WorldWideScience

Sample records for association injury surveillance

  1. FIREARM INJURY SURVEILLANCE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, established an interagency agreement with CPSC to begin collecting data on nonfatal firearm-related injuries to monitor the incidence and characteristics of perso...

  2. NATIONAL ELECTRONIC INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NEISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is collaborating with the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to expand the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to collect data on all typ...

  3. High School Football Injury Surveillance Studies, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc., Greenville, NC.

    This series of newsletters and fact sheets provides information on the incidence of sport-related injuries in scholastic sports. The following topics are addressed: (1) how the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) measures the number and severity of injuries; (2) facts about NATA; (3) injuries to high school football players; (4)…

  4. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) On-line

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a national probability sample of hospitals. Patient information is collected for every emergency...

  6. 80 FR 10491 - Future Directions for the Surveillance of Agricultural Injuries; Public Meeting; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-26

    ...NIOSH-281] Future Directions for the Surveillance of Agricultural Injuries; Public Meeting...comment on future directions for the surveillance of injuries within the agricultural...established an ongoing, national-level surveillance system to monitor injuries to...

  7. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. Towards an electronic national injury surveillance system in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, F; Hussain, S A; Mandil, A; Alamro, N

    2015-02-01

    Given the need for a uniform, comprehensive, electronic nationwide surveillance system for injuries in Saudi Arabia, a system was designed with the objectives of establishing an epidemiologic profile of injuries in the country; evaluating injury indicators on an ongoing basis; identifying high-risk groups requiring specific interventions; monitoring and evaluating interventions for effectiveness; and producing reports to assist in planning and resource allocation. A special form for this purpose was designed, modified from validated forms used elsewhere for injury surveillance. This initiative of the Ministry of Health is also expected to help validate data collected by other sectors, such as the Ministry of Interior. This paper reviews the milestones of building the system and aims to prompt a debate within the scientific community, especially within the Eastern Mediterranean Region, about the best way to design injury surveillance systems for the Region in order to fine-tune the proposed system before its full-scale implementation. PMID:25876826

  19. The establishment of a Jamaican all-injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Gordon, Georgiana; Ashley, Deanna; McCartney, Trevor

    2002-12-01

    The impact of injuries on the Jamaican health care system is a growing problem. Based on the successful implementation of a Violence-Related Injury Surveillance System (VRISS) in the Accident and Emergency (A&E) department of the Kingston Public Hospital (KPH), Ministry of Health (MOH) officials decided to expand the system to the Jamaica Injury Surveillance System (JISS), allowing for the surveillance of both intentional and unintentional injuries. A working group designed the expanded injury surveillance system based on the International Classification of External Causes of Injury. The expanded system allowed for the collection of data on all injuries seen in the A&E departments by adding four injury projects to the computerized A&E registration process. These were (1) unintentional injury, (2) violence-related injury, (3) suicide attempt (also known as intentional self-harm) and (4) motor vehicle-related injuries. The expanded JISS was implemented at the KPH and four additional hospitals across the island. The geographic distribution of these hospitals provided a reflection of rural and urban, highland and coastal communities and their distinctive injury profiles. Data collected at registration were printed on trauma sheets and reviewed by medical staff before being incorporated into the patient's record. Monthly reports detailing demographics and summary statistics were generated and made available at the local and national level. By monitoring the national injury profile, the JISS provides data to support needed policy changes to minimize the impact of injuries on the health services and on the health of the population. PMID:12613100

  20. Surveillance of severe chemical corneal injuries in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, Elisabeth C A; Cauchi, Paul; Azuara Blanco, Augusto; Foot, Barnaby G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To estimate the incidence of severe chemical corneal injuries in the United Kingdom and describe presenting clinical features and initial management. Methods: All patients with severe chemical corneal injury in the UK from December 2005 to November 2006 inclusive were prospectively identified using the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit. Reporting ophthalmologists provided information regarding presentation and follow up. Results:...

  1. Sports injuries surveillance during the 2007 IAAF World Athletics Championships

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Juan Manuel; Junge, Astrid; Renström, Per; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo; Dvorak, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze all sports injuries incurred in competitions and/or training during the 2007 World Athletics Championships and to prove the feasibility of the injury surveillance system developed for the 2008 Olympic Games for individual sports. Design: Prospective recording of injuries. Setting: 11th IAAF World Championships in Athletics 2007 in Osaka, Japan. Participants: All national team physicians and physiotherapists; Local Organising Committee (LOC) phys...

  2. STATE-BASED EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT INJURY SURVEILLANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This pilot system is designed to capture the state-wide incidence of emergency department related injuries. MA, MN, and SC are the states currently participating in this system, each using slightly different methods to achieve the same set of standardized data elements. Each of t...

  3. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  4. Aboriginal Community-Centered Injury Surveillance: A Community-Based Participatory Process Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Brussoni, Mariana; Olsen, Lise L.; Joshi, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    While injuries are a leading health concern for Aboriginal populations, injury rates and types vary substantially across bands. The uniqueness of Aboriginal communities highlights the importance of collecting community-level injury surveillance data to assist with identifying local injury patterns, setting priorities for action and evaluating programs. Secwepemc First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada, implemented the Injury Surveillance Project using the Aboriginal Community-Ce...

  5. Injury in China: a systematic review of injury surveillance studies conducted in Chinese hospital emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Colman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries represent a significant and growing public health concern in China. This Review was conducted to document the characteristics of injured patients presenting to the emergency department of Chinese hospitals and to assess of the nature of information collected and reported in published surveillance studies. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE and China Academic Journals supplemented with a hand search of journals was performed. Studies published in the period 1997 to 2007 were included and research published in Chinese was the focus. Search terms included emergency, injury, medical care. Results Of the 268 studies identified, 13 were injury surveillance studies set in the emergency department. Nine were collaborative studies of which eight were prospective studies. Of the five single centre studies only one was of a prospective design. Transport, falls and industrial injuries were common mechanisms of injury. Study strengths were large patient sample sizes and for the collaborative studies a large number of participating hospitals. There was however limited use of internationally recognised injury classification and severity coding indices. Conclusion Despite the limited number of studies identified, the scope of each highlights the willingness and the capacity to conduct surveillance studies in the emergency department. This Review highlights the need for the adoption of standardized injury coding indices in the collection and reporting of patient health data. While high level injury surveillance systems focus on population-based priority setting, this Review demonstrates the need to establish an internationally comparable trauma registry that would permit monitoring of the trauma system and would by extension facilitate the optimal care of the injured patient through the development of informed quality assurance programs and the implementation of evidence-based health policy.

  6. 2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. A profile of Injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10)

    OpenAIRE

    Wainiqolo Iris; Kafoa Berlin; Kool Bridget; Herman Josephine; McCaig Eddie; Ameratunga Shanthi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH) database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (?12 hours stay) in Viti Levu during...

  10. 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2007 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2006 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2007 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2006 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2010 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2006 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2010 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2010 Nevada National Security Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. Injury surveillance in male professional football; is medical staff reporting complete and accurate?

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørneboe, John; Flørenes, Tonje Wåle; Bahr, Roald; Andersen, Thor Einar

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2000 season, an injury surveillance system has been established to monitor injury risk and injury patterns in the Norwegian professional football league. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of routine injury registration performed by medical staff in professional football. The team medical staff completed injury registration forms on a monthly basis throughout the 2007 season (January-October). Players were interviewed at the end of the season (October/November) about a...

  3. Tumor-Associated Glycans and Immune Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas Pashov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in cell surface glycosylation are a hallmark of the transition from normal to inflamed and neoplastic tissue. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs challenge our understanding of immune tolerance, while functioning as immune targets that bridge innate immune surveillance and adaptive antitumor immunity in clinical applications. T-cells, being a part of the adaptive immune response, are the most popular component of the immune system considered for targeting tumor cells. However, for TACAs, T-cells take a back seat to antibodies and natural killer cells as first-line innate defense mechanisms. Here, we briefly highlight the rationale associated with the relative importance of the immune surveillance machinery that might be applicable for developing therapeutics.

  4. Tumor-Associated Glycans and Immune Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Anastas Pashov; Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi; Thomas Kieber-Emmons

    2013-01-01

    Changes in cell surface glycosylation are a hallmark of the transition from normal to inflamed and neoplastic tissue. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) challenge our understanding of immune tolerance, while functioning as immune targets that bridge innate immune surveillance and adaptive antitumor immunity in clinical applications. T-cells, being a part of the adaptive immune response, are the most popular component of the immune system considered for targeting tumor cells. Howev...

  5. 2003 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the East Tennessee Technology Park (K-25).The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. Radiation-Associated Kidney Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kidneys are the dose-limiting organs for radiotherapy to upper abdominal cancers and during total body irradiation. The incidence of radiotherapy-associated kidney injury is likely underreported owing to its long latency and because the toxicity is often attributed to more common causes of kidney injury. The pathophysiology of radiation injury is poorly understood. Its presentation can be acute and irreversible or subtle, with a gradual progressive dysfunction over years. A variety of dose and volume parameters have been associated with renal toxicity and are reviewed to provide treatment guidelines. The available predictive models are suboptimal and require validation. Mitigation of radiation nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other compounds has been shown in animal models and, more recently, in patients.

  7. Injury surveillance in low-resource settings using Geospatial and Social Web technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuurman Nadine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive public health gains have benefited high-income countries in recent decades, however, citizens of low and middle-income countries (LMIC have largely not enjoyed the same advancements. This is in part due to the fact that public health data - the foundation for public health advances - are rarely collected in many LMIC. Injury data are particularly scarce in many low-resource settings, despite the huge associated burden of morbidity and mortality. Advances in freely-accessible and easy-to-use information and communication (ICT technology may provide the impetus for increased public health data collection in settings with limited financial and personnel resources. Methods and Results A pilot study was conducted at a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa to assess the utility and feasibility of using free (non-licensed, and easy-to-use Social Web and GeoWeb tools for injury surveillance in low-resource settings. Data entry, geocoding, data exploration, and data visualization were successfully conducted using these technologies, including Google Spreadsheet, Mapalist, BatchGeocode, and Google Earth. Conclusion This study examined the potential for Social Web and GeoWeb technologies to contribute to public health data collection and analysis in low-resource settings through an injury surveillance pilot study conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. The success of this study illustrates the great potential for these technologies to be leveraged for public health surveillance in resource-constrained environments, given their ease-of-use and low-cost, and the sharing and collaboration capabilities they afford. The possibilities and potential limitations of these technologies are discussed in relation to the study, and to the field of public health in general.

  8. 2008 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2003 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Kansas City Plant. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2003 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Los Alamos National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2008 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2003 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Y-12. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2008 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2003 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-02

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Brookhaven National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2003 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Pantex Plant. DOE is commited to assuring the health and safety of its workers. This includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2003 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2009 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-07-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2003 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for the Hanford site. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The prpogram is part of DOE's commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers and includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers.

  3. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2007 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2007 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2007 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-03-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. Occupational injury surveillance: A study in a metal smelting industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Asim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of occupational injury was undertaken in a metal smelting industry to examine the occurrence and nature of occupational accidents where analysis of occupational injury records was carried out. At the same time, all the workers were interviewed to collect data in relation to personal and occupational characteristics. With this information, the study aimed to examine the role of different factors in the causation of occupational accidents. High incidence of superficial injuries of limbs due mostly to stepping / striking against objects and overexertion / wrong movements of the workers and the frequent association of handling of small tools with work injuries, observed in this study indicated the role of human error in these accidents and highlighted the necessity of proper safety training of the workers. This study also highlighted the need of elevated safety status during summer months and in evening and night shifts (more so in the second half. Moreover, this study could categorize some high-risk groups e.g. young workers, less-experienced workers, obese workers, workers having smoking / chewing habits etc, who need special attention so far as workplace safety is concerned.

  8. The relevance of WHO injury surveillance guidelines for evaluation: learning from the aboriginal community-centered injury surveillance system (ACCISS and two institution-based systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer Anna M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past three decades, the capacity to develop and implement injury surveillance systems (ISS has grown worldwide and is reflected by the diversity of data gathering environments in which ISS operate. The capacity to evaluate ISS, however, is less advanced and existing evaluation guidelines are ambiguous. Furthermore, the applied relevance of these guidelines to evaluate ISS operating in various settings is unclear. The aim of this paper was to examine how the World Health Organization (WHO injury surveillance guidelines have been applied to evaluate systems operating in three different contexts. Methods The attributes of a good surveillance system as well as instructions for conducting evaluations, outlined in the WHO injury surveillance guidelines, were used to develop an analytical framework. Using this framework, a comparative analysis of the application of the guidelines was conducted using; the Aboriginal Community-Centered Injury Surveillance System (ACCISS from Canada, the Shantou-Emergency Department Injury Surveillance Project (S-EDISP from China, and the Yorkhill-Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (Y-CHIRPP imported from Canada and implemented in Scotland. Results The WHO guidelines provide only a basic platform for evaluation. The guidelines over emphasize epidemiologic attributes and methods and under emphasize public health and injury prevention perspectives requiring adaptation for context-based relevance. Evaluation elements related to the dissemination and use of knowledge, acceptability, and the sustainability of ISS are notably inadequate. From a public health perspective, alternative reference points are required for re-conceptualizing evaluation paradigms. This paper offers an ISS evaluation template that considers how the WHO guidelines could be adapted and applied. Conclusions Findings suggest that attributes of a good surveillance system, when used as evaluation metrics, cannot be weighted equally across ISS. In addition, the attribute of acceptability likely holds more relevance than previously recognized and should be viewed as a critical underpinning attribute of ISS. Context-oriented evaluations sensitive to distinct operational environments are more likely to address knowledge gaps related to; understanding links between the production of injury data and its use, and the effectiveness, impact, and sustainability of ISS. Current frameworks are predisposed to disassociating epidemiologic approaches from subjective factors and social processes.

  9. Poisson Regression Analysis of Illness and Injury Surveillance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frome E.L., Watkins J.P., Ellis E.D.

    2012-12-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) uses illness and injury surveillance to monitor morbidity and assess the overall health of the work force. Data collected from each participating site include health events and a roster file with demographic information. The source data files are maintained in a relational data base, and are used to obtain stratified tables of health event counts and person time at risk that serve as the starting point for Poisson regression analysis. The explanatory variables that define these tables are age, gender, occupational group, and time. Typical response variables of interest are the number of absences due to illness or injury, i.e., the response variable is a count. Poisson regression methods are used to describe the effect of the explanatory variables on the health event rates using a log-linear main effects model. Results of fitting the main effects model are summarized in a tabular and graphical form and interpretation of model parameters is provided. An analysis of deviance table is used to evaluate the importance of each of the explanatory variables on the event rate of interest and to determine if interaction terms should be considered in the analysis. Although Poisson regression methods are widely used in the analysis of count data, there are situations in which over-dispersion occurs. This could be due to lack-of-fit of the regression model, extra-Poisson variation, or both. A score test statistic and regression diagnostics are used to identify over-dispersion. A quasi-likelihood method of moments procedure is used to evaluate and adjust for extra-Poisson variation when necessary. Two examples are presented using respiratory disease absence rates at two DOE sites to illustrate the methods and interpretation of the results. In the first example the Poisson main effects model is adequate. In the second example the score test indicates considerable over-dispersion and a more detailed analysis attributes the over-dispersion to extra-Poisson variation. The R open source software environment for statistical computing and graphics is used for analysis. Additional details about R and the data that were used in this report are provided in an Appendix. Information on how to obtain R and utility functions that can be used to duplicate results in this report are provided.

  10. Implementing a hospital based injury surveillance system: a case study in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, I A; Mohammed, A Z; Lawoko, S; Nkanta, C A; Frank-Briggs, A; Nwadiaro, H C; Tuko, M; Zavala, D E; Kolo, E S; Ramalan, M A; Bassey, D E; Didi, E

    2008-01-01

    A pilot study of violent injury surveillance was implemented in two hospitals in Kano, Nigeria, in two phases: a formative evaluation including training and arranging the collection of hospital information, followed by a 6 month prospective data collection. Road traffic injuries constituted about 80 per cent of the cases, gunshot injuries were the commonest in victims of interpersonal violence (IPV). The causes and context of IPV, the relationship of victims and perpetrators, and the place, related activities and anatomical site of injuries from IPV are summarized. PMID:19065867

  11. A successful model of road traffic injury surveillance in a developing country: process and lessons learnt

    OpenAIRE

    Razzak Junaid; Shamim Muhammad; Mehmood Amber; Hussain Syed; Ali Mir; Jooma Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide with 90% of global mortality concentrated in the low and middle income countries. RTI surveillance is recommended to define the burden, identify high risk groups, plan intervention and monitor their impact. Despite its stated importance in the literature, very few examples of sustained surveillance systems are reported from low income countries. This paper shares the experience of ...

  12. A profile of Injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainiqolo Iris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (?12 hours stay in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. Results The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29% and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%. The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Conclusions Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.

  13. Comparing pediatric intentional injury surveillance data with data from publicly available sources: consequences for a public health response to violence

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, D.; Kharasch, S.; Perron, C.; Wilson, K.; Jacklin, B.; Sege, R

    1999-01-01

    Objective—A hospital based intentional injury surveillance system for youth (aged 3–18) was compared with other publicly available sources of information on youth violence. The comparison addressed whether locally conducted surveillance provides data that are sufficiently more complete, detailed, and timely that clinicians and public health practitioners interested in youth violence prevention would find surveillance worth conducting.

  14. Slipping and tripping: fall injuries in adults associated with rugs and carpets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Rosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falls are a leading cause of unintentional injury among adults age 65 years and older. Loose, unsecured rugs and damaged carpets with curled edges, are recognized environmental hazards that may contribute to falls. To characterize nonfatal, unintentional fall-related injuries associated with rugs and carpets in adults aged 65 years and older. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of surveillance data of injuries treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs during 2001–2008. We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program, which collects data from a nationally representative stratified probability sample of 66 U.S. hospital EDs. Sample weights were used to make national estimates. RESULTS: Annually, an estimated 37,991 adults age 65 years or older were treated in U.S. EDs for falls associated with carpets (54.2% and rugs (45.8%. Most falls (72.8% occurred at home. Women represented 80.2% of fall injuries. The most common location for fall injuries in the home was the bathroom (35.7%. Frequent fall injuries occurred at the transition between carpet/rug and non-carpet/rug, on wet carpets or rugs, and while hurrying to the bathroom. CONCLUSIONS: Fall injuries associated with rugs and carpets are common and may cause potentially severe injuries. Older adults, their caregivers, and emergency and primary care physicians should be aware of the significant risk for fall injuries and of environmental modifications that may reduce that risk.

  15. The relevance of WHO injury surveillance guidelines for evaluation: learning from the aboriginal community-centered injury surveillance system (ACCISS) and two institution-based systems

    OpenAIRE

    Auer Anna M; Dobmeier Teresa M; Haglund Bo JA; Tillgren Per

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past three decades, the capacity to develop and implement injury surveillance systems (ISS) has grown worldwide and is reflected by the diversity of data gathering environments in which ISS operate. The capacity to evaluate ISS, however, is less advanced and existing evaluation guidelines are ambiguous. Furthermore, the applied relevance of these guidelines to evaluate ISS operating in various settings is unclear. The aim of this paper was to examine how the World...

  16. Alaska's model program for surveillance and prevention of occupational injury deaths.

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, G A; Lincoln, J. M.; Husberg, B J; Manwaring, J C; Klatt, M L; Thomas, T K

    1999-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established its Alaska Field Station in Anchorage in 1991 after identifying Alaska as the highest-risk state for traumatic worker fatalities. Since then, the Field Station, working in collaboration with other agencies, organizations, and individuals, has established a program for occupational injury surveillance in Alaska and formed interagency working groups to address the risk factors leading to occupational death and injury ...

  17. Injury surveillance in community sport: Can we obtain valid data from sports trainers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, C L; Gabbe, B J; Finch, C F

    2015-06-01

    A lack of available injury data on community sports participants has hampered the development of informed preventive strategies for the broad-base of sports participation. In community sports settings, sports trainers or first-aiders are well-placed to carry out injury surveillance, but few studies have evaluated their ability to do so. The aim of this study was to investigate the reporting rate and completeness of sports trainers' injury records and agreement between sports trainers' and players' reports of injury in community Australian football. Throughout the football season, one sports trainer from each of four clubs recorded players' injuries. To validate these data, we collected self-reported injury data from players via short message service (SMS). In total, 210 discrete injuries were recorded for 139 players, 21% by sports trainers only, 59% by players via SMS only, and 21% by both. Completeness of injury records ranged from 95% to 100%. Agreement between sports trainers and players ranged from K?=?0.32 (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.37) for date of return to football to K?=?1.00 for activity when injured. Injury data collected by sports trainers may be of adequate quality for providing an understanding of the profile of injuries. However, data are likely to underestimate injury rates and should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24654993

  18. Trauma Center-Based Surveillance of Nontraffic Pedestrian Injury among California Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sherck, MD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Every year in the United States, thousands of young children are injured by passengervehicles in driveways or parking areas. Little is known about risk factors, and incidence rates aredifficult to estimate because ascertainment using police collision reports or media sources isincomplete. This study used surveillance at trauma centers to identify incidents and parent interviewsto obtain detailed information on incidents, vehicles, and children.Methods: Eight California trauma centers conducted surveillance of nontraffic pedestrian collisioninjury to children aged 14 years or younger from January 2005 to July 2007. Three of these centersconducted follow-up interviews with family members.Results: Ninety-four injured children were identified. Nine children (10% suffered fatal injury. Seventychildren (74% were 4 years old or younger. Family members of 21 victims from this study (23%completed an interview. Of these 21 interviewed victims, 17 (81% were male and 13 (62% were 1 or 2years old. In 13 cases (62%, the child was backed over, and the driver was the mother or father in 11cases (52%. Fifteen cases (71% involved a sport utility vehicle, pickup truck, or van. Most collisionsoccurred in a residential driveway.Conclusion: Trauma center surveillance can be used for case ascertainment and for collectinginformation on circumstances of nontraffic pedestrian injuries. Adoption of a specific external cause-ofinjurycode would allow passive surveillance of these injuries. Research is needed to understand thecontributions of family, vehicular, and environmental characteristics and injury risk to inform preventionefforts.

  19. Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make it possible to offer a fourth treatment: surveillance . In general, 70% of men diagnosed with Stage ... it is caught early enough . If you choose surveillance and you stick to the surveillance protocol , then ...

  20. Adolescent Orofacial Injury: Association with Psychological Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    MURPHY, DEBRA A.; Shetty, Vivek; Herbeck, Diane M.; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; URATA, MARK; Yamashita, Dennis-Duke

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority youth living in urban areas experience disproportionately high rates of violent intentional injuries. This study investigates the association of violent intentional injuries with psychological distress and alcohol use among adolescents treated in trauma centers for facial injuries. Interviews were conducted with 67 adolescents treated at two urban trauma centers (predominantly male [86%], and minority [Latino, 72%; African American, 19%]). Adolescents reported experiencing sev...

  1. Advancing the science of ventilator-associated pneumonia surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The landmark Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control definitively demonstrated that infection surveillance and control programs prevent hospital-acquired infections. The rise of public reporting, benchmarking, and pay for performance movements, however, has considerably changed the infection surveillance landscape in the 27 years since this study was published. Clinically nuanced surveillance definitions that served the profession well for many years have fallen into disfavor because their complexity and subjectivity allow for conscious and subconscious gaming. These limitations make it very difficult to determine whether changes in surveillance rates represent true changes in disease incidence or artifacts of definition subjectivity, external reporting pressures, and internal biases. Surveillance definitions need to be revised to enhance objectivity and to ensure that they detect clinically meaningful events associated with compromised outcomes. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently released modified definitions for ventilator-associated events that have the potential to make safety surveillance for ventilated patients more credible and useful once again. PMID:23113957

  2. Electronic Data Capture for Injury and Illness Surveillance : A usability study

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, David

    2013-01-01

    Despite the development of injury surveillance systems for use at large multi sportsevents (Junge 2008), their implementation is still methodologically and practicallychallenging. Edouard (2013) and Engebretsen (2013) have pointed out that thecontext of athletics championships feature unique constraints, such as a limiteddata-collection window and large amounts of data to be recorded and rapidlyvalidated. To manage these logistical issues, Electronic Data Capture (EDC) methodshave been propos...

  3. Phenylpropanolamine and associated myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, P J; Hollander, J E; Shih, R D; Marcus, S M

    1996-09-01

    We report the cases of two patients without significant past medical history in whom developed myocardial injury attributed to the use of anorectic agents containing phenylpropanolamine. The pharmacologic properties of phenylpropanolamine and the current management of common adverse reactions to phenylpropanolamine are briefly reviewed. PMID:8780486

  4. Information extraction approaches to unconventional data sources for "Injury Surveillance System": the case of newspapers clippings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchialla, Paola; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Snidero, Silvia; Rahim, Yousif; Gregori, Dario

    2012-04-01

    Injury Surveillance Systems based on traditional hospital records or clinical data have the advantage of being a well established, highly reliable source of information for making an active surveillance on specific injuries, like choking in children. However, they suffer the drawback of delays in making data available to the analysis, due to inefficiencies in data collection procedures. In this sense, the integration of clinical based registries with unconventional data sources like newspaper articles has the advantage of making the system more useful for early alerting. Usage of such sources is difficult since information is only available in the form of free natural-language documents rather than structured databases as required by traditional data mining techniques. Information Extraction (IE) addresses the problem of transforming a corpus of textual documents into a more structured database. In this paper, on a corpora of Italian newspapers articles related to choking in children due to ingestion/inhalation of foreign body we compared the performance of three IE algorithms- (a) a classical rule based system which requires a manual annotation of the rules; (ii) a rule based system which allows for the automatic building of rules; (b) a machine learning method based on Support Vector Machine. Although some useful indications are extracted from the newspaper clippings, this approach is at the time far from being routinely implemented for injury surveillance purposes. PMID:20703703

  5. Surveillance for colitis-associated colon neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The risk of developing colon cancer is increased in colitis patients, particularly if the disease is extensive and its duration long-standing. Endoscopic guidelines have been developed with the goal of detecting early neoplastic changes prior to development of advanced malignancy. Unfortunately, the natural history of this superimposed neoplastic process in colitis appears to be very heterogeneous and poorly understood. Moreover, there are numerous confounding variables in colitis patients that limit accurate assessment of the surveillance effectiveness of colonoscopy and multi-site biopsy protocols. Although the clinical challenge posed to even the most experienced clinicians remains significant, evolving methods of endoscopic imaging may facilitate better evaluation of this highly select group of patients.

  6. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  7. Patterns of injury associated with automobile airbag use.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, A.A.; Banerjee, A.

    1998-01-01

    The wide use of automobile airbags has undoubtedly reduced the mortality and the incidence of serious injuries from motor vehicle accidents. However, automobile airbags appear to be associated with a variety of injuries including fatal injuries, ocular injuries, upper limb and chest injuries. Further improvements in airbag design together with education of the general public in their use should help reduce airbag-related injuries.

  8. Cardiac arrhythmias associated with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hector, Sven Magnus; Biering-SØrensen, Tor

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVES: To review the current literature to reveal the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and its relation to spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Data source: MEDLINE database, 304 hits, and 32 articles were found to be relevant. The relevant articles all met the inclusion criteria: (1) contained original data (2) on cardiac arrhythmias (3) in humans with (4) traumatic SCI. RESULTS: In the acute phase of SCI (1-14 days after injury) more cranial as well as more severe injuries seemed to increase the incidence of bradycardia. Articles not covering the first 14 days after injury, thus describing the chronic phase of SCI, showed that individuals with SCI did not have a higher incidence of cardiac arrhythmias compared with able-bodied controls. Furthermore, their heart rate did not differ significantly. Penile vibro-stimulation was the procedure investigated most likely to cause bradycardia, which in turn was associated with episodes of autonomic dysreflexia. The incidence of bradycardia was found to be 17-77% for individuals with cervical SCI. For individuals with thoracolumbar SCI, the incidence was 0-13%. CONCLUSION: Bradycardia was commonly seen in the acute stage after SCI as well as during procedures such as penile vibro-stimulation and tracheal suction. These episodes of bradycardia were seen more often in individuals with cervical injuries. Longitudinal studies with continuous electrocardiogram recordings are needed to uncover the true relation between cardiac arrhythmias and SCI.

  9. Dental injuries in association with facial fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Lieger, O.; Zix, J.; Kruse, A.; Iizuka, T.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between dental injuries and facial fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 273 patients examined at a level 1 trauma center in Switzerland from September 2005 until August 2006 who had facial fractures. Medical history and clinical and radiologic examination findings were recorded to evaluate demographics, etiology, presentation, and type of facial fracture, as well as its relationship to dental inj...

  10. Whiplash: diagnosis, treatment, and associated injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Yadla, Sanjay; Ratliff, John K; Harrop, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Study design Focused review of the current literature. Objective To identify and synthesize the most current data pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of whiplash and whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), and to report on whiplash-related injuries. Methods A search of OVID Medline (1996–January 2007) and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews was performed using the keywords whiplash and WAD. Articles under subheadings for pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiology were chos...

  11. Comparative evaluation of different modes of a national accident and emergency department-based injury surveillance system: Jamaican experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Holder, Yvette; Gordon, Georgiana

    2002-12-01

    The objective was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two injury surveillance systems in operation in the Accident and Emergency departments of public hospitals in Jamaica. The evaluation was conducted at 12 hospitals across Jamaica offering varying levels of service delivery. It was designed in three phases: (1) a retrospective review of surveillance system data; (2) prospective process evaluation; (3) system environment evaluation. These data were analysed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the manual Accident & Emergency Statistical Report (A&ESR) versus the computer-based Patient administration system/Jamaica injury surveillance system (PAS/JISS), and to determine an injury registration rate. Results showed a variation from 8% to 27% in injury registration rates at the hospitals reviewed. The sensitivity of the computer-based PAS ranged from 29.7% to 97.1% while the sensitivity of the manual system ranged from 22.1% to 100%. The computer-based system generally detected a greater percentage of injuries. Problems were identified with missing data fields in the computer-based system, while problems of recording and transcription were identified in the manually-based system. Recommendations were made to improve data quality in both data collection systems. Although shortcomings were identified with the A&ESR, the system is performing the function for which it was designed, that of tracking A&E workload. The PAS/JISS is more user-friendly and a truer reflection of the injury situation. PMID:12613102

  12. Sports Injury and Illness Epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Background Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. Aim To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Methods The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Results Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. Conclusions The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. PMID:25425714

  13. Variation in health care-associated infection surveillance practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Cheng, Allen C; Richards, Michael; Graves, Nicholas; Hall, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    In the absence of a national health care-associated infection surveillance program in Australia, differences between existing state-based programs were explored using an online survey. Only 51% of respondents who undertake surveillance have been trained, fewer than half perform surgical site infection surveillance prospectively, and only 41% indicated they risk adjust surgical site infection data. Widespread variation of surveillance methods highlights future challenges when considering the development and implementation of a national program in Australia. PMID:25858307

  14. A surveillance of needle-stick injuries amongst student nurses at the University of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Ackerman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Needle-stick injuries have the potential to change a student nurse’s life; yet they are dealt with covertly and many go unreported. This could create difficulties when evaluating a curriculum, because potential risk issues in nursing education might go undetected. In addition, needlestick injuries are inherently preventable occupational health hazards. The fact that there has been, until now, no information available on the incidence of, and context in which needlestick injuries occur amongst student nurses in Namibia, is of particular concern for nurse educators in that country. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the incidence of needle-stick injuries and to describe the context of their occurrences. A framework known as Haddon’s matrix made it possible to approach this survey from both an occupational and a nursing education perspective.

    The questionnaire was completed by 198 students and it was found that, during 2008 alone, 17% of student nurses sustained needle-stick injuries, but only 55% of these reported it. In addition, in 55% of the occasions on which the student nurses were injured, they were not accompanied by a registered nurse. The recommendations made are based on the three phases of Haddon’s matrix, namely pre-injury, injury and post-injury phases. These recommendations focussed on student accompaniment by registered nurses, the completion of reflective exercises, sensitisation sessions before placement in clinical areas, as well as the utilisation of independent student counsellors.

    Opsomming

    Enige naaldprik-insident kan ‘n groot omwenteling in ‘n student-verpleegkundige se lewe te weeg bring. Ten spyte hiervan word sodanige insidente nie openlik hanteer nie, en dikwels word dit nie eers gerapporteer nie. Dit mag egter kurrikulering-evaluerings kompliseer want potensiële risiko-aspekte in verpleegonderwys mag dalk nie geidentifisser word nie. Naaldprik-ongelukke is in wese beroepsgesondheidsaspekte, wat inherent voorkombaar is. Dit was dan ook ‘n bron van kommmer onder verpleegopvoeders in Namibië, aangesien geen inligting beskikbaar was oor die voorkoms en konteks van naaldprik-ongelukke onder student-verpleegkundiges in Namibië nie. Die doel van hierdie studie was dus on die voorkoms en konteks waarbinne naaldprik-ongelukke plaasvind te beskryf. Daar was reeds a raamwerk beskikbaar, naamlik die Haddon-matriks. Diè raamwerk het dit moontlik gemaak om die opname te benader vanuit sowel ‘n beroepsgesondheids-perspektief as ‘n verpleegopvoedkundige perspektief.

    Die vraelys is voltooi deur 198 studente en van die bevindings was dat gedurende 2008 alleen, 17% van die student-verpleegkundiges naaldprik-insidente gehad het, maar dat slegs 55% van die beseerdes dit aangemeld het. Daar is ook gevind dat in 55% van die gevalle, hulle nie deur ‘n geregistreerde verpleegkundige vergesel was nie. Aanbevelings wat gemaak is, is gebaseer op die drie fases van die Haddon-matriks, naamlik die voor-beserings-fase, die beseringsfase en die na-beserings-fase. Die aanbevelings is gefokus op student-begeleiding, reflektiewe oefeninge, sensitiseringsessies voor die plasings in kliniese areas, asook ondersteuning van ‘n onafhanklike berader.

    How to cite this article: Small, L., Pretorius, L., Walters, A. & Ackerman,M.J., 2011, ‘A surveillance of needle-stick injuries amongst student nurses at the University of Namibia’, Health SA Gesondheid 16(1, Art. #507, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.4102/hsag.v161.507

     

  15. Injuries in women associated with a periodized strength training and running program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, K L; Harman, E A; Worsham, R E; Sykes, M B; Frykman, P N; Backus, V L

    2001-02-01

    Forty-five women participated in a 24-week physical training program designed to improve lifting, load carriage, and running performance. Activities included weightlifting, running, backpacking, lift and carry drills, and sprint running. Physicians documented by passive surveillance all training-related injuries. Thirty-two women successfully completed training program. Twenty-two women (48.9%) suffered least 1 injury during training, but only 2 women had to drop out of the study because of injuries. The rate of injury associated with lost training time was 2.8 injuries per 1,000 training hours of exposure. Total clinic visits and days lost from training were 89 and 69, respectively. Most injuries were the overuse type involving the lower back, knees, and feet. Weightlifting accounted for a majority of the lost training days. A combined strength training and running program resulted in significant performance gains in women. Only 2 out of 45 participants left the training program cause of injuries. PMID:11708698

  16. Epidemiology of Collegiate Injuries for 15 Sports: Summary and Recommendations for Injury Prevention Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hootman, Jennifer M.; Dick, Randall; Agel, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for 15 sports and to identify potential modifiable risk factors to target for injury prevention initiatives.

  17. Implementing a hospital-based violence-related injury surveillance system--a background to the Jamaican experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth; Durant, Tonji; Thompson, Martie; Gordon, Georgiana; Mitchell, Wayne; Ashley, Deanna

    2002-12-01

    Violence, a leading cause of injuries and death, is recognized as a major public health problem. In 1996, injuries were the second leading cause of hospitalizations in Jamaica. The estimated annual cost of in-patient care for injuries was 11.6 million US dollars. To develop strategies to reduce the impact of violence-related injuries on Jamaican health care resources, the Ministry of Health, Division of Health Promotion and Protection (MOH/DHPP) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies Mona, designed and implemented a violence-related injury surveillance system (VRISS) at Kingston Public Hospital (KPH). In 1998, the VRISS, based on the International Classification of External Cause of Injury (ICECI), was implemented in the accident and emergency (A&E) department of Jamaica's tertiary care hospital, KPH. VRISS collects demographic, method and circumstance of injury, victim-perpetrator relationship and patient's discharge status data. From 8/1/98 to 7/31/99, data on 6,107 injuries were collected. Injuries occurred primarily among males aged 25-44 years. Most injuries (54%; 3171) were caused by use of a sharp object. Nearly half (49%; 2992) were perpetrated by acquaintances. The majority, 70% (4,252), were the result of a fight or argument and 17% were admitted to the hospital. The VRISS utilized A&E department data to characterize violence-related injuries in Jamaica, a resource-limited environment. These data will be used to guide intervention development to reduce violence-related injuries in Jamaica. PMID:12613103

  18. FARM FAMILY HEALTH AND HAZARD SURVEILLANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NIOSH Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance (FFHHS) Cooperative Agreement Program was developed to respond to Congress's concern that agricultural workers and their families experience a disproportionate share of disease and injury associated with the chemical, biologica...

  19. Eye injuries associated with war games

    OpenAIRE

    Easterbrook, Michael; Pashby, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    War games, an outdoor activity combining recreation, military maneuvers and fantasy, are becoming a popular recreational sport. Increasing numbers of players are suffering eye injuries. In the last year 26 cases of serious eye injuries were reported to Canadian ophthalmologists; in 15 eyes vision was reduced to 6/24 or less. Although eyeguards are provided, all the injuries had occurred when the participants were not wearing them. Methods of preventing eye injuries in war games are discussed.

  20. Injury Surveillance in Low-Resource Settings Using Geospatial and Social Web Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Schuurman Nadine; Cinnamon Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Extensive public health gains have benefited high-income countries in recent decades, however, citizens of low and middle-income countries (LMIC) have largely not enjoyed the same advancements. This is in part due to the fact that public health data - the foundation for public health advances - are rarely collected in many LMIC. Injury data are particularly scarce in many low-resource settings, despite the huge associated burden of morbidity and mortality. Advances in free...

  1. Advancing the science of ventilator-associated pneumonia surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Klompas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The landmark Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control definitively demonstrated that infection surveillance and control programs prevent hospital-acquired infections. The rise of public reporting, benchmarking, and pay for performance movements, however, has considerably changed the infection surveillance landscape in the 27 years since this study was published. Clinically nuanced surveillance definitions that served the profession well for many years have fallen into disfavor be...

  2. Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries. PMID:24885879

  3. Injuries associated with off-road vehicles among children.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiley, J.J.; McIntyre, W M; Mercier, P.

    1986-01-01

    Off-road vehicles have attained growing popularity, expanding markets and increasing rates of associated injury, especially among young people. In 1984-85, 148 patients were treated at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, for injuries suffered in off-road vehicle accidents. The average age of the patients was 14 years. Soft-tissue injuries occurred in 33 patients, 21 of whom had severe injuries. There were 179 fractures in 133 patients. One patient died as a result of his injur...

