries combine with MCL tears. MR imaging is therefore useful in the evaluation of medial collateral ligament injury and asssociated knee joint injury

  12. MR imaging of medial collateral ligament injury and associated internal knee joint injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chae Ha; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Sook; Byun, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee [Chosun Univ. College of Medicine, GwangJu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To assess the value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of medial collateral ligament injury of the knee, we used MR imaging to evaluate the characteristic findings in MCL tears and the frequency of associated knee joint injury. We retrospectively reviewed 26 patients within four weeks of MCL injury, analysed MR findings and correlated them with surgical findings. We evaluated discontinuity, heterogeneous signal intensity of MCL, thin band- like low signal intensity at MCL, facial edema, loss of clear demarcation of adjacent fat also combined bone injury, meniscus injury and other ligament injury. Complete MCL tears were present in 14 patients and partial tears in 12. Complete tears showed discontinuity of MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in 11 patients(79%);proximal MCL tears are more common than distal tears. Partial tears showed thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in seven patients (58%);all patient s with MCL injury showed fascial edema;in 12 patients there was loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. We could not, however, distinguish between complete tears and partial tears when MCL showed heterogeneous high signal intensity. Combined bone injury in MCL tears was found in eight patients(62%);the most common sites of this were the lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau. There was associated injury involving other ligaments(ACL:50%;PCL:27%). Combined meniscus injury in MCL tears was present in 17 patients and the most common meniscus site(50%) is the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Complete MCL tears showed discontinuity of MCL and partial tears showed a thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL. All patients with MCL injury showed fascial edema, and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. Various other injuries combine with MCL tears. MR imaging is therefore useful in the evaluation of medial collateral ligament injury and asssociated knee joint injury.

  13. [Prevention of injuries associated with horseback riding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, Chantal A; de Kooter, Tabitha A; Kramer, William L M

    2015-01-01

    Each year 9,900 equestrians present at Accident and Emergency Departments, 40% of them 10-19 year old females. The most common horse-riding injuries are to the head, brain, neck and face, torso and extremities. Because of the relatively larger head, children more often fall on their head. Wearing a helmet gives considerable protection. Despite the common use of a helmet by horseback riders, serious head injury still occurs regularly. Further research into improvement of the protective function of the helmet is indicated. The current safety vest (body protector) does not significantly reduce the risk of torso injury. Improvement of its protective function is necessary. Injury to the lower extremities is caused when they become trapped in the stirrup in a fall from or with the horse. Safety stirrups and sturdy footwear are possible preventive measures. Investment in the quality and promotion of preventive measures could reduce the frequency and severity of equestrian injuries. PMID:25923496

  14. Injuries in Patients with Epilepsy and Some Factors Associated with Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder MOLLAO?LU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate injuries in patients with epilepsyand some factors associated with injury.Methods: This study included 126 epileptic patients who attended a neurology outpatient clinic of a hospital between March 2009 and March 2010. Data were collected using a patient information form and an injury evaluation form. The data were evaluated using percentage, mean and the Chi square test. Results: 82.5% of patients have sustained injury due to an epileptic seizure. Soft tissue injuries were the most common (70.2%, followed by head injury (61.5%, dental and tongue injury (%58.6, burns (24%, and orthopaedic injury (21.2%.The most common site of burns were the upper extremities and the face (36% and 24%, respectively. Burns occurred during cooking in 32% of cases. Five patients had upper extremity fractures. Four patients faced the risk of bathtub drowning. The injuries usually occurred at home. The significant risk factors for injury were generalized tonic-clonic seizures and high frequency of seizures. Twenty-six patients were taken to the emergency unit due to an injury.Conclusion: Injury is a common problem in patients with epilepsy. Dental and tongue injury was the most common seizure-related injury. The risk factors were generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and high frequency of seizures. Patients with epilepsy can lead normal lives but certain precautions are needed to prevent seizure-related injuries. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2013; 50: 269-273

  15. Trauma Mechanisms and Injuries Associated with Go-Karting

    OpenAIRE

    Lieshout, Esther; Hartog, Dennis; Schipper, Inger; Eker, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Annually, approximately 600 patients seek medical attention after go-kart accidents in the Netherlands. A large variability in injury patterns can be encountered. Knowledge of the trauma mechanisms of go-kart accidents and insight into the associated injuries is limited and requires improvement. Such additional knowledge may lead to customized trauma protocols for patients with a high index of suspicion on go-kart injuries. Research into trauma mechanisms may also lead to implementation of im...

  16. Posterior cruciate ligament injury: characteristics and associations of most frequent injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tulio Lopes Caldas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and combinations of PCL injuries and their correlations with the mechanism, the occurrence of evident dislocation and associated fracture. METHOD: A retrospective study of 85 lesions of PCL operated between 2003 and 2010. Diagnosis by physical examination and dynamic radiography, compared with surgical findings. RESULTS: Injuries involving the PCL were more prevalent in men (78.8% with a mean age of 33 years. The main cause was traffic accidents (73.80%, and (49.4% motorcycle. Isolated PCL injury occurred in (15.3% cases, and combined (84.7%. Among the isolated lesions, bone avulsions were nine (10.6%. The most associated PCL injuries were the ACL (48.2%, followed by LCL PCL/PLC (22.4%. Fractures were more associated with combining PCL + LCL/PLC injuries and did not appear in the PCL + MCL/PMC. Complications beyond fractures: peripheral nerve injury (4.8% and vascular (1.2%. Evident dislocation in primary care (16.7% was more prevalent in combined ACL + PCL + MCL/PMC (44.4%. Half the patients were operated during the acute phase. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 comparing each combination of ligament injuries with the presence of fracture, dislocation or clear mechanism of injury. CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment of PCL injuries in a center for orthopedic trauma care was mostly multiligament and mainly involving the ACL. A significant association was seen between the type of injury with mechanism of injury, presentation of the knee, if dislocated or reduced, and the presence of associated fracture.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Illness, and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health At A Glance, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program (IISP) has monitored the health of contractor workers at selected DOE sites since 1990. For the first time, the IISP has sufficient data to describe, in a collective manner, the health trends occurring among workers at a number of DOE sites during a 10-year period. This brief report and the more detailed Worker Health Summary assess illness and injury trends of DOE workers according to gender, age, occupational group, and program office over the 10-year period, 1995 through 2004. During this time, over 137,000 individual contractor workers were employed at the 15 DOE sites participating in the IISP.

  18. Cardiac arrhythmias associated with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hector, Sven Magnus; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVES: To review the current literature to reveal the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and its relation to spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Data source: MEDLINE database, 304 hits, and 32 articles were found to be relevant. The relevant articles all met the inclusion criteria: (1......) contained original data (2) on cardiac arrhythmias (3) in humans with (4) traumatic SCI. RESULTS: In the acute phase of SCI (1-14 days after injury) more cranial as well as more severe injuries seemed to increase the incidence of bradycardia. Articles not covering the first 14 days after injury, thus...... describing the chronic phase of SCI, showed that individuals with SCI did not have a higher incidence of cardiac arrhythmias compared with able-bodied controls. Furthermore, their heart rate did not differ significantly. Penile vibro-stimulation was the procedure investigated most likely to cause bradycardia...

  19. Helicobacter pylori associated gastric intestinal metaplasia: Treatment and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kevin Sze-Hang; Wong, Irene Oi-Ling; Leung, Wai K

    2016-01-21

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in the world, particularly in East Asia. According to the Correa's cancer cascade, non-cardia GC is usually developed through a series of mucosal changes from non-atrophic gastritis to atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Atrophic gastritis and IM are therefore generally considered to be pre-neoplastic gastric lesions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an important initiating and promoting step of this gastric carcinogenesis cascade. Emerging long-term data showed that eradication of H. pylori reduced the risk of subsequent cancer development. It however remains confusing whether eradication of the bacterium in individuals with pre-neoplastic gastric lesions could regress these changes as well as in preventing cancer. Whilst H. pylori eradication could likely regress AG, the presence of IM may be a point of no return in this cascade. Hence, surveillance by endoscopy may be indicated in those with extensive IM or those with incomplete IM, particularly in populations with high GC risk. The optimal interval and the best tool of surveillance endoscopy remains to be determined in future studies. PMID:26811668

  20. Helicobacter pylori associated gastric intestinal metaplasia: Treatment and surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kevin Sze-Hang; Wong, Irene Oi-Ling; Leung, Wai K

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in the world, particularly in East Asia. According to the Correas cancer cascade, non-cardia GC is usually developed through a series of mucosal changes from non-atrophic gastritis to atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Atrophic gastritis and IM are therefore generally considered to be pre-neoplastic gastric lesions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an important initiating and promoting step of this gastric carcinogenesis cascade. Emerging long-term data showed that eradication of H. pylori reduced the risk of subsequent cancer development. It however remains confusing whether eradication of the bacterium in individuals with pre-neoplastic gastric lesions could regress these changes as well as in preventing cancer. Whilst H. pylori eradication could likely regress AG, the presence of IM may be a point of no return in this cascade. Hence, surveillance by endoscopy may be indicated in those with extensive IM or those with incomplete IM, particularly in populations with high GC risk. The optimal interval and the best tool of surveillance endoscopy remains to be determined in future studies.

  1. Unintentional Childhood Injury Patterns, Odds, and Outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ovuga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. METHODS: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years. RESULTS: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention priorities could include home, road and school safety; especially dissemination and uptake of proven interventions. Burns should be focus of domestic injury prevention among under-fives. Commercial passenger motorcycles require better regulation and control.

  2. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: associated findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors investigated the associated findings and their value in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in MR image. The knee MR images of 47 patients with ACL injury (complete;24, partial;23) and 61 patients with normal ACL confirmed by the knee arthroscopy or operation were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of anterior translocation of tibia and the degree of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) buckling were evaluated. The prevalence and pattern of associated adjacent bone, ligament and meniscus injuries were studied. The means(± 2 standard errors) of anterior translocation were different significantly in statistical analysis (ρ < 0.001, student t-test) between injury group (7.51 ± 1.16 mm) and normal group (-0.56 ± 0.92mm). In the level of 5mm of anterior translocation for the criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 78.7%, 89.5%, 84.3% for each. The means of PCL buckling ratio were also different statistically between injury group(0.23 ± 0.02) and normal group(0.17 ± 0.01)(ρ < 0.001). In the level of 0.20 for diagnostic criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 71.4%, 83.6%, 78.4% for each. Thirty one medial meniscus tear (66%), thirteen lateral meniscus tear (28%), ten medial collateral ligament injury (28%), one PCL injury(2%) were associated with ACL injury. The twenty nine bone marrow changes were found in twenty patients (43%) which included acutely injured seven patients. In acute cases, the bone marrow changes were depicted as diffuse or focal high signal intensity lesions in lateral femoral or tibial condyles in contrast to the changes in chronic cases depicted as focal low signal intensity lesions in variable location. Lateral femoral condylar notch depression were found in nine patients (19%) and avulsion fractures of anterior tibial spine in four patients(9%). The associated findings with ACL injury (anterior translocation, buckling of PCL, associated bone, ligament and meniscus injuries) are considered to be helpful in the diagnosis of ACL injury on Knee MR images, when the findings of anterior cruciate ligament itself are not confirmative

  3. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: associated findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Gi Seok; Kang, Heung Sik; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Chu Wan; Cho, Kyu Hyung; Seong, Sang Cheol [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-15

    Authors investigated the associated findings and their value in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in MR image. The knee MR images of 47 patients with ACL injury (complete;24, partial;23) and 61 patients with normal ACL confirmed by the knee arthroscopy or operation were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of anterior translocation of tibia and the degree of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) buckling were evaluated. The prevalence and pattern of associated adjacent bone, ligament and meniscus injuries were studied. The means({+-} 2 standard errors) of anterior translocation were different significantly in statistical analysis ({rho} < 0.001, student t-test) between injury group (7.51 {+-} 1.16 mm) and normal group (-0.56 {+-} 0.92mm). In the level of 5mm of anterior translocation for the criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 78.7%, 89.5%, 84.3% for each. The means of PCL buckling ratio were also different statistically between injury group(0.23 {+-} 0.02) and normal group(0.17 {+-} 0.01)({rho} < 0.001). In the level of 0.20 for diagnostic criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 71.4%, 83.6%, 78.4% for each. Thirty one medial meniscus tear (66%), thirteen lateral meniscus tear (28%), ten medial collateral ligament injury (28%), one PCL injury(2%) were associated with ACL injury. The twenty nine bone marrow changes were found in twenty patients (43%) which included acutely injured seven patients. In acute cases, the bone marrow changes were depicted as diffuse or focal high signal intensity lesions in lateral femoral or tibial condyles in contrast to the changes in chronic cases depicted as focal low signal intensity lesions in variable location. Lateral femoral condylar notch depression were found in nine patients (19%) and avulsion fractures of anterior tibial spine in four patients(9%). The associated findings with ACL injury (anterior translocation, buckling of PCL, associated bone, ligament and meniscus injuries) are considered to be helpful in the diagnosis of ACL injury on Knee MR images, when the findings of anterior cruciate ligament itself are not confirmative.

  4. Relapsing Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Pegfilgrastim

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Swati; Bhargava, Arpit; Jasnosz, Katherine; Clark, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    We report a previously unrecognized complication of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) after the administration of pegfilgrastim with biopsy findings of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) and tubular necrosis. A 51-year-old white female with a history of breast cancer presented to the hospital with nausea, vomiting and dark urine 2 weeks after her third cycle of cyclophosphamide and docetaxel along with pegfilgrastim. She was found to have AKI with a serum creatinine (Cr) level of 6....

  5. Urinary Dysfunctions Associated With Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar KOER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War, urinary dysfunctions due to spinal cord injury had gained more importance and the life expectancy and quality of life of the patients had increased due to the improvements in this field. The management and follow-up period of urinary dysfunctions can be examined in three stages: initial stage after the injury, rehabilitation stage and long-term follow-up stage. Urodynamic and videourodynamic evaluations are the gold standards in the diagnosis. Bladder filling pressure, bladder compliance and bladder sphincter dyssynergia are the important prognostic factors during the management of neurogenic bladder. The aim of the treatment is to protect upper urinary tract, to lower the complications in the lower urinary tract and to improve the quality of life of the patient. Recently, botulinum toxin injections and improved surgical techniques become good treatment options besides clean intermittent catheterization and oral medical agents. The success of the treatment is based on long-term follow-up of the patients with appropriate treatment strategy. In this review, the current developments in the diagnosis and management of urinary dysfunctions seen after spinal cord injury will be discussed. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 201;58 Suppl 1: 10-5.

  6. 75 FR 41872 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Director... Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  7. Acute traumatic injury of the distal descending aorta associated with thoracic spine injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare case of traumatic injury of the distal descending aorta associated with thoracic spine injury is reported. A 21-year-old man was admitted after a traffic accident. Thoracic CT and angiography demonstrated a false aneurysm of the distal descending aorta and a compression fracture of the eleventh thoracic vertebra. At emergency surgery, a transverse linear tear at the level of the aortic hiatus was confirmed and repaired. (orig.)

  8. Prevention of injury associated with rotating action machines

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Tore J; Brfelt, Olle; Astervik, Magnus; Knutsson, Eric

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND Repeated analyses of the Swedish national workers compensation claims data material in the Occupational No-Fault Liability Insurance Scheme have pointed to the high incidence of severe hand injury associated with getting caught in rotating (drilling, milling, boring, turning, grinding) machines in the metal manufacturing and engineering industry (Jedeskog & Larsson, 1988; Larsson, 1990; Persson, 1992). In an analysis of all permanently disabling injuries sustained in the Swedi...

  9. Injury associated with methamphetamine use: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler Amanda; Coggan Carolyn; Bennett Sara; Sheridan Janie; McMillan Karen

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews the literature exploring issues around methamphetamine and injury. There was a paucity of peer reviewed quantitative research and a lack of large scale epidemiological studies. Further sources described cases and others described injury risk as part of an overall review of methamphetamine misuse. Thus, a number of limitations and potential biases exist within the literature. The main areas where associations were noted or extrapolated with methamphetamine use and i...

  10. Spinal cord injury and its association with blunt head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva WS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wellingson S Paiva, Arthur MP Oliveira, Almir F Andrade, Robson LO Amorim, Leonardo JO Lourenço, Manoel J TeixeiraDivision of Neurosurgery, University of São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Severe and moderate head injury can cause misdiagnosis of a spinal cord injury, leading to devastating long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors involving spine trauma and moderate-to-severe brain injury.Methods: A prospective study involving 1617 patients admitted in the emergency unit was carried out. Of these patients, 180 with moderate or severe head injury were enrolled. All patients were submitted to three-view spine series X-ray and thin cut axial CT scans for spine trauma investigations.Results: 112 male patients and 78 female patients, whose ages ranged from 11 to 76 years (mean age, 34 years. The most common causes of brain trauma were pedestrians struck by motor vehicles (31.1%, car crashes (27.7%, and falls (25%. Systemic lesions were present in 80 (44.4% patients and the most common were fractures, and lung and spleen injuries. 52.8% had severe and 47.2% moderate head trauma. Fourteen patients (7.8% suffered spinal cord injury (12 in cervical spine, one in lumbar, and one thoracic spine. In elderly patients, the presence of associated lesions and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS < 9 were statistically significant as risk factors (P < 0.05 for spine injury.Conclusion: Spinal cord injury related to moderate and severe brain trauma usually affects the cervical spine. The incidence of spinal lesions and GCS < 9 points were related to greater incidence of spinal cord injury.Keywords: head injury, spine trauma, risk factors

  11. An integrated surveillance system of road traffic injuries in the Lazio region of Italy: results of a 5-year study (2001-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Francesco; Farchi, Sara; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Camilloni, Laura; Borgia, Piero

    2010-09-01

    Road traffic injuries represent a relevant public-health problem. In the Lazio region of Italy, a surveillance system was activated. The aim of this work is to describe the surveillance system and report the health information in terms of temporal trends for the 5-year period 2001-2005. We identified all emergency department (ED) visits in the emergency database and then linked them with hospital discharges and mortality registry. From the integrated database, we calculated the rates of emergency room visits, of hospital admissions, and of mortality, reporting the temporal trends. Between 2001 and 2005 the rate of ED visits was 3151 per 100,000 inhabitants. Hospitalisation rates showed a significant decreasing trend. The surveillance identified 22% more deaths in the study period than reported by the official statistics. The surveillance revealed a decreasing trend for hospital admissions and a decline in deaths in 2003 concurrent to the introduction of the driver's licence point system. PMID:20352552

  12. Injuries associated with fireworks in Victoria: an epidemiological overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwadud, O.; Ozanne-Smith, J.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the epidemiological features of injuries associated with fireworks. Design—A retrospective study of reported cases. Subjects—Subjects were those who attended selected Victorian hospital emergency departments (n=17) and those admitted for firework related injuries (n=16). Results—The mean (SD) age of attenders at emergency department between January 1988 and June 1996, was 8.9 (6.2) years and most (88%) were under 18 years of age. Males accounted for 71% of the cases. The most common anatomical sites and types of injury were head (47%) and burns (88%), respectively. About 53% of the injuries were caused by firecrackers, the remainder by sparklers and penny bangers. Among those admitted to hospital between July 1987 and June 1996, the mean (SD) age was 22.9 (14.8) years and 50% were under 18 years of age. Males accounted for 87% of the cases. There was a significant difference in mean age between those admitted and not admitted to hospital, the former being significantly older. Conclusions—Although relatively rare, injuries from fireworks still occur in Victoria after legislative restrictions on their sale in 1985. Consequently, there is a potential risk for injuries among children, particularly from firecrackers. More enforcement of the regulations, education, and parental supervision are needed to prevent injuries from fireworks. PMID:9887417

  13. Xenon Blocks Neuronal Injury Associated with Decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; David, Hlne N; Valle, Nicolas; Meckler, Cedric; Demaistre, Sebastien; Lambrechts, Kate; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Abraini, Jacques H

    2015-01-01

    Despite state-of-the-art hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment, about 30% of patients suffering neurologic decompression sickness (DCS) exhibit incomplete recovery. Since the mechanisms of neurologic DCS involve ischemic processes which result in excitotoxicity, it is likely that HBO in combination with an anti-excitotoxic treatment would improve the outcome in patients being treated for DCS. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of the noble gas xenon in an ex vivo model of neurologic DCS. Xenon has been shown to provide neuroprotection in multiple models of acute ischemic insults. Fast decompression compared to slow decompression induced an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a well-known marker of sub-lethal cell injury. Post-decompression administration of xenon blocked the increase in LDH release induced by fast decompression. These data suggest that xenon could be an efficient additional treatment to HBO for the treatment of neurologic DCS. PMID:26469983

  14. Trauma mechanisms and injuries associated with go-karting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Hasan H; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Den Hartog, Dennis; Schipper, Inger B

    2010-01-01

    Annually, approximately 600 patients seek medical attention after go-kart accidents in the Netherlands. A large variability in injury patterns can be encountered. Knowledge of the trauma mechanisms of go-kart accidents and insight into the associated injuries is limited and requires improvement. Such additional knowledge may lead to customized trauma protocols for patients with a high index of suspicion on go-kart injuries. Research into trauma mechanisms may also lead to implementation of improved or additional safety measures for go-karting, involving both the go-karts itself as well as prerequisites to the go-kart tracks and qualifications for the drivers. The main trauma mechanisms involved in go-kart accidents, and three cases to illustrate the variety of injuries are described in the current manuscript. PMID:20361000

  15. Personnel injuries/illnesses associated with natural environment hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.R. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health, Washington, DC (United States). Risk Analysis and Technology Div.; Miller, C.F. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how an existing Department of Energy (DOE) resource can be used to gain valuable insight concerning injury/illness incidents. That resource is the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) module of DOE`s Safety Performance Measurement System (SPMS). Although this demonstration could have been performed by analyzing reports associated with any numbers of hazards (e.g., noise, chemicals, explosives, electricity, or tools-power/hand), the CAIRS data selected for analysis were the 1981--1991 DOE injury/illness reports that cited a ``natural environment hazard`` as either the direct or indirect cause of the injury/illness. Specifically, injury/illness reports were selected for analysis if they had a causal factor link to one or more of four natural environment hazard categories; weather, animal life, vegetation, or specific acts of nature (e.g., floods, earthquakes, and lightning strikes).

  16. Personnel injuries/illnesses associated with natural environment hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.R. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health, Washington, DC (United States). Risk Analysis and Technology Div.); Miller, C.F. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how an existing Department of Energy (DOE) resource can be used to gain valuable insight concerning injury/illness incidents. That resource is the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) module of DOE's Safety Performance Measurement System (SPMS). Although this demonstration could have been performed by analyzing reports associated with any numbers of hazards (e.g., noise, chemicals, explosives, electricity, or tools-power/hand), the CAIRS data selected for analysis were the 1981--1991 DOE injury/illness reports that cited a natural environment hazard'' as either the direct or indirect cause of the injury/illness. Specifically, injury/illness reports were selected for analysis if they had a causal factor link to one or more of four natural environment hazard categories; weather, animal life, vegetation, or specific acts of nature (e.g., floods, earthquakes, and lightning strikes).

  17. 75 FR 29561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Information: Donald Blackman, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention..., Management Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  18. Liver injury associated with ketoconazole: review of the published evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, H Karl; Greenblatt, David J

    2014-12-01

    The azole antifungal agent ketoconazole has been available since 1981 for the treatment of fungal infections. In 2013, the American Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency issued warnings or prohibitions against the clinical use of oral ketoconazole due to the risk of liver injury which may lead to liver transplantation or death. From the available published evidence it is difficult to determine the actual incidence or prevalence of liver injury during clinical use of ketoconazole as an antifungal. Hepatic injury, when it occurs, is generally evident as asymptomatic and reversible abnormalities of liver function tests. However, serious liver injury has been reported. Alternatives to ketoconazole (such as itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, and terbinafine) are available, but improved safety with respect to liver injury risk is not clearly established. We are not aware of published reports of significant ketoconazole-associated liver injury in volunteer study participants when ketoconazole has been used as a CYP3A inhibitor in the context of clinical research on drug metabolism. Possible alternatives to ketoconazole as prototype CYP3A inhibitors include ritonavir and potentially itraconazole, but not clarithromycin. PMID:25216238

  19. Surveillance of potential associations between occupations and causes of death in Canada, 1965-91

    OpenAIRE

    Aronson, K.J.; Howe, G R; Carpenter, M.; Fair, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detect unsuspected associations between workplace situations and specific causes of death in Canada. METHODS: An occupational surveillance system was established consisting of a cohort of 457,224 men and 242,196 women employed between 1965 and 1971, constituting about 10% of the labour force in Canada at that time. Mortality between 1965 and 1991 has been determined by computerised record linkage with the Canadian mortality database. Through regression analysis, associatio...

  20. Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56% with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injuries received financial assistance from workers compensation claims, 36% did not apply for financial assistance and 5% applied but did not receive any financial assistance. The most common types of workplace injuries incurred were: sprains and strains (30%, chronic joint/muscle conditions (18% and cuts/open wounds (16% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. The total economic cost from workplace injuries in Australia for the 2005-06 financial year was estimated at $57.5 billion, representing 5.9% of GDP for the financial year (Australian Safety and Compensation Council, 2009. Workplace injuries also incur immeasurable personal costs to Australian workers and their families. Individual lives are altered, even lost; individual hopes and dreams of a better life are shattered. Family roles, responsibilities and relationships become strained due to changes in income earnings and the imposed challenging needs for increased social support and increased caring needs within the home due to workplace injury. Why do Australian workers get injured in their workplaces? Is it due to their individual worker factors, or is it due to social factors associated with their work and workplace? While individual worker factors, such as: gender, age, personality, ethnicity, and substance use, do contribute to workplace injuries and fatalities, broader social and organizational workplace factors, such as: workload, work hours, work environment, safety culture, provision of quality supervision, and provision of occupational health and safety training, socially structure, and influence individual worker attitudes and behaviours in workplace injury and fatalities.

  1. Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available 636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56% with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injuries received financial assistance from workers compensation claims, 36% did not apply for financial assistance and 5% applied but did not receive any financial assistance. The most common types of workplace injuries incurred were: sprains and strains (30%, chronic joint/muscle conditions (18% and cuts/open wounds (16% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. The total economic cost from workplace injuries in Australia for the 2005-06 financial year was  estimated at $57.5 billion, representing 5.9% of GDP for the financial year (Australian Safety and Compensation Council, 2009. Workplace injuries also incur immeasurable personal costs to Australian workers and their families. Individual lives are altered, even lost; individual hopes and dreams of a better life are shattered. Family roles, responsibilities and relationships become strained due to changes in income earnings and the imposed challenging needs for increased social support and increased caring needs within the home due to workplace injury. Why do Australian workers get injured in their workplaces? Is it due to their individual worker factors, or is it due to social factors associated with their work and workplace? While individual worker factors, such as: gender, age, personality, ethnicity, and substance use, do contribute to workplace injuries and fatalities, broader social and organisational workplace factors, such as: workload, work hours, work environment, safety culture, provision of quality supervision, and provision of occupational health and safety training, socially structure, and influence individual worker attitudes and behaviours in workplace injury and fatalities.

  2. Surveillance of device-associated infections at a teaching hospital in rural Gujarat - India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Surveillance of hospital-acquired infection (HAI, particularly device-associated infection (DAI, helps in determining the infection rates, risk factors, and in planning the preventive strategies to ensure a quality healthcare in any hospital. The present study was carried out to know the prevalence of DAI in a tertiary care teaching hospital of rural Gujarat. Materials and Methods: A prospective, site-specific surveillance of three common DAIs that is catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI, IV-catheter-related bloodstream infection (IV-CRBSI, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP was carried out between July 2007 and April 2008, in different wards/ICUs. A surveillance plan, with guidelines and responsibilities of nurses, clinicians and microbiologist was prepared. Infection surveillance form for each patient suspected to have DAI was filled. The most representative clinical sample, depending on the type of suspected DAI, was collected using standard aseptic techniques and processed for aerobes and facultative anaerobes. All the isolates were identified and antimicrobial sensitivity testing performed as per CLSI guidelines. An accurate record of total device days for each of the indwelling devices under surveillance was also maintained. Data, collected in the prescribed formats, were analysed on monthly basis; and then, compiled at the end of the study. Descriptive analysis of the data was done and DAI rate was expressed as number of DAI per 1000 device days. Results: The overall infection rate for CA-UTI, IV-CRBSI, and VAP were found to be 0.6, 0.48, and 21.92 per 1000 device days, respectively. The organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, CONS, Enterococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Duration of indwelling devices was found to be the major risk-factor for acquiring DAIs. Low DAI rate might have been due to use of antibiotics, often prophylactic. Active surveillance is quite a tedious and time-consuming process; however the outcome is useful in prevention and control of DAIs.

  3. Toxic Inhalational Injury-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Hyung Young; Yu, Jinho; Jhang, Won-Kyoung; Park, Seong-Jong; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Cho, Young Ah; Kim, Sun-A; Jang, Se Jin; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease in children (chILD) is a group of disorders characterized by lung inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. In the past recent years, we noted an outbreak of child in Korea, which is possibly associated with inhalation toxicity. Here, we report a series of cases involving toxic inhalational injury-associated chILD with bronchiolitis obliterans pattern in Korean children. This study included 16 pediatric patients confirmed by lung biopsy and chest computed tomography, b...

  4. A road traffic injury surveillance system using combined data sources in Peru Sistema de vigilancia de traumatismos por accidentes de tránsito con fuentes de datos combinadas en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Yliana Rojas Medina; Victoria Espitia-Hardeman; Dellinger, Ann M.; Manuel Loayza; Rene Leiva; Gloria Cisneros

    2011-01-01

    A national hospital-based nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance system was established at sentinel units across Peru in 2007 under the leadership of the Ministry of Health. Surveillance data are drawn from three different sources (hospital records, police reports, and vehicle insurance reports) and include nonfatal road traffic injuries initially attended at emergency rooms. A single data collection form is used to record information about the injured, event characteristics related to the...

  5. Occult bony lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine bony lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on 55 knees with ACL injuries. With respect to the period between ACL injuries and MR imaging, the knees were divided into acute (within one month), subacute (from one month to one year) and chronic (over one year) groups, containing 19, 16 and 20 knees, respectively. Occult bony lesions not shown in roentgenography were observed more frequently in the acute group (13/19) than in the other two groups (subacute group, 5/16; chronic group, 1/20), located in the lateral compartment of the knee joint. In the acute group, bony lesions had high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on proton density images. In the subacute and chronic groups, bony lesions were less pronounced and had low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. These findings suggest that bony lesions are frequently associated with and occur simultaneously with ACL injury. (author)

  6. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Since 1978, CDC, EPA, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) to capture data on waterborne disease outbreaks associated with recreational water. WBDOSS is the prima...

  7. Association of injury visits in children and child maltreatment reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Maria I; Schnitzer, Patricia G; Kruse, Robin L; Slusher, Paula; Jaffe, David M

    2009-02-01

    Injuries are a leading cause of childhood morbidity and are also common manifestations of child maltreatment, especially among young children. In an effort to determine whether injury-related Emergency Department (ED) visits among children aged 0 to 4 years were associated with child maltreatment reports, we identified all children with at least one injury-related ED visit in Missouri during 2000. Data on these injured children were linked to Missouri Child Protective Services (CPS) child abuse and neglect reports for 2000 and 2001. There were 50,068 children with at least one injury-related ED visit. Using children with one injury-related ED visit as the reference category, we calculated the relative risk of having a CPS report (or a substantiated report) for children with two, three, and four or more ED visits before a CPS report (or substantiated report). Compared to children with one visit, children with two visits were more likely to have a CPS report (relative risk [RR] 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-2.0) and a substantiated report (RR 2.5; 95% CI 2.1-2.9). For children with four or more visits, the relative risk of a report and substantiated report was 3.8 (95% CI 3.0-4.7) and 4.7 (95% CI 2.4-9.2), respectively. Children with two or more injury-related ED visits in 1 year are more likely to be reported for child maltreatment and to have a substantiated report. PMID:18403164

  8. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamele, Mitchell; Stockmann, Chris; Cirulis, Meghan; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Metzger, Ryan; Bennett, Tellen D; Bratton, Susan L

    2016-05-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common occurrence among intubated pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. However, little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors, and microbiology of VAP in pediatric TBI. We reviewed a cohort of 119 pediatric moderate-to-severe TBI patients and identified 42 with VAP by positive protected bronchial brush specimens. Location of intubation, severity of injury, and antibiotic administration within 2 days after injury were not associated with VAP. Most treatments for elevated intracranial pressure were associated with increased risk of VAP; however, in a multi-variable analysis barbiturate coma (hazard ratio [HR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-7.3), neuromuscular blockade (NMBA; HR, 3.4; 95% CI 1.6-7.3), and use of a cooling blanket for euthermia (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.5) remained independently associated with VAP. Most VAP (55%) occurred prior to hospital Day 4 and only 7% developed VAP after Day 7. Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (34%), Haemophilus influenzae (22%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (15%) were the most common organisms, comprising 71% of isolated pathogens (36% of infections were polymicrobial). Patients with VAP had significantly longer intensive care unit and hospital stays, as well as increased risk of chronic care needs after discharge, but not mortality. VAP is a common occurrence in pediatric TBI patients, and early empiric therapy for patients requiring barbiturate infusion, NMBA, or use of a cooling blanket could mitigate morbidity. PMID:26203702

  9. Aggravating andmitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Vavatsoulas,, Konstantinos; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is one of the leading cycling nations, where cycling trips constitute a large share of the total trips, and cycling safety assumes a top priority position in the agenda of policy makers. The current study sheds light on the aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury...... vehicles going straight are aggravating vehicle involvement factors. Practical applications: The results are discussed in the context of applied policies, engineering, and traffic management solutions for bicycle safety in Denmark....

  10. Death Associated Protein Kinases: Molecular Structure and Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Thornton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal brain damage underlies an important share of motor and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, visual dysfunction and epilepsy. Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have revealed that factors such as inflammation, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress contribute considerably to both white and grey matter injury in the immature brain. A member of the death associated protein kinase (DAPk family, DAPk1, has been implicated in cerebral ischemic damage, whereby DAPk1 potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity through interaction with the NR2BR subunit. DAPk1 also mediate a range of activities from autophagy, membrane blebbing and DNA fragmentation ultimately leading to cell death. DAPk mRNA levels are particularly highly expressed in the developing brain and thus, we hypothesize that DAPk1 may play a role in perinatal brain injury. In addition to reviewing current knowledge, we present new aspects of the molecular structure of DAPk domains, and relate these findings to interacting partners of DAPk1, DAPk-regulation in NMDA-induced cerebral injury and novel approaches to blocking the injurious effects of DAPk1.

  11. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water - United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Karlyn D; Gargano, Julia W; Roberts, Virginia A; Hill, Vincent R; Garrison, Laurel E; Kutty, Preeta K; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Wade, Timothy J; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Yoder, Jonathan S

    2015-08-14

    Advances in water management and sanitation have substantially reduced waterborne disease in the United States, although outbreaks continue to occur. Public health agencies in the U.S. states and territories* report information on waterborne disease outbreaks to the CDC Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/index.html). For 2011-2012, 32 drinking water-associated outbreaks were reported, accounting for at least 431 cases of illness, 102 hospitalizations, and 14 deaths. Legionella was responsible for 66% of outbreaks and 26% of illnesses, and viruses and non-Legionella bacteria together accounted for 16% of outbreaks and 53% of illnesses. The two most commonly identified deficiencies† leading to drinking water-associated outbreaks were Legionella in building plumbing§ systems (66%) and untreated groundwater (13%). Continued vigilance by public health, regulatory, and industry professionals to identify and correct deficiencies associated with building plumbing systems and groundwater systems could prevent most reported outbreaks and illnesses associated with drinking water systems. PMID:26270059

  12. Thrombocytopenia-Associated Multiple Organ Failure and Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung C; Cruz, Miguel A; Carcillo, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    Thrombocytopenia-associated multiple organ failure (TAMOF) is a clinical phenotype that encompasses a spectrum of syndromes associated with disseminated microvascular thromboses, such as the thrombotic microangiopathies thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Autopsies findings in TTP, HUS, or DIC reveal specific findings that can differentiate these 3 entities. Von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS-13 play a central role in TTP. Shiga toxins and the complement pathway are vital in the development of HUS. Tissue factor is the major protease that drives the pathology of DIC. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common feature in patients with TAMOF. PMID:26410136

  13. Myocardial injury associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Keun; Liebetrau, Christoph; van Linden, Arnaud; Blumenstein, Johannes; Gaede, Luise; Hamm, Christian W; Walther, Thomas; Möllmann, Helge

    2016-05-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as an important treatment option for elderly patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis whose risk is too high or prohibitive for conventional surgery. Despite notable progress during the past decade, continuous efforts directed at further improvement of procedural safety and performance are required, especially considering expanding indications for interventional treatment options among lower-risk populations. One issue that needs to be addressed is myocardial damage, which can frequently be observed after TAVI and has been linked to worse prognosis. Yet, knowledge concerning the underlying mechanisms and clinical impact remains scarce, and further investigation in this field is warranted. In this review, we provide a contemporary summary of the types of myocardial injury associated with TAVI, including access-related injury, mechanical trauma and ischemia, the role of myocardial biomarkers, and the impact on left ventricular function, with emphasis on potential mechanisms and clinical implications. PMID:26670909

  14. GeoMedStat: an integrated spatial surveillance system to track air pollution and associated healthcare events

    OpenAIRE

    Faruque, Fazlay S.; Hui Li; Worth B. Williams; Waller, Lance A.; Bruce T. Brackin; Lei Zhang; Kim A. Grimes; Richard W. Finley

    2014-01-01

    Air pollutants, such as particulate matter with a diameter ≤2.5 microns (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), are known to exacerbate asthma and other respiratory diseases. An integrated surveillance system that tracks such air pollutants and associated disease incidence can assist in risk assessment, healthcare preparedness and public awareness. However, the implementation of such an integrated environmental health surveillance system is a challenge due to the disparate sources of many types of data and t...