  4. U.S. Department of Energy, Illness and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health Summary, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program has created an opportunity to assess illness and injury rates and patterns among workers at participating sites for well over a decade. The Worker Health Summary introduces an additional perspective on worker health with the introduction of analyses comparing the experience of sites in different program offices and a focus on time trends covering a decade of worker illness and injury experience. These analyses by program office suggest that illness and injury patterns among National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) workers diverge in many ways from those seen among Environmental Management (EM) and Science workers for reasons not yet understood. These differences will receive further investigation in future special focus studies, as will other findings of interest. With the time depth now available in our data, the Worker Health Summary reveals an additional nuance in worker health trends: changing health patterns in a specialized and skilled but aging work force. Older workers are becoming an increasing percentage of the work force, and their absence rates for diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are increasing as well. The impact of these emerging health issues, if properly addressed, can be managed to maintain or even enhance worker health and productivity. Prevention strategies designed to reduce the toll of these health conditions appear warranted, and this report gives us an indication of where to focus them. The analyses that follow reflect the Illness and Injury Surveillance Program’s continued commitment to apply a public health perspective in protecting the health of DOE’s work force.

  5. Injuries Associated with All-Terrain Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton, Louis J.

    1987-01-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding has become very popular over the past decade. Several reports have shown that ATV riding can cause injury. Poor machine design, rider inexperience, inappropriate riding, carrying passengers, alcohol consumption, and use of ATVs by children have been identified as causes of injury. Three- and four-wheel ATVs demand considerable rider skill and caution, requirements which users may not appreciate. Physicians have an important role in recording and reporting ATV-...

  6. A survey of musculoskeletal injuries associated with Zumba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Jill; Nichols, Andrew; Maskarinec, Gregory; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2013-12-01

    Zumba is a highly popular Latin-inspired dance fitness program with ?14 million participants in 150 countries. However, there is little published data on the rates or types of injuries among participants. We surveyed a convenience sample of 49 adults (100% participation) in 5 Zumba classes in Hawai'i. Participants described any prior Zumba-related injuries. We used t-tests and logistic regression to determine if participant demographics or intensity of Zumba classes were associated with injuries. Participants were mostly female (82%), averaged 43.9 years of age (range 19 to 69 years), and took an average of 3 classes/week (1-2 hours/class) for an average of 11 months. Fourteen participants (29%) reported 21 prior Zumba-related injuries. Half of the 14 injured sought care from medical providers for their injuries. Of the 21 injuries, the most frequently injured sites were knees (42%), ankles (14%), and shoulders (14%). Participants with Zumba-related injuries did not differ significantly in age, months of Zumba, or hours/class compared to those who did not experience injuries. However, participants who reported injuries took significantly more classes/week (3.8 versus 2.7 classes, P = .006) than non-injured participants. In logistic regression, taking more classes/week remained significantly associated with injuries (odds ratio 3.6 [95% confidence interval 1.5 - 8.9, P = .006]) after controlling for age, gender, months of Zumba, and hours/class. Given Zumba's health benefits, our finding that 1 in 4 Zumba participants have experienced injuries indicates the need to improve Zumba routines, instructor training, and health provider counseling to reduce injury risk. PMID:24377078

  7. Factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries, Thika, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osoro Mogaka Eric

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the severity of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries in a public hospital in Thika district, Kenya. METHODS: Road crash victims attending the Thika district hospital, a 265-bed public hospital, emergency room were recruited consecutively between 10th August 2009 and 15th November 2009. Epidemiologic and clinical information was collected from medical charts and through interview with the victims or surrogates using a semi-structured questionnaire. Injuries were graded as severe or non-severe based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS. Independent factors associated with injury severity were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 32.4 years, three quarters were between 20-49 years-old and 73% (219 were male. Nineteen percent (56/300 of the victims had severe injury. Five percent (15 had head injury while 38% (115 had fractures. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians and two-wheel users comprised 33% (99/300 of the victims. Vulnerable road users (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.0-3.9, road crashes in rainy weather (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.3-6.5 and night time crashes (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.1-3.9 were independent risk factors for sustaining severe injury. CONCLUSION: Severe injury was associated with vulnerable road users, rainy weather and night time crashes. Interventions and measures such as use of reflective jackets and helmets by two wheel users and enhanced road visibility could help reduce the severity of road traffic injuries

  8. Use of surveillance data for prevention of healthcare-associated infection: risk adjustment and reporting dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Eoghan

    2009-08-01

    Healthcare-associated or nosocomial infection (HCAI) is of increasing importance to healthcare providers and the public. Surveillance is crucial but must be adjusted for risk, especially when used for interhospital comparisons or for public reporting.

  9. Association Rules and Data Mining in Hospital Infection Control and Public Health Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Brossette, Stephen E.; Sprague, Alan P.; Hardin, J. Michael; Waites, Ken B.; Jones, Warren T.; Moser, Stephen A.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The authors consider the problem of identifying new, unexpected, and interesting patterns in hospital infection control and public health surveillance data and present a new data analysis process and system based on association rules to address this problem.

  10. Characterization plan for routine waste from surveillance and maintenance of 221-U and associated facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This characterization plan describes how to collect samples, gather radiological survey information, and identify what chemical/radiological analyses are necessary to characterize routine waste generated during surveillance and maintenance of 221-U and associated facilities

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Illness, and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health At A Glance, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program (IISP) has monitored the health of contractor workers at selected DOE sites since 1990. For the first time, the IISP has sufficient data to describe, in a collective manner, the health trends occurring among workers at a number of DOE sites during a 10-year period. This brief report and the more detailed Worker Health Summary assess illness and injury trends of DOE workers according to gender, age, occupational group, and program office over the 10-year period, 1995 through 2004. During this time, over 137,000 individual contractor workers were employed at the 15 DOE sites participating in the IISP.

  12. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: associated findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors investigated the associated findings and their value in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in MR image. The knee MR images of 47 patients with ACL injury (complete;24, partial;23) and 61 patients with normal ACL confirmed by the knee arthroscopy or operation were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of anterior translocation of tibia and the degree of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) buckling were evaluated. The prevalence and pattern of associated adjacent bone, ligament and meniscus injuries were studied. The means(± 2 standard errors) of anterior translocation were different significantly in statistical analysis (? < 0.001, student t-test) between injury group (7.51 ± 1.16 mm) and normal group (-0.56 ± 0.92mm). In the level of 5mm of anterior translocation for the criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 78.7%, 89.5%, 84.3% for each. The means of PCL buckling ratio were also different statistically between injury group(0.23 ± 0.02) and normal group(0.17 ± 0.01)(? < 0.001). In the level of 0.20 for diagnostic criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 71.4%, 83.6%, 78.4% for each. Thirty one medial meniscus tear (66%), thirteen lateral meniscus tear (28%), ten medial collateral ligament injury (28%), one PCL injury(2%) were associated with ACL injury. The twenty nine bone marrow changes were found in twenty patients (43%) which included acutely injured seven patients. In acute y injured seven patients. In acute cases, the bone marrow changes were depicted as diffuse or focal high signal intensity lesions in lateral femoral or tibial condyles in contrast to the changes in chronic cases depicted as focal low signal intensity lesions in variable location. Lateral femoral condylar notch depression were found in nine patients (19%) and avulsion fractures of anterior tibial spine in four patients(9%). The associated findings with ACL injury (anterior translocation, buckling of PCL, associated bone, ligament and meniscus injuries) are considered to be helpful in the diagnosis of ACL injury on Knee MR images, when the findings of anterior cruciate ligament itself are not confirmative

  13. Tubulointerstitial injury associated with chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirali, Anushree C; Perazella, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy holds tremendous potential in improving the survival of patients with cancer. However, the side effects of these drugs, including those that affect the kidney, can adversely affect patient outcomes. Prompt recognition of these adverse kidney effects allows early intervention that can minimize or prevent patient morbidity. In this review, we examine the nephrotoxic potential of chemotherapy drugs. In concentrating on tubulointerstitial injury, we will review common agents that result in acute kidney injury due to acute tubular necrosis, tubulopathies, crystal nephropathy, acute interstitial nephritis, and chronic interstitial nephritis, and we will present preventive and management strategies. PMID:24359987

  14. Unintentional Childhood Injury Patterns, Odds, and Outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ovuga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. METHODS: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years. RESULTS: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention priorities could include home, road and school safety; especially dissemination and uptake of proven interventions. Burns should be focus of domestic injury prevention among under-fives. Commercial passenger motorcycles require better regulation and control.

  15. Injuries Associated with Femoral Shaft Fractures with Special Emphasis on Occult Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Fractures of the femoral shaft are mostly the result of high-energy accidents that also cause multiple trauma injuries, in particular ipsilateral knee and hip injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures and how many of them were undetected. Methods: We studied 148 patients (150 femoral shaft fractures with an average age of 52 (range: 18-97. Femoral shaft fractures were treated with antegrade intramedullary nailing in 118 cases (78.7%, and with open reduction and internal fixation in 32 cases (21.3%. Unlocked reamed intramedullary nailing was performed in Winquist type I and type II fractures, while statically locked unreamed intramedullary nailing was carried out in Winquist type III and type IV fractures. Results: There were 70 patients with associated injuries (46.4%. The associated injuries went undetected in 18 out of 70 patients (25.5%. Six femoral nonunions (4% occurred in patients under 70 years of age (high-energy accidents treated by open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusion: Injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures were very frequent (46.4% in our series, with 25.5% undetected. Open reduction and internal fixation was a poor prognostic factor of nonunion in these fractures.

  16. Injuries Associated with the 580 km University Student Grand Voluntary Road March: Focus on Foot Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sang-cheon; Min, Young-gi; Lee, In-Soo; Yoon, Gi-Ho; Kang, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Joon-Pil; Kim, Gi-Woon

    2013-01-01

    College student volunteers (n = 142) completed a 580 km road march for 21 consecutive days. Each volunteer carried a backpack that weighed 14.1 ± 1.4 kg on the average. We investigated the incidence and location of blisters associated with the road march using a foot map along with other injuries. Overall, 95.1% of the subjects (135 of 142) sustained one or more injuries. All injured subjects had foot blisters, and 18% had other foot injuries. The most common locations of blister development...

  17. Fatal farm injuries: a five-year study utilizing a unique surveillance approach to investigate the concordance of reporting between two data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, G J; Gerberich, S G; Maldonado, G

    1995-05-01

    The agricultural industry has been ranked among the most hazardous. Yet, it has been alleged that occupational injuries and fatalities are seriously underreported. Access to quality agricultural injury data poses a special problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the concordance of reporting of fatal agricultural injuries between death certificate data and the Newspaper Clipping Service data in the state of Minnesota, utilizing a surveillance system developed by the University of Minnesota. Between September 1, 1981, and August 31, 1986, a total of 350 agricultural fatalities were identified in Minnesota; 82% were identified through death certificate data and 67% through the Newspaper Clipping Service. Differences in reporting between the two data sources were noted for gender, age, injury type, anatomical site, source, mechanism of injury, and multiple versus single injury. If only death certificates had been utilized, 18% of the fatalities would have been missed. Although it is apparent that death certificate data have an advantage over the Newspaper Clipping Service data for fatality reporting of specific variables, this study revealed that death certificate surveillance alone will miss mortality data and detection of certain potential risk factors. Suggestions for improving surveillance of agricultural fatalities are identified. However, until relevant changes are made, it will be essential to use a combination of data sources that include the Newspaper Clipping Service to identify agricultural injury fatalities accurately. PMID:7640984

  18. Improving the work efficiency of healthcare-associated infection surveillance using electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Wen-Sen; Chen, Guo-Bin; Liu, Chien-Tsai

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we developed an integrated hospital-associated urinary tract infection (HAUTI) surveillance information system (called iHAUTISIS) based on existing electronic medical records (EMR) systems for improving the work efficiency of infection control professionals (ICPs) in a 730-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Taiwan. The iHAUTISIS can automatically collect data relevant to HAUTI surveillance from the different EMR systems, and provides a visualization dashboard that helps ICPs make better surveillance plans and facilitates their surveillance work. In order to measure the system performance, we also created a generic model for comparing the ICPs' work efficiency when using existing electronic culture-based surveillance information system (eCBSIS) and iHAUTISIS, respectively. This model can demonstrate a patient's state (unsuspected, suspected, and confirmed) and corresponding time spent on surveillance tasks performed by ICPs for the patient in that state. The study results showed that the iHAUTISIS performed better than the eCBSIS in terms of ICPs' time cost. It reduced the time by 73.27 s, when using iHAUTISIS (114.26 s) and eCBSIS (187.53 s), for each patient on average. With increased adoption of EMR systems, the development of the integrated HAI surveillance information systems would be more and more cost-effective. Moreover, the iHAUTISIS adopted web-based technology that enables ICPs to online access patient's surveillance information using laptops or mobile devices. Therefore, our system can further facilitate the HAI surveillance and reduce ICPs' surveillance workloads. PMID:25154644

  19. SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveillance reports are designed to provide useful data to researchers, planners, policymakers, and other professionals interested in alcohol abuse and its associated illnesses and mortality. Other surveillance report topics include apparent per capita consumption of alcoholic b...

  20. Developing a new, national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Shelley S; Klompas, Michael; Balk, Robert; Burns, Suzanne M; Deutschman, Clifford S; Diekema, Daniel; Fridkin, Scott; Greene, Linda; Guh, Alice; Gutterman, David; Hammer, Beth; Henderson, David; Hess, Dean R; Hill, Nicholas S; Horan, Teresa; Kollef, Marin; Levy, Mitchell; Septimus, Edward; Vanantwerpen, Carole; Wright, Don; Lipsett, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    This article is an executive summary of a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Surveillance Definition Working Group, entitled "Developing a New, National Approach to Surveillance for Ventilator-Associatied Events," published in Critical Care Medicine, by Magill SS, Klompas M, Balk R, Burns SM, Deutschman CS, et al. 2013;41(11):2467-2475. The full report provides a comprehensive description of the Working Group's process and outcome. PMID:24186816

  1. Prevention of injury associated with rotating action machines

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Tore J.; Bra?felt, Olle; Astervik, Magnus; Knutsson, Eric

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND Repeated analyses of the Swedish national workers’ compensation claims data material in the Occupational No-Fault Liability Insurance Scheme have pointed to the high incidence of severe hand injury associated with getting caught in rotating (drilling, milling, boring, turning, grinding) machines in the metal manufacturing and engineering industry (Jedeskog & Larsson, 1988; Larsson, 1990; Persson, 1992). In an analysis of all permanently disabling injuries sustained in the Swe...

  2. Spinal cord injury and its association with blunt head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva WS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wellingson S Paiva, Arthur MP Oliveira, Almir F Andrade, Robson LO Amorim, Leonardo JO Lourenço, Manoel J TeixeiraDivision of Neurosurgery, University of São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Severe and moderate head injury can cause misdiagnosis of a spinal cord injury, leading to devastating long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors involving spine trauma and moderate-to-severe brain injury.Methods: A prospective study involving 1617 patients admitted in the emergency unit was carried out. Of these patients, 180 with moderate or severe head injury were enrolled. All patients were submitted to three-view spine series X-ray and thin cut axial CT scans for spine trauma investigations.Results: 112 male patients and 78 female patients, whose ages ranged from 11 to 76 years (mean age, 34 years. The most common causes of brain trauma were pedestrians struck by motor vehicles (31.1%, car crashes (27.7%, and falls (25%. Systemic lesions were present in 80 (44.4% patients and the most common were fractures, and lung and spleen injuries. 52.8% had severe and 47.2% moderate head trauma. Fourteen patients (7.8% suffered spinal cord injury (12 in cervical spine, one in lumbar, and one thoracic spine. In elderly patients, the presence of associated lesions and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS < 9 were statistically significant as risk factors (P < 0.05 for spine injury.Conclusion: Spinal cord injury related to moderate and severe brain trauma usually affects the cervical spine. The incidence of spinal lesions and GCS < 9 points were related to greater incidence of spinal cord injury.Keywords: head injury, spine trauma, risk factors

  3. Head Injury Secondary to Suspected Child Maltreatment: Results of a Prospective Canadian National Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Susan; Ward, Michelle; Moreau, Katherine; Fortin, Gilles; King, Jim; MacKay, Morag; Plint, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the incidence, clinical features, and demographic profile of head injury secondary to suspected child maltreatment (abuse or neglect) in Canada to help inform the development and evaluation of prevention programs for abusive head injuries. Methods: From March 1, 2005 to February 28, 2008, an average of 2,545…

  4. A surveillance of needle-stick injuries amongst student nurses at the University of Namibia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Louis, Small; Louise, Pretorius; Althea, Walters; Maria J., Ackerman.

    Full Text Available Needle-stick injuries have the potential to change a student nurse's life; yet they are dealt with covertly and many go unreported. This could create difficulties when evaluating a curriculum, because potential risk issues in nursing education might go undetected. In addition, needle-stick injuries [...] are inherently preventable occupational health hazards. The fact that there has been, until now, no information available on the incidence of, and context in which needle-stick injuries occur amongst student nurses in Namibia, is of particular concern for nurse educators in that country. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the incidence of needle-stick injuries and to describe the context of their occurrences. A framework known as Haddon's matrix made it possible to approach this survey from both an occupational and a nursing education perspective. The questionnaire was completed by 198 students and it was found that, during 2008 alone, 17% of student nurses sustained needle-stick injuries, but only 55% of these reported it. In addition, in 55% of the occasions on which the student nurses were injured, they were not accompanied by a registered nurse. The recommendations made are based on the three phases of Haddon's matrix, namely pre-injury, injury and post-injury phases. These recommendations focussed on student accompaniment by registered nurses, the completion of reflective exercises, sensitisation sessions before placement in clinical areas, as well as the utilisation of independent student counsellors.

  5. Cholestatic Hepatitis with Small Duct Injury Associated with Celecoxib

    OpenAIRE

    Masooma Niazi; Bhavna Balar; Suresh Kumar Nayudu; Shanti Badipatla

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a common clinical entity but is underreported due to various reasons. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors like Celecoxib have been proven to be associated with lesser incidence of adverse drug reactions compared to other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). However, Celecoxib has been rarely reported to be associated with cholestasis and hepatitis. We present a young Hispanic female presented with cholestatic liver chemistries who has been taking Celecoxib...

  6. Emergency room visits for work-related injuries: characteristics and associated factors - capitals and the Federal District, Brazil, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; de Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Gómez, Carlos Minayo

    2015-03-01

    Work-related injuries, often classified as occupational injuries (OI), stand out among visits due to external causes (accidents and violence) in health services. To describe the characteristics and factors associated with emergency room visits for OI, a cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Survey of Violence and Injuries in Emergency Services (VIVA Inquérito 2011) in 24 state capitals and the Federal District. The prevalence of treatment for OI and prevalence ratios (PR) with confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) were calculated. There were 29,463 emergency room visits due to accidental injuries in the population above 18 years of age. The prevalence of OI was 33.4% and was positively and significantly associated with the male gender, age 30-59 years old, industrial workers, agricultural sector or repair and maintenance services. The occurrence of OI was significantly higher in attendance for objects falling on people (PR = 3.37, 95% CI 2.80 to 4.05) and injuries due to perforating object (PR = 3.01, 95% CI 2.50-3.65). The results support the surveillance of external causes and direct public policies to promote occupational health. PMID:25760108

  7. Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56% with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injuries received financial assistance from workers compensation claims, 36% did not apply for financial assistance and 5% applied but did not receive any financial assistance. The most common types of workplace injuries incurred were: sprains and strains (30%, chronic joint/muscle conditions (18% and cuts/open wounds (16% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. The total economic cost from workplace injuries in Australia for the 2005-06 financial year was estimated at $57.5 billion, representing 5.9% of GDP for the financial year (Australian Safety and Compensation Council, 2009. Workplace injuries also incur immeasurable personal costs to Australian workers and their families. Individual lives are altered, even lost; individual hopes and dreams of a better life are shattered. Family roles, responsibilities and relationships become strained due to changes in income earnings and the imposed challenging needs for increased social support and increased caring needs within the home due to workplace injury. Why do Australian workers get injured in their workplaces? Is it due to their individual worker factors, or is it due to social factors associated with their work and workplace? While individual worker factors, such as: gender, age, personality, ethnicity, and substance use, do contribute to workplace injuries and fatalities, broader social and organizational workplace factors, such as: workload, work hours, work environment, safety culture, provision of quality supervision, and provision of occupational health and safety training, socially structure, and influence individual worker attitudes and behaviours in workplace injury and fatalities.

  8. Nutritional parameters are associated with mortality in acute kidney injury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Nogueira, Berbel; Cassiana Regina, de Góes; André Luis, Balbi; Daniela, Ponce.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a nutritional assessment of acute kidney injury patients and to identify the relationship between nutritional markers and outcomes. METHOD: This was a prospective and observational study. Patients who were hospitalized at the Hospital of Botuca [...] tu School of Medicine were evaluated between January 2009 and December 2011. We evaluated a total of 133 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute kidney injury and a clinical presentation suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. We explored the associations between clinical, laboratory and nutritional markers and in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding and selection bias. RESULTS: Non-survivor patients were older (67±14 vs. 59±16 years) and exhibited a higher prevalence of sepsis (57.1 vs. 21.4%) and higher Acute Tubular Necrosis-Individual Severity Scores (0.60±0.22 vs. 0.41±0.21) than did survivor patients. Based on the multivariable analysis, laboratorial parameters such as blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein were associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 1.013, p?=?0.0052; OR: 1.050, p?=?0.01, respectively), and nutritional parameters such as low calorie intake, higher levels of edema, lower resistance based on bioelectrical impedance analysis and a more negative nitrogen balance were significantly associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 0.950, p?=?0.01; OR: 1.138, p?=?0.03; OR: 0.995, p?=?0.03; OR: 0.934, p?=?0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In acute kidney injury patients, a nutritional assessment seems to identify nutritional markers that are associated with outcome. In this study, a low caloric intake, higher C-reactive protein levels, the presence of edema, a lower resistance measured during a bioelectrical impedance analysis and a lower nitrogen balance were significantly associated with risk of death in acute kidney injury patients.

  9. Injury surveillance during a national female youth football tournament in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Lislevand, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Background: Participation of girls in football is growing in Kenya. Football in Kenya is not only a leisure time activity it is also used as a tool for community and individual development. Injuries in developing countries are often neglected. Most epidemiological studies on female youth football players are from Europe or North-America. Epidemiological studies on female youth football players in Africa are limited. Objective: To analyze the incidence, characteristics and circumstance of inju...

  10. Factors Associated With Pedestrian-Vehicle Collision Injuries and Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Beth A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Bergman, Abraham B.

    1987-01-01

    Data from Washington State police records of pedestrian-vehicle collisions were used to tabulate injury and fatality rates for 1981 to 1983 and to investigate event characteristics associated with the occurrence of fatalities. Case-fatality rates are seen to be relatively higher when there is decreased visibility due to fog, lack of lighting or dark color of pedestrian clothing. Fatality rates from death certificate data for the same time period were compared with the police-reported rates. F...

  11. Death Associated Protein Kinases: Molecular Structure and Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Thornton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal brain damage underlies an important share of motor and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, visual dysfunction and epilepsy. Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have revealed that factors such as inflammation, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress contribute considerably to both white and grey matter injury in the immature brain. A member of the death associated protein kinase (DAPk family, DAPk1, has been implicated in cerebral ischemic damage, whereby DAPk1 potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity through interaction with the NR2BR subunit. DAPk1 also mediate a range of activities from autophagy, membrane blebbing and DNA fragmentation ultimately leading to cell death. DAPk mRNA levels are particularly highly expressed in the developing brain and thus, we hypothesize that DAPk1 may play a role in perinatal brain injury. In addition to reviewing current knowledge, we present new aspects of the molecular structure of DAPk domains, and relate these findings to interacting partners of DAPk1, DAPk-regulation in NMDA-induced cerebral injury and novel approaches to blocking the injurious effects of DAPk1.

  12. A road traffic injury surveillance system using combined data sources in Peru Sistema de vigilancia de traumatismos por accidentes de tránsito con fuentes de datos combinadas en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Yliana Rojas Medina; Victoria Espitia-Hardeman; Dellinger, Ann M; Manuel Loayza; Rene Leiva; Gloria Cisneros

    2011-01-01

    A national hospital-based nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance system was established at sentinel units across Peru in 2007 under the leadership of the Ministry of Health. Surveillance data are drawn from three different sources (hospital records, police reports, and vehicle insurance reports) and include nonfatal road traffic injuries initially attended at emergency rooms. A single data collection form is used to record information about the injured, event characteristics related to the...

  13. Family Systems Issues Associated with Closed Head Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braciszeski, Terry L.

    This report begins by providing two case examples of closed head injuries in families. Closed head injuries or traumatic brain injuries are briefly defined and it is noted that brain injury can cause socialization problems, personality changes, and confusion. It is suggested that families that have an individual member with a closed head injury

  14. Surveillance of potential associations between occupations and causes of death in Canada, 1965-91

    OpenAIRE

    Aronson, K. J.; Howe, G. R.; Carpenter, M.; Fair, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detect unsuspected associations between workplace situations and specific causes of death in Canada. METHODS: An occupational surveillance system was established consisting of a cohort of 457,224 men and 242,196 women employed between 1965 and 1971, constituting about 10% of the labour force in Canada at that time. Mortality between 1965 and 1991 has been determined by computerised record linkage with the Canadian mortality database. Through regression analysis, associatio...

  15. Frequency of co-morbidities associated with spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequencies of comorbidities (dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) of duration > 1 year. Study Design: Case control. Place and Duration of Study: Spinal Cord Injury Department, Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM) Rawalpindi and Department of Chemical Pathology, Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), from October 2013 to March 2014. Patients and Methods: Thirty six patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI), level C5 to T12 were included by non-probability, convenience sampling. Control group consisted of age and sex matched healthy individuals. A detailed medical history was obtained. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for plasma glucose and serum lipid profile. Results: Out of thirty six patients, 31 (86.1%) were male and 5 (13.9%) were females; their mean age was 36.6 ± 11 years. Mean duration of injury was 6.04 ± 3.35 years. Among cases, dyslipidemias were detected in 25 (69.4%) patients while 7 (19.4%) patients had diabetes mellitus. Whereas in control group, frequency of dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus were significantly lower than cases i.e 13.8% and 5.5% respectively. Also no significant difference was found between blood pressures of study group when compared with control group. Conclusion: Individuals with chronic SCI had more frequent associated co-morbid conditions like dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus than normal individuals. Early screening is recommended in patients having SCI >6 months for better patient care and reduction in long term comorbidities in such patients. (author)

  16. Resilience Is Associated with Outcome from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losoi, Heidi; Silverberg, Noah D; Wäljas, Minna; Turunen, Senni; Rosti-Otajärvi, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Luoto, Teemu Miikka Artturi; Julkunen, Juhani; Öhman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L

    2015-07-01

    Resilient individuals manifest adaptive behavior and are better able to recover from adversity. The association between resilience and outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is examined, and the reliability and validity of the Resilience Scale and its short form in mTBI research is evaluated. Patients with mTBI (n=74) and orthopedic controls (n=39) completed the Resilience Scale at one, six, and 12 months after injury. Additionally, self-reported post-concussion symptoms, fatigue, insomnia, pain, post-traumatic stress, and depression, as well as quality of life, were evaluated. The internal consistency of the Resilience Scale and the short form ranged from 0.91 to 0.93 for the mTBI group and from 0.86 to 0.95 for controls. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.70 to 0.82. Patients with mTBI and moderate-to-high resilience reported significantly fewer post-concussion symptoms, less fatigue, insomnia, traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms, and better quality of life, than the patients with low resilience. No association between resilience and time to return to work was found. Resilience was associated with self-reported outcome from mTBI, and based on this preliminary study, can be reliably evaluated with Resilience Scale and its short form in those with mTBIs. PMID:25764398

  17. Development, Implementation and Use of Electronic Surveillance for Ventilator-Associated Events (VAE) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetar, Ervina; McMullen, Kathleen M.; Russo, Anthony J.; Doherty, Joshua A.; Gase, Kathleen A.; Woeltje, Keith F.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation provides an important, life-saving therapy for severely ill patients, but ventilated patients are at an increased risk for complications, poor outcomes, and death during hospitalization.1 The timely measurement of negative outcomes is important in order to identify potential issues and to minimize the risk to patients. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created an algorithm for identifying Ventilator-Associated Events (VAE) in adult patients for reporting to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Currently, the primarily manual surveillance tools require a significant amount of time from hospital infection prevention (IP) staff to apply and interpret. This paper describes the implementation of an electronic VAE tool using an internal clinical data repository and an internally developed electronic surveillance system that resulted in a reduction of labor efforts involved in identifying VAE at Barnes Jewish Hospital (BJH). PMID:25954410

  18. Inflammatory Signalling Associated with Brain Dead Organ Donation: From Brain Injury to Brain Stem Death and Posttransplant Ischaemia Reperfusion Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Ryan P.; Thom, Ogilvie; Fraser, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Brain death is associated with dramatic and serious pathophysiologic changes that adversely affect both the quantity and quality of organs available for transplant. To fully optimise the donor pool necessitates a more complete understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of organ dysfunction associated with transplantation. These injurious processes are initially triggered by catastrophic brain injury and are further enhanced during both brain death and graft transplantation. The activated...

  19. Using mortuary statistics in the development of an injury surveillance system in Ghana / Utilisation des statistiques des morgues d'hôpital dans la mise au point d'un système de surveillance des traumatismes au Ghana / Uso de estadísticas de depósitos de cadáveres para desarrollar un sistema de vigilancia de los traumatismos en Ghana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jason, London; Charles, Mock; Francis A., Abantanga; Robert E., Quansah; K.A., Boateng.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desarrollar un programa piloto destinado a mejorar la exactitud de los registros de las defunciones por traumatismos en un depósito de cadáveres. MÉTODOS: Se procedió a mejorar el sistema de registro de las defunciones por traumatismos en la morgue del Hospital Docente Komfo Anokye, en Kum [...] asi, Ghana, en 1996, procediendo para ello a crear una base de datos prospectivos. RESULTADOS: Se observó un incremento del número de defunciones por traumatismos notificadas anualmente, de las 72 registradas antes de 1995 a las 633 de 1996-1999. Los traumatismos representaban el 8,6% de todas las defunciones registradas en la morgue, y el 12% de las defunciones registradas en el intervalo de 15 a 59 años; el 80% de las defunciones causadas por traumatismos se produjeron fuera del hospital, y por tanto no aparecían reflejadas en las estadísticas hospitalarias. El 88% de las defunciones por traumatismos estaban relacionadas con el transporte, y en el 50% de los casos las víctimas eran peatones. CONCLUSIÓN: Los traumatismos eran una causa importante de mortalidad en este entorno urbano de África, sobre todo entre los adultos en edad activa. Usando métodos sencillos y baratos se consiguió hacer más completa y precisa la notificación de las defunciones asociadas a traumatismos en un depósito de cadáveres. Esta fuente de datos podría ser una contribución importante a un sistema de vigilancia de los traumatismos, junto con los archivos hospitalarios y los informes de la policía sobre los accidentes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To develop, in a mortuary setting, a pilot programme for improving the accuracy of records of deaths caused by injury. METHODS: The recording of injury-related deaths was upgraded at the mortuary of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana, in 1996 through the creation of a prosp [...] ectively gathered database. FINDINGS: There was an increase in the number of deaths reported annually as attributable to injury from 72 before 1995 to 633 in 1996-99. Injuries accounted for 8.6% of all deaths recorded in the mortuary and for 12% of deaths in the age range 15-59 years; 80% of deaths caused by injury occurred outside the hospital and thus would not have been indicated in hospital statistics; 88% of injury-related deaths were associated with transport, and 50% of these involved injuries to pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS: Injury was a significant cause of mortality in this urban African setting, especially among adults of working age. The reporting of injury-related deaths in a mortuary was made more complete and accurate by means of simple inexpensive methods. This source of data could make a significant contribution to an injury surveillance system, along with hospital records and police accident reports.

  20. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ventilator-associated lung injury after surfactant depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Cynthia M.; Markstaller, Klaus; Kajikawa, Osamu; Karmrodt, Jens; Syring, Rebecca S.; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Good, Virginia P.; Frevert, Charles W.; Baumgardner, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Volutrauma and atelectrauma have been proposed as mechanisms of ventilator-associated lung injury, but few studies have compared their relative importance in mediating lung injury. The objective of our study was to compare the injury produced by stretch (volutrauma) vs. cyclical recruitment (atelectrauma) after surfactant depletion. In saline-lavaged rabbits, we used high tidal volume, low respiratory rate, and low positive end-expiratory pressure to produce stretch injury in nondependent lun...

  1. A proposta da rede de serviços sentinela como estratégia da vigilância de violências e acidentes The injury surveillance system based on sentinel health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as bases de dados oficiais permitem o monitoramento da mortalidade e internações no SUS, decorrentes dos acidentes e violências. É preciso conhecer a magnitude e o perfil dessas causas que demandam os serviços de emergência, bem como identificar alguns problemas ocultos tais como as violências doméstica e sexual. O propósito deste artigo é apresentar a proposta do Ministério da Saúde de implantação da Rede de Serviços Sentinela de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes - Rede VIVA, iniciada em 2006, que visa complementar o sistema de informações existente para a vigilância dessas causas. Para obter um quadro mais completo do problema e atender à legislação vigente no País, foram estabelecidos dois componentes: 1 Vigilância de acidentes e violências em emergências hospitalares selecionadas: coleta em um mês a cada ano, através de uma amostra; 2 Vigilância das violências sexual, doméstica e/ou outras violências interpessoais em serviços de referência: coleta universal e contínua. O estabelecimento da Rede VIVA foi realizado pelo Ministério da Saúde em parceria com as Secretarias Estaduais e Municipais de Saúde a partir de critérios previamente estabelecidos. A adesão ao projeto foi acima das expectativas, todas as regiões do Brasil foram representadas.In Brazil, the official data sets allow monitoring the impact of injury deaths and injury hospitalization in the public health system. But it is necessary to gather more information about the magnitude and the characteristics of injuries at Emergency Departments (ED, as well as to identify some hidden problems, such as domestic and sexual violence. The purpose of this article is to present the new Injury Surveillance System based on Sentinel Health Services, carried out by the Ministry of Health in order to broaden the knowledge of these causes.To have a more accurate picture of injuries and to enforce the law which made mandatory the information about violence against women in the country, the measures to be taken were twofold: 1 injury surveillance in ED, carried out in chosen services, collecting one-month data yearly, through a sample; 2 domestic, sexual and interpersonal violence surveillance carried out in violence reference services, through universal and continuous data collection, involving a larger number of services. The implementation of that Health Sentinel Services Network has been conducted by the Ministry of Health in partnership with the State and Municipal Health Departments based on pre-established criteria. The adherence to the project has been taken place all over Brazil.

  2. Seatbelt syndrome associated with an isolated rectal injury: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani-Hashem Ahmed M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seatbelt syndrome is defined as a seatbelt sign associated with a lumbar spine fracture and a bowel perforation. An isolated rectal perforation due to seatbelt syndrome is extremely rare. There is only one case reported in the Danish literature and non in the English literature. A 48-year old front seat restrained passenger was involved in a head-on collision. He had lower abdominal pain and back pain. Seatbelt mark was seen across the lower abdomen. Initial trauma CT scan was normal except for a burst fracture of L5 vertebra which was operated on by internal fixation on the same day. The patient continued to have abdominal pain. A repeated abdominal CT scan on the third day has shown free intraperitoneal air. Laparotomy has revealed a perforation of the proximal part of the rectum below the recto sigmoid junction. Hartmann's procedure was performed. The abdomen was left open. Gradual closure of the abdominal fascia over a period of two weeks was performed. Postoperatively, the patient had temporary urinary retention due to quada equina injury which resolved 10 months after surgery. The presence of a seatbelt sign and a lumbar fracture should raise the possibility of a bowel injury.

  3. Aggravating andmitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Vavatsoulas,, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is one of the leading cycling nations, where cycling trips constitute a large share of the total trips, and cycling safety assumes a top priority position in the agenda of policy makers. The current study sheds light on the aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity on Danish roads by examining a comprehensive set of accidents involving a cyclist and a collision partner between 2007 and 2011. Method: This study estimates a generalized ordered logit model of the severity of cyclist injuries because of its ability to accommodate the ordered-response nature of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Results: Model estimates show that cyclist fragility (children under 10 years old and elderly cyclists over 60 years of age) and cyclist intoxication are aggravating individual factors,while helmet use is a mitigating factor. Speed limits above 70–80 km/h, slippery road surface, and location of the crash on road sections are aggravating infrastructure factors, while the availability of cycling paths and dense urban development are mitigating factors. Heavy vehicle involvement and conflicts between cyclists going straight or turning left and other vehicles going straight are aggravating vehicle involvement factors. Practical applications: The results are discussed in the context of applied policies, engineering, and traffic management solutions for bicycle safety in Denmark.

  4. Revisiting acute liver injury associated with herbalife products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Appelhans

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the November 27, 2010 issue of the World Journal of Hepatology (WJH, three case reports were published which involved patients who had consumed various dietary supplements and conventional foods generally marketed as weight loss products. The reference to Herbalife products as contaminated and generally comparable to all dietary supplements or weight loss products is not scientifically supported. The authors provided an insufficient amount of information regarding patient histories, concomitant medications and other compounds, dechallenge results, and product specifications and usage. This information is necessary to fully assess the association of Herbalife products in the WJH case reports. Therefore, the article does not objectively support a causal relationship between the reported cases of liver injury and Herbalife products or ingredients.

  5. Revisiting acute liver injury associated with herbalife products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Kristy; Smith, Casey; Bejar, Ezra; Henig, Y Steve

    2011-10-27

    In the November 27, 2010 issue of the World Journal of Hepatology (WJH), three case reports were published which involved patients who had consumed various dietary supplements and conventional foods generally marketed as weight loss products. The reference to Herbalife products as contaminated and generally comparable to all dietary supplements or weight loss products is not scientifically supported. The authors provided an insufficient amount of information regarding patient histories, concomitant medications and other compounds, dechallenge results, and product specifications and usage. This information is necessary to fully assess the association of Herbalife products in the WJH case reports. Therefore, the article does not objectively support a causal relationship between the reported cases of liver injury and Herbalife products or ingredients. PMID:22059112

  6. The Association of Pneumonia with Clinical Outcome in Patients with Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmila Dissanaike; Stephen Cox; Soleil Arrieta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Inhalation injury is a particularly lethal form of thermal burn injury, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Pneumonia is a common complication of inhalation injury, due to the increased susceptibility of lungs that have been stripped of their biologic defense mechanisms, as well as the general susceptibility of the burn population to infections. While older series suggest that pneumonia is associated with worse mortality and morbidity, recent reports sugge...

  7. Using poison center data for national public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposure and associated illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, Colleen A; Law, Royal K; Schier, Josh G; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a national near-real-time surveillance system that improves situational awareness for chemical and poison exposures, according to data from US poison centers. NPDS is the successor to the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) use these data, which are owned and managed by the American Association of Poison Control Centers, to improve public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposures and associated illness, identify early markers of chemical events, and enhance situational awareness during outbreaks. Information recorded in this database is from self-reported calls from the public or health care professionals. In 2009, NPDS detected 22 events of public health significance and CDC used the system to monitor several multistate outbreaks. One of the limitations of the system is that exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning. Incorporating NPDS data into the public health surveillance network and subsequently using NPDS to rapidly identify chemical and poison exposures exemplifies the importance of the poison centers and NPDS to public health surveillance. This integration provides the opportunity to improve the public health response to chemical and poison exposures, minimizes morbidity and mortality, and serves as an important step forward in surveillance technology and integration. PMID:21937144

  8. Clinic-based surveillance for bacterial- and rotavirus-associated diarrhea in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzba, Thomas F; Abdel-Messih, Ibrahim Adib; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Putnam, Shannon D; Kamal, Karim A; Rozmajzl, Patrick; Ahmed, Salwa F; Fatah, Abdel; Zabedy, Khaled; Shaheen, Hind I; Sanders, John; Frenck, Robert

    2006-01-01

    To identify enteropathogens for vaccine development, we implemented clinic-based surveillance for severe pediatric diarrhea in Egypt's Nile River Delta. Over 2 years, a physician clinically evaluated and obtained stool samples for microbiology from patients with diarrhea and less than 6 years of age. In the first (N = 714) and second clinic (N = 561), respectively, 36% (N = 254) and 46% (N = 260) of children were infected with rotavirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter, or Shigella. When excluding mixed rotavirus-bacterial infections, for the first and second clinic, 23% and 10% had rotavirus-associated diarrhea, and 14% and 17% had ETEC-associated diarrhea, respectively. Campylobacter-associated diarrhea was 1% and 3%, and Shigella-associated diarrhea was 2% and 1%, respectively, for the two clinics. Rotavirus-associated diarrhea peaked in late summer to early winter, while bacterial agents were prevalent during summer. Rotavirus-associated cases presented with dehydration, vomiting, and were often hospitalized. Children with Shigella- or Campylobacter-associated diarrhea reported as watery diarrhea and rarely dysentery. ETEC did not have any clinically distinct characteristics. For vaccine development and/or deployment, our study suggests that rotavirus is of principle concern, followed by ETEC, Shigella, and Campylobacter. PMID:16407360

  9. Poor association between the progression criteria in active surveillance and subsequent histopathological findings following radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between active surveillance (AS) progression criteria and histopathology features in subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 229 patients managed on AS, 80 patients underwent RP, of whom 68 met at least one of the following three progression criteria: progression on rebiopsy, short prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (PSAdt) and increase clinical tumour category (cT). Patients revealing histopathological features in the RP specimens involving GS ? 7 (3 + 4) were considered to have achieved a potential survival gain from the procedure (timely RP). The association between the progression criteria and timely RP was analysed using univariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 68 patients who met at least one of the progression criteria, 66% had timely RP features. Progression on rebiopsy was significantly associated with timely RP [odds ratio (OR) = 5.00, 95% confidence interval (CI)1.51-16.51]. Although not statistically significant, progression defined by PSAdt was negatively associated with timely RP (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-1.00). Increase in cT showed no association with timely RP (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.35-3.87). CONCLUSIONS: A poor association was found between the progression criteria employed in the AS programme and histopathology features after subsequent RP. Only progression on rebiopsy was significantly associated with final histopathology.

  10. Injury surveillance in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Contreiras, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    In Portugal, the National Health Service (NHS) is responsible for providing health care to its ten and a half million inhabitants. Health service planning and regulation take largely place at the central level in the Ministry of Health (MoH) and its institutions, through its National Health Plan. The management of the NHS is devolved to the 5 health regions, Norte, Centro, Lisboa e Vale do Tejo, Alentejo and Algarve, and to the 2 autonomous regions, Açores and Madeira. Primary care centre...

  11. The association of the rapid assessment of supervision scale score and unintentional childhood injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, James; Teran, Paul; Dowd, M Denise; Simon, Steve; Schnitzer, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    Supervisory neglect is often considered in medical settings when a child presents with an unintentional injury. The Rapid Assessment of Supervision Scale (RASS) is a clinical decision-making tool for the assessment of supervision of young children. As the next step in the development of the RASS, we assessed the association of RASS scores with unintentional injury. This study was a secondary analysis of data from a case-crossover study, which examined the association of parental supervision and unintentional injury in children. Data on supervision characteristics for 3 time periods for each child were available, that is, one injury scenario and two "control" time periods when no injury occurred. Blinded to injury status, four raters independently evaluated adequacy of supervision in 132 supervision scenarios using the RASS. The individual RASS scores of the four raters and the group (mean) RASS score of the four raters were evaluated for associations with injury status. Individual scores from three of the four raters demonstrated significant associations of increasing RASS scores with injury. Increasing group RASS scores (odds ratio = 2.8; 95% confidence interval [1.5, 5.1]) were associated with greater likelihood of injury. Further testing may result in a tool that aids medical personnel in the evaluation of adequacy of supervision. PMID:25601937

  12. Subtle Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Mild Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lawson, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,345 high school students and 2,321 university students found that 30-37% reported having experienced a head injury, with 12-15% reporting loss of consciousness. Significant relationships were found between mild head injury incidence and gender; sleep difficulties; social difficulties; handedness pattern; and diagnoses of attention…

  13. Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey: Association Between Part-time Employment and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Myung-Soo; Jeong, Hyunsuk; Lee, Won-Chul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the association between in-school students' part-time work and 1-year suicide attempts in Korea. The authors analyzed Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (2008), which included 75 238 samples that represent Korean middle and high school students. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between part-time work and suicide attempt during the past 1 year, controlled by sociodemographic, school-related, lifestyle, and psychological factors. Among high school students, there was no association between part-time work and suicide attempts. However, part-time work was associated with suicide attempts significantly among middle school students (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval = 1.37-1.83). Despite the limitation that details of the part-time work were not included in this study, it was found that middle school students' part-time work may increase suicide attempts, and the circumstances of Korean adolescents' employment, especially that of younger adolescents, would need to be reconsidered to prevent their suicide attempts. PMID:24566603

  14. Association between early airway damage-associated molecular patterns and subsequent bacterial infection in patients with inhalational and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Robert; Jones, Samuel; Pan, Yinghao; Zhou, Haibo; Jaspers, Ilona; Peden, David B; Cairns, Bruce A; Noah, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial infection is a major cause of morbidity affecting outcome following burn and inhalation injury. While experimental burn and inhalation injury animal models have suggested that mediators of cell damage and inflammation increase the risk of infection, few studies have been done on humans. This is a prospective, observational study of patients admitted to the North Carolina Jaycee Burn Center at the University of North Carolina who were intubated and on mechanical ventilation for treatment of burn and inhalational injury. Subjects were enrolled over a 2-yr period and followed till discharge or death. Serial bronchial washings from clinically indicated bronchoscopies were collected and analyzed for markers of tissue injury and inflammation. These include damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as hyaluronic acid (HA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70), and high-mobility group protein B-1 (HMGB-1). The study population was comprised of 72 patients who had bacterial cultures obtained for clinical indications. Elevated HA, dsDNA, and IL-10 levels in bronchial washings obtained early (the first 72 h after injury) were significantly associated with positive bacterial respiratory cultures obtained during the first 14 days postinjury. Independent of initial inhalation injury severity and extent of surface burn, elevated levels of HA dsDNA and IL-10 in the central airways obtained early after injury are associated with subsequent positive bacterial respiratory cultures in patients intubated after acute burn/inhalation injury. PMID:25770180

  15. Excessive Progression in Weekly Running Distance and Risk of Running-related Injuries : An Association Modified by Type of Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, Erik Thorlund

    2014-01-01

    Study Design An explorative 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury is modified by type of injury. Background It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. Methods A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners, who started a self-structured running regimen, were provided a global positioning system (GPS) watch. After each running session during the study period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups based on their progression in weekly running distance: less than 10% (including regression), 10 to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. Results A total of 202 runners sustained a running-related injury. Using Cox regression analysis, no statistically significant differences in injury rates were found acrossthe 3 exposure groups. An increased rate of distance-related injuries (patellofemoral pain, iliotibial band syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, gluteus medius injury, greater trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those progressing their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those progressing less than 10% (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.59 [95% CI: 0.96 to 2.66], P = 0.07). Conclusion Novice runners progressing their running distance by more than 30% over a 2-week period seem to be more vulnerable to distance-related injuries than runners increasing their running distance by less than 10%. Owing to the exploratory nature of the present study, randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these results, and more experimental studies are needed to validate the assumptions. Still, novice runners may be well advised to progress their weekly distances by less than 30% per week over a 2-week period. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 25 August2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.5164.

  16. Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Kumar

    2011-01-01

    636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56%) with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people) and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people) age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injur...

  17. [Hypoxic brain injuries notified to the Danish Patient Insurance Association during 1992-2004. Secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the files of the Danish Patient Insurance Association for newborns suffering from hypoxic brain injuries. From 1992 to 2004, a total of 127 approved claims concerning peripartum hypoxic injury were registered. Thirty-eight newborns died and the majority of the 89 surviving children suffered major handicaps, primarily cerebral palsy. In 69 of the cases, misinterpretation of or late action in response to an abnormal cardiotocography caused the hypoxic brain injuries. All injuries could potentially have been avoided using established obstetric practice Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/1

  18. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in association with a Taser-induced electrical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas; Moon, Matthew; Dross, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Various adverse outcomes related to the use of electrical weapons such as the stun gun or the Taser have been described in the literature over the years. Examples include cardiac arrhythmias, blunt and penetrating injuries, seizure activity, and altered mental status. Imaging findings related to electrical injuries have become more frequent with advancing imaging technologies, such as CT or MRI. However, imaging findings and pathophysiology of electrical injuries that result in significant neurological events remain largely unexplored. We report the case of a patient who developed an ischemic stroke following Taser discharge, raising the possibility of association between the electrical injury and the ischemic stroke. PMID:24287515

  19. Occupational transmission of hepatitis C in healthcare workers and factors associated with seroconversion: UK surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, S E; Elford, J; Nichols, T; Aston, J; Cliffe, S J; Roy, K; Grime, P; Ncube, F M

    2012-03-01

    The study aims were to describe a case series of occupationally acquired hepatitis C (HCV) infections in UK healthcare workers and examine factors associated with transmission using exposure data reported to the Health Protection Agency between July 1997 and December 2007. Fifteen reported cases of documented HCV seroconversion occurred after percutaneous exposure, the majority from hollow-bore needles used in the source patient's vein or artery and contaminated with blood or blood-stained fluid. The seroconversion rate was 2.2% (14/626). In multivariable analysis of healthcare workers with percutaneous exposure to blood or blood-stained fluid, we demonstrate that blood sampling procedures (odds ratio [OR], 5.75; 95% CI, 1.33-24.91; P = 0.01) and depth of injury (OR for deep vs superficial injury, 21.99; 95% CI, 2.02-239.61; P = 0.02) are independently associated with a greater risk of HCV seroconversion. This is the first UK study of occupationally acquired HCV in healthcare workers. It has reinforced our knowledge of risk factors for HCV transmission. Most of these exposures and transmissions were preventable. Healthcare employers should provide regular education on the risks of occupational exposure and prevention through standard infection control procedures. They should ensure the availability of effective prevention measures and facilitate prompt reporting and adequate follow-up of exposures. PMID:22329374

  20. Characteristics and associated factors with sports injuries among children and adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Franciele M., Vanderlei; Luiz C. M., Vanderlei; Fabio N., Bastos; Jayme, Netto Júnior; Carlos M., Pastre.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in childr [...] en and adolescents. METHOD: Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. RESULTS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice.

  1. Severe cerebral vasospasm after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehnel, Corey R; Wendell, Linda C; Potter, N Stevenson; Klinge, Petra; Thompson, Bradford B

    2014-07-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury is associated with both acute and delayed neuro- logical injury. Cerebral vasospasm is commonly associated with delayed neurological decline in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. However, the role played by vasospasm in traumatic brain injury is less clear. Vasospasm occurs earlier, for a shorter duration, and often without significant neurological consequence among traumatic brain injury patients. Detection and management strategies for vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage are not easily transferrable to traumatic brain injury patients. We present a patient with a severe traumatic brain injury who had dramatic improvement following emergent decompressive hemicraniectomy. Two weeks after initial presentation he suffered a precipitous decline despite intensive surveillance. This case illustrates the distinct challenges of diagnosing cerebral vasospasm in the setting of severe traumatic brain injury. PMID:24983022

  2. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks. PMID:21457433

  3. Vigilancia epidemiológica de infecciones asociadas a la asistencia sanitaria / Epidemiological surveillance of healthcare-associated infections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vicente Mario, Pacheco Licor; Dianelys de la Caridad, Gutiérrez Castañeda; Marly, Serradet Gómez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la vigilancia epidemiológica es una herramienta útil para identificar el riesgo de adquirir una infección asociada a la asistencia sanitaria en los hospitales y los factores de riesgo relacionados. Objetivo: demostrar los resultados de la vigilancia epidemiológica de infecciones en el [...] Hospital General Abel Santamaría Cuadrado de la provincia Pinar del Río. Material y método: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, prospectivo. El universo de estudio quedó constituido por los 25786 pacientes egresados en el año 2012 y la muestra por los 578 pacientes que adquirieron una infección asociada a la asistencia sanitaria. Se utilizaron las variables: servicio de procedencia, localización de la infección, microorganismo aislado y defunción. La información se obtuvo mediante la revisión de historias clínicas, registros de microbiología, registros de anatomía patológica y certificados de defunción. Resultados: se obtuvo una tasa global de infección de 2,2 por cada 100 egresos del servicio. El 47,5% de los pacientes con infecciones tuvo una afección respiratoria. Las enterobacterias fueron los gérmenes de mayor frecuencia de aislamiento, predominando entre ellos la E. Coli y el enterobacter. El riesgo de morir por infecciones asociadas a la asistencia fue de 4 por 1000 egresos hospitalarios, con un letalidad de un 20,1%. Conclusiones: la vigilancia epidemiológica mostró ser efectiva para la identificación de infecciones asociadas a la asistencia, con una tasa de incidencia hospitalaria adecuada, siendo más frecuentes las infecciones respiratorias sobre todo por enterobacterias, con una mortalidad y letalidad adecuada para este tipo de hospital. Abstract in english Introduction: epidemiological surveillance is useful for identifying the risk of acquiring in hospitals a healthcare-associated infection and other related risk factors. Objective: show the results of epidemiological surveillance of infections in Abel Santamaría Cuadrado General Hospital of Pinar de [...] l Río Province. Material and method: An observational, descriptive, prospective study. The study group was composed of the 25 786 patients discharged in 2012 and the sample, by the 578 patients who acquired an infection associated to healthcare. The following variables were used: service of origin, location of infection, isolated organism and death. The information was obtained by reviewing medical, microbiology and pathological anatomy records and death certificates. Results: a generalized infection rate of 2.2 per 100 discharges from service was obtained. 47.5% of patients with infections had a respiratory condition. Enterobacteria were germs isolated the most, predominantly including E. coli and Enterobacter. The risk of dying from healthcare-associated infections was 4 per 1000 hospital discharges with a fatality rate of 20.1%. Conclusions: epidemiological surveillance was effective for identifying healthcare-associated infections with an adequate rate of hospital incidence, being more frequent respiratory infections, especially Enterobacteriaceae, with mortality and lethality suitable for this type of hospital.

  4. White matter injury is associated with impaired gaze in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Hannah C; Fujimoto, Shinji; Ceppi-Cozzio, Camilla; Bartha, Agnes I.; Vigneron, Daniel B; Barkovich, A. James; Glidden, David V; Donna M Ferriero; Miller, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia is a risk factor for visual impairment in children born prematurely. The impact of diffuse white matter injury detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on early visual function is unknown. We developed two five-point visual gaze scores to analyze the association between this clinical assessment and white matter injury in 93 premature neonates less than 34 weeks gestational age at birth. Older gestational age was associated with higher values of the two gaze sc...

  5. Injuries and deaths associated with off-road recreational vehicles among children in Manitoba.

    OpenAIRE

    Postl, B. D.; Moffatt, M. E.; Black, G. B.; Cameron, C. B.

    1987-01-01

    Injuries and deaths associated with off-road recreational vehicles are of increasing concern in North America. We reviewed all hospital admissions and deaths attributed to these vehicles in Manitoba from April 1979 to April 1985 among children 16 years of age or younger. Of the 693 hospital admissions and deaths 480 were associated with motorbikes, snowmobiles or all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). The incidence of injuries resulting from snowmobile and dirtbike accidents remained stable over the st...

  6. Risk factors associated with the severity of injury outcome for paediatric road trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R J; Bambach, M R; Foster, K; Curtis, K

    2015-05-01

    Road trauma is one of the most common causes of injury for children. Yet risk factors associated with different levels of injury severity for childhood road trauma have not been examined in-depth. This study identifies crash and injury risk factors associated with the severity of non-fatal injury outcome for paediatric road trauma. A retrospective analysis was conducted of paediatric road trauma identified in linked police-reported and hospitalisation records during 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2011 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The linkage rate was 54%. Injury severity was calculated from diagnosis classifications in hospital records using the International Classification of Disease Injury Severity Score. Univariate and multi-variable logistic regression was conducted. There were 2412 car occupants, 1701 pedestrians and 612 pedal cyclists hospitalised where their hospital record linked to a police report. For car occupants, unauthorised vehicle drivers had twice the odds (OR: 2.21, 95%CI 1.47-3.34) and learner/provisional drivers had one and a half times higher odds (OR: 1.54, 95%CI 1.15-2.07) of a child car occupant sustaining a serious injury compared to a minor injury. For pedal cyclists and pedestrians, there were lower odds of a crash occurring during school commuting time and higher odds of a crash occurring during the weekend or on a dry road for children who sustained a serious versus a minor injury. Injury prevention initiatives, such as restraint and helmet use, that should reduce injury and/or crash severity are advocated. PMID:25744170

  7. The prevalence and impact of overuse injuries in five Norwegian sports: Application of a new surveillance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarsen, B; Bahr, R; Heymans, M W; Engedahl, M; Midtsundstad, G; Rosenlund, L; Thorsen, G; Myklebust, G

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the true extent and severity of overuse injuries in sport, largely because of methodological challenges involved in recording them. This study assessed the prevalence of overuse injuries among Norwegian athletes from five sports using a newly developed method designed specifically for this purpose. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire was distributed weekly by e-mail to 45 cross-country skiers, 98 cyclists, 50 floorball players, 55 handball players, and 65 volleyball players for 13 weeks. The prevalence of overuse problems at the shoulder, lower back, knee, and anterior thigh was monitored throughout the study and summary measures of an injury severity score derived from athletes' questionnaire responses were used to gauge the relative impact of overuse problems in each area. The area where overuse injuries had the greatest impact was the knee in volleyball where, on average, 36% of players had some form of complaint (95% CI 32-39%). Other prevalent areas included the shoulder in handball (22%, 95% CI 16-27%) the knee in cycling (23%, 95% CI 17-28%), and the knee and lower back in floorball (27%, 95% CI 24-31% and 29%, 95% CI 25-33%, respectively). PMID:24684525

  8. Falls from trees and tree associated injuries in rural Melanesians.

    OpenAIRE

    Barss, P; Dakulala, P; DOOLAN, M.

    1984-01-01

    Falls from trees and other tree related injuries are the most common cause of trauma in some parts of rural Melanesia. A four year review of all admissions for trauma to the Provincial Hospital at Alotau, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, showed that 27% were due to falls from trees, and a further 10% were due to related injuries, such as being struck by a falling branch or a coconut. A questionnaire distributed to rural health centres showed that during the study period at least 28 villa...

  9. Sport associated eye injury: a casualty department survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Macewen, C J

    1987-01-01

    A survey was performed of all patients attending the combined Glasgow Eye Infirmary and Western Infirmary Eye Casualty Department with sports injuries. During an 18-month period a total of 246 patients presented with such injuries. Football was responsible for 110 (44.7%), rugby for 24 (9.8%), squash for 19 (7.7%), badminton for 16 (6.5%), and skiing for 9 (3.7%), and 68 (27.6%) were caused by other sports. One hundred and sixty-two patients (65.8%) had superficial or surrounding soft tissue ...

  10. MR imaging of tibial plateau fractures : evaluation of fracture types and associated soft tissue injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing fracture types and soft tissue injuries associated with tibial plateau fractures. MRI was performed in 38 patients with tibial plateau fractures, each of which was classified according to the Schatzker system. We evaluated MR images and assessed the prevalence of each fracture type and accompanying soft tissue injuries. We also assessed whether ligamentous injury correlated with the extent of articular depression, splitting, and comminution. In 24 patients, diagnosis was based on MRI and operative or arthroscopic findings, and in 14 patients, on MRI alone. The totals of fracture types I, II, III, IV, V and VI were 4(11%), 15(39%), 6(16%), 4(11%), 4(11%), and 5 cases (13%), respectively. In 30 cases (79%), there were associated ligamentous or meniscal injuries. Medial collateral ligaments and lateral menisci were injured in 17(45%) and 14 cases (37%), respectively. Type II and IV fracture patterns were associated with soft tissue injuries in 14 of 15 cases (93%) and 4 of 4 cases (100%), respectively. As the extent of articular depression increased and the extent of bony comminution decreased, there was an increased prevalence of accompanying ligamentous injuries. In tibial plateau fractures, MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality for the evaluation of both fracture type and accompanying ligamentous or meniscal injuries

  11. A potential causal association mining algorithm for screening adverse drug reactions in postmarketing surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanqing; Ying, Hao; Dews, Peter; Mansour, Ayman; Tran, John; Miller, Richard E; Massanari, R Michael

    2011-05-01

    Early detection of unknown adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in postmarketing surveillance saves lives and prevents harmful consequences. We propose a novel data mining approach to signaling potential ADRs from electronic health databases. More specifically, we introduce potential causal association rules (PCARs) to represent the potential causal relationship between a drug and ICD-9 (CDC. (2010). International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9). [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/icd/icd9.html) coded signs or symptoms representing potential ADRs. Due to the infrequent nature of ADRs, the existing frequency-based data mining methods cannot effectively discover PCARs. We introduce a new interestingness measure, potential causal leverage, to quantify the degree of association of a PCAR. This measure is based on the computational, experience-based fuzzy recognition-primed decision (RPD) model that we developed previously (Y. Ji, R. M. Massanari, J. Ager, J. Yen, R. E. Miller, and H. Ying, "A fuzzy logic-based computational recognition-primed decision model," Inf. Sci., vol. 177, pp. 4338-4353, 2007) on the basis of the well-known, psychology-originated qualitative RPD model (G. A. Klein, "A recognition-primed decision making model of rapid decision making," in Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods, 1993, pp. 138-147). The potential causal leverage assesses the strength of the association of a drug-symptom pair given a collection of patient cases. To test our data mining approach, we retrieved electronic medical data for 16,206 patients treated by one or more than eight drugs of our interest at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Detroit between 2007 and 2009. We selected enalapril as the target drug for this ADR signal generation study. We used our algorithm to preliminarily evaluate the associations between enalapril and all the ICD-9 codes associated with it. The experimental results indicate that our approach has a potential to better signal potential ADRs than risk ratio and leverage, two traditional frequency-based measures. Among the top 50 signal pairs (i.e., enalapril versus symptoms) ranked by the potential causal-leverage measure, the physicians on the project determined that eight of them probably represent true causal associations. PMID:21435986

  12. Surveillance of multidrug resistance-associated genes in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe DONG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective?To understand the status of multidrug resistance-associated genes carried by Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from elderly patients in our hospital in order to provide a basis for surveillance of drug-resistance and inflection control. Methods?One hundred and twenty A. baumannii isolates were collected from elderly patients between 2008 and 2010. The mean age of the patients was 85 (65 to 95 years. Whonet 5.6 software was used to analyze the resistance rate of 16 antimicrobial agents. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the sequencing method were adopted to detect 10 kinds of resistance genes (blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA- 23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaTEM, blaampC, armA, ISAba1, intI 1, and intI 2. The corresponding resistance gene profiling(RGP was analyzed and designated according to the status of resistance genes. Results?The resistance rates to the remaining 15 kinds of antibiotics varied between 70.8% and 97.5%, with the exception of the sensitivity rate to polymyxin B by up to more than 90%. The positivity rates of blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaTEM, blaampC, armA, ISAba1 and intI 1 were 100%, 81.7%, 0.8%, 10.8%, 91.7%, 81.7%, 86.7%, and 83.3% respectively. A total of 18 kinds of drug-resistant gene maps were found, but blaOXA-24-like and intI 2 were not detected. Among these gene maps, the rate of RGP1 (blaOXA-23-like+blaampC+armA+ISAba1+ intI 1 was as high as 60.8%. Conclusions A. baumannii isolates from elderly patients have a higher carrying rate of drug-resistant genes, resulting in severe multidrugresistant conditions. Therefore, full-time infection control personnel and clinical physicians should actively participate in the surveillance, prevention, and control of infections caused by A. baumannii in the elderly.

  13. Fracture dislocation of sacroiliac joint associated with triradiate cartilage injury in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Muhittin; Karapinar, Hasan; Kazimoglu, Cemal; Yagdi, Serhan; Akgun, Ulas

    2008-03-01

    We report a very rare injury of a 8-year-old girl with sacroiliac fracture dislocation and triradiate cartilage separation. After the restoration of the sacroiliac joint by open means, reduction of the separated cartilage was seen. At 20 months follow-up, an osseous bridging at the triradiate cartilage and mild coxa valga deformity developed. We think that every child with serious sacroiliac joint injury should be evaluated for associated triradiate cartilage injury and followed to skeletal maturity for late complications such as acetabular dysplasia, hip subluxation and pelvic asymmetry. PMID:18510160

  14. Patterns of Susceptibility of Aspergillus Isolates Recovered from Patients Enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network?

    OpenAIRE

    Baddley, John W.; Marr, Kieren A.; Andes, David R.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Ito, James I.; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi; Pappas, Peter G.; Moser, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed antifungal susceptibilities of 274 clinical Aspergillus isolates from transplant recipients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis collected as part of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) and examined the relationship between MIC and mortality at 6 or 12 weeks. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 broth dilution method for amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITR), vo...

  15. Surveillance with successful reduction of central line-associated bloodstream infections among neutropenic patients with hematologic or oncologic malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Chaberny, Iris F.; Ruseva, Evelina; Sohr, Dorit; Buchholz, Stefanie; Ganser, Arnold; Mattner, Frauke; Gastmeier, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Abstract To determine nosocomial catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CA-BSIs) and to improve the prevention measures, we performed a prospective surveillance in our hematopoietic stem cell transplantation unit at our university hospital. During the 36-month study period all patients with at least two consecutive neutropenic days (NDs) were included. After the first 18 months the recorded data were analyzed and compared with reference data and were then presented to the clin...

  16. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries : 3. Injuries in the primary dentition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition present special problems and the management is often different as compared with the permanent dentition. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialities were included in the task group. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion or majority decision of the task group. Finally, the IADT board members were giving their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care for management of primary teeth injuries. The IADT cannot and does not guarantee favorable outcomes from strict adherence to the guidelines, but believe that their application can maximize the chances of a positive outcome.

  17. Injury-Associated PACAP Expression in Rat Sensory and Motor Neurons Is Induced by Endogenous BDNF

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Lina M. E.; Geremia, Nicole M.; Ying, Zhengxin; Verge, Valerie M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury results in dramatic upregulation in pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) expression in adult rat dorsal root ganglia and spinal motor neurons mirroring that described for the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, we posited that injury-associated alterations in BDNF expression regulate the changes in PACAP expression observed in the injured neurons. The role of endogenous BDNF in induction and/or maintenance of PACAP mRNA ex...

  18. Therapeutic Targeting of the Axonal and Microvascular Change Associated with Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Miyauchi, Takashi; Wei, Enoch P; Povlishock, John T

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has increased the recognition that repetitive mTBI occurring within the sports and military settings can exacerbate the adverse consequences of the initial injury. While multiple studies have recently reported the pathological, metabolic, and functional changes associated with repetitive mTBI, no consideration has been given to the development of therapeutic approaches to attenuate these abnormalities. In this study, we used the model of r...

  19. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Juice and Phenobarbital

    OpenAIRE

    Mrzljak, Anna; Kosuta, Iva; Skrtic, Anita; Kanizaj, Tajana Filipec; Vrhovac, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice is a popular herbal dietary supplement globally used for preventive or therapeutic purposes in a variety of ailments, claiming to exhibit hepatoprotective properties as well. Herein we present the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed acute liver injury associated with noni juice consumption on a long-term (9 months) anticonvulsant therapy. Clinical presentation and liver biopsy were consistent with severe, predominantly hepatocellular type of injury. Both ...

  20. Tears of anterior cruciate ligament and associated injury in the knee joint: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the characteristic findings in tears of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and associated injury at MR imaging. We reviewed the findings of MR images and the corresponding arthroscopic results of 32 patients with ACL tears. We evaluated the signal intensity and contour of ACL surrounding bony structures, menisci and associated injury of the knee joint. Complete ACL tears were present in 25 patients and partial ACL tears were in 7 patients. Complete ACL tears showed heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of the ACL in 14 patients (56%) and without bulging or absence in 11 patients(44%). Most patients torn ACL with contour bulging(12/14) had bone bruise, but only one patient torn ACL without bulging contour had bone bruise. ACL with thin continuous low signal band surrounding heterogenously increased signal intensity suggests partial tear which was seen in three patients of seven proved partial ACL tears. Combined bone injury in ACL tear were in 23 patients (73%) and most of these(22/23) were at midportion of lateral notch of femur and/or posterior portion of lateral tibial plateu. Deepening of lateral notch of femur were noted in 17 patients(53%). Associated injuries of the other ligaments of knee joint were buckling of the posterior cruciate ligament(16/32, 50%) and tears of the medial collateral ligament(11/32, 34%). Posterior horns of menisci were more frequent site of combined injury within meniscient site of combined injury within menisci in patients with ACL tear. Acute tearing of ACL in MRI is seen as heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of ACL and combined bone bruises. Patients with torn ACL frequently have various combined injury. In patient with knee injury, these associated or ancillary findings suggest that ACL tear is present

  1. Non-Traumatic Anterior Dislocation of a Total Knee Replacement Associated with Neurovascular Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Aderinto, Joseph; Gross, Allan E.; Rittenhouse, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Prosthetic total knee replacements rarely dislocate. When dislocation does occur, it is usually in a posterior direction in association with a posterior stabilised, cruciate-sacrificing prosthesis. Neurovascular injury is unusual. In this report, we describe a case of anterior dislocation of a cruciate-retaining total knee replacement in a 67-year-old woman. The dislocation occurred in the absence of overt trauma and resulted in severe neurovascular injury.

  2. Device-associated nosocomial infection surveillance in a Turkish pediatric intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra ?evketo?lu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate invasive device-related nosocomial infection rate in a Turkish pediatric intensive care unit (PICU. Material and Method: Two hundred forty patient included in the prospective active surveillance study that was conducted in Bak?rköy Dr. Sadi Konuk Research and Training Hospital PICU department between January 2008 and July 2009. Center of Disease Control methodology has been used for data collecting and calculating rates. Results: Eleven invasive device related nosocomial infection were detected in 240 patients and 2909 patient days for overall rate of 4.58% and 3.78 infections per 1000 days. Ventilator utilisation rate was found to be 53% and ventilator-associated pneumonia per 1000 ventilator day was 4.53. Urinary catheter utilization rate was 14%, urinary catheter related urinary system infection rate was 4.75/1000 urinary catheter days. Central catheter utilization rate was 22%, central catheter related bloodstream infection rate was 3.16/1000 catheter days. Coagulase-negative stafilococcus (%26.09, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (%13.04, Escherichia coli (%13.04, Staphylococcus aureus (%8.70, Candida spp (%8.70, Acinetobacter baumannii (%4.35, Enterobacter aerogenes (%4.35, enterococcus faecium (%4.35, Proteus mirabilis (%4.35 were the most common microorganisms isolated. Ceftriaxon, cefaperazon-sulbactam and piperacilllin-tazobactam were the most effective antibiotics against gram-negative bacteria. The overall methicillin resistance rate was 100% among gram positive bacteria and all of them were sensitive to vancomycine. Conclusions: To best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Turkey to document that the invasive device related nosocomial infection in PICU. Invasive device related infection rates of our PICU were similar to those reported in many developed countries.(Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45: 13-7

  3. Multiligament knee injuries with associated tibial plateau fractures: A report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabesan, Vani J; Danielsky, Paul J; Childs, Abby; Valikodath, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The management of a combination of fracture and multiligament knee injury (MKI) in traumatic knee injury remains controversial, and there are evolving treatment recommendations. Currently, there are no studies focusing on older adult patients with MKI’s in combination with tibia fractures. As a result, there is no well-established treatment algorithm for older adult patients with these complex injuries. We report two cases of MKI’s with concomitant fractures in patients fifty years of age or older. Both patients were treated surgically for their associated tibial plateau fractures, but were managed with conservative treatment of the multiligamentous knee injuries. We also provide a review of the literature and guidelines for older adult patients with these types of complex traumatic injuries. Early to mid term acceptable outcomes were achieved for both patients through surgical fixation of the tibial plateau fracture and conservative treatment of the ligament injuries. We propose a comprehensive treatment algorithm for management of these complex injuries. PMID:25893180

  4. Injury Profiles Associated with Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tarkwa, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calys-Tagoe, Benedict N L; Ovadje, Lauretta; Clarke, Edith; Basu, Niladri; Robins, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is inherently risky, but little is known about mining-associated hazards and injuries despite the tremendous growth worldwide of ASGM and the benefits it offers. The current study aimed to characterize the physical injuries associated with ASGM in Ghana to guide policy formulation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Tarkwa mining district of the Western Region of Ghana in 2014. A total of 404 small-scale miners were recruited and interviewed regarding their occupational injury experiences over the preceding 10 years using a paper-based structured questionnaire. Nearly one-quarter (23.5%) of the miners interviewed reported getting injured over the previous 10 years, and the overall injury rate was calculated to be 5.39 per 100 person years. The rate was significantly higher for women (11.93 per 100 person years) and those with little mining experience (e.g., 25.31 per 100 person years for those with less than one year of work experience). The most injury-prone mining activities were excavation (58.7%) and crushing (23.1%), and over 70% of the injuries were reported to be due to miners being hit by an object. The majority of the injuries (57%) were lacerations, and nearly 70% of the injuries were to the upper or lower limbs. Approximately one-third (34.7%) of the injuries resulted in miners missing more than two weeks of work. One-quarter of the injured workers believed that abnormal work pressure played a role in their injuries, and nearly two-fifths believed that their injuries could have been prevented, with many citing personal protective equipment as a solution. About one-quarter of the employees reported that their employers never seemed to be interested in the welfare or safety of their employees. These findings greatly advance our understanding of occupational hazards and injuries amongst ASGM workers and help identify several intervention points. PMID:26184264

  5. Analysis of the pediatric health information system database as a surveillance tool for travel-associated infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel; Birkholz, Meghan; Gaensbauer, James T; Asturias, Edwin J; Todd, James K

    2015-05-01

    The Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database collects admission, diagnostic, and treatment data among 44 children's hospitals across the United States (U.S.) and presents an opportunity for travel-associated infectious disease (TAID) surveillance. We calculated cumulative incidence rates among children admitted to 16 PHIS hospitals for dengue, malaria, and typhoid, and pooled TAID using discharge codes from 1999 to 2012. We compared incidence rates before, during, and after the 2007-2009 economic recession. Among 16 PHIS hospitals during the study period (1999-2012), incidence of dengue and pooled TAID (malaria, dengue, typhoid fever) increased significantly, and rates of malaria and typhoid trended upward. Admissions for dengue and pooled TAIDs increased significantly among 16 children's hospitals across the United States from 1999 to 2012. The PHIS database may provide a useful surveillance tool for TAIDs among children in the United States. PMID:25778506

  6. Type II collagen C2C epitope in human synovial fluid and serum after knee injury - associations with molecular and structural markers of injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumahashi, N; Swärd, P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Investigate in a cross-sectional study time-dependent changes of synovial fluid type II collagen epitope C2C concentrations after knee injury and correlate to other joint injury biomarkers. METHODS: Synovial fluid samples were aspirated between 0 days and 7 years after injury (n = 235). Serum was collected from 71 of the knee injured patients. Synovial fluid from 8 knee-healthy subjects was used as reference. C2C was quantified by immunoassay and structural injury was determined from magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the injured knee acquired 1-38 days after injury (n = 98). Additional joint injury biomarker results were from earlier investigations of the same samples. RESULTS: Synovial fluid C2C concentrations were higher in injured knees than in knees of reference subjects from 1 day up to 7 years after injury. C2C concentrations in synovial fluid and serum were correlated (r = 0.403, P < 0.001). In synovial fluid from subjects early after injury (0-33 days), C2C concentrations were correlated with cross-linked C-telopeptide of type II collagen (r = 0.444, P = 0.003), ARGS-aggrecan (r = 0.337, P < 0.001), osteocalcin (r = 0.345, P < 0.001), osteopontin (r = 0.371, P < 0.001) and IL-8 (r = -0.385, P < 0.001), but not with structural joint injury as visualized on MRI. CONCLUSION: The increased levels of synovial fluid C2C after injury, together with the associations seen with several other injury-related biomarkers, suggest that an acute knee injury is associated with an immediate and sustained local degradation of type II collagen.

  7. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Juice and Phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrzljak, Anna; Kosuta, Iva; Skrtic, Anita; Kanizaj, Tajana Filipec; Vrhovac, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice is a popular herbal dietary supplement globally used for preventive or therapeutic purposes in a variety of ailments, claiming to exhibit hepatoprotective properties as well. Herein we present the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed acute liver injury associated with noni juice consumption on a long-term (9 months) anticonvulsant therapy. Clinical presentation and liver biopsy were consistent with severe, predominantly hepatocellular type of injury. Both agents were stopped and corticosteroids were initiated. Five months later the patient had fully recovered. Although in the literature the hepatotoxicity of noni juice remains speculative, sporadic but emerging cases of noni juice-associated liver injury address the need to clarify and investigate potential harmful effects associated with this supplement. PMID:23467452

  8. Acute liver injury associated with a newer formulation of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, James L; Worman, Howard J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDS), serious cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported. The popular herbal weight loss supplement, Hydroxycut, has previously been implicated in acute liver injury. Since its introduction, Hydroxycut has undergone successive transformations in its formulation; yet, cases of liver injury have remained an ongoing problem. We report a case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man who developed acute hepatocellular liver injury with associated nausea, vomiting, jaundice, fatigue and asterixis attributed to the use of a newer formulation of Hydroxycut, SX-7 Clean Sensory. The patient required hospitalisation and improved with supportive therapy. Despite successive transformations in its formulation, potential liver injury appears to remain an ongoing problem with Hydroxycut. Our case illustrates the importance of obtaining a thorough medication history, including HDS, regardless of new or reformulated product marketing efforts. PMID:25948859

  9. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Young people are a risk to themselves and other road users, as motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of their death. A thorough understanding of the most important factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young drivers is important for designing well-targeted restrictive measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred. The analysis examined a comprehensive set of single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes involving at least one 15–24year-old driver in New Zealand between 2002 and 2011 that resulted in minor, serious or fatal injuries. A mixed logit model accounting for heterogeneity and heteroscedasticity in the propensity to injury severity outcomes and for correlation between serious and fatal injuries proved a better fit than a binary and a generalized ordered logit. Results show that the young drivers’ behavior, the presence of passengers and the involvement of vulnerable road users were the most relevant factors associated with higher injury severity in both single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes. Seatbelt non-use, inexperience and alcohol use were the deadliest behavioral factors in single-vehicle crashes, while fatigue, reckless driving and seatbelt non-use were the deadliest factors in two-vehicle crashes. The presence of passengers in the young drivers’ vehicle, and in particular a combination of males and females, dramatically increased the probability of serious and fatal injuries. The involvement of vulnerable road users, in particular on rural highways and open roads, considerably amplified the probability of higher crash injury severity.