  15. Health care-associated infections in hematology-oncology patients with neutropenia: a method of surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Karim Yaqub; Pierrotti, Ligia Camera; Freire, Maristela Pinheiro; Gutierrez, Patricia Pinheiro; Duarte, Laiane do Prado Gil; Bellesso, Marcelo; Pereira, Juliana; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; Abdala, Edson

    2013-11-01

    We present a prospective method of surveillance of health care-associated infection in hematology-oncology inpatients with neutropenia. Incidence rates were calculated on the basis of the number of hospitalized patients, the duration of hospital stay (in days), the number of days of neutropenia, and (in cases of central line-associated blood stream infection) the number of central line-days. We detected 11.4 and 66.4 episodes of febrile neutropenia per 1,000 hospital-days and per 1,000 days of neutropenia, respectively. The incidence of central line-associated blood stream infection was 2.6 per 1,000 central line-days. Gram-negative bacteria were the most prevalent pathogens. Efforts should be made to monitor infection rates on hematology-oncology wards. PMID:23769835

  16. Frequency of co-morbidities associated with spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequencies of comorbidities (dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) of duration > 1 year. Study Design: Case control. Place and Duration of Study: Spinal Cord Injury Department, Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM) Rawalpindi and Department of Chemical Pathology, Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), from October 2013 to March 2014. Patients and Methods: Thirty six patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI), level C5 to T12 were included by non-probability, convenience sampling. Control group consisted of age and sex matched healthy individuals. A detailed medical history was obtained. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for plasma glucose and serum lipid profile. Results: Out of thirty six patients, 31 (86.1%) were male and 5 (13.9%) were females; their mean age was 36.6 ± 11 years. Mean duration of injury was 6.04 ± 3.35 years. Among cases, dyslipidemias were detected in 25 (69.4%) patients while 7 (19.4%) patients had diabetes mellitus. Whereas in control group, frequency of dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus were significantly lower than cases i.e 13.8% and 5.5% respectively. Also no significant difference was found between blood pressures of study group when compared with control group. Conclusion: Individuals with chronic SCI had more frequent associated co-morbid conditions like dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus than normal individuals. Early screening is recommended in patients having SCI >6 months for better patient care and reduction in long term comorbidities in such patients. (author)

  17. Space radiation-associated lung injury in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Arguiri, Evguenia; Schweitzer, Kelly S; Berdyshev, Evgeny V; McCarthy, Maureen; Corbitt, Astrid; Alwood, Joshua S; Yu, Yongjia; Globus, Ruth K; Solomides, Charalambos C; Ullrich, Robert L; Petrache, Irina

    2015-03-01

    Despite considerable progress in identifying health risks to crewmembers related to exposure to galactic/cosmic rays and solar particle events (SPE) during space travel, its long-term effects on the pulmonary system are unknown. We used a murine risk projection model to investigate the impact of exposure to space-relevant radiation (SR) on the lung. C3H mice were exposed to (137)Cs gamma rays, protons (acute, low-dose exposure mimicking the 1972 SPE), 600 MeV/u (56)Fe ions, or 350 MeV/u (28)Si ions at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Animals were irradiated at the age of 2.5 mo and evaluated 23.5 mo postirradiation, at 26 mo of age. Compared with age-matched nonirradiated mice, SR exposures led to significant air space enlargement and dose-dependent decreased systemic oxygenation levels. These were associated with late mild lung inflammation and prominent cellular injury, with significant oxidative stress and apoptosis (caspase-3 activation) in the lung parenchyma. SR, especially high-energy (56)Fe or (28)Si ions markedly decreased sphingosine-1-phosphate levels and Akt- and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, depleted anti-senescence sirtuin-1 and increased biochemical markers of autophagy. Exposure to SR caused dose-dependent, pronounced late lung pathological sequelae consistent with alveolar simplification and cellular signaling of increased injury and decreased repair. The associated systemic hypoxemia suggested that this previously uncharacterized space radiation-associated lung injury was functionally significant, indicating that further studies are needed to define the risk and to develop appropriate lung-protective countermeasures for manned deep space missions. PMID:25526737

  18. Resilience Is Associated with Outcome from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losoi, Heidi; Silverberg, Noah D; Wljas, Minna; Turunen, Senni; Rosti-Otajrvi, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Luoto, Teemu Miikka Artturi; Julkunen, Juhani; hman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L

    2015-07-01

    Resilient individuals manifest adaptive behavior and are better able to recover from adversity. The association between resilience and outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is examined, and the reliability and validity of the Resilience Scale and its short form in mTBI research is evaluated. Patients with mTBI (n=74) and orthopedic controls (n=39) completed the Resilience Scale at one, six, and 12 months after injury. Additionally, self-reported post-concussion symptoms, fatigue, insomnia, pain, post-traumatic stress, and depression, as well as quality of life, were evaluated. The internal consistency of the Resilience Scale and the short form ranged from 0.91 to 0.93 for the mTBI group and from 0.86 to 0.95 for controls. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.70 to 0.82. Patients with mTBI and moderate-to-high resilience reported significantly fewer post-concussion symptoms, less fatigue, insomnia, traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms, and better quality of life, than the patients with low resilience. No association between resilience and time to return to work was found. Resilience was associated with self-reported outcome from mTBI, and based on this preliminary study, can be reliably evaluated with Resilience Scale and its short form in those with mTBIs. PMID:25764398

  19. Facebook Surveillance of Former Romantic Partners: Associations with PostBreakup Recovery and Personal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associated with greater current distress over the breakup, more negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the ex-partner, and lower personal growth. Participants who remained Facebook friends with the ex-partner, relative to those who did not remain Facebook friends, reported less negative feelings, sexual desire, and longing for the former partner, but lower personal growth. All of these results emerged after controlling for offline contact, personality traits, and characteristics of the former relationship and breakup that tend to predict postbreakup adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to an ex-partner through Facebook may obstruct the process of healing and moving on from a past relationship. PMID:22946958

  20. The Epidemiology of Hip/Groin Injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association Men’s and Women’s Ice Hockey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Sara L.; Zupon, Alyssa B.; Gardner, Elizabeth C.; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P.; Kerr, Zachary Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited research regarding the epidemiology of hip/groin injuries in ice hockey, the majority of which is restricted to time-loss injuries only. Purpose: To describe the epidemiology of hip/groin injuries in collegiate men’s and women’s ice hockey from 2009-2010 through 2014-2015. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Hip/groin injury data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) during the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 seasons were analyzed. Injury rates, rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 seasons, 421 and 114 hip/groin injuries were reported in men’s and women’s ice hockey, respectively, leading to injury rates of 1.03 and 0.78 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), respectively. The hip/groin injury rate was greater in men than in women (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.63). In addition, 55.6% and 71.1% of hip/groin injuries in men’s and women’s ice hockey, respectively, were non–time loss (NTL) injuries (ie, resulted in participation restriction time 3 weeks). The proportion of hip/groin injuries that were NTL injuries was greater in women than in men (IPR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.11-1.48). Conversely, the proportion of hip/groin injuries that were severe was greater in men than in women (IPR, 8.67; 95% CI, 1.20-62.73). The most common hip/groin injury diagnosis was strain (men, 67.2%; women, 76.3%). Also, 12 (2.9%) and 3 (2.6%) cases of hip impingement were noted in men’s and women’s ice hockey, respectively. Conclusion: Hip/groin injury rates were greater in men’s than in women’s ice hockey. Time loss varied between sexes, with men sustaining more injuries with time loss over 3 weeks. Despite increasing concerns of femoroacetabular impingement in ice hockey players, few cases of hip impingement were reported in this dataset. PMID:26998502

  1. Luxatio erecta humeri: Report of a swimming injury with analysis of the mechanism of the injury and associated injuries in literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökkuş, Kemal; Sagtas, Ergin; Saylik, Murat; Aydın, Ahmet Turan; Atmaca, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Inferior shoulder dislocation also referred to as luxatio erecta is an unusual and rare type of shoulder dislocation. Its incidence is about 0.5% among all shoulder dislocations. After an exhaustive search of all the available literature we were unable to find a swimming accident case that did not have other associated injuries and an uneventful reduction. The mechanism of the injury was mostly related to direct axial loading and indirect hyperabduction lever arm. We would like to emphasize the importance of this being a swimming accident, a type of accident that requires awareness of the possibility of dangerous asphyxia injuries caused by panic in the water (swimming pool, river, lake, sea, etc.). We described the nature of the injury and review the literature concerning the mechanism of the injury and associated neurovascular impairment at admission time. We also presented a supplemental video to contribute to the education of young residents and orthopedic surgeons. PMID:25709253

  2. 77 FR 73366 - Secondary Service Connection for Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... Medicine (IOM), Gulf War and Health, Volume 7: Long-Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury, regarding the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and five diagnosable illnesses. The...

  3. Pattern of midface trauma with associated concomitant injuries in a Nigerian Referral Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Udeabor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of midface trauma with associated concomitant injuries seen in our environment. Methodology: This was a prospective analysis of trauma patients with midfacial injuries presenting at a referral center in South West Nigeria. In addition to socio-demographic data, the following information was also obtained: Mechanism of injuries, type of midfacial injuries, concomitant/associated injuries and treatment. Results: A total of 101 patients with midfacial injuries were involved. They were made up of 85 males and 16 females. The 20-29 year age group was mostly affected (44.6% and the most common cause of midface injuries was road traffic accident (91.1%. The zygoma was fractured more than any other midfacial bone (46.0%. A total of 144 associated injuries were recorded among these patients, head and ocular injuries accounted for 49 (34% and 35 (24.3% respectively. The patients were mostly treated conservatively or by closed reduction. Conclusion: The rate of head and ocular injuries among patients with midfacial injury was high. Knowledge of these associated injuries provides useful strategies for patient care and prevention of further complications. A multidisciplinary approach is important for optimum management of these patients.

  4. A practical tool for public health surveillance: Semi-automated coding of short injury narratives from large administrative databases using Nave Bayes algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen R; Lehto, Mark R; Corns, Helen L

    2015-11-01

    Public health surveillance programs in the U.S. are undergoing landmark changes with the availability of electronic health records and advancements in information technology. Injury narratives gathered from hospital records, workers compensation claims or national surveys can be very useful for identifying antecedents to injury or emerging risks. However, classifying narratives manually can become prohibitive for large datasets. The purpose of this study was to develop a human-machine system that could be relatively easily tailored to routinely and accurately classify injury narratives from large administrative databases such as workers compensation. We used a semi-automated approach based on two Nave Bayesian algorithms to classify 15,000 workers compensation narratives into two-digit Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) event (leading to injury) codes. Narratives were filtered out for manual review if the algorithms disagreed or made weak predictions. This approach resulted in an overall accuracy of 87%, with consistently high positive predictive values across all two-digit BLS event categories including the very small categories (e.g., exposure to noise, needle sticks). The Nave Bayes algorithms were able to identify and accurately machine code most narratives leaving only 32% (4853) for manual review. This strategy substantially reduces the need for resources compared with manual review alone. PMID:26412196

  5. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ventilator-associated lung injury after surfactant depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Cynthia M.; Markstaller, Klaus; Kajikawa, Osamu; Karmrodt, Jens; Syring, Rebecca S.; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Good, Virginia P.; Frevert, Charles W; Baumgardner, James E

    2008-01-01

    Volutrauma and atelectrauma have been proposed as mechanisms of ventilator-associated lung injury, but few studies have compared their relative importance in mediating lung injury. The objective of our study was to compare the injury produced by stretch (volutrauma) vs. cyclical recruitment (atelectrauma) after surfactant depletion. In saline-lavaged rabbits, we used high tidal volume, low respiratory rate, and low positive end-expiratory pressure to produce stretch injury in nondependent lun...

  6. A novel data association scheme for LEO space debris surveillance based on a double fence radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hu, Weidong; Xin, Qin; Guo, Weiwei

    2012-12-01

    The increasing amount of space debris threatens to seriously deteriorate and damage space-based instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environments. Therefore, LEO space debris surveillance systems must be developed to provide situational awareness in space and issue warnings of collisions with LEO space debris. In this paper, a double fence radar system is proposed as an emerging paradigm for LEO space debris surveillance. This system exhibits several unique and promising characteristics compared with existing surveillance systems. In this paper, we also investigate the data association scheme for LEO space debris surveillance based on a double fence radar system. We also perform a theoretical analysis of the performance of our proposed scheme. The superiority and the effectiveness of our novel data association scheme is demonstrated by experimental results. The data used in our experiments is the LEO space debris catalog produced by the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) up to 2009, especially for scenarios with high densities of LEO space debris, which were primarily produced by the collisions between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251. We hope that our work will stimulate and benefit future work on LEO space debris surveillance approaches and enable construction of the double fence radar system.

  7. Revisiting acute liver injury associated with herbalife products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Kristy; Smith, Casey; Bejar, Ezra; Henig, Y Steve

    2011-10-27

    In the November 27, 2010 issue of the World Journal of Hepatology (WJH), three case reports were published which involved patients who had consumed various dietary supplements and conventional foods generally marketed as weight loss products. The reference to Herbalife products as contaminated and generally comparable to all dietary supplements or weight loss products is not scientifically supported. The authors provided an insufficient amount of information regarding patient histories, concomitant medications and other compounds, dechallenge results, and product specifications and usage. This information is necessary to fully assess the association of Herbalife products in the WJH case reports. Therefore, the article does not objectively support a causal relationship between the reported cases of liver injury and Herbalife products or ingredients. PMID:22059112

  8. Characterization of epidemiological surveillance systems for healthcare-associated infections (HAI in the world and challenges for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassimiro Nogueira Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance systems for healthcare-associated infections (HAI are essential for planning actions in prevention and control. Important models have been deployed in recent decades in different countries. This study aims to present the historical and operational characteristics of these systems and discuss the challenges for Brazil. Various models around the world have drawn on the experience of the United States, which pioneered this process. In Brazil, several initiatives have been launched, but the country still lacks a full national information system on HAI, thus indicating the need to promote action strategies, strengthen the role of States in communication between the Federal and local levels, pursue a national plan to organize surveillance teams with the necessary technological infrastructure, besides updating the relevant legislation for dealing with these challenges. Such measures are essential in the Brazilian context for the unified surveillance of HAI, aimed at healthcare safety and quality.

  9. Associated venous injury significantly complicates presentation, management, and outcomes of axillosubclavian arterial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Tony; Hamburg, Naomi; Eberhardt, Robert; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Farber, Alik

    2012-12-01

    Axillosubclavian vessel injury (ASVI) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Most studies are single-center experiences of small numbers of patients with penetrating injury. We assessed 21st-century presentation and management of ASVI and focused on outcomes of combined arterial/venous injury. We reviewed the National Trauma Data Bank for patients with isolated arterial ASVI (group 1) and combined arterial/venous ASVI (group 2). Demographics, injury severity parameters, interventions, complications, and outcomes were compared. We identified 581 patients with ASVI (mean age 35.1; 88.1% male), with 466 isolated arterial injuries and 115 combined arterial/venous injuries. Group 2 had lower presenting systolic blood pressure and Glasgow Coma Scale, and had higher rates of operative repair (55.7 vs. 43.1%, p?=?0.016) and higher mortality (33.9 vs. 13.9%, p?injury, combined injuries from blunt trauma did increase amputation rates (27.8 vs. 4.2%, p?=?0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed that combined arterial/venous injury significantly increased risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 2.99; confidence interval [CI], 1.73 to 5.17; p?=?0.0001). Penetrating injury had higher odds of death than blunt injury (OR, 1.96; CI, 1.03 to 3.73; p?=?0.041). ASVI is rare but extremely lethal. Concomitant venous and arterial injury is not associated with worse limb-related outcomes, except in blunt injuries and resultant amputations, but is associated with a threefold increase in mortality rates compared with isolated arterial injury. PMID:24293980

  10. Subtle Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Mild Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lawson, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,345 high school students and 2,321 university students found that 30-37% reported having experienced a head injury, with 12-15% reporting loss of consciousness. Significant relationships were found between mild head injury incidence and gender; sleep difficulties; social difficulties; handedness pattern; and diagnoses of attention

  11. Surveillance of multidrug resistance-associated genes in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe DONG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To understand the status of multidrug resistance-associated genes carried by Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from elderly patients in our hospital in order to provide a basis for surveillance of drug-resistance and inflection control. Methods One hundred and twenty A. baumannii isolates were collected from elderly patients between 2008 and 2010. The mean age of the patients was 85 (65 to 95 years. Whonet 5.6 software was used to analyze the resistance rate of 16 antimicrobial agents. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the sequencing method were adopted to detect 10 kinds of resistance genes (blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA- 23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaTEM, blaampC, armA, ISAba1, intI 1, and intI 2. The corresponding resistance gene profiling(RGP was analyzed and designated according to the status of resistance genes. Results The resistance rates to the remaining 15 kinds of antibiotics varied between 70.8% and 97.5%, with the exception of the sensitivity rate to polymyxin B by up to more than 90%. The positivity rates of blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaTEM, blaampC, armA, ISAba1 and intI 1 were 100%, 81.7%, 0.8%, 10.8%, 91.7%, 81.7%, 86.7%, and 83.3% respectively. A total of 18 kinds of drug-resistant gene maps were found, but blaOXA-24-like and intI 2 were not detected. Among these gene maps, the rate of RGP1 (blaOXA-23-like+blaampC+armA+ISAba1+ intI 1 was as high as 60.8%. Conclusions A. baumannii isolates from elderly patients have a higher carrying rate of drug-resistant genes, resulting in severe multidrugresistant conditions. Therefore, full-time infection control personnel and clinical physicians should actively participate in the surveillance, prevention, and control of infections caused by A. baumannii in the elderly.

  12. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water United States, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOS...

  13. Feasibility of road traffic injury surveillance integrating police and health insurance data sets in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Puello

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of semiautomated linking of road traffic injury (RTI cases in different data sets in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The study population consisted of RTI cases in the Dominican Republic in 2010 and were identified in police and health insurance data sets. After duplicates were removed and fatality reporting was corrected by using forensic data, police and health insurance RTI records were linked if they had the same province, collision date, and gender of RTI cases and similar age within five years. A multinomial logistic regression model assessed the likelihood of being in only one of the data sets. RESULTS: One of five records was a duplicate, including 21.1% of 6 396 police and 16.2% of 6 178 insurance records. Health insurance data recorded 43 of 417 deaths as only injured. Capture - recapture estimated that both data sets recorded one of five RTI cases. Characteristics associated with increased likelihood (P < 0.05 of being only in the police data set were female gender [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 2.5], age ≥ 16 years (OR = 1.7, collision in the regions of Cibao Northeast (OR = 4.1 and Valdesia (OR = 6.4, day of occurrence from Tuesday to Saturday (ORs from 1.5 to 2.9, month of occurrence from October to December (ORs from 1.6 to 4.5, and occupant of four-wheeled vehicles (OR = 5.4 or trucks (OR = 5.3. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent semiautomated linking procedures were feasible to ascertain the RTI burden in the Dominican Republic and could be improved by standardized coding of police and health insurance RTI reporting.

  14. Penetrating Bladder Trauma: A High Risk Factor for Associated Rectal Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, B. M.; Reis, L. O.; Calderan, T. R.; de Campos, C. C.; Fraga, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Demographics and mechanisms were analyzed in prospectively maintained level one trauma center database 19902012. Among 2,693 trauma laparotomies, 113 (4.1%) presented bladder lesions; 51.3% with penetrating injuries (n = 58); 41.3% (n = 24) with rectal injuries, males corresponding to 95.8%, mean age 29.8 years; 79.1% with gunshot wounds and 20.9% with impalement; 91.6% arriving the emergence room awake (Glasgow 14-15), hemodynamically stable (average systolic blood pressure 119.5?mmHg); 95.8% with macroscopic hematuria; and 100% with penetrating stigmata. Physical exam was not sensitive for rectal injuries, showing only 25% positivity in patients. While 60% of intraperitoneal bladder injuries were surgically repaired, extraperitoneal ones were mainly repaired using Foley catheter alone (87.6%). Rectal injuries, intraperitoneal in 66.6% of the cases and AAST-OIS grade II in 45.8%, were treated with primary suture plus protective colostomy; 8.3% were sigmoid injuries, and 70.8% of all injuries had a minimum stool spillage. Mean injury severity score was 19; mean length of stay 10 days; 20% of complications with no death. Concomitant rectal injuries were not a determinant prognosis factor. Penetrating bladder injuries are highly associated with rectal injuries (41.3%). Heme-negative rectal examination should not preclude proctoscopy and eventually rectal surgical exploration (only 25% sensitivity). PMID:24527030

  15. A case of air-bag associated severe ocular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Keun-Oh; Kim, Young-Duk; Choi, Gwang-Ju

    2004-06-01

    Air-bags have received widespread support as an effective means of enhancing automotive safety, and they are becoming more common as standard automobile equipment on many cars. Although air-bag induced ocular injuries are rare, they present a serious concern because of the possibility of permanent damage or visual impairment. To date, most reports have investigated ocular injury from high velocity motor vehicle accidents and reports of ocular injury from low speed motor vehicle accidents have been rare. We describe a patient who sustained severe ocular injury, including periorbital fracture, hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, and choroidal rupture of the macular area, due to an inflated air-bag in a low speed motor vehicle accident. PMID:15255243

  16. Management of Neuropathic Pain Associated with Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Ellen M.; Rekand, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an injury to the spinal cord that leads to varying degrees of motor and/or sensory deficits and paralysis. Chronic pain of both neuropathic and nociceptive type is common and contributes to reduced quality of life. The aim of the review is to provide current clinical understanding as well as discuss and evaluate efficacy of pharmacological interventions demonstrated in the clinical studies. The review was based on literature search in PubMed and Medline with words ...

  17. Characterization of epidemiological surveillance systems for healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in the world and challenges for Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cassimiro Nogueira Junior; Débora Silva de Mello; Maria Clara Padoveze; Icaro Boszczowski; Anna Sara Levin; Rubia Aparecida Lacerda

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance systems for healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are essential for planning actions in prevention and control. Important models have been deployed in recent decades in different countries. This study aims to present the historical and operational characteristics of these systems and discuss the challenges for Brazil. Various models around the world have drawn on the experience of the United States, which pioneered this process. In Brazil, several initiatives have been launched,...

  18. Association Between Living Alone and Physical Inactivity Among People With and Without Disability, Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar-Viera, Csar G.; Jones, Patrice D.; Schumacher, Jessica R; Hall, Allyson G

    2014-01-01

    People with disability may be at risk of developing diseases due to physical inactivity; social support from family and friends is positively related to engaging in regular physical activity. We compared the association between living alone and engagement in physical activity among people with and without disability in Florida. We used multivariate logistical regression to analyze 2009 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data (n = 10,902) to assess differences in physical activ...

  19. Bloodstream Infections and Clinical Significance of Healthcare-associated Bacteremia: A Multicenter Surveillance Study in Korean Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Jun Seong; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo; Yeom, Joon Sup; Ki, Hyun Kyun; Kim, Shin-Woo; Chang, Hyun-Ha; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Jung, Sook-In; Shin, Sang Yop; Oh, Hee Bok; Lee, Yeong Seon; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lee, Nam Yong

    2010-01-01

    Recent changes in healthcare systems have changed the epidemiologic paradigms in many infectious fields including bloodstream infection (BSI). We compared clinical characteristics of community-acquired (CA), hospital-acquired (HA), and healthcare-associated (HCA) BSI. We performed a prospective nationwide multicenter surveillance study from 9 university hospitals in Korea. Total 1,605 blood isolates were collected from 2006 to 2007, and 1,144 isolates were considered true pathogens. HA-BSI ac...

  20. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks. PMID:21457433

  1. Device-associated nosocomial infection surveillance in a Turkish pediatric intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra ?evketo?lu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate invasive device-related nosocomial infection rate in a Turkish pediatric intensive care unit (PICU. Material and Method: Two hundred forty patient included in the prospective active surveillance study that was conducted in Bak?rky Dr. Sadi Konuk Research and Training Hospital PICU department between January 2008 and July 2009. Center of Disease Control methodology has been used for data collecting and calculating rates. Results: Eleven invasive device related nosocomial infection were detected in 240 patients and 2909 patient days for overall rate of 4.58% and 3.78 infections per 1000 days. Ventilator utilisation rate was found to be 53% and ventilator-associated pneumonia per 1000 ventilator day was 4.53. Urinary catheter utilization rate was 14%, urinary catheter related urinary system infection rate was 4.75/1000 urinary catheter days. Central catheter utilization rate was 22%, central catheter related bloodstream infection rate was 3.16/1000 catheter days. Coagulase-negative stafilococcus (%26.09, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (%13.04, Escherichia coli (%13.04, Staphylococcus aureus (%8.70, Candida spp (%8.70, Acinetobacter baumannii (%4.35, Enterobacter aerogenes (%4.35, enterococcus faecium (%4.35, Proteus mirabilis (%4.35 were the most common microorganisms isolated. Ceftriaxon, cefaperazon-sulbactam and piperacilllin-tazobactam were the most effective antibiotics against gram-negative bacteria. The overall methicillin resistance rate was 100% among gram positive bacteria and all of them were sensitive to vancomycine. Conclusions: To best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Turkey to document that the invasive device related nosocomial infection in PICU. Invasive device related infection rates of our PICU were similar to those reported in many developed countries.(Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45: 13-7

  2. GeoMedStat: an integrated spatial surveillance system to track air pollution and associated healthcare events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlay S. Faruque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollutants, such as particulate matter with a diameter ≤2.5 microns (PM2.5 and ozone (O3, are known to exacerbate asthma and other respiratory diseases. An integrated surveillance system that tracks such air pollutants and associated disease incidence can assist in risk assessment, healthcare preparedness and public awareness. However, the implementation of such an integrated environmental health surveillance system is a challenge due to the disparate sources of many types of data and the implementation becomes even more complicated for a spatial and real-time system due to lack of standardised technological components and data incompatibility. In addition, accessing and utilising health data that are considered as Protected Health Information (PHI require maintaining stringent protocols, which have to be supported by the system. This paper aims to illustrate the development of a spatial surveillance system (GeoMedStat that is capable of tracking daily environmental pollutants along with both daily and historical patient encounter data. It utilises satellite data and the groundmonitor data from the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA and the US Environemental Protection Agenecy (EPA, rspectively as inputs estimating air pollutants and is linked to hospital information systems for accessing chief complaints and disease classification codes. The components, developmental methods, functionality of GeoMedStat and its use as a real-time environmental health surveillance system for asthma and other respiratory syndromes in connection with with PM2.5 and ozone are described. It is expected that the framework presented will serve as an example to others developing real-time spatial surveillance systems for pollutants and hospital visits.

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Emma G.; Oatley, Hannah K.; Mak-Fan, Kathleen M.; McGrath, Patricia A.; Taylor, Margot J.; Szatmari, Peter; Roberts, S. Wendy

    2012-01-01

    While self-injurious behaviors (SIB) can cause significant morbidity for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little is known about its associated risk factors. We assessed 7 factors that may influence self-injury in a large cohort of children with ASD: (a) atypical sensory processing; (b) impaired cognitive ability; (c) abnormal

  4. Notes from the Field: Injuries Associated with Bison Encounters - Yellowstone National Park, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Cara; Leong, Kirsten; Wallen, Rick; Buttke, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Since 1980, bison have injured more pedestrian visitors to Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone) than any other animal (1). After the occurrence of 33 bison-related injuries during 1983-1985 (range = 10-13/year), the park implemented successful outreach campaigns (1) to reduce the average number of injuries to 0.8/year (range = 0-2/year) during 2010-2014 (unpublished data, National Park Service, September 2015). During May-July 2015, five injuries associated with bison encounters occurred (Table). Case reports were reviewed to evaluate circumstances surrounding these injuries to inform prevention. PMID:27010506

  5. Characteristics and associated factors with sports injuries among children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele M. Vanderlei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in children and adolescents. METHOD: Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. RESULTS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice.

  6. Brown-Séquard syndrome without vascular injury associated with Horner's syndrome after a stab injury to the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen; Jones, Margaret; Zumsteg, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Case Description This case reviews the acute care and rehabilitation course of a 44-year-old right-handed woman after an assault with a pocketknife. She suffered multiple stab wounds including penetrating injury to the left side of her neck. Physical examination revealed left hemiplegia (motor score = 57), impaired pinprick sensation on the right caudal to the C5 dermatome, impaired joint position sense on the left, and left ptosis and miosis. Initially she was unable to stand without maximum assistance. MR imaging revealed transection of the left hemicord at the C5 level without cord hemorrhage. CTA of the neck was negative for vascular injury. She completed 18 days of acute inpatient rehabilitation. She used forearm crutches for ambulation at time of discharge. Prior to discharge the patient provided written permission for a case report. Discussion Stab wounds are the most common cause of traumatic Brown-Séquard syndrome. Horner's syndrome is common in spinal cord lesions occurring in the cervical or thoracic region, however the combination of Horner's and Brown-Séquard syndromes is less commonly reported. In this case report, we review recommendations regarding initial imaging following cervical stab wounds, discuss anatomy and associated neurological findings in Brown-Séquard and Horner's syndromes, and review the expected temporal course of motor recovery. Conclusions Facilitating motor recovery and optimizing function after Brown-Séquard spinal cord injury are important roles for the rehabilitation team. Imaging is necessary to rule out cord hemorrhage or vascular injury and to clinically correlate cord damage with physical examination findings and expected functional impairments. Documenting associated anisocoria and explaining this finding to the patient is an important element of spinal cord injury education. Commonly, patients with Brown-Séquard injuries demonstrate remarkable motor recovery and regain voluntary motor strength and functional ambulation. PMID:25659820

  7. Breaking Out of Surveillance Silos: Integrative Geospatial Data Collection for Child Injury Risk and Active School Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Laura; Curtis, Jacqueline W; Curtis, Andrew; Hudson, Courtney; Wuensch, Heather; Sampsell, Malinda; Wiles, Erika; Infantino, Mary; Davis, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    The preponderance of active school transport (AST) and child injury research has occurred independently, yet they are inherently related. This is particularly true in urban areas where the environmental context of AST may pose risks to safety. However, it can be difficult to make these connections due to the often segregated nature in which these veins of research operate. Spatial video presents a geospatial approach for simultaneous data collection related to both issues. This article reports on a multi-sector pilot project among researchers, a children's hospital, and a police department, using spatial video to map child AST behaviors; a geographic information system (GIS) is used to analyze these data in the environmental context of child pedestrian injury and community violence. PMID:26666248

  8. Feasibility of road traffic injury surveillance integrating police and health insurance data sets in the Dominican Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Puello; Junaid Bhatti; Louis-Rachid Salmi

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of semiautomated linking of road traffic injury (RTI) cases in different data sets in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The study population consisted of RTI cases in the Dominican Republic in 2010 and were identified in police and health insurance data sets. After duplicates were removed and fatality reporting was corrected by using forensic data, police and health insurance RTI records were linked if they had the same province, collision date, a...

  9. Association football injuries to the brain. A preliminary report.

    OpenAIRE

    Tysvaer, A.; Storli, O.

    1981-01-01

    In 1975 the authors sent a questionnaire to all players in the Norwegian First Division League Clubs to record the incidence of head injuries due to heading. The conclusion of the questionnaire is that there seems to be a low percentage of serious head injuries. None of the players had been operated on for epi- or subdural hematoma or other brain damage and only a few have had concussion due to heading. In sixty per cent of the players a full neurological examination and EEG recording was und...

  10. Musculoskeletal Changes, Injuries and Rehabilitation Associated with Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The in-flight musculoskeletal database provides the foundation for directing operationally-relevant research in space medicine. This effort will enable medical operations to develop medical kits, training programs, and preventive medicine strategies for future CxP missions: a) Quantify medications and medical supplies for next-generation spacecraft. b) Objective data for engineers to determine weight requirements. Flight surgeons can make specific recommendations to astronauts based on injury data, such as emphasizing hand protection while in-flight. EVA and spacecraft engineers can examine evidence-based data on injuries and design countermeasures to help prevent them.

  11. Surveillance of Device-associated Nosocomial Infections in an Intensive Care Unit at a 550-Bed Research Hospital during 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Pehlivanolu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nosocomial infections that cause high mortality rates are most frequently observed in intensive care units (ICUs. In this study, device-associated nosocomial infections in Anesthesia and Reanimation Unit of our hospital during 2009 are studied. Methods: ICU serves as a third-level treatment unit with 22 beds out of the total 550 beds in the training hospital. Nosocomial Infections are monitored by infectious disease and clinical microbiology specialists and infection control nurses using laboratory- and patient-based active surveillance method and diagnosed according to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention criteria. Results: 109 nosocomial infection attacks were detected in ICU. Among them, 28 were catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 26 were ventilator-associated pneumonia, and the rest 55 were circulatory system infection. Central line-associated bloodstream infection rate was 0.45%, urinary catheter-associated urinary tract infection rate - 3.82%, and ventilator-associated pneumonia infection rate was 4.33%. Conclusion: Since bacteria causing infection in ICU are more resistant, the condition of the patients is more severe. Surveillance is of great importance for nosocomial infection control and monitoring. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2011; 49: 30-3

  12. Association of Aggression and Non-Suicidal Self Injury: A School-Based Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jie; Ma, Ying; Guo, Yong; Ahmed, Niman Isse; Yu, Yizhen; Wang, Jiaji

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescent has drawn increasing attention because it is associated with subsequent depression, drug abuse, anxiety disorders, and suicide. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a school-based sample of Chinese adolescents and to explore the association between aggression and NSSI. Methods This study was part of a nationwide study on aggression among adolescents in urban areas of China. A sampl...

  13. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in a teaching hospital in Tehran and use of the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afhami, Sh; Hadadi, A; Khorami, E; Seifi, A; Bazaz, N Esmailpour

    2013-10-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common health-care-associated infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and computer-assisted diagnosis and surveillance is called for. The frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was assessed prospectively during a 6-month period in the ICUs of a teaching hospital in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. To determine the accuracy of the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (INIS) system, patient data were input to the software and compared with physicians' judgement. The frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was 21.6%, or 9.96 episodes per 1000 ventilator days. The duration of admission to the ICU, duration of mechanical ventilator and number of re-intubations were significantly higher in patients who developed pneumonia. The INIS system identified 100% of cases, with no false-positive or false-negative results. Compared with developed countries, the frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was high in our ICUs, and INIS software was accurate in diagnosing nosocomial infection. PMID:24313153

  14. MR imaging of tibial plateau fractures : evaluation of fracture types and associated soft tissue injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing fracture types and soft tissue injuries associated with tibial plateau fractures. MRI was performed in 38 patients with tibial plateau fractures, each of which was classified according to the Schatzker system. We evaluated MR images and assessed the prevalence of each fracture type and accompanying soft tissue injuries. We also assessed whether ligamentous injury correlated with the extent of articular depression, splitting, and comminution. In 24 patients, diagnosis was based on MRI and operative or arthroscopic findings, and in 14 patients, on MRI alone. The totals of fracture types I, II, III, IV, V and VI were 4(11%), 15(39%), 6(16%), 4(11%), 4(11%), and 5 cases (13%), respectively. In 30 cases (79%), there were associated ligamentous or meniscal injuries. Medial collateral ligaments and lateral menisci were injured in 17(45%) and 14 cases (37%), respectively. Type II and IV fracture patterns were associated with soft tissue injuries in 14 of 15 cases (93%) and 4 of 4 cases (100%), respectively. As the extent of articular depression increased and the extent of bony comminution decreased, there was an increased prevalence of accompanying ligamentous injuries. In tibial plateau fractures, MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality for the evaluation of both fracture type and accompanying ligamentous or meniscal injuries

  15. Muscle spasms associated with Sudeck's atrophy after injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, C D; J.A. Obeso; Traub, M M; Rothwell, J C; Kranz, H.; de la Cruz, F.

    1984-01-01

    Four patients developed abnormal involuntary movements of a limb after injury. All subsequently developed sympathetic algodystrophy with Sudeck's atrophy and then abnormal muscle spasms or jerks of the affected limb, lasting years. Sympathetic block in three patients did not relieve the abnormal movements. Two patients obtained partial recovery spontaneously, but the other two required surgery for relief. The pathophysiology of this condition remains to be determined but the evidence suggests...

  16. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Smith, Kelly E.; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Jackson, Garrett J.; Jason D. Huber; Rosen, Charles L.; MILLER, DIANE B.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The c...

  17. Association of Spasticity and Life Satisfaction after Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Westerkam, Dana; Saunders, Lee L; Krause, James S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify the relationship between spasticity and life satisfaction as measured by 3 multi-item factor scales and a rating of overall quality of life among participants with spinal cord injury (SCI). Study Design Cross-sectional survey; secondary analysis of existing data by linear regression analysis between spasticity and quality of life. Setting Large specialty hospital in the Southeastern United States. Methods Participants included 1,549 adults with traumatic spinal cord inju...

  18. Association Between Maternal Postpartum Depression and Unintentional Injury Among 4-Month-Old Infants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Yui; Fujiwara, Takeo; Tamiya, Nanako

    2016-02-01

    Objectives Unintentional injury among infants is a major public health issue; however, the relationship between unintentional infant injury and postpartum depression remains unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate the association between the two. Methods We administered an original questionnaire to mothers participating in a 3- or 4-month health check-up program (target n = 9707). This questionnaire assessed infant health, including types of unintentional injury experiences used in previous study, and maternal mental health such as postpartum depression, by the validated screening tool, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Associations between infant injury and postpartum depression were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for covariates, including parental, infant, and household characteristics. Results In total, 6534 women responded to the questionnaire with valid answers on the EPDS (valid response rate, 67 %). Of the sample, 9.8 % of infants experienced unintentional injury (fall: 5.6 %; near-drowning: 1.2 %), and 9.5 % of mothers had postpartum depression (EPDS score of 9+). After adjusting for covariates, postpartum depression was significantly positively associated with any unintentional injury (odds ratio [OR] 1.59, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.24-2.04), and falls (OR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.02-1.95), although near-drowning was not significantly associated. Conclusion Postpartum depression might be a risk factor for unintentional injury of infants aged up to 4 months. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between postpartum depression and unintentional injury of infants. PMID:26520154

  19. Management of Neuropathic Pain Associated with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ellen M; Rekand, Tiina

    2015-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an injury to the spinal cord that leads to varying degrees of motor and/or sensory deficits and paralysis. Chronic pain of both neuropathic and nociceptive type is common and contributes to reduced quality of life. The aim of the review is to provide current clinical understanding as well as discuss and evaluate efficacy of pharmacological interventions demonstrated in the clinical studies. The review was based on literature search in PubMed and Medline with words "neuropathic pain" and "spinal cord injury". The review included clinical studies and not experimental data nor case reports. A limited number of randomized and placebo-controlled studies concerning treatment options of neuropathic pain after SCI were identified. Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant and the antiepileptic drugs, gabapentin and pregabalin, are most studied with demonstrated efficacy, and considered to be the primary choice. Opioids have demonstrated conflicting results in the clinical studies. In addition, administration route used in the studies as well as reported side effects restrict everyday use of opioids as well as ketamine and lidocaine. Topical applications of capsaicin or lidocaine as well as intradermal injections of Botulinum toxin are new treatment modalities that are so far not studied on SCI population and need further studies. Non-pharmacological approaches may have additional effect on neuropathic pain. Management of pain should always be preceded by thorough clinical assessment of the type of pain. Patients need a follow-up to evaluate individual effect of applied measures. However, the applied management does not necessarily achieve satisfactory pain reduction. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the effect of both established and novel management options. PMID:25744501

  20. Retrospective evaluation of tooth injuries and associated factors at a hospital emergency ward

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Meire Coelho; Batista, Anne Margareth; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ferreira, Fernanda de Oliveira; Medeiros-Filho, João Batista; Maria Letícia RAMOS-JORGE

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of study was to determine the occurrence of tooth injuries and associated factors among patients treated at a hospital emergency ward. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving the analysis of 790 patient charts. The independent variables were gender, place of residence and type of accident. The dependent variable was tooth injury (fractures, concussion, luxation and avulsion). Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test, Poisson analysis and logistic re...

  1. Role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for early detection of acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeevani, Scienthia; Pruthi, Sonal; Kalra, Sarathi; Goel, Ashish; Kalra, Om Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by abrupt or rapid decline of renal function and is usually associated with the development of serious complications as well as an independent risk of mortality in hospitalized patients. Emergency physicians play a critical role in recognizing early AKI, preventing iatrogenic injury, and reversing the course of AKI. Among the various available biomarkers for AKI, reliable and automated assay methods are commercially available for only cystatin-C and ...

  2. Factors Associated With Periesophageal Vagal Nerve Injury After Pulmonary Vein Antrum Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Shinsuke; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Kusa, Shigeki; Komatsu, Yuki; Ichihara, Noboru; Takagi, Takamitsu; Iwasawa, Jin; Kuroi, Akio; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hachiya, Hitoshi; Hirao, Kenzo; Iesaka, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Background Periesophageal vagal nerve injury is recognized as a rare complication in atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. We investigated the factors associated with the occurrence of symptomatic periesophageal vagal nerve injury after pulmonary vein antrum isolation. Methods and Results Overall, 535 consecutive patients who underwent sole pulmonary vein antrum isolation were included. Point‐by‐point radiofrequency applications were applied using irrigated‐tip catheters under minimal seda...

  3. Overuse Injuries Associated with Mountain Biking: Is Single-Speed Riding a Predisposing Factor?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Lebec; Kortny Cook; Drew Baumgartel

    2014-01-01

    Though mountain bikers are at significant risk for overuse injury, there is minimal quality research describing this relationship. Single-speed mountain biking, in which participants pedal a bike with only a single gear, may place riders at even greater risk for overuse problems due to the disproportionate physical effort associated with this type of riding. The focus of this study was to provide additional perspective on overuse injuries sustained by mountain bikers and to determine if singl...

  4. Factors associated with positive outcome of avulsion injuries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovi? Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Avulsions are severe dental injuries with high impact on patients quality of life due to prolonged treatment and possible severe complications. The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiological factors related to the occurrence, treatment and outcome of avulsions in Serbian children. Methods. This research included 2,194 patients aged 1-18 years with traumatic dental injuries. The history, demographic, clinical and radiographic data of the patients were observed from dental medical records. Results. A total of 266 avulsions were observed in 207 patients. The frequency of avulsions was 12% in primary dentition and 5% in permanent dentition. A statistically significant relationship between place, cause of avulsion and outcome was observed. Replantation of permanent teeth was performed in 46.7% with a mean time 6.9 h. Almost a half of permanently avulsed teeth (48.7% were not retrieved from the accident site and 11.3% of replanted teeth were transported in adequate media. The observed incidence of complications was 31.9%. Conclusions. Replantation was not performed in more than a half of all eligible teeth due to either loss or inadequate/delayed transport, which emphasizes the need for preventive strategies and health education in population. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  5. MR imaging of associated brain injuries in cases of acute extradural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the efficacy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for detection of associated brain injuries in cases of extradural hematoma (EDH), 32 patients with EDH were examined by MR. CT detected associated lesion in eleven patients (34%), while MR detected them in 24 patients (75%). MR is more sensitive than CT in detecting associated lesions, especially when T2-weighted imaging is used. Non-hemorrhagic contusions adjacent to EDH and near the cranial base were well shown by MR; however, they tended to be missed by CT. EEG findings were clearly related to abnormalities detected by MR. Coupling between functional change and organic change was confirmed. The improved detection and anatomic localization of associated brain injuries by MR should allow more accurate assessment of brain injuries, and sophisticated management of EDH patient. The authors also discuss the cardiorespiratory monitoring and support during MRI examination in critically ill patients. (author)

  6. No association between q-angle and foot posture with running-related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke; Obling, Kirstine Høj; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Rasmussen, S

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount...

  7. Injury Profiles Associated with Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tarkwa, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calys-Tagoe, Benedict N L; Ovadje, Lauretta; Clarke, Edith; Basu, Niladri; Robins, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is inherently risky, but little is known about mining-associated hazards and injuries despite the tremendous growth worldwide of ASGM and the benefits it offers. The current study aimed to characterize the physical injuries associated with ASGM in Ghana to guide policy formulation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Tarkwa mining district of the Western Region of Ghana in 2014. A total of 404 small-scale miners were recruited and interviewed regarding their occupational injury experiences over the preceding 10 years using a paper-based structured questionnaire. Nearly one-quarter (23.5%) of the miners interviewed reported getting injured over the previous 10 years, and the overall injury rate was calculated to be 5.39 per 100 person years. The rate was significantly higher for women (11.93 per 100 person years) and those with little mining experience (e.g., 25.31 per 100 person years for those with less than one year of work experience). The most injury-prone mining activities were excavation (58.7%) and crushing (23.1%), and over 70% of the injuries were reported to be due to miners being hit by an object. The majority of the injuries (57%) were lacerations, and nearly 70% of the injuries were to the upper or lower limbs. Approximately one-third (34.7%) of the injuries resulted in miners missing more than two weeks of work. One-quarter of the injured workers believed that abnormal work pressure played a role in their injuries, and nearly two-fifths believed that their injuries could have been prevented, with many citing personal protective equipment as a solution. About one-quarter of the employees reported that their employers never seemed to be interested in the welfare or safety of their employees. These findings greatly advance our understanding of occupational hazards and injuries amongst ASGM workers and help identify several intervention points. PMID:26184264

  8. Injury Profiles Associated with Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tarkwa, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict N. L. Calys-Tagoe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is inherently risky, but little is known about mining-associated hazards and injuries despite the tremendous growth worldwide of ASGM and the benefits it offers. The current study aimed to characterize the physical injuries associated with ASGM in Ghana to guide policy formulation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Tarkwa mining district of the Western Region of Ghana in 2014. A total of 404 small-scale miners were recruited and interviewed regarding their occupational injury experiences over the preceding 10 years using a paper-based structured questionnaire. Nearly one-quarter (23.5% of the miners interviewed reported getting injured over the previous 10 years, and the overall injury rate was calculated to be 5.39 per 100 person years. The rate was significantly higher for women (11.93 per 100 person years and those with little mining experience (e.g., 25.31 per 100 person years for those with less than one year of work experience. The most injury-prone mining activities were excavation (58.7% and crushing (23.1%, and over 70% of the injuries were reported to be due to miners being hit by an object. The majority of the injuries (57% were lacerations, and nearly 70% of the injuries were to the upper or lower limbs. Approximately one-third (34.7% of the injuries resulted in miners missing more than two weeks of work. One-quarter of the injured workers believed that abnormal work pressure played a role in their injuries, and nearly two-fifths believed that their injuries could have been prevented, with many citing personal protective equipment as a solution. About one-quarter of the employees reported that their employers never seemed to be interested in the welfare or safety of their employees. These findings greatly advance our understanding of occupational hazards and injuries amongst ASGM workers and help identify several intervention points.

  9. The association between traumatic brain injury and suicide: are kids at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Yvonne F; Swaine, Bonnie R; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Lesage, Alain; Zhang, Xun; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2015-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in late adolescence and adulthood is associated with a higher risk of suicide; however, it is unknown whether this association is also present in people who sustained a TBI during childhood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether experiencing a TBI during childhood is a risk factor for suicide later in life and to examine whether the risk of suicide differs by sex or injury severity. A cohort of 135,703 children aged 0-17 years was identified from the Quebec population-based physician reimbursement database in 1987, and follow-up was conducted until 2008. Of the children in this cohort, 21,047 had sustained a TBI. Using a survival analysis with time-dependent indicators of TBI, we found a higher risk of suicide for people who sustained a TBI during childhood (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 2.14), adolescence (HR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.26), and adulthood (HR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.59). When compared with less severe injuries, such as concussions and cranial fractures, more severe injuries, such as intracranial hemorrhages, were associated with a higher risk of suicide (HR = 2.18 vs. 2.77, respectively). Repeated injuries were associated with higher risks of suicide in all age groups. PMID:26121988

  10. Aggregation and Association of NDVI, Boll Injury, and Stink Bugs in North Carolina Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, F P F; Meijer, A D

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of herbivorous stink bugs in southeastern U.S. cotton remains problematic. Remote sensing was explored to improve sampling of these pests and associated boll injury. Two adjacent 14.5-ha cotton fields were grid sampled in 2011 and 2012 by collecting stink bug adults and bolls every week during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of bloom. Satellite remote sensing data were collected during the third week of bloom during both years, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were calculated. Stink bugs were spatially aggregated on the third week of bloom in 2011. Boll injury from stink bugs was spatially aggregated during the fourth week of bloom in 2012. The NDVI values were aggregated during both years. There was a positive association and correlation between stink bug numbers and NDVI values, as well as injured bolls and NDVI values, during the third week of bloom in 2011. During the third week of bloom in 2012, NDVI values were negatively correlated with stink bug numbers. During the fourth week of bloom in 2011, stink bug numbers and boll injury were both positively associated and correlated with NDVI values. During the fourth week of bloom in 2012, stink bugs were negatively correlated with NDVI values, and boll injury was negatively associated and correlated with NDVI values. This study suggests the potential of remote sensing as a tool to assist with sampling stink bugs in cotton, although more research is needed using NDVI and other plant measurements to predict stink bug injury. PMID:26411787

  11. Posterolateral Corner Injury Associated with a Schatzker Type 2 Tibial Plateau Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Boris A; Heaberlin, James R; Murray, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Isolated posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries are rarely seen with tibial plateau fractures and can be missed during the initial assessment. The objective of this paper is to present a case of a Schatzker type 2 tibial plateau fracture with associated isolated PLC injury and give a discussion on physical exam, diagnostic studies, and treatment options. A twenty-five-year-old female sustained a concomitant Schatzker type 2 fracture and PLC injury. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed an isolated PLC disruption. Open reduction-internal fixation was performed with subsequent PLC repair. At sixteen months postoperatively, the patient had full range of motion and strength of her knee and no signs of laxity. This case emphasizes the importance of physical exam and appropriate imaging modalities in order to diagnose and treat this significant injury in a prompt fashion. In this case, surgical fracture fixation and subsequent repair of the PLC provided a good clinical outcome. PMID:26600961

  12. Acute liver injury associated with a newer formulation of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, James L; Worman, Howard J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDS), serious cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported. The popular herbal weight loss supplement, Hydroxycut, has previously been implicated in acute liver injury. Since its introduction, Hydroxycut has undergone successive transformations in its formulation; yet, cases of liver injury have remained an ongoing problem. We report a case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man who developed acute hepatocellular liver injury with associated nausea, vomiting, jaundice, fatigue and asterixis attributed to the use of a newer formulation of Hydroxycut, SX-7 Clean Sensory. The patient required hospitalisation and improved with supportive therapy. Despite successive transformations in its formulation, potential liver injury appears to remain an ongoing problem with Hydroxycut. Our case illustrates the importance of obtaining a thorough medication history, including HDS, regardless of new or reformulated product marketing efforts. PMID:25948859

  13. Tears of anterior cruciate ligament and associated injury in the knee joint: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the characteristic findings in tears of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and associated injury at MR imaging. We reviewed the findings of MR images and the corresponding arthroscopic results of 32 patients with ACL tears. We evaluated the signal intensity and contour of ACL surrounding bony structures, menisci and associated injury of the knee joint. Complete ACL tears were present in 25 patients and partial ACL tears were in 7 patients. Complete ACL tears showed heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of the ACL in 14 patients (56%) and without bulging or absence in 11 patients(44%). Most patients torn ACL with contour bulging(12/14) had bone bruise, but only one patient torn ACL without bulging contour had bone bruise. ACL with thin continuous low signal band surrounding heterogenously increased signal intensity suggests partial tear which was seen in three patients of seven proved partial ACL tears. Combined bone injury in ACL tear were in 23 patients (73%) and most of these(22/23) were at midportion of lateral notch of femur and/or posterior portion of lateral tibial plateu. Deepening of lateral notch of femur were noted in 17 patients(53%). Associated injuries of the other ligaments of knee joint were buckling of the posterior cruciate ligament(16/32, 50%) and tears of the medial collateral ligament(11/32, 34%). Posterior horns of menisci were more frequent site of combined injury within menisci in patients with ACL tear. Acute tearing of ACL in MRI is seen as heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of ACL and combined bone bruises. Patients with torn ACL frequently have various combined injury. In patient with knee injury, these associated or ancillary findings suggest that ACL tear is present

  14. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Juice and Phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrzljak, Anna; Kosuta, Iva; Skrtic, Anita; Kanizaj, Tajana Filipec; Vrhovac, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice is a popular herbal dietary supplement globally used for preventive or therapeutic purposes in a variety of ailments, claiming to exhibit hepatoprotective properties as well. Herein we present the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed acute liver injury associated with noni juice consumption on a long-term (9 months) anticonvulsant therapy. Clinical presentation and liver biopsy were consistent with severe, predominantly hepatocellular type of injury. Both agents were stopped and corticosteroids were initiated. Five months later the patient had fully recovered. Although in the literature the hepatotoxicity of noni juice remains speculative, sporadic but emerging cases of noni juice-associated liver injury address the need to clarify and investigate potential harmful effects associated with this supplement. PMID:23467452

  15. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Goncalves Arliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  16. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Harold B; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo G

    2014-04-01

    Young people are a risk to themselves and other road users, as motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of their death. A thorough understanding of the most important factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young drivers is important for designing well-targeted restrictive measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred. The analysis examined a comprehensive set of single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes involving at least one 15-24 year-old driver in New Zealand between 2002 and 2011 that resulted in minor, serious or fatal injuries. A mixed logit model accounting for heterogeneity and heteroscedasticity in the propensity to injury severity outcomes and for correlation between serious and fatal injuries proved a better fit than a binary and a generalized ordered logit. Results show that the young drivers' behavior, the presence of passengers and the involvement of vulnerable road users were the most relevant factors associated with higher injury severity in both single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes. Seatbelt non-use, inexperience and alcohol use were the deadliest behavioral factors in single-vehicle crashes, while fatigue, reckless driving and seatbelt non-use were the deadliest factors in two-vehicle crashes. The presence of passengers in the young drivers' vehicle, and in particular a combination of males and females, dramatically increased the probability of serious and fatal injuries. The involvement of vulnerable road users, in particular on rural highways and open roads, considerably amplified the probability of higher crash injury severity. PMID:24456849

  17. Contractor-, steward-, and coworker-safety practice: associations with musculoskeletal pain and injury-related absence among construction apprentices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Dutra, Lauren M; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper sought to assess organizational safety practices at three different levels of hierarchical workplace structure and to examine their association with injury outcomes among construction apprentices.

  18. Spinal cord injury and the neuron-intrinsic regeneration-associated gene program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagoe, Nitish D; van Heest, Jessica; Verhaagen, Joost

    2014-12-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects millions of people worldwide and causes a significant physical, emotional, social and economic burden. The main clinical hallmark of SCI is the permanent loss of motor, sensory and autonomic function below the level of injury. In general, neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) are incapable of regeneration, whereas injury to the peripheral nervous system is followed by axonal regeneration and usually results in some degree of functional recovery. The weak neuron-intrinsic regeneration-associated gene (RAG) response upon injury is an important reason for the failure of neurons in the CNS to regenerate an axon. This response consists of the expression of many RAGs, including regeneration-associated transcription factors (TFs). Regeneration-associated TFs are potential key regulators of the RAG program. The function of some regeneration-associated TFs has been studied in transgenic and knock-out mice and by adeno-associated viral vector-mediated overexpression in injured neurons. Here, we review these studies and propose that AAV-mediated gene delivery of combinations of regeneration-associated TFs is a potential strategy to activate the RAG program in injured CNS neurons and achieve long-distance axon regeneration. PMID:25269879

  19. MR imaging of the combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament tears: focussing on the ratterns of injuries and associated findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the patterns of injuries and frequency of associated findings on MR imaging in patients with both anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)tears;to compare the associated findings, as seen on MR imaging, in cases with both ACL and PCL tears with those with ACL or PCL tears. Ten patients with compbined ACL and PCL tears, 16 with ACL tears and 18 with PCL tears, all confirmed by arthroscopy or open surgery, were involved in this study. To identify the associated knee injuries, MR images were retrospectively evaluated. In ten patients with combined ACL and PCL tears, open surgery led to the identification of six complete ACL tears (60%), four partial ACL tears (40%), eitht complete PCL tears (80%) and two partial PCL tears (20%). Injuries associated with these combined tears, and revealed by MR imaging, comprised six medial collateral ligament injuries (60%), six lateral collateral ligament jnjuries (60%), five medial meniscal injuries (50%), three lateral meniscal injuries (30%), nine bony injuries (90%), two posterior capsular injuries (20%), and three popliteus muscle injuries (30%). The frequency of popliteus muscle injury was significantly different (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test) between the group with both ACL and PCL tears and that with ACL or PCL tears. Associated findings in patients with combined ACL and PCL tears are more frequent than in those with ACL or PCL tears. In cases involving combined ACL and PCL tears, associated findings-as seen on MR images-should thus be carefully examined

  20. Analysis of crash parameters and driver characteristics associated with lower limb injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Poplin, Gerald; Bose, Dipan; Forbes, Aaron; Hurwitz, Shepard; Shaw, Greg; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate changes in frequency, risk, and patterns of lower limb injuries due to vehicle and occupant parameters as a function of vehicle model year. From the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System, 10,988 observations were sampled and analyzed, representing 4.7 million belted drivers involved in frontal crashes for the years 1998-2010. A logistic regression model was developed to understand the association of sustaining knee and below knee lower limb injuries of moderate or greater severity with motor vehicle crash characteristics such as vehicle type and model years, toepan and instrument panel intrusions in addition to the occupant's age, gender, height and weight. Toepan intrusion greater than 2cm was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of injury (odds ratio: 9.10, 95% confidence interval 1.82-45.42). Females sustained a higher likelihood of distal lower limb injuries (OR: 6.83, 1.56-29.93) as compared to males. Increased mass of the driver was also found to have a positive association with injury (OR: 1.04, 1.02-1.06), while age and height were not associated with injury likelihood. Relative to passenger cars, vans exhibited a protective effect against sustaining lower limb injury (OR: 0.24, 0.07-0.78), whereas no association was shown for light trucks (OR: 1.31, 0.69-2.49) or SUVs (OR: 0.76, 0.28-2.02). To examine whether current crash testing results are representative of real-world NASS-CDS findings, data from frontal offset crash tests performed by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) were examined. IIHS data indicated a decreasing trend in vehicle foot well and toepan intrusion, foot accelerations, tibia axial forces and tibia index in relation to increasing vehicle model year between the year 1995 and 2013. Over 90% of vehicles received the highest IIHS rating, with steady improvement from the upper and lower tibia index, tibia axial force and the resultant foot acceleration considering both left and right extremities. Passenger cars received the highest rating followed by SUVs and light trucks, while vans attained the lowest rating. These results demonstrate that while there has been steady improvement in vehicle crash test performance, below-knee lower extremity injuries remain the most common AIS 2+ injury in real-world frontal crashes. PMID:26196465

  1. Overuse Injuries Associated with Mountain Biking: Is Single-Speed Riding a Predisposing Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lebec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though mountain bikers are at significant risk for overuse injury, there is minimal quality research describing this relationship. Single-speed mountain biking, in which participants pedal a bike with only a single gear, may place riders at even greater risk for overuse problems due to the disproportionate physical effort associated with this type of riding. The focus of this study was to provide additional perspective on overuse injuries sustained by mountain bikers and to determine if single-speed mountain biking places participants at greater risk for overuse conditions. Four hundred and four (404 mountain bikers were surveyed concerning overuse injuries sustained during the previous year. Findings indicate that 63% of respondents reported an overuse injury affecting at least one area with the most commonly reported areas being the lumbar spine, knees, hand/wrist, and cervical spine. Individuals riding single-speed mountain bikes did not have a higher incidence of overuse injuries than riders of multiple-geared bikes. However, respondents who split time between riding single-speed and multiple-geared bikes were significantly more likely to report an overuse syndrome than those only riding single-speed or multiple-geared bikes (p = 0.0104. This group of riders may be at greater risk for overuse injury due to excessive fatigue and poor biomechanics.

  2. Glucocorticoids aggravate retrograde memory deficiency associated with traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ke-Li; Yang, Shu-Yuan; Dong, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Ning

    2009-02-11

    Administration of glucocorticoid to patients with head injury has previously been demonstrated to impair memory. We hypothesize that glucocorticoids promote post-traumatic hippocampal apoptosis, resulting in retrograde memory deficiency associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by measuring spatial memory deficiency in rats subjected to fluid percussion injury (FPI) and receiving dexamethasone (DXM at 0.5-10 mg/kg) or methylprednisolone (MP at 5-30 mg/kg); we also examined neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were trained for the acquisition of spatial memory, then subjected to FPI and tested for spatial reference memory on post-injury days 7 and 14 using the Morris Water Maze. Brain tissue from injured rats was examined 24 h to 2 weeks after injury. The percent time in the goal quadrant, which measures spatial reference memory, was significantly lower in injured rats receiving either high-dose DXM or MP than in control groups. TUNEL-positive cells in hippocampus were first detected 24 h post-injury, plateauing at 48h. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly higher in injured rats treated with either DXM or MP. The data suggest that glucocorticoid therapy for TBI may increase neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and, as a result, aggravate retrograde memory deficits induced by TBI. PMID:19236166

  3. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  4. SODIUM BICARBONATE INFUSION: TO PREVENT CARDIAC SURGERY - ASSOCIATED ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The incidence of cardiac surgery – associated acute kidney injury is 50% of patients and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine if perioperative urinary and plasma alkalization with sodium bicarbonate infusion re duces the incidence of cardiac surgery – associated acute kidney injury. SETTING AND DESIGN: This study is double blind randomized control trial conducted at U N Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Center , India. METHOD S AND RESULT: A total of 140 pat ients scheduled to undergo elective cardiac surgery , who were at increased risk of development of cardiac surgery – associated acute kidney injury using recognized risk factors. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either sodium bicarbonate (n = 70 o r sodium chloride (n = 70 infusion , commencing at the start of anesthesia , in a dose of 4 mmol/kg over 24 hour. The primary outcome measure was the number of patients with development of CSA - AKI , defined as an increase in creatinine greater than 25% from baseline to peak value within the first three postoperative days. Significant differences among the groups in both plasma and urinary pH were achieved 6 hours after commencement of the infusion , and these changes persisted for more than 24 hours. A total o f 7 out of 70(10% patients in the sodium bicarbonate group and 16 out of 70(22.85% patients in the sodium chloride group developed acute kidney injury within the first three postoperative days with p value of 0.06 which is statistically not significant . There were also no significant differences in ventilation hours , ICU or hospital length of stay , or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative alkalization of blood and urine using an infusion of sodium bicarbonate did not result in a decrease in the incidence of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. KEYWORDS: Acute kidney injury; Cardiac surgery; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Creatinine; outcome; Urinary output

  5. The Analysis of Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures Associated Injuries in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan OZHASENEKLER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Persons with epilepsy are believed to be at greater risk of incurring accidental injury than those without seizures. During generalized seizures the individual is unable to utilize protective reflexes during falls and may consequently suffer head, orthopedic, or soft tissue injury. Our aim is to evaluate the spectrum of trauma in epilepsy patients presenting to our emergency department as a result of generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patient records collected between January 2004 and December 2007 at the Emergency Department of Dicle University Medical School. All patients aged 15 years or more with epilepsy and trauma due to generalized tonic clonic seizures were included in the study. Records were analyzed for age, gender, type of injury, sufficiency of anti-epileptic medication, and mortality. Results: The average age of the 51 patients included in the study was 26.02±9.86 years, range 15-52 years. Thirty-three patients (64.7% were male; the male female ratio was 1.83. Soft tissue injuries were the most common injury (26 instances. Head trauma, cuts, dental and tongue injuries were less common. Blood levels of anti-epileptic medication were in the therapeutic range in 9 (17.6% patients, while 42 (82.4% had sub therapeutic levels for effective treatment. Four (7.8% of the patients died. The trauma in 2 mortalities involved burns; remaining deaths were associated with submersion injury and fall (subarachnoidal hemorrhage. Conclusions: There was no significant association between sub therapeutic levels of anti-epileptic medication and mortality.

  6. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Background. The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry. Methods. The study included data sets of annual sales of local...... anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent......, prilocaine 3 percent, and articaine 4 percent sold in cartridges. Results. The study results showed a highly significant overrepresentation of NSDs associated with articaine 4 percent, in particular with mandibular blocks. Conclusions. The distribution of NSDs was disproportionate to the market share of...

  7. Sub-regional hippocampal injury is associated with fornix degeneration in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Young Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined in vivo evidence of axonal degeneration in association with neuronal pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD through analysis of fornix microstructural integrity and measures of hippocampal subfield atrophy. Based on known anatomical topography, we hypothesized that the local thickness of subiculum and CA1 hippocampus fields would be associated with fornix integrity, reflecting an association between AD-related injury to hippocampal neurons and degeneration of associated axon fibers. To test this hypothesis, multi-modal imaging, combining measures of local hippocampal radii with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, was applied to 44 individuals clinically diagnosed with AD, 44 individuals clinically diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and 96 cognitively normal individuals. Fornix microstructural degradation, as measured by reduced DTI-based fractional anisotropy (FA, was prominent in both MCI and AD, and was associated with reduced hippocampal volumes. Further, reduced fornix FA was associated with reduced anterior CA1 and antero-medial subiculum thickness. Finally, while both lesser fornix FA and lesser hippocampal volume were associated with lesser episodic memory, only the hippocampal measures were significant predictors of episodic memory in models including both hippocampal and fornix predictors. The region-specific association between fornix integrity and hippocampal neuronal death may provide in vivo evidence for degenerative white matter injury in AD: axonal pathology that is closely linked to neuronal injury.

  8. Dysarthria Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury: Speaking Rate and Emphatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.T.; Kent, R.D.; Duffy, J.R.; Thomas, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Prosodic abnormality is common in the dysarthria associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and adjustments of speaking rate and emphatic stress are often used as steps in treating the speech disorder in patients with TBI-induced dysarthria. However, studies to date do not present a clear and detailed picture of how speaking rate and emphatic…

  9. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O; Day, Peter; Heithersay, Geoffrey; Trope, Martin; Diangelis, Anthony J; Kenny, David J; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Bourguignon, Cecilia; Flores, Marie Therese; Hicks, Morris Lamar; Lenzi, Antonio R; Malmgren, Barbro; Moule, Alex J; Tsukiboshi, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Avulsion of permanent teeth is one of the most serious dental injuries, and a prompt and correct emergency management is very important for the prognosis. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and...

  10. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O; Ebeleseder, K A; Kenny, D J; Trope, M; Sigurdsson, A; Andersson, L; Bourguignon, C; Flores, M T; Hicks, M l; Lenzi, A R; Malmgren, B; Moule, A J; Pohl, Y; Tsukiboshi, M

    2014-01-01

    Avulsion of permanent teeth is one of the most serious dental injuries, and a prompt and correct emergency management is very important for the prognosis. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and...

  11. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functions of Non Suicidal Self-Injury: Associations with Emotional and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brianna J.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Layden, Brianne K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the functions of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has important implications for the development and refinement of theoretical models and treatments of NSSI. Emotional and social vulnerabilities associated with five common functions of NSSI-emotion relief (ER), feeling generation (FG), self-punishment (SP), interpersonal influence…

  12. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O; Flores, Marie Therese; Robertson, Agneta; DiAngelis, Anthony J; Andersson, Lars; Cavalleri, Giacomo; Cohenca, Nestor; Day, Peter; Hicks, Morris Lamar; Malmgren, Olle; Moule, Alex J; Onetto, Juan; Tsukiboshi, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition present special problems and the management is often different as compared with the permanent dentition. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group di...

  13. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Background. The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry. Methods. The study included data sets of annual sales of local ane......-concentration (4 percent) anesthetic formulations for blockanesthesia in the trigeminal area in cases in which there are viable alternatives....

  14. Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma. Methods: This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results: Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79% with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54% followed by fall from height (30%. Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62% followed by headache (33%. Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%. Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries. Conclusion: Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.

  15. Main musculoskeletal injuries associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses

    OpenAIRE

    M Mora-Carreño; Briones, R.; JS Galecio; Parra, D.; Rosenfeld, C.; SCHMEISSER, A.; B Menarim

    2014-01-01

    Chilean Rodeo is the most popular equestrian discipline in Chile and it is estimated that musculoskeletal diseases of the equine participants are the leading cause of illness and poor performance, however no related reports have been published. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the main diseases associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses. A retrospective study was performed considering the clinical attention records of horses participating in Chilean Rodeo which pre...

  16. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O; Flores, Marie Therese; Robertson, Agneta; DiAngelis, Anthony J; Andersson, Lars; Cavalleri, Giacomo; Cohenca, Nestor; Day, Peter; Hicks, Morris Lamar; Malmgren, Olle; Moule, Alex J; Onetto, Juan; Tsukiboshi, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition present special problems and the management is often different as compared with the permanent dentition. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group...... opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care for management of primary teeth injuries. The IADT cannot and does not guarantee favorable outcomes from strict adherence to the guidelines, but believe that their application can...

  17. Association between ADHD drug use and injuries among children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    van den Ban, Els; Souverein, Patrick; Meijer, Willemijn; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna; Egberts, Toine; Heerdink, Rob

    2014-01-01

    To study the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug use and the incidence of hospitalization due to injuries. A random sample of 150,000 persons (0-18 years) was obtained from the Dutch PHARMO record linkage system. An ADHD medication cohort as well as an up to six age/sex/index date sampled control cohort with no history of ADHD drug use was formed. Differences in incidence of hospitalization due to injuries were stratified for age and sex and compared prior...

  18. Technical Considerations in the Treatment of Syndesmotic Injuries Associated With Ankle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael J; Graves, Matthew L; Higgins, Thomas F; Nork, Sean E

    2015-08-01

    Malleolar ankle fractures associated with syndesmotic injuries are common. Diagnosis of the syndesmotic injury can be difficult and often requires intraoperative fluoroscopic stress testing. Accurate reduction and stable fixation of the syndesmosis are critical to maximize patient outcomes. Recent literature has demonstrated that the unstable syndesmosis is particularly prone to iatrogenic malreduction. Multiple types of malreduction can occur, including translational, rotational, and overcompression. Knowledge of the technical details regarding intraoperative reduction methods and reduction assessment can minimize the risk of syndesmotic malreduction and improve patient outcomes. PMID:26209146

  19. Myocardial injury and acute renal failure associated with lactic acidosis due to suicide attempt with metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertbas, Meltem; Sertbas, Yasar; Ordu, Ozgur; Berber, Enver; Ozen, Birgul; Ozdemir, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) is one of the most important drug toxicities with a high morbidity and mortality rate. We report herein a case of suicide attempt with metformin presenting as MALA and acute renal failure on admission to emergency department and acute myocardial injury later on hospitalisation. An obvious improvement of metabolic parameters was seen in our patient provided by anti-ischaemic treatment together with bicarbonate infusion and haemodialysis. Although myocardial injury due to MALA is not a common disorder, we must be aware that metformin overdose with lack of tissue oxygenation, hypoperfusion, and arrhythmias may cause myocardial ischaemia. PMID:26819175

  20. MicroRNA changes in rat mesentery and serum associated with drug-induced vascular injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Roberta A., E-mail: Roberta.A.Thomas@gsk.com; Scicchitano, Marshall S.; Mirabile, Rosanna C.; Chau, Nancy T.; Frazier, Kendall S.; Thomas, Heath C.

    2012-08-01

    Regulatory miRNAs play a role in vascular biology and are involved in biochemical and molecular pathways dysregulated during vascular injury. Collection and integration of functional miRNA data into these pathways can provide insight into pathogenesis at the site of injury; the same technologies applied to biofluids may provide diagnostic or surrogate biomarkers. miRNA was analyzed from mesentery and serum from rats given vasculotoxic compounds for 4 days. Fenoldopam, dopamine and midodrine each alter hemodynamics and are associated with histologic evidence of vascular injury, while yohimbine is vasoactive but does not cause histologic evidence of vascular injury in rat. There were 38 and 35 miRNAs altered in a statistically significant manner with a fold change of 2 or greater in mesenteries of fenoldopam- and dopamine-dosed rats, respectively, with 9 of these miRNAs shared. 10 miRNAs were altered in rats given midodrine; 6 were shared with either fenoldopam or dopamine. In situ hybridization demonstrated strong expression and co-localization of miR-134 in affected but not in adjacent unaffected vessels. Mesenteric miRNA expression may provide clarity or avenues of research into mechanisms involved in vascular injury once the functional role of specific miRNAs becomes better characterized. 102 miRNAs were altered in serum from rats with drug-induced vascular injury. 10 miRNAs were commonly altered in serum from dopamine and either fenoldopam or midodrine dosed rats; 18 of these 102 were also altered in mesenteries from rats with drug-induced vascular injury, suggesting their possible utility as peripheral biomarkers. -- Highlights: ► Mesentery and serum were examined from rats given vasoactive compounds for 4 days. ► 72 miRNAs were altered in mesenteries from rats with vascular injury. ► miR-134 was localized to affected but not adjacent unaffected vessels. ► 102 miRNAs were changed in serum from rats with vascular injury. ► 18 miRNAs changed in both mesenteries and serum from rats with vascular injury.

  1. Cumulative Cardiovascular Polypharmacy Is Associated With the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Elderly Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Wu, Chia-Yi; LIN Yu-feng; Hsu, Nin-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Shin; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Polypharmacy is common in the elderly due to multimorbidity and interventions. However, the temporal association between polypharmacy and renal outcomes is rarely addressed and recognized. We investigated the association between cardiovascular (CV) polypharmacy and the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in elderly patients. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance PharmaCloud system to investigate the relationship between cumulative CV medications in the 3 months before admission ...

  2. Neonatal Injury at Cephalic Vaginal Delivery: A Retrospective Analysis of Extent of Association with Shoulder Dystocia

    OpenAIRE

    Iskender, Cantekin; Kaymak, Oktay; Erkenekli, Kudret; Ustunyurt, Emin; Uygur, Dilek; Yakut, Halil Ibrahim; Danisman, Nuri

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the risk factors and labor characteristics of Clavicular fracture (CF) and brachial plexus injury (BPI); and compare antenatal and labor characteristics and prognosis of obstetrical BPI associated with shoulder dystocia with obstetrical BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia. Methods This retrospective study consisted of women who gave birth to an infant with a fractured clavicle or BPI between January 2009 and June 2013. Antenatal and neonatal data were compared betwee...

  3. The association of functional oral intake and pneumonia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.S.; Larsen, K.; Engberg, Anders

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and onset time of pneumonia for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the early phase of rehabilitation and to identify parameters associated with the risk of pneumonia. DESIGN: Observational retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Subacute...... rehabilitation department in a university hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=173) aged 16 to 65 years with severe TBI who were admitted during a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the brain injury unit as soon as they ventilate spontaneously. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME...... MEASURE: Pneumonia. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the patients admitted to the brain injury unit were in treatment for pneumonia; pneumonia developed in 12% of the patients during rehabilitation; the condition occurred within 19 days of admission in all but 1 patient. Of these patients, 81% received...

  4. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O; Ebeleseder, K A; Kenny, D J; Trope, M; Sigurdsson, A; Andersson, L; Bourguignon, C; Flores, M T; Hicks, M l; Lenzi, A R; Malmgren, B; Moule, A J; Pohl, Y; Tsukiboshi, M

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition present special problems and the management is often different as compared with the permanent dentition. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group...... opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care for management of primary teeth injuries. The IADT cannot and does not guarantee favorable outcomes from strict adherence to the guidelines, but believe that their application can...... maximize the chances of a positive outcome. The Hebrew Edition is part of the IADT global effort to provide a worldwide accessibility to these guidelines. This third part will discuss injuries in the primary dentition....

  5. Superior compliance with a neuromuscular training programme is associated with fewer ACL injuries and fewer acute knee injuries in female adolescent football players: secondary analysis of an RCT

    OpenAIRE

    Hgglund, Martin; Atroshi, Isam; Wagner, Philippe; Walden, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the influence of compliance with neuromuscular training (NMT) on the knee injury rate in football. Aim To evaluate team and player compliance with an NMT programme in adolescent female football and to study the association between compliance and acute knee injury rates. Methods Prospective cohort study based on a cluster randomised controlled trial on players aged 1217?years with 184 intervention teams (2471 players) and 157 control teams (2085 players). Expo...

  6. Associations between Deceased-Donor Urine Injury Biomarkers and Kidney Transplant Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Peter P; Hall, Isaac E; Weng, Francis L; Schröppel, Bernd; Doshi, Mona D; Hasz, Rick D; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Ficek, Joseph; Rao, Veena; Murray, Patrick; Lin, Haiqun; Parikh, Chirag R

    2016-05-01

    Assessment of deceased-donor organ quality is integral to transplant allocation practices, but tools to more precisely measure donor kidney injury and better predict outcomes are needed. In this study, we assessed associations between injury biomarkers in deceased-donor urine and the following outcomes: donor AKI (stage 2 or greater), recipient delayed graft function (defined as dialysis in first week post-transplant), and recipient 6-month eGFR. We measured urinary concentrations of microalbumin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), IL-18, and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) from 1304 deceased donors at organ procurement, among whom 112 (9%) had AKI. Each biomarker strongly associated with AKI in adjusted analyses. Among 2441 kidney transplant recipients, 31% experienced delayed graft function, and mean±SD 6-month eGFR was 55.7±23.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) In analyses adjusted for donor and recipient characteristics, higher donor urinary NGAL concentrations associated with recipient delayed graft function (highest versus lowest NGAL tertile relative risk, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.43). Linear regression analyses of 6-month recipient renal function demonstrated that higher urinary NGAL and L-FABP concentrations associated with slightly lower 6-month eGFR only among recipients without delayed graft function. In summary, donor urine injury biomarkers strongly associate with donor AKI but provide limited value in predicting delayed graft function or early allograft function after transplant. PMID:26374609

  7. Main musculoskeletal injuries associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mora-Carreño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilean Rodeo is the most popular equestrian discipline in Chile and it is estimated that musculoskeletal diseases of the equine participants are the leading cause of illness and poor performance, however no related reports have been published. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the main diseases associated with lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses. A retrospective study was performed considering the clinical attention records of horses participating in Chilean Rodeo which presented lameness. Information was collected regarding 114 cases, including identification (name, age and gender and the clinical characteristics of each episode. The average age of the horses was 8 ± 3.4 years. Among the subjects, 98.3% of the episodes corresponded to spontaneous lameness, with 2/4 being the most frequent degree of lameness. Unilateral episodes corresponded to 72.8% (83/114 of the cases, affecting primarily the front limbs (51/83. The most frequent diagnoses were: suspensory ligament desmitis (14%, tarsal osteoarthritis (13.2%, navicular syndrome (8.8%, laminitis (7.9%, deep digital flexor tendonitis (7% and metacarpophalangeal osteoarthritis (6.1%. The high frequency of grade 2 lameness suggests that the majority of veterinary attentions seem to be mostly at obvious conditions. Joint, foot and soft tissue conditions seem to be the main cause of lameness in equines participating in Chilean Rodeo. These results suggest that education regarding the importance of early diagnosis and greater hoof care are primary measures that may favor the prevention of lameness in Chilean Rodeo horses.

  8. Childhood and adolescent injuries in elementary schools in north-western Uganda: extent, risk and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Childhood injuries remain understudied in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the extent, nature and determinants of school-related childhood injury risk in north-western Uganda. A cohort of 1000 grade fives from 13 elementary schools was followed-up for one term. Survival and multi-level modelling techniques compared the risk rates across gender, schools and locations. Childhood injuries are common in north-western Uganda. Most of them occur during travel, breaks, practical classes and gardening, while walking, playing, learning and digging. Most injuries result from collisions with objects, sports and falls. Two-thirds of children receive first aid and hospital care. Times to injury were 72.1 and 192.9 person days (p = 0.0000). Gender differences in time to event were significant (p = 0.0091). Girls had better survival rates: cumulative prevalence of childhood injury was 36.1%; with significant gender differences (p = 0.007). Injury rate was 12.3/1000 person days, with a hazard ratio of 1.4. Compared to girls, boys had a 37% higher injury rate (p = 0.004). Rates varied among schools. Associated factors include sex and school. Rural-urban location and school differences do influence childhood injury risk. Childhood injuries are common: the risk is high, gender- and school-specific. Determinants include gender and school. Location and school contexts influence injury risk. PMID:22273248

  9. Device-associated infections at a level-1 trauma centre of a developing Nation: Impact of automated surveillance, training and feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Device-associated infections constitute the majority of health care-associated infections (HAIs in ICUs. Trauma patients are predisposed to acquire such infections due to various trauma-related factors. The prevalence of HAIs is underreported from developing nations due to a lack of systematic surveillance. This study reports the impact of an intensive surveillance on the rates and outcome of device-associated infections in trauma patients from a developing country and compares the rates with a previous pilot observation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at a level-1 trauma centre of India. Surveillance for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, central line-associated blood stream infections (CLA-BSIs and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs was done based on centre for disease control-National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN definitions. The impact of an intensive surveillance, education and awareness drive on the rates of infections over the study period, and compliance to preventive bundles and hand hygiene was assessed. Results: A total of 15,462 ventilator days, 12,207 central line days and 17,740 urinary catheter days were recorded in the study population. The overall rates of VAP, CLA-BSI and CA-UTI were respectively 17, 7.2 and 15.5/1000 device days. There was a significant correlation between device days and the propensity to develop infections. Infections were the cause of death in 36.6% of fatal trauma cases. A significantly higher rate of VAP, CLA-BSI and CA-UTIs was noted in fatal cases. The compliance to ventilator bundle, central line bundle, bladder bundle and hand hygiene were 74.5%, 86%, 79.3% and 64.6%, respectively. A high rate of multi-drug-resistance was observed in all pathogens. A gross reduction in the rates of all infections was observed over time during the study due to implementation of a stringent surveillance system, feedbacks and education. The compliance to hand hygiene and preventive bundles also increased over time. Conclusion: The automated surveillance was easy and useful for data entry and analysis. Surveillance had a significant impact on reduction of HAIs and mortality in trauma patients.