  10. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Goncalves, Arliani; Paulo Santoro, Belangero; Jose Luiz, Runco; Moisés, Cohen.

    1707-17-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previ [...] ous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  11. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Goncalves Arliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  12. Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2014-10-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Wolkin A , Schnall AH , Law R , Schier J . Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-4 . PMID:25205009

  13. Recreation-Related Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recreation-Related Head Injuries Top 15 Recreation/Leisure-Related Head Injuries by Product Product Category Estimated Injuries 1. Toys (all toy categories ... Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Product Summary Report—Head Injuries Only—Calendar Year 2009. © AANS July 2010 American ...

  14. Home-Related Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home-Related Head Injuries Top 20 Home-Related Head Injuries by Product Product Category Estimated Injuries 1. Floors or Flooring Materials 379, ... Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Product Summary Report—Head Injuries Only—Calendar Year 2009. © AANS September 2010 American ...

  15. Subtle Hemorrhagic Brain Injury is Associated with Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Infants with Repaired Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soul, Janet S.; Robertson, Richard L.; Wypij, David; Bellinger, David C.; Visconti, Karen J.; du Plessis, Adré J.; Kussman, Barry D.; Scoppettuolo, Lisa A.; Pigula, Frank; Jonas, Richard A.; Newburger, Jane W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Perioperative stroke and periventricular leukomalacia have been reported to occur commonly in infants with congenital heart disease. We aimed to determine the incidence and type of brain injury in infants undergoing two-ventricle repair in infancy and to determine risk factors associated with such injury. Methods Forty-eight infants enrolled in a trial comparing two different hematocrits during surgical repair of congenital heart disease underwent brain MRI scans and neurodevelopmental testing at one year of age. Results Eighteen (38%) of our subjects had tiny foci of hemosiderin by susceptibility imaging, without evidence of abnormalities in corresponding regions on conventional MRI sequences. Subjects who had foci of hemosiderin had a significantly lower Psychomotor Developmental Index at one year of age (79.6 ± 16.5, mean ± SD) compared with subjects who did not have these foci (89.5 ± 15.3; p=0.04). Older age at surgery and diagnostic group were significantly associated with presence of hemosiderin foci. Only one subject had a small stroke (2%) and two had periventricular leukomalacia (4%). Conclusions Foci of hemosiderin without radiologic evidence of ischemic brain injury are an abnormality associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome not previously described in MRI studies of children with surgically repaired congenital heart disease. The association of hemosiderin foci with older age at surgery and cardiac diagnosis and not risk factors associated with brain injury in previous studies suggests that the etiology and pathogenesis of this abnormality is different from ischemic brain lesions reported previously. PMID:19619781

  16. Overuse Injuries Associated with Mountain Biking: Is Single-Speed Riding a Predisposing Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lebec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though mountain bikers are at significant risk for overuse injury, there is minimal quality research describing this relationship. Single-speed mountain biking, in which participants pedal a bike with only a single gear, may place riders at even greater risk for overuse problems due to the disproportionate physical effort associated with this type of riding. The focus of this study was to provide additional perspective on overuse injuries sustained by mountain bikers and to determine if single-speed mountain biking places participants at greater risk for overuse conditions. Four hundred and four (404 mountain bikers were surveyed concerning overuse injuries sustained during the previous year. Findings indicate that 63% of respondents reported an overuse injury affecting at least one area with the most commonly reported areas being the lumbar spine, knees, hand/wrist, and cervical spine. Individuals riding single-speed mountain bikes did not have a higher incidence of overuse injuries than riders of multiple-geared bikes. However, respondents who split time between riding single-speed and multiple-geared bikes were significantly more likely to report an overuse syndrome than those only riding single-speed or multiple-geared bikes (p = 0.0104. This group of riders may be at greater risk for overuse injury due to excessive fatigue and poor biomechanics.

  17. Sharps injuries among radiographers: Dangers associated with opening bottles of contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Injuries associated with the use of glass bottles in the healthcare setting have been largely overlooked in the literature. Such injuries are sustained if the glass is broken, but more often during the opening of the bottles, either directly on the sharp edges of the aluminium crimp-top seals or indirectly when another instrument is used to prise open the bottle after the crimp-top opening mechanism fails. Such injuries are not inconsequential; of sharps injuries (excluding those caused by hollow-bore needles), an estimated 16% are caused by glass and a further 15% by other sharp items. Furthermore, any puncture wound in the healthcare setting carries a threat of transmission of infectious blood-borne diseases. This survey is the first of its kind to be done in Europe, and offers an insight into the risk of bottle-opening associated injuries in radiology departments. Results: The findings indicate that radiographers/technologists are injured up to 24.4 times (±22.2) a year during the opening of glass bottles of contrast agents, translating into 3.5 h a month of lost time in an average radiology department of 24.4 radiographers or technologists; although almost half (47%) of the injuries draw blood, few are reported and the respondents in this survey were generally unconcerned by the risks. Conclusion: The injuries discussed can be a nuisance and disturb the workflow of the department and are, importantly, avoidable, with polymer bottles available that pose nith polymer bottles available that pose no threat during opening or when damaged

  18. Postconcussional disorder and PTSD symptoms of military-related traumatic brain injury associated with compromised neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ping-Hong; Wang, Binquan; Oakes, Terrence R; French, Louis M; Pan, Hai; Graner, John; Liu, Wei; Riedy, Gerard

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common combat injury, often through explosive blast, and produces heterogeneous brain changes due to various mechanisms of injury. It is unclear whether the vulnerability of white matter differs between blast and impact injury, and the consequences of microstructural changes on neuropsychological function are poorly understood in military TBI patients. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques were used to assess the neurocircuitry in 37 U.S. service members (29 mild, 7 moderate, 1 severe; 17 blast and 20 nonblast), who sustained a TBI while deployed, compared to 14 nondeployed, military controls. High-dimensional deformable registration of MRI diffusion tensor data was followed by fiber tracking and tract-specific analysis along with region-of-interest analysis. DTI results were examined in relation to post-concussion and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The most prominent white matter microstructural injury for both blast and nonblast patients was in the frontal fibers within the fronto-striatal (corona radiata, internal capsule) and fronto-limbic circuits (fornix, cingulum), the fronto-parieto-occipital association fibers, in brainstem fibers, and in callosal fibers. Subcortical superior-inferiorly oriented tracts were more vulnerable to blast injury than nonblast injury, while direct impact force had more detrimental effects on anterior-posteriorly oriented tracts, which tended to cause heterogeneous left and right hemispheric asymmetries of white matter connectivity. The tractography using diffusion anisotropy deficits revealed the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cerebellar-cortical (CSTCC) networks, where increased post-concussion and PTSD symptoms were associated with low fractional anisotropy in the major nodes of compromised CSTCC neurocircuitry, and the consequences on cognitive function were explored as well. PMID:24038816

  19. Polyp Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Buie, W. Donald; Maclean, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    Surveillance after colonic polypectomy is important to detect and remove missed synchronous polyps and cancers and new metachronous polyps or cancers. The authors review methods of surveillance and the risk of recurrent adenomas and provide surveillance recommendations.

  20. The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

  1. Dosimetry associated with the surveillance program of EDF reactors pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surveillance dosimetry program of Electricite de France's reactors pressure vessel built by Framatome consists of neutronic computation by means of ANISN-DOT procedure on the one hand and of two experimental parts on the other hand. For the first one, a light instrumentation with activation wires was put outside the pressure vessel (PV) of one power plant, during the first 18 months cycle at nominal power. This instrumentation is described: it gave the possibility to do measurements along two vertical lines and an horizontal diameter under the vessel. Experimental and computed results are compared respectively for thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons. For the second experimental part, the first surveillance capsules have been extracted from six power plants and the dosimeters have been measured. The difficulties encountered during some steps of the process are described. The reproducibility of the different results is excellent. Their consistency and agreement with the calculations are discussed

  2. ASTM standards associated with PWR and BWR power plant licensing, operation and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers ASTM Standards that are available, under revision, and are being considered in support of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) licensing, regulation, operation, surveillance and life attainment. The current activities of ASTM Committee E10 and its Subcommittees E10.02 and current activities of ASTM Committee E10 and its Subcommittees E10.02 and E10.05 and their Task Groups (TG) are described. A very important aspect of these efforts is the preparation, revision, and balloting of standards identified in the ASTM E706 Standard on Master Matrix for Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessel (PV) Surveillance Standards. The current version (E706-87) of the Master Matrix identifies 21 ASTM LWR physics-dosimetry-metallurgy standards for Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and Support Structure (SS) surveillance programs, whereas, for the next revision 34 standards are identified. The need for national and international coordination of Standards Technology Development, Transfer and Training (STDTT) is considered in this and other Symposium papers that address specific standards related physics-dosimetry-metallurgy issues. 69 refs

  3. Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma. Methods: This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results: Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79% with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54% followed by fall from height (30%. Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62% followed by headache (33%. Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%. Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries. Conclusion: Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.

  4. MicroRNA changes in rat mesentery and serum associated with drug-induced vascular injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Roberta A., E-mail: Roberta.A.Thomas@gsk.com; Scicchitano, Marshall S.; Mirabile, Rosanna C.; Chau, Nancy T.; Frazier, Kendall S.; Thomas, Heath C.

    2012-08-01

    Regulatory miRNAs play a role in vascular biology and are involved in biochemical and molecular pathways dysregulated during vascular injury. Collection and integration of functional miRNA data into these pathways can provide insight into pathogenesis at the site of injury; the same technologies applied to biofluids may provide diagnostic or surrogate biomarkers. miRNA was analyzed from mesentery and serum from rats given vasculotoxic compounds for 4 days. Fenoldopam, dopamine and midodrine each alter hemodynamics and are associated with histologic evidence of vascular injury, while yohimbine is vasoactive but does not cause histologic evidence of vascular injury in rat. There were 38 and 35 miRNAs altered in a statistically significant manner with a fold change of 2 or greater in mesenteries of fenoldopam- and dopamine-dosed rats, respectively, with 9 of these miRNAs shared. 10 miRNAs were altered in rats given midodrine; 6 were shared with either fenoldopam or dopamine. In situ hybridization demonstrated strong expression and co-localization of miR-134 in affected but not in adjacent unaffected vessels. Mesenteric miRNA expression may provide clarity or avenues of research into mechanisms involved in vascular injury once the functional role of specific miRNAs becomes better characterized. 102 miRNAs were altered in serum from rats with drug-induced vascular injury. 10 miRNAs were commonly altered in serum from dopamine and either fenoldopam or midodrine dosed rats; 18 of these 102 were also altered in mesenteries from rats with drug-induced vascular injury, suggesting their possible utility as peripheral biomarkers. -- Highlights: ? Mesentery and serum were examined from rats given vasoactive compounds for 4 days. ? 72 miRNAs were altered in mesenteries from rats with vascular injury. ? miR-134 was localized to affected but not adjacent unaffected vessels. ? 102 miRNAs were changed in serum from rats with vascular injury. ? 18 miRNAs changed in both mesenteries and serum from rats with vascular injury.

  5. MicroRNA changes in rat mesentery and serum associated with drug-induced vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory miRNAs play a role in vascular biology and are involved in biochemical and molecular pathways dysregulated during vascular injury. Collection and integration of functional miRNA data into these pathways can provide insight into pathogenesis at the site of injury; the same technologies applied to biofluids may provide diagnostic or surrogate biomarkers. miRNA was analyzed from mesentery and serum from rats given vasculotoxic compounds for 4 days. Fenoldopam, dopamine and midodrine each alter hemodynamics and are associated with histologic evidence of vascular injury, while yohimbine is vasoactive but does not cause histologic evidence of vascular injury in rat. There were 38 and 35 miRNAs altered in a statistically significant manner with a fold change of 2 or greater in mesenteries of fenoldopam- and dopamine-dosed rats, respectively, with 9 of these miRNAs shared. 10 miRNAs were altered in rats given midodrine; 6 were shared with either fenoldopam or dopamine. In situ hybridization demonstrated strong expression and co-localization of miR-134 in affected but not in adjacent unaffected vessels. Mesenteric miRNA expression may provide clarity or avenues of research into mechanisms involved in vascular injury once the functional role of specific miRNAs becomes better characterized. 102 miRNAs were altered in serum from rats with drug-induced vascular injury. 10 miRNAs were commonly altered in serum from dopamine and either fenoldopam or midodrine dosed rats; 18 of these 102 were also altered in mesenteries from rats with drug-induced vascular injury, suggesting their possible utility as peripheral biomarkers. -- Highlights: ? Mesentery and serum were examined from rats given vasoactive compounds for 4 days. ? 72 miRNAs were altered in mesenteries from rats with vascular injury. ? miR-134 was localized to affected but not adjacent unaffected vessels. ? 102 miRNAs were changed in serum from rats with vascular injury. ? 18 miRNAs changed in both mesenteries and serum from rats with vascular injury.

  6. Alkaline phosphatase as a treatment of sepsis-associated acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Esther; van Elsas, Andrea; Heemskerk, Suzanne; Jonk, Luigi; van der Hoeven, Johannes; Arend, Jacques; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Pickkers, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are no pharmacological therapies licensed to treat sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI). Considering the high incidence and mortality of sepsis-associated AKI, there is an urgent medical need to develop effective pharmacological interventions. Two phase II clinical trials recently demonstrated beneficial effects of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP). In critically ill patients with sepsis-associated AKI, treatment with AP reduced the urinary excretion of tubular injury biomarkers and plasma markers of inflammation, which was associated with improvement of renal function. The dephosphorylating enzyme, AP, is endogenously present in the renal proximal tubule apical membrane but becomes depleted during ischemia-induced AKI, thereby possibly contributing to further renal damage. The exact mechanism of action of AP in AKI is unknown, but might be related to detoxification of circulating lipopolysaccharide and other proinflammatory mediators that lose their proinflammatory effects after dephosphorylation. Alternatively, tissue damage associated with systemic inflammation might be attenuated by an AP-mediated effect on adenosine metabolism. Adenosine is a signaling molecule that has been shown to protect the body from inflammation-induced tissue injury, which is derived through dephosphorylation of ATP. In this Perspectives article, we discuss the clinical activity of AP and its putative molecular modes of action, and we speculate on its use to treat and possibly prevent sepsis-associated AKI. PMID:23131595

  7. Hepatotoxicity associated with sulfasalazine in inflammatory arthritis: A case series from a local surveillance of serious adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous reporting systems for adverse drug reactions (ADRs are handicapped by under-reporting and limited detail on individual cases. We report an investigation from a local surveillance for serious adverse drug reactions associated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs that was triggered by the occurrence of liver failure in two of our patients. Methods Serious ADR reports have been solicited from local clinicians by regular postcards over the past seven years. Patients', who had hepatotoxicity on sulfasalazine and met a definition of a serious ADR, were identified. Two clinicians reviewed structured case reports and assessed causality by consensus and by using a causality assessment instrument. The likely frequency of hepatotoxicity with sulfasalazine was estimated by making a series of conservative assumptions. Results Ten cases were identified: eight occurred during surveillance. Eight patients were hospitalised, two in hepatic failure – one died after a liver transplant. All but one event occurred within 6 weeks of treatment. Seven patients had a skin rash, three eosinophilia and one interstitial nephritis. Five patients were of Black British of African or Caribbean descent. Liver enzymes showed a hepatocellular pattern in four cases and a mixed pattern in six. Drug-related hepatotoxicity was judged probable or highly probable in 8 patients. The likely frequency of serious hepatotoxicity with sulfasalazine was estimated at 0.4% of treated patients. Conclusion Serious hepatotoxicity associated with sulfasalazine appears to be under-appreciated and intensive monitoring and vigilance in the first 6 weeks of treatment is especially important.

  8. Excessive Progression in Weekly Running Distance and Risk of Running-related Injuries : An Association Which Varies According to Injury Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, Erik Thorlund

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. METHODS: A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. RESULTS: A total of 202 runners sustained a running-related injury. Using Cox regression analysis, no statistically significant differences in injury rates were found acrossthe 3 exposure groups. An increased rate of distance-related injuries (patellofemoral pain, iliotibial band syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, gluteus medius injury, greater trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those who progressed their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those who progressed less than 10% (hazard ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.66; P = .07). CONCLUSION: Novice runners who progressed their running distance by more than 30% over a 2-week period seem to be more vulnerable to distance-related injuries than runners who increase their running distance by less than 10%. Owing to the exploratory nature of the present study, randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these results, and more experimental studies are needed to validate the assumptions. Still, novice runners may be well advised to progress their weekly distances by less than 30% per week over a 2-week period.

  9. Childhood and adolescent injuries in elementary schools in north-western Uganda: extent, risk and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Childhood injuries remain understudied in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the extent, nature and determinants of school-related childhood injury risk in north-western Uganda. A cohort of 1000 grade fives from 13 elementary schools was followed-up for one term. Survival and multi-level modelling techniques compared the risk rates across gender, schools and locations. Childhood injuries are common in north-western Uganda. Most of them occur during travel, breaks, practical classes and gardening, while walking, playing, learning and digging. Most injuries result from collisions with objects, sports and falls. Two-thirds of children receive first aid and hospital care. Times to injury were 72.1 and 192.9 person days (p = 0.0000). Gender differences in time to event were significant (p = 0.0091). Girls had better survival rates: cumulative prevalence of childhood injury was 36.1%; with significant gender differences (p = 0.007). Injury rate was 12.3/1000 person days, with a hazard ratio of 1.4. Compared to girls, boys had a 37% higher injury rate (p = 0.004). Rates varied among schools. Associated factors include sex and school. Rural-urban location and school differences do influence childhood injury risk. Childhood injuries are common: the risk is high, gender- and school-specific. Determinants include gender and school. Location and school contexts influence injury risk. PMID:22273248

  10. Neurotrophin-mediated neuroprotection of hippocampal neurons following traumatic brain injury is not associated with acute recovery of hippocampal function

    OpenAIRE

    Royo, Nicolas C.; LeBold, David; Magge, Suresh N.; Chen, H. Isaac; Hauspurg, Alisse; Cohen, Akiva S.; Watson, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes selective hippocampal cell death which is believed to be associated with the cognitive impairment observed in both clinical and experimental settings. The endogenous neurotrophin NT-4/5, a TrkB ligand, has been shown to be neuroprotective for vulnerable CA3 pyramidal neurons after experimental brain injury. In this study, infusion of recombinant NT-4/5 increased survival of CA2/3 pyramidal neurons to 71% after lateral fluid percussion injury in rats, compar...

  11. Development of trigger-based semi-automated surveillance of ventilator-associated pneumonia and central line-associated bloodstream infections in a Dutch intensive care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Availability of a patient data management system (PDMS) has created the opportunity to develop trigger-based electronic surveillance systems (ESSs). The aim was to evaluate a semi-automated trigger-based ESS for the detection of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) in the intensive care. Methods Prospective comparison of surveillance was based on a semi-automated ESS with and without trigger. Components of the VAP/CLABSI definition served as triggers. These included the use of VAP/CLABSI-related antibiotics, the presence of mechanical ventilation or an intravenous central line, and the presence of specific clinical symptoms. Triggers were automatically fired by the PDMS. Chest X-rays and microbiology culture results were checked only on patient days with a positive trigger signal from the ESS. In traditional screening, no triggers were used; therefore, chest X-rays and culture results had to be screened for all patient days of all included patients. Patients with pneumonia at admission were excluded. Results A total of 553 patients were screened for VAP and CLABSI. The incidence of VAP was 3.3/1,000 ventilation days (13 VAP/3,927 mechanical ventilation days), and the incidence of CLABSI was 1.7/1,000 central line days (24 CLABSI/13.887 central line days). For VAP, the trigger-based screening had a sensitivity of 92.3%, a specificity of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 99.8% compared to traditional screening of all patients. For CLABSI, sensitivity was 91.3%, specificity 100%, and negative predictive value 99.6%. Conclusions Pre-selection of patients to be checked for signs and symptoms of VAP and CLABSI by a computer-generated automated trigger system was time saving but slightly less accurate than conventional surveillance. However, this after-the-fact surveillance was mainly designed as a quality indicator over time rather than for precise determination of infection rates. Therefore, surveillance of VAP and CLABSI with a trigger-based ESS is feasible and effective. PMID:25646148

  12. Association between heat stress and occupational injury among Thai workers: findings of the Thai Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kjellstrom, Tord; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Global warming will increase heat stress at home and at work. Few studies have addressed the health consequences in tropical low and middle income settings such as Thailand. We report on the association between heat stress and workplace injury among workers enrolled in the large national Thai Cohort Study in 2005 (N=58,495). We used logistic regression to relate heat stress and occupational injury separately for males and females, adjusting for covariate effects of age, income, education, alcohol, smoking, Body Mass Index, job location, job type, sleeping hours, existing illness, and having to work very fast. Nearly 20% of workers experienced occupational heat stress which strongly and significantly associated with occupational injury (adjusted OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.87-2.42 for males and 1.89, 95%CI 1.64-2.18 for females). This study provides evidence connecting heat stress and occupational injury in tropical Thailand and also identifies several factors that increase heat exposure. The findings will be useful for policy makers to consider work-related heat stress problems in tropical Thailand and to develop an occupational health and safety program which is urgently needed given the looming threat of global warming. PMID:23411755

  13. Eye Tracking Detects Disconjugate Eye Movements Associated with Structural Traumatic Brain Injury and Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritlop, Robert; Reyes, Marleen; Nehrbass, Elena; Li, Meng; Lamm, Elizabeth; Schneider, Julia; Shimunov, David; Sava, Maria; Kolecki, Radek; Burris, Paige; Altomare, Lindsey; Mehmood, Talha; Smith, Theodore; Huang, Jason H.; McStay, Christopher; Todd, S. Rob; Qian, Meng; Kondziolka, Douglas; Wall, Stephen; Huang, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Disconjugate eye movements have been associated with traumatic brain injury since ancient times. Ocular motility dysfunction may be present in up to 90% of patients with concussion or blast injury. We developed an algorithm for eye tracking in which the Cartesian coordinates of the right and left pupils are tracked over 200?sec and compared to each other as a subject watches a short film clip moving inside an aperture on a computer screen. We prospectively eye tracked 64 normal healthy noninjured control subjects and compared findings to 75 trauma subjects with either a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan (n=13), negative head CT (n=39), or nonhead injury (n=23) to determine whether eye tracking would reveal the disconjugate gaze associated with both structural brain injury and concussion. Tracking metrics were then correlated to the clinical concussion measure Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in trauma patients. Five out of five measures of horizontal disconjugacy were increased in positive and negative head CT patients relative to noninjured control subjects. Only one of five vertical disconjugacy measures was significantly increased in brain-injured patients relative to controls. Linear regression analysis of all 75 trauma patients demonstrated that three metrics for horizontal disconjugacy negatively correlated with SCAT3 symptom severity score and positively correlated with total Standardized Assessment of Concussion score. Abnormal eye-tracking metrics improved over time toward baseline in brain-injured subjects observed in follow-up. Eye tracking may help quantify the severity of ocular motility disruption associated with concussion and structural brain injury. PMID:25582436

  14. Eye tracking detects disconjugate eye movements associated with structural traumatic brain injury and concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadani, Uzma; Ritlop, Robert; Reyes, Marleen; Nehrbass, Elena; Li, Meng; Lamm, Elizabeth; Schneider, Julia; Shimunov, David; Sava, Maria; Kolecki, Radek; Burris, Paige; Altomare, Lindsey; Mehmood, Talha; Smith, Theodore; Huang, Jason H; McStay, Christopher; Todd, S Rob; Qian, Meng; Kondziolka, Douglas; Wall, Stephen; Huang, Paul

    2015-04-15

    Disconjugate eye movements have been associated with traumatic brain injury since ancient times. Ocular motility dysfunction may be present in up to 90% of patients with concussion or blast injury. We developed an algorithm for eye tracking in which the Cartesian coordinates of the right and left pupils are tracked over 200?sec and compared to each other as a subject watches a short film clip moving inside an aperture on a computer screen. We prospectively eye tracked 64 normal healthy noninjured control subjects and compared findings to 75 trauma subjects with either a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan (n=13), negative head CT (n=39), or nonhead injury (n=23) to determine whether eye tracking would reveal the disconjugate gaze associated with both structural brain injury and concussion. Tracking metrics were then correlated to the clinical concussion measure Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in trauma patients. Five out of five measures of horizontal disconjugacy were increased in positive and negative head CT patients relative to noninjured control subjects. Only one of five vertical disconjugacy measures was significantly increased in brain-injured patients relative to controls. Linear regression analysis of all 75 trauma patients demonstrated that three metrics for horizontal disconjugacy negatively correlated with SCAT3 symptom severity score and positively correlated with total Standardized Assessment of Concussion score. Abnormal eye-tracking metrics improved over time toward baseline in brain-injured subjects observed in follow-up. Eye tracking may help quantify the severity of ocular motility disruption associated with concussion and structural brain injury. PMID:25582436

  15. The use of a biodegradable mesh to prevent radiation-associated small-bowel injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasmahapatra, K.S.; Swaminathan, A.P. (Comprehensive Surgical Associates, Perth Amboy, NJ (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Radiation-associated small bowel injury occurs in up to 50% of patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy following pelvic cancer surgery. We describe our experience using a biodegradable mesh that allows the small bowel to be supported above the pelvic inlet and is totally absorbed following radiation therapy. Between 1985 and 1989, 45 procedures were performed in patients with carcinoma of the rectum (anterior resection in 15 patients, abdominoperineal resection in 23 patients, pelvic exenteration in six patients, and proctocolectomy in one patient). In 30 patients a polyglycolic acid (Dexon) mesh was used, and in 15 patients a polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) mesh was used. Forty-four patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The mean (+/- SEM) dose was 56.8 +/- 18.4 Gy. There were no immediate complications related to the mesh. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 53 months (median follow-up, 34 months). With the exception of two patients who had a polyglactin 910 mesh and who developed bowel obstruction due to adhesions under the anterior abdominal wall, there has been no documented incidence of clinical radiation-associated small bowel injury. The use of the absorbable mesh may permit us to use higher doses of postoperative radiotherapy without the associated hazard of radiation-associated small bowel injury.

  16. Intrapersonal and interpersonal functions of non suicidal self-injury: associations with emotional and social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brianna J; Chapman, Alexander L; Layden, Brianne K

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the functions of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has important implications for the development and refinement of theoretical models and treatments of NSSI. Emotional and social vulnerabilities associated with five common functions of NSSI-emotion relief (ER), feeling generation (FG), self-punishment (SP), interpersonal influence (II), and interpersonal communication (IC)-were investigated to clarify why individuals use this behavior in the service of different purposes. Female participants (n = 162) with a history of NSSI completed online measures of self-injury, emotion regulation strategies and abilities, trait affectivity, social problem-solving styles, and interpersonal problems. ER functions were associated with more intense affectivity, expressive suppression, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies. FG functions were associated with a lack of emotional clarity. Similar to ER functions, SP functions were associated with greater affective intensity and expressive suppression. II functions were negatively associated with expressive suppression and positively associated with domineering/controlling and intrusive/needy interpersonal styles. IC functions were negatively associated with expressive suppression and positively associated with a vindictive or self-centered interpersonal style. These findings highlight the specific affective traits, emotional and social skill deficits, and interpersonal styles that may render a person more likely to engage in NSSI to achieve specific goals. PMID:22276747

  17. IL-6 trans-signaling promotes pancreatitis-associated lung injury and lethality

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong; Neuhoefer, Patrick; Song, Liang; Rabe, Bjoern; Lesina, Marina; Kurkowski, Magdalena U.; Treiber, Matthias; Wartmann, Thomas; Regnér, Sara; Thorlacius, Henrik; Saur, Dieter; Weirich, Gregor; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Halangk, Walter; Mizgerd, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory disease with a high mortality rate. Although typically seen in individuals with sepsis, ALI is also a major complication in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The pathophysiology of SAP-associated ALI is poorly understood, but elevated serum levels of IL-6 is a reliable marker for disease severity. Here, we used a mouse model of acute pancreatitis–associated (AP-associated) ALI to determine the role of IL-6 in ALI lethality. Il6-deficient mice had a ...

  18. Repeat Traumatic Brain Injury in the Juvenile Rat Is Associated with Increased Axonal Injury and Cognitive Impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, M.L.; Hales, A; Reger, M.; Giza, C.C.; HOVDA, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Among the enormous population of head-injured children and young adults are a growing subpopulation who experience repeat traumatic brain injury (RTBI). The most common cause of RTBI in this age group is sports-related concussions, and athletes who have experienced a head injury are at greater risk for subsequent TBI, with consequent long-term cognitive dysfunction. While several animal models have been proposed to study RTBI, they have been shown to either produce injuries too severe, were c...

  19. Global childhood unintentional injury surveillance in four cities in developing countries: a pilot study / Surveillance internationale des traumatismes non intentionnels de l'enfant dans quatre métropoles de pays en développement: étude pilote / Vigilancia mundial de las lesiones infantiles no intencionales en cuatro ciudades de países en desarrollo: estudio piloto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adnan A, Hyder; David E, Sugerman; Prasanthi, Puvanachandra; Junaid, Razzak; Hesham, El-Sayed; Andres, Isaza; Fazlur, Rahman; Margie, Peden.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia y naturaleza de las lesiones infantiles y explorar sus factores de riesgo en países de bajos ingresos, utilizando para ello los datos de vigilancia de los departamentos de urgencias (DU). MÉTODOS: Este estudio piloto representa la fase inicial de un proyecto plurin [...] acional de vigilancia mundial de las lesiones infantiles no intencionales y se basó en una muestra secuencial de menores de 11 años, de ambos sexos, que se presentaron en 2007 en DU seleccionados de Bangladesh, Colombia, Egipto y Pakistán a lo largo de un periodo de 3 a 4 meses, variable según el centro. RESULTADOS: De 1559 niños lesionados observados en todos los centros, 1010 (65%) eran varones; 941 (60%) tenían³ 5 años, y 32 (2%) Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and nature of childhood injuries and to explore the risk factors for such injuries in low-income countries by using emergency department (ED) surveillance data. METHODS: This pilot study represents the initial phase of a multi-country global childhood unintentio [...] nal injury surveillance (GCUIS) project and was based on a sequential sample of children 5 years, 32 (2%) were

  20. Age and Sex of Mice Markedly Affect Survival Times Associated with Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Prows, Daniel R.; Gibbons, William J.; Smith, Jessica J.; Pilipenko, Valentina; Martin, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with acute lung injury (ALI) remains substantial, with recent estimates of 35–45% similar to those obtained decades ago. Although evidence for sex-related differences in ALI mortality remains equivocal, death rates differ markedly for age, with more than 3-fold increased mortality in older versus younger patients. Strains of mice also show large differences in ALI mortality. To tease out genetic factors affecting mortality, we established a mouse model of differential hyp...

  1. Role of myelin-associated inhibitors in axonal repair after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae K.; Zheng, Binhai

    2011-01-01

    Myelin-associated inhibitors of axon growth, including Nogo, MAG and OMgp, have been the subject of intense research. A myriad of experimental approaches have been applied to investigate the potential of targeting these molecules to promote axonal repair after spinal cord injury. However, there are still conflicting results on their role in axon regeneration and therefore a lack of a cohesive mechanism on how these molecules can be targeted to promote axon repair. One major reason may be the ...

  2. Injury of anterior cruciate ligament with associated bony lesions: MR image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon; Oh, Yeon Hee; Lee, Chang Wook [Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Min [Chungbuk Univ. College of Medicine, Chongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Sung Woo [Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate the characteristic MR findings in injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with associated bony lesions. We reviewed MR findings and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative results of 48 patients with ACL injuries, and evaluated ACL signal intensity and contour. In associated bony lesions, we determined the location of avulsion fracture and bony bruise. Complete ACL tears were seen in 27 cases, partial tears in 13, and avulsion injury in eight. Complete tears showed heterogeneously increased signal intensity with contour bulging in ten cases (37%), and combined bony lesion in 14 (52%). ACL with a thin continous low signal intensity band surrounding heterogeneously-increased signal intensity suggested partial tears, and was seen in three of 13 proven cases (23%) of partial ACL tears;combined bony lesion was seen in four such cases(31%). There were eight cases of avulsion fracture;the most frequent site was the anterolateral portion of the tibial spine (n=6). The most frequent sites of bony lesion were at the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle (n=6), and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=6);the next most frequent site was the anterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=5). Tearing of the ACL was seen on MRI as ligament discontinuity, and heterogeneously increased signal intensity with ACL contour bulging. The most frequent sites of associated bony lesions were the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle, and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau. In associated bony lesions, bony contusion suggested ACL tearing, but avulsion fracture suggested ligament avulsion injury without tear.

  3. Injury of anterior cruciate ligament with associated bony lesions: MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the characteristic MR findings in injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with associated bony lesions. We reviewed MR findings and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative results of 48 patients with ACL injuries, and evaluated ACL signal intensity and contour. In associated bony lesions, we determined the location of avulsion fracture and bony bruise. Complete ACL tears were seen in 27 cases, partial tears in 13, and avulsion injury in eight. Complete tears showed heterogeneously increased signal intensity with contour bulging in ten cases (37%), and combined bony lesion in 14 (52%). ACL with a thin continous low signal intensity band surrounding heterogeneously-increased signal intensity suggested partial tears, and was seen in three of 13 proven cases (23%) of partial ACL tears;combined bony lesion was seen in four such cases(31%). There were eight cases of avulsion fracture;the most frequent site was the anterolateral portion of the tibial spine (n=6). The most frequent sites of bony lesion were at the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle (n=6), and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=6);the next most frequent site was the anterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=5). Tearing of the ACL was seen on MRI as ligament discontinuity, and heterogeneously increased signal intensity with ACL contour bulging. The most frequent sites of associated bony lesions were the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle, and the n of the lateral femoral condyle, and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau. In associated bony lesions, bony contusion suggested ACL tearing, but avulsion fracture suggested ligament avulsion injury without tear

  4. Impact of Helmet Use in Traumatic Brain Injuries Associated with Recreational Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Latha Ganti; Bodhit, Aakash N.; Yasamin Daneshvar; Pratik Shashikant Patel; Christa Pulvino; Kelsey Hatchitt; Hoelle, Robyn M.; Peters, Keith R.; Sudeep Kuchibhotla; Lawrence Lottenberg; Andrea Gabrielli; Anna Mazzuoccolo; Marie-Carmelle Elie-Turenne; Tricia Falgiani; Maerz, Porter W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To study the impact of helmet use on outcomes after recreational vehicle accidents. Methods. This is an observational cohort of adult and pediatric patients who sustained a TBI while riding a recreational vehicle. Recreational vehicles included bicycles, motorcycles, and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), as well as a category for other vehicles such as skateboards and scooters. Results. Lack of helmet use was significantly associated with having a more severe traumatic brain injury and ...

  5. Surveillance for dengue and dengue-associated neurologic syndromes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen H; Margolis, Harold S; Sejvar, James J

    2015-05-01

    Autochthonous dengue virus transmission has occurred in the continental United States with increased frequency during the last decade; the principal vector, Aedes aegypti, has expanded its geographic distribution in the southern United States. Dengue, a potentially fatal arboviral disease, is underreported, and US clinicians encountering patients with acute febrile illness consistent with dengue are likely to not be fully familiar with dengue diagnosis and management. Recently, investigators suggested that an outbreak of dengue likely occurred in Houston during 2003 based on retrospective laboratory testing of hospitalized cases with encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Although certain aspects of the Houston testing results and argument for local transmission are doubtful, the report highlights the importance of prospective surveillance for dengue in Aedes-infested areas of the United States, the need for clinical training on dengue and its severe manifestations, and the need for laboratory testing in domestic patients presenting with febrile neurologic illness in these regions to include dengue. PMID:25371183

  6. Governmental surveillance system of healthcare-associated infection in Brazil / Governmental surveillance system of healthcare-associated infection in Brazil / Sistemas gubernamentales de vigilancia de las infecciones relacionadas con la atención a la salud en brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cassimiro Nogueira, Junior; Maria Clara, Padoveze; Rúbia Aparecida, Lacerda.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:Este estudo objetivou descrever a estrutura dos sistemas governamentais de vigilância de Infecções relacionadas à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS) nos Estados do Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Método: Estudo transversal, descritivo e exploratório, com coleta de dados por meio de duas fases: caracteriza [...] ção das estruturas de assistência à saúde e do sistema de vigilância de IRAS. Resultados: As equipes governamentais para a prevenção e controle de IRAS em cada Estado variou de um a seis membros, tendo pelo menos um enfermeiro. Todos os Estados implantaram um sistema de vigilância próprio. Os sistemas de informação foram classificados em cadeia (n=2), círculo (n=4) e roda (n=1). Conclusão: Foram identificadas variações na estrutura e fluxo de informação dos sistemas governamentais de vigilância, podendo limitar sua uniformização em âmbito nacional. O presente estudo aponta a necessidade de estabelecer requisitos mínimos em políticas públicas para orientar o desenvolvimento dos sistemas de vigilância de IRAS.? Abstract in spanish ?Objetivo: El presente estudio ha tenido como objetivo describir la estructura de los sistemas gubernamentales de vigilancia de las Infecciones Relacionadas con la Atención a la Salud (IRAS) en Sureste y Sur de Brasil. Método: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y exploratorio, con recolección de datos [...] en dos fases: caracterización de las estructuras de asistencia a la salud y del sistema de vigilancia de las IRAS. Resultados: Los equipos gubernamentales para la prevención y el control de las IRAS en cada Estado variaron de uno a seis miembros, con al menos un enfermero. Todos los Estados implantaron su propio sistema de vigilancia. Los sistemas de información fueron clasificados en cadena (n = 2), círculo (n = 4) y rueda (n = 1). Conclusión: Se han identificado variaciones en la estructura y el flujo de información de los sistemas gubernamentales de vigilancia que pueden limitar su uniformización en ámbito nacional. Este estudio apunta la necesidad de establecer requisitos mínimos en políticas públicas para guiar el desarrollo de los sistemas de vigilancia de las IRAS.? Abstract in english ?Objective: This study aimed to describe the structure of governmental surveillance systems for Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI) in the Brazilian Southeastern and Southern States. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory study, with data collection by means of two-phases: characte [...] rization of the healthcare structure and of the HAI surveillance system. Results: The governmental teams for prevention and control of HAI in each State ranged from one to six members, having at least one nurse. All States implemented their own surveillance system. The information systems were classified into chain (n=2), circle (n=4) or wheel (n=1). Conclusion: Were identified differences in the structure and information flow from governmental surveillance systems, possibly limiting a nationwide standardization. The present study points to the need for establishing minimum requirements in public policies, in order to guide the development of HAI surveillance systems.?