  10. Blast injury in a civilian trauma setting is associated with a delay in diagnosis of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Grant V; Lumpkins, Kimberly; O'Connor, James; Simard, Marc; Schaub, Stacey; Conway, Anne; Bochicchio, Kelly; Scalea, Thomas M

    2008-03-01

    High-pressure waves (blast) account for the majority of combat injuries and are becoming increasingly common in terrorist attacks. To our knowledge, there are no data evaluating the epidemiology of blast injury in a domestic nonterrorist setting. Data were analyzed retrospectively on patients admitted with any type of blast injury over a 10-year period at a busy urban trauma center. Injuries were classified by etiology of explosion and anatomical location. Eighty-nine cases of blast injury were identified in 57,392 patients (0.2%) treated over the study period. The majority of patients were male (78%) with a mean age of 40 +/- 17 years. The mean Injury Severity Score was 13 +/- 11 with an admission Trauma and Injury Severity Score of 0.9 +/- 0.2 and Revised Trauma Score of 7.5 +/- 0.8. The mean intensive care unit and hospital length of stay was 2 +/- 7 days and 4.6 +/- 10 days, respectively, with an overall mortality rate of 4.5 per cent. Private dwelling explosion [n = 31 (35%)] was the most common etiology followed by industrial pressure blast [n = 20 (22%)], industrial gas explosion [n = 16 (18%)], military training-related explosion [n = 15 (17%)], home explosive device [n = 8 (9%)], and fireworks explosion [n = 1 (1%)]. Maxillofacial injuries were the most common injury (n = 78) followed by upper extremity orthopedic (n = 29), head injury (n = 32), abdominal (n = 30), lower extremity orthopedic (n = 29), and thoracic (n = 19). The majority of patients with head injury [28 of 32 (88%)] presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. CT scans on admission were initially positive for brain injury in 14 of 28 patients (50%). Seven patients (25%) who did not have a CT scan on admission had a CT performed later in their hospital course as a result of mental status change and were positive for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Three patients (11%) had a negative admission CT with a subsequently positive CT for TBI over the next 48 hours. The remaining four patients (14%) were diagnosed with skull fractures. All patients (n = 4) with an admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 8 died from diffuse axonal injury. Blast injury is a complicated disease process, which may evolve over time, particularly with TBI. The missed injury rate for TBI in patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 was 36 per cent. More studies are needed in the area of blast injury to better understand this disease process. PMID:18376697

  11. Health care associated infections, antibiotic resistance and clinical outcome: A surveillance study from Sanandaj, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jafar; Poorabbas, Bahman; Miri, Neda; Mardaneh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of gram-negative healthcare associated bacterial infections at two tertiary hospitals in the Sanandaj city, Kurdistan Province, Iran. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2012, all positive cultures from potentially sterile body fluids were gathered. They sent to professor Alborzi clinical microbiology center in Shiraz for further analysis and susceptibility testing. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the Kirby-Bauer method (disk diffusion technique). The Results were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines against a series of antimicrobials. World Health Organization definitions for Healthcare associated infections were followed. RESULTS: Seven hundred and thirty-two positive cultures were reported from both hospitals. Seventy-nine isolates/patients fulfilled the study criteria for health-care associated gram-negative infections. The most frequent bacterial cultures were from the pediatric wards (52%). Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) (38%) Escherichia coli (E. coli) (19%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (19%), Acinetobacter baumannii (6%), Enterobacter species (6%), Serratia odorifera (4%) and Pseudomonas species (5%) were the most frequently isolated organisms. The susceptibility pattern of common isolates i.e., S. marcescens, E. coli and K. pneumoniae for commonly used antibiotics were as follows: Ampicillin 3.3%, 6.7%, 20%; gentamicin 73.3%, 73.3%, 46.7%; ceftazidim 80%, 73.3%, 33.3%; cefepim 80%, 86.7%, 46.7%; piperacillin/tazobactam 90%, 66.7%, 86.7%; ciprofloxacin 100%, 73.3%, 86.7%; imipenem 100%, 100%, 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The most effective antibiotics against gram-negative healthcare associated infections are imipenem followed by ciprofloxacin. The resistance rate is high against ampicillin and cephalothin. The high mortality rate (46.1%) associated with S. marcescens is alarming. PMID:26989670

  12. The use of a biodegradable mesh to prevent radiation-associated small-bowel injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-associated small bowel injury occurs in up to 50% of patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy following pelvic cancer surgery. We describe our experience using a biodegradable mesh that allows the small bowel to be supported above the pelvic inlet and is totally absorbed following radiation therapy. Between 1985 and 1989, 45 procedures were performed in patients with carcinoma of the rectum (anterior resection in 15 patients, abdominoperineal resection in 23 patients, pelvic exenteration in six patients, and proctocolectomy in one patient). In 30 patients a polyglycolic acid (Dexon) mesh was used, and in 15 patients a polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) mesh was used. Forty-four patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The mean (+/- SEM) dose was 56.8 +/- 18.4 Gy. There were no immediate complications related to the mesh. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 53 months (median follow-up, 34 months). With the exception of two patients who had a polyglactin 910 mesh and who developed bowel obstruction due to adhesions under the anterior abdominal wall, there has been no documented incidence of clinical radiation-associated small bowel injury. The use of the absorbable mesh may permit us to use higher doses of postoperative radiotherapy without the associated hazard of radiation-associated small bowel injury

  13. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  14. Surveillance System and Prevalence of Healthcare-Associated Infections in a Maternity Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Flevari, Pagona; Zorou, Irene; Tsakris, Athanassios; Saroglou, George

    2013-01-01

    Obstetrician-gynaecologist (Ob-Gyn) medical and nursing personnel usually have minimal in action training on infection control (IC). Limited information exists also about the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in maternity hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine in a 30-day survey prevalence of HAIs among hospitalised patients and neonates in a maternity hospital in Athens, Greece, and to offer to the IC office a practical IC manual. Patients hospitalized for mo...

  15. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: associations between sleep duration, screen time and food consumption frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Wijnhoven, Trudy MA; Kunešová, Marie; Yngve, Agneta; Rito, Ana I.; Lissner, Lauren; Duleva, Vesselka; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Breda, João

    2015-01-01

    Background Both sleep duration and screen time have been suggested to affect children’s diet, although in different directions and presumably through different pathways. The present cross-sectional study aimed to simultaneously investigate the associations between sleep duration, screen time and food consumption frequencies in children. Methods The analysis was based on 10 453 children aged 6–9 years from five European countries that participated in the World Health Organization European Chil...

  16. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: associations between sleep duration, screen time and food consumption frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Kunešová, Marie; Yngve, Agneta; Rito, Ana I.; Lissner, Lauren; Duleva, Vesselka; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Breda, João

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both sleep duration and screen time have been suggested to affect children's diet, although in different directions and presumably through different pathways. The present cross-sectional study aimed to simultaneously investigate the associations between sleep duration, screen time and food consumption frequencies in children. METHODS: The analysis was based on 10 453 children aged 6-9 years from five European countries that participated in the World Health Organization European...

  17. Electronic surveillance for catheter-associated urinary tract infections at a university-affiliated children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anita I; Balzer, Krystal; Mangino, Diane; Messina, Maria; Ross, Barbara; Zachariah, Philip; Saiman, Lisa

    2016-05-01

    We sought to describe the characteristics of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in a children's hospital while demonstrating efficacy of electronic identification of CAUTIs. There were 25 CAUTIs identified over 24 months, with most (88%) occurring in the intensive care units (ICUs). The incidence of ICU CAUTIs decreased during the study period (P = .04). Concordance between electronic identification and validation by infection control staff was 83% and increased to 100% with correction of nursing documentation. PMID:26856468

  18. The incidence and risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with severe traumatic brain injury are at a risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, etiology, risk factors for development of ventilator- associated pneumonia and outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Material and Methods. A retrospective study was done in 72 patients with severe traumatic brain injury, who required mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. Results. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was found in 31 of 72 (43.06% patients with severe traumatic brain injury. The risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia were: prolonged mechanical ventilation (12.42 vs 4.34 days, p<0.001, longer stay at intensive care unit (17 vs 5 days, p<0.001 and chest injury (51.61 vs 19.51%, p< 0.009 compared to patients without ventilator-associated pneumonia.. The mortality rate in the patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia was higher (38.71 vs 21.95%, p= 0.12. Conclusion. The development of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury led to the increased morbidity due to the prolonged mechanical ventilation, longer stay at intensive care unit and chest injury, but had no effect on mortality.

  19. From Cues to Nudge: A Knowledge-Based Framework for Surveillance of Healthcare-Associated Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Mamiya, Hiroshi; Riazanov, Alexandre; Forster, Alan J; Baker, Christopher J O; Tamblyn, Robyn; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated semantic web framework consisting of formal ontologies, web services, a reasoner and a rule engine that together recommend appropriate level of patient-care based on the defined semantic rules and guidelines. The classification of healthcare-associated infections within the HAIKU (Hospital Acquired Infections - Knowledge in Use) framework enables hospitals to consistently follow the standards along with their routine clinical practice and diagnosis coding to improve quality of care and patient safety. The HAI ontology (HAIO) groups over thousands of codes into a consistent hierarchy of concepts, along with relationships and axioms to capture knowledge on hospital-associated infections and complications with focus on the big four types, surgical site infections (SSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI); hospital-acquired pneumonia, and blood stream infection. By employing statistical inferencing in our study we use a set of heuristics to define the rule axioms to improve the SSI case detection. We also demonstrate how the occurrence of an SSI is identified using semantic e-triggers. The e-triggers will be used to improve our risk assessment of post-operative surgical site infections (SSIs) for patients undergoing certain type of surgeries (e.g., coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)). PMID:26537131

  20. Resolvin D1 protects against inflammation in experimental acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Dan; Long, Fei-Wu; Chen, Ke-Ling; Yang, Hong-Wei; Lv, Zhao-Yin; Zhou, Bin; Peng, Zhi-Hai; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Zong-Guang

    2016-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition that may lead to multisystemic organ failure with considerable mortality. Recently, resolvin D1 (RvD1) as an endogenous anti-inflammatory lipid mediator has been confirmed to protect against many inflammatory diseases. This study was designed to investigate the effects of RvD1 in acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. Acute pancreatitis varying from mild to severe was induced by cerulein or cerulein combined with LPS, respectively. Mice were pretreated with RvD1 at a dose of 300 ng/mouse 30 min before the first injection of cerulein. Severity of AP was assessed by biochemical markers and histology. Serum cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in pancreas and lung were determined for assessing the extent of inflammatory response. NF-?B activation was determined by Western blotting. The injection of cerulein or cerulein combined with LPS resulted in local injury in the pancreas and corresponding systemic inflammatory changes with pronounced severity in the cerulein and LPS group. Pretreated RvD1 significantly reduced the degree of amylase, lipase, TNF-?, and IL-6 serum levels; the MPO activities in the pancreas and the lungs; the pancreatic NF-?B activation; and the severity of pancreatic injury and associated lung injury, especially in the severe acute pancreatitis model. These results suggest that RvD1 is capable of improving injury of pancreas and lung and exerting anti-inflammatory effects through the inhibition of NF-?B activation in experimental acute pancreatitis, with more notable protective effect in severe acute pancreatitis. These findings indicate that RvD1 may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy in the management of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:26702138

  1. In Search of Mechanisms Associated with Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Acute Kidney Injury

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida, Danilo C; Donizetti-Oliveira, Cassiano; Barbosa-Costa, Priscilla; Origassa, Clarice ST; Câmara, Niels OS

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is classically described as a rapid loss of kidney function. AKI affects more than 15% of all hospital admissions and is associated with elevated mortality rates. Although many advances have occurred, intermittent or continuous renal replacement therapies are still considered the best options for reversing mild and severe AKI syndrome. For this reason, it is essential that innovative and effective therapies, without side effects and complications, be developed to tre...

  2. Association Between Mental Health and Traffic Accidents Injuries in Iranian Men

    OpenAIRE

    Kambiz Masoumi; Arash Forouzan; Ali Asgari Darian; Fakher Rahim; Abolfazl Shiravi Khoozani; Maryam Izadi Mazidi; Shahram Khademvatan

    2015-01-01

    Study of psychological consequences in traffic accident injured has received little attention in Iran. This study aimed to examine association between mental health and traffic related injuries in injured patients admitted into Emergency Department of Golestan hospital affiliated to Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Ahvaz, Iran. This study was done on a total of 102 injured men involved in traffic accidents as driver. The controls were consisted of 87 men that were selected from g...

  3. Inverse association between serum creatinine and mortality in acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Pinto de Souza; Rodrigo Santos Matos; Luisa Leite Barros; Paulo Novis Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a leading precipitant of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and is associated with a high mortality rate. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for dialysis and mortality in a cohort of AKI patients of predominantly septic etiology. Methods: Adult patients from an ICU for whom nephrology consultation was requested were included. End-stage chronic renal failure and kidney transplant patients were excluded. Results: 114 pati...

  4. Furosemide is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, T.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Almeida, D.N.; Martins, R.T.C.; M.G.C. Silva; N.C.P. Santana; I.T. Sanjuan; C.M.S. Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU) and if there is an association between the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (...

  5. An Immunohistochemical Panel to Assess Ultraviolet Radiation Associated Oxidative Skin Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mamalis, A; Fiadorchanka, N; Adams, L.; Serravallo, M; Heilman, E; Siegel, D.; Brody, N; Jagdeo, J

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation results in a significant loss in years of healthy life, approximately 1.5 million disability-adjusted life years, and is associated with greater than 60,000 deaths annually worldwide that are attributed to melanoma and other skin cancers. Currently, there are no standardized biomarkers or assay panels to assess oxidative stress skin injury patterns in human skin exposed to ionizing radiation. Using biopsy specimens from chronic solar UV-exposed and UV-protected skin...

  6. Injury of anterior cruciate ligament with associated bony lesions: MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the characteristic MR findings in injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with associated bony lesions. We reviewed MR findings and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative results of 48 patients with ACL injuries, and evaluated ACL signal intensity and contour. In associated bony lesions, we determined the location of avulsion fracture and bony bruise. Complete ACL tears were seen in 27 cases, partial tears in 13, and avulsion injury in eight. Complete tears showed heterogeneously increased signal intensity with contour bulging in ten cases (37%), and combined bony lesion in 14 (52%). ACL with a thin continous low signal intensity band surrounding heterogeneously-increased signal intensity suggested partial tears, and was seen in three of 13 proven cases (23%) of partial ACL tears;combined bony lesion was seen in four such cases(31%). There were eight cases of avulsion fracture;the most frequent site was the anterolateral portion of the tibial spine (n=6). The most frequent sites of bony lesion were at the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle (n=6), and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=6);the next most frequent site was the anterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=5). Tearing of the ACL was seen on MRI as ligament discontinuity, and heterogeneously increased signal intensity with ACL contour bulging. The most frequent sites of associated bony lesions were the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle, and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau. In associated bony lesions, bony contusion suggested ACL tearing, but avulsion fracture suggested ligament avulsion injury without tear

  7. Avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament in an uncommon location associated with distal injury to the patellar ligament

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires e; Idemar Monteiro da Palma; Hugo Cobra; Alan de Paula Mozella; Victor Vaques

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament in unusual locations are rare injuries. We report the first case in the literature of an avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament associated with distal injury to the patellar ligament. The aim of this study was to present a novel case, the therapy used and the clinical follow-up.

  8. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad I. Hammoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER. VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1 a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2 an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs and targets of interest (TOIs by movement type and geolocation; and (3 a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV. VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  9. The Warfighter Associate: decision-support software agent for the management of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Marusich, Laura R.; Sokoloff, Stacey

    2014-06-01

    A unique and promising intelligent agent plug-in technology for Mission Command Systems the Warfighter Associate (WA) is described that enables individuals and teams to respond more effectively to the cognitive challenges of Mission Command, such as managing limited intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assets and information sharing in a networked environment. The WA uses a doctrinally-based knowledge representation to model role-specific workflows and continuously monitors the state of the operational environment to enable decision-support, delivering the right information to the right person at the right time. Capabilities include: (1) analyzing combat events reported in chat rooms and other sources for relevance based on role, order-of-battle, time, and geographic location, (2) combining seemingly disparate pieces of data into meaningful information, (3) driving displays to provide users with map based and textual descriptions of the current tactical situation, and (4) recommending courses of action with respect to necessary staff collaborations, execution of battle-drills, re-tasking of ISR assets, and required reporting. The results of a scenario-based human-in-the-loop experiment are reported. The underlying WA knowledge-graph representation serves as state traces, measuring aspects of Soldier decision-making performance (e.g. improved efficiency in allocating limited ISR assets) across runtime as dynamic events unfold on a simulated battlefield.

  10. Acute Kidney Injury Is Common in Pediatric Severe Malaria and Is Associated With Increased Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Andrea L.; Hawkes, Michael; Elphinstone, Robyn E.; Morgan, Catherine; Hermann, Laura; Barker, Kevin R.; Namasopo, Sophie; Opoka, Robert O.; John, Chandy C.; Liles, W. Conrad; Kain, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well recognized complication of severe malaria in adults, but the incidence and clinical importance of AKI in pediatric severe malaria (SM) is not well documented. Methods. One hundred eighty children aged 1 to 10 years with SM were enrolled between 2011 and 2013 in Uganda. Kidney function was monitored daily for 4 days using serum creatinine (Cr). Acute kidney injury was defined using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Cr were assessed using i-STAT, and cystatin C (CysC) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Eighty-one (45.5%) children had KDIGO-defined AKI in the study: 42 (51.9%) stage 1, 18 (22.2%) stage 2, and 21 (25.9%) stage 3. Acute kidney injury evolved or developed in 50% of children after admission of hospital. There was an increased risk of AKI in children randomized to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), with 47 (54.0%) of children in the iNO arm developing AKI compared with 34 (37.4%) in the placebo arm (relative risk, 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.80). Duration of hospitalization increased across stages of AKI (P = .002). Acute kidney injury was associated with neurodisability at discharge in the children receiving placebo (25% in children with AKI vs 1.9% in children with no AKI, P = .002). Mortality increased across stages of AKI (P = .006) in the placebo arm, reaching 37.5% in stage 3 AKI. Acute kidney injury was not associated with neurodisability or mortality at discharge in children receiving iNO (P > .05 for both). Levels of kidney biomarkers were predictive of mortality with areas under the curves (AUCs) of 0.80 (95% CI, .65–.95; P = .006) and 0.72 (95% CI, .57–.87; P < .001), respectively. Admission levels of CysC and BUN were elevated in children who died by 6 months (P < .0001 and P = .009, respectively). Conclusions. Acute kidney injury is an underrecognized complication in young children with SM and is associated with increased mortality.

  11. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    The notorious intensification and digitalization of surveillance technologies and practices in today’s society has brought about numerous changes. These changes have been widely noticed, described and discussed across many academic disciplines. However, the contexts of entertainment, play and...... leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance as...... portrayed in the movies Rear Window (1954) and The Conversation (1974). I argue that such research as well as studies of the experience of surveillance contributes to our theoretical insights into the ambiguous and ubiquitous phenomenon of surveillance....

  12. Bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee joint MRI : relationship between its location and associated injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Baek Hyun; Jung, Hoe Seok; Na, Eui Sung; Seol, Hye Young; Cha, In Ho; Lim, Hong Chul [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the location of bone signal abnormality and associated injury, as seen on MR, in patients with acute knee joint injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with acute knee injury and bone signal abnormalities on MR were included in this study. The femur and tibia were each divided into six compartments, namely the anteromedial, medial, posteromedial,anterolateral, lateral, and posterolateral ; these were obtained in each knee joint. We evaluated the location of bone signal abnormality and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative findings of injury to ligaments and menisci. Cases with signal abnormalities involving more than three compartments were excluded. Results : Bone signal abnormalities were demonstrated in 51 compartments. Most(84%, 43/51) were noted in the lateral half of the knee joint, the most common location being the tibio- posterolateral compartment(13/51). The femoro-lateral(11/51) and tibio- anterolateral compartment(8/51) were the next most common locations. All cases(13/13)with bone signal abnormality in the tibio- posterolateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament,while 9 of 11 cases(81%) with abnormality in the femoro- lateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the tibio- anterolateral compartment had tears at the posterior cruciate ligament ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint had tears at the medial collateral ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the medial half of the knee joint had tears at the medial meniscus, but no lateral meniscal tear was found. Among patients with signal abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint, the tear was lateral meniscal in nine of 43 cases(21%) and medial meniscal in six of 43(14%). Conclusion : The location of bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee MR, inpatients with acute knee joint injury could be an important finding suggesting associated injury.

  13. Bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee joint MRI : relationship between its location and associated injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the location of bone signal abnormality and associated injury, as seen on MR, in patients with acute knee joint injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with acute knee injury and bone signal abnormalities on MR were included in this study. The femur and tibia were each divided into six compartments, namely the anteromedial, medial, posteromedial,anterolateral, lateral, and posterolateral ; these were obtained in each knee joint. We evaluated the location of bone signal abnormality and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative findings of injury to ligaments and menisci. Cases with signal abnormalities involving more than three compartments were excluded. Results : Bone signal abnormalities were demonstrated in 51 compartments. Most(84%, 43/51) were noted in the lateral half of the knee joint, the most common location being the tibio- posterolateral compartment(13/51). The femoro-lateral(11/51) and tibio- anterolateral compartment(8/51) were the next most common locations. All cases(13/13)with bone signal abnormality in the tibio- posterolateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament,while 9 of 11 cases(81%) with abnormality in the femoro- lateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the tibio- anterolateral compartment had tears at the posterior cruciate ligament ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint had tears at the medial collateral ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the medial half of the knee joint had tears at the medial meniscus, but no lateral meniscal tear was found. Among patients with signal abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint, the tear was lateral meniscal in nine of 43 cases(21%) and medial meniscal in six of 43(14%). Conclusion : The location of bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee MR, inpatients with acute knee joint injury could be an important finding suggesting associated injury

  14. Increased S-nitrosothiols are associated with spinal cord injury in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominykh, Vera; Onufriev, Mikhail V; Vorobyeva, Anna; Brylev, Lev; Yakovlev, Alexander A; Zakharova, Maria N; Gulyaeva, Natalia V

    2016-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disorder associated with inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage. In search of potential biomarkers of spinal cord lesions in MS related to nitric oxide metabolites, we measured total nitrite and nitrate levels, and protein-bound nitrotyrosine and S-nitrosothiol concentrations in the serum of MS patients at different stages of the disease. Sixty-eight patients and 36 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Total nitrite and nitrate levels were augmented in relapsing-remitting MS, while increased S-nitrosothiol concentrations were found both in relapsing-remitting and secondary-progressive MS. Further analysis demonstrated that S-nitrosothiol levels were selectively increased in patients with spinal cord injury. The data suggest that high S-nitrosothiol concentration may be a potential serum biomarker for spinal cord injury in MS. PMID:26778356

  15. Impact of Helmet Use in Traumatic Brain Injuries Associated with Recreational Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Latha; Bodhit, Aakash N.; Patel, Pratik Shashikant; Hatchitt, Kelsey; Hoelle, Robyn M.; Peters, Keith R.; Kuchibhotla, Sudeep; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Gabrielli, Andrea; Mazzuoccolo, Anna; Falgiani, Tricia; Maerz, Porter W.; Kharod, Shivam M.; Conroy, Lauren M.; Khalid, Hussain M.; Tyndall, J. Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To study the impact of helmet use on outcomes after recreational vehicle accidents. Methods. This is an observational cohort of adult and pediatric patients who sustained a TBI while riding a recreational vehicle. Recreational vehicles included bicycles, motorcycles, and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), as well as a category for other vehicles such as skateboards and scooters. Results. Lack of helmet use was significantly associated with having a more severe traumatic brain injury and being admitted to the hospital. Similarly, 25% of those who did wearing a helmet were admitted to the ICU versus 36% of those who did not (P = 0.0489). The hospital length of stay was significantly greater for patients who did not use helmets. Conclusion. Lack of helmet use is significantly correlated with abnormal neuroimaging and admission to the hospital and ICU; these data support a call for action to implement more widespread injury prevention and helmet safety education and advocacy. PMID:24205441

  16. Computed tomography of traumatic abdominal wall hernia and associated deceleration injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, N.A.; Ryan, M.F.; Hamilton, P.A.; Bloom, C.; Murphy, J.P. [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brenneman, F. [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Surgery, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomographic CT examinations of 15 cases of abdominal wall hernia due to abdominal trauma; 13 patients had been injured in motor vehicle accidents (11 of those were belted in). All hernias were correctly identified on CT and confirmed intraoperatively. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia proved an important indicator of associated visceral injury, especially to the bowel (n = 6) and mesentery (n = 10). Careful review of the bowel and mesentery should thus be undertaken when disruption of the abdominal wall is documented. Radiologists should be aware, however, that CT findings may correlate poorly with severity of injury in these areas. In these instances, close clinical correlation and, sometimes, rescanning may be necessary. (author)

  17. Factors Associated With Length of Stay and Hospital Charges among Pediatric Burn Injury in Kermanshah, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2015-01-01

    This study highlights that the independent predictors affecting hospital costs and LOS associated with pediatric burn injury in Kermanshah. Also, our study indicates the BBS was the main factors affecting hospital costs and LOS for the study population. 

  18. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, So Young [University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  19. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Chaplin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  20. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  1. Avaliao da evoluo de leses associadas leso do ligamento cruzado anterior Progress assessment of injuries associated to anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dias da Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PROPOSTA: Revisamos 71 pacientes com diagnstico de leso do ligamento cruzado anterior em 72 joelhos. Foi avaliado a incidncia de leses associadas (meniscais ou condrais de acordo com o tempo at a cirurgia de reconstruo do ligamento. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Estudo retrospectivo de srie de casos. MTODOS: Realizado anlise estatstica do efeito do tempo at a cirurgia com o aumento de leses associadas. RESULTADOS: No houve alterao, estatisticamente significante, da incidncia de leses condrais e meniscais avaliadas nos perodos 2 a 3 meses, 4 a 6 meses, 7 a 12 meses, 13 a 24 meses e mais que 24 meses. CONCLUSES: Embora haja uma tendncia de aumento de leses meniscais aps 6 meses e de leses condrais aps 12 meses da leso do ligamento cruzado anterior, tal fato no mostrou significncia estatistica.PURPOSE: We reviewed 71 patients diagnosed with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury on 72 knees. The incidence of associated injuries (meniscal and joint cartilage injuries were evaluated according to the time elapsed until ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Statistical analysis of the relationship between the time elapsed until surgery and the increase of associated lesions. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference on the incidence of joint-cartilage and meniscal injuries assessed for the periods within 2-3 months, 4-6 months, 7-12 months, 13-24 months and above 24 months. CONCLUSION: Although a trend towards a higher number of meniscal injuries after 6 months, and of joint-cartilage injuries after 12 months since the primary anterior cruciate ligament injury, such fact showed no statistical significance.

  2. Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Emergency Service Triage Patterns and the Associated Emergency Department Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Shalini; Haider, Adil H; Schneider, Eric B; Sadowsky, Cristina L; Becker, Daniel; Hammond, Edward R

    2015-12-15

    Paralysis is an indication for trauma patients to be preferentially triaged by emergency services to designated level I or II trauma centers (TC). We sought to describe triage practices for patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) and its associated emergency department (ED) outcomes. Adults ages ?18 years with a diagnosis of acute TSCI (International Classification of Diseases-9: 806 and 952) in the 2006-2011 United States Nationwide Emergency Department Sample were included in these analyses. Outcomes assessed include triage to non-trauma centers (NTC), which is referred to as "under-triage," and ED mortality. Of 117,444 adults with TSCI, 33.4% were under-triaged to NTC. Under-triage was more prevalent with increasing age. Among patients under-triaged to NTC, 37.4% had new injury severity score (NISS) >15, representing severe injuries or polytrauma. Among patients with NISS >15, the odds of ED mortality in NTC were four-fold greater compared to level I trauma centers (TC-I) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?4.06; 95% confidence interval?=1.87-8.79; p?injury characteristics. Further research is necessary to elucidate detailed clinical and logistical factors that may be associated with under-triage of acute TSCI, to facilitate interventions aimed at improving patient experience and outcomes. PMID:26102350

  3. Role of macrophage inflammatory peptide-2 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor, Catherine; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Hadengue, Antoine; Jordan, Martha Cacilie; Morel, Philippe; Frossard, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of variable severity, and leukocytes are thought to play a key role in the development of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. The effects of mediators released by these inflammatory cells may induce tissue damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of the chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), in the pathogenesis of cerulein-induced pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. The severity of pa...

  4. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision injuries. Coaches should be cognisant of overtraining, vary day-to-day training routines to decrease repetitive musculoskeletal stress, focus on motor skills with equal emphasis on speed and efficiency of movement, and use drills that reinforce sport-specific, decision making processes to minimise mental mistakes. Conditioning programs that emphasise a combination of power, acceleration, flexibility, technical skill, functional capacity and injury prevention are recommended. Due to the limited body of knowledge presently available on this sport, a greater focus on injury surveillance would provide a clearer picture of injury causation and effective management procedures, leading toward safer participation and successful player development. PMID:11219502

  5. Association of initial CT findings with quality-of-life outcomes for traumatic brain injury in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired disability in children and adolescents. To demonstrate the association between specific findings on initial noncontrast head CT and long-term outcomes in children who have suffered TBI. This was an IRB-approved prospective study of children ages 2-17 years treated in emergency departments for TBI and who underwent a head CT as part of the initial work-up (n = 347). The change in quality of life at 12 months after injury was measured by the PedsQL scale. Children with TBI who had intracranial injuries identified on the initial head CT had a significantly lower quality-of-life scores compared to children with TBI whose initial head CTs were normal. In multivariate analysis, children whose initial head CT scans demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, midline shift ≥5 mm, hemorrhagic shear injury, abnormal cisterns or subdural hematomas ≥3 mm had lower quality of life scores 1 year after injury than children whose initial CTs did not have these same injuries. Associations exist between findings from the initial noncontrast head CT and quality of life score 12 months after injury in children with TBI. (orig.)

  6. Association of initial CT findings with quality-of-life outcomes for traumatic brain injury in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Jonathan O. [Seattle Children' s Hospital and University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Vavilala, Monica S.; Wang, Jin; Rivara, Frederick P. [Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle, WA (United States); Pruthi, Sumit [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt University, Department of Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Fink, James [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Jaffe, Kenneth M. [University of Washington, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Dennis [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pediatrics, Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Koepsell, Thomas [University of Washington, Department of Epidemiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Temkin, Nancy [University of Washington, Biostatistics, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired disability in children and adolescents. To demonstrate the association between specific findings on initial noncontrast head CT and long-term outcomes in children who have suffered TBI. This was an IRB-approved prospective study of children ages 2-17 years treated in emergency departments for TBI and who underwent a head CT as part of the initial work-up (n = 347). The change in quality of life at 12 months after injury was measured by the PedsQL scale. Children with TBI who had intracranial injuries identified on the initial head CT had a significantly lower quality-of-life scores compared to children with TBI whose initial head CTs were normal. In multivariate analysis, children whose initial head CT scans demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, midline shift {>=}5 mm, hemorrhagic shear injury, abnormal cisterns or subdural hematomas {>=}3 mm had lower quality of life scores 1 year after injury than children whose initial CTs did not have these same injuries. Associations exist between findings from the initial noncontrast head CT and quality of life score 12 months after injury in children with TBI. (orig.)

  7. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yong; Croft Janet B; Wheaton Anne G; Perry Geraldine S; Chapman Daniel P; Strine Tara W; McKnight-Eily Lela R; Presley-Cantrell Letitia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days), obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System w...

  8. Incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in Australasian intensive care units: use of a consensus-developed clinical surveillance checklist in a multisite prospective audit

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Doug; Elliott, Rosalind; Burrell, Anthony; Harrigan, Peter; Murgo, Margherita; Rolls, Kaye; Sibbritt, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives With disagreements on diagnostic criteria for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) hampering efforts to monitor incidence and implement preventative strategies, the study objectives were to develop a checklist for clinical surveillance of VAP, and conduct an audit in Australian/New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs) using the checklist. Setting Online survey software was used for checklist development. The prospective audit using the checklist was conducted in 10 ICUs in Australi...

  9. Admission to hospital following head injury in England: Incidence and socio-economic associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennant Alan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head injury in England is common. Evidence suggests that socio-economic factors may cause variation in incidence, and this variation may affect planning for services to meet the needs of those who have sustained a head injury. Methods Socio-economic data were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics and merged with Hospital Episodes Statistics obtained from the Department of Health. All patients admitted for head injury with ICD-10 codes S00.0S09.9 during 20012 and 20023 were included and collated at the level of the extant Health Authorities (HA for 2002, and Primary Care Trust (PCT for 2003. Incidence was determined, and cluster analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to look at patterns and associations. Results 112,718 patients were admitted during 20012 giving a hospitalised incidence rate for England of 229 per 100,000. This rate varied across the English HA's ranging from 91419 per 100,000. The rate remained unchanged for 20023 with a similar magnitude of variation across PCT's. Three clusters of HA's were identified from the 20012 data; those typical of London, those of the Shire counties, and those of Other Urban authorities. Socio-economic factors were found to account for a high proportion of the variance in incidence for 20012. The same pattern emerged for 20023 at the PCT level. The use of public transport for travel to work is associated with a decreased incidence and lifestyle indicators, such as the numbers of young unemployed, increase the incidence. Conclusion Head injury incidence in England varies by a factor of 4.6 across HA's and PCT's. Planning head injury related services at the local level thus needs to be based on local incidence figures rather than regional or national estimates. Socio-economic factors are shown to be associated with admission, including travel to work patterns and lifestyle indicators, which suggests that incidence is amenable to policy initiatives at the macro level as well as preventive programmes targeted at key groups.

  10. Prevalence of and factors associated with hock, knee, and neck injuries on dairy cows in freestall housing in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffino Heyerhoff, J C; LeBlanc, S J; DeVries, T J; Nash, C G R; Gibbons, J; Orsel, K; Barkema, H W; Solano, L; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Haley, D B

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are a widespread problem in the dairy industry. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and explore the animal-based and environmental factors associated with hock, knee, and neck injuries on dairy cows in freestall housing in Ontario and Alberta, Canada. Freestall dairy farms in the provinces of Ontario (n=40) and Alberta (n=50) were visited for cross-sectional data collection. A purposive sample of 40 lactating Holstein cows was selected for detailed observation on each farm. Cows were scored for hock, knee, and neck injuries on a 3- or 4-point scale, combining the attributes of hair loss, broken skin, and swelling and with a higher score indicating a more severe injury. The highest hock and highest knee score were used in the analysis. Animal-based and environmental measures were taken to explore which factors were associated with injury. Overall, the prevalence of cows with at least one hock, knee, and neck injury was 47, 24, and 9%, respectively. Lame cows had a greater odds of hock injury [odds ratio (OR)=1.46] than nonlame cows, whereas cows with fewer days in milk (DIM) had reduced odds of hock injury compared with those >120 DIM (OR=0.47, 0.64, and 0.81 for rubber flooring in the alley along the feed bunk compared with bare concrete floors (OR=0.19). These results demonstrate that individual animal characteristics, as well as barn design and animal management, are associated with hock, knee, and neck injuries. These data can help to guide investigations into causes and prevention of injuries. PMID:24359942

  11. Association between cervical spine and skull-base fractures and blunt cerebrovascular injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch, Karen; Nguyen, Thanh; Norbash, Alex; Mian, Asim [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Mahoney, Eric; Burke, Peter [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Libby, Brandon; Calner, Paul [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVI) are associated with high morbidity and mortality and can lead to neurological deficits. The established criteria for patients undergoing CT angiography (CTA) for BCVI are broad, and can expose patients to radiation unnecessarily. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of BCVI in patients on CTA and determine presentations associated with the highest rates of BCVI. With IRB approval, patients were selected for CTA screening for BCVI according to a predefined set of criteria at our hospital between 2007 and 2010. Patients were identified from our institution's trauma database. CTAs were retrospectively reviewed for BCVI including vasospasm and dissection. Electronic medical records were reviewed for clinical presentation and hospital course. Of 432 patients, vasospasm (n = 10) and/or dissection (n = 36) were found in 46 patients (10.6 %). BCVI was associated with cervical spine and/or skull-base fracture in 40/46 patients (87 %, P < 0.0001). Significant correlations were seen between dissection and fracture in 31/36 patients (86.2 %, p < 0.0001) and between BCVI and both neurological deficits and fractures (27/44, P < 0.0001). BCVI was significantly associated with cervical and/or skullbase fractures and neurological deficits with coexistent fractures. Patients with these injuries should be prioritized for rapid CTA evaluation for BCVI. (orig.)

  12. Association between cervical spine and skull-base fractures and blunt cerebrovascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVI) are associated with high morbidity and mortality and can lead to neurological deficits. The established criteria for patients undergoing CT angiography (CTA) for BCVI are broad, and can expose patients to radiation unnecessarily. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of BCVI in patients on CTA and determine presentations associated with the highest rates of BCVI. With IRB approval, patients were selected for CTA screening for BCVI according to a predefined set of criteria at our hospital between 2007 and 2010. Patients were identified from our institution's trauma database. CTAs were retrospectively reviewed for BCVI including vasospasm and dissection. Electronic medical records were reviewed for clinical presentation and hospital course. Of 432 patients, vasospasm (n = 10) and/or dissection (n = 36) were found in 46 patients (10.6 %). BCVI was associated with cervical spine and/or skull-base fracture in 40/46 patients (87 %, P < 0.0001). Significant correlations were seen between dissection and fracture in 31/36 patients (86.2 %, p < 0.0001) and between BCVI and both neurological deficits and fractures (27/44, P < 0.0001). BCVI was significantly associated with cervical and/or skullbase fractures and neurological deficits with coexistent fractures. Patients with these injuries should be prioritized for rapid CTA evaluation for BCVI. (orig.)

  13. A proposta da rede de serviços sentinela como estratégia da vigilância de violências e acidentes The injury surveillance system based on sentinel health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as bases de dados oficiais permitem o monitoramento da mortalidade e internações no SUS, decorrentes dos acidentes e violências. É preciso conhecer a magnitude e o perfil dessas causas que demandam os serviços de emergência, bem como identificar alguns problemas ocultos tais como as violências doméstica e sexual. O propósito deste artigo é apresentar a proposta do Ministério da Saúde de implantação da Rede de Serviços Sentinela de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes - Rede VIVA, iniciada em 2006, que visa complementar o sistema de informações existente para a vigilância dessas causas. Para obter um quadro mais completo do problema e atender à legislação vigente no País, foram estabelecidos dois componentes: 1 Vigilância de acidentes e violências em emergências hospitalares selecionadas: coleta em um mês a cada ano, através de uma amostra; 2 Vigilância das violências sexual, doméstica e/ou outras violências interpessoais em serviços de referência: coleta universal e contínua. O estabelecimento da Rede VIVA foi realizado pelo Ministério da Saúde em parceria com as Secretarias Estaduais e Municipais de Saúde a partir de critérios previamente estabelecidos. A adesão ao projeto foi acima das expectativas, todas as regiões do Brasil foram representadas.In Brazil, the official data sets allow monitoring the impact of injury deaths and injury hospitalization in the public health system. But it is necessary to gather more information about the magnitude and the characteristics of injuries at Emergency Departments (ED, as well as to identify some hidden problems, such as domestic and sexual violence. The purpose of this article is to present the new Injury Surveillance System based on Sentinel Health Services, carried out by the Ministry of Health in order to broaden the knowledge of these causes.To have a more accurate picture of injuries and to enforce the law which made mandatory the information about violence against women in the country, the measures to be taken were twofold: 1 injury surveillance in ED, carried out in chosen services, collecting one-month data yearly, through a sample; 2 domestic, sexual and interpersonal violence surveillance carried out in violence reference services, through universal and continuous data collection, involving a larger number of services. The implementation of that Health Sentinel Services Network has been conducted by the Ministry of Health in partnership with the State and Municipal Health Departments based on pre-established criteria. The adherence to the project has been taken place all over Brazil.

  14. Surveillance Angels:

    OpenAIRE

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data. Human operators are supposed to give a semantic interpretation of the observed data. They are searching for suspicious or unwanted behaviour. The increase of surveillance sensors in the milita...

  15. Association of chronic vascular changes with functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Nick M E A; Immonen, Riikka; Tuunanen, Pasi I; Ndode-Ekane, Xavier Ekolle; Gröhn, Olli; Pitkänen, Asla

    2010-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that vascular remodeling in the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus is associated with long-term functional recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We induced TBI with lateral fluid-percussion (LFP) injury in adult rats. Animals were followed-up for 9 months, during which we tested motor performance using a neuroscore test, spatial learning and memory with a Morris water maze, and seizure susceptibility with a pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) test. At 8 months, they underwent structural MRI, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI. Then, rats were perfused for histology to assess the density of blood vessels. In the perilesional cortex, the CBF decreased by 56% (p water maze correlated with enhanced thalamic vessel density (r = -0.81, p < 0.01). Finally, enhanced seizure susceptibility was associated with reduced CBF in the ipsilateral hippocampus (r = 0.78, p < 0.05) and increased vascular density in the thalamus (r = 0.69, p < 0.05). There was little interaction between the behavioral measures. The present study demonstrates that each of the investigated brain areas has a unique pattern of vascular abnormalities. Chronic alterations in CBF could not be attributed to changes in vascular density. Association of thalamic hypervascularity to epileptogenesis warrants further studies. Finally, hippocampal hypoperfusion may predict later seizure susceptibility in the LFP injury model of TBI, which could be of value for pre-clinical antiepileptogenesis trials. PMID:20839948

  16. A road traffic injury surveillance system using combined data sources in Peru Sistema de vigilancia de traumatismos por accidentes de trnsito con fuentes de datos combinadas en el Per

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yliana Rojas Medina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A national hospital-based nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance system was established at sentinel units across Peru in 2007 under the leadership of the Ministry of Health. Surveillance data are drawn from three different sources (hospital records, police reports, and vehicle insurance reports and include nonfatal road traffic injuries initially attended at emergency rooms. A single data collection form is used to record information about the injured, event characteristics related to the driver of the vehicle(s, and the vehicle(s. Data are analyzed periodically and disseminated to all surveillance system participants. Results indicated young adult males (15-29 years old were most affected by nonfatal road traffic injuries and were most often the drivers of the vehicles involved in the collision. Four-wheeled vehicle occupants comprised one-half of cases in most regions of the country, and pedestrians injured in the event accounted for almost another half. The system established in Peru could serve as a model for the use of multiple data sources in national nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance. Based on this study, the challenges of this type of system include sustaining and increasing participation among sentinel units nationwide and identifying appropriate prevention interventions at the local level based on the resulting data.Con el liderazgo del Ministerio de Salud, en el 2007 se estableci un sistema hospitalario nacional de vigilancia de traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de trnsito en unidades centinela de todo el Per. Los datos de vigilancia se extraen de tres fuentes diferentes (registros hospitalarios, informes policiales e informes del seguro del vehculo e incluyen los traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de trnsito atendidos inicialmente en las salas de urgencia. Se usa un nico formulario de recopilacin de datos para registrar la informacin sobre los heridos, las caractersticas del hecho relacionadas con el conductor o los conductores de los vehculos y del vehculo o los vehculos involucrados. Los datos se analizan peridicamente y se comunican a todos los participantes del sistema de vigilancia. Los resultados indicaron que los hombres adultos jvenes (de 15 a 29 aos fueron los ms afectados por traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de trnsito y con mayor frecuencia eran los conductores de los vehculos que participaron en la colisin. Los ocupantes de vehculos de cuatro ruedas representaron la mitad de los casos en la mayora de las zonas del pas y los peatones lesionados en el hecho representaron prcticamente la otra mitad. El sistema establecido en el Per podra servir de modelo del uso de mltiples fuentes de datos para la vigilancia a nivel nacional de traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de trnsito. Segn los resultados de este estudio, los retos de un sistema de este tipo consisten en mantener y aumentar la participacin de las unidades de vigilancia de todo el pas y determinar las intervenciones de prevencin adecuadas en el nivel local segn los datos obtenidos.

  17. Protective Effect of Nitric Oxide in Lung Injury Associated with Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    BED?RL?, Abdulkadir

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of NO in the pathogenesis of lung injury associated with pancreatitis, and the relation between malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Forty Wistar male rats were divided into control or pancreatitis groups, and treated with saline, L-arginine (100 mg/kg i.v.), NO donor, or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (10 mg/kg i.v.), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Pancreatitis was induced in rats intravenously via the administration of ce...

  18. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    -use, inexperience and alcohol use were the deadliest behavioral factors in single-vehicle crashes, while fatigue, reckless driving and seatbelt non-use were the deadliest factors in two-vehicle crashes. The presence of passengers in the young drivers’ vehicle, and in particular a combination of males and females......Young people are a risk to themselves and other road users, as motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of their death. A thorough understanding of the most important factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young drivers is important for designing well-targeted restrictive...

  19. Role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for early detection of acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeevani, Scienthia; Pruthi, Sonal; Kalra, Sarathi; Goel, Ashish; Kalra, Om Prakash

    2014-07-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by abrupt or rapid decline of renal function and is usually associated with the development of serious complications as well as an independent risk of mortality in hospitalized patients. Emergency physicians play a critical role in recognizing early AKI, preventing iatrogenic injury, and reversing the course of AKI. Among the various available biomarkers for AKI, reliable and automated assay methods are commercially available for only cystatin-C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). NGAL appears to be a promising marker for early detection of AKI and is likely to be adapted for wide-scale clinical use in patient management as a point-of-care test. Use of NGAL along with panel of other renal biomarkers can improve the rate of early detection of AKI. Large, multicenter studies demonstrate the association between biomarkers and hard end points such as need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), cardiovascular events, hospital stay, and death, independent of serum creatinine concentrations. PMID:25337484

  20. Frequency and functions of non-suicidal self-injury: associations with suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Elise; Tsypes, Aliona; Eidlitz, Laura; Ernhout, Carrie; Whitlock, Janis

    2015-02-28

    Previous research has found associations between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), yet the nature of this relationship remains equivocal. The goal of the present study was to examine how lifetime NSSI frequency and individual NSSI functions relate to a history of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Data were collected via a large (N=13,396) web-based survey of university students between the ages of 18 and 29. After demographics and psychiatric conditions were controlled for, we found a positive curvilinear relationship between NSSI frequency and each of the suicide outcomes. When examined among those with STBs, bipolar disorder and problematic substance use remained positively associated with risk for suicide attempt, but not NSSI. Analyses of individual NSSI functions showed differential associations with STBs of varying severity. Specifically, nearly every NSSI function was significantly related to suicide attempt, with functions related to avoiding committing suicide, coping with self-hatred, and feeling generation (anti-dissociation) showing the strongest risks for suicide attempt. From both clinical and research perspectives, these findings suggest the importance of assessing multiple reasons for engaging in self-injury. PMID:25592979

  1. Clinical Presentation and Time-Based Mortality in Patients With Chest Injuries Associated With Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Ellabib, Mohammad; Asim, Mohammad; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blunt chest trauma (BCT) poses significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Objectives: We investigated the clinical presentation and outcome of BCT related to road traffic accidents (RTA). Patients and Methods: A retrospective observational analysis for patients who sustained BCT secondary to RTA in terms of motor vehicle crash (MVC) and pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents (PMVA) who were admitted to the trauma center at Hamad general hospital, Doha, Qatar, between 2008 and 2011. Results: Of 5118 traumatic injury cases, 1004 (20%) were found to have BCT secondary to RTA (77% MVC and 23% PMVA). The majority were males (92%), and expatriates (72%). Among MVCs, 84% reported they did not use protective devices. There was a correlation between chest abbreviated injury score (AIS) and injury severity scoring (ISS) (r = 0.35, r2 = 0.12, P < 0.001). Regardless of mechanism of injury (MOI), multivariate analysis showed that the head injury associated with chest AIS and ISS was a predictor of mortality in BCT. Overall mortality was 15%, and the highest rate was observed within the first 24 hours post-trauma. Conclusions: Blunt chest trauma from RTA represents one-fifth of the total trauma admissions in Qatar, with a high overall mortality. Pedestrians are likely to have more severe injuries and higher fatality rates than MVC victims. Specific injury prevention programs focusing on road safety should be implemented to minimize the incidence of such preventable injuries.

  2. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problem/Condition: Since 1978, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data on occurrences and causes...

  3. Equine Disease Surveillance: Quarterly Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-23

    West Nile virus in Europe and the USAEvidence that the spread of vesicular stomatitis in the USA is beginning to slowSummary of UK surveillance testing, July to September 2015 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:26795859

  4. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-14

    Multiple reports of equine herpesvirus type 1 in the UKFirst cases of dourine in Botswana and equine infectious anaemia in GreeceSummary of UK surveillance testing, October to December 2015These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27179087

  5. White matter integrity in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury: Associations with executive function and loss of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Sorg, SF; DELANO-WOOD, L.; Luc, N; Schiehser, DM; Hanson, KL; Nation, DA; Lanni, E; Jak, AJ; Lu, K.; Meloy, MJ; Frank, LR; Lohr, JB; Bondi, MW

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the association between white matter integrity and executive function (EF) performance in postacute mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). In addition, we examined whether injury severity, as measured by loss of consciousness (LOC) versus alterations in consciousness (AOC), is related to white matter microstructural alterations and neuropsychological outcome. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty Iraq and Afghanistan War era veterans with a hist...

  6. Elevated serum lactoferrin and neopterin are associated with postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ke; Du, Gang; Wei, Chengshou; GU, SONG; TANG Jun

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have shown that lactoferrin (LF) and neopterin (NT) are correlated with infection. The aim of this study is to determine whether serum levels of LF and NT are associated with postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury. Material and methods A total of 268 patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury who underwent spinal surgery were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of LF, NT, and C-reactive protein (CRP), in a...

  7. Proteasome inhibitor ameliorates severe acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen, Shun-Le Li, Tao Wu, Ji-Dong Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the effect of proteasome inhibitor MG-132 on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP and associated lung injury of rats.METHODS: Male adult SD rats were randomly divided into SAP group, sham-operation group, and MG-132 treatment group. A model of SAP was established by injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliary-pancreatic duct of rats. The MG-132 group was pretreated with 10 mg/kg MG-132 intraperitoneally (ip 30 min before the induction of pancreatitis. The changes in serum amylase, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity of pancreatic and pulmonary tissue were measured. The TNF-? level in pancreatic cytosolic fractions was assayed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Meanwhile, the pathological changes in both pancreatic and pulmonary tissues were also observed.RESULTS: MG-132 significantly decreased serum amylase, pancreatic weight/body ratio, pancreatic TNF-? level, pancreatic and pulmonary MPO activity (P < 0.05. Histopathological examinations revealed that pancreatic and pulmonary samples from rats pretreated with MG-132 demonstrated milder edema, cellular damage, and inflammatory activity (P < 0.05.CONCLUSION: The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 shows a protective effect on severe acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury of rats.

  8. Association Between Mental Health and Traffic Accidents Injuries in Iranian Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Masoumi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of psychological consequences in traffic accident injured has received little attention in Iran. This study aimed to examine association between mental health and traffic related injuries in injured patients admitted into Emergency Department of Golestan hospital affiliated to Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Ahvaz, Iran. This study was done on a total of 102 injured men involved in traffic accidents as driver. The controls were consisted of 87 men that were selected from general population and had no history of traffic accident. The data was gathered using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and analyzed through multiple univariate Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs. There was a significant difference between individuals with traffic accident and control group in mental health, physical symptoms, depression and social functioning all (p0.05. There were significant differences between two group in education, occupation status and marital status all (p<0.001. Traffic injuries were associated with mental health and physical symptoms, depression and social functioning components of GHQ. These results highlight the individual burden related to traffic accidents in Iran.

  9. Medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns and associated pathology in lateral patella dislocation: an MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero Patrick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateral Patella dislocations are common injuries seen in the active and young adult populations. Our study focus was to evaluate medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL injury patterns and associated knee pathology using Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies. Methods MRI studies taken at one imaging site between January, 2007 to January, 2008 with the final diagnosis of patella dislocation were screened for this study. Of the 324 cases that were found, 195 patients with lateral patellar dislocation traumatic enough to cause bone bruises on the lateral femoral trochlea and the medial facet of the patella were selected for this study. The MRI images were reviewed by three independent observers for location and type of MPFL injury, osteochondral defects, loose bodies, MCL and meniscus tears. The data was analyzed as a single cohort and by gender. Results This study consisted of 127 males and 68 females; mean age of 23 yrs. Tear of the MPFL at the patellar attachment occurred in 93/195 knees (47%, at the femoral attachment in 50/195 knees (26%, and at both the femoral and patella attachment sites in 26/195 knees (13%. Attenuation of the MPFL without rupture occurred in 26/195 knees (13%. Associated findings included loose bodies in 23/195 (13%, meniscus tears 41/195 (21%, patella avulsion/fracture in 14/195 (7%, medial collateral ligament sprains/tears in 37/195 (19% and osteochondral lesions in 96/195 knees (49%. Statistical analysis showed females had significantly more associated meniscus tears than the males (27% vs. 17%, p = 0.04. Although not statistically significant, osteochondral lesions were seen more in male patients with acute patella dislocation (52% vs. 42%, p = 0.08. Conclusion Patients who present with lateral patella dislocation with the classic bone bruise pattern seen on MRI will likely rupture the MPFL at the patellar side. Females are more likely to have an associated meniscal tear than males; however, more males have underlying osteochondral lesions. Given the high percentage of associated pathology, we recommend a MRI of the knee in all patients who present with acute patella dislocation.

  10. Enhanced Surveillance during the Democratic National Convention, Charlotte, NC

    OpenAIRE

    Deyneka, Lana; Ising, Amy; Li, Meichun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe how the existing state syndromic surveillance system (NC DETECT) was enhanced to facilitate surveillance conducted at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina from August 31, 2012 to September 10, 2012. Introduction North Carolina hosted the 2012 Democratic National Convention, September 3–6, 2012. The NC Epidemiology and Surveillance Team was created to facilitate enhanced surveillance for injuries and illnesses, early detection of outbreaks durin...

  11. Arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass is not associated with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandler, K; Jensen, M E; Nilsson, J C; Mller, C H; Steinbrchel, D A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is common and is associated with increased mortality. We wanted to investigate if the arterial pressure or the use of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass were associated with AKI. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who...... underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with or without concomitant procedures was conducted. AKI was defined using the RIFLE criteria. Data on arterial pressure and use of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass were entered in a binary logistic regression model to control for possible perioperative...... confounders. RESULTS: A total of 623 patients were included. Mean age was 68.3??9.7 years and 81% were males. AKI was observed in 198 patients (32%). Mean arterial pressure was 47??6?mmHg and 45??6?mmHg (P?=?0.008) in the AKI and no-AKI group, respectively. Norepinephrine was used more frequently and in...

  12. Incidence of work injuries amongst Danish adolescents and their association with work environment factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Andersen, JH

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. METHODS: We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from a ...... significantly raised adolescents' risk of experiencing a work injury. This suggests that more direct supervision may be a good way of preventing accidents in this age group......BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. METHODS: We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from a...... birth cohort comprising all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3,687) living in Ringkjobing County, Denmark. The questionnaire contained items on self-reported number of accidents and number of working hours in both rounds and on work environment factors in the second round. RESULTS: Approximately 5% of the...

  13. Incidence and outcome of contrast-associated acute kidney injury assessed with Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria in critically ill patients of medical and surgical intensive care units: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Myoung Hwa; Koh, Shin Ok; Kim, Eun Jung; Cho, Jin Sun; Na, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background Contrast medium used for radiologic tests can decrease renal function. However there have been few studies on contrast-associated acute kidney injury in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence, characteristics, and outcome of contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) patients using the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria in critically ill patients in the ICU. Methods We conducted a r...

  14. COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism is associated with nonverbal cognition following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; McAllister, Thomas W; Temkin, Nancy R; Oh, Sam S; Burchard, Esteban G; Hu, Donglei; Ferguson, Adam R; Lingsma, Hester F; Burke, John F; Sorani, Marco D; Rosand, Jonathan; Yuh, Esther L; Barber, Jason; Tarapore, Phiroz E; Gardner, Raquel C; Sharma, Sourabh; Satris, Gabriela G; Eng, Celeste; Puccio, Ava M; Wang, Kevin K W; Mukherjee, Pratik; Valadka, Alex B; Okonkwo, David O; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical outcomes, which may be influenced by genetic variation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme which degrades catecholamine neurotransmitters, may influence cognitive deficits following moderate and/or severe head trauma. However, this has been disputed, and its role in mTBI has not been studied. Here, we utilize the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study to investigate whether the COMT Val (158) Met polymorphism influences outcome on a cognitive battery 6 months following mTBI--Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test Processing Speed Index Composite Score (WAIS-PSI), Trail Making Test (TMT) Trail B minus Trail A time, and California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition Trial 1-5 Standard Score (CVLT-II). All patients had an emergency department Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13-15, no acute intracranial pathology on head CT, and no polytrauma as defined by an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of ≥3 in any extracranial region. Results in 100 subjects aged 40.9 (SD 15.2) years (COMT Met (158) /Met (158) 29 %, Met (158) /Val (158) 47 %, Val (158) /Val (158) 24 %) show that the COMT Met (158) allele (mean 101.6 ± SE 2.1) associates with higher nonverbal processing speed on the WAIS-PSI when compared to Val (158) /Val (158) homozygotes (93.8 ± SE 3.0) after controlling for demographics and injury severity (mean increase 7.9 points, 95 % CI [1.4 to 14.3], p = 0.017). The COMT Val (158) Met polymorphism did not associate with mental flexibility on the TMT or with verbal learning on the CVLT-II. Hence, COMT Val (158) Met may preferentially modulate nonverbal cognition following uncomplicated mTBI.Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01565551. PMID:26576546

  15. The association between dietary lifestyles and hepatocellular injury in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Toyoto; Arai, Kaori; Saito, Norimitsu; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum, relevant to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, has been often reported from Asian countries and the U.S., and it may be associated with lifestyle behavior. To clarify whether specific dietary behavior is associated with hepatocellular injury, we explored liver markers and dietary lifestyles (e.g., breakfast-skipping, eating for lunch, and snacking) in 1,809 male employees, aged 19-59 years, belonging to a health insurance union of automobile dealerships in Japan. ALT, ?-glutamyltransferase, and asparate aminotransferase (AST) were positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI) (P instant noodle ingestion for lunch to ALT elevation (> 30 IU/L), after adjusting for possible confounders including age, BMI, and drinking, were 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75) at 1-2 times/week and 1.47 (1.07-2.01) at ? 3 times/week, compared to those who seldom ate instant noodles. Likewise, the OR of the ingestion at ? 3 times/week to ?-glutamyltransferase elevation (> 50 IU/L) was 1.42 (1.02-1.99), but the OR to elevated AST (> 30 IU/L) was not statistically significant. Habitual ethanol intake was significantly associated with hepatocellular injury, though the threshold of daily ethanol intake differed among liver markers. Despite the low OR, habitual instant noodle ingestion for lunch is associated with ALT elevation. Since the average content of saturated fatty acids in instant noodles is considerably high among cereal foods in Japan, workers with this habit should be advised to avoid having unbalanced diets. PMID:24284330

  16. ATLAS OF INJURIES IN THE U.S. ARMED FORCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The database was initiated to determine the size of the problem of injuries in the military; document rates and trends of injury fatalities, disabilities, and hospitalizations; and identify information sources with potential for use in conducting injury surveillance and preventio...

  17. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for EG&G Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences resulting from illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This report presents the 1994 morbidity data for the Rocky Flats plant.

  18. Annual report for Hanford Site: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupational and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities.This report provides the final summary for the Hanford Reservation.

  19. Amended annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations and do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated work activities. This report provides a final summary for BNL.

  20. Catastrophic Head Injuries in High School and Collegiate Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Frederick O.

    2001-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of catastrophic head injuries in a variety of high school and college sports. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data on catastrophic head injuries were compiled in a national surveillance system maintained by the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research. The data were compiled with the assistance of coaches, athletic trainers, athletic directors, executive officers of state and national athletic organizations, a national newspaper clipping service, professional associates of the researchers, and national sport organizations. SUBJECTS: Data included all high school and college athletic programs in the United States. MEASUREMENTS: Background information on the athlete (age, height, weight, experience, previous injury, etc), accident information, immediate and postaccident medical care, type of injury, and equipment involved. Autopsy reports were used when available. RESULTS: A football-related fatality has occurred every year from 1945 through 1999, except for 1990. Head-related deaths accounted for 69% of football fatalities, cervical spinal injuries for 16.3%, and other injuries for 14.7%. High school football produced the greatest number of football head-related deaths. From 1984 through 1999, 69 football head-related injuries resulted in permanent disability. Sixty-three of the injuries were associated with high school football and 6 with college football. Although football has received the most attention, other sports have also been associated with head-related deaths and permanent disability injuries. From 1982 through 1999, 20 deaths and 19 permanent disability injuries occurred in a variety of sports. Track and field, baseball, and cheerleading had the highest incidence of these catastrophic injuries. Three deaths and 3 injuries resulting in permanent disability have occurred in female participants. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Reliable data collection systems and continual analysis of the data can help us to reduce the number of catastrophic head-related injuries. I include additional recommendations for injury prevention. PMID:12937502

  1. TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

  2. Association of traumatic brain injury with subsequent neurological and psychiatric disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David C; Sturm, Virginia E; Peterson, Matthew J; Pieper, Carl F; Bullock, Thomas; Boeve, Bradley F; Miller, Bruce L; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Berger, Mitchel S; Kramer, Joel H; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2016-02-01

    OBJECT Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and other illnesses. This study's objective was to determine the association of prior mild TBI with the subsequent diagnosis (that is, at least 1 year postinjury) of neurological or psychiatric disease. METHODS All studies from January 1995 to February 2012 reporting TBI as a risk factor for diagnoses of interest were identified by searching PubMed, study references, and review articles. Reviewers abstracted the data and assessed study designs and characteristics. RESULTS Fifty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. A random effects meta-analysis revealed a significant association of prior TBI with subsequent neurological and psychiatric diagnoses. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the development of any illness subsequent to prior TBI was 1.67 (95% CI 1.44-1.93, p depression, mixed affective disorders, and bipolar disorder in individuals with previous TBI as compared to those without TBI. This association was present when examining only studies of mild TBI and when considering the influence of study design and characteristics. Analysis of a subset of studies demonstrated no evidence that multiple TBIs were associated with higher odds of disease than a single TBI. CONCLUSIONS History of TBI, including mild TBI, is associated with the development of neurological and psychiatric illness. This finding indicates that either TBI is a risk factor for heterogeneous pathological processes or that TBI may contribute to a common pathological mechanism. PMID:26315003

  3. Inhibition of I?B Kinase Attenuates the Organ Injury and Dysfunction Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordi, Regina; Chiazza, Fausto; Johnson, Florence L; Patel, Nimesh S A; Brohi, Karim; Collino, Massimo; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation is widely implicated in multiple organ failure (MOF); however, a direct inhibitor of I?B kinase (IKK), which plays a pivotal role in the activation of NF-?B, has not been investigated in shock. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of an IKK inhibitor on the MOF associated with hemorrhagic shock (HS). Therefore, rats were subjected to HS and were resuscitated with the shed blood. Rats were treated with the inhibitor of IKK or vehicle at resuscitation. Four hours later, blood and organs were assessed for organ injury and signaling events involved in the activation of NF-?B. Additionally, survival following serum deprivation was assessed in HK-2 cells treated with the inhibitor of IKK. HS resulted in renal dysfunction, lung, liver and muscular injury, and increases in serum inflammatory cytokines. Kidney and liver tissue from HS rats revealed increases in phosphorylation of IKK?? and I?B?, nuclear translocation of NF-?B and expression of inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). IKK16 treatment upon resuscitation attenuated NF-?B activation and activated the Akt survival pathway, leading to a significant attenuation of all of the above parameters. Furthermore, IKK16 exhibited cytoprotective effects in human kidney cells. In conclusion, the inhibitor of IKK complex attenuated the MOF associated with HS. This effect may be due to the inhibition of the NF-?B pathway and activation of the survival kinase Akt. Thus, the inhibition of the IKK complex might be an effective strategy for the prevention of MOF associated with HS. PMID:26101953

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Suicide Attempts and Other Self-Injury among Hong Kong Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joy P. S.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Ho, S. Y.; Lam, T. H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined 1,361 Chinese adolescents who reported self-injurious behaviors. Groups A and B both acknowledged deliberate self-injury, but only Group A had made a suicide attempt. Group C reported accidental self-injury. Deliberate self-injurers (Groups A and B) were more frequently girls, older, and with more suicidal ideation. Group A had…

  5. Introduction of the Uppsala Traumatic Brain Injury register for regular surveillance of patient characteristics and neurointensive care management including secondary insult quantification and clinical outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Nyholm, Lena; Howells, Tim; Enblad, Per; Lewén, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background To improve neurointensive care (NIC) and outcome for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients it is crucial to define and monitor indexes of the quality of patient care. With this purpose we established the web-based Uppsala TBI register in 2008. In this study we will describe and analyze the data collected during the first three years of this project. Methods Data from the medical charts were organized in three columns containing: 1) Admission data; 2) Data from the NIC period includ...

  6. Inverse association between serum creatinine and mortality in acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pinto de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sepsis is a leading precipitant of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI in intensive care unit (ICU patients, and is associated with a high mortality rate. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for dialysis and mortality in a cohort of AKI patients of predominantly septic etiology. Methods: Adult patients from an ICU for whom nephrology consultation was requested were included. End-stage chronic renal failure and kidney transplant patients were excluded. Results: 114 patients were followed. Most had sepsis (84%, AKIN stage 3 (69% and oliguria (62% at first consultation. Dialysis was performed in 66% and overall mortality was 70%. Median serum creatinine in survivors and non-survivors was 3.95 mg/dl (2.63 - 5.28 and 2.75 mg/dl (1.81 - 3.69, respectively. In the multivariable models, oliguria and serum urea were positively associated with dialysis; otherwise, a lower serum creatinine at first consultation was independently associated with higher mortality. Conclusion: In a cohort of septic AKI, oliguria and serum urea were the main indications for dialysis. We also described an inverse association between serum creatinine and mortality. Potential explanations for this finding include: delay in diagnosis, fluid overload with hemodilution of serum creatinine or poor nutritional status. This finding may also help to explain the low discriminative power of general severity scores - that assign higher risks to higher creatinine levels - in septic AKI patients.

  7. Brachial plexus injuries in Malaysian neonates: incidence and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, N Y; Lye, M S; Kanchanamala, M; Ching, C L

    1991-12-01

    A prospective study was carried out on 26,176 Malaysian neonates born in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over a 12-month period to determine the incidence and associated risk factors of brachial plexus injuries. This condition was found in 42/26,176 neonates (1.6 per 1000 livebirths). Multiple logistic regression analysis of affected and control neonates from a nested case-control study showed that increasing birth weights and breech deliveries were the significant risk factors. Our study suggests that to reduce the occurrence of this condition, there is a need for: (i) better assessment of fetal size and maternal pelvimetry to enable earlier diagnosis of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, and (ii) review of the indications and techniques of breech delivery. PMID:1791654

  8. Neurobiology and neuropathology underlie the neuropsychological deficits associated with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2003-08-01

    The neurobiological and neuropathological bases that underlie the neuropsychological deficits associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mild TBI, are further reviewed. The article provides an update on neuroimaging methods and findings in the study of TBI since the author's published address of the 1999 Distinguished Neuropsychologist Award of the National Academy of Neuropsychology (see Bigler, 2001a). The review addresses and answers criticisms raised about the interface of neuroimaging abnormalities and neuropsychological deficits, particularly in mild TBI. The article provides further guidelines in making the link between neuroimaging findings and neuropsychological outcome in the clinical practice of neuropsychology. The article also opines on the future role and importance that neuroimaging will play in neuropsychological practice, particularly functional neuroimaging methods. PMID:14591434

  9. Non-suicidal self-injury in high school students: Associations with identity processes and statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Gandhi, Amarendra; Bijttebier, Patricia; Claes, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) refers to the direct, deliberate destruction of one's body tissue without suicidal intent. Research has highlighted the importance of identity synthesis versus confusion for NSSI. However, the association with identity processes and statuses remains unknown. A total of 568 adolescents reported on NSSI, identity, anxiety, and depression. Although identity processes of identification with commitment (negatively) and ruminative exploration (positively) were related to NSSI variables, these relationships were no longer significant when controlling for anxiety and depression. When examining identity statuses (using cluster analysis), individuals who had engaged in NSSI in the past (but not currently) were more likely to be in the moratorium cluster and less likely to be in the achievement cluster. Individuals who were currently engaging in NSSI were more likely to be in the troubled diffusion cluster. Clinicians should be attentive to the complex interplay between identity and NSSI when treating adolescents. PMID:25828550

  10. Evaluation of the criteria for angiotomography indications in the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral arterial injury associated with blunt trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerindo Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blunt carotid and vertebral artery injury (BCVI occur infrequently. The incidence of this type of injury is difficult to determine as many emergency room patients are neurologically asymptomatic. The statistics have not been reported in Brazil. The objectives of the current study were: To evaluate the accuracy of criteria used to recommend angiotomography in the diagnosis of cervical BCVI in 100 patients with blunt cervical trauma in the trauma services section of a Brazilian quaternary care hospital. Methods During a 30-month (2006-2008, all patients admitted to the emergency room of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo with blunt cervical trauma and potential risk of cervical vessel injury, were subjected to cervical angiotomography to diagnose BCVI. The data analyzed are presented as mean ± standard deviation, and statistical analyses included Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Results During the study period 2467 blunt trauma patients were admitted. In 100 patients that met the criteria for inclusion in the study, angiotomography identified 23 with BCVI, including 17 males and six females. The mean patient age was 34.81 ± 14.84 years. Car crash (49% and car-pedestrian accidents (24% were the most frequent causes of injury. Ten patients had internal carotid artery injuries, two patients had common carotid artery injuries, and 11 patients had vertebral artery injuries. Seven patients presented with Degree I arterial injuries, 10 patients presented with Degree II artery injuries, four patients presented with Degree IV artery injuries, one patient presented with a Degree V artery injury, and one patient had a carotid fistula. Seven out of the 23 patients with BCVI (30.4% presented with cervical vertebrae fractures, and 11 out of the 23 patients with BCVI (47.8% presented with facial fractures (LeFort II and III. Conclusions Although there is no consensus regarding the criteria that should be used to indicate angiotomography for BCVI diagnosis, we conclude that the criteria used in the current study led to a diagnosis of BCVI in 0.93% of 2,467 trauma patients, BCVI injuries were associated with more severe traumas and did not affect mortality.

  11. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events-United States, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting data related to waterborne-d...

  12. Annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory 1994 epidemiologic surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-80 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  13. Developing and Implementing Major League Baseball's Health and Injury Tracking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Green, Gary; Conte, Stan; Fealy, Stephen; Marinak, Chris; McFarland, Edward; Curriero, Frank C

    2016-03-01

    In 2010, Major League Baseball and the Major League Baseball Players Association reached an agreement regarding the development and implementation of an electronic medical record system and a new league-wide injury surveillance system. The systems were developed to create a more efficient method to track medical histories of players longitudinally as they move across Major and Minor league affiliates, as well as to identify and monitor injury trends in the sport, identify areas of specific concern, and conduct epidemiologic research to better optimize player health and safety. The resulting injury surveillance system, the Health and Injury Tracking System (HITS), is a robust system that includes all players from the both the Major and Minor Leagues. HITS also allows for data linkage with other player- and game-level data to inform the development of injury prevention policies and programs. In the present article, we document the development and implementation of HITS; describe its utility for epidemiologic research; illustrate the potential analytic strength of the surveillance system and its ability to inform policy change; and note the potential for this new surveillance system to advance the field of sports injury epidemiology. PMID:26874305

  14. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Matt C.; Motti, Dario; Avison, Donna L.; Bixby, John L.; Lemmon, Vance P.

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  15. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  16. Early initiation of prophylactic heparin in severe traumatic brain injury is associated with accelerated improvement on brain imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Venous thromboembolic prophylaxis (VTEp is often delayed following traumatic brain injury (TBI, yet animal data suggest that it may reduce cerebral inflammation and improve cognitive recovery. We hypothesized that earlier VTEp initiation in severe TBI patients would result in more rapid neurologic recovery and reduced progression of brain injury on radiologic imaging. Study Design: Medical charts of severe TBI patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center in 2009-2010 were queried for admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, head Abbreviated Injury Scale, Injury Severity Score (ISS, osmotherapy use, emergency neurosurgery, and delay to VTEp initiation. Progression (+1 = better, 0 = no change, −1 = worse of brain injury on head CTs and neurologic exam (by bedside MD, nurse was collected from patient charts. Head CT scan Marshall scores were calculated from the initial head CT results. Results: A total of 22, 34, and 19 patients received VTEp at early (5 days time intervals, respectively. Clinical and radiologic brain injury characteristics on admission were similar among the three groups (P > 0.05, but ISS was greatest in the early group (P < 0.05. Initial head CT Marshall scores were similar in early and late groups. The slowest progression of brain injury on repeated head CT scans was in the early VTEp group up to 10 days after admission. Conclusion: Early initiation of prophylactic heparin in severe TBI is not associated with deterioration neurologic exam and may result in less progression of injury on brain imaging. Possible neuroprotective effects of heparin in humans need further investigation.

  17. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  18. Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical activity level and sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; De Oliveira, Valdomiro; De Campos, Wagner

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to verify the prevalence and characteristics of sports injuries (SI) and determine the association between the physical activity level (PA) and SI with perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Brazilian basketball master athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 410 male master athletes, between 35 and 85 years of age (mean 52.26, SD ±11.83). The HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form-36. The PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Information regarding SI was collected using the Reported Morbidity Survey. Poisson regression, as estimated by the prevalence ratio (PR), was used as a measure of the association of PA and SI with HRQoL. The majority of athletes showed a high SI prevalence (58.3%) and reported one injury (67.8%) that occurred during training (61.1%) and primarily affected a lower limb (74.6%). The adjusted regression models showed a positive association of PA with the Functional Capacity (PR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.90) and Physical Component (PR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.03-1.70) of HRQoL. Furthermore, the SI were negatively associated with HRQoL in Functional Capacity (PR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.51-2.27), Physical Aspects (PR = 3.99, 95% CI = 3.08-5.18), Pain (PR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.16), Social Functioning (PR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.41-2.27), Emotional Aspects (PR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.35-5.78), Mental Health domains (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68), Physical Component (PR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.90-2.90) and Mental Component (PR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29). These results highlighted that master athletes showed a high SI prevalence, primarily in the lower limbs. PA positively correlates with the physical HRQoL domain, whereas SI may decrease the HRQoL levels of both physical and mental domains. PMID:26323316

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Health, Safety and Security Illness and Injury Surveillance Program Worker Health at a Glance, 2000-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-01-23

    The Worker Health at a Glance, 2000 – 2009 provides an overview of selected illness and injury patterns among the current DOE contractor workforce that have emerged over the 10-years covered by this report. This report is a roll-up of data from 16 individual DOE sites, assigned to one of three program offices (Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration). In this report, an absences is defined as 40 or more consecutive work hours (5+ calendar days) off the job. Shorter absences were not included.

  20. The Current State of Head and Neck Injuries in Extreme Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vinay K.; Rango, Juan; Connaughton, Alexander J.; Lombardo, Daniel J.; Sabesan, Vani J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since their conception during the mid-1970s, international participation in extreme sports has grown rapidly. The recent death of extreme snowmobiler Caleb Moore at the 2013 Winter X Games has demonstrated the serious risks associated with these sports. Purpose: To examine the incidence and prevalence of head and neck injuries (HNIs) in extreme sports. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was used to a...

  1. The Association of Episiotomy with Obstetric Anal Sphincter InjuryA Population Based Matched Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risnen, Sari; Selander, Tuomas; Cartwright, Rufus; Gissler, Mika; Kramer, Michael R.; Laine, Katariina; Heinonen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the independent association of episiotomy with obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) using first a cross-sectional and then a matched pair analysis. Design A matched cohort. Setting Data was gathered from the Finnish Medical Birth Register from 20042011. Population All singleton vaginal births (n?=?303,758). Methods Women resulting matched pairs (n?=?63,925) were matched based on baseline risk of OASIS defined based on parity (first or second/subsequent vaginal births), age, birth weight, mode of delivery, prior caesarean section, and length of active second stage of birth. Results In cross-sectional analysis episiotomy was associated with a 12% lower incidence of OASIS (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 0.98) in first vaginal births and with a 132% increased incidence of OASIS in second or subsequent vaginal births (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.77 to 3.03). In matched pair analysis episiotomy was associated with a 23% (aOR 0.77, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.86) lower incidence of OASIS in first vaginal births and a 61% (aOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.29) increased incidence of OASIS in second or subsequent vaginal births compared to women who gave birth without an episiotomy. The matched pair analysis showed a 12.5% and a 31.6% reduction in aORs of OASIS associated with episiotomy, respectively. Conclusions A matched pair analysis showed a substantial reduction in the aORs of OASIS with episiotomy, due to confounding by indication. This indicates that results of observational studies evaluating an association between episiotomy and OASIS should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25203655

  2. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Fernandez Nuria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI. Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery.

  3. The Impact of School Connectedness on Violent Behavior, Transport Risk-Taking Behavior, and Associated Injuries in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary C.; Shochet, Ian M.; Romaniuk, Madeline

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents engage in many risk-taking behaviors that have the potential to lead to injury. The school environment has a significant role in shaping adolescent behavior, and this study aimed to provide additional information about the benefits associated with connectedness to school. Early adolescents aged 13 to 15 years (N=509, 49% boys) were…

  4. Role of Cardiovascular Disease-associated iron overload in Libby amphibole-induced acute pulmonary injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by asbestos is thought to be mediated through redox-cycling of fiber-bound and bioavailable iron (Fe). We hypothesized that Libby amphibole (LA)-induced cute lung injury will be exacerbated in rat models of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-associated Fe-ove...

  5. Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiana Piovesan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

  6. Association of pain and CNS structural changes after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutzeler, Catherine R; Huber, Eveline; Callaghan, Martina F; Luechinger, Roger; Curt, Armin; Kramer, John L K; Freund, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has been shown to trigger structural atrophic changes within the spinal cord and brain. However, the relationship between structural changes and magnitude of neuropathic pain (NP) remains incompletely understood. Voxel-wise analysis of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging data provided information on cross-sectional cervical cord area and volumetric brain changes in 30 individuals with chronic traumatic SCI and 31 healthy controls. Participants were clinically assessed including neurological examination and pain questionnaire. Compared to controls, individuals with SCI exhibited decreased cord area, reduced grey matter (GM) volumes in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left insula, left secondary somatosensory cortex, bilateral thalamus, and decreased white matter volumes in pyramids and left internal capsule. The presence of NP was related with smaller cord area, increased GM in left ACC and right M1, and decreased GM in right primary somatosensory cortex and thalamus. Greater GM volume in M1 was associated with amount of NP. Below-level NP-associated structural changes in the spinal cord and brain can be discerned from trauma-induced consequences of SCI. The directionality of these relationships reveals specific changes across the neuroaxis (i.e., atrophic changes versus increases in volume) and may provide substrates of underlying neural mechanisms in the development of NP. PMID:26732942

  7. Thalamocortical Sensorimotor Circuit Damage Associated with Disorders of Consciousness for Diffuse Axonal Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shun; Song, Jian; Gao, Lichen; Yan, Yan; Huang, Cheng; Ding, Huichao; Huang, He; He, Yuanzhi; Sun, Ronghui; Xu, Guozheng

    2015-09-15

    The relationship of structural and functional brain damage and disorders of consciousness (DOC) for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is still not fully explored. We employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) to examine the changes of resting activations and white matter (WM) integrity for DAI with DOC. WM damages were observed in the body and genu of the corpus callosum, right external capsule (EC) and superior corona radiate (SCR), left superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) and posterior thalamic radiation (PTR). The RS-fMRI revealed augmented amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, insula, amygdala and putamen, and reduced ALFF in the precuneus, thalamus, pre-central and post-central gyri. Correlation analysis identified positive associations between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and activation of the precuneus and between GCS and DTI measurements in the left PTR and SCP, but a negative correlation was found between GCS and activation of the thalamus. Cross modality association analyses indicated that activations of the amygdala and postcentral gyrus were correlated with DTI measurements of the right EC and left PTR respectively. These results implicate that the WM damages in thalamocortical sensorimotor circuit and aberrant brain activity responding to self-awareness and sensation are critical factors to DOC, which expand the current understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying DAI. PMID:26165776

  8. Subgroups of US IRAQ and Afghanistan veterans: associations with traumatic brain injury and mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos A; Cooper, Douglas B; Wang, Chen-Pin; Tate, David F; Eapen, Blessen C; York, Gerald E; Pugh, Mary Jo

    2015-09-01

    U. S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan are known to have a high prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression, which are often comorbid and share many symptoms. Attempts to describe this cohort by single diagnoses have limited our understanding of the complex nature of this population. The objective of this study was to identify subgroups of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (IAVs) with distinct compositions of symptoms associated with TBI, PTSD, and depression. Our cross-sectional, observational study included 303,716 IAVs who received care in the Veterans Health Administration in 2010-2011. Symptoms and conditions were defined using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes and symptom-clusters were identified using latent class analysis. We identified seven classes with distinct symptom compositions. One class had low probability of any condition and low health care utilization (HCU) (48%). Other classes were characterized by high probabilities of mental health comorbidities (14%); chronic pain and sleep disturbance (20%); headaches and memory problems (6%); and auditory problems (2.5%). Another class had mental health comorbidities and chronic pain (7%), and the last had high probabilities of most symptoms examined (3%). These last two classes had the highest likelihood of TBI, PTSD, and depression and were identified as high healthcare utilizers. There are subgroups of IAVs with distinct clusters of symptom that are meaningfully associated with TBI, PTSD, depression, and HCU. Additional studies examining these veteran subgroups could improve our understanding of this complex comorbid patient population. PMID:25963862

  9. An unexpected cause of acute kidney injury in a patient with ANCA associated vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Wajid M; Nori, Uday S; Nadasdy, Tibor; Satoskar, Anjali A

    2016-05-01

    Diagnostic kidney biopsies sometimes yield clinically unsuspected diagnoses. We present a case of a 69-year-old woman with established ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) of 4 years duration who was in clinical remission following cytotoxic therapy and was on maintenance immunosuppression. She presented to the hospital with acute kidney injury (AKI), symptoms suggestive of a systemic vasculitis, and in addition had hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis. A relapse in the AAV was suspected but a diagnostic kidney biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis, patchy interstitial inflammation, and calcium phosphate deposits. It was found that the patient recently started consuming large doses of over-the-counter calcium-containing antacids and vitamin Dcontaining multivitamin supplements. Cessation of these drugs led to improvement of renal function to baseline. This case highlights several teaching points: (1) the kidney biopsy can prove to be critically important even in cases where there appears to be a more obvious clinical diagnosis, (2) AK due to calcium-alkali syndrome has characteristic histopathological changes, and (3) that the triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and AKI is exclusively associated with the ingestion of excessive quantities of calcium-containing antacids. The physician should keep this in mind, and pro-actively seek pertinent medication history from the patient. A brief review of calcium-alkali syndrome is given. PMID:26932179

  10. Volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal joint in association with a Bennett's fracture of the thumb: a rare injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, J P

    2012-02-03

    We describe a case of volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal (CMC) joint in association with a Bennett\\'s fracture of the thumb following a motorcycle accident. Volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal joint is an exceedingly rare but easily missed injury, with only a few reported cases in the literature. This report highlights the importance of a true lateral radiograph and close scrutiny of the film to detect this injury. Closed reduction supplemented with Kirschner wire fixation restored normal anatomical relations and achieved an excellent clinical result.