  7. Incidence of work injuries amongst Danish adolescents and their association with work environment factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. METHODS: We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from a birth cohort comprising all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3,687) living in Ringkjobing County, Denmark. The questionnaire contained items on self-reported number of accidents and number of working hours in both rounds and on work environment factors in the second round. RESULTS: Approximately 5% of the adolescents who held a job, experienced a work injury at the age of 17. This equals an incidence of 65 accidents per million working hours. Most adolescents had decent working conditions, although nearly half reported that their work was heavy, monotonous or psychologically demanding. Heavy work, high psychological demands and low social support increased the risk of experiencing work injuries after adjustment for a number of factors. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of work injuries among adolescents appears to be higher than the incidence among their older colleagues. Lack of social support from management significantly raised adolescents' risk of experiencing a work injury. This suggests that more direct supervision may be a good way of preventing accidents in this age group

  8. Botulinum toxin injection for bruxism associated with brain injury: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Kesikburun, MD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bruxism is involuntary grinding of the teeth and can occur as a complication of brain injury. If untreated, bruxism can lead to severe occlusal trauma. Herein, we present a patient with traumatic brain injury and nocturnal bruxism that was treated with botulinum toxin injection. A 21 yr old male patient with traumatic brain injury from a car accident was admitted to our inpatient rehabilitation unit. He had a history of coma for 2 wk in the intensive care unit. The initial cranial computed tomography scan indicated a superior thalamic hemorrhage. On admission to our department 3 mo postinjury, his mental status was good and he was able to walk without assistance, but he had mild ataxia. He complained about severe teeth grinding at night, which began 2 mo postinjury. Botulinum toxin-A was injected into the masseter muscles (20 U in each muscle and temporalis muscles (15 U in each muscle bilaterally. A decrease in bruxism was reported within 3 d. Clinical improvement persisted at assessment 4 mo posttreatment. Botulinum toxin injection can be used as an effective treatment for bruxism associated with brain injury.

  9. Inhaled beta-2 agonist salbutamol and acute lung injury: an association with improvement in acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, Sanjay; Gordon, Anthony C; Salehifar, Ebrahim; Groshaus, Horacio; Walley, Keith R; Russell, James A

    2006-01-01

    Introduction ?2 agonists have several properties that could be beneficial in acute lung injury (ALI). We therefore chose to study the effect of inhaled ?2 agonist use (salbutamol) on duration and severity of ALI. Methods We undertook a retrospective chart review of 86 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients with ALI, who had varying exposure to inhaled salbutamol. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the average daily dose of inhaled salbutamol they received ('high dose' ? 2.2 mg/day and 'low dose' <2.2 mg/day). Severity of ALI and non-pulmonary organ dysfunction was compared between the groups by calculating the days alive and free of ALI and other organ dysfunctions. Results The high dose and low dose groups received a mean of 3.72 mg and 0.64 mg salbutamol per day, respectively. The high dose salbutamol group had significantly more days alive and free of ALI than the low dose group (12.2 ± 4.4 days versus 7.6 ± 1.9 days, p = 0.02). There were no associations between dose of ? agonist and non-pulmonary organ dysfunctions. High dose salbutamol (p = 0.04), APACHE II score (p = 0.02), and cause of ALI (p = 0.02) were independent variables associated with number of days alive and free of ALI in a multivariate linear regression model. Conclusion Our retrospective study suggests that salbutamol, an inhaled ?2 agonist, is associated with a shorter duration and lower severity of ALI. A dose greater than 2.2 mg/day of inhaled salbutamol could be a minimal effective dose to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:16420663

  10. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision injuries. Coaches should be cognisant of overtraining, vary day-to-day training routines to decrease repetitive musculoskeletal stress, focus on motor skills with equal emphasis on speed and efficiency of movement, and use drills that reinforce sport-specific, decision making processes to minimise mental mistakes. Conditioning programs that emphasise a combination of power, acceleration, flexibility, technical skill, functional capacity and injury prevention are recommended. Due to the limited body of knowledge presently available on this sport, a greater focus on injury surveillance would provide a clearer picture of injury causation and effective management procedures, leading toward safer participation and successful player development. PMID:11219502

  11. Factors Associated With Length of Stay and Hospital Charges among Pediatric Burn Injury in Kermanshah, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2015-01-01

    This study highlights that the independent predictors affecting hospital costs and LOS associated with pediatric burn injury in Kermanshah. Also, our study indicates the BBS was the main factors affecting hospital costs and LOS for the study population. 

  12. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia associated with small bowel injury-case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Vlad; Carâp, Alexandru; Bobic, Simona; Albu, M?d?lina; Nica, Elvira; Socea, Bogdan

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWHs) are rare. Their diagnosis is mostly clinical and can be overlooked in the setting of trauma and distracting injuries or they can be misinterpreted as parietal hematomas. Associated lesions can influence decision making regarding time of operation and surgical technique. Our case highlights the management of a high-energy TAWH that associates a small bowel traumatic lesion. Surgical repair of TAWHs should follow general hernia repair principles. Further exploration of surgical options is necessary for a consensus to be reached. PMID:25972687

  13. Factors Associated With Periesophageal Vagal Nerve Injury After Pulmonary Vein Antrum Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shinsuke; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Kusa, Shigeki; Komatsu, Yuki; Ichihara, Noboru; Takagi, Takamitsu; Iwasawa, Jin; Kuroi, Akio; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hachiya, Hitoshi; Hirao, Kenzo; Iesaka, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Background Periesophageal vagal nerve injury is recognized as a rare complication in atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. We investigated the factors associated with the occurrence of symptomatic periesophageal vagal nerve injury after pulmonary vein antrum isolation. Methods and Results Overall, 535 consecutive patients who underwent sole pulmonary vein antrum isolation were included. Point?by?point radiofrequency applications were applied using irrigated?tip catheters under minimal sedation without esophageal temperature monitoring. In the initial 165 patients, the ablation settings for the posterior left atrium were a maximum energy of 25 to 30 W and a duration of 30 seconds. In the subsequent 370 patients, the power was additionally limited to 20 to 25 W at specific parts of the posterior left atrium where the ablation line transversed the esophagus. Symptomatic gastric hypomotility was found in 13 patients, and all were observed during the initial period (7.9%). No other collateral damage was observed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the body mass index was the only independent predictor for identifying patients with gastric hypomotility (odds ratio 0.770; 95% confidence interval 0.643 to 0.922; P=0.0045) during the initial period. The prevalence of gastric hypomotility was significantly higher in the initial study period than subsequently (0 of 370, 0%; P<0.0001). All except for 1 patient recovered completely with conservative treatment within 4 months after the procedure. Conclusions Periesophageal vagal nerve injury is more common collateral damage than direct esophageal injury in pulmonary vein antrum isolation procedures. Titrating the radiofrequency energy at specific areas where the ablation line transverses the esophagus and taking account of the body mass index might reduce occurrences not only of direct esophageal damage but also of periesophageal vagal nerve injury in pulmonary vein antrum isolation procedures. PMID:25249299

  14. Acute kidney injury is independently associated with higher mortality after cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandler, Kristian; Jensen, Mathias E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery and its association with mortality in a patient population receiving ibuprofen and gentamicin perioperatively. DESIGN: Retrospective study with Cox regression analysis to control for possible preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative confounders. SETTING: University hospital-based single-center study. PARTICIPANTS: All patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting ± valve surgery during 2012. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Acute surgery within 24 hours of coronary angiography, previous nephrectomy, preoperative sCr >2.26 mg/dL and selective cerebral perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass were used as exclusion criteria. Acute kidney injury was defined, using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Six hundred eight patients were included in the study. Mean age was 68.2 ± 9.7 years, and 81% were males. Acute kidney injury was seen in 28.1% of the patients. Overall mortality at one year was 7% and 3% in the no-AKI group. At one year, mortality was 15% in patients with AKIN stage 1 and AKIN stage 2 compared to 70% in AKIN stage 3. A hazard ratio of 2.34 (95% CI: 1.21-4.51, p = 0.011) and 5.62 (95% CI: 2.42-13.06), p<0.0001) were found for AKIN stage 1 and 2/3 combined, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: More than 28% of the patients undergoing elective or subacute cardiac surgery developed AKI in this contemporary cohort. Furthermore, acute kidney injury was an independent predictor of increased mortality irrespective of the perioperative risk factors.

  15. Avaliação da evolução de lesões associadas à lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior Progress assessment of injuries associated to anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dias da Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PROPOSTA: Revisamos 71 pacientes com diagnóstico de lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior em 72 joelhos. Foi avaliado a incidência de lesões associadas (meniscais ou condrais de acordo com o tempo até a cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Estudo retrospectivo de série de casos. MÉTODOS: Realizado análise estatística do efeito do tempo até a cirurgia com o aumento de lesões associadas. RESULTADOS: Não houve alteração, estatisticamente significante, da incidência de lesões condrais e meniscais avaliadas nos períodos 2 a 3 meses, 4 a 6 meses, 7 a 12 meses, 13 a 24 meses e mais que 24 meses. CONCLUSÕES: Embora haja uma tendência de aumento de lesões meniscais após 6 meses e de lesões condrais após 12 meses da lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior, tal fato não mostrou significância estatistica.PURPOSE: We reviewed 71 patients diagnosed with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury on 72 knees. The incidence of associated injuries (meniscal and joint cartilage injuries were evaluated according to the time elapsed until ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Statistical analysis of the relationship between the time elapsed until surgery and the increase of associated lesions. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference on the incidence of joint-cartilage and meniscal injuries assessed for the periods within 2-3 months, 4-6 months, 7-12 months, 13-24 months and above 24 months. CONCLUSION: Although a trend towards a higher number of meniscal injuries after 6 months, and of joint-cartilage injuries after 12 months since the primary anterior cruciate ligament injury, such fact showed no statistical significance.

  16. Tetanus Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Surveillance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reported tetanus ... date on their 10-year booster shots. National surveillance for tetanus is monitored by the National Notifiable ...

  17. Methylene Blue Attenuates Traumatic Brain Injury-Associated Neuroinflammation and Acute Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fenn, Ashley M.; Skendelas, John P.; Moussa, Daniel N.; Muccigrosso, Megan M.; POPOVICH, PHILLIP G.; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Eiferman, Daniel S; Godbout, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with cerebral edema, blood brain barrier breakdown, and neuroinflammation that contribute to the degree of injury severity and functional recovery. Unfortunately, there are no effective proactive treatments for limiting immediate or long-term consequences of TBI. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylene blue (MB), an antioxidant agent, in reducing inflammation and behavioral complications associated with a dif...

  18. The association of functional oral intake and pneumonia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Schow; Larsen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and onset time of pneumonia for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the early phase of rehabilitation and to identify parameters associated with the risk of pneumonia. DESIGN: Observational retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Subacute rehabilitation department in a university hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=173) aged 16 to 65 years with severe TBI who were admitted during a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the brain injury unit as soon as they ventilate spontaneously. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pneumonia. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the patients admitted to the brain injury unit were in treatment for pneumonia; pneumonia developed in 12% of the patients during rehabilitation; the condition occurred within 19 days of admission in all but 1 patient. Of these patients, 81% received nothing by mouth. Three factors identified patients at highest risk of pneumonia: Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 9 (1 day after cessation of sedation); Rancho Los Amigos Scale score less than 3 (on admission); and no oral intake on admission. Having a tracheotomy tube and/or feeding tube was also associated with a higher occurrence of pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe TBI, 27% had pneumonia at transfer from the intensive care unit. Pneumonia developed in only 12% of the participants during rehabilitation. Patients with a low level of consciousness and patients with a tracheotomy tube or feeding tube had a higher likelihood of pneumonia.

  19. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, So Young [University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  20. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Chaplin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  1. Radioactive waste disposal areas and associated environmental surveillance data at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance data have been collected around radioactive waste disposal areas for the past thirty years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The wealth of data collected around the ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds is presented in this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the solid waste burial grounds in detail along with the environmental monitoring data. The various monitoring systems are reviewed, and the liquid discharge trends are discussed. Monitoring at White Oak Dam, the last liquid control point for the Laboratory, was started in the late 1940's and is continuing. Presently, a network of five environmental monitoring stations is in operation to monitor the radionuclide content of surface waters in the White Oak Creek watershed. Facts observed during the lifetime of the disposal sites include: (1) a large amount of 106Ru released during 1959 to 1964 due to the fact that Conasauga shale did not retain this element as well as it retained other radionuclides. (2) Large quantities of tritiated water have been released to the Clinch River in recent years, but, from a practical standpoint, little can be done to inhibit or control these releases. (3) A general downward trend in the number of curies released has been observed for all other radionuclides. A number of corrective measures that have been initiated at ORNL to reduce the radioactive liquid discharges are outlined in the paper

  2. Computed tomography of traumatic abdominal wall hernia and associated deceleration injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomographic CT examinations of 15 cases of abdominal wall hernia due to abdominal trauma; 13 patients had been injured in motor vehicle accidents (11 of those were belted in). All hernias were correctly identified on CT and confirmed intraoperatively. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia proved an important indicator of associated visceral injury, especially to the bowel (n = 6) and mesentery (n = 10). Careful review of the bowel and mesentery should thus be undertaken when disruption of the abdominal wall is documented. Radiologists should be aware, however, that CT findings may correlate poorly with severity of injury in these areas. In these instances, close clinical correlation and, sometimes, rescanning may be necessary. (author)

  3. Impact of helmet use in traumatic brain injuries associated with recreational vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Latha; Bodhit, Aakash N; Daneshvar, Yasamin; Patel, Pratik Shashikant; Pulvino, Christa; Hatchitt, Kelsey; Hoelle, Robyn M; Peters, Keith R; Kuchibhotla, Sudeep; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Gabrielli, Andrea; Mazzuoccolo, Anna; Elie-Turenne, Marie-Carmelle; Falgiani, Tricia; Maerz, Porter W; Kharod, Shivam M; Conroy, Lauren M; Khalid, Hussain M; Tyndall, J Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To study the impact of helmet use on outcomes after recreational vehicle accidents. Methods. This is an observational cohort of adult and pediatric patients who sustained a TBI while riding a recreational vehicle. Recreational vehicles included bicycles, motorcycles, and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), as well as a category for other vehicles such as skateboards and scooters. Results. Lack of helmet use was significantly associated with having a more severe traumatic brain injury and being admitted to the hospital. Similarly, 25% of those who did wearing a helmet were admitted to the ICU versus 36% of those who did not (P = 0.0489). The hospital length of stay was significantly greater for patients who did not use helmets. Conclusion. Lack of helmet use is significantly correlated with abnormal neuroimaging and admission to the hospital and ICU; these data support a call for action to implement more widespread injury prevention and helmet safety education and advocacy. PMID:24205441

  4. Bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee joint MRI : relationship between its location and associated injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the location of bone signal abnormality and associated injury, as seen on MR, in patients with acute knee joint injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with acute knee injury and bone signal abnormalities on MR were included in this study. The femur and tibia were each divided into six compartments, namely the anteromedial, medial, posteromedial,anterolateral, lateral, and posterolateral ; these were obtained in each knee joint. We evaluated the location of bone signal abnormality and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative findings of injury to ligaments and menisci. Cases with signal abnormalities involving more than three compartments were excluded. Results : Bone signal abnormalities were demonstrated in 51 compartments. Most(84%, 43/51) were noted in the lateral half of the knee joint, the most common location being the tibio- posterolateral compartment(13/51). The femoro-lateral(11/51) and tibio- anterolateral compartment(8/51) were the next most common locations. All cases(13/13)with bone signal abnormality in the tibio- posterolateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament,while 9 of 11 cases(81%) with abnormality in the femoro- lateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the tibio- anterolateral compartment had tears at the posterior cruciate ligament ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality i ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint had tears at the medial collateral ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the medial half of the knee joint had tears at the medial meniscus, but no lateral meniscal tear was found. Among patients with signal abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint, the tear was lateral meniscal in nine of 43 cases(21%) and medial meniscal in six of 43(14%). Conclusion : The location of bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee MR, inpatients with acute knee joint injury could be an important finding suggesting associated injury

  5. Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infections in Adult Hematology Patients with Febrile Neutropenia: An Evaluation of Surveillance Definitions Using Differential Time to Blood Culture Positivity

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Joshua T; Elinder-Camburn, Anna; McClymont, Catherine; Anderson, Deverick J; Bilkey, Mary; Williamson, Deborah A.; Berkahn, Leanne; Roberts, Sally A.

    2012-01-01

    We used differential time to positivity between central and peripheral blood cultures to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of the National Healthcare Safety Network central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) surveillance definition among hematology patients with febrile neutropenia. The PPV was 27.7%, which suggests that, when the definition is applied to this population, CLABSI rates will be substantially overestimated.

  6. Association of initial CT findings with quality-of-life outcomes for traumatic brain injury in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired disability in children and adolescents. To demonstrate the association between specific findings on initial noncontrast head CT and long-term outcomes in children who have suffered TBI. This was an IRB-approved prospective study of children ages 2-17 years treated in emergency departments for TBI and who underwent a head CT as part of the initial work-up (n = 347). The change in quality of life at 12 months after injury was measured by the PedsQL scale. Children with TBI who had intracranial injuries identified on the initial head CT had a significantly lower quality-of-life scores compared to children with TBI whose initial head CTs were normal. In multivariate analysis, children whose initial head CT scans demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, midline shift ?5 mm, hemorrhagic shear injury, abnormal cisterns or subdural hematomas ?3 mm had lower quality of life scores 1 year after injury than children whose initial CTs did not have these same injuries. Associations exist between findings from the initial noncontrast head CT and quality of life score 12 months after injury in children with TBI. (orig.)

  7. Electronic Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, Cavin.

    The FBI maintains a Web site (1) that explains the purposes and ramifications of the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA). In addition to discussing the telecommunication industry's role in supporting the act, the site defines electronic surveillance and offers several documents regarding associated legal issues. An excellent source for government surveillance information comes from the Center for Democracy and Technology (2). The material includes an overview of wiretapping and details about government interceptions of Internet communications. Shortly after the terrorist attacks, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency began the Total Information Awareness (TIA) Program. This highly controversial project is introduced by the American Civil Liberties Union (3). The site does a good job of describing the objectives of the TIA, and several links to other sources of information are given. In a technical paper published in August 2002 (4), researchers show that optical emanations from telecommunications devices can be monitored remotely. Light emitting diodes, often used as indicators in modems and other data transfer equipment, flash in distinct patterns that could compromise otherwise secure data transmission. Despite being easy to exploit, the authors point out that this vulnerability would generally be simple to fix. A news story from May 16, 2003 (5) highlights a recent US Government report stating that secure telephones can be wiretapped nearly as easily as standard phones. The article is accompanied by links to the original report and an essay on security. Companies often monitor employee computer and email activity. A law professor from Bentley College writes about workplace privacy in an essay from 2003 (6). Citing a number of hypothetical examples, the author weighs the employees' rights versus those of the company. The technical implementation of the aforementioned CALEA is described in a detailed article from May 2003 (7). The needs of law enforcement are compared to what is achieved with the resulting systems and technology, and a few statistics are included to show that electronic surveillance can be effective. Lastly, an article from PC World (8) reports that the US Government is seeking to increase its surveillance of email and Web usage. The article includes a link to the 120-page draft of the Domestic Security Enhancement Act of 2003.

  8. White matter microstructure in chronic moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury: Impact of acute-phase injury-related variables and associations with outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håberg, A K; Olsen, A; Moen, K G; Schirmer-Mikalsen, K; Visser, E; Finnanger, T G; Evensen, K A I; Skandsen, T; Vik, A; Eikenes, L

    2015-07-01

    This study examines how injury mechanisms and early neuroimaging and clinical measures impact white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volumes in the chronic phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and how WM integrity in the chronic phase is associated with different outcome measures obtained at the same time. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T was acquired more than 1 year after TBI in 49 moderate-to-severe-TBI survivors and 50 matched controls. DTI data were analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics and automated tractography. Moderate-to-severe TBI led to widespread FA decreases, MD increases, and tract volume reductions. In severe TBI and in acceleration/deceleration injuries, a specific FA loss was detected. A particular loss of FA was also present in the thalamus and the brainstem in all grades of diffuse axonal injury. Acute-phase Glasgow Coma Scale scores, number of microhemorrhages on T2*, lesion volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and duration of posttraumatic amnesia were associated with more widespread FA loss and MD increases in chronic TBI. Episodes of cerebral perfusion pressure 20 mmHg nor acute-phase Rotterdam CT scores were associated with WM changes. Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended scores and performance-based cognitive control functioning were associated with FA and MD changes, but self-reported cognitive control functioning was not. In conclusion, FA loss specifically reflects the primary injury severity and mechanism, whereas FA and MD changes are associated with objective measures of general and cognitive control functioning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25641684

  9. State of the Science of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Biomarkers and Gene Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Eads, Julia K.; Berndt, Suzanna Boyce; Bennett, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our objective is to review the most widely used biomarkers and gene studies reported in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) literature, to describe their findings, and to discuss the discoveries and gaps that advance the understanding of brain injury and its associated outcomes. Ultimately, we aim to inform the science for future research priorities. Data sources We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for published English language studies conducted in the last 10 years to identify reviews and completed studies of biomarkers and gene associations in pediatric TBI. Of the 131 biomarker articles, only 16 were specific to pediatric TBI patients, whereas of the gene association studies in children with TBI, only four were included in this review. Conclusion Biomarker and gene attributes are grossly understudied in pediatric TBI in comparison to adults. Although recent advances recognize the importance of biomarkers in the study of brain injury, the limited number of studies and genomic associations in the injured brain has shown the need for common data elements, larger sample sizes, heterogeneity, and common collection methods that allow for greater understanding of the injured pediatric brain. By building on to the consortium of interprofessional scientists, continued research priorities would lead to improved outcome prediction and treatment strategies for children who experience a TBI. Implications for nursing research Understanding recent advances in biomarker and genomic studies in pediatric TBI is important because these advances may guide future research, collaborations, and interventions. It is also important to ensure that nursing is a part of this evolving science to promote improved outcomes in children with TBIs. PMID:25946386

  10. Excessive progression in weekly running distance and risk of running-related injuries : an association which varies according to type of injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Parner, Erik Thorlund

    2014-01-01

    Study Design An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. Background It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. Methods A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. Results A total of 202 runners sustained a running-related injury. Using Cox regression analysis, no statistically significant differences in injury rates were found across the 3 exposure groups. An increased rate of distance-related injuries (patellofemoral pain, iliotibial band syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, gluteus medius injury, greater trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those who progressed their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those who progressed less than 10% (hazard ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.66; P = .07). Conclusion Novice runners who progressed their running distance by more than 30% over a 2-week period seem to be more vulnerable to distance-related injuries than runners who increase their running distance by less than 10%. Owing to the exploratory nature of the present study, randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these results, and more experimental studies are needed to validate the assumptions. Still, novice runners may be well advised to progress their weekly distances by less than 30% per week over a 2-week period. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 1b-. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(10):739-747. Epub 25 August 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.5164.

  11. Association of Symptoms Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder vs Postconcussion Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagarde, E.; Salmi, L. R.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE A proportion of patients experience long-lasting symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). The postconcussion syndrome (PCS), included in the DSM-IV, has been proposed to describe this condition. Because these symptoms are subjective and common to other conditions, there is controversy whether PCS deserves to be identified as a diagnostic syndrome. OBJECTIVE To assess whether persistent symptoms 3 months following head injury are specific to MTBI or whether they are better described as part of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a prospective cohort study of injured patients recruited at the adult emergency department of the University Hospital of Bordeaux from December 4, 2007, to February 25, 2009. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES At 3-month follow-up, we compared the prevalence and risk factors for PCS and PTSD. Multiple correspondence analyses were used to assess clustering of symptoms and their associations with the type of injury. RESULTS We included 534 patients with head injury and 827 control patients with other nonhead injuries. Three months following the trauma, 21.2% of head-injured and 16.3% of nonhead-injured patients fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnosis of PCS; 8.8% of head-injured patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for PTSD compared with 2.2% of control patients. In multivariate analysis, MTBI was a predictor of PTSD (odds ratio, 4.47; 95% CI, 2.38-8.40) but not of PCS (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.82-1.55). Correspondence analysis suggested that symptoms considered part of PCS behave similarly to PTSD symptoms in the hyperarousal dimension. None of these 22 symptoms showed any pattern of clustering, and no clear proximity with head or nonhead injury status could be found. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Persistent subjective symptoms frequently reported 3 months after MTBI are not specific enough to be identified as a unique PCS and should be considered part of the hyperarousal dimension of PTSD.

  12. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 3.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition present special problems and the management is often different as compared with the permanent dentition. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialities were included in the task group. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion or majority decision of the task group. Finally, the IADT board members were giving their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care for management of primary teeth injuries. The IADT cannot and does not guarantee favorable outcomes from strict adherence to the guidelines, but believe that their application can maximize the chances of a positive outcome. The Hebrew Edition is part of the IADT global effort to provide a worldwide accessibility to these guidelines. This third part will discuss injuries in the primary dentition.

  13. Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea Associates with Neuropsychological Deficits and Neuronal Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbower, Ann C; Degaonkar, Mahaveer; Barker, Peter B; Earley, Christopher J; Marcus, Carole L; Smith, Philip L; Prahme, M. Cristine; Mahone, E. Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with neuropsychological deficits of memory, learning, and executive function. There is no evidence of neuronal brain injury in children with OSA. We hypothesized that childhood OSA is associated with neuropsychological performance dysfunction, and with neuronal metabolite alterations in the brain, indicative of neuronal injury in areas corresponding to neuropsychological function. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study of 31 children (19 with OSA and 12 healthy controls, aged 6–16 y) group-matched by age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Participants underwent polysomnography and neuropsychological assessments. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was performed on a subset of children with OSA and on matched controls. Neuropsychological test scores and mean neuronal metabolite ratios of target brain areas were compared. Relative to controls, children with severe OSA had significant deficits in IQ and executive functions (verbal working memory and verbal fluency). Children with OSA demonstrated decreases of the mean neuronal metabolite ratio N-acetyl aspartate/choline in the left hippocampus (controls: 1.29, standard deviation [SD] 0.21; OSA: 0.91, SD 0.05; p = 0.001) and right frontal cortex (controls: 2.2, SD 0.4; OSA: 1.6, SD 0.4; p = 0.03). Conclusions Childhood OSA is associated with deficits of IQ and executive function and also with possible neuronal injury in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. We speculate that untreated childhood OSA could permanently alter a developing child's cognitive potential. PMID:16933960

  14. Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Poor Health in HIV Clinic Patient Population: A Behavioral Surveillance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shacham, Enbal; Agbebi, Abayomi; Stamm, Kate; Overton, E. Turner

    2011-01-01

    Previous research reports that populations with HIV consume higher rates of alcohol than general population. This cross-sectional study (n = 391) was conducted to measure alcohol consumption, factors associated with consumption, and the relationship between alcohol and HIV viral loads among individuals receiving HIV care. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with being male, lower education attainment, and lacking a current HAART prescription. Additionally, among those currently on HA...

  15. Nitrotyrosine Level Was Associated with Mortality in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiuyu; Ma, Shuai; Zhou, Ying; Zheng, Ying; Liu, Junfeng; Kuang, Dingwei; Gu, Yong; Hao, Chuanming; Ding, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the characteristics of oxidative stress in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and investigate the association between plasma nitrotyrosine levels and 90-day mortality in patients with AKI. Methodology/Principal Findings 158 patients with hospital-acquired AKI were recruited to this prospective cohort study according to RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Lost or End Stage Kidney) criteria. Twelve critically ill patients without AKI and 15 age and gender-matched healthy subjects served as control. Plasma 3-nitrotyrosine was analyzed in relation to 90-day all cause mortality of patients with AKI. The patients with AKI were followed up for 90 days and grouped according to median plasma 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations. Highest 3-NT/Tyr was detected in patients with AKI compared with healthy subjects, and critically ill patients without AKI (ANOVA p<0.001). The 90-day survival curves of patients with high 3-NT/Tyr showed significant differences compared with the curves of individuals with low 3-NT/Tyr (p?=?0.001 by log rank test). Multivariate analysis (Cox regression) revealed that 3-NT/Tyr (p?=?0.025) was independently associated with mortality after adjustment for age, gender, sepsis and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. Conclusions/Significance There is excess plasma protein oxidation in patients with AKI, as evidenced by increased nitrotyrosine content. 3-NT/Tyr level was associated with mortality of AKI patients independent of the severity of illness. PMID:24278225

  16. Frequency and functions of non-suicidal self-injury: associations with suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Elise; Tsypes, Aliona; Eidlitz, Laura; Ernhout, Carrie; Whitlock, Janis

    2015-02-28

    Previous research has found associations between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), yet the nature of this relationship remains equivocal. The goal of the present study was to examine how lifetime NSSI frequency and individual NSSI functions relate to a history of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Data were collected via a large (N=13,396) web-based survey of university students between the ages of 18 and 29. After demographics and psychiatric conditions were controlled for, we found a positive curvilinear relationship between NSSI frequency and each of the suicide outcomes. When examined among those with STBs, bipolar disorder and problematic substance use remained positively associated with risk for suicide attempt, but not NSSI. Analyses of individual NSSI functions showed differential associations with STBs of varying severity. Specifically, nearly every NSSI function was significantly related to suicide attempt, with functions related to avoiding committing suicide, coping with self-hatred, and feeling generation (anti-dissociation) showing the strongest risks for suicide attempt. From both clinical and research perspectives, these findings suggest the importance of assessing multiple reasons for engaging in self-injury. PMID:25592979

  17. The temporal association between self-injurious thoughts and psychotic symptoms: a mobile phone assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper E; Taylor, Peter J; Ainsworth, John; Machin, Matthew; Dunn, Graham; Lewis, Shon W

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between psychotic symptoms and self-injurious thoughts (SITs) remains unclear. The short-term temporal associations between psychotic symptoms and SITs were explored. A sample of 36 people with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder or at-risk mental state completed mobile phone-based measures at multiple times each day for 1 week. Clustered regression with time-lagged variables supported a relationship between paranoia and subsequent SITs. Hallucinations did not predict these thoughts when controlling for paranoia. The role of specific psychotic symptoms in triggering SITs is highlighted and the importance of considering these factors in risk management is discussed. PMID:24261643

  18. Skin injuries on the body and thigh of dairy cows : associations with season, claw health, disease treatment, and other cow characteristics.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in 18 dairy herds with the objective to characterize those groups of cows where skin injuries to the body and thighs occurred most frequently. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The epidemiologic patterns were different in first and later lactations. In first lactation some degree of injury occurred among 7.7% of 1793 cows. For most cows occurrence of sole ulcer was positively associated with injury while occurrence of heel horn erosion was negatively associated with injury. The association between injury and body weight differed depending on month of calving (significant interaction). Injuries occurred most frequently among high yielding cows. Severe reproductive, metabolic, and/or infectious diseases were associated with injuries. In later lactations some degree of injury occurred among 13.4% of 832 cows in lactations 2 to 9 where severity of injury increased with lactation number. Injuries occurred least frequently at examinations made in the January to March. They occurred most frequently among cows with sole ulcers. Calving in March through October was associated with injuries especially if the cows were treated for limb disorders. Most cases of injuries occurred early or late in lactation or among high or very low yielding cows in lactations 2 to 9.

  19. Persistent maritime surveillance using multi-sensor feature association and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; Schwering, Piet B. W.; Liem, Kwan D.; Schleijpen, Ric

    2012-06-01

    In maritime operational scenarios, such as smuggling, piracy, or terrorist threats, it is not only relevant who or what an observed object is, but also where it is now and in the past in relation to other (geographical) objects. In situation and impact assessment, this information is used to determine whether an object is a threat. Single platform (ship, harbor) or single sensor information will not provide all this information. The work presented in this paper focuses on the sensor and object levels that provide a description of currently observed objects to situation assessment. For use of information of objects at higher information levels, it is necessary to have not only a good description of observed objects at this moment, but also from its past. Therefore, currently observed objects have to be linked to previous occurrences. Kinematic features, as used in tracking, are of limited use, as uncertainties over longer time intervals are so large that no unique associations can be made. Features extracted from different sensors (e.g., ESM, EO/IR) can be used for both association and classification. Features and classifications are used to associate current objects to previous object descriptions, allowing objects to be described better, and provide position history. In this paper a description of a high level architecture in which such a multi-sensor association is used is described. Results of an assessment of the usability of several features from ESM (from spectrum), EO and IR (shape, contour, keypoints) data for association and classification are shown.

  20. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  1. Distinctive response of CNS glial cells in oro-facial pain associated with injury, infection and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro-da-Silva Alfredo; Zhao Yuan; Lee SeungHwan; Zhang Ji

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Oro-facial pain following injury and infection is frequently observed in dental clinics. While neuropathic pain evoked by injury associated with nerve lesion has an involvement of glia/immune cells, inflammatory hyperalgesia has an exaggerated sensitization mediated by local and circulating immune mediators. To better understand the contribution of central nervous system (CNS) glial cells in these different pathological conditions, in this study we sought to characterize functional p...

  2. ATLAS OF INJURIES IN THE U.S. ARMED FORCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The database was initiated to determine the size of the problem of injuries in the military; document rates and trends of injury fatalities, disabilities, and hospitalizations; and identify information sources with potential for use in conducting injury surveillance and preventio...

  3. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Kru?ger-franke, M.; Siebert, C. H.; Pfo?rringer, W.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  4. Clofarabine-associated acute kidney injury in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Camille R.; O’Donnell, Peter H.; Cao, Hongyuan; Artz, Andrew S.; Stock, Wendy; Wickrema, Amittha; Hard, Marjie; van Besien, Koen

    2015-01-01

    We examined clofarabine pharmacokinetics and association with renal toxicity in 62 patients participating in a phase I–II study of clofarabine–melphalan–alemtuzumab conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Pharmacokinetic parameters, including clofarabine area under the concentration–time curve (AUC), maximum concentration and clearance, were measured, and patients were monitored for renal injury. All patients had normal pretreatment creatinine values, but over half (55%) experienced acute kidney injury (AKI) after clofarabine administration. Age was the strongest predictor of AKI, with older patients at greater risk (p = 0.002). Clofarabine AUC was higher in patients who developed AKI, and patients with the highest dose-normalized AUCs experienced the most severe grades of AKI (p = 0.01). Lower baseline renal function, even when normal, was associated with lower clofarabine clearance (p = 0.008). These data suggest that renal-adjustment of clofarabine dosing should be considered for older and at-risk patients even when renal function is ostensibly normal. PMID:24564572

  5. The association between traumatic dental injuries and atypical external root resorption in maxillary primary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, Gideon; Yodko, Elizabeth; Sheinvald-Shusterman, Kineret

    2015-02-01

    Atypical root resorption (ARR), which is observed on radiographs of primary incisors, has been reported in the dental literature to result from digit sucking; thus ignoring any association between ARR and traumatic dental injuries (TDI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the contributions of sucking habits and TDI to external ARR in primary incisors. A history of dental trauma was assessed based on clinical and radiographic findings. Periapical radiographs of the premaxilla were evaluated for the presence of ARR. The presence or history of sucking habits was based on parents' report. Data were collected from files of 727 patients with a mean age of 52 months. Sixty-four children (8.8%) presented ARR in one or both central incisors. All 64 had experienced some type of TDI. Five hundred and forty-nine (76%) of the children had sucking habits; of them, 501 were pacifier-suckers and 48 digit suckers. Digit sucking was found in only 4 (6%) of the 64 children presenting ARR. These findings support the association of traumatic dental injury, and not of digit sucking, with ARR in primary incisors. PMID:25283588

  6. [Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to respiratory complications of transfusion. Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined as an acute lung injury that is temporally associated with blood transfusion. TRALI is one of the leading causes of mortality. Although the etiology of TRALI is not fully understood, one of its main causes is thought to be anti-leukocyte antibodies, such as HLA antibody or HNA antibody. A precautionary male-predominant plasma strategy has been implemented in many developed countries, which has resulted in considerable achievements in reducing the incidence of TRALI. Meanwhile, transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) has emerged as a major differential diagnosis of TRALI. TACO is a well-known complication of transfusion, which has been considered not as a side effect of transfusion but a result of erroneous medical practice. It has long been an under-reported complication of transfusion and has not been investigated scientifically. Recent data on transfusion mortality from the Food and Drug Administration revealed that TACO was the second highest cause of death in the United States. Our data also suggested a steep increase in the reported cases of TACO in Japan. Precautionary measures should also be implemented for this emerging complication. PMID:23947178

  7. Association Between Mental Health and Traffic Accidents Injuries in Iranian Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Masoumi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of psychological consequences in traffic accident injured has received little attention in Iran. This study aimed to examine association between mental health and traffic related injuries in injured patients admitted into Emergency Department of Golestan hospital affiliated to Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Ahvaz, Iran. This study was done on a total of 102 injured men involved in traffic accidents as driver. The controls were consisted of 87 men that were selected from general population and had no history of traffic accident. The data was gathered using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and analyzed through multiple univariate Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs. There was a significant difference between individuals with traffic accident and control group in mental health, physical symptoms, depression and social functioning all (p0.05. There were significant differences between two group in education, occupation status and marital status all (p<0.001. Traffic injuries were associated with mental health and physical symptoms, depression and social functioning components of GHQ. These results highlight the individual burden related to traffic accidents in Iran.