  11. Characterization of early and terminal complement proteins associated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and in vivo after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvan Manuel D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complement system has been suggested to affect injury or disease of the central nervous system (CNS by regulating numerous physiological events and pathways. The activation of complement following traumatic CNS injury can also result in the formation and deposition of C5b-9 membrane attack complex (C5b-9/MAC, causing cell lysis or sublytic effects on vital CNS cells. Although complement proteins derived from serum/blood-brain barrier breakdown can contribute to injury or disease, infiltrating immune cells may represent an important local source of complement after injury. As the first immune cells to infiltrate the CNS within hours post-injury, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs may affect injury through mechanisms associated with complement-mediated events. However, the expression/association of both early and terminal complement proteins by PMNs has not been fully characterized in vitro, and has not observed previously in vivo after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. Method We investigated the expression of complement mRNAs using rt-PCR and the presence of complement proteins associated with PMNs using immunofluroescence and quantitative flow cytometry. Results Stimulated or unstimulated PMNs expressed mRNAs encoding for C1q, C3, and C4, but not C5, C6, C7 or C9 in culture. Complement protein C1q or C3 was also detected in less than 30% of cultured PMNs. In contrast, over 70% of PMNs that infiltrated the injured spinal cord were associated with C1q, C3, C7 and C5b-9/MAC 3 days post-SCI. The localization/association of C7 or C5b-9/MAC with infiltrating PMNs in the injured spinal cord suggests the incorporation or internalization of C7 or C5b-9/MAC bound cellular debris by infiltrating PMNs because C7 and C5b-9/MAC were mostly localized to granular vesicles within PMNs at the spinal cord epicenter region. Furthermore, PMN presence in the injured spinal cord was observed for many weeks post-SCI, suggesting that this infiltrating cell population could chronically affect complement-mediated events and SCI pathogenesis after trauma. Conclusion Data presented here provide the first characterization of early and terminal complement proteins associated with PMNs in vitro and in vivo after SCI. Data also suggest a role for PMNs in the local internalization or deliverance of complement and complement activation in the post-SCI environment.

  12. Preoperative serum h-FABP concentration is associated with postoperative incidence of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Oezkur, Mehmet; Gorski, Armin; Peltz, Jennifer; Wagner, Martin; Lazariotou, Maria; Schimmer, Christoph; Heuschmann, Peter U.; Leyh, Rainer G

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatty acid binding protein (FABP) is an intracellular transport protein associated with myocardial damage size in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Furthermore, elevated FABP serum concentrations are related to a number of common comorbidities, such as heart failure, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, which represent important risk factors for postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Data are lacking on the association between preoperative FABP se...

  13. Preoperative serum h-FABP concentration is associated with postoperative incidence of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Oezkur, Mehmet; Gorski, Armin; Peltz, Jennifer; Wagner, Martin; Lazariotou, Maria; Schimmer, Christoph; Heuschmann, Peter U.; Leyh, Rainer G

    2015-01-01

    Background Fatty acid binding protein (FABP) is an intracellular transport protein associated with myocardial damage size in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Furthermore, elevated FABP serum concentrations are related to a number of common comorbidities, such as heart failure, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, which represent important risk factors for postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Data are lacking on the association between preoperative FAB...

  14. Genome Wide Association Identifies PPFIA1 as a Candidate Gene for Acute Lung Injury Risk Following Major Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Christie, Jason D.; Wurfel, Mark M.; Feng, Rui; O'Keefe, Grant E; Bradfield, Jonathan; Ware, Lorraine B.; Calfee, Carolyn S.; Matthay, Michael; Meyer, Nuala J.; Kim, Cecilia; Li, Mingyao; Akey, Joshua; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Sevransky, Jonathan; Lanken, Paul N

    2012-01-01

    Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is a syndrome with high associated mortality characterized by severe hypoxemia and pulmonary infiltrates in patients with critical illness. We conducted the first investigation to use the genome wide association (GWA) approach to identify putative risk variants for ALI. Genome wide genotyping was performed using the Illumina Human Quad 610 BeadChip. We performed a two-stage GWA study followed by a third stage of functional characterization. In the discovery phase (Phas...

  15. Post-partum sequential occurrence of two diverse transfusion reactions (transfusion associated circulatory overload and transfusion related acute lung injury)

    OpenAIRE

    Rudrashish Haldar; Sukhen Samanta

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) are two dissimilar pathological conditions associated with transfusion of blood products where the time course of the events and clinical presentation overlap leading to uncertainty in establishing the diagnosis and initiating the treatment, which otherwise differs. We encountered a case where a patient of post-partum hemorrhage developed TACO in the immediate post-operative period due to aggr...

  16. Indomethacin injury to the rat small intestine is dependent upon biliary secretion and is associated with overgrowth of enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sara A; Song, Ye K; Cruz, Melissa R; Phan, Tri M; Singh, Kavindra V; Garsin, Danielle A; Murray, Barbara E; Dial, Elizabeth J; Lichtenberger, Lenard M

    2016-03-01

    NSAIDuse is limited due to the drugs' toxicity to the gastrointestinal mucosa, an action incompletely understood. Lower gut injury induced byNSAIDs is dependent on bile secretion and is reported to increase the growth of a number of bacterial species, including an enterococcal species,Enterococcus faecalis This study examined the relationships between indomethacin (INDO)-induced intestinal injury/bleeding, small bowel overgrowth (SBO) and dissemination of enterococci, and the contribution of bile secretion to these pathological responses. Rats received either a sham operation (SO) or bile duct ligation (BDL) prior to administration of two daily subcutaneous doses of saline orINDO, and 24 h later, biopsies of ileum and liver were collected for plating on selective bacterial media. Fecal hemoglobin (Hb) and blood hematocrit (Hct) were measured to assess intestinal bleeding. Of the four treatment groups, onlySO/INDOrats experienced a significant 10- to 30-fold increase in fecal Hb and reduction in Hct, indicating thatBDLattenuatedINDO-induced intestinal injury/bleeding. Ileal enterococcal colony-forming units were significantly increased (500- to 1000-fold) inSO/INDOrats. Of all groups, only theSO/INDOrats demonstrated gut injury, and this was associated with enterococcal overgrowth of the gut and dissemination to the liver. We also demonstrated thatINDO-induced intestinal injury andE. faecalisovergrowth was independent of the route of administration of the drug, as similar findings were observed in rats orally dosed with theNSAID Bile secretion plays an important role inINDO-induced gut injury and appears to support enterococcal overgrowth of the intestine.NSAID-induced enterococcalSBOmay be involved either as a compensatory response to gut injury or with the pathogenic process itself and the subsequent development of sepsis. PMID:27033447

  17. Impact of Education and Process Surveillance on Device-Associated Health Care-Associated Infection Rates in a Turkish ICU: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dilek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of process and outcome surveillance on rates of device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAI in an intensive care unit (ICU in Turkey over a four-year period.Material and Methods: An open label, prospective cohort, active DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted on 685 patients admitted to the ICU of a university hospital in Turkey from January 2004 to December 2007, implementing the methodology developed by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. DA-HAI rates were recorded according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN definitions. We analyzed the rates of DA-HAI, mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI, as well as microorganism profile, extra length of stay, and hand hygiene compliance. Pooled DA-HAI rates were calculated and compared by year.Results: The DA-HAI rate per 100 patients declined as follows: for 2004, the DA-HAI rate was 58.4%; for 2005, it was 38.9%; for 2006, it was 34.8%; and for 2007, it was 10.9%. The DA-HAI rate per 1,000 bed-days also declined: for 2004, it was 42.8, and for 2007 it was 10.7. The rates decreased from 25.8 to 13.4 for VAP; from 29.9 to 25.0 for CLA-BSI; and from 9.2 to 6.2 for CAUTI cases per 1,000 device-days during the study period. Conclusion: Process and outcome surveillance of DA-HAI significantly reduced DA-HAI.

  18. 78 FR 28546 - Secondary Service Connection for Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Correction In proposed rule document 2012-29709 beginning on page 73366 in the issue...: Structural imaging of the brain. LOC--Loss of consciousness. AOC--Alteration of consciousness/mental state. PTA--Post-traumatic amnesia. GCS--Glasgow Coma Scale. (For purposes of injury stratification,...

  19. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, Anthony J; Andreasen, Jens O; Ebeleseder, Kurt A; Kenny, David J; Trope, Martin; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Andersson, Lars; Bourguignon, Cecilia; Flores, Marie Therese; Hicks, Morris Lamar; Lenzi, Antonio R; Malmgren, Barbro; Moule, Alex J; Pohl, Yango; Tsukiboshi, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) of permanent teeth occur frequently in children and young adults. Crown fractures and luxations are the most commonly occurring of all dental injuries. Proper diagnosis, treatment planning and followup are important for improving a favorable outcome. Guidelines...

  20. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O; Ebeleseder, K A; Kenny, D J; Trope, M; Sigurdsson, A; Andersson, L; Bourguignon, C; Flores, M T; Hicks, M L; Lenzi, A R; Malmgren, B; Moule, A J; Pohl, Y; Tsukiboshi, M

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) of permanent teeth occur frequently in children and young adults. Crown fractures and luxations are the most commonly occurring of all dental injuries. Proper diagnosis, treatment planning and follow up are important for improving a favorable outcome. Guidelines...

  1. [Hypoxic brain injuries notified to the Danish Patient Insurance Association during 1992-2004. Secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.; Hedegaard, M.; Hove, Lars Dahlgaard

    2008-01-01

    suffered major handicaps, primarily cerebral palsy. In 69 of the cases, misinterpretation of or late action in response to an abnormal cardiotocography caused the hypoxic brain injuries. All injuries could potentially have been avoided using established obstetric practice Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/1...

  2. Determinants of hospital costs associated with traumatic brain injury in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S; Ridley, S; Lecky, F E; Munro, V; Christensen, M C

    2008-05-01

    Using data from the Trauma Audit Research Network, we investigated the costs of acute care in patients > or = 18 years of age hospitalised for traumatic brain injury between January 2000 and December 2005 in England and Wales. Traumatic brain injury patients were defined and stratified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale. A total of 6484 traumatic brain injury patients were identified; 22.3% had an Abbreviated Injury Scale score of three, 38.0% of four and 39.7% of five. Median age (IQR) was 42 years (28-59) and 76.7% were men. Primary cause of injury was motor vehicle collisions (42.4%) followed by falls (38.0%). In total 23.7% of the patients died before discharge. Hospitalisation costs averaged 15,462 pounds sterling (SD 16,844 pounds sterling). Costs varied significantly by age, Glasgow Coma Score, Injury Severity Score, coexisting injuries of the thorax, spine and lower limb, hospital mortality, availability of neurosurgical services, and specialty of attendants seen in the Accident and Emergency department. PMID:18412648

  3. Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, J; Chivers, I; Aldous, D; Bennell, K; Seward, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

  4. Factors associated with injuries in adolescents, from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of injuries among teenagers and to examine the associated risk factors, such as sociodemographic characteristics, risk behaviors, family ties and other factors. METHOD: The prevalence of the outcome (injury was estimated with a 95%confidence interval. In order to verify factors associated with the injury, a bivariate analysis was made with estimated odds ratio (OR and its respective confidence intervals. Then, a multivariate analysis was carried out, only with variables whose descriptive level was equal to or lower than 5% (p < 0.05 remaining in the model. RESULTS: The study of injury in adolescents, based on the data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE, pointed out that 10.3% of the teenagers suffered severe injuries in the past 12 months, such as cuts or perforations, broken bones or dislocated joints. The following variables remained independently associated with "suffering severe injuries": being a male teenager; black, mulatto or indigenous race/color and working. Factors related to family ties are significant when the relations are fragile amongst members: adolescents that are injured the most are the ones who suffer most aggressions at home, who skip classes without notifying their parents, those who do not live with their parents and have low family control. The most relevant aspects of mental health are insomnia and loneliness. The factors associated to the exposure to situations of violence that remained in the model were: insecurity in school and in the route home-school; getting a ride with someone inebriated; drinking and driving motorized vehicles; not wearing the seatbelt; not wearing a helmet and being bullied. Among the factors of individual behavior, the following can be emphasized: use of alcohol, cigarettes, trying illicit drugs and early sexual intercourse. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the determinants for suffering injuries in childhood and adolescence shows the complex relationship between associated factors, which points to the need for action towards several aspects to reduce social inequalities, strengthen family ties and prevent violent contexts and individual risk factors.

  5. Injury rates and risk-factors associated with eventing: a total cohort study of injury events among adult Swedish eventing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Joakim; Timpka, Toomas; Ramel, Henrik; Valter, Lars

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine injury events and risk-factors among Swedish adult eventing athletes. A cross-sectional study design with retrospective recording of 1-year sports-specific exposure and injury data was used. The invited study population consisted of all members of the Swedish Equestrian Federation with eventing as their primary discipline (n = 513). The participation rate was 70.0%. The total 1-year injury prevalence was 26.6%; the specific 1-year prevalence of traumatic injury was 19.3% and of overuse injury 10.9%. The incidence of traumatic injury events was 0.54 injury events/1000 eventing hours (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-0.73 injury events/1000 eventing hours) for novices and 0.35 injury events/1000 eventing hours for qualified riders (95% CI, 0.21-0.49 injury events/1000 eventing hours). A total of 27.9% of the traumatic injury events led to severe injuries (causing more than 3 weeks absence from riding). Attitude to risk-taking was the only factor predicting an athlete becoming injured (p = 0.023), and qualification level was the only risk factor for additional injuries among injured riders (p = 0.003). Our results suggest that injury prevention programs in eventing should also give attention to overuse injuries and that care should be taken when eventing athletes are licensed into higher qualification groups. PMID:21512929

  6. Information surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; McQuerry, Dennis; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    Biological weapons are within reach of individuals, small groups, terrorist organizations, as well as nations. With pervasive integration of civilian and military populations worldwide, the ill winds of biological warfare stand to affect military troops and civilians alike. A variety of technologies are emerging - such as pathogen detection devices, streaming internet characterization tools, information exploitation techniques, automated feature extraction, and ubiquitous wireless communication - that can help. These technologies, if taken together within an integrated analytical framework, could make possible the monitoring of diverse parameters that may indicate a change in the state of health of a given population - either the emergence of a naturally occurring disease or the outbreak of a disease as a result of hostile intent. This presentation will discuss the application of new information surveillance tools and technologies as they apply to health and disease monitoring, particularly within the context of potential terrorist or hostile nation use of biological warfare. Although discussed within the specific context of health surveillance, the tools and processes described here are generally applicable within other domains of subject matter expertise.

  7. Associations of Circulating Growth Differentiation Factor-15 and ST2 Concentrations With Subclinical Vascular Brain Injury and Incident Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Preis, Sarah R; Beiser, Alexa; DeCarli, Charles; Wollert, Kai C; Wang, Thomas J; Januzzi, James L; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and soluble (s)ST2 are markers of cardiac and vascular stress. We investigated the associations between circulating concentrations of these biomarkers and incident stroke and subclinical vascular brain injury in a sample from the...... Framingham Offspring cohort. METHODS: We followed 3374 stroke- and dementia-free individuals (mean age, 59.09.7 years; 53% women) attending the Framingham Offspring sixth examination cycle 11.83.0 years for incident stroke. A subsample of 2463 individuals underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and...... remained significantly associated with stroke/transient ischemic attack, hazard ratio for Q4 versus Q1 of 1.76, 95% confidence interval of 1.06 to 2.92, and P=0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating GDF-15 and sST2 are associated with subclinical brain injury and cognitive impairment. Higher sST2 concentrations are...

  8. Risk Factors for Colistin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury: A Multicenter Study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Serdar; Kuscu, Ferit; Aydemir, Hande; Ozturk, Dogan Baris; Deveci, Ozcan; Duygu, Fazilet; Kacmaz, Birgul; Yaman, Ferda; Aslan, Emel

    2016-03-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and risk factors due to colistin use in patients infected with multidrug-resistant pathogens. This multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted in Turkey, at 5 different research and university hospitals. Cox regression analyses were performed, to determine independent predictors of AKI. From April 2012 to July 2014, a total of 216 patients aged between 18-94 years, treated with colistimethate sodium (CMS) were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 60.3 ± 20.1 years. The overall incidence of AKI was 34.3% (74/216) at any time during treatment. Concomitant use of loop diuretics, baseline creatinine level, and CMS dosage were independently associated with AKI. According to our results, patients with higher baseline creatinine levels, or patients who had to use concomitant loop diuretics may need to be monitored more closely, and dose adjustment should be done promptly. More comprehensive studies are, however, still needed to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose colistin since higher doses tend to increase the risk of AKI. PMID:26166495

  9. Dialysis for acute kidney injury associated with influenza a (H1N1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Vallejos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a novel influenza A, S-OIV (H1N1, pandemic. We observed 44 consecutive patients during the "first wave" of the pandemic. 70.5% of them showed co-morbidities (hypertension, obesity, chronic respiratory diseases, chronic renal disease, diabetes, pregnancy. Serious cases were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU, particularly those with severe acute respiratory failure. Some of them developed acute kidney injury (AKI and required renal replacement therapy (RRT. The average time between admission to the ICU and initiation of RRT was 3.16 ± 2.6 days. At initiation of RRT, most patients required mechanical ventilation. No relationship was found with creatinine-kinase levels. Seventy-five percent of the cases were observed during a 3-week period and mortality, related to respiratory failure, doubling of alanine amino transferase and use of inotropics was 81.8%. In conclusion, the H1N1-infected patients who developed RRT-requiring AKI, in the context of multi-organ failure, showed a high mortality rate. Thus, it is mandatory that elaborate strategies aimed at anticipating potential renal complications associated to future pandemics are implemented.

  10. College Sports-Related Injuries - United States, 2009-10 Through 2013-14 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-12-11

    Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in organized sports. These strategies include committees that recommend rule and policy changes based on surveillance data and education and awareness campaigns that target both athletes and coaches. Continued analysis of surveillance data will help to understand whether these strategies result in changes in the incidence and severity of college sports injuries. PMID:26655724

  11. Low-frequency connectivity is associated with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Dunkley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI occurs from a closed-head impact. Often referred to as concussion, about 20% of cases complain of secondary psychological sequelae, such as disorders of attention and memory. Known as post-concussive symptoms (PCS, these problems can severely disrupt the patient's quality of life. Changes in local spectral power, particularly low-frequency amplitude increases and/or peak alpha slowing have been reported in mTBI, but large-scale connectivity metrics based on inter-regional amplitude correlations relevant for integration and segregation in functional brain networks, and their association with disorders in cognition and behaviour, remain relatively unexplored. Here, we used non-invasive neuroimaging with magnetoencephalography to examine functional connectivity in a resting-state protocol in a group with mTBI (n = 20, and a control group (n = 21. We observed a trend for atypical slow-wave power changes in subcortical, temporal and parietal regions in mTBI, as well as significant long-range increases in amplitude envelope correlations among deep-source, temporal, and frontal regions in the delta, theta, and alpha bands. Subsequently, we conducted an exploratory analysis of patterns of connectivity most associated with variability in secondary symptoms of mTBI, including inattention, anxiety, and depression. Differential patterns of altered resting state neurophysiological network connectivity were found across frequency bands. This indicated that multiple network and frequency specific alterations in large scale brain connectivity may contribute to overlapping cognitive sequelae in mTBI. In conclusion, we show that local spectral power content can be supplemented with measures of correlations in amplitude to define general networks that are atypical in mTBI, and suggest that certain cognitive difficulties are mediated by disturbances in a variety of alterations in network interactions which are differentially expressed across canonical neurophysiological frequency ranges.

  12. Low-frequency connectivity is associated with mild traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, B.T.; Da Costa, L.; Bethune, A.; Jetly, R.; Pang, E.W.; Taylor, M.J.; Doesburg, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) occurs from a closed-head impact. Often referred to as concussion, about 20% of cases complain of secondary psychological sequelae, such as disorders of attention and memory. Known as post-concussive symptoms (PCS), these problems can severely disrupt the patient's quality of life. Changes in local spectral power, particularly low-frequency amplitude increases and/or peak alpha slowing have been reported in mTBI, but large-scale connectivity metrics based on inter-regional amplitude correlations relevant for integration and segregation in functional brain networks, and their association with disorders in cognition and behaviour, remain relatively unexplored. Here, we used non-invasive neuroimaging with magnetoencephalography to examine functional connectivity in a resting-state protocol in a group with mTBI (n=20), and a control group (n=21). We observed a trend for atypical slow-wave power changes in subcortical, temporal and parietal regions in mTBI, as well as significant long-range increases in amplitude envelope correlations among deep-source, temporal, and frontal regions in the delta, theta, and alpha bands. Subsequently, we conducted an exploratory analysis of patterns of connectivity most associated with variability in secondary symptoms of mTBI, including inattention, anxiety, and depression. Differential patterns of altered resting state neurophysiological network connectivity were found across frequency bands. This indicated that multiple network and frequency specific alterations in large scale brain connectivity may contribute to overlapping cognitive sequelae in mTBI. In conclusion, we show that local spectral power content can be supplemented with measures of correlations in amplitude to define general networks that are atypical in mTBI, and suggest that certain cognitive difficulties are mediated by disturbances in a variety of alterations in network interactions which are differentially expressed across canonical neurophysiological frequency ranges. PMID:25844315

  13. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called "surveillance studies" as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  14. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  15. A Study of Sports Related Occurrence of Traumatic Orodental Injuries and Associated Risk Factors in High School Students in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gundeep; Garg, Shalini; Damle, Satyawan Gangaramji; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Kaur, Ambreen; Singla, Shilpy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral and dental injuries contribute to a major part of sports related injuries in children. Trauma occurring in developing years disrupts normal social functioning and brings about a major impact on quality of life due to their cumulative effect. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and causes of various sports related traumatic orodental injuries among 8 to 16 year school students along with identifying the associated risk factors in North India. Patients and Methods: A cross sec...

  16. Effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinda Amit

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palm olein oil (PO, obtained from refining of palm oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant vitamins and is widely used as oil in diet in many parts of the world including India. Palm oil has been reported to have beneficial effects in oxidative stress associated with hypertension and arterial thrombosis. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the etiopathology of myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI which is a common sequel of ischemic heart disease. Antioxidants have potent therapeutic effects on both ischemic heart disease and ischemic-reperfusion injury. Information on the effect of PO on ischemic-reperfusion injury is, however, lacking. In the present study, the effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with IRI was investigated in an isolated rat heart model. Wistar rats (150–200 gm of either sex were divided into three different groups (n = 16. Rats were fed with palm olein oil supplemented commercial rat diet, in two different doses [5% v / w (PO 5 and 10% v / w (PO 10 of diet] for 30 days. Control rats (C were fed with normal diet. After 30 days, half the rats from each group were subjected to in vitro myocardial IRI (20 min of global ischemia, followed by 40 min of reperfusion. Hearts from all the groups were then processed for biochemical and histopathological studies. One way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test was applied to test for significance and values are expressed as mean ± SE (p Results There was a significant increase in myocardial catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities with no significant change in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS only in group PO 5 as compared to group C. There was no light microscopic evidence of tissue injury. A significant rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of myocardial endogenous antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GPx along with significant myocyte injury was observed in control rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (C IR. Hearts from palm olein oil fed rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (PO 5 IR and PO 10 IR were protected from increase in TBARS and depletion of endogenous antioxidants as compared to C IR group. No significant myocyte injury was present in the treated groups. Conclusions The present study demonstrated for the first time that dietary palm olein oil protected rat heart from oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury.

  17. Factors Associated with Injuries among Commercial Motorcyclists: Evidence from a Matched Case Control Study in Kampala City, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.; Atuyambe, Lynn M.; Kobusingye, Olive K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15–29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda’s capital city. Methods The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis. Results Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19–4.45), lower engine capacity (<100cc)(OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91–8.70), riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19–3.52), riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58–14.18) and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62–25.9). Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late. Recommendations More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding licenses and test the riding competency of all who got licenses in last 3 years. PMID:26918871

  18. Spatial and spatio-temporal methods for public health surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Moraga Serrano, Paula Esther

    2012-01-01

    Public health surveillance provides information to identify public health problems and respond appropriately when they occur. This information is crucial to prevent and control a variety of health conditions such as infectious diseases, chronic diseases, injuries, or health-related behaviors. Quality surveillance is needed to understand the true health status of the population and to guide the use of limited public health resources. Under inadequate surveillance systems, leaders are grossly m...

  19. Traumatic dental injuries and their association with malocclusion in the primary dentition of Irish children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Norton, Eimear

    2012-02-01

    This study sought to establish the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition of Irish children and to investigate the relationship between dental trauma and non-nutritive sucking habits.

  20. Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Pavuluri, Chaitanya; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maxillary incisors are the most frequently injured teeth in the primary and permanent dentition. Stage of adolescence show a significant number of dental injuries as they engage in contact sports. Children with accident prone profile, i.e. class II division I or class I type II malocclusion are more prone for injuries because of the proclined maxillary incisors. Supernumerary teeth are those that are additional to the normal complement. They occur in single or multiple, unilateral or...

  1. Guillain-Barre syndrome-like illness in association with electrical shock injury

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Michelle Louise; O'Riordan, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A 19-year-old man presented 4 weeks after an electrical shock injury with gradual onset limb weakness, altered sensation in the peripheries and respiratory difficulty. There was immediate tingling of the fingers following the electrical injury that persisted. He subsequently had transient facial weakness responsive to oral steroids before the development of further limb symptoms. On admission the clinical picture and investigation findings, including neurophysiology, cerebrospinal fluid exami...

  2. Blocking leukotriene synthesis attenuates the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury and associated cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corser-Jensen, Chelsea E; Goodell, Dayton J; Freund, Ronald K; Serbedzija, Predrag; Murphy, Robert C; Farias, Santiago E; Dell'Acqua, Mark L; Frey, Lauren C; Serkova, Natalie; Heidenreich, Kim A

    2014-06-01

    Neuroinflammation is a component of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI) that can persist beyond the acute phase. Leukotrienes are potent, pro-inflammatory lipid mediators generated from membrane phospholipids. In the absence of injury, leukotrienes are undetectable in the brain, but after trauma they are rapidly synthesized by a transcellular event involving infiltrating neutrophils and endogenous brain cells. Here, we investigate the efficacy of MK-886, an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), in blocking leukotriene synthesis, secondary brain damage, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive impairments after TBI. Male Sprague Dawley rats (9-11weeks) received either MK-886 or vehicle after they were subjected to unilateral moderate fluid percussion injury (FPI) to assess the potential clinical use of FLAP inhibitors for TBI. MK-886 was also administered before FPI to determine the preventative potential of FLAP inhibitors. MK-886 given before or after injury significantly blocked the production of leukotrienes, measured by reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (RP LC-MS/MS), and brain edema, measured by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MK-886 significantly attenuated blood-brain barrier disruption in the CA1 hippocampal region and deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA1 hippocampal synapses. The prevention of FPI-induced synaptic dysfunction by MK-886 was accompanied by fewer deficits in post-injury spatial learning and memory performance in the radial arm water maze (RAWM). These results indicate that leukotrienes contribute significantly to secondary brain injury and subsequent cognitive deficits. FLAP inhibitors represent a novel anti-inflammatory approach for treating human TBI that is feasible for both intervention and prevention of brain injury and neurologic deficits. PMID:24681156

  3. Association between nationality and occupational injury risk on Danish non-passenger merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, B.

    2013-01-01

    to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime...... Danish flag. The differences can only be partly explained by varying reporting practices. The findings confirm the results of previous studies and point out the need for effective interventions in the high-risk groups....

  4. Podocytes Express IL-6 and Lipocalin 2/ Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Glomerular Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sarah J.; Borsting, Emily; Declèves, Anne-Emilie; Singh, Prabhleen; Cunard, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Acute kidney injury (AKI) contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 predict the development of AKI and are associated with higher mortality in ICU patients with AKI. Most studies in AKI have focused on the tubulo-interstitium, despite evidence of glomerular involvement. In the following study, our goals were to investigate the expression of IL-6 and its downstream mediators in septic-induced AKI. Me...

  5. Systemic and Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalins Are Poor Predictors of Acute Kidney Injury in Unselected Critically Ill Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Annick A. Royakkers; Catherine S. Bouman; Stassen, Pauline M.; Joke C. Korevaar; Binnekade, Jan M.; Willem van de Hoek; Kuiper, Michael A; Spronk, Peter E.; Schultz, Marcus J

    2012-01-01

    Background. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in serum and urine have been suggested as potential early predictive biological markers of acute kidney injury (AKI) in selected critically ill patients. Methods. We performed a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective observational cohort study of unselected critically ill patients. Results. The analysis included 140 patients, including 57 patients who did not develop AKI, 31 patients who developed AKI, and 52 patients with...

  6. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is an early biomarker for acute kidney injury in an adult ICU population

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Dinna N.; de Cal, Massimo; Garzotto, Francesco; Perazella, Mark A.; Lentini, Paolo; Corradi, Valentina; Piccinni, Pasquale; Ronco, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a useful marker for acute kidney injury (AKI), particularly when the timing of renal insult is known. However, its performance in an adult critical care setting has not been well described. We performed this study to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of plasma NGAL for early detection of AKI and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in an adult intensive care unit (ICU). Methods We enrolled 307 consecutive adult patients admitted ...

  7. Systemic and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalins are poor predictors of acute kidney injury in unselected critically ill patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Royakkers, A.A.; Bouman, C.S.; Stassen, P.M.; Korevaar, J.C.; Binnekade, J.M.; van der Hoek, W.; Kuiper, M A; Spronk, P.E.; Schultz, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in serum and urine have been suggested as potential early predictive biological markers of acute kidney injury (AKI) in selected critically ill patients. Methods. We performed a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective observational cohort study of unselected critically ill patients. Results. The analysis included 140 patients, including 57 patients who did not develop AKI, 31 patients who developed AKI, and 52 patients with...

  8. Treatment with ginkgo biloba extract protects rats against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury by modulating alveolar macrophage

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Min; Bai, Yong-Heng; Zhao, Yan-Rong; Shi, Gong-Sheng; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zheng, Yi-Hu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute pancreatitis (AP) protease release induces lung parenchymal destruction via inflammatory mediators. Ginkgo biloba has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Aim To evaluate the effect of ginkgo biloba extract on experimental acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury in the rat and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Material and methods Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliary pancreatic duct. Ginkgo bilo...

  9. Furosemide is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Levi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU and if there is an association between the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (75 females and 57 males, average age 64 years remained for analysis. Most exclusions were related to ICU discharge in the first 24 h. Laboratory, sociodemographic and clinical data were collected until the development of AKI, medical discharge or patient death. The incidence of AKI was 55% (95%CI = 46-64. The predictors of AKI found by univariate analysis were septic shock: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.36-7.14; use of furosemide: OR = 3.27, 95%CI = 1.57-6.80, and age: OR = 1.02 (95%CI = 1.00-1.04. Analysis of the subgroup of patients with septic shock showed that the odds ratio of furosemide was 5.5 (95%CI = 1.16-26.02 for development of AKI. Age, use of furosemide, and septic shock were predictors of AKI in critically ill patients. Use of furosemide in the subgroup of patients with sepsis/septic shock increased (68.4% the chance of development of AKI when compared to the sample as a whole (43.9%.

  10. Insuficincia renal aguda associada leptospirose / Leptospirosis-associated acute kidney injury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth De Francesco, Daher; Krasnalhia Lvia Soares de, Abreu; Geraldo Bezerra da, Silva Junior.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A leptospirose a zoonose mais importante do mundo. Os pacientes so tipicamente homens jovens. Vrios fatores esto envolvidos na insuficincia renal aguda (IRA) na leptospirose, incluindo ao nefrotxica direta da leptospira, hiperbilirrubinemia, rabdomilise e hipovolemia. Os principais achados [...] histolgicos so nefrite intersticial aguda e necrose tubular aguda. A IRA na leptospirose geralmente no oligrica e hipocalmica. Alteraes da funo tubular precedem a queda na taxa de filtrao glomerular, o que poderia explicar a alta frequncia de hipocalemia. O tratamento antibitico eficaz nas fases precoces e tardias e/ou graves. Para pacientes crticos com IRA na leptospirose, as seguintes condutas so recomendadas: hemodilise precoce e diria; baixa infuso de volume (devido ao risco de hemorragia pulmonar), e estratgias de proteo pulmonar. A mortalidade na IRA associada leptospirose est em torno de 22%. Abstract in english Leptospirosis is the most important zoonosis in the world. Patients are typically young men. Several factors are involved in acute kidney injury (AKI) in leptospirosis, including direct nephrotoxic action of the leptospira, hyperbilirubinemia, rhabdomyolysis and hypovolemia. The major histological f [...] indings are acute interstitial nephritis and acute tubular necrosis. Leptospirosis-induced AKI is usually nonoliguric and hypokalemic. Tubular function abnormalities precede a decline in the glomerular filtration rate, which could explain the high frequency of hypokalemia. Antibiotic treatment is efficient in the early and late and/or severe phases. For critically ill leptospirosis patients, the following measures are recommended: early and daily hemodialysis; low volume infusion (due to the risk of pulmonary hemorrhage); and lung-protective strategies. Mortality in leptospirosis-associated AKI is around 22%.

  11. Heterogeneity of Relational Backgrounds is Associated With Variation in Non-Suicidal Self-Injurious Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-04-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a self-destructive behavior of common prevalence in adolescence and young adulthood. Engagement in NSSI has been consistently linked in the literature with perceptions of one's parent-child relationships as negative or invalidating. However, the potential for multiple combinations of such relational characteristics to be associated with varying cognitive and behavioral manifestations of NSSI remains uninvestigated. In the current study, a person-centered approach to studying perceived parent-child relationship quality and NSSI was adopted; functions and behavioral severity of NSSI were then compared across the different relational profiles created. A latent profile analysis in a sample of 264 self-injuring university students (205 females; mage = 19.37 years, sd = 1.50) revealed four distinct profiles, two characterized by negative parent-child perceptions and two by positive parent-child perceptions. The perceived relational dimensions of these profiles were unique compared to a parallel group of 264 non-self-injurers (207 females; mage = 19.27 years, sd = 1.33). Participants reporting negative parent-child relationships endorsed more severe NSSI, and engaged in NSSI to regulate aggressive emotions. In contrast, individuals reporting positive parent-child relationships engaged in less extreme manifestations of NSSI overall, suggesting lower psychological deficits. Findings suggest that, although not all self-injurers perceive their relationships with parents negatively, variation in the perception of relational quality is implicated in behavioral and cognitive variation in NSSI engagement. PMID:26133094

  12. Inflammation and nerve injury induce expression of pancreatitis-associated protein-II in primary sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Lan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP-I and -II, lectin-related secretory proteins, are members of the regenerating gene (Reg family. Although expression of PAP-I was found in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons following peripheral nerve injury and cystitis, whether PAP-II could be expressed in DRG neurons in chronic pain models remains unclear. The present study shows an inflammation- and nerve injury-triggered expression of PAP-II in rat DRG neurons. In situ hybridization showed that only a few DRG neurons normally contained PAP-I and -II mRNAs. After peripheral inflammation, PAP-I and -II mRNAs were present in over half of small DRG neurons. Such an elevated expression of PAP-I and -II reached the peak level on the second day. Immunostaining showed that the expression of PAP-II was mostly increased in the isolectin B4-positive subset of small DRG neurons after inflammation. Furthermore, the expression of PAP-II was also induced in DRG neurons after peripheral nerve injury. Interestingly, PAP-II expression was shifted from small neurons on day 2 to large DRG neurons that expressed neuropeptide Y during the later post-injury days. These results suggest that PAP-II may play potential roles in the modulation of spinal sensory pathways in pathological pain states.

  13. Inhalation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Araz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three types of injury: thermal injury, which is mostly restricted to the upper airway; chemical injury, which affects tracheobronchial tree; and systemic toxicity owing to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Inhalation injury increases the burn injury associated morbidity and mortality by causing airway problems and respiratory failure during the early phase and by contributing to the development of pneumonia and atelectasis during the late phase. Additionally, systemic effects of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide may also adversely affect the early and long-term outcome in burn victims. The early diagnosis and therapy of these problems plays a key role in improving the outcome of burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 37-45

  14. Number of casual male sexual partners and associated factors among men who have sex with men: Results from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Laura F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the majority of new HIV infections were in MSM. We sought to describe numbers of casual sex partners among US MSM. Methods Data are from the first MSM cycle of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system, conducted from 2003 to 2005. Relationships between number of casual male sex partners within the previous year and demographic information, self-reported HIV status, and risk behaviors were determined through regression models. Results Among 11,191 sexually active MSM, 76% reported a casual male partner. The median casual partner number was three. Lower number of casual partners was associated with black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and having a main sex partner in the previous year. Factors associated with a higher number included gay identity, exchange sex, both injection and non-injection drug use. Being HIV-positive was associated with more partners among non-blacks only. Age differences in partner number were seen only among chat room users. Conclusions MSM who were black, Hispanic or had a main sex partner reported fewer casual sex partners. Our results suggest specific populations of MSM who may benefit most from interventions to reduce casual partner numbers.

  15. Use of probiotics in preventing antibiotic associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in spinal injury centres: An international survey of four western European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, S.; Saif, M.; O'Driscoll, J.; Kumar, N; Smith, É; Roels, E.; Nes, I.; Faber, W.; McKeown, E.; Hirani, S.P.; Jamous, A.

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics may prevent antibiotic-associatedand Clostridium difficile-associated- diarrhoea (AAD/CDAD). Many spinal cord injury centres (SCICs) practitioners consider probiotics generically and may not realise that efficacy can be strain-, dose-, and disease-specific. One to four SCICs per country (depending on population size) were contacted (UK:4; the Netherlands:3; Belgium: I; Republic of Ireland: 1) to (a) determine if they stocked probiotics; (b) determine whether the use of those probio...