  8. Assessment of the association between overweight/obesity and traumatic dental injury among Brazilian schoolchildren

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Veruska M, Martins; Raulison V, Sousa; Eveline S, Rocha; Rafaella B, Leite; Monalisa C, Gomes; Ana F, Granville-Garcia.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a associacao entre o sobrepeso/obesidade e a ocorrencia do trauma dentario entre escolares de 7 a 14 anos de idade. Caracterizou-se como um estudo transversal realizado com 590 escolares de escolas publicas de Campina Grande, Brasil. Utilizou-se como criteri [...] o de diagnostico para traumatismo dentario a classificacao proposta por O’Brien (1994) e para sobrepeso/obesidade o indice IMC. Os exames clinicos foram feitos por dois examinadores previamente calibrados (Kappa intra e inter de 0,87 e 0,90, respectivamente). Os testes estatisticos utilizados foram Qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher (significancia de 5%). Os individuos sem sobrepeso/obesidade apresentaram mais lesoes de trauma dentario que aqueles com sobrepeso/obesidade (13,3% vs 8,7%). Quando estratificada a amostra em relacao ao sexo, idade e grupo etnico, o traumatismo dentario foi mais prevalente entre criancas/adolescentes sem sobrepeso/obesidade, com excecao do grupo etnico, que apresentaram prevalencias similares. No grupo total nao foi observada associacao entre sobrepeso/obesidade e trauma dentario (p=0,253). A presenca de sobrepeso/obesidade em escolares de 7 a 14 anos nao foi associada ao traumatismo dentario. A analise da atividade fisica pode ser um fator importante para melhor elucidar a tematica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between overweight/obesity and the occurrence of traumatic dental injury among schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 590 students at public schools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. The classifi [...] cation proposed by O’Brien (1994) was used for the diagnosis of traumatic dental injury. Overweight/obesity was determined based on the body mass index. Clinical examinations were performed by two examiners who had undergone a calibration exercise (Kappa statistics of 0.87 and 0.90 for intra-examiner and inter-examiner, respectively). Data analysis involved the chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test with a 5% level of significance. Traumatic dental injury was less prevalent among the schoolchildren with overweight/obesity than those without this condition (8.7% and 13.3%, respectively). When the sample was stratified by gender and age, traumatic dental injury was also more prevalent among schoolchildren without overweight/obesity. When the sample was stratified based on ethnicity, prevalence rates were similar between those with and without overweight/obesity. In the overall sample, no significant association was found between overweight/obesity and traumatic dental injury (p = 0.253). Overweight/obesity among schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years was not associated with traumatic dental injury in this study. The analysis of physical activity may be important to gain a better understanding of this finding.

  9. ICD-9 codes and surveillance for Clostridium difficile-associated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubberke, Erik R; Reske, Kimberly A; McDonald, L Clifford; Fraser, Victoria J

    2006-10-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare Clostridium difficile-associated disease rates determined by C. difficile-toxin assays and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes. The correlation between toxin assay results and ICD-9 codes was good (K = 0.72, p<0.01). The sensitivity of the ICD-9 codes was 78% and the specificity was 99.7%. PMID:17176576

  10. Patterns of susceptibility of Aspergillus isolates recovered from patients enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddley, John W; Marr, Kieren A; Andes, David R; Walsh, Thomas J; Kauffman, Carol A; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Ito, James I; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Pappas, Peter G; Moser, Stephen A

    2009-10-01

    We analyzed antifungal susceptibilities of 274 clinical Aspergillus isolates from transplant recipients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis collected as part of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) and examined the relationship between MIC and mortality at 6 or 12 weeks. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 broth dilution method for amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITR), voriconazole (VOR), posaconazole (POS), and ravuconazole (RAV). The isolate collection included 181 Aspergillus fumigatus, 28 Aspergillus niger, 27 Aspergillus flavus, 22 Aspergillus terreus, seven Aspergillus versicolor, five Aspergillus calidoustus, and two Aspergillus nidulans isolates and two isolates identified as Aspergillus spp. Triazole susceptibilities were isolates (POS, 97.6%; ITR, 96.3%; VOR, 95.9%; RAV, 93.5%). The triazoles were not active against the five A. calidoustus isolates, for which MICs were > or = 4 microg/ml. AMB inhibited 93.3% of isolates at an MIC of isolates had MICs of >1 microg/ml. One of 181 isolates of A. fumigatus showed resistance (MIC > or = 4 microg/ml) to two of three azoles tested. Although there appeared to be a correlation of higher VOR MICs with increased mortality at 6 weeks, the relationship was not statistically significant (R2 = 0.61; P = 0.065). Significant relationships of in vitro MIC to all-cause mortality at 6 and 12 weeks for VOR or AMB were not found. PMID:19692558

  11. The Warfighter Associate: decision-support software agent for the management of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Marusich, Laura R.; Sokoloff, Stacey

    2014-06-01

    A unique and promising intelligent agent plug-in technology for Mission Command Systems— the Warfighter Associate (WA)— is described that enables individuals and teams to respond more effectively to the cognitive challenges of Mission Command, such as managing limited intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assets and information sharing in a networked environment. The WA uses a doctrinally-based knowledge representation to model role-specific workflows and continuously monitors the state of the operational environment to enable decision-support, delivering the right information to the right person at the right time. Capabilities include: (1) analyzing combat events reported in chat rooms and other sources for relevance based on role, order-of-battle, time, and geographic location, (2) combining seemingly disparate pieces of data into meaningful information, (3) driving displays to provide users with map based and textual descriptions of the current tactical situation, and (4) recommending courses of action with respect to necessary staff collaborations, execution of battle-drills, re-tasking of ISR assets, and required reporting. The results of a scenario-based human-in-the-loop experiment are reported. The underlying WA knowledge-graph representation serves as state traces, measuring aspects of Soldier decision-making performance (e.g. improved efficiency in allocating limited ISR assets) across runtime as dynamic events unfold on a simulated battlefield.

  12. INJURIES IN AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Wayne T; Pollard, Henry

    2003-01-01

    Background: Australian Rules Football is one of the most popular sports in Australia. Successful injury prevention relies on injury surveillance to establish the extent of injuries, to monitor injury patterns and to evaluate prevention strategies. Despite the popularity of participation at the community level, few injury surveillance studies have been published, so a detailed review of the literature is vital. There is limited information available outside of the elite level. Injury statistic...

  13. ERG Protein Expression in Diagnostic Specimens Is Associated with Increased Risk of Progression During Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Vainer, Ben

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compelling biomarkers identifying prostate cancer patients with a high risk of progression during active surveillance (AS) are needed. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between ERG expression at diagnosis and the risk of progression during AS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study included 265 patients followed on AS with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements, clinical examinations, and 10-12 core rebiopsies from 2002 to 2012 in a prospectively maintained database. ERG immunohistochemical staining was performed on diagnostic paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed sections with a ready-to-use kit (anti-ERG, EPR3864). Men were characterised as ERG positive if a minimum of one tumour focus demonstrated ERG expression. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Overall AS progression was defined as clinical progression: increased clinical tumour category ?cT2b by digital rectal examination and ultrasound, and/or histopathologic progression: upgrade of Gleason score, more than threepositive cores or bilateral positive cores, and/or PSA progression: PSA doubling time <3 yr. Risk of progression was analysed using multiple cause-specific Cox regression and stratified cumulative incidences (Aalen-Johansen method). Curatively intended treatment, watchful waiting, and death without progression were treated as competing events. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 121 of 142 ERG-negative and 96 of 123 ERG-positive patients had complete diagnostic information. In competing risk models, the ERG-positive group showed significantly higher incidences of overall AS progression (p<0.0001) and of the subgroups PSA progression (p<0.0001) and histopathologic progression (p<0.0001). The 2-yr cumulative incidence of overall AS progression was 21.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.3-29.1) in the ERG-negative group compared with 58.6% (95% CI, 48.7-68.5) in the ERG-positive group. ERG positivity was a significant predictor of overall AS progression in multiple Cox regression (hazard ratio: 2.45; 95% CI, 1.62-3.72; p<0.0001). The main limitation of this study is its observational nature. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, ERG positivity at diagnosis can be used to estimate the risk of progression during AS. If confirmed, ERG status can be used to individualise AS programmes. PATIENT SUMMARY: The tissue biomarker ERG identifies active surveillance patients with an increased risk of disease progression.

  14. Analysis of 127 peripartum hypoxic brain injuries from closed claims registered by the Danish Patient Insurance Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the most feared complications in medicine is hypoxic brain damage to a newborn. The authors investigated the circumstances of registered peripartum hypoxic brain injuries in order to identify potential opportunities to improve patient safety and prevent injuries. METHODS: The authors retrospectively investigated peripartum hypoxic brain injuries registered by the Danish Patient Insurance Association. RESULTS: From 1992 to 2004, 127 approved claims concerning peripartum hypoxic brain injuries were registered and subsequently analysed. Thirty-eight newborns died, and a majority of the 89 surviving children suffered from major handicaps, primarily cerebral palsy. In 69 of the cases, misinterpretation of or late action on an abnormal cardiotocography (CTG) were the reasons for the majority of the hypoxic brain injuries. CONCLUSIONS: All injuries could potentially have been avoided using established obstetric practice. CTGs are often misinterpreted. In the authors' opinion, education and training in CTG interpretation is essential. The use of ST-analysis of the fetus ECG (STAN) could probably reduce the number of these injuries Udgivelsesdato: 2008

  15. Significance of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of vertebral artery injury associated with blunt cervical spine trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertebral artery injury associated with non-penetrating cervical trauma is rare. We report 11 cases of vertebral artery injury diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after blunt trauma to the cervical spine and discuss about the importance of MRI in the diagnosis of this injury. Seven cases were caused by motor vehicle accidents, three by diving accidents, and one by static compression of the neck. All of the patients had documented cervical spine fractures and dislocations. In three patients, the diagnosis of complete occlusion of the vertebral artery was made on the basis of MRI and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In the other patients, mural injuries of the vertebral artery were demonstrated with DSA. These 11 patients presented with acute, nonspecific changes in neurological status. Two had infarctions of the cerebellum and brainstem. None were treated with anticoagulants. All of them survived and were discharged to other hospitals for physical and occupational therapy. Although DSA remains the gold standard for diagnosing vertebral artery injuries, MRI is a newer modality for assessing cervical cord injury, and it may be useful for evaluating the presence of vertebral injury after blunt cervical spine trauma. (author)

  16. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad I. Hammoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER. VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1 a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2 an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs and targets of interest (TOIs by movement type and geolocation; and (3 a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV. VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  17. Automatic association of chats and video tracks for activity learning and recognition in aerial video surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Riad I; Sahin, Cem S; Blasch, Erik P; Rhodes, Bradley J; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports. PMID:25340453

  18. A road traffic injury surveillance system using combined data sources in Peru / Sistema de vigilancia de traumatismos por accidentes de tránsito con fuentes de datos combinadas en el Perú

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yliana Rojas, Medina; Victoria, Espitia-Hardeman; Ann M., Dellinger; Manuel, Loayza; Rene, Leiva; Gloria, Cisneros.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el liderazgo del Ministerio de Salud, en el 2007 se estableció un sistema hospitalario nacional de vigilancia de traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito en unidades centinela de todo el Perú. Los datos de vigilancia se extraen de tres fuentes diferentes (registros hospitalarios, info [...] rmes policiales e informes del seguro del vehículo) e incluyen los traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito atendidos inicialmente en las salas de urgencia. Se usa un único formulario de recopilación de datos para registrar la información sobre los heridos, las características del hecho relacionadas con el conductor o los conductores de los vehículos y del vehículo o los vehículos involucrados. Los datos se analizan periódicamente y se comunican a todos los participantes del sistema de vigilancia. Los resultados indicaron que los hombres adultos jóvenes (de 15 a 29 años) fueron los más afectados por traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito y con mayor frecuencia eran los conductores de los vehículos que participaron en la colisión. Los ocupantes de vehículos de cuatro ruedas representaron la mitad de los casos en la mayoría de las zonas del país y los peatones lesionados en el hecho representaron prácticamente la otra mitad. El sistema establecido en el Perú podría servir de modelo del uso de múltiples fuentes de datos para la vigilancia a nivel nacional de traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito. Según los resultados de este estudio, los retos de un sistema de este tipo consisten en mantener y aumentar la participación de las unidades de vigilancia de todo el país y determinar las intervenciones de prevención adecuadas en el nivel local según los datos obtenidos. Abstract in english A national hospital-based nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance system was established at sentinel units across Peru in 2007 under the leadership of the Ministry of Health. Surveillance data are drawn from three different sources (hospital records, police reports, and vehicle insurance reports) [...] and include nonfatal road traffic injuries initially attended at emergency rooms. A single data collection form is used to record information about the injured, event characteristics related to the driver of the vehicle(s), and the vehicle(s). Data are analyzed periodically and disseminated to all surveillance system participants. Results indicated young adult males (15-29 years old) were most affected by nonfatal road traffic injuries and were most often the drivers of the vehicles involved in the collision. Four-wheeled vehicle occupants comprised one-half of cases in most regions of the country, and pedestrians injured in the event accounted for almost another half. The system established in Peru could serve as a model for the use of multiple data sources in national nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance. Based on this study, the challenges of this type of system include sustaining and increasing participation among sentinel units nationwide and identifying appropriate prevention interventions at the local level based on the resulting data.

  19. Association between Traumatic Dental Injury, Obesity, and Socioeconomic Status in 6- and 13-Year-Old Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sakeenabi; Mohammad, Roshan Noor; Swamy, Hiremath Shivalinga; Sexena, Vrinda

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and poverty are independent risk factors in trauma-related morbidity in children as well as adolescents. The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between traumatic dental injury, obesity, and socioeconomic status in 6- and 13-year-old schoolchildren in Davangere city, Karnataka, India. Data were obtained from 1,550 schoolchildren. Dental trauma was classified according to Andreasen's criteria. The medical evaluation assessed the Body Mass Index. Overjet was considered a risk factor when it presented values higher than 3 mm, whereas lip coverage was classified as adequate or inadequate. With appropriate sample weighting, relationships between traumatic dental injury and other variables were assessed using the chi-squared test and multivariable logistic regression. Overall prevalence of dental injuries was 10.52% (3.6% in 6-year-olds and 17.2% in 13-year-olds). Boys experienced more injuries than girls, 11.03% and 9.97%, respectively (p>.05). There was a statistically significant difference between traumatic dental injury and overjet (95% confidence interval [CI] [2.06, 4.78], p socioeconomic status had an odds ratio 2.33 (95% CI [1.05, 3.97]) times higher likelihood of having dental trauma than children from medium and upper socioeconomic status. To conclude the results of this study support an association between traumatic dental injuries, obesity, and poverty. PMID:25812163

  20. IL-6 trans-signaling promotes pancreatitis-associated lung injury and lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Neuhöfer, Patrick; Song, Liang; Rabe, Björn; Lesina, Marina; Kurkowski, Magdalena U; Treiber, Matthias; Wartmann, Thomas; Regnér, Sara; Thorlacius, Henrik; Saur, Dieter; Weirich, Gregor; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Halangk, Walter; Mizgerd, Joseph P; Schmid, Roland M; Rose-John, Stefan; Algül, Hana

    2013-03-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory disease with a high mortality rate. Although typically seen in individuals with sepsis, ALI is also a major complication in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The pathophysiology of SAP-associated ALI is poorly understood, but elevated serum levels of IL-6 is a reliable marker for disease severity. Here, we used a mouse model of acute pancreatitis-associated (AP-associated) ALI to determine the role of IL-6 in ALI lethality. Il6-deficient mice had a lower death rate compared with wild-type mice with AP, while mice injected with IL-6 were more likely to develop lethal ALI. We found that inflammation-associated NF-?B induced myeloid cell secretion of IL-6, and the effects of secreted IL-6 were mediated by complexation with soluble IL-6 receptor, a process known as trans-signaling. IL-6 trans-signaling stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3 and production of the neutrophil attractant CXCL1 in pancreatic acinar cells. Examination of human samples revealed expression of IL-6 in combination with soluble IL-6 receptor was a reliable predictor of ALI in SAP. These results demonstrate that IL-6 trans-signaling is an essential mediator of ALI in SAP across species and suggest that therapeutic inhibition of IL-6 may prevent SAP-associated ALI. PMID:23426178

  1. IL-6 trans-signaling promotes pancreatitis-associated lung injury and lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Neuhöfer, Patrick; Song, Liang; Rabe, Björn; Lesina, Marina; Kurkowski, Magdalena U.; Treiber, Matthias; Wartmann, Thomas; Regnér, Sara; Thorlacius, Henrik; Saur, Dieter; Weirich, Gregor; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Halangk, Walter; Mizgerd, Joseph P.; Schmid, Roland M.; Rose-John, Stefan; Algül, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory disease with a high mortality rate. Although typically seen in individuals with sepsis, ALI is also a major complication in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The pathophysiology of SAP-associated ALI is poorly understood, but elevated serum levels of IL-6 is a reliable marker for disease severity. Here, we used a mouse model of acute pancreatitis–associated (AP-associated) ALI to determine the role of IL-6 in ALI lethality. Il6-deficient mice had a lower death rate compared with wild-type mice with AP, while mice injected with IL-6 were more likely to develop lethal ALI. We found that inflammation-associated NF-?B induced myeloid cell secretion of IL-6, and the effects of secreted IL-6 were mediated by complexation with soluble IL-6 receptor, a process known as trans-signaling. IL-6 trans-signaling stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3 and production of the neutrophil attractant CXCL1 in pancreatic acinar cells. Examination of human samples revealed expression of IL-6 in combination with soluble IL-6 receptor was a reliable predictor of ALI in SAP. These results demonstrate that IL-6 trans-signaling is an essential mediator of ALI in SAP across species and suggest that therapeutic inhibition of IL-6 may prevent SAP-associated ALI. PMID:23426178

  2. JAMA Patient Page: Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Head Injury M ore than 1 million head injuries occur every year in the United States. Because head injuries (also known as traumatic brain injuries ) are common ...

  3. Posterior cruciate ligament injury: characteristics and associations of most frequent injuries / Lesoes do ligamento cruzado posterior: caracteristicas e associacoes mais frequentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco Tulio Lopes, Caldas; Gilberto Ferreira, Braga; Samuel Lopes, Mendes; Juliano Martins da, Silveira; Robson Massi, Kopke.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a prevalência das lesões do ligamento cruzado posterior (LCP) e suas combinações e correlações com o mecanismo e a ocorrência de luxação evidente e fratura associada. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de 85 lesões do LCP operadas entre 2003 e 2010. Diagnóstico por meio do exame [...] físico e da radiografia dinâmica, confrontados com achados cirúrgicos. RESULTADOS: Lesões que envolveram o LCP foram mais prevalentes nos homens (78,8%) com média de idade de 33 anos. A causa principal foi o acidente de trânsito (73,80%), dos quais 49,4% de motocicleta. Lesão isolada do LCP ocorreu em 15,3% dos casos e combinada em 84,7%. Dentre as lesões isoladas, nove foram avulsões ósseas (10,6%). O ligamento mais associado às lesões do LCP foi o cruzado anterior (48,2%), seguido da lesão combinada do LCP com o ligamento colateral lateral/canto póstero-lateral (22,4%). Fraturas estiveram mais associadas à combinação LCP + LCL/CPL e não apareceram nas lesões do LCP + ligamento colateral medial/canto póstero-medial. Complicações além de fraturas: lesão de nervo periférico (4,8%) e vascular (1,2%). Luxação evidente no primeiro atendimento (16,7%), mais prevalente na combinação LCP + LCA + LCM/CPM (44,4%). Metade dos pacientes foi operada na fase aguda. Houve diferença estatística significativa (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and combinations of PCL injuries and their correlations with the mechanism, the occurrence of evident dislocation and associated fracture. METHOD: A retrospective study of 85 lesions of PCL operated between 2003 and 2010. Diagnosis by physical examinati [...] on and dynamic radiography, compared with surgical findings. RESULTS: Injuries involving the PCL were more prevalent in men (78.8%) with a mean age of 33 years. The main cause was traffic accidents (73.80%), and (49.4%) motorcycle. Isolated PCL injury occurred in (15.3%) cases, and combined (84.7%). Among the isolated lesions, bone avulsions were nine (10.6%). The most associated PCL injuries were the ACL (48.2%), followed by LCL PCL/PLC (22.4%). Fractures were more associated with combining PCL + LCL/PLC injuries and did not appear in the PCL + MCL/PMC. Complications beyond fractures: peripheral nerve injury (4.8%) and vascular (1.2%). Evident dislocation in primary care (16.7%) was more prevalent in combined ACL + PCL + MCL/PMC (44.4%). Half the patients were operated during the acute phase. There was a statistically significant difference (p

  4. Surveillance of artemether-lumefantrine associated Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 gene polymorphisms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavishe, Reginald A; Paulo, Petro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-malarials is a major public health problem worldwide. After deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) there have been reports of reduced sensitivity to ACT by malarial parasites in South-East Asia. In Tanzania, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) is the recommended first-line drug in treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This study surveyed the distribution of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased parasite tolerance to ALu, in Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 687 Plasmodium falciparum positive dried blood spots on filter paper and rapid diagnostic test strips collected by finger pricks from patients attending health facilities in six regions of Tanzania mainland between June 2010 and August 2011 were used. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to detect Pfmdr1 SNPs N86Y, Y184F and D1246Y. RESULTS: There were variations in the distribution of Pfmdr1 polymorphisms among regions. Tanga region had exceptionally high prevalence of mutant alleles, while Mbeya had the highest prevalence of wild type alleles. The haplotype YFY was exclusively most prevalent in Tanga (29.6%) whereas the NYD haplotype was the most prevalent in all other regions. Excluding Tanga and Mbeya, four, most common Pfmdr1 haplotypes did not vary between the remaining four regions (chi2 = 2.3, p = 0.512). The NFD haplotype was the second most prevalent haplotype in all regions, ranging from 17% - 26%. CONCLUSION: This is the first country-wide survey on Pfmdr1 mutations associated with ACT resistance. Distribution of individual Pfmdr1 mutations at codons 86, 184 and 1246 varies throughout Tanzanian regions. There is a general homogeneity in distribution of common Pfmdr1 haplotypes reflecting strict implementation of ALu policy in Tanzania with overall prevalence of NFD haplotype ranging from 17 to 26% among other haplotypes. With continuation of ALu as first-line drug this haplotype is expected to keep rising, thus there is need for continued pharmacovigilance studies to monitor any delayed parasite clearance by the drug.

  5. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 1.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) of permanent teeth occur frequently in children and young adults. Crown fractures and luxations are the most commonly occurring of all dental injuries. Proper diagnosis, treatment planning and follow up are important for improving a favorable outcome. Guidelines should assist dentists and patients in decision making and for providing the best care effectively and efficiently. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialties were included in the group. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion of the IADT board members. The guidelines represent the best current evidence based on literature search and professional opinion. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of TDIs. In this first article, the IADT Guidelines for management of fractures and luxations of permanent teeth will be presented. The Hebrew Edition is part of the IADT global effort to provide accessibility to these guidelines worldwide.

  6. Ozone-Induced Injury and Oxidative Stress in Bronchiolar Epithelium Are Associated with Altered Pulmonary Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.

    2013-01-01

    In these studies, we analyzed the effects of ozone on bronchiolar epithelium. Exposure of rats to ozone (2 ppm, 3h) resulted in rapid (within 3h) and persistent (up to 72h) histological changes in the bronchiolar epithelium, including hypercellularity, loss of cilia, and necrotizing bronchiolitis. Perivascular edema and vascular congestion were also evident, along with a decrease in Clara cell secretory protein in bronchoalveolar lavage, which was maximal 24h post-exposure. Ozone also induced the appearance of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine, Ym1, and heme oxygenase-1 in the bronchiolar epithelium. This was associated with increased expression of cleaved caspase-9 and beclin-1, indicating initiation of apoptosis and autophagy. A rapid and persistent increase in galectin-3, a regulator of epithelial cell apoptosis, was also observed. Following ozone exposure (3–24h), increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and arginase-1 was noted in bronchiolar epithelium. Ozone-induced injury and oxidative stress in bronchiolar epithelium were linked to methacholine-induced alterations in pulmonary mechanics. Thus, significant increases in lung resistance and elastance, along with decreases in lung compliance and end tidal volume, were observed at higher doses of methacholine. This indicates that ozone causes an increase in effective stiffness of the lung as a consequence of changes in the conducting airways. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that bronchiolar epithelium is highly susceptible to injury and oxidative stress induced by acute exposure to ozone; moreover, this is accompanied by altered lung functioning. PMID:23492811

  7. Radial nerve injury associated with humeral shaft fracture: a retrospective study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávia Pessoni Faleiros Macêdo, Ricci; Rafael Inácio, Barbosa; Valéria Meirelles Carril, Elui; Cláudio Henrique, Barbieri; Nilton, Mazzer; Marisa de Cássia Registro, Fonseca.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the profile of patients with humeral diaphyseal fractures in a tertiary hospital. Methods: We conducted a survey from January 2010 to July 2012, including data from [...] patients classified under humeral diaphyseal fracture (S42.3) according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The variables analyzed were: age, gender, presence of radial nerve injury, causal agent and the type of treatment carried out. Results: The main causes of trauma were car accidents. The radial nerve lesion was present in some cases and was caused by the same trauma that caused the fracture or iatrogenic injury. Most of these fractures occurred in the middle third of humeral diaphysis and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: The profile of patients with fracture of humeral shaft, in this specific sample, was composed mainly of adult men involved in traffic accidents; the associated radial nerve lesion was present in most of these fractures and its cause was strongly related to the trauma mechanism. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study.

  8. Prevalence of chest trauma, associated injuries and mortality: a level I trauma centre experience

    OpenAIRE

    Veysi, Veysi T.; Vassilios S. Nikolaou; Paliobeis, Christos; Efstathopoulos, Nicolas; Giannoudis, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    A review of prospectively collected data in our trauma unit for the years 1998–2003 was undertaken. Adult patients who suffered multiple trauma with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of ?16, admitted to hospital for more than 72 hours and with sustained blunt chest injuries were included in the study. Demographic details including pre-hospital care, trauma history, admission vital signs, blood transfusions, details of injuries and their abbreviated injury scores (AIS), operations, length of ...

  9. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Goncalves Arliani; Paulo Santoro Belangero; Jose Luiz Runco; Moisés Cohen

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagn...

  10. Evaluation of the criteria for angiotomography indications in the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral arterial injury associated with blunt trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerindo Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blunt carotid and vertebral artery injury (BCVI occur infrequently. The incidence of this type of injury is difficult to determine as many emergency room patients are neurologically asymptomatic. The statistics have not been reported in Brazil. The objectives of the current study were: To evaluate the accuracy of criteria used to recommend angiotomography in the diagnosis of cervical BCVI in 100 patients with blunt cervical trauma in the trauma services section of a Brazilian quaternary care hospital. Methods During a 30-month (2006-2008, all patients admitted to the emergency room of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo with blunt cervical trauma and potential risk of cervical vessel injury, were subjected to cervical angiotomography to diagnose BCVI. The data analyzed are presented as mean ± standard deviation, and statistical analyses included Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Results During the study period 2467 blunt trauma patients were admitted. In 100 patients that met the criteria for inclusion in the study, angiotomography identified 23 with BCVI, including 17 males and six females. The mean patient age was 34.81 ± 14.84 years. Car crash (49% and car-pedestrian accidents (24% were the most frequent causes of injury. Ten patients had internal carotid artery injuries, two patients had common carotid artery injuries, and 11 patients had vertebral artery injuries. Seven patients presented with Degree I arterial injuries, 10 patients presented with Degree II artery injuries, four patients presented with Degree IV artery injuries, one patient presented with a Degree V artery injury, and one patient had a carotid fistula. Seven out of the 23 patients with BCVI (30.4% presented with cervical vertebrae fractures, and 11 out of the 23 patients with BCVI (47.8% presented with facial fractures (LeFort II and III. Conclusions Although there is no consensus regarding the criteria that should be used to indicate angiotomography for BCVI diagnosis, we conclude that the criteria used in the current study led to a diagnosis of BCVI in 0.93% of 2,467 trauma patients, BCVI injuries were associated with more severe traumas and did not affect mortality.

  11. Association between Peritransplant Kidney Injury Biomarkers and 1-Year Allograft Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Isaac E.; Doshi, Mona D.; Reese, Peter P.; Marcus, Richard J.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Current tools to predict outcomes after kidney transplantation are inadequate. The objective of this study was to determine the association of perioperative urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and IL-18 with poor 1-year allograft function (return to dialysis or estimated GFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and IL-18 from early post-transplant urine was measured in this prospective, multicenter study of deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients. The outcome of poor allograft function at 1 year relative to these biomarkers using multivariable logistic regression and net reclassification improvement was examined. Also, the interaction between delayed graft function and the biomarkers on the outcome were evaluated, and the change in biomarkers over consecutive days related to the outcome using trend tests was examined. Results Mean age for the 153 recipients was 54 ± 13 years. Delayed graft function occurred in 42%, and 24 (16%) recipients had the 1-year outcome. Upper median values for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and IL-18 on the first postoperative day had adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 6.0 (1.5–24.0) and 5.5 (1.4–21.5), respectively. Net reclassification improvement (95% confidence interval) was significant for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and IL-18 at 36% (1%–71%) and 45% (8%–83%), respectively. There was no significant interaction between biomarkers and delayed graft function on the outcome. Change in biomarkers moderately trended with the outcome. Conclusions Perioperative urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and IL-18 are associated with poor 1-year allograft function, suggesting their potential for identifying patients for therapies that minimize the risk of additional injury. PMID:22723447

  12. 77 FR 73366 - Secondary Service Connection for Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...and Health, Volume 7: Long-Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury, regarding...War and Health Volume 7: Long-Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury, the IOM...injuries. As classic Alzheimer's disease strikes sufferers much later in life, the...

  13. Risk Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behavior among a National Sample of Undergraduate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality among undergraduates represent important public health issues. This analysis identified risk factors that distinguished 3 groups, those who reported no history of self-harm; self-injury, but no suicide attempts (NSSI only); and self-injury and a suicide attempt (NSSI + SA) in the past year.…

  14. Factors associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario 2001-2007: implications for food animal syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alton Gillian D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1 describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, the number of weeks abattoirs process cattle, geographical distribution, types of whole carcass condemnations reported, and the distance animals are shipped for slaughter; and (2 identify various seasonal, secular, disease and non-disease factors that might bias the results of quantitative methods, such as cluster detection methods, used for food animal syndromic surveillance. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and the Ontario Cattlemen's Association regarding whole carcass condemnation rates for cattle animal classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for various cattle classes from 2001-2007. To analyze the association between condemnation rates and potential explanatory variables including abattoir characteristics, season, year and commodity price, as well as animal class, negative binomial regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations (GEE to account for autocorrelation among observations from the same abattoir. Results of the fitted model found animal class, year, season, price, and audit rating are associated with condemnation rates in Ontario abattoirs. In addition, a subset of data was used to estimate the average distance cattle are shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs. The median distance from the farm to the abattoir was approximately 82 km, and 75% of cattle were shipped less than 100 km. Conclusions The results suggest that secular and seasonal trends, as well as some non-disease factors will need to be corrected for when applying quantitative methods for syndromic surveillance involving these data. This study also demonstrated that animals shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs come from relatively local farms, which is important when considering the use of spatial surveillance methods for these data.

  15. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 2.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O

    2014-01-01

    Avulsion of permanent teeth is one of the most serious dental injuries, and a prompt and correct emergency management is very important for the prognosis. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialties were included in the task group. The guidelines represent the current best evidence and practice based on literature research and professionals' opinion. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion or majority decision of the task group. Finally, the IADT board members were giving their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of avulsed permanent teeth. The Hebrew Edition is part of the IADT global effort to provide a worldwide accessibility to these guidelines. This scond part of the guidelines will focus on avulsion of permanent teeth.

  16. Non-suicidal self-injury in high school students: Associations with identity processes and statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Gandhi, Amarendra; Bijttebier, Patricia; Claes, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) refers to the direct, deliberate destruction of one's body tissue without suicidal intent. Research has highlighted the importance of identity synthesis versus confusion for NSSI. However, the association with identity processes and statuses remains unknown. A total of 568 adolescents reported on NSSI, identity, anxiety, and depression. Although identity processes of identification with commitment (negatively) and ruminative exploration (positively) were related to NSSI variables, these relationships were no longer significant when controlling for anxiety and depression. When examining identity statuses (using cluster analysis), individuals who had engaged in NSSI in the past (but not currently) were more likely to be in the moratorium cluster and less likely to be in the achievement cluster. Individuals who were currently engaging in NSSI were more likely to be in the troubled diffusion cluster. Clinicians should be attentive to the complex interplay between identity and NSSI when treating adolescents. PMID:25828550

  17. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for EG&G Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences resulting from illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This report presents the 1994 morbidity data for the Rocky Flats plant.

  18. Annual report for Hanford Site: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupational and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities.This report provides the final summary for the Hanford Reservation.

  19. Amended annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations and do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated work activities. This report provides a final summary for BNL.

  20. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagener, G.; Gubitosa, G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is proposed as an early marker of kidney injury. We report the association of urinary NGAL with indexes of intraoperative renal hypoperfusion (cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time) and acute kidney injury (AKI) after adult cardiac surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Diagnostic test accuracy. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adult cardiac surgical patients (n = 426) in a single center from 2004 to 2006. INDEX TEST: Urinary NGAL immediately and 3, 18, and 24 hours after cardiac surgery, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. REFERENCE TEST OR OUTCOME: Serum creatinine-based definition for AKI (increase in serum creatinine from preoperative values by >50% or >0.3 mg/dL within 48 hours). RESULTS: Mean urinary NGAL level was 165 +/- 663 (SD) ng/mL preoperatively, peaked immediately after cardiac surgery at 1,490 +/- 102 ng/mL, and remained significantly higher 3, 18, and 24 hours after surgery. 85 patients (20%) developed AKI. Areas under the receiveroperating characteristic curve for urinary NGAL immediately after and 3, 18, and 24 hours later as a predictor for AKI were 0.573 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.506 to 0.640), 0.603 (95% CI, 0.533 to 0.674), 0.611 (95% CI, 0.544 to 0.679), and 0.584 (95% CI, 0.510 to 0.657), respectively. Urinary NGAL, but not serum creatinine, level correlated significantly with cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves for cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time to predict AKI were 0.592 (95% CI, 0.518 to 0.666) and 0.593 (95% CI, 0.523 to 0.665), respectively. LIMITATIONS: Limited sensitivity of changes in serum creatinine levels for kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary NGAL has limited diagnostic accuracy to predict AKI defined by change in serum creatinine after cardiac surgery Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9

  1. Systematic review and comparison of pharmacologic therapies for neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snedecor SJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sonya J Snedecor,1 Lavanya Sudharshan,1 Joseph C Cappelleri,2 Alesia Sadosky,3 Pooja Desai,4 Yash J Jalundhwala,5 Marc Botteman1 1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Global Research and Development, Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA; 3Biostatistics, Pfizer, New York, NY, USA; 4College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 5Pharmacy Administration, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Background: Management of neuropathic pain (NeP associated with spinal cord injury (SCI is difficult. This report presents a systematic literature review and comparison of the efficacy and safety of pharmacologic therapies for treating SCI-associated NeP. Methods: Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched through December 2011 for randomized, blinded, and controlled clinical trials of SCI-associated NeP meeting predefined inclusion criteria. Efficacy outcomes of interest were pain reduction on the 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS or 100 mm visual analog scale and proportion of patients achieving ?30% or ?50% pain reduction. Discontinuations and adverse events (AEs were also assessed, for which Bayesian meta-analytic indirect comparisons were performed. Results: Of the nine studies included in the analysis, samples were <100 patients, except for one pregabalin study (n = 136. Standard errors for the NRS outcome were often not reported, precluding quantitative comparisons across treatments. Estimated 11-point NRS pain reduction relative to placebo was –1.72 for pregabalin, –1.65 for amitriptyline, –1.0 for duloxetine, –1 (median for levetiracetam, –0.27 for gabapentin, 1 (median for lamotrigine, and 2 for dronabinol. Risk ratios relative to placebo for 30% improvement were 0.71 for levetiracetam and 2.56 for pregabalin, and 0.94 and 2.91, respectively, for 50% improvement. Meta-analytic comparisons showed significantly more AEs with pregabalin and tramadol compared with placebo, and no differences between placebo and any treatment for discontinuations. Conclusions: Studies of SCI-associated NeP were few, small, and reported insufficient data for quantitative comparisons of efficacy. However, available data suggested pregabalin was associated with more favorable efficacy for all outcome measures examined, and that the risks of AEs and discontinuations were found to be similar among the therapies. Keywords: neuropathic pain, spinal cord injury, systematic review, indirect comparison, pharmacologic management

  2. Haplotype analysis of ApoAI gene and sepsis-associated acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) is the major apoprotein constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL) which exerts innate protective effects in systemic inflammation. However, its role in the acute lung injury (ALI) has not been well studied. In the present study we investigated the association between polymorphisms of ApoA1 gene and ALI in a Chinese population. Methods Three polymorphisms of the ApoA1 gene (rs11216153, rs2070665, and rs632153) were genotyped by TaqMan method in 290 patients with sepsis-associated ALI, 285 patients sepsis alone and 330 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results We found rs11216153 polymorphism of ApoA1 was associated with ALI, the GG genotype and G allele was common in the ALI patients (76.9%, 88.1%, respectively) than both in the control subjects (55.8%, 75.8%, respectively) and in the sepsis alone patients (58.2%, 78.4%, respectively). Haplotype consisting of these three SNPs strengthened the association with ALI susceptibility. The frequency of haplotype GTG in the ALI samples was significantly higher than that in the healthy control group (OR?=?2.261, 95% CI: 1.735?~?2.946, P <0.001) and the sepsis alone group (OR?=?1.789, 95% CI: 1.373?~?2.331.P?associated with susceptibility to sepsis-associated ALI in Han Chinese population. PMID:24885977

  3. Proton pump inhibitors in prevention of low-dose aspirin-associated upper gastrointestinal injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chen; Sun, Gang; Lu, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yan-Zhi; Sun, Xi; Yang, Yun-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the preventive effect and safety of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in low-dose aspirin (LDA)-associated gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers and bleeding. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from inception to December 2013, and checked conference abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of PPIs in reducing adverse GI events (hemorrhage, ulcer, perforation, or obstruction) in patients taking LDA. The preventive effects of PPIs were compared with the control group [taking placebo, a cytoprotective agent, or an H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA)] in LDA-associated upper GI injuries. The meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1 software. RESULTS: We evaluated 8780 participants in 10 RCTs. The meta-analysis showed that PPIs decreased the risk of LDA-associated upper GI ulcers (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.12-0.23) and bleeding (OR = 0.27; 95%CI: 0.16-0.43) compared with control. For patients treated with dual anti-platelet therapy of LDA and clopidogrel, PPIs were able to prevent the LDA-associated GI bleeding (OR = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.15-0.87) without increasing the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (OR = 1.00; 95%CI: 0.76-1.31). PPIs were superior to H2RA in prevention of LDA-associated GI ulcers (OR = 0.12; 95%CI: 0.02-0.65) and bleeding (OR = 0.32; 95%CI: 0.13-0.79). CONCLUSION: PPIs are effective in preventing LDA-associated upper GI ulcers and bleeding. Concomitant use of PPI, LDA and clopidogrel did not increase the risk of MACE. PMID:25954113

  4. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics : Needle lesion or neurotoxicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, SØren; Jensen, Rigmor H.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry. Methods. The study included data sets of annual sales of local anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent, prilocaine 3 percent, and articaine 4 percent sold in cartridges. Results. The study results showed a highly significant overrepresentation of NSDs associated with articaine 4 percent, in particular with mandibular blocks. Conclusions. The distribution of NSDs was disproportionate to the market share of three of the four drugs in both national registry data and clinical data. These findings indicate that the main cause of injury was neurotoxicity resulting from administration of the local anesthetic rather than the needle penetration. Clinical Implications. Clinicians may consider avoiding use of high-concentration (4 percent) anesthetic formulations for blockanesthesia in the trigeminal area in cases in which there are viable alternatives.

  5. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, SØren; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry METHODS: The study included data sets of annual sales of local anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent, prilocaine 3 percent, and articaine 4 percent sold in cartridges. RESULTS: The study results showed a highly significant overrepresentation of NSDs associated with articaine 4 percent, in particular with mandibular blocks. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of NSDs was disproportionate to the market share of three of the four drugs in both national registry data and clinical data. These findings indicate that the main cause of injury was neurotoxicity resulting from administration of the local anesthetic rather than the needle penetration. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians may consider avoiding use of high-concentration (4 percent) anesthetic formulations fo

  6. Identification and validation of a logistic regression model for predicting serious injuries associated with motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononen, Douglas W; Flannagan, Carol A C; Wang, Stewart C

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate logistic regression model, based upon National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data for calendar years 1999-2008, was developed to predict the probability that a crash-involved vehicle will contain one or more occupants with serious or incapacitating injuries. These vehicles were defined as containing at least one occupant coded with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than or equal to 15, in planar, non-rollover crash events involving Model Year 2000 and newer cars, light trucks, and vans. The target injury outcome measure was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led National Expert Panel on Field Triage in their recent revision of the Field Triage Decision Scheme (American College of Surgeons, 2006). The parameters to be used for crash injury prediction were subsequently specified by the National Expert Panel. Model input parameters included: crash direction (front, left, right, and rear), change in velocity (delta-V), multiple vs. single impacts, belt use, presence of at least one older occupant (? 55 years old), presence of at least one female in the vehicle, and vehicle type (car, pickup truck, van, and sport utility). The model was developed using predictor variables that may be readily available, post-crash, from OnStar-like telematics systems. Model sensitivity and specificity were 40% and 98%, respectively, using a probability cutpoint of 0.20. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the final model was 0.84. Delta-V (mph), seat belt use and crash direction were the most important predictors of serious injury. Due to the complexity of factors associated with rollover-related injuries, a separate screening algorithm is needed to model injuries associated with this crash mode. PMID:21094304

  7. The association between apolipoprotein E and traumatic brain injury severity and functional outcome in a rehabilitation sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie; McLaren, Anna; Schönberger, Michael; Burke, Richard; Rudzki, Dion; Olver, John; Ponsford, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in significant disability, but outcome is variable. The impact of known predictors accounts for a limited proportion of the variance in outcomes. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype has been investigated as an additional source of variability in injury severity and outcome, with mixed findings reflecting variable methodology and generally limited sample sizes. This study aimed to examine whether possession of the ApoE ?4 allele was associated with greater acute injury severity and poorer long-term outcome in patients referred for rehabilitation following TBI. ApoE genotype was determined for 648 patients with TBI, who were prospectively followed up a mean of 1.9 years post-injury. Hypotheses that ?4 carriers would have lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and longer post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) duration were not supported. Prediction of worse Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) scores for ?4 carriers was supported with greater susceptibility seen in females. These results indicate the ApoE ?4 allele may be associated with poorer long-term outcome, but not acute injury severity. Possible mechanisms include differential effects of the ?4 allele on inflammatory and cellular repair processes, and/or amyloid deposition. PMID:21651315

  8. Sports Injuries in Youth: Surveillance Strategies. Proceedings of a Conference at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD, April 8-9, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This conference was convened to develop guidelines for programs to monitor the rates and costs of youth sports injuries. Following the Preface (L. E. Shulman), Introduction (D. G. Murray), and Summary (D. G. Murray), "Subjects for Further Research or Implementation" are listed. The 19 papers presented at the conference were: (1) "Funding Sources…

  9. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Fernandez Nuria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI. Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery.

  10. Vigilância para acidentes e violência: instrumento para estratégias de prevenção e controle Injury surveillance: a tool for prevention and control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Alves Waldman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A rápida e expressiva elevação da morbi-mortalidade por acidentes e violência constituiu um dos pontos mais relevantes da transição epidemiológica no Brasil, a partir dos anos 80. A complexidade do problema implica a aplicação de medidas no âmbito de políticas sociais, elaboração de legislação específica e desenvolvimento de instrumentos de intervenção voltados à prevenção, ao tratamento e à reabilitação dos atingidos, o que pressupõe a identificação de grupos e fatores de risco. O objetivo deste texto é discutir aspectos conceituais e operacionais da utilização da vigilância em eventos adversos à saúde relacionados a acidentes e à violência. Apresentados os conceitos, características comuns e aspectos relativos à operacionalização dos sistemas de vigilância, independente do evento adverso à saúde a que se destinam, foram discutidas algumas questões específicas relativas à elaboração de definições de caso, à identificação de fontes de informação e à coleta dos dados de interesse, buscando identificar diferenças da utilização da vigilância para acidentes e violência se comparadas com a aplicação deste instrumento para doenças infecciosas, salientando entre elas que, para a identificação de fatores de risco, geralmente, se faz necessário complementar os resultados obtidos pela vigilância com pesquisas epidemiológicas.The fast and important increase in morbidity and mortality due to accidents and violence has been one of the most relevant aspects of the epidemiological transition in Brazil since the 80s. This intricate problem calls for social and political measures, and the development of specific legislation and tools for intervening in terms of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of those affected, so that risk groups and factors can be identified. The aim of the present paper is to discuss conceptual and operational aspects of using surveillance in adverse health events related to accidents and violence/trauma. Some specific issues related to case definition, identification of sources of information and collecting relevant data are discussed after presenting the concepts, common features and operational aspects related to surveillance systems, regardless of the adverse health events they are aimed at. These issues are discussed in order to try to identify the differences of applying surveillance to accidents and violence in comparison to applying it to infectious diseases. Among the differences one must point out that it is generally necessary to supplement results obtained through surveillance with epidemiological studies in order to identify risk factors.

  11. Vigilância para acidentes e violência: instrumento para estratégias de prevenção e controle / Injury surveillance: a tool for prevention and control strategies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliseu Alves, Waldman; Maria Helena de, Mello Jorge.

    Full Text Available A rápida e expressiva elevação da morbi-mortalidade por acidentes e violência constituiu um dos pontos mais relevantes da transição epidemiológica no Brasil, a partir dos anos 80. A complexidade do problema implica a aplicação de medidas no âmbito de políticas sociais, elaboração de legislação espec [...] ífica e desenvolvimento de instrumentos de intervenção voltados à prevenção, ao tratamento e à reabilitação dos atingidos, o que pressupõe a identificação de grupos e fatores de risco. O objetivo deste texto é discutir aspectos conceituais e operacionais da utilização da vigilância em eventos adversos à saúde relacionados a acidentes e à violência. Apresentados os conceitos, características comuns e aspectos relativos à operacionalização dos sistemas de vigilância, independente do evento adverso à saúde a que se destinam, foram discutidas algumas questões específicas relativas à elaboração de definições de caso, à identificação de fontes de informação e à coleta dos dados de interesse, buscando identificar diferenças da utilização da vigilância para acidentes e violência se comparadas com a aplicação deste instrumento para doenças infecciosas, salientando entre elas que, para a identificação de fatores de risco, geralmente, se faz necessário complementar os resultados obtidos pela vigilância com pesquisas epidemiológicas. Abstract in english The fast and important increase in morbidity and mortality due to accidents and violence has been one of the most relevant aspects of the epidemiological transition in Brazil since the 80s. This intricate problem calls for social and political measures, and the development of specific legislation an [...] d tools for intervening in terms of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of those affected, so that risk groups and factors can be identified. The aim of the present paper is to discuss conceptual and operational aspects of using surveillance in adverse health events related to accidents and violence/trauma. Some specific issues related to case definition, identification of sources of information and collecting relevant data are discussed after presenting the concepts, common features and operational aspects related to surveillance systems, regardless of the adverse health events they are aimed at. These issues are discussed in order to try to identify the differences of applying surveillance to accidents and violence in comparison to applying it to infectious diseases. Among the differences one must point out that it is generally necessary to supplement results obtained through surveillance with epidemiological studies in order to identify risk factors.

  12. Assessment of Safety Practices and Injuries Associated with Wood Processing in a Timber Company in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Mitchual

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the assessment of safety practices and injuries in a timber company in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Data were collected from 300 respondents at a sawmill in Ghana using a 5-point Likert-type scale questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the data analyses. The result indicates that the mean rating of the respondents on their use of personal protective equipment ranged from 1.09 to 2.51. This implies that the workers of the sawmill rarely or never wear: gloves, overall, goggles, face shield, nose and mouth mask, earplugs or helmet during wood processing. Additionally, the mean ratings of the respondents regarding safety practices, machine and maintenance ranged from 2.42 to 4.03 with three out of the eight items having mean ratings higher than the theoretical mean of 3.0. The ratings of the respondents of the saw doctoring department on their practice of safety on machine and maintenance were significantly higher than those of the other departments. The result of the study further suggests that the workers of this sawmill do rarely report of: skin irritation/dermatitis, eye irritation, lack of appetite, arm/leg amputation, neck pains, hearing loss and poor eye sight problems. However, they usually report of headaches, nausea, respiratory problems, small cuts, back pains, and hip and leg pains. The outcome of this study therefore suggests that the management of the sawmill studied needs to do more to enforce practice of safety, especially the use of personal protective equipment, to reduce hazards and injuries associated with wood processing in the firm.

  13. Association between age at diagnosis and degree of liver injury in hepatitis C

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Cláudia de, Oliveira; Ana Clara, Bortotti; Nathália Neves, Nunes; Ibrahin A.H. El, Bacha; Edison Roberto, Parise.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A population-based survey conducted in Brazilian capital cities found that only 16% of the population had ever been tested for hepatitis C. These data suggest that much of the Brazilian population with HCV infection remains undiagnosed. The distribution of age ranges at diagnosis and [...] its association with the degree of hepatitis C are still unknown in Brazilian patients. Material and methods: Patients with HCV infection, diagnosed by HCV RNA (Amplicor-HCV, Roche), were included in the study. Patients with HBV or HIV coinfection, autoimmune diseases, or alcohol intake > 20 g/day were excluded. HCV genotyping was performed by sequence analysis, and viral load by quantitative RT-PCR (Amplicor, Roche). The METAVIR classification was used to assess structural liver injury. The Chi-square (?2) test and student's t-test were used for between-group comparisons. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for analysing the correlation between parameters. Results: A total of 525 charts were reviewed. Of the patients included, 49.5% were male, only 10% of the patients were aged less than 30 years; peak prevalence of HCV infection occurred in the 51-to-60 years age range. Genotype 1 accounted for 65.4% of the cases. Information on HCV subtype was obtained in 227 patients; 105 had subtype 1a and 122 had 1b. According to the degree of structural liver injury, 8.3% had F0, 23.4% F1, 19.8% F2, 11.9% F3, and 36.5% F4. Age at diagnosis of hepatitis correlated significantly with fibrosis (rs = 0.307, p

  14. Volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal joint in association with a Bennett's fracture of the thumb: a rare injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, J P

    2012-02-03

    We describe a case of volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal (CMC) joint in association with a Bennett\\'s fracture of the thumb following a motorcycle accident. Volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal joint is an exceedingly rare but easily missed injury, with only a few reported cases in the literature. This report highlights the importance of a true lateral radiograph and close scrutiny of the film to detect this injury. Closed reduction supplemented with Kirschner wire fixation restored normal anatomical relations and achieved an excellent clinical result.

  15. Post-partum sequential occurrence of two diverse transfusion reactions (transfusion associated circulatory overload and transfusion related acute lung injury)

    OpenAIRE

    Haldar, Rudrashish; Samanta, Sukhen

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) are two dissimilar pathological conditions associated with transfusion of blood products where the time course of the events and clinical presentation overlap leading to uncertainty in establishing the diagnosis and initiating the treatment, which otherwise differs. We encountered a case where a patient of post-partum hemorrhage developed TACO in the immediate post-operative period due to aggr...

  16. Characterization of early and terminal complement proteins associated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and in vivo after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvan Manuel D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complement system has been suggested to affect injury or disease of the central nervous system (CNS by regulating numerous physiological events and pathways. The activation of complement following traumatic CNS injury can also result in the formation and deposition of C5b-9 membrane attack complex (C5b-9/MAC, causing cell lysis or sublytic effects on vital CNS cells. Although complement proteins derived from serum/blood-brain barrier breakdown can contribute to injury or disease, infiltrating immune cells may represent an important local source of complement after injury. As the first immune cells to infiltrate the CNS within hours post-injury, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs may affect injury through mechanisms associated with complement-mediated events. However, the expression/association of both early and terminal complement proteins by PMNs has not been fully characterized in vitro, and has not observed previously in vivo after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. Method We investigated the expression of complement mRNAs using rt-PCR and the presence of complement proteins associated with PMNs using immunofluroescence and quantitative flow cytometry. Results Stimulated or unstimulated PMNs expressed mRNAs encoding for C1q, C3, and C4, but not C5, C6, C7 or C9 in culture. Complement protein C1q or C3 was also detected in less than 30% of cultured PMNs. In contrast, over 70% of PMNs that infiltrated the injured spinal cord were associated with C1q, C3, C7 and C5b-9/MAC 3 days post-SCI. The localization/association of C7 or C5b-9/MAC with infiltrating PMNs in the injured spinal cord suggests the incorporation or internalization of C7 or C5b-9/MAC bound cellular debris by infiltrating PMNs because C7 and C5b-9/MAC were mostly localized to granular vesicles within PMNs at the spinal cord epicenter region. Furthermore, PMN presence in the injured spinal cord was observed for many weeks post-SCI, suggesting that this infiltrating cell population could chronically affect complement-mediated events and SCI pathogenesis after trauma. Conclusion Data presented here provide the first characterization of early and terminal complement proteins associated with PMNs in vitro and in vivo after SCI. Data also suggest a role for PMNs in the local internalization or deliverance of complement and complement activation in the post-SCI environment.

  17. Paragliding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries. PMID:1751899

  18. Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiana Piovesan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

  19. Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chaiana, Piovesan; Renata Saraiva, Guedes; Luciano, Casagrande; Thiago Machado, Ardenghi.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI) in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months wer [...] e included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals). The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

  20. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Hypothyroidism and Statin Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Pyoung; Min, Hyun-jun; Park, Sang-hyun; Lee, Byoung-mu; Choi, Myung-jin; Yoon, Jong-woo; Koo, Ja-ryong

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome involving the breakdown of skeletal muscle that causes myoglobin and other intracellular proteins to leak into the circulatory system, resulting in organ injury including acute kidney injury. We report a case of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury that developed in a 63-year-old woman with previously undiagnosed hypothyroidism. Untreated hypothyroidism may have caused her hypercholesterolemia requiring statin treatment, and it is postulated that ...

  1. Noncontingent Reinforcement as Treatment for Food Refusal and Associated Self-Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder, David A; Normand, Matthew; Atwell, Julie

    2005-01-01

    We examined the use of noncontingent reinforcement to decrease self-injury and increase bite acceptance in a child who exhibited food refusal. First, a brief functional analysis suggested that self-injury was maintained by escape from food presentation. Next, we evaluated an intervention that involved noncontingent access to a video during feeding sessions. Results of the intervention showed a decrease in self-injury and an increase in bite acceptance.

  2. PET/CT surveillance in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma in first remission is associated with low positive predictive value and high costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Mylam, Karen Juul

    2012-01-01

    Background. The value of performing post-therapy routine surveillance imaging in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma is controversial. This study evaluates the utility of positron emission tomography / computed tomography using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (PET/CT) for this purpose and in situations with suspected lymphoma relapse. Design and Methods. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study. Patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma achieving at least a partial remission on first-line therapy were eligible if they received PET/CT surveillance during follow-up. Two types of surveillance PET/CTs were analyzed; routine PET/CT when patients showed no signs of relapse at referral to PET/CT, and clinically indicated PET/CT when recurrence was suspected. Results. A total of 211 routine and 88 clinically indicated PET/CTs were performed in 161 patients. In ten of 22 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma recurrence, a routine PET/CT was the primary tool for the diagnosis of relapse. Extranodal disease, interim PET positive lesions and PET activity at response evaluation were all associated with a PET/CT diagnosed preclinical relapse. The true positive rates of routine PET/CT vs. clinically indicated PET/CT were 5 and 13%, respectively (p=0.02). The overall positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PET/CT was 28% and 100%, respectively. The estimated cost per routine PET/CT diagnosed relapse was 50.778 USD. Conclusions. A negative PET/CT reliably rules out a relapse. The high false positive rate, however, is an important limitation and a confirmatory biopsy is mandatory for the diagnosis of a relapse. With no proven survival benefit for patients with a pre-clinically diagnosed relapse, the high costs and low positive predictive value make PET/CT unfit for routine surveillance of Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

  3. TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

  4. Treatment of Tendon Injuries of the Lower Limb with Growth Factors Associated with Autologous Fibrin Scaffold or Collagenous Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Bottai, Vanna; Ghilardi, Marco; Bugelli, Giulia; Lazzerini, Ilaria; Guido, Giulio

    2015-05-01

    Tendon injuries are an increasing problem in orthopedics as we are faced with a growing demand in sports and recreation and an aging population. Tendons have poor spontaneous regenerative capacity, and often, complete recovery after injury is not achieved. Once injured, tendons do not completely re-acquire the biological and biomechanical properties of normal tendons due to the formation of adhesions and scarring, and often these abnormalities in the arrangement and structure are risk factors for re-injury. These problems associated with the healing of tendon injuries are a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. This study examined 9 cases of subcutaneous injuries including quadriceps tendon (2 cases), patellar tendon (1 case), and Achilles tendon (6 cases), incomplete and complete, treated consecutively. The surgical technique has provided, as appropriate, the termino-terminal tenorraphy, techniques of plastics of rotation flap, reinsertion with suture anchors, and in one case tendon augmentation with cadaver tissue. In cases where we needed mechanical support to the suture, we used preloaded growth factors on porcine collagen scaffold; in cases where we needed only one biological support, we used fibrin scaffold. PMID:26055027

  5. Noncontingent Reinforcement as Treatment for Food Refusal and Associated Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, David A.; Normand, Matthew; Atwell, Julie

    2005-01-01

    We examined the use of noncontingent reinforcement to decrease self-injury and increase bite acceptance in a child who exhibited food refusal. First, a brief functional analysis suggested that self-injury was maintained by escape from food presentation. Next, we evaluated an intervention that involved noncontingent access to a video during feeding…

  6. Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, J; Chivers, I; Aldous, D; Bennell, K.; SEWARD, H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

  7. The spatial epidemiology of trauma: the potential of geographic information science to organize data and reveal patterns of injury and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Nadine; Hameed, S Morad; Fiedler, Robert; Bell, Nathaniel; Simons, Richard K

    2008-10-01

    Despite important advances in the prevention and treatment of trauma, preventable injuries continue to impact the lives of millions of people. Motor vehicle collisions and violence claim close to 3 million lives each year worldwide. Public health agencies have promoted the need for systematic and ongoing surveillance as a foundation for successful injury control. Surveillance has been used to quantify the incidence of injury for the prioritization of further research, monitor trends over time, identify new injury patterns, and plan and evaluate prevention and intervention efforts. Advances in capability to handle spatial data and substantial increases in computing power have positioned geographic information science (GIS) as a potentially important tool for health surveillance and the spatial organization of health care, and for informing prevention and acute care interventions. Two themes emerge in the trauma literature with respect to GIS theory and techniques: identifying determinants associated with the risk of trauma to guide injury prevention efforts and evaluating the spatial organization and accessibility of acute trauma care systems. We review the current literature on trauma and GIS research and provide examples of the importance of accounting for spatial scale when using spatial analysis for surveillance. The examples illustrate the effect of scale on incident analysis, the geographic variation of major injury across British Columbia's health service delivery areas (HSDAs) and the rates of variation of injury within individual HSDAs. PMID:18841227

  8. Association between head injury and helmet use in alpine skiers: cohort study from a Swiss level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschera, Dominik; Hasler, Rebecca M; Taugwalder, David; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis; Raabe, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    The association between helmet use during alpine skiing and incidence and severity of head injuries was analyzed. All patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center for traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) sustained from skiing accidents during the seasons 2000-2001 and 2010-2011 were eligible. Primary outcome was the association between helmet use and severity of TBI measured by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), computed tomography (CT) results, and necessity of neurosurgical intervention. Of 1362 patients injured during alpine skiing, 245 (18%) sustained TBI and were included. TBI was fatal in 3%. Head injury was in 76% minor (Glasgow Coma Scale, 13-15), 6% moderate, and 14% severe. Number and percentage of TBI patients showed no significant trend over the investigated seasons. Forty-five percent of the 245 patients had pathological CT findings and 26% of these required neurosurgical intervention. Helmet use increased from 0% in 2000-2001 to 71% in 2010-2011 (phead injury in helmet users. Analyses comparing off-piste to on-slope skiers revealed a significantly increased OR among off-piste skiers of 7.62 (p=0.004) for sustaining a TBI requiring surgical intervention. Despite increases in helmet use, we found no decrease in severe TBI among alpine skiers. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant difference in TBI with regard to helmet use, but increased risk for off-piste skiers. The limited protection of helmets and dangers of skiing off-piste should be targeted by prevention programs. PMID:25244343

  9. Is There an Association between Traumatic Dental Injury and Social Capital, Binge Drinking and Socioeconomic Indicators among Schoolchildren?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Haroldo Neves; Paiva, Paula Cristina Pelli; de Paula Silva, Carlos José; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Kawachi, Ichiro; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Traumatic dental injury is defined as trauma caused by forces on a tooth with variable extent and severity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of traumatic dental injury and its association with overjet, lip protection, sex, socioeconomic status, social capital and binge drinking among 12-year-old students. Research Design and Method A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 633 12-year-old students. Data were collected through a clinical exam and self-administered questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was determined based on mother’s schooling and household income. The Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) were used to measure social capital and binge drinking, respectively. Results The prevalence of traumatic dental injury was 29.9% (176/588). Traumatic dental injury was more prevalent among male adolescents (p = 0.010), those with overjet greater than 5 mm (p < 0.001) and those with inadequate lip protection (p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, overjet [OR = 3.80 (95% CI: 2.235–6.466), p < 0.0001], inadequate lip protection [OR = 5.585 (95% CI: 3.654–8.535), p < 0.0001] and binge drinking [OR = 1.93 (95% CI: 1.21–3.06), p = 0.005] remained significantly associated with traumatic dental injury. Conclusions The present findings suggest that a high level of total social capital and trust are not associated with TDI in adolescents, unlike binge drinking. The effects of social and behavioral factors on TDI are not well elucidated. Therefore, further research involving other populations and a longitudinal design is recommended. PMID:25719561

  10. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the surveillance committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010: General view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kadota, Junichi; Aoki, Nobuki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Masaki; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Oguri, Toyoko; Sato, Junko; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Watanabe, Akira; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Watari, Tomohisa; Toyoshima, Eri; Takeuchi, Kenichi; Shiokoshi, Mayumi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Miki, Makoto; Kumagai, Toshio; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Nishiya, Hajime; Kawakami, Sayoko; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takasaki, Jin; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Konosaki, Hisami; Aoki, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Shoji, Michi; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Niki, Yoshihito; Yoshida, Koichiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Saionji, Katsu; Fujikura, Yuji; Miyazawa, Naoki; Kudo, Makoto; Sato, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Yoshida, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Tsukada, Hiroki; Imai, Yumiko; Tsukada, Ayami; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Honma, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Ban, Nobuyoshi; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Sawamura, Haruki; Miyara, Takayuki; Toda, Hirofumi; Sato, Kaori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Mitsuno, Noriko; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Sano, Reiko; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Asari, Seishi; Nishi, Isao; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Koguchi, Yutaka; Kusano, Nobuchika; Mihara, Eiichirou; Kuwabara, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Masui, Kayoko; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Aoki, Yosuke; Fukuoka, Mami; Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Suga, Moritaka; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Honda, Junichi; Fujita, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period from January and April 2010 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institutes using maximum 45 antibacterial agents. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 954 strains (206 Staphylococcus aureus, 189 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 182 Haemophilus influenzae, 74 Moraxella catarrhalis, 139 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 160 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was as high as 50.5%, and those of penicillin-intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae were 1.1% and 0.0%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 17.6% of them were found to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant, 33.5% to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant and 11.0% to be ?-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant strains. Extended spectrum ?-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo ?-lactamase were 2.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Continuous national surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial in order to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis. PMID:25817352

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Health, Safety and Security Illness and Injury Surveillance Program Worker Health at a Glance, 2000-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-23

    The Worker Health at a Glance, 2000 – 2009 provides an overview of selected illness and injury patterns among the current DOE contractor workforce that have emerged over the 10-years covered by this report. This report is a roll-up of data from 16 individual DOE sites, assigned to one of three program offices (Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration). In this report, an absences is defined as 40 or more consecutive work hours (5+ calendar days) off the job. Shorter absences were not included.

  12. Daño pulmonar agudo asociado a ventilación mecánica / Ventilator associated acute lung injury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio Antonio, Ñamendys-Silva; Juan Gabriel, Posadas-Calleja.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de la asistencia mecánica ventilatoria (AMV) en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) es indiscutible; sin embargo, su uso está ligado con complicaciones como neumonía nosocomial y deterioro del rendimiento cardiaco, que en algunas ocasiones ponen en peligro la vida del enfermo. Una [...] de las complicaciones más graves es el daño pulmonar asociado a la ventilación mecánica (DPVM). El DPVM se caracteriza por la presencia de edema pulmonar rico en proteínas. Se recomienda establecer cierto número de estrategias de protección pulmonar (EPP) para prevenir este tipo de lesión. Una vez instituidas, las EPP han demostrado una disminución de la mortalidad de aproximadamente 10%. Abstract in english Mechanical ventilation plays a central role In the critical care setting; but its use is closely related with some life threatening complications as nosocomial pneumonia and low cardiac performance. One of the most severe complications is called ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) and it includ [...] es: Barotrauma, volutrauma, atelectrauma, biotrauma and oxygen-mediated toxic effects and it is related with an inflammatory response secondary to the stretching and recruitment process of alveoli within mechanical ventilation. The use of some protective ventilatory strategies has lowered the mortality rate 10% approximately.

  13. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL as a biomarker for acute canine kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ya-Jane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomarkers for the early prediction of canine acute kidney injury (AKI are clinically important. Recently, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL was found to be a sensitive biomarker for the prediction of human AKI at a very early stage and the development of AKI after surgery. However, NGAL has not yet been studied with respect to dog kidney diseases. The application of NGAL canine AKI was investigated in this study. Results The canine NGAL gene was successfully cloned and expressed. Polyclonal antibodies against canine NGAL were generated and used to develop an ELISA for measuring NGAL protein in serum and urine samples that were collected from 39 dogs at different time points after surgery. AKI was defined by the standard method, namely a serum creatinine increase of greater than or equal to 26.5 ?mol/L from baseline within 48 h. At 12 h after surgery, compared to the group without AKI (12 dogs, the NGAL level in the urine of seven dogs with AKI was significantly increased (median 178.4 pg/mL vs. 88.0 pg/mL, and this difference was sustained to 72 h. Conclusion As the increase in NGAL occurred much earlier than the increase in serum creatinine, urine NGAL seems to be able to serve as a sensitive and specific biomarker for the prediction of AKI in dogs.

  14. Low-frequency connectivity is associated with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Dunkley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI occurs from a closed-head impact. Often referred to as concussion, about 20% of cases complain of secondary psychological sequelae, such as disorders of attention and memory. Known as post-concussive symptoms (PCS, these problems can severely disrupt the patient's quality of life. Changes in local spectral power, particularly low-frequency amplitude increases and/or peak alpha slowing have been reported in mTBI, but large-scale connectivity metrics based on inter-regional amplitude correlations relevant for integration and segregation in functional brain networks, and their association with disorders in cognition and behaviour, remain relatively unexplored. Here, we used non-invasive neuroimaging with magnetoencephalography to examine functional connectivity in a resting-state protocol in a group with mTBI (n = 20, and a control group (n = 21. We observed a trend for atypical slow-wave power changes in subcortical, temporal and parietal regions in mTBI, as well as significant long-range increases in amplitude envelope correlations among deep-source, temporal, and frontal regions in the delta, theta, and alpha bands. Subsequently, we conducted an exploratory analysis of patterns of connectivity most associated with variability in secondary symptoms of mTBI, including inattention, anxiety, and depression. Differential patterns of altered resting state neurophysiological network connectivity were found across frequency bands. This indicated that multiple network and frequency specific alterations in large scale brain connectivity may contribute to overlapping cognitive sequelae in mTBI. In conclusion, we show that local spectral power content can be supplemented with measures of correlations in amplitude to define general networks that are atypical in mTBI, and suggest that certain cognitive difficulties are mediated by disturbances in a variety of alterations in network interactions which are differentially expressed across canonical neurophysiological frequency ranges.

  15. Low-frequency connectivity is associated with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, B T; Da Costa, L; Bethune, A; Jetly, R; Pang, E W; Taylor, M J; Doesburg, S M

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) occurs from a closed-head impact. Often referred to as concussion, about 20% of cases complain of secondary psychological sequelae, such as disorders of attention and memory. Known as post-concussive symptoms (PCS), these problems can severely disrupt the patient's quality of life. Changes in local spectral power, particularly low-frequency amplitude increases and/or peak alpha slowing have been reported in mTBI, but large-scale connectivity metrics based on inter-regional amplitude correlations relevant for integration and segregation in functional brain networks, and their association with disorders in cognition and behaviour, remain relatively unexplored. Here, we used non-invasive neuroimaging with magnetoencephalography to examine functional connectivity in a resting-state protocol in a group with mTBI (n = 20), and a control group (n = 21). We observed a trend for atypical slow-wave power changes in subcortical, temporal and parietal regions in mTBI, as well as significant long-range increases in amplitude envelope correlations among deep-source, temporal, and frontal regions in the delta, theta, and alpha bands. Subsequently, we conducted an exploratory analysis of patterns of connectivity most associated with variability in secondary symptoms of mTBI, including inattention, anxiety, and depression. Differential patterns of altered resting state neurophysiological network connectivity were found across frequency bands. This indicated that multiple network and frequency specific alterations in large scale brain connectivity may contribute to overlapping cognitive sequelae in mTBI. In conclusion, we show that local spectral power content can be supplemented with measures of correlations in amplitude to define general networks that are atypical in mTBI, and suggest that certain cognitive difficulties are mediated by disturbances in a variety of alterations in network interactions which are differentially expressed across canonical neurophysiological frequency ranges. PMID:25844315

  16. Effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinda Amit

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palm olein oil (PO, obtained from refining of palm oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant vitamins and is widely used as oil in diet in many parts of the world including India. Palm oil has been reported to have beneficial effects in oxidative stress associated with hypertension and arterial thrombosis. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the etiopathology of myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI which is a common sequel of ischemic heart disease. Antioxidants have potent therapeutic effects on both ischemic heart disease and ischemic-reperfusion injury. Information on the effect of PO on ischemic-reperfusion injury is, however, lacking. In the present study, the effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with IRI was investigated in an isolated rat heart model. Wistar rats (150–200 gm of either sex were divided into three different groups (n = 16. Rats were fed with palm olein oil supplemented commercial rat diet, in two different doses [5% v / w (PO 5 and 10% v / w (PO 10 of diet] for 30 days. Control rats (C were fed with normal diet. After 30 days, half the rats from each group were subjected to in vitro myocardial IRI (20 min of global ischemia, followed by 40 min of reperfusion. Hearts from all the groups were then processed for biochemical and histopathological studies. One way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test was applied to test for significance and values are expressed as mean ± SE (p Results There was a significant increase in myocardial catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities with no significant change in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS only in group PO 5 as compared to group C. There was no light microscopic evidence of tissue injury. A significant rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of myocardial endogenous antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GPx along with significant myocyte injury was observed in control rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (C IR. Hearts from palm olein oil fed rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (PO 5 IR and PO 10 IR were protected from increase in TBARS and depletion of endogenous antioxidants as compared to C IR group. No significant myocyte injury was present in the treated groups. Conclusions The present study demonstrated for the first time that dietary palm olein oil protected rat heart from oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury.

  17. Clinical factors associated with intracranial complications after pediatric traumatic head injury: an observational study of children submitted to a neurosurgical referral unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åstrand, Ramona Alice; Undén, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Clinically validated guidelines for the management of head injury in children do not exist, and the treatment is often based upon adult management routines. In order to examine the safety of this procedure, an analysis of clinical factors associated with complications after pediatric head injury was attempted.

  18. Association of plant injury with an air contaminant in a controlled environment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudson, L.L.; Tibbitts, T.W.

    1974-01-01

    Gaseous compounds are common, yet seldom recognized contaminants in controlled environments. Injury to several plant species has been observed in the Biotron which uses trichloroethylene as a coolant in its centrally controlled system. Sometimes this compound is present in the rooms at an average level of 2 ppm, as measured by gas chromatography. Injury symptoms, which vary between species, are characteristic of air pollution injury. Present studies with Tagetes patula show a distinctive necrosis on the upper leaf surfaces. Experiments are being conducted to determine whether trichloroethylene is the agent involved and to investigate aspects of the physiology of injury utilizing a procedure which may be applicable to other long-term, low-level pollution studies.

  19. Traumatic dental injuries and their association with malocclusion in the primary dentition of Irish children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Norton, Eimear

    2012-02-01

    This study sought to establish the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition of Irish children and to investigate the relationship between dental trauma and non-nutritive sucking habits.

  20. High-dose ibuprofen is not associated with increased biomarkers of kidney injury in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Thomas; Guillet, Alyson; Diehl, Sandra; Ferguson, Michael

    2014-02-01

    High-dose ibuprofen (IBU) may slow the decline of lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), but its use has been limited due to concerns over renal and gastrointestinal toxicity. In this pilot study, we examined the association of IBU with markers of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with CF. The effect of aminoglycoside (AG) exposure on AKI biomarkers was also examined. The AKI markers, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM), N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase (NAG) and urine protein, normalized for creatinine, were chosen as they are more sensitive indicators of kidney injury than changes in serum creatinine. Urine samples from 52 patients, 26 from patients who were treated with IBU, were analyzed. There was no significant association between IBU treatment and KIM-1, NAG or protein levels, compared to patients never treated with IBU. While there was an association between AG courses and KIM-1 levels, there were no differences in biomarker levels between IBU and non-IBU groups with respect to AG courses. These preliminary results suggest that IBU treatment in patients with CF may be safe with respect to renal toxicity. PMID:23532925

  1. Vascular Injury Associated with Blunt Trauma without Dislocation of the Knee

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-woo; Sung, Chang-meen; Cho, Se-hyun; Hwang, Sun-chul

    2010-01-01

    Failure to recognize popliteal artery injury and restore vessel continuity of flow after blunt trauma is a major cause of lower extremity amputation and morbidity. A high index of suspicion and early recognition of the injury are paramount for limb salvage. We experienced a rare case of poplitial artery occlusion with the presence of arterial pulses due to collateral circulation after blunt trauma. Expeditious revascularization was achieved by using posterior approach, allowing two surgical t...

  2. Mild Hyperthermia Worsens the Neuropathological Damage Associated with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Atsushi; Atkins, Coleen M.; Alonso, Ofelia F.; Bramlett, Helen M.; Dietrich, W. Dalton

    2012-01-01

    The effects of slight variations in brain temperature on the pathophysiological consequences of acute brain injury have been extensively described in models of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In contrast, limited information is available regarding the potential consequences of temperature elevations on outcome following mild TBI (mTBI) or concussions. One potential confounding variable with mTBI is the presence of elevated body temperature that occurs in the civilian or mili...

  3. Hepatic Histological Findings in Suspected Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Systematic Evaluation and Clinical Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, David E.; Chalasani, Naga P.; Lee, William M.; Fontana, Robert J; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Watkins, Paul B.; Hayashi, Paul H.; Davern, Timothy J.; Navarro, Victor; Reddy, Rajender; Talwalkar, Jayant A; Stolz, Andrew; Gu, Jiezhun; Barnhart, Huiman; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2013-01-01

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is considered to be a diagnosis of exclusion. Liver biopsy may contribute to diagnostic accuracy, but the histological features of DILI and their relationship to biochemical parameters and outcomes are not well defined. We have classified the pathological pattern of liver injury and systematically evaluated histological changes in liver biopsies obtained from 249 patients with suspected DILI enrolled in the prospective, observational study conducted by the Dru...

  4. Kinetic energy less lethal weapons and their associated blunt trauma injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Tawell, Miles G.

    2010-01-01

    A widely used class of Less Lethal Weapon is the kinetic energy projectile. This can cause blunt trauma to the targeted person and, under certain circumstances, its use can result in permanent injury or death. The low velocity at which Less Lethal projectiles are launched results in inaccuracy of use thus increasing the possibility that non targeted areas of the body susceptible to injury by blunt trauma will be hit. This research has been focused to investigate the impact characteristics of ...

  5. Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Pavuluri, Chaitanya; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    Maxillary incisors are the most frequently injured teeth in the primary and permanent dentition. Stage of adolescence show a significant number of dental injuries as they engage in contact sports. Children with accident prone profile, i.e. class II division I or class I type II malocclusion are more prone for injuries because of the proclined maxillary incisors. Supernumerary teeth are those that are additional to the normal complement. They occur in single or multiple, unilateral or bilatera...

  6. Brief report: the association between non-suicidal self-injury, self-concept and acquaintance with self-injurious peers in a sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Houben, Adinda; Vandereycken, Walter; Bijttebier, Patricia; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    The current study investigated the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), self-concept and acquaintance with NSSI peers in a sample of 150 high school students (60% female) with a mean age of 15.56 (SD=2.00) years. Analyses showed that students with NSSI rated themselves lower on academic intelligence, physical attractiveness, social skills and emotional stability than their non-NSSI peers. The self-injurers also had more friends who engaged in NSSI, and having more NSSI acquaintances was negatively related to self-esteem. It could be that adolescents with lower self-esteem are more attracted to self-injuring peers, or that adolescents with low self-esteem are more vulnerable to copy NSSI to deal with their problems or to gain a certain identity in their peer group. Future studies must test these possible NSSI pathways. PMID:19910041

  7. Insuficiência renal aguda associada à leptospirose / Leptospirosis-associated acute kidney injury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth De Francesco, Daher; Krasnalhia Lívia Soares de, Abreu; Geraldo Bezerra da, Silva Junior.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A leptospirose é a zoonose mais importante do mundo. Os pacientes são tipicamente homens jovens. Vários fatores estão envolvidos na insuficiência renal aguda (IRA) na leptospirose, incluindo ação nefrotóxica direta da leptospira, hiperbilirrubinemia, rabdomiólise e hipovolemia. Os principais achados [...] histológicos são nefrite intersticial aguda e necrose tubular aguda. A IRA na leptospirose é geralmente não oligúrica e hipocalêmica. Alterações da função tubular precedem a queda na taxa de filtração glomerular, o que poderia explicar a alta frequência de hipocalemia. O tratamento antibiótico é eficaz nas fases precoces e tardias e/ou graves. Para pacientes críticos com IRA na leptospirose, as seguintes condutas são recomendadas: hemodiálise precoce e diária; baixa infusão de volume (devido ao risco de hemorragia pulmonar), e estratégias de proteção pulmonar. A mortalidade na IRA associada à leptospirose está em torno de 22%. Abstract in english Leptospirosis is the most important zoonosis in the world. Patients are typically young men. Several factors are involved in acute kidney injury (AKI) in leptospirosis, including direct nephrotoxic action of the leptospira, hyperbilirubinemia, rhabdomyolysis and hypovolemia. The major histological f [...] indings are acute interstitial nephritis and acute tubular necrosis. Leptospirosis-induced AKI is usually nonoliguric and hypokalemic. Tubular function abnormalities precede a decline in the glomerular filtration rate, which could explain the high frequency of hypokalemia. Antibiotic treatment is efficient in the early and late and/or severe phases. For critically ill leptospirosis patients, the following measures are recommended: early and daily hemodialysis; low volume infusion (due to the risk of pulmonary hemorrhage); and lung-protective strategies. Mortality in leptospirosis-associated AKI is around 22%.