  16. Concurrent outbreaks of Shigella sonnei and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections associated with parsley: implications for surveillance and control of foodborne illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Wicklund, Julie H; Olsen, Sonja J; Krause, Gerard; Wells, Joy G; Bartkus, Joanne M; Boxrud, David J; Sullivan, Maureen; Kassenborg, Heidi; Besser, John M; Mintz, Eric D; Osterholm, Michael T; Hedberg, Craig W

    2003-04-01

    In recent years, the globalization of the food supply and the development of extensive food distribution networks have increased the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks involving multiple states or countries. In particular, outbreaks associated with fresh produce have emerged as an important public health concern. During July and August 1998, eight restaurant-associated outbreaks of shigellosis caused by a common strain of Shigella sonnei occurred in the United States and Canada. The outbreak strain was characterized by unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Epidemiologic investigation determined that the illness was associated with the ingestion of parsley at four restaurants; at the other four restaurants, the majority of the people who contracted the illness ate parsley. Isolates from patrons in two unrelated restaurant-associated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) outbreaks in Minnesota shared a common serotype and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. Parsley was the implicated or suspected source of both ETEC outbreaks. In each of the outbreak-associated restaurants, parsley was chopped, held at room temperature, and used as an ingredient or garnish for multiple dishes. Infected food workers at several restaurants may also have contributed to the propagation of the outbreak. The sources of parsley served in outbreak-associated restaurants were traced, and a 1,600-acre farm in Baja California, Mexico, was identified as a likely source of the parsley implicated in six of the seven Shigella outbreaks and as a possible source of the parsley implicated in the two ETEC outbreaks. Global food supplies and large distribution networks demand strengthened laboratory and epidemiologic capacity to enable state and local public health agencies to conduct foodborne disease surveillance and to promote effective responses to multistate outbreaks. PMID:12696674

  17. Plasticity associated changes in cortical somatosensory evoked potentials following spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, Faith A; All, Angelo H; Thakor, Nitish V; Maybhate, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a number of physiological and neurological changes resulting in loss of sensorimotor function. Recent work has shown that the central nervous system is capable of plastic behaviors post-injury, including axonal regrowth and cortical remapping. Functional integrity of afferent sensory pathways can be quantified using cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) recorded upon peripheral limb stimulation. We implanted 15 rats with transcranial screw electrodes and recorded SSEPs from cortical regions corresponding to each limb before and after a mild or moderate contusion injury. We report a post-injury increase in the mean amplitude of cortical SSEPs upon forelimb stimulation. SSEP amplitudes for mild and moderate SCI groups increased by 183% ± 95% and 107% ± 38% over baseline, respectively, while hindlimb SSEPs decreased by 58% ± 14% and 79% ± 4%. In addition, we report increased SSEP amplitude measured from the anatomically adjacent hindlimb region upon forelimb stimulation (increase of 90% ± 19%). Our results show that previously allocated hindlimb cortical regions are now activated by forelimb stimulation, suggesting an expansion in the area of cortical forelimb representation into hindlimb regions after an injury. This result is indicative of adaptive plasticity in undamaged areas of the CNS following SCI. PMID:22254728

  18. Who is Surveilling Whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns the particular form of counter-surveillance termed “sousveillance”, which aims to turn surveillance at the institutions responsible for surveillance. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives “mediatization” and “aerial surveillance,” the article studies WikiLeaks’ publication...

  19. Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosedale, Merrie [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Wu, Hong [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Kurtz, C. Lisa [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schmidt, Stephen P. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Adkins, Karissa, E-mail: Karissa.Adkins@pfizer.com [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Harrill, Alison H. [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR72205 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. - Highlights: • Identified susceptible and resistant mouse strains to liver injury induced by a CAD • Liver injury characterized by single cell necrosis, and phospholipidosis • Decreased gene expression associated with protein ubiquitination in sensitive mice • Altered protein ubiquitination may cause oxidized protein accumulation in the liver.

  20. Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. - Highlights: • Identified susceptible and resistant mouse strains to liver injury induced by a CAD • Liver injury characterized by single cell necrosis, and phospholipidosis • Decreased gene expression associated with protein ubiquitination in sensitive mice • Altered protein ubiquitination may cause oxidized protein accumulation in the liver

  1. C/EBP homologous protein deficiency aggravates acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-I Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the pathophysiological role of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP in severe acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. METHODS: A severe acute pancreatitis model was induced with 6 injections of cerulein (Cn, 50 ?g/kg at 1-h intervals, then intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 7.5 mg/kg in CHOP-deficient (Chop-/- mice and wild-type (WT mice. Animals were sacrificed under anesthesia, 3 h or 18 h after LPS injection. Serum amylase, lipase, and cytokines [interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?], pathological changes, acute lung injury, and apoptosis in the pancreas were evaluated. Serum amylase and lipase activities were detected using a medical automatic chemical analyzer. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to evaluate TNF-? and IL-6 levels in mouse serum and lung tissue homogenates. Apoptotic cells in sections of pancreatic tissues were determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL analysis. The mouse carotid arteries were cannulated and arterial blood samples were collected for PaO2 analysis. The oxygenation index was expressed as PaO2/FiO2. RESULTS: Administration of Cn and LPS for 9 and 24 h induced severe acute pancreatitis in Chop-/- and WT mice. When comparing Chop-/- mice and WT mice, we observed that CHOP-deficient mice had greater increases in serum TNF-? (214.40 19.52 pg/mL vs 150.40 16.70 pg/mL; P = 0.037, amylase (4236.40 646.32 U/L vs 2535.30 81.83 U/L; P = 0.041, lipase (1678.20 170.57 U/L vs 1046.21 35.37 U/L; P = 0.008, and IL-6 (2054.44 293.81 pg/mL vs 1316.10 108.74 pg/mL; P = 0.046 than WT mice. The histopathological changes in the pancreases and lungs, decreased PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and increased TNF-? and IL-6 levels in the lungs were greater in Chop-/- mice than in WT mice (pancreas: Chop-/- vs WT mice, hemorrhage, P = 0.005; edema, P = 0.005; inflammatory cells infiltration, P = 0.005; total scores, P = 0.006; lung: hemorrhage, P = 0.017; edema, P = 0.017; congestion, P = 0.017; neutrophil infiltration, P = 0.005, total scores, P = 0.001; PaO2/FiO2 ratio: 393 17.65 vs 453.8, P = 0.041; TNF-?: P = 0.043; IL-6, P = 0.040. Results from TUNEL analysis indicated increased acinar cell apoptosis in mice following the induction of acute pancreatitis. However, Chop-/- mice displayed significantly reduced pancreatic apoptosis compared with the WT mice (201.50 31.43 vs 367.00 47.88, P = 0.016. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CHOP can exert protective effects against acute pancreatitis and limit the spread of inflammatory damage to the lungs.

  2. Propositions for the implementation and reinforcement of surveillance activities of exposure and risks associated to radon inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report treats exclusively of exposure by inhalation. It expresses the propositions relative to the implantation and the development of an information network allowing to characterize the radon exposures by inhalation and associated risks. (N.C.)

  3. Improving healthcare-associated infection surveillance at a multi-hospital institution using an existing data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Joshua A; Lucy, Justin; Dunagan, Wm Claiborne; Bailey, Thomas C

    2008-01-01

    The accurate and timely reporting of healthcare-associated infections is an essential infection control practice. Rates provide benchmarks for detecting trends and can help facilities identify intervention opportunities. Standardizing how hospitals within an organization calculate these rates is critical if the rates are to be compared among hospitals and to national standards. We describe a new web-based tool to improve how infection control practitioners identify and report healthcare-associated infections at BJC HealthCare. PMID:18999117

  4. An assessment of the association between soil pH and ovine Johne's disease using Australian abattoir surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowled, Brendan D; Stevenson, Mark A; Madin, Ben

    2016-04-01

    There has long been discussion in the literature about the role of soil on ovine Johnes disease (OJD). This is especially true of soil pH, however there is very little research to support an association between pH and OJD prevalence. The primary objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that there is an association between soil pH and OJD. Several additional hypotheses were also assessed. Sheep properties that were surveyed by the Australian National Sheep Health Monitoring Project where classified as OJD reactor positive or otherwise. A variety of explanatory variables such as soil (especially soil pH), environmental and management factors were examined. Spatial regression models were assessed using information theory to examine support for various hypotheses and to examine associations; especially that soil pH is associated with OJD. A total of 1213 properties from 10,578 were classified as OJD positive (11.5%, 95% CI: 10.9-12.1). Within the limitations of the study, only modest support was found for an association between soil pH and the presence or absence of OJD. Instead, OJD prevalence was affected by several factors concurrently, a so called multi-factorial model (hypothesis). In this supported multifactorial hypothesis soil pH was marginally associated with OJD (p=0.04) and had a relatively weak effect (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.00). OJD was strongly associated with a number of biosecurity and environmental factors such as the time since infection arrived in a region, absence of biosecurity programs (such as regional biosecurity programs or state based programs) and, to a lesser extent, solar irradiation. Soil pH may play a relatively small role in explaining OJD prevalence when evaluated as part of a multifactorial model. Biosecurity and other environmental factors appear to be more strongly associated with the presence of OJD in Australia. PMID:26952884

  5. In vivo DTI longitudinal measurements of acute sciatic nerve traction injury and the association with pathological and functional changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinchun [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Chen, Jingcong [Department of Radiology, The Center People Hospital of Huizhou, Huizhou 516001 (China); Hong, Goubin [Department of Radiology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519000 (China); Sun, Congpeng; Wu, Xiaomen [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Peng, Matthew Jianqiao, E-mail: PengJQshl@163.com [Department of Joint Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Orthopedic Implantation Key Lab of Guangdong Province, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Zeng, Guangqiao, E-mail: zgqiao@vip.163.com [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of longitudinally measuring acute traction injury to the sciatic nerve using 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to analyze the associations of the measurements [regarding fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), eigenvalue (?{sub ||} and ?{sub ?})] with limb function and pathology. Materials and methods: Acute traction injuries to the sciatic nerve were created in the right hind limbs of 32 New Zealand white rabbits, the left hind limbs were chosen as sham operation nerves. MRI scans were performed at intervals from pre-operation through 8 weeks post-operation follow up. Scanning sequences included T2WI, STIR, and single shot spin echo DTI with single shot EPI acquisition (SE-DTI-SSEPI). Parameters of FA, ADC, axial diffusivity (?{sub ||}) and radial diffusivity (?{sub ?}) were then calculated from the DTI. The limb functions and pathologic changes were evaluated and compared. Results: Diffusion Tensor Tractography (DTT) only revealed the proximal portion of the injured nerves 13 days after traction injury but did not reveal the nerve of the distal and traction portions at all. Nerve fibers of the distal and traction portions were not revealed by DTT until after the 1st week. They were elongated gradually and recovered almost to the normal at 8th week. The value of FA and ?{sub ?}of the injured nerves, which varied in different portions, were significantly different between the traction injury nerves and the sham operation nerves, whereas the value of ADC and ?{sub ||} were not significantly different. The curve lines of FA value-time for the proximal, traction and distal portions of the injured nerve correlated well to the functional and pathological changes of the limb affected, while the DTI parameters did not change that much in the sham-operated nerves. Conclusions: DTI obtained on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner can demonstrate early abnormal changes following traction injury to the sciatic nerve in rabbits. The curve lines of FA-time and ?{sub ?}-time for nerve traction injury are consistent with the pathological and functional changes of the limb affected. DTI may thus be a sensitive and reliable method to evaluate degeneration and regeneration of the nerve after traction injury.

  6. In vivo DTI longitudinal measurements of acute sciatic nerve traction injury and the association with pathological and functional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of longitudinally measuring acute traction injury to the sciatic nerve using 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to analyze the associations of the measurements [regarding fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), eigenvalue (λ|| and λ⊥)] with limb function and pathology. Materials and methods: Acute traction injuries to the sciatic nerve were created in the right hind limbs of 32 New Zealand white rabbits, the left hind limbs were chosen as sham operation nerves. MRI scans were performed at intervals from pre-operation through 8 weeks post-operation follow up. Scanning sequences included T2WI, STIR, and single shot spin echo DTI with single shot EPI acquisition (SE-DTI-SSEPI). Parameters of FA, ADC, axial diffusivity (λ||) and radial diffusivity (λ⊥) were then calculated from the DTI. The limb functions and pathologic changes were evaluated and compared. Results: Diffusion Tensor Tractography (DTT) only revealed the proximal portion of the injured nerves 1–3 days after traction injury but did not reveal the nerve of the distal and traction portions at all. Nerve fibers of the distal and traction portions were not revealed by DTT until after the 1st week. They were elongated gradually and recovered almost to the normal at 8th week. The value of FA and λ⊥of the injured nerves, which varied in different portions, were significantly different between the traction injury nerves and the sham operation nerves, whereas the value of ADC and λ|| were not significantly different. The curve lines of FA value-time for the proximal, traction and distal portions of the injured nerve correlated well to the functional and pathological changes of the limb affected, while the DTI parameters did not change that much in the sham-operated nerves. Conclusions: DTI obtained on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner can demonstrate early abnormal changes following traction injury to the sciatic nerve in rabbits. The curve lines of FA-time and λ⊥-time for nerve traction injury are consistent with the pathological and functional changes of the limb affected. DTI may thus be a sensitive and reliable method to evaluate degeneration and regeneration of the nerve after traction injury

  7. Factors associated with antenatal care adequacy in rural and urban contexts-results from two health and demographic surveillance sites in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Toan K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal Care (ANC is universally considered important for women and children. This study aims to identify factors, demographic, social and economic, possibly associated with three ANC indicators: number of visits, timing of visits and content of services. The aim is also to compare the patterns of association of such factors between one rural and one urban context in northern Vietnam. Methods Totally 2,132 pregnant women were followed from identification of pregnancy until birth in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS. Information was obtained through quarterly face to face interviews. Results Living in the rural area was significantly associated with lower adequate use of ANC compared to living in the urban area, both regarding quantity (number and timing of visits and content. Low education, living in poor households and exclusively using private sector ANC in both sites and self employment, becoming pregnant before 25 years of age and living in poor communities in the rural area turned out to increase the risk for overall inadequate ANC. High risk pregnancy could not be demonstrated to be associated with ANC adequacy in either site. The medical content of services offered was often inadequate, in relation to the national recommendations, especially in the private sector. Conclusion Low education, low economic status, exclusive use of private ANC and living in rural areas were main factors associated with risk for overall inadequate ANC use as related to the national recommendations. Therefore, interventions focussing on poor and less educated women, especially in rural areas should be prioritized. They should focus the importance of early attendance of ANC and sufficient use of core services. Financial support for poor and near poor women should be considered. Providers of ANC should be educated and otherwise influenced to provide sufficient core services. Adherence to ANC content guidelines must be improved through enhanced supervision, particularly in the private sector.

  8. Heart injury following intestinal ischemia reperfusion in rats is attenuated by association of ischemic preconditioning and adenosine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Micaela Frasson, Montero; Rafael, Saurim; Wesley Guedes Sava, Bonservizi; Marcia Kiyomi, Koike; Murched Omar, Taha.

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and adenosine as strategies to protect cardiac injury caused by intestinal IR in rats, based on increasing in adenosine bioavailability and improvement of cell energy state by IPC. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to 6 [...] 0 minutes of intestinal ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. Intravenous injections of saline or Adenosine (AD) was administered five minutes before ischemia, five minutes before reperfusion and after 55 minutes reperfusion. Cardiac samples were obtained, fixed in formalin solution, embedded in paraffin, and sections of 5 ?m were stained by hematoxylin-eosin. Histological analysis of myocardium was performed according occurrence of necrosis signs: piknosis, band contraction, eosinophilic cytoplasm, karyorrhexis and vacuolization (score - zero to 5). RESULTS: The groups submitted to ischemia alone (I=4.0), and reperfusion (IR=4.5) showed highest level of lesion compared to the others (I+IPC=3.3, IR+IPC=3.6, I+AD=3.0, IR+AD=3.8). The most interesting result was association of IPC and AD in IR model (IR+IPC+AD=1.2, p=0.002), showing preservation of the heart tissue, with fibers showing typical cross-striations and nuclei characteristics. Rare and small areas of tissue necrosis was observed and suggestion of capillaries congestion. CONCLUSION: Intestinal ischemia reperfusion promotes cardiac tissue injury. Ischemic preconditioning in association with adenosine is an efficient strategy to protect the heart against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  9. Emergency room visits for work-related injuries: characteristics and associated factors - Capitals and the Federal District, Brazil, 2011 / Atendimentos de emergncia por leses relacionadas ao trabalho: caractersticas e fatores associados - Capitais e Distrito Federal, Brasil, 2011

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mrcio Dnis Medeiros, Mascarenhas; Mariana Gonalves de, Freitas; Rosane Aparecida, Monteiro; Marta Maria Alves da, Silva; Deborah Carvalho, Malta; Carlos Minayo, Gmez.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leses relacionadas ao trabalho, geralmente classificadas como acidentes de trabalho (AT), destacam-se dentre atendimentos por causas externas (acidentes e violncia) nos servios de sade. Para descrever as caractersticas e os fatores associados aos atendimentos de emergncia por AT, realizou-se e [...] studo transversal com dados do Inqurito de Violncias e Acidentes em Servios de Emergncia (VIVA Inqurito 2011), em 24 capitais e no Distrito Federal. Estimaram-se prevalncias de atendimentos por AT e razes de prevalncia (RP) com respectivos intervalos de confiana de 95% (IC95%). Foram includos 29.463 atendimentos de emergncia por causas acidentais na populao a partir de 18 anos de idade. A prevalncia de AT foi de 33,4% e apresentou associao positiva e significante com sexo masculino, faixa etria de 30 a 59 anos, ser trabalhador de indstrias, setor agropecurio ou servios de reparao e manuteno. A ocorrncia de AT foi significativamente maior nos atendimentos por queda de objeto sobre pessoa (RP = 3,37; IC95% 2,80-4,05) e ferimento por objeto perfurocortante (RP = 3,01; IC95% 2,50-3,65). Os resultados podem subsidiar a vigilncia de causas externas e direcionar polticas pblicas voltadas para a promoo da sade do trabalhador. Abstract in english Work-related injuries, often classified as occupational injuries (OI), stand out among visits due to external causes (accidents and violence) in health services. To describe the characteristics and factors associated with emergency room visits for OI, a cross-sectional study was conducted using data [...] from the Survey of Violence and Injuries in Emergency Services (VIVA Inqurito 2011) in 24 state capitals and the Federal District. The prevalence of treatment for OI and prevalence ratios (PR) with confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) were calculated. There were 29,463 emergency room visits due to accidental injuries in the population above 18 years of age. The prevalence of OI was 33.4% and was positively and significantly associated with the male gender, age 30-59 years old, industrial workers, agricultural sector or repair and maintenance services. The occurrence of OI was significantly higher in attendance for objects falling on people (PR = 3.37, 95% CI 2.80 to 4.05) and injuries due to perforating object (PR = 3.01, 95% CI 2.50-3.65). The results support the surveillance of external causes and direct public policies to promote occupational health.

  10. New thoughts on the origin of Pellegrini-Stieda: the association of PCL injury and medial femoral epicondylar periosteal stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 100 years, Pellegrini-Stieda disease has been described as calcification and ossification within the tibial collateral ligament, although these typical radiographic findings are often located more superior than the most proximal extent of the ligament. In this article, we demonstrate four magnetic resonance imaging cases of knee trauma with complete posterior cruciate ligament tear or avulsion, each demonstrating that injury to the medial collateral ligamentous complex can involve significant stripping of the tissue proximal to the medial epicondyle. Classic radiographic findings of Pellegrini-Stieda calcifications can be caused by stripping of the femoral periosteum proximal to the femoral attachment of the tibial collateral ligament, which appears to be associated with a complete posterior cruciate ligament injury. (orig.)

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the US National Concussion Surveillance System Resources for Health Care Providers Updated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Guideline for Adults CDC Workgroup to Improve Clinical Care of Youth with Mild TBI Online Concussion Training Press, Social Media, & New Media Guide to Writing about TBI in ...

  12. Peat bog wildfire smoke exposure in rural North Carolina is associated with Cardiopulmonary emergency department visits assessed through syndromic surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air ...

  13. Human mesenchymal stromal cells reduce influenza A H5N1-associated acute lung injury in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michael C W; Kuok, Denise I T; Leung, Connie Y H; Hui, Kenrie P Y; Valkenburg, Sophie A; Lau, Eric H Y; Nicholls, John M; Fang, Xiaohui; Guan, Yi; Lee, Jae W; Chan, Renee W Y; Webster, Robert G; Matthay, Michael A; Peiris, J S Malik

    2016-03-29

    Influenza can cause acute lung injury. Because immune responses often play a role, antivirals may not ensure a successful outcome. To identify pathogenic mechanisms and potential adjunctive therapeutic options, we compared the extent to which avian influenza A/H5N1 virus and seasonal influenza A/H1N1 virus impair alveolar fluid clearance and protein permeability in an in vitro model of acute lung injury, defined the role of virus-induced soluble mediators in these injury effects, and demonstrated that the effects are prevented or reduced by bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. We verified the in vivo relevance of these findings in mice experimentally infected with influenza A/H5N1. We found that, in vitro, the alveolar epithelium's protein permeability and fluid clearance were dysregulated by soluble immune mediators released upon infection with avian (A/Hong Kong/483/97, H5N1) but not seasonal (A/Hong Kong/54/98, H1N1) influenza virus. The reduced alveolar fluid transport associated with down-regulation of sodium and chloride transporters was prevented or reduced by coculture with mesenchymal stromal cells. In vivo, treatment of aged H5N1-infected mice with mesenchymal stromal cells increased their likelihood of survival. We conclude that mesenchymal stromal cells significantly reduce the impairment of alveolar fluid clearance induced by A/H5N1 infection in vitro and prevent or reduce A/H5N1-associated acute lung injury in vivo. This potential adjunctive therapy for severe influenza-induced lung disease warrants rapid clinical investigation. PMID:26976597

  14. The first description of severe anemia associated with acute kidney injury and adult minimal change disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yimei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute kidney injury in the setting of adult minimal change disease is associated with proteinuria, hypertension and hyperlipidemia but anemia is usually absent. Renal biopsies exhibit foot process effacement as well as tubular interstitial inflammation, acute tubular necrosis or intratubular obstruction. We recently managed a patient with unique clinical and pathological features of minimal change disease, who presented with severe anemia and acute kidney injury, an association not previously reported in the literature. Case presentation A 60-year-old Indian-American woman with a history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus for 10 years presented with progressive oliguria over 2 days. Laboratory data revealed severe hyperkalemia, azotemia, heavy proteinuria and progressively worsening anemia. Urine eosinophils were not seen. Emergent hemodialysis, erythropoietin and blood transfusion were initiated. Serologic tests for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative. Complement levels (C3, C4 and CH50 were normal. Renal biopsy unexpectedly displayed 100% foot process effacement. A 24-hour urine collection detected 6.38 g of protein. Proteinuria and anemia resolved during six weeks of steroid therapy. Renal function recovered completely. No signs of relapse were observed at 8-month follow-up. Conclusion Adult minimal change disease should be considered when a patient presents with proteinuria and severe acute kidney injury even when accompanied by severe anemia. This report adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in addition to steroid therapy, prompt initiation of erythropoietin therapy may facilitate full recovery of renal function in acute kidney injury.

  15. Association of Symptoms Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder vs Postconcussion Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagarde, E.; Salmi, L. R.; Holm, L. W.; Contrand, B.; Masson, F.; Ribereau-Gayon, R.; Laborey, M.; Cassidy, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE A proportion of patients experience long-lasting symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). The postconcussion syndrome (PCS), included in the DSM-IV, has been proposed to describe this condition. Because these symptoms are subjective and common to other conditions, there i...

  16. Linguistic Factors Associated with Self-Inflicted Injury in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Benjamin Park

    2009-01-01

    The present study builds on previous research, which demonstrated higher levels of depressive and interpersonal conflict language in first-person narrative accounts of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA) in borderline personality disorder. The present study was designed to examine the semantic similarity of time-sequences…

  17. Association between maximal hamstring strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Husted, Rasmus; Bencke, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Hölmich, Per; Andersen, Lars Louis; Myklebust, Grethe; Gliese, Bjørn; Bloch Lauridsen, Hanne; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reduced hamstring pre-activity during side-cutting may predispose for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part of ACL injury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a strong...... hamstring (ACL-agonist) musculature is associated with a high level of hamstring muscle pre-activity during high risk movements such as side-cutting. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hamstring muscle pre-activity recorded during a standardized sidecutting maneuver and...... maximal isometric hamstring muscle strength. Material and Methods Eighty-five female athletes (17 ± 1 yrs) were screened for neuromuscular pre-activity in medial (ST) and lateral (BF) hamstring muscle during a sidecutting maneuver. Maximal hamstring muscle strength [N/kg BW] (MVC) was measured in a static...

  18. Surveillance of Device-associated Nosocomial Infections in an Intensive Care Unit at a 550-Bed Research Hospital during 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Filiz Pehlivano¤lu; Kadriye Kart Yaflar; Yeşim Aybar Bilir

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Nosocomial infections that cause high mortality rates are most frequently observed in intensive care units (ICUs). In this study, device-associated nosocomial infections in Anesthesia and Reanimation Unit of our hospital during 2009 are studied. Methods: ICU serves as a third-level treatment unit with 22 beds out of the total 550 beds in the training hospital. Nosocomial Infections are monitored by infectious disease and clinical microbiology specialists and infectio...

  19. How to define surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to explore and compare ways of defining surveillance. In order to give meaning to concepts that describe the realities of society, social theory is needed. Therefore social theory is employed in this paper for discussing ways of defining surveillance. “Living in ‘surveillance societies’ may throw up challenges of a fundamental – ontological – kind” (Lyon, 1994, p.19. Social theory is a way of clarifying such ontological questions that concern the basic nature and reality of surveillance. A distinction between neutral and negative concepts of surveillance is drawn. Some potential disadvantages of neutral concepts of surveillance are outlined. This paper wants to contribute to the discussion of how to best define surveillance and wants to show that one of the main theoretical differences and questions in surveillance theory is if surveillance should be defined as a negative or a neutral concept.

  20. Repeated mild traumatic brain injury causes chronic neuroinflammation, changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and associated cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, Stephanie L; Kabadi, Shruti V; Thompson, Scott M; Stoica, Bogdan A; Faden, Alan I

    2014-07-01

    Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause sustained cognitive and psychiatric changes, as well as neurodegeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined histologic, neurophysiological, and cognitive changes after single or repeated (three injuries) mTBI using the rat lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model. Repeated mTBI caused substantial neuronal cell loss and significantly increased numbers of activated microglia in both ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus on post-injury day (PID) 28. Long-term potentiation (LTP) could not be induced on PID 28 after repeated mTBI in ex vivo hippocampal slices from either hemisphere. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated responses were significantly attenuated after repeated mTBI, with no significant changes in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated responses. Long-term potentiation was elicited in slices after single mTBI, with potentiation significantly increased in ipsilateral versus contralateral hippocampus. After repeated mTBI, rats displayed cognitive impairments in the Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Thus, repeated mTBI causes deficits in the hippocampal function and changes in excitatory synaptic neurotransmission, which are associated with chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. PMID:24756076

  1. The mechanism underlying alpinetin-mediated alleviation of pancreatitis-associated lung injury through upregulating aquaporin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xingsi; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Quan; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Biao; Li, Bo; Wei, Yangchao; Zhai, Run; Liang, Zhiqing; He, Songqing; Tang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by its acute onset, critical condition, poor prognosis, and high mortality rate, severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can cause multiple organ failure at its early stage, particularly acute lung injury (ALI). The pathogenesis of ALI is diffuse alveolar damage, including an increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability, a decrease in compliance, and invasion of many inflammatory cells. Corticosteroids are the main treatment method for ALI; however, the associated high toxicity and side effects induce pain in patients. Recent studies show that the effective components in many traditional Chinese medicines can effectively inhibit inflammation with few side effects, which can decrease the complications caused by steroid consumption. Based on these observations, the main objective of the current study is to investigate the effect of alpinetin, which is a flavonoid extracted from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, on treating lung injury induced by SAP and to explore the mechanism underlying the alpinetin-mediated decrease in the extent of ALI. In this study, we have shown through in vitro experiments that a therapeutic dose of alpinetin can promote human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. We have also shown via in vitro and in vivo experiments that alpinetin upregulates aquaporin-1 and, thereby, inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α expression as well as reduces the degree of lung injury. Overall, our study shows that alpinetin alleviates SAP-induced ALI. The likely molecular mechanism includes upregulated aquaporin expression, which inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α and, thus, alleviates SAP-induced ALI. PMID:26966354

  2. Ocular superglue injury.

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, C J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of ocular injuries associated with superglue. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients attending an accident and emergency department over a 12 month period with ocular superglue injuries. RESULTS: 14 patients who suffered ocular injuries due to superglue were identified. No patients had long term complications from their injury. Management is discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Superglue eye injuries do not appear to cause long term morbidity.

  3. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p  Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

  4. Risk of leukemia associated with the first course of cancer treatment: an analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of leukemia associated with the first course of cancer treatment was evaluated in over 440,000 patients diagnosed during 1973-80 (average follow-up . 1.91 yr) from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Although the reporting of the first course of therapy probably was incomplete, 34 acute nonlymphocytic leukemias (ANLL) developed compared with 7.6 expected among 70,674 patients known to receive initial chemotherapy [relative risk (RR) . 4.5, 95% confidence interval (Cl) . 3.1-6.3]. Significant ANLL excesses were observed following chemotherapy for breast cancer (RR . 8.1), ovarian cancer (RR . 22.2), and multiple myeloma (RR . 9.5). Patients initially treated with radiation (with no record of chemotherapy) also had a significantly increased ANLL risk; 45 leukemias occurred versus 17.9 expected (RR . 2.5, 95% Cl . 1.8-3.4). In this group, excess ANLL were found following irradiation for uterine corpus cancer (RR . 4.0). Kidney and renal pelvis cancer patients had a twofold leukemia risk (all types) that was unrelated to treatment (RR . 2.2)

  5. Unusual presentation of Lisfranc fracture dislocation associated with high-velocity sledding injury: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benejam Christopher E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lisfranc fracture dislocations of the foot are rare injuries. A recent literature search revealed no reported cases of injury to the tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc joint associated with sledding. Case presentation A 19-year-old male college student presented to the emergency department with a Lisfranc fracture dislocation of the foot as a result of a high-velocity sledding injury. The patient underwent an immediate open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusion Lisfranc injuries are often caused by high-velocity, high-energy traumas. Careful examination and thorough testing are required to identify the injury properly. Computed tomography imaging is often recommended to aid in diagnosis. Treatment of severe cases may require immediate open reduction and internal fixation, especially if the risk of compartment syndrome is present, followed by a period of immobilization. Complete recovery may take up to 1 year.

  6. Repetitive and self-injurious behaviors: associations with caudate volume in autism and fragile X syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Jason J; Hazlett, Heather C; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L.; Piven, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Following from previous work suggesting that neurobehavioral features distinguish fragile X and idiopathic variants of autism, we investigated the relationships between four forms of repetitive behavior (stereotypy, self-injury, compulsivity, ritual behavior) and caudate nuclei volume in two groups: boys with fragile X syndrome, a subset of whom met criteria for autism, and a comparison group of boys with idiopathic autism. Methods Bilateral caudate nuclei volumes were measured in ...

  7. Standardizing ICU management of pediatric traumatic brain injury is associated with improved outcomes at discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Lynnger, Thomas M; Shannon, Chevis N; Le, Truc M; Greeno, Amber; Chung, Dai; Lamb, Fred S; Wellons, John C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The goal of critical care in treating traumatic brain injury (TBI) is to reduce secondary brain injury by limiting cerebral ischemia and optimizing cerebral blood flow. The authors compared short-term outcomes as defined by discharge disposition and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores in children with TBI before and after the implementation of a protocol that standardized decision-making and interventions among neurosurgeons and pediatric intensivists. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective pre- and postprotocol study of 128 pediatric patients with severe TBI, as defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores accounting for injury severity and clinical parameters. Favorable discharge disposition included discharge home. Unfavorable discharge disposition included discharge to an inpatient facility or death. RESULTS Demographics were similar between the treatment periods, as was injury severity as assessed by GCS score (mean 5.43 preprotocol, mean 5.28 postprotocol; p = 0.67). The ordered logistic regression model demonstrated an odds ratio of 4.0 of increasingly favorable outcome in the postprotocol cohort (p = 0.007). Prior to protocol implementation, 63 patients (64%) had unfavorable discharge disposition and 36 patients (36%) had favorable discharge disposition. After protocol implementation, 9 patients (31%) had unfavorable disposition, while 20 patients (69%) had favorable disposition (p = 0.002). In the preprotocol group, 31 patients (31%) died while 6 patients (21%) died after protocol implementation (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Discharge disposition and mortality rates in pediatric patients with severe TBI improved after implementation of a standardized protocol among caregivers based on best-practice guidelines. PMID:26451717

  8. Bicycling injury hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions: analyses examining associations with helmet legislation and mode share

    OpenAIRE

    Teschke, Kay; Koehoorn, Mieke; Shen, Hui; Dennis, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to calculate exposure-based bicycling hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions with different helmet legislation and bicycling mode shares, and to examine whether the rates were related to these differences. Methods Administrative data on hospital stays for bicycling injuries to 10 body region groups and national survey data on bicycling trips were used to calculate hospitalisation rates. Rates were calculated for 44 sex, age and jurisdiction st...

  9. Exposure characteristics of familial cases of lung injury associated with the use of humidifier disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Donguk; Leem, Jonghan; Lee, Kyoungmu; Lim, Heungkyu; Choi, Yeyong; Ahn, Jong-Ju; Lim, Sinye; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Naroo; Jung, Hyejung; Ha, Jongsik; Paek, Domyung

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes 17 families with 38 lung injury patients (14 males, 24 females; 22 preschool-age children less than six years of age and 16 individuals of 13–50 years) who used disinfectant added to humidifiers in the home. Methods Clinical examination and humidifier disinfectant-use histories were taken, and a thorough home investigation was performed to assess exposure to humidifier disinfectant. Results Nine of the patients (three pregnant females, six preschool-age childre...

  10. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Acute Lung Injury: Expression, Biomarker and Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Li GAO; Flores, Carlos; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Miller, Edmund J.; Moitra, Jaideep; Moreno, Liliana; Wadgaonkar, Raj; Simon, Brett; Brower, Roy; Sevransky, Jonathan; Tuder, Rubin M.; Maloney, James P.; Moss, Marc; Shanholtz, Carl; Yates, C. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine central to the response to endotoxemia, is a putative biomarker in acute lung injury (ALI). To explore MIF as a molecular target and candidate gene in ALI, we examined MIF gene and protein expression in murine and canine models of ALI (high tidal volume mechanical ventilation, endotoxin exposure) and in patients with either sepsis or sepsis-induced ALI. MIF gene expression and protein levels were significantly increased ...

  11. Preischemic targeting of HIF prolyl hydroxylation inhibits fibrosis associated with acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kapitsinou, Pinelopi P.; Jaffe, Jonathan; Michael, Mark; Swan, Christina E.; Duffy, Kevin J; Erickson-Miller, Connie L.; Haase, Volker H

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) due to ischemia is an important contributor to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Key mediators of cellular adaptation to hypoxia are oxygen-sensitive hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), which are regulated by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD)-containing dioxygenases. While activation of HIF protects from ischemic cell death, HIF has been shown to promote fibrosis in experimental models of CKD. The impact of HIF activation on AKI-induced fibrosis has not b...

  12. Association genetics of chilling injury susceptibility in peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) across multiple years

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanapal, Arun Prabhu; Crisosto, Carlos H.

    2013-01-01

    Peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) are highly perishable; they ripen and deteriorate quickly at ambient temperature. Storage at low temperature (0–5 °C) is a common strategy used to slow the ripening processes and to extend shelf life. However, if susceptible varieties are held too long at a low temperature, they will not ripen properly and will develop chilling injury (CI) symptoms like mealiness (M), flesh browning (FB), and flesh bleeding (FBL). Understanding the genetic control of th...

  13. The Use of Ophthalmic Ultrasonography to Identify Retinal Injuries Associated With Abusive Head Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Becky J; Trimboli-Heidler, Carmelina; Spaeder, Michael C; Miller, Marijean M; Dean, Nathan P; Cohen, Joanna S

    2016-05-01

    Abusive head trauma includes any nonaccidental injury inflicted to a child's head and body. It is often characterized by, but not limited to, the repetitive acceleration-deceleration forces with or without blunt head impact. It has a mortality rate of 30%, and 80% of survivors experience permanent neurologic damage. In this case series, we hypothesize that bedside ultrasonography can be useful in the identification of retinal injuries that are consistent with abusive head trauma. Ocular manifestations of abusive head trauma are identified by dilated ophthalmic examination showing retinal hemorrhages that are too numerous to count, multilayered, and extending to the periphery. Traumatic retinoschisis, splitting of the retinal layers with or without blood accumulating in the intervening space, is exclusive for abusive head trauma in infants without a history of significant cerebral crush injury. Direct visualization of intraocular structures is difficult when the eyelids are swollen shut or when dilatation must be delayed. We present a series of 11 patients with brain injuries who underwent ophthalmic point-of-care ultrasonography that revealed traumatic retinoschisis on average 60 hours earlier than direct ophthalmic visualization. Dilated ophthalmic examinations and autopsy reports confirmed retinoschisis and other forms of retinal hemorrhages that were too numerous to count, multilayered, and extending to the periphery in all 11 patients. One patient did not have a dilated ophthalmic examination; however, traumatic retinoschisis and retinal hemorrhages were confirmed on autopsy. Ocular point-of-care ultrasonography is a promising tool to investigate abusive head trauma through the identification of traumatic retinoschisis and retinal hemorrhages when pupillary dilatation and direct ophthalmic examination is delayed. PMID:26481265

  14. Obesity Is Associated with Neutrophil Dysfunction and Attenuation of Murine Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kordonowy, Lauren L.; Burg, Elianne; Lenox, Christopher C.; Gauthier, Lauren M.; Petty, Joseph M.; Antkowiak, Maryellen; Palvinskaya, Tatsiana; Ubags, Niki; Rincn, Mercedes; Dixon, Anne E.; Vernooy, Juanita H. J.; Fessler, Michael B; Poynter, Matthew E; Suratt, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Although obesity is implicated in numerous health complications leading to increased mortality, the relationship between obesity and outcomes for critically ill patients appears paradoxical. Recent studies have reported better outcomes and lower levels of inflammatory cytokines in obese patients with acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome, suggesting that obesity may ameliorate the effects of this disease. We investigated the effects of obesity in leptin-resistant db/db o...

  15. Survival advantage associated with treatment of injury at designated trauma centers: a bivariate probit model with instrumental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracht, Etienne E; Tepas, Joseph J; Celso, Brian G; Langland-Orban, Barbara; Flint, Lewis

    2007-02-01

    This article analyzes the effectiveness of designated trauma centers in Florida concerning reduction in the mortality risk of severely injured trauma victims. A bivariate probit model is used to compute the differential impact of two alternative acute care treatment sites. The alternative sites are defined as (1) a nontrauma center (NC) or (2) a designated trauma center (DTC). An instrumental-variables method was used to adjust for prehospital selection bias in addition to the influence of age, gender, race, risk of mortality, and type of injury. Treatment at a DTC was associated with a reduction of 0.13 in the probability of mortality. PMID:17213459

  16. Vertebral artery injury associated with cervical spine fracture-dislocation. Prevention of distal embolism using coil embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the efficacy of coil embolization of the injured vertebral artery associated with fracture-dislocation of the cervical spine for the prevention of embolic stroke. Between 2001 and 2010, 27 patients underwent reduction of the dislocation fracture of the cervical spine. In 4 cases, preoperative MRI revealed disappearance of the flow-void signal of the unilateral vertebral artery in the foramen transversarium, and we performed further investigation of the injury of the vertebral artery with digital subtraction angiography. In all 4 cases, digital subtraction angiography revealed occlusion of the unilateral vertebral artery. After conviction of the existence of colateral cerebral blood flow from the contra-lateral vertebral arteries or external carotid arteries, we embolized the proximal part of the occluded vertebral arteries in endovascular procedures with detachable coils for the prevention of the embolic stroke associated with orthopedical procedures. All patients underwent reduction of the cervical dislocation after coil embolization, and the operations were performed uneventfully. During the follow-up period (66.8 months on the average), there were no episodes of vertebrobasilar infarction. Perioperative and postoperative antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapies were not necessary. Dislocation fracture of the cervical spine is frequently associated with injuries of vertebral artery, and the management of the risk for cerebral infarction remains controversial. Preoperative embolization of the injured vertebral artery can be an effective procedure in preventing the embolic stroke caused by orthopedical procedures. (author)

  17. Incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in Australasian intensive care units: use of a consensus-developed clinical surveillance checklist in a multisite prospective audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Doug; Elliott, Rosalind; Burrell, Anthony; Harrigan, Peter; Murgo, Margherita; Rolls, Kaye; Sibbritt, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives With disagreements on diagnostic criteria for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) hampering efforts to monitor incidence and implement preventative strategies, the study objectives were to develop a checklist for clinical surveillance of VAP, and conduct an audit in Australian/New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs) using the checklist. Setting Online survey software was used for checklist development. The prospective audit using the checklist was conducted in 10 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Participants Checklist development was conducted with members of a bi-national professional society for critical care physicians using a modified Delphi technique and survey. A 30-day audit of adult patients mechanically ventilated for >72?h. Primary and secondary outcome measures Presence of items on the screening checklist; physician diagnosis of VAP, clinical characteristics, investigations, treatments and patient outcome. Results A VAP checklist was developed with five items: decreasing gas exchange, sputum changes, chest X-ray infiltrates, inflammatory response, microbial growth. Of the 169 participants, 17% (n=29) demonstrated characteristics of VAP using the checklist. A similar proportion had an independent physician diagnosis (n=30), but in a different patient subset (only 17% of cases were identified by both methods). The VAP rate per 1000 mechanical ventilator days for the checklist and clinician diagnosis was 25.9 and 26.7, respectively. The item inflammatory response was most associated with the first episode of physician-diagnosed VAP. Conclusions VAP rates using the checklist and physician diagnosis were similar to ranges reported internationally and in Australia. Of note, different patients were identified with VAP by the checklist and physicians. While the checklist items may assist in identifying patients at risk of developing VAP, and demonstrates synergy with the recently developed Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines, decision-making processes by physicians when diagnosing VAP requires further exploration. PMID:26515685

  18. Improved hospital-level risk adjustment for surveillance of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones MA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To allow direct comparison of bloodstream infection (BSI rates between hospitals for performance measurement, observed rates need to be risk adjusted according to the types of patients cared for by the hospital. However, attribute data on all individual patients are often unavailable and hospital-level risk adjustment needs to be done using indirect indicator variables of patient case mix, such as hospital level. We aimed to identify medical services associated with high or low BSI rates, and to evaluate the services provided by the hospital as indicators that can be used for more objective hospital-level risk adjustment. Methods From February 2001-December 2007, 1719 monthly BSI counts were available from 18 hospitals in Queensland, Australia. BSI outcomes were stratified into four groups: overall BSI (OBSI, Staphylococcus aureus BSI (STAPH, intravascular device-related S. aureus BSI (IVD-STAPH and methicillin-resistant S. aureus BSI (MRSA. Twelve services were considered as candidate risk-adjustment variables. For OBSI, STAPH and IVD-STAPH, we developed generalized estimating equation Poisson regression models that accounted for autocorrelation in longitudinal counts. Due to a lack of autocorrelation, a standard logistic regression model was specified for MRSA. Results Four risk services were identified for OBSI: AIDS (IRR 2.14, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.82, infectious diseases (IRR 2.72, 95% CI 1.97 to 3.76, oncology (IRR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.98 and bone marrow transplants (IRR 1.52, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.03. Four protective services were also found. A similar but smaller group of risk and protective services were found for the other outcomes. Acceptable agreement between observed and fitted values was found for the OBSI and STAPH models but not for the IVD-STAPH and MRSA models. However, the IVD-STAPH and MRSA models successfully discriminated between hospitals with higher and lower BSI rates. Conclusion The high model goodness-of-fit and the higher frequency of OBSI and STAPH outcomes indicated that hospital-specific risk adjustment based on medical services provided would be useful for these outcomes in Queensland. The low frequency of IVD-STAPH and MRSA outcomes indicated that development of a hospital-level risk score was a more valid method of risk adjustment for these outcomes.

  19. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  20. Surveillance and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiadou, Yola; Fischer-Hübner, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Recent social and technical developments are expanding surveillance by the government and private sector and intensifying privacy concerns, resulting in a surveillance-privacy dilemma. Governments establish surveillance schemes to fight terrorism and crime. Private organizations use profiling and data mining techniques to target marketing endeavors, to analyze customer behavior and monitor the work practices of employees. Social networks bring to the fore new means for the surveillance of ind...

  1. Secondary Surveillance Radar Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Schejbal, Vladimír; Bezoušek, Pavel; Pidanič, Jan; Chyba, Milan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a secondary surveillance radar (SSR) array antenna, which is intended for a system combining the secondary surveillance radar antenna and the primary surveillance radar antenna. It describes the patch array elements and the synthesis for the secondary surveillance radar array, considering both elevation and azimuth patterns for sum, difference, and sidelobe-suppression beams, and suspended stripline couplers. The utilization of multilayer techniques allows the connection...

  2. Higher arteriovenous fistulae blood flows are associated with a lower level of dialysis-induced cardiac injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsheed, Shvan; Burton, James O; McIntyre, Christopher W

    2009-10-01

    Native arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) remain the vascular access of choice for hemodialysis (HD). Despite being associated with superior long-term outcomes (cf. catheter use), little is known about the systemic hemodynamic consequences of AVFs. Repetitive myocardial injury (myocardial stunning) is an under-recognized common consequence of HD. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of AVF flow (Qa) on dialysis-induced cardiac injury. We studied 50 chronic HD patients. All patients underwent echocardiography (and subsequent quantitative offline analysis) at baseline, during and post dialysis, to assess left ventricular function and the development of regional wall motion abnormalities. Qa was measured using ionic dialysance. Patients were divided into Qa tertiles (1000, mean 1265+/-221 mL/min). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of age, sex, diabetes, or resting ejection fraction. Patients with Qa>1000 mL/min had a lower prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (55% vs. 76%, P=0.01). Dialysis-induced myocardial stunning (seen in 65% of the patients studied) was significantly and sequentially reduced in those patients with higher Qas. This was seen in a lower number of segments and ventricular regions developing regional wall motion abnormalities, as well as a significantly reduced mean and cumulative percentage reduction in fractional shortening of those ventricular segments affected (-187+/-37%, -161+/-26%, and -101+/-25%, respectively, P=0.04). Relatively higher AVF flows appear to be associated with a lower level of observed HD-induced cardiac injury. PMID:19758301

  3. No increase in kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin excretion following intravenous contrast enhanced-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (N-GAL) excretion post-intravenous contrast enhanced-CT (CE-CT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients were enrolled in a trial on hydration regimes to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Blood and urine samples were taken at baseline, 4 - 6, and 48 - 96 h post CE-CT. Urinary KIM-1 and N-GAL values were normalized for urinary creatinine levels, presented as medians with 2.5 - 97.5 percentiles. Of the enrolled 511 patients, 10 (2 %) were lost to follow-up. CI-AKI occurred in 3.9 % of patients (20/501). Median KIM-1 values were 1.2 (0.1 - 7.7) at baseline, 1.3 (0.1 - 8.6) at 4 - 6 h, and 1.3 ng/mg (0.1 - 8.1) at 48 - 96 h post CE-CT (P = 0.39). Median N-GAL values were 41.0 (4.4 - 3,174.4), 48.9 (5.7 - 3,406.1), and 37.8 μg/mg (3.5 - 3,200.4), respectively (P = 0.07). The amount of KIM-1 and N-GAL excretion in follow-up was similar for patients with and without CI-AKI (P-value KIM-1 0.08, P-value N-GAL 0.73). Neither patient characteristics at baseline including severe CKD, medication use, nor contrast dose were associated with increased excretion of KIM-1 or N-GAL during follow-up. KIM-1 and N-GAL excretion were unaffected by CE-CT both in patients with and without CI-AKI, suggesting that CI-AKI was not accompanied by tubular injury. (orig.)

  4. No increase in kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin excretion following intravenous contrast enhanced-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooiman, Judith [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Leiden (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, Leiden (Netherlands); Peppel, Wilke R. van de; Huisman, Menno V. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Leiden (Netherlands); Sijpkens, Yvo W.J. [Bronovo Hospital, Department of Nephrology, The Hague (Netherlands); Brulez, Harald F.H. [Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Nephrology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vries, P.M. de [St. Antonius Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Nicolaie, Mioara A.; Putter, H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kooij, W. van der; Kooten, Cees van; Rabelink, Ton J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    To analyze kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (N-GAL) excretion post-intravenous contrast enhanced-CT (CE-CT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients were enrolled in a trial on hydration regimes to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Blood and urine samples were taken at baseline, 4 - 6, and 48 - 96 h post CE-CT. Urinary KIM-1 and N-GAL values were normalized for urinary creatinine levels, presented as medians with 2.5 - 97.5 percentiles. Of the enrolled 511 patients, 10 (2 %) were lost to follow-up. CI-AKI occurred in 3.9 % of patients (20/501). Median KIM-1 values were 1.2 (0.1 - 7.7) at baseline, 1.3 (0.1 - 8.6) at 4 - 6 h, and 1.3 ng/mg (0.1 - 8.1) at 48 - 96 h post CE-CT (P = 0.39). Median N-GAL values were 41.0 (4.4 - 3,174.4), 48.9 (5.7 - 3,406.1), and 37.8 μg/mg (3.5 - 3,200.4), respectively (P = 0.07). The amount of KIM-1 and N-GAL excretion in follow-up was similar for patients with and without CI-AKI (P-value KIM-1 0.08, P-value N-GAL 0.73). Neither patient characteristics at baseline including severe CKD, medication use, nor contrast dose were associated with increased excretion of KIM-1 or N-GAL during follow-up. KIM-1 and N-GAL excretion were unaffected by CE-CT both in patients with and without CI-AKI, suggesting that CI-AKI was not accompanied by tubular injury. (orig.)

  5. Alterations in neuronal calcium levels are associated with cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Sun, David A; Sombati, Sompong; Baranova, Anya; Wilson, Margaret S; Attkisson, Elisa; Hamm, Robert J; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2008-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often suffer from a post-traumatic syndrome with deficits in learning and memory. Calcium (Ca(2+)) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of TBI-induced neuronal death. However, the role of long-term changes in neuronal Ca(2+) function in surviving neurons and the potential impact on TBI-induced cognitive impairments are less understood. Here we evaluated neuronal death and basal free intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) in acutely isolated rat CA3 hippocampal neurons using the Ca(2+) indicator, Fura-2, at seven and thirty days after moderate central fluid percussion injury. In moderate TBI, cognitive deficits as evaluated by the Morris Water Maze (MWM), occur after injury but resolve after several weeks. Using MWM paradigm we compared alterations in [Ca(2+)](i) and cognitive deficits. Moderate TBI did not cause significant hippocampal neuronal death. However, basal [Ca(2+)](i) was significantly elevated when measured seven days post-TBI. At the same time, these animals exhibited significant cognitive impairment (F(2,25)=3.43, p<0.05). When measured 30 days post-TBI, both basal [Ca(2+)](i) and cognitive functions had returned to normal. Pretreatment with MK-801 blocked this elevation in [Ca(2+)](i) and also prevented MWM deficits. These studies provide evidence for a link between elevated [Ca(2+)](i) and altered cognition. Since no significant neuronal death was observed, the alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis in the traumatized, but surviving neurons may play a role in the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits that manifest in the acute setting after TBI and represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention following TBI. PMID:18583041

  6. Oxidative Stress and Modification of Renal Vascular Permeability Are Associated with Acute Kidney Injury during P. berghei ANKA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rosa Maria; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Barreto, Claudiene Rodrigues; Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Hayashida, Caroline Y.; Castoldi, Ângela; Gonçalves, Giselle Martins; Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barboza, Renato; Rios, Francisco José; Keller, Alexandre Castro; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Hyane, Meire Ioshie; D'Império-Lima, Maria Regina; Figueiredo-Neto, Antônio Martins; Reis, Marlene Antônia; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    Malaria associated-acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. However, the causes that lead to a framework of malaria-associated AKI are still poorly characterized. Some clinical studies speculate that oxidative stress products, a characteristic of Plasmodium infection, as well as proinflammatory response induced by the parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the development of malaria-associated AKI during infection by P. berghei ANKA, with special attention to the role played by the inflammatory response and the involvement of oxidative stress. For that, we took advantage of an experimental model of severe malaria that showed significant changes in the renal pathophysiology to investigate the role of malaria infection in the renal microvascular permeability and tissue injury. Therefore, BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA. To assess renal function, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and ratio of proteinuria and creatininuria were evaluated. The products of oxidative stress, as well as cytokine profile were quantified in plasma and renal tissue. The change of renal microvascular permeability, tissue hypoxia and cellular apoptosis were also evaluated. Parasite infection resulted in renal dysfunction. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of adhesion molecule, proinflammatory cytokines and products of oxidative stress, associated with a decrease mRNA expression of HO-1 in kidney tissue of infected mice. The measurement of lipoprotein oxidizability also showed a significant increase in plasma of infected animals. Together, our findings support the idea that products of oxidative stress, as well as the immune response against the parasite are crucial to changes in kidney architecture and microvascular endothelial permeability of BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei ANKA. PMID:22952850

  7. White matter abnormalities are associated with chronic postconcussion symptoms in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Danielle R; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Lafleche, Ginette; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common injury among Iraq and Afghanistan military veterans due to the frequent use of improvised explosive devices. A significant minority of individuals with mTBI report chronic postconcussion symptoms (PCS), which include physical, emotional, and cognitive complaints. However, chronic PCS are nonspecific and are also associated with mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifying the mechanisms that contribute to chronic PCS is particularly challenging in blast-related mTBI, where the incidence of comorbid PTSD is high. In this study, we examined whether blast-related mTBI is associated with diffuse white matter changes, and whether these neural changes are associated with chronic PCS. Ninety Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans were assigned to one of three groups including a blast-exposed no - TBI group, a blast-related mTBI without loss of consciousness (LOC) group (mTBI - LOC), and a blast-related mTBI with LOC group (mTBI + LOC). PCS were measured with the Rivermead Postconcussion Questionnaire. Results showed that participants in the mTBI + LOC group had more spatially heterogeneous white matter abnormalities than those in the no - TBI group. These white matter abnormalities were significantly associated with physical PCS severity even after accounting for PTSD symptoms, but not with cognitive or emotional PCS severity. A mediation analysis revealed that mTBI + LOC significantly influenced physical PCS severity through its effect on white matter integrity. These results suggest that white matter abnormalities are associated with chronic PCS independent of PTSD symptom severity and that these abnormalities are an important mechanism explaining the relationship between mTBI and chronic physical PCS. Hum Brain Mapp 37:220-229, 2016. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26497829

  8. Relationships Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Illicit Drug Use and Their Association With Aggression in Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Ferguson, Pamela L; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Extensive interviews of correctional inmates in South Carolina (2009-2010) were conducted under a Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) grant. We evaluated the extent to which early traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent illicit drug abuse may conjointly influence development of aggression, controlling for alcohol use, and whether cognitive or emotional dysregulation mediated this relationship. Early TBI predicted greater severity and earlier onset of drug use, and an earlier age at first use predicted greater aggression regardless of the age of TBI. Emotional dysregulation mediated effects of TBI on aggression. The potential to design more targeted treatments for this susceptible population are discussed. PMID:25326469

  9. Effect of Model Year and Vehicle Type on Rollover Crashes and Associated Injuries to Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kallan, Michael J; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Dennis R. Durbin

    2006-01-01

    In child-involved crashes, there was a greater risk of rollover in pickups and SUVs than in passenger cars and minivans. Risk of injury to the corresponding child occupants in rollovers was significantly higher than for those in non-rollover crashes. There has been little change in overall rollover rates for passenger cars, pickup trucks, and minivans in the most recent model years (since 2002); however, there has been evidence of a declining rollover rate in SUVs during this same period. Eve...

  10. Mechanisms of Injury and Countermeasures for EVA Associated Upper Extremity Medical Issues: Extended Vent Tube Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Hoffman, Ron; Harvey, Craig; Bowen, C. K.; Hudy, C. E.; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Gernhardt, Mike; Scheuring, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the role that moisture plays in the injury to the fingers and fingernails during EVA training operations in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. Current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU, with a PLSS) as configured in the NBL was used for all testing and a vent tube was extended down a single arm of the crewmember during the test; vent tube was moved between left and right arm to serve as experimental condition being investigated and the other arm served as control condition.

  11. The association of self-injurious behaviour and suicide attempts with recurrent idiopathic pain in adolescents: evidence from a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    König, Julian; Oelkers‑Ax, Rieke; Parzer, Peter; Haffner, Johann; Brunner, Romuald; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: While several population-based studies report that pain is independently associated with higher rates of self-destructive behaviour (suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and self-injurious behaviour) in adults, studies in adolescents are rare and limited to specific chronic pain conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between self-reported idiopathic pain and the prevalence and frequency of self-injury (SI) and suicide attempts in adolescents. Methods: Data...

  12. Surveillance practices for the next millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difficulty of defining the term 'standard practice' for surveillance in dam safety management is highlighted. A good dam safety surveillance program needs to contain all the key parts embodied in the Canadian Dam Association's (CDA) Dam Safety Guidelines. They have a basic role in defining what standard practice is, but the present CDA guidelines require strengthening as surveillance practice evolves in the near future. Surveillance is mainly a means of providing an owner, or in the case of BC Hydro, the Director of Dam Safety, senior management and the Board of Directors with up-to-date performance information which is essential for the continuing risk control of the residual risks associated with the dams. Although automated systems are being more commonly applied in a proactive manner in special situations as a real time risk control process, surveillance practice today is reactive. The need is stressed for dam owners to go beyond today's standard practice, by utilizing proactive performance-based practice, and better integrating surveillance within dam risk management. The establishment of a good surveillance program and its ongoing success is dependent on a comprehensive dam safety management program. There is a commitment on the part of BC Hydro to moving from the standard practice of the past to new directions outlined herein, which includes a detailed and comprehensive, auditable surveillance management system, with a policy of continued improvement. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  13. The association between self-injurious behaviors and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minshawi NF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Noha F Minshawi,1 Sarah Hurwitz,2 Jill C Fodstad,1 Sara Biebl,3 Danielle H Morriss,4 Christopher J McDougle51Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA; 3Child and Adolescent Behavioral Health, Sanford Health, Fargo, ND, USA; 4Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 5Departments of Psychiatry and Pediatrics, Lurie Center for Autism, Massachusetts General Hospital and MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: A key area of concern in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are self-injurious behaviors (SIBs. These are behaviors that an individual engages in that may cause physical harm, such as head banging, or self-biting. SIBs are more common in children with ASD than those who are typically developing or have other neurodevelopmental disabilities. Therefore, it is important that clinicians who work with children with ASD have a solid understanding of SIB. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on the epidemiology of SIB in children with ASD, factors that predict the presence of SIB in this population, and the empirically supported behavioral treatments available.Keywords: self-injury, autism spectrum disorders, applied behavior analysis

  14. Post-partum sequential occurrence of two diverse transfusion reactions (transfusion associated circulatory overload and transfusion related acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudrashish Haldar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI are two dissimilar pathological conditions associated with transfusion of blood products where the time course of the events and clinical presentation overlap leading to uncertainty in establishing the diagnosis and initiating the treatment, which otherwise differs. We encountered a case where a patient of post-partum hemorrhage developed TACO in the immediate post-operative period due to aggressive resuscitative attempts with blood products. The patient′s condition was appropriately diagnosed and was managed according to the clinical scenario, and the condition abated. Subsequently, on the third post-operative day the patient again required blood product transfusions following which the patient developed TRALI, the diagnosis of which was also established and adequate treatment strategy was undertaken.

  15. Proactive safety surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnichak, E A; Wise, R P; Salive, M E; Tilson, H H

    2001-05-01

    Growth in health information systems presents opportunities to enhance postmarketing safety surveillance of medical products. Spontaneous suspected side effect reports provide the foundation, but we need to 'proactively' improve their quality and our strategies to seek signals. In our more familiar 'reactive' mode, we examine hypotheses from inquiries or publicity. Such responsive evaluations remain essential but may miss latent information on unsuspected risks. Efficient techniques to disclose hidden clusters and associations may emerge through adaptation of approaches from industrial quality control and other disciplines. Data-driven techniques like exploratory analysis, control charts, and time series modeling may help in sifting through accumulated data and in screening consecutive submissions to discern hints of new product hazards or of more specific understanding about previously identified potential side effects. We also need to cultivate non-spontaneous data for hypothesis generation as well as testing, the systematic epidemiologic evaluation of questions and concerns. This hypothesis testing function will assume greater importance if proactive safety surveillance methods yield larger numbers of putatively positive findings. Whether from spontaneous reports or other sources, signals that could have arisen by chance alone usually represent only clues to potential hazards until or unless they can be verified through independent studies. PMID:11501330

  16. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  17. Environmental determinants of bicycling injuries in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanow, Nicole T R; Couperthwaite, Amy B; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Rowe, Brian H; Hagel, Brent E

    2012-01-01

    This study examined environmental risk factors for bicycling injuries, by combining data on bicyclist injuries collected by interviews in the emergency department (ED) with street-level environmental audits of injury locations, capturing path, roadway, safety, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Cases were bicyclists struck by a motor vehicle (MV) or with severe injuries (hospitalized). Controls were bicyclists who were not hit by a car or those seen and discharged from the ED, matched on time and day of injury. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, peak time, and bicyclist speed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to relate injury risk to environmental characteristics. Factors contributing to MV events included greater traffic volume (OR 5.13; 95% CI [1.44, 18.27]), intersections (OR 6.89; 95% CI [1.48, 32.14]), retail establishments (OR 5.56; 95% CI [1.72, 17.98]), and path obstructions (OR 3.83; 95% CI [1.03, 14.25]). Locations where the road was in good condition (OR 0.25; 95% CI [0.07, 0.96]) and where there was high surveillance from surrounding buildings (OR 0.32; 95% CI [0.13, 0.82]) were associated with less severe injuries. These findings could be used by bicyclists and transportation planners to improve safety. PMID:23251192

  18. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL predicts renal injury in acute decompensated cardiac failure: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macdonald Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute Decompensated Cardiac Failure (ADCF is frequently associated with deterioration in renal function. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is an early marker of kidney injury. We aimed to determine if NGAL measured at admission predicts in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI in ADCF. Methods A prospective observational study measured NGAL and B-natriuretic peptide (BNP from patients with ADCF presenting to two tertiary hospitals. Patients received standard care and were followed up daily as inpatients. ADCF was defined by PRIDE score ? 6 and AKI by RIFLE criteria. Results One hundred and two patients (median age 80, IQR 69-84 years, 52% male were enrolled. AKI developed in 22 (25% of 90 for whom outcome data was available. Seven patients died. NGAL was significantly elevated in those who developed AKI versus those who did not (median 130 ng/ml vs 69 ng/ml, p = 0.002. NGAL was also higher in those who died (median 136 ng/ml vs 68 ng/ml, p = 0.005. AKI was significantly associated with risk of death (5/22 (23% vs 1/68 (1.5%, p = 0.001, but not length of hospital stay. NGAL significantly correlated with admission eGFR but not BNP. For prediction of AKI, NGAL > 89 ng/ml had sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 70% with area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve of 0.71 (0.58-0.84. After adjustment for baseline renal function, the odds ratio (OR for AKI was 3.73 (1.26-11.01 if admission NGAL > 89 ng/ml. Conclusions Elevated NGAL at admission is associated with in-hospital AKI and mortality in patients with ADCF. However, it has only moderate diagnostic accuracy in this setting.

  19. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities

  20. 77 FR 4048 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research Sites in Puerto Rico... to ``Evaluation of Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  1. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

  2. Acute kidney injury associated with androgenic steroids and nutritional supplements in bodybuilders().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhtar, Safa E; Abbas, Alaa A; Muhealdeen, Dana N; Hughson, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    Four bodybuilders who injected anabolic steroids and ingested commercial protein (78-104 g/day) and creatine (15 g/day) products presented with serum creatinine levels between 229.84 and 335.92 mol/L (2.6-3.8 mg/dL). Renal biopsies revealed acute tubular necrosis. Four weeks after discontinuing injections and supplements, serum creatinine was in the normal range and estimated glomerular filtration rate > 1.00 mL/s (60 mL/min), including two patients with biopsies showing >30% interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The findings highlight a risk for acute and potentially chronic kidney injury among young men abusing anabolic steroids and using excessive amounts of nutritional supplements. PMID:26251708

  3. Copy Number Variants Associated with 14 Cases of Self-Injurious Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Matthew D.; Frelin, Laurence; Lpez, Jos Soria; Jedlicka, Anne; Dziedzic, Amanda; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Silverman, Wayne; Hagopian, Louis; Pevsner, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) were detected and analyzed in 14 probands with autism and intellectual disability with self-injurious behavior (SIB) resulting in tissue damage. For each proband we obtained a clinical history and detailed behavioral descriptions. Genetic anomalies were observed in all probands, and likely clinical significance could be established in four cases. This included two cases having novel, de novo copy number variants and two cases having variants likely to have functional significance. These cases included segmental trisomy 14, segmental monosomy 21, and variants predicted to disrupt the function of ZEB2 (encoding a transcription factor) and HTR2C (encoding a serotonin receptor). Our results identify variants in regions previously implicated in intellectual disability and suggest candidate genes that could contribute to the etiology of SIB. PMID:26933844

  4. Associations between cow hygiene, hock injuries, and free stall usage on US dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, J E; Tucker, C B; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kopral, C A; Weary, D M

    2010-10-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated cow comfort measures in free stall dairies across the United States as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 study. The study was conducted in 17 states and evaluations were completed between March 5 and September 5, 2007. Assessors recorded hygiene and hock scores, number of cows housed in the pen, the number of cows standing with only the front feet in a stall, standing fully in a stall, and lying in a stall. Facility design measures included bedding type, bedding quantity, stall length and width, presence of a neck rail or brisket locator, and relevant distances from the rear and bed of the stall. Of the 491 operations that completed the cow comfort assessment, 297 had Holstein cows housed in free stalls and were included in this analysis. Negative binomial models were constructed to evaluate the following outcomes: the number of cows that were very dirty, had severe hock injuries, stood with front feet in the stall, stood with all feet in the stall, and were lying in the stall. Hygiene was better on farms that did not tail dock cows compared with those that did (5.7 vs. 8.8% were dirty) and on farms located in the study's west region compared with those located in the east region (5.2 vs. 9.7% were dirty). Severe hock injuries were less common on farms in the west than those in the east (0.5 vs. 4.1%). In addition, severe hock injuries were less common on farms that used dirt as a stall base or sand as bedding compared with farms that did not. A higher percentage of cows was standing with front feet in the stall at higher ambient temperatures (incidence rate ratio=1.016) and as time since feeding increased (incidence rate ratio=1.030). A lower percentage of cows were standing with front feet in the stall when the stalls were shorter and when there were fewer cows per stall. Standing fully in a stall was performed by a higher percentage of cows during the summer than during the spring (13.6 vs. 8.1%), when cows were provided free stalls with rubber mats or mattresses, and as the distance from the rear curb to neck rail increased. A higher percentage of cows were lying in a stall when sand bedding was used, when bedding was added more frequently, and during the spring months. Results of this national survey indicate that tail docking provides no benefit to cow hygiene and that stall base and bedding are key factors influencing hock injuries and stall usage on US free stall dairy farms. PMID:20855001

  5. Sevelamer crystals in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT): a new entity associated with mucosal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Benjamin J; Limketkai, Berkeley N; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Nazari, Kamran; Park, Jason Y; Santangelo, William C; Torbenson, Michael S; Voltaggio, Lysandra; Yearsley, Martha M; Arnold, Christina A

    2013-11-01

    We report the first description of sevelamer crystals (Renagel and Renvela, Genzyme; phosphate-lowering agents) in the gastrointestinal tract. We prospectively collected cases with novel, histologically identical crystals from 4 major academic centers over a 1-year period and studied pertinent clinicopathologic features. Sevelamer usage in the setting of chronic kidney disease was demonstrated in all cases (n=15 total cases, 7 patients). Sites of involvement included the esophagus (n=2), small bowel (n=2), and colon (n=11). The background mucosa was normal in only 1 case. Notable mucosal abnormality included chronic mucosal damage (n=5), acute inflammation (n=4), inflammatory polyp (n=2), extensive ulceration (n=2), ischemia (n=1), and necrosis (n=1). In general, sevelamer crystals displayed broad, curved, and irregularly spaced "fish scales" with a variably eosinophilic to rusty brown color on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and violet color on periodic acid-Schiff-alcian special staining with diastase (PAS/D). To validate these findings, sevelamer tablets (Renvela) were crushed and submitted for histologic processing; the findings were identical to those in the patient specimens. The possibility of Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) and cholestyramine had been raised in error. However, Kayexalate has narrow, rectangular "fish scales" and is violet on H&E and magenta on PAS/D; cholestyramine lacks internal "fish scales," is bright orange on H&E, variably gray or hot pink on PAS/D, and is unassociated with mucosal injury. Further study is required to determine whether sevelamer plays a causal role in these injuries; however, its crystal is an important mimic of both Kayexalate and choleystyramine. As the history of sevelamer administration was not documented in any pathology requisition, awareness of sevelamer's characteristic morphology is crucial to avoid the diagnostic pitfalls of its mimics. PMID:24061514

  6. In Vivo Effects of Quercetin in Association with Moderate Exercise Training in Improving Streptozotocin-Induced Aortic Tissue Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina C. Chis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine-metabolic disorder associated with endothelial dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and abnormal nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation are the major causal factors in the development of endothelial dysfunction in DM. The prevention of endothelial dysfunction may be a first target against the appearance of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the synergistic protective effects of quercetin administration and moderate exercise training on thoracic aorta injuries induced by diabetes. Methods: Diabetic rats that performed exercise training were subjected to a swimming training program (1 h/day, 5 days/week, 4 weeks. The diabetic rats received quercetin (30 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, the thoracic aorta was isolated and divided into two parts; one part was immersed in 10% formalin for histopathological evaluations and the other was frozen for the assessment of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, MDA and protein carbonyls groups, PC, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT, nitrite plus nitrate (NOx production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein expression. Results: Diabetic rats showed significantly increased MDA and PC levels, NOx production and iNOS expression and a reduction of SOD and CAT activity in aortic tissues. A decrease in the levels of oxidative stress markers, NOx production and iNOS expression associated with elevated activity of antioxidant enzymes in the aortic tissue were observed in quercetin-treated diabetic trained rats. Conclusions: These findings suggest that quercetin administration in association with moderate exercise training reduces vascular complications and tissue injuries induced by diabetes in rat aorta by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO bioavailability.

  7. Very late heart transplant rejection is associated with microvascular injury, complement deposition and progression to cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupy, A; Cazes, A; Guillemain, R; Amrein, C; Hedjoudje, A; Tible, M; Pezzella, V; Fabiani, J N; Suberbielle, C; Nochy, D; Hill, G S; Empana, J P; Jouven, X; Bruneval, P; Duong Van Huyen, J P

    2011-07-01

    In heart transplants, the significance of very late rejection (after 7 years post-transplant, VLR) detected by routine endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) remains uncertain. Here, we assessed the prevalence, histopathological and immunological phenotype, and outcome of VLR in clinically stable patients. Between 1985 and 2009, 10 662 protocol EMB were performed at our institution in 398 consecutive heart transplants recipients. Among the 196 patients with >7-year follow-up, 20 (10.2%) presented subclinical ?3A/2R-ISHLT rejection. The VLR group was compared to a matched control group of patients without rejection. All biopsies were stained for C4d/C3d/CD68 with sera screened for the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). In addition to cellular infiltrates with myocyte damage, 60% of VLR patients had evidence of intravascular macrophages. C4d and/or C3d-capillary deposition was found in 55% VLR EMB. All cases of VLR associated with microcirculation injury had DSAs (mean DSA(max) -MFI = 1751 583). This entity was absent from the control group (p < 0.0001). Finally, after a similar follow-up postreference EMB of 6.4 1 years, the mean of CAV grade was 0.76 0.18 in the control group compared to 2.06 0.26 in the VLR group respectively, p = 0.001). There was no difference in patient survival between study and control groups. In conclusion, VLR is frequently associated with complement-cascade activation, microvascular injury and DSA, suggesting an antibody-mediated process. VLR is associated with a dramatic progression to severe CAV in long-term follow-up. PMID:21668629

  8. The association between urinary kidney injury molecule 1 and urinary cadmium in elderly during long-term, low-dose cadmium exposure: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewitte Harrie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 is a recently discovered early biomarker for renal damage that has been proven to be correlated to urinary cadmium in rats. However, so far the association between urinary cadmium and kidney injury molecule 1 in humans after long-term, low-dose cadmium exposure has not been studied. Methods We collected urine and blood samples from 153 non-smoking men and women aged 60+, living in an area with moderate cadmium pollution from a non-ferrous metal plant for a significant period. Urinary cadmium and urinary kidney injury molecule 1 as well as other renal biomarkers (alpha1-microglobulin, beta2-microglobulin, blood urea nitrogen, urinary proteins and microalbumin were assessed. Results Both before (r = 0.20; p = 0.01 and after (partial r = 0.32; p Conclusions We showed that urinary kidney injury molecule 1 levels are positively correlated with urinary cadmium concentration in an elderly population after long-term, low-dose exposure to cadmium, while other classical markers do not show an association. Therefore, urinary kidney injury molecule 1 might be considered as a biomarker for early-stage metal-induced kidney injury by cadmium.

  9. The association of non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior according to DSM-5 in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Kaess, Michael; Fischer, Gloria; Ameis, Nina; Schulze, Ulrike M E; Brunner, Romuald; Koelch, Michael; Plener, Paul L

    2015-08-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors frequently occur among adolescent psychiatric patients. Although those behaviors are distinct with regards to intent, NSSI has been shown to be an important risk-factor for suicide attempts. However, the association of NSSI and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) according to DSM-5 criteria has not yet been investigated. For investigating distinctive features and mutual risk-factors of NSSI-disorder and SBD, adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N=111, aged 12-19 years; 65.8% females) were interviewed using the Self-Injurious-Thoughts-And-Behaviors-Interview-German (SITBI-G). NSSI started significantly earlier in life (M=12.5 years, SD=2.2) than first suicide attempts (M=14.1 years, SD=2.0). Patients meeting NSSI-disorder and/or SBD were significantly more likely to be female and to be diagnosed with an affective disorder. NSSI-disorder and SBD seem to have several distinctive features (i.e. age of onset or frequency), but also seem to share certain mutual risk-factors (i.e. affective disorders, female gender). While both NSSI and SBD seem to be maintained by mainly automatic negative reinforcement, positive automatic and social functions were rated significantly higher for NSSI. Most importantly, NSSI seems to be a strong risk factor for the occurrence of SBD (even when controlling for suicidal ideation) and should therefore always be assessed when dealing with psychiatric adolescent patients. PMID:26144578

  10. Posterior urethral injuries associated with motorcycle accidents and pelvic trauma in adolescents: Analysis of urethral lesions occurring prior to a bony fracture using a computerized finite-element model

    OpenAIRE

    BREAUD, J; MONTORO, J; LECONTE, JF; VALLA, JS; LOEFFLER, J; Baque, P.; BRUNET, Christian; Thollon, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent males involved in motorcycle accidents are particularly at risk for pelvic injury, which may provoke a posterior urethral injury. The aim of this study was to develop a model to analyze the association between injuries and fractures of the pelvic ring and the risk of posterior urethral injury. Method: Based on experience with traffic accident modeling, a computerized finite-element model was extrapolated from a computerized tomography scan of a 15-year-old boy. The anatomic structu...

  11. Distinctive response of CNS glial cells in oro-facial pain associated with injury, infection and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-da-Silva Alfredo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oro-facial pain following injury and infection is frequently observed in dental clinics. While neuropathic pain evoked by injury associated with nerve lesion has an involvement of glia/immune cells, inflammatory hyperalgesia has an exaggerated sensitization mediated by local and circulating immune mediators. To better understand the contribution of central nervous system (CNS glial cells in these different pathological conditions, in this study we sought to characterize functional phenotypes of glial cells in response to trigeminal nerve injury (loose ligation of the mental branch, infection (subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide-LPS and to sterile inflammation (subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant-CFA on the lower lip. Each of the three insults triggered a specific pattern of mechanical allodynia. In parallel with changes in sensory response, CNS glial cells reacted distinctively to the challenges. Following ligation of the mental nerve, both microglia and astrocytes in the trigeminal nuclear complex were highly activated, more prominent in the principal sensory nucleus (Pr5 and subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C area. Microglial response was initiated early (days 3-14, followed by delayed astrocytes activation (days 7-28. Although the temporal profile of microglial and astrocyte reaction corresponded respectively to the initiation and chronic stage of neuropathic pain, these activated glial cells exhibited a low profile of cytokine expression. Local injection of LPS in the lower lip skin also triggered a microglial reaction in the brain, which started in the circumventricular organs (CVOs at 5 hours post-injection and diffused progressively into the brain parenchyma at 48 hours. This LPS-induced microglial reaction was accompanied by a robust induction of I?B-? mRNA and pro-inflammatory cytokines within the CVOs. However, LPS induced microglial activation did not specifically occur along the pain signaling pathway. In contrast, CFA injection led to minor microglial morphological changes and an induction of I?B-? mRNA in the CVO regions; a significant increase in IL-1? and IL-6 mRNA started only at 48 hours post-injection, when the induced pain-related behavior started to resolve. Our detailed analysis of CNS glial response clearly revealed that both nerve injury and oro-facial infection/inflammation induced CNS glial activation, but in a completely different pattern, which suggests a remarkable plasticity of glial cells in response to dynamic changes in their microenvironment and different potential involvement of this non-neuronal cell population in pathological pain development.

  12. Urological injuries following trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated

  13. Urological injuries following trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N. [Department of Urology, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fotheringham, T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  14. "Floating shoulder" injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kenneth

    2016-12-01

    "Floating shoulder" is a rare injury complex resulting from high-energy blunt force trauma to the shoulder, resulting in scapulothoracic dissociation. It is commonly associated with catastrophic neurovascular injury. Two cases of motorcyclists with floating shoulder injuries are described. PMID:26961729

  15. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking-United States, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to o...

  16. Estimating the Burden of Disease Associated with Outbreaks Reported to the U.S. Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System: Identifying Limitations and Improvements (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates how data from the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) can be used to estimate disease burden and presents results using 30 years of data. This systematic analysis does not attempt to provide an estimate of the actual incidence and b...

  17. Ineffective CD8(+) T-cell immunity to adeno-associated virus can result in prolonged liver injury and fibrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Jessica; Pierce, Robert H; Crispe, Ian N

    2011-11-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis depends on the inability of the T-cell immune response to eradicate antigen. This results in a sustained immune response accompanied by tissue injury and fibrogenesis. We have created a mouse model that reproduces these effects, based on the response of CD8(+) T cells to hepatocellular antigen delivered by an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector. Ten thousand antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells undergo slow expansion in the liver and can precipitate a subacute inflammatory hepatitis with stellate cell activation and fibrosis. Over time, antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells show signs of exhaustion, including high expression of PD-1, and eventually both inflammation and fibrosis resolve. This model allows the investigation of both chronic liver immunopathology and its resolution. PMID:21925469

  18. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry......The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry...

  19. Mild head injury in preschool children: evidence that it can be associated with a persisting cognitive defect.

    OpenAIRE

    Wrightson, P; McGinn, V; Gronwall, D

    1995-01-01

    This study describes the effect of mild head injury in preschool children on aspects of their cognitive performance in the year after injury and at the age of 6.5 years, with particular reference to the development of reading skills. Mild head injury was defined by diagnosis at a hospital emergency department of a head injury which was not severe enough to need admission for observation. Seventy eight such children were compared with a group of 86 with a minor injury elsewhere. The groups had...

  20. Iatrogenic Vascular Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Rudström, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Iatrogenic vascular injuries (IVIs) and injuries associated with vascular surgery can cause severe morbidity and death. The aims of this thesis were to study those injuries in the Swedish vascular registry (Swedvasc), the Swedish medical injury insurance where insurance claims are registered, the Population and Cause of death registries, and in patient records, in order to explore preventive strategies. Among 87 IVIs during varicose vein surgery 43 were venous, mostly causing bleeding in the ...