  8. Insuficiência renal aguda associada à leptospirose Leptospirosis-associated acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A leptospirose é a zoonose mais importante do mundo. Os pacientes são tipicamente homens jovens. Vários fatores estão envolvidos na insuficiência renal aguda (IRA na leptospirose, incluindo ação nefrotóxica direta da leptospira, hiperbilirrubinemia, rabdomiólise e hipovolemia. Os principais achados histológicos são nefrite intersticial aguda e necrose tubular aguda. A IRA na leptospirose é geralmente não oligúrica e hipocalêmica. Alterações da função tubular precedem a queda na taxa de filtração glomerular, o que poderia explicar a alta frequência de hipocalemia. O tratamento antibiótico é eficaz nas fases precoces e tardias e/ou graves. Para pacientes críticos com IRA na leptospirose, as seguintes condutas são recomendadas: hemodiálise precoce e diária; baixa infusão de volume (devido ao risco de hemorragia pulmonar, e estratégias de proteção pulmonar. A mortalidade na IRA associada à leptospirose está em torno de 22%.Leptospirosis is the most important zoonosis in the world. Patients are typically young men. Several factors are involved in acute kidney injury (AKI in leptospirosis, including direct nephrotoxic action of the leptospira, hyperbilirubinemia, rhabdomyolysis and hypovolemia. The major histological findings are acute interstitial nephritis and acute tubular necrosis. Leptospirosis-induced AKI is usually nonoliguric and hypokalemic. Tubular function abnormalities precede a decline in the glomerular filtration rate, which could explain the high frequency of hypokalemia. Antibiotic treatment is efficient in the early and late and/or severe phases. For critically ill leptospirosis patients, the following measures are recommended: early and daily hemodialysis; low volume infusion (due to the risk of pulmonary hemorrhage; and lung-protective strategies. Mortality in leptospirosis-associated AKI is around 22%.

  9. Difference between pre-operative and cardiopulmonary bypass mean arterial pressure is independently associated with early cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kanji Hussein D; Schulze Costas J; Hervas-Malo Marilou; Wang Peter; Ross David B; Zibdawi Mohamad; Bagshaw Sean M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. However, its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that intra-operative mean arterial pressure (MAP) relative to pre-operative MAP would be an important predisposing factor for CSA-AKI. Methods We performed a prospective observational study of 157 consecutive high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Th...

  10. Genetic Variation of ApoE Gene in Ethnic Kashmiri Population and Its Association with Outcome After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Adfar; Khursheed, Nayil; Rasool, Ishrat; Kundal, Vijay; Jeelani, Humira; Afroze, Dil

    2015-07-01

    The outcome from traumatic brain injury (TBI) is variable and only partly explained by known prognostic factors. Genetic factors may influence the brain's susceptibility to injury or capacity for repair and regeneration. ApoE has been implicated in modifying neurological outcome after TBI, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain poorly defined. Apolipoprotein E is an apparently multifunctional protein involved in the response of the brain to injury and in subsequent repair processes. Several studies have shown that patients with APOE e4 have a poorer outcome after TBI. This study was aimed to analyse the genotypes of ApoE in Kashmiri population and to examine the association of APOE genotype with outcome after TBI. A total of 450 subjects (300 healthy controls and 150 TBI patients) were recruited for the study. Genotyping was done by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).Our study indicated Apoe3/e3 to be the most common genotype in this study group. The allele frequency of the Apo E gene in these study subjects was observed to be 0.07 for the e2 allele, 0.82 for the e3 allele and 0.11 for the e4 allele. However, no association between the presence of APOe4 allele and outcome after head injury was observed in this study [p?=?0.92]. Thus, genotype containing the e4 allele (e4/e3 and e4/e4) was not associated with unfavourable outcome after TBI in Kashmiri population. PMID:25859935

  11. Prevalência de lesões em corredores de rua e fatores associados Prevalence of injuries and associated factors among street runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Akira Ferreira Hino

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalência de lesões esportivas e os fatores associados em corredores de rua por meio de um inquérito de morbidade referida. Os participantes foram selecionados por convite e por voluntariedade entre os corredores do Circuito de Ruas da Cidade de Curitiba-PR. Foram entrevistados 295 indivíduos (77,3% homens. As prevalências foram descritas de acordo com as variáveis de estudo e a regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para testar as associações (p The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of sports-related injuries and associated factors in street runners through a referred morbidity survey. Participants were selected by invitation and by volunteering among the runners from the Curitiba City Street Running Circuit during the months of September to November. 295 runners were interviewed (77.3% men. Prevalence rates were described accordingly to the study variables and Poisson regression was employed to test associations (p/ associated with self-reported sport injuries. The majority of injured subjects (60.5% remained less than three months away from training and those with training volume between 31 and 60 min/day were more likely to show this condition (prevalence ratio/ =/ 2.44; CI95% = 0.99-6.06; p = 0.05. It is concluded that sports injuries prevalence is observed in 1/3 of men and 1/4 of women. The variables investigated were not associated with prevalence of sport injuries in street runners and the injuries severity is associated with training volume.

  12. The Moderating Effects of Sex and Age on the Association between Traumatic Brain Injury and Harmful Psychological Correlates among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Mann, Robert E.; Boak, Angela; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Colantonio, Angela; Turner, Nigel E.; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. Methods and Findings Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th–12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8). Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying), bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. Conclusions TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for more tailored injury prevention efforts. PMID:25268238

  13. The Economy of Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Lipartito, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance is integral to modern societies. This paper considers the economic forces behind surveillance, the use of surveillance in the private sector, and the social consequences for the continued growth of surveillance over the past several centuries. It argues that the demand for surveillance of people will grow, while the cost of providing surveillance continues to fall. As a result, surveillance will feed upon itself, with detrimental social consequences.

  14. Impact of Education and Process Surveillance on Device-Associated Health Care-Associated Infection Rates in a Turkish ICU: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dilek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of process and outcome surveillance on rates of device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAI in an intensive care unit (ICU in Turkey over a four-year period.Material and Methods: An open label, prospective cohort, active DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted on 685 patients admitted to the ICU of a university hospital in Turkey from January 2004 to December 2007, implementing the methodology developed by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. DA-HAI rates were recorded according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN definitions. We analyzed the rates of DA-HAI, mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI, as well as microorganism profile, extra length of stay, and hand hygiene compliance. Pooled DA-HAI rates were calculated and compared by year.Results: The DA-HAI rate per 100 patients declined as follows: for 2004, the DA-HAI rate was 58.4%; for 2005, it was 38.9%; for 2006, it was 34.8%; and for 2007, it was 10.9%. The DA-HAI rate per 1,000 bed-days also declined: for 2004, it was 42.8, and for 2007 it was 10.7. The rates decreased from 25.8 to 13.4 for VAP; from 29.9 to 25.0 for CLA-BSI; and from 9.2 to 6.2 for CAUTI cases per 1,000 device-days during the study period. Conclusion: Process and outcome surveillance of DA-HAI significantly reduced DA-HAI.

  15. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  16. In vivo DTI longitudinal measurements of acute sciatic nerve traction injury and the association with pathological and functional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of longitudinally measuring acute traction injury to the sciatic nerve using 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to analyze the associations of the measurements [regarding fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), eigenvalue (?|| and ??)] with limb function and pathology. Materials and methods: Acute traction injuries to the sciatic nerve were created in the right hind limbs of 32 New Zealand white rabbits, the left hind limbs were chosen as sham operation nerves. MRI scans were performed at intervals from pre-operation through 8 weeks post-operation follow up. Scanning sequences included T2WI, STIR, and single shot spin echo DTI with single shot EPI acquisition (SE-DTI-SSEPI). Parameters of FA, ADC, axial diffusivity (?||) and radial diffusivity (??) were then calculated from the DTI. The limb functions and pathologic changes were evaluated and compared. Results: Diffusion Tensor Tractography (DTT) only revealed the proximal portion of the injured nerves 1–3 days after traction injury but did not reveal the nerve of the distal and traction portions at all. Nerve fibers of the distal and traction portions were not revealed by DTT until after the 1st week. They were elongated gradually and recovered almost to the normal at 8th week. The value of FA and ??of the injured nerves, which varied in different portions, were significantly different between the traction injury nerves and the sham operation nerves, whereas the value of ADC and ?|| were not significantly different. The curve lines of FA value-time for the proximal, traction and distal portions of the injured nerve correlated well to the functional and pathological changes of the limb affected, while the DTI parameters did not change that much in the sham-operated nerves. Conclusions: DTI obtained on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner can demonstrate early abnormal changes following traction injury to the sciatic nerve in rabbits. The curve lines of FA-time and ??-time for nerve traction injury are consistent with the pathological and functional changes of the limb affected. DTI may thus be a sensitive and reliable method to evaluate degeneration and regeneration of the nerve after traction injury

  17. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  18. Heart injury following intestinal ischemia reperfusion in rats is attenuated by association of ischemic preconditioning and adenosine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Micaela Frasson, Montero; Rafael, Saurim; Wesley Guedes Sava, Bonservizi; Marcia Kiyomi, Koike; Murched Omar, Taha.

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and adenosine as strategies to protect cardiac injury caused by intestinal IR in rats, based on increasing in adenosine bioavailability and improvement of cell energy state by IPC. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to 6 [...] 0 minutes of intestinal ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. Intravenous injections of saline or Adenosine (AD) was administered five minutes before ischemia, five minutes before reperfusion and after 55 minutes reperfusion. Cardiac samples were obtained, fixed in formalin solution, embedded in paraffin, and sections of 5 ?m were stained by hematoxylin-eosin. Histological analysis of myocardium was performed according occurrence of necrosis signs: piknosis, band contraction, eosinophilic cytoplasm, karyorrhexis and vacuolization (score - zero to 5). RESULTS: The groups submitted to ischemia alone (I=4.0), and reperfusion (IR=4.5) showed highest level of lesion compared to the others (I+IPC=3.3, IR+IPC=3.6, I+AD=3.0, IR+AD=3.8). The most interesting result was association of IPC and AD in IR model (IR+IPC+AD=1.2, p=0.002), showing preservation of the heart tissue, with fibers showing typical cross-striations and nuclei characteristics. Rare and small areas of tissue necrosis was observed and suggestion of capillaries congestion. CONCLUSION: Intestinal ischemia reperfusion promotes cardiac tissue injury. Ischemic preconditioning in association with adenosine is an efficient strategy to protect the heart against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  19. Plasticity associated changes in cortical somatosensory evoked potentials following spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, Faith A; All, Angelo H; Thakor, Nitish V; Maybhate, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a number of physiological and neurological changes resulting in loss of sensorimotor function. Recent work has shown that the central nervous system is capable of plastic behaviors post-injury, including axonal regrowth and cortical remapping. Functional integrity of afferent sensory pathways can be quantified using cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) recorded upon peripheral limb stimulation. We implanted 15 rats with transcranial screw electrodes and recorded SSEPs from cortical regions corresponding to each limb before and after a mild or moderate contusion injury. We report a post-injury increase in the mean amplitude of cortical SSEPs upon forelimb stimulation. SSEP amplitudes for mild and moderate SCI groups increased by 183% ± 95% and 107% ± 38% over baseline, respectively, while hindlimb SSEPs decreased by 58% ± 14% and 79% ± 4%. In addition, we report increased SSEP amplitude measured from the anatomically adjacent hindlimb region upon forelimb stimulation (increase of 90% ± 19%). Our results show that previously allocated hindlimb cortical regions are now activated by forelimb stimulation, suggesting an expansion in the area of cortical forelimb representation into hindlimb regions after an injury. This result is indicative of adaptive plasticity in undamaged areas of the CNS following SCI. PMID:22254728

  20. C/EBP homologous protein deficiency aggravates acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-I Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the pathophysiological role of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP in severe acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. METHODS: A severe acute pancreatitis model was induced with 6 injections of cerulein (Cn, 50 ?g/kg at 1-h intervals, then intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 7.5 mg/kg in CHOP-deficient (Chop-/- mice and wild-type (WT mice. Animals were sacrificed under anesthesia, 3 h or 18 h after LPS injection. Serum amylase, lipase, and cytokines [interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?], pathological changes, acute lung injury, and apoptosis in the pancreas were evaluated. Serum amylase and lipase activities were detected using a medical automatic chemical analyzer. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to evaluate TNF-? and IL-6 levels in mouse serum and lung tissue homogenates. Apoptotic cells in sections of pancreatic tissues were determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL analysis. The mouse carotid arteries were cannulated and arterial blood samples were collected for PaO2 analysis. The oxygenation index was expressed as PaO2/FiO2. RESULTS: Administration of Cn and LPS for 9 and 24 h induced severe acute pancreatitis in Chop-/- and WT mice. When comparing Chop-/- mice and WT mice, we observed that CHOP-deficient mice had greater increases in serum TNF-? (214.40 ± 19.52 pg/mL vs 150.40 ± 16.70 pg/mL; P = 0.037, amylase (4236.40 ± 646.32 U/L vs 2535.30 ± 81.83 U/L; P = 0.041, lipase (1678.20 ± 170.57 U/L vs 1046.21 ± 35.37 U/L; P = 0.008, and IL-6 (2054.44 ± 293.81 pg/mL vs 1316.10 ± 108.74 pg/mL; P = 0.046 than WT mice. The histopathological changes in the pancreases and lungs, decreased PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and increased TNF-? and IL-6 levels in the lungs were greater in Chop-/- mice than in WT mice (pancreas: Chop-/- vs WT mice, hemorrhage, P = 0.005; edema, P = 0.005; inflammatory cells infiltration, P = 0.005; total scores, P = 0.006; lung: hemorrhage, P = 0.017; edema, P = 0.017; congestion, P = 0.017; neutrophil infiltration, P = 0.005, total scores, P = 0.001; PaO2/FiO2 ratio: 393 ± 17.65 vs 453.8, P = 0.041; TNF-?: P = 0.043; IL-6, P = 0.040. Results from TUNEL analysis indicated increased acinar cell apoptosis in mice following the induction of acute pancreatitis. However, Chop-/- mice displayed significantly reduced pancreatic apoptosis compared with the WT mice (201.50 ± 31.43 vs 367.00 ± 47.88, P = 0.016. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CHOP can exert protective effects against acute pancreatitis and limit the spread of inflammatory damage to the lungs.

  1. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the Surveillance Committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2009: general view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Kohno, Shigeru; Aoki, Nobuki; Oguri, Toyoko; Sato, Junko; Muratani, Tetsuro; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Koashi, Naoto; Kozuki, Tsuneo; Komoto, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshisaburo; Tsuji, Toshikatsu; Terada, Michinori; Nakanishi, Kunio; Hattori, Rikizo; Hirako, Yukio; Maruo, Akinori; Minamitani, Shinichi; Morita, Kohei; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Honda, Yasuhito; Sasaoka, Shoichi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Hideki; Sugai, Atsuko; Miki, Makoto; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takasaki, Jin; Konosaki, Hisami; Aoki, Yasuko; Shoji, Michi; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Katono, Yasuhiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Saionji, Katsu; Miyazawa, Naoki; Sato, Yoshimi; Watanuki, Yuji; Kudo, Makoto; Ehara, Shigeru; Tsukada, Hiroki; Imai, Yumiko; Watabe, Nobuei; Aso, Sakura; Honma, Yasuo; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Yamagishi, Yuka; Takesue, Yoshio; Wada, Yasunao; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Mitsuno, Noriko; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Uno, Kenji; Sano, Reiko; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takaya, Mariko; Kuwabara, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Doi, Masao; Shimizu, Satomi; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Kadota, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Honda, Junichi; Fujita, Masaki; Iwata, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Ezaki, Takayuki; Onodera, Shoichi; Kusachi, Shinya; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Michio; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Niki, Yoshihito; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2012-10-01

    For the purpose of nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC) started a survey in 2006. From 2009, JSC continued the survey in collaboration with the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology. The fourth-year survey was conducted during the period from January and April 2009 by the three societies. A total of 684 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 635 strains (130 Staphylococcus aureus, 127 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 123 Haemophilus influenzae, 70 Moraxella catarrhalis, 78 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 103 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A maximum of 45 antibacterial agents including 26 ?-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with ?-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), four aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was as high as 58.5 %, and that of penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) was 6.3 % and 0.0 %, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 21.1 % of them were found to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 18.7 % to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 5.7 % to be ?-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. A high frequency (76.5 %) of ?-lactamase-producing strains has been suspected in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates. Four (3.2 %) extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae were found among 126 strains. Four isolates (2.5 %) of P. aeruginosa were found to be metallo-?-lactamase-producing strains, including three (1.9 %) suspected multi-drug resistant strains showing resistance against imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Continuous national surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis. PMID:22766652

  2. Prevalence and risk factors associated with traumatic dental injury among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Montes Claros, MG, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Paula Cristina Pelli; Paiva, Haroldo Neves de; Oliveira Filho, Paulo Messias de; Côrtes, Maria Ilma de Souza

    2015-04-01

    The scope of this study was to determine the prevalence of trauma in the permanent dentition of 12-year-old schoolchildren and assess associations with demographic factors such as gender and socioeconomic status and overjet and lip coverage clinical factors. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using a representative sample of 638 students. Data were gathered by means of clinical examinations and self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive analysis was performed, followed by the use of the chi-square test and Poisson logistic regression model for the determination of significant associations. The prevalence of traumatic dental injury was 34.9%. Falls constituted the main etiological factor (49.7%), and occurred in the home (48.2%). The results of the Poisson regression analysis revealed that accentuated overjet (> 5 mm) remained associated with traumatic dental injury irrespective of the other variables [PR = 1.50 (95% CI: 1.41 to 1.61); p = 0.003]. Moreover, a statistically significant association was found between accentuated overjet and dental trauma. No significant associations were found between TDI and socioeconomic status. These findings highlight the need for prevention strategies and orthodontic correction at the onset of the permanent dentition. PMID:25923633

  3. New thoughts on the origin of Pellegrini-Stieda: the association of PCL injury and medial femoral epicondylar periosteal stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAnally, James L.; Southam, Samuel L.; Mlady, Gary W. [University of New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-02-15

    For the past 100 years, Pellegrini-Stieda disease has been described as calcification and ossification within the tibial collateral ligament, although these typical radiographic findings are often located more superior than the most proximal extent of the ligament. In this article, we demonstrate four magnetic resonance imaging cases of knee trauma with complete posterior cruciate ligament tear or avulsion, each demonstrating that injury to the medial collateral ligamentous complex can involve significant stripping of the tissue proximal to the medial epicondyle. Classic radiographic findings of Pellegrini-Stieda calcifications can be caused by stripping of the femoral periosteum proximal to the femoral attachment of the tibial collateral ligament, which appears to be associated with a complete posterior cruciate ligament injury. (orig.)

  4. New thoughts on the origin of Pellegrini-Stieda: the association of PCL injury and medial femoral epicondylar periosteal stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 100 years, Pellegrini-Stieda disease has been described as calcification and ossification within the tibial collateral ligament, although these typical radiographic findings are often located more superior than the most proximal extent of the ligament. In this article, we demonstrate four magnetic resonance imaging cases of knee trauma with complete posterior cruciate ligament tear or avulsion, each demonstrating that injury to the medial collateral ligamentous complex can involve significant stripping of the tissue proximal to the medial epicondyle. Classic radiographic findings of Pellegrini-Stieda calcifications can be caused by stripping of the femoral periosteum proximal to the femoral attachment of the tibial collateral ligament, which appears to be associated with a complete posterior cruciate ligament injury. (orig.)

  5. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  6. Association between nationality and occupational injury risk on Danish non-passenger merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maritime occupational accidents can be determined by several factors, among which human characteristics play a crucial role. Worker's safety behaviour depends on individual physical and mental characteristics as well as on his/her social and cultural background. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime Authority were collected. Publicly available employment data were used to calculate the cumulative incidence rates for Danish, non-Danish European Union (EU) and non-EU employees working on non-passenger ships. Crude injury rates and rates adjusted for occupational status were statistically compared. RESULTS: The majority of accidents happened to Danish and non-EU workers on non-passenger ships. The injury rate varied around 70 per 1000 among Danish seafarers, while the rate for non-Danish employees was about 30 per 1000. Crude and adjusted relative risk was found significantly lower for EU (0.33-0.46;0.26-0.39) and for non-EU (0.41-0.53; 0.54-0.65) workers compared to Danish seafarers. The difference decreased, but remained significant in most cases for serious injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational injury rates show considerable nationality differences as reported from non-passenger ships registered under the Danish flag. The differences can only be partly explained by varying reporting practices. The findings confirm the results of previous studies and point out the need for effective interventions in the high-risk groups.

  7. Firearms injuries and deaths: a critical public health issue. American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The prevention of firearm deaths and injuries is one of the most complex and controversial issues facing the public health profession in recent years. Laws have been enacted to control or discourage private gun ownership, and especially to eliminate guns from the hands of criminals, but the laws' effects in reducing crime and firearm-related injuries and deaths have been disappointing. Gunshot wounds are the 12th leading cause of death in the United States and more than half of all suicides a...

  8. Is the use of oral contraceptives associated with operatively treated anterior cruciate ligament injury? : A case-control study from the Danish Knee Ligament Reconstruction Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahr-Wagner, Lene; Thillemann, Theis Muncholm

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is 2 to 9 times higher in women than in men. In addition, in vitro studies have demonstrated that ACL is an estrogen target tissue, and some studies have therefore suggested a protective association between oral contraceptives (OC) and the likelihood of sustaining ACL injury. HYPOTHESIS: There is a protective association between OC use and the likelihood of operatively treated ACL injury. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: The study population included 4497 women with an operatively treated ACL injury registered in the Danish Knee Ligament Reconstruction Registry for the 2005 to 2011 period and 8858 age-matched controls with no ACL injury. The study evaluated exposure to OC use at the time of ACL injury (index date) and in the 5 previous years ("ever user") or no OC use ("never user"). Ever users were further classified as either new users (patients who redeemed their first prescription within the first year before the index date), long-term users (redeemed additional prescriptions 1 to 5 years before the index date), or recent users (redeemed their most recent prescription >1 year before the index date). Finally, a dose-response analysis of OC use was performed. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the relative risk (RR) with a 95% CI of sustaining an operatively treated ACL injury according to OC use. RESULTS: The adjusted RR associating OC with ACL injury was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-0.90) between ever users and never users. Furthermore, there was a decreased RR of sustaining ACL injury of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.74-0.91) in long-term users and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.89) in recent users. Using OC for more than 4 years did not seem to alter the likelihood of sustaining an operatively treated ACL injury. CONCLUSION: This population-based pharmacoepidemiological study including 13,355 women indicates that a protective association exists between OC use and the likelihood of sustaining an operatively treated ACL injury. Although this study does indicate a protective association of OC use, OC should not be used as a prophylactic measure before additional clinical studies have further clarified the biological and causal association between OC use and the likelihood of sustaining operatively treated ACL injury.

  9. Linguistic Factors Associated with Self-Inflicted Injury in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Benjamin Park

    2009-01-01

    The present study builds on previous research, which demonstrated higher levels of depressive and interpersonal conflict language in first-person narrative accounts of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA) in borderline personality disorder. The present study was designed to examine the semantic similarity of time-sequences…

  10. 78 FR 76196 - Secondary Service Connection for Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ...vehicle accidents, sports injuries, and workplace...facts of the veteran's disability picture is appropriate...in its discussion of sports-related TBIs and Dementia...opinions and assigning disability ratings, ensures that...adjudication of veterans' disability claims. Another...

  11. The severity of shock is associated with impaired rates of net alveolar fluid clearance in clinical acute lung injury

    OpenAIRE

    Zeyed, Yosaf F.; Bastarache, Julie A; Matthay, Michael A.; Ware, Lorraine B

    2012-01-01

    The rate of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) is associated with mortality in clinical acute lung injury (ALI). Patients with ALI often develop circulatory shock, but how shock affects the rate of AFC is unknown. To determine the effect of circulatory shock on the rate of AFC in patients with ALI, the rate of net AFC was measured in 116 patients with ALI by serial sampling of pulmonary edema fluid. The primary outcome was the rate of AFC in patients with shock compared with those without shock. ...

  12. Information surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiders, Barbara AB; McQuerry, Dennis L.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-15

    Biological weapons are within reach of individuals, small groups, terrorist organizations, as well as nations. With pervasive integration of civilian and military populations worldwide, the ill winds of biological warfare stand to affect military troops and civilians alike. A variety of technologies are emerging - such as pathogen detection devices, streaming internet characterization tools, information exploitation techniques, automated feature extraction, and ubiquitous wireless communication - that can help. These technologies, if taken together within an integrated analytical framework, could make possible the monitoring of diverse parameters that may indicate a change in the state of health of a given population - either the emergence of a naturally occurring disease or the outbreak of a disease as a result of hostile intent. This presentation will discuss the application of new information surveillance tools and technologies as they apply to health and disease monitoring, particularly within the context of potential terrorist or hostile nation use of biological warfare. Although discussed within the specific context of health surveillance, the tools and processes described here are generally applicable within other domains of subject matter expertise.

  13. Chronic xerostomia increases esophageal acid exposure and is associated with esophageal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic xerostomia on parameters of gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. DESIGN: Observational study of a cohort of male patients with xerostomia and age-matched control subjects. SETTING: Tertiary-care Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male patients with chronic xerostomia secondary to radiation for head and neck cancers or medications. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects with comparable alcohol and smoking histories. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Esophageal motility was similar in patients with xerostomia and controls. Clearance of acid from the esophagus and 24-hour intraesophageal pH were markedly abnormal in patients with xerostomia. Symptoms and signs of esophagitis were significantly more frequent in subjects with xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic xerostomia may predispose to esophageal injury, at least in part, by decreasing the clearance of acid from the esophagus and altering 24-hour intraesophageal pH. Esophageal injury is a previously unreported complication of long-term salivary deficiency

  14. Perioperative anaesthetic management of penetrating neck injury associated with Rh blood type in a young adult

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Yeting; Shi, Jiaohui; Wang, Zhichun

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a young adult patient with penetrating neck injuries (PNI) with an Rh negative blood type and discuss the perioperative anaesthetic management of single-stage surgical exploration under general anaesthesia and extracorporeal circulation in this patient. The patient had zone II PNI and he was in a haemodynamically progressive unstable state, and the knife penetrated the left internal jugular vein, superior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve; the trachea and the oesop...

  15. Acute liver injury associated with the use of herbal preparations containing glucosamine: three case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Aileen; Dillon, John

    2009-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines is becoming increasingly popular in Western society. As a result the number of reported adverse reactions is increasing. Glucosamine is a herbal remedy commonly used to ease joint pain in osteoarthritis, and only two previous reports of hepatotoxicity have been published in the scientific literature. The present report describes three patients who developed acute liver injury following exposure to glucosamine; one patient made a complete reco...

  16. Medical, legal, and ethical challenges associated with pregnancy and catastrophic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Christopher M; Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer; Wijdicks, Eelco F

    2015-06-01

    In late 2013, two women from North America gained attention after sustaining catastrophic brain injuries while pregnant. After Marlise Muñoz-who was at 14weeks of pregnancy when she developed a pulmonary embolism-was pronounced brain dead, hospital officials initially refused to withdraw support, citing a Texas state law requiring them to maintain life-sustaining treatment for a pregnant patient to help to save the fetus. By contrast, when Robyn Benson was pronounced brain dead after a brain hemorrhage at 22weeks of pregnancy, both her husband and the physicians agreed to continue support until a viable child could be delivered. The Muñoz and Benson cases offer an opportunity to explore the medical, legal, and ethical issues surrounding catastrophic brain injury in pregnant women. It is hoped that the present article will enable clinicians to better appreciate the history and present state of issues involving advance directives for pregnant women, maternal versus fetal interests, and the impact of fetal viability on medical decision making, as well as offer a practical assessment of the various US state laws concerning the rare, yet catastrophic event of brain injury in a pregnant woman. PMID:25754143

  17. Functional independence and health-related functional status following spinal cord injury: A prospective study of the association with physical capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Haisma, J. A.; Post, M. W.; Woude, L. H.; Stam, H. J.; Bergen, M. P.; Sluis, T. A. R.; Berg-emons, H. J. G. Den; Bussmann, J. B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine changes in functional independence following spinal cord injury and to evaluate the association between functional independence and physical capacity. Design: Multi-centre prospective cohort study. Subjects: Patients with spinal cord injury admitted for initial rehabilitation. Methods: The motor Functional Independence Measure (FIMmotor) was determined at the start of rehabilitation (n=176), 3 months later (n=124), at discharge (n=160) and one year after discharge from...

  18. Honokiol attenuates the severity of acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury via acceleration of acinar cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Te I; Wu, Hsiao Yi; Chen, Bo Lin; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2012-05-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis remains a life-threatening disease with a high mortality rate among a defined proportion of those affected. Apoptosis has been hypothesized to be a beneficial form of cell death in acute pancreatitis. Honokiol, a low-molecular-weight natural product, possesses the ability of anti-inflammation and apoptosis induction. Here, we investigate whether honokiol can ameliorate severe acute pancreatitis and the associated acute lung injury in a mouse model. Mice received six injections of cerulein at 1-h intervals, then given one intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide for the induction of severe acute pancreatitis. Moreover, mice were intraperitoneally given vehicle or honokiol 10 min after the first cerulein injection. Honokiol protected against the severity of acute pancreatitis in terms of increased serum amylase and lipase levels, pancreas pathological injury, and associated acute lung injury. Honokiol significantly reduced the increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin 1, and nitric oxide levels 3 h and serum high-mobility group box 1 24 h after acute pancreatitis induction. Honokiol also significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activities in the pancreas and the lungs. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-related molecules eIF2? (phosphorylated) and CHOP protein expressions, apoptosis, and caspase-3 activity were increased in the pancreas of mice with severe acute pancreatitis, which was unexpectedly enhanced by honokiol treatment. These results suggest that honokiol protects against acute pancreatitis and limits the spread of inflammatory damage to the lung in a severe acute pancreatitis mouse model. The acceleration of pancreatic cell apoptosis by honokiol may play a pivotal role. PMID:22258232

  19. Serum Total Cholinesterase Activity on Admission Is Associated with Disease Severity and Outcome in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Hong; Li, An-Min; He, Sai-Lin; Yao, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Wen; Sheng, Zhi-Yong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of neurological disability. In this retrospective study, serum total cholinesterase (ChE) activities were analyzed in 188 patients for diagnostic as well as predictive values for mortality. Methods and Findings Within 72 hours after injury, serum ChE activities including both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were measured. Disease severity was evaluated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Glasgow Coma Score, length of coma, post-traumatic amnesia and injury feature. Neurocognitive and functional scores were assessed using clinical records. Of 188 patients, 146 (77.7%) survived and 42 (22.3%) died within 90 days. Lower ChE activities were noted in the non-survivors vs. survivors (5.94±2.19 vs. 7.04±2.16 kU/L, p=0.023), in septic vs. non-infected patients (5.93±1.89 vs. 7.31±2.45 kU/L, p=0.0005) and in patients with extremely severe injury vs. mild injury (6.3±1.98 vs. 7.57±2.48 kU/L, p=0.049). The trajectories of serum ChE levels were also different between non-survivors and survivors, septic and non-infected patients, mild and severely injured patients, respectively. Admission ChE activities were closely correlated with blood cell counts, neurocognitive and functional scores both on admission and at discharge. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for ChE was inferior to that for either APACHE II or white blood cell (WBC) count. However, at the optimal cutoff value of 5 kU/L, the sensitivity of ChE for correct prediction of 90-day mortality was 65.5% and the specificity was 86.4%. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that lower ChE activity (5 kU/L) (p=0.04). After adjusting for other variables, ChE was identified as a borderline independent predictor for mortality as analyzed by Binary logistic regression (P=0.078). Conclusions Lowered ChE activity measured on admission appears to be associated with disease severity and outcome for TBI patients. PMID:26107885

  20. Management outcome and associated factors in burn injuries with and without facial involvement in a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatusi, Olawunmi A; Fatusi, Adesegun O; Olabanji, J Kayode; Alatise, Olusegun I

    2006-01-01

    There is a high potential for the occurrence of burns in Nigeria, yet very little is known about factors that are associated with management outcomes (death/survivorship) in burns affecting facial or other body areas among Nigerian populations. This study aimed at determining patterns of occurrences of burn injuries with and without facial involvement and the factors that are associated with mortality. A standardized data-collection instrument was designed and used to extract relevant information about burn patients that were seen at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between 1998 and 2003. During the study period, fuel-related flames constituted the leading type of agent in both facial (71.1%) and nonfacial involved burns (65.3%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of contracture and inhalation injury between burns with facial involvement and burns without facial involvement, but cases of facial involvement have significantly lower incidences of wound infections. No significant difference was seen in the incidence of mortality between burns with facial involvement (31.6 %) and burns without facial involvement (30.7%). Significant bivariate correlates for mortality were age, flame as the agent of burns, depth of the burns and wound infections. Two correlates remained significant in the multivariate analysis (binary logistic regression): BSA involved and wound infection. PMID:17091085

  1. Prevalência de lesões em corredores de rua e fatores associados / Prevalence of injuries and associated factors among street runners

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Akira Ferreira, Hino; Rodrigo Siqueira, Reis; Ciro Romélio, Rodriguez-Añez; Rogério César, Fermino.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalência de lesões esportivas e os fatores associados em corredores de rua por meio de um inquérito de morbidade referida. Os participantes foram selecionados por convite e por voluntariedade entre os corredores do Circuito de Ruas da Cidade de Curitiba-PR. [...] Foram entrevistados 295 indivíduos (77,3% homens). As prevalências foram descritas de acordo com as variáveis de estudo e a regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para testar as associações (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of sports-related injuries and associated factors in street runners through a referred morbidity survey. Participants were selected by invitation and by volunteering among the runners from the Curitiba City Street Running Circuit during the months [...] of September to November. 295 runners were interviewed (77.3% men). Prevalence rates were described accordingly to the study variables and Poisson regression was employed to test associations (p/

  2. Post-partum sequential occurrence of two diverse transfusion reactions (transfusion associated circulatory overload and transfusion related acute lung injury).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Rudrashish; Samanta, Sukhen

    2013-10-01

    Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) are two dissimilar pathological conditions associated with transfusion of blood products where the time course of the events and clinical presentation overlap leading to uncertainty in establishing the diagnosis and initiating the treatment, which otherwise differs. We encountered a case where a patient of post-partum hemorrhage developed TACO in the immediate post-operative period due to aggressive resuscitative attempts with blood products. The patient's condition was appropriately diagnosed and was managed according to the clinical scenario, and the condition abated. Subsequently, on the third post-operative day the patient again required blood product transfusions following which the patient developed TRALI, the diagnosis of which was also established and adequate treatment strategy was undertaken. PMID:24339663

  3. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ...Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury...Surveillance, and Control of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, Funding...Surveillance, and Control of Vector- Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, FOA...

  4. Relationships Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Illicit Drug Use and Their Association With Aggression in Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Ferguson, Pamela L; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2014-10-16

    Extensive interviews of correctional inmates in South Carolina (2009-2010) were conducted under a Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) grant. We evaluated the extent to which early traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent illicit drug abuse may conjointly influence development of aggression, controlling for alcohol use, and whether cognitive or emotional dysregulation mediated this relationship. Early TBI predicted greater severity and earlier onset of drug use, and an earlier age at first use predicted greater aggression regardless of the age of TBI. Emotional dysregulation mediated effects of TBI on aggression. The potential to design more targeted treatments for this susceptible population are discussed. PMID:25326469

  5. Alterations in neuronal calcium levels are associated with cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Sun, David A.; Sombati, Sompong; Baranova, Anya; Wilson, Margaret S.; Attkisson, Elisa; Hamm, Robert J; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often suffer from a post-traumatic syndrome with deficits in learning and memory. Calcium (Ca2+) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of TBI-induced neuronal death. However, the role of long-term changes in neuronal Ca2+ function in surviving neurons and the potential impact on TBI-induced cognitive impairments are less understood. Here we evaluated neuronal death and basal free intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in acutely isolated rat CA3 hippocampal n...

  6. Propositions for the implementation and reinforcement of surveillance activities of exposure and risks associated to radon inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report treats exclusively of exposure by inhalation. It expresses the propositions relative to the implantation and the development of an information network allowing to characterize the radon exposures by inhalation and associated risks. (N.C.)

  7. The association of lifetime education with the prevalence of myocardial infarction: an analysis of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J; Weitzen, Sherry

    2010-02-01

    Socioeconomic status is likely an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease but little research has been done in the United States to study this association in a nationally representative sample. We sought to determine the association between lifetime education and the prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI) among adults over the age of 39 in the US. A cross sectional study was conducted using the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). A multivariable logistic regression was performed. The analysis was conducted in 2008. Among respondents aged 40 years and older to the 2006 BRFSS survey those with less than a high school education had 3.09 (95% CI: 2.79-3.43) times the odds of having had an MI compared to college graduates. After adjusting for confounders, respondents with less than a high school education had 1.61 (95% CI: 1.41-1.83) times the odds of having had an MI compared to college graduates. Both those with a high school education and those who completed some college or technical school had 1.22 times the odds of having had an MI compared to college graduates after adjusting for confounders. This study suggests that education is a risk factor for MI. More national prospective studies are needed in the US to better understand the link between socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease. PMID:19949844

  8. Global gene expression analysis of rodent motor neurons following spinal cord injury associates molecular mechanisms with development of post-injury spasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Westerdahl, Ann-Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury leads to severe problems involving impaired motor, sensory and autonomic functions. After spinal injury there is an initial phase of hypo-reflexia followed by hyper-reflexia, often referred to as spasticity. Previous studies have suggested a relationship between the reappearance of endogenous plateau potentials in motor neurons and the development of spasticity after spinalization. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased excitability of motor neurons and the return of plateau potentials below a spinal cord injury we investigated changes in gene expression in this cell population. We adopted a rat tail-spasticity model with a caudal spinal transection that causes a progressive development of spasticity from its onset after two to three weeks until two months post injury. Gene expression changes of fluorescently identified tail motor neurons were studied 21 and 60 days post injury. The motor neurons undergo substantial transcriptional regulation in response to injury. Thepatterns of differential expression show similarities at both time points, though there are 20 % more differentially expressed genes 60 days compared to 21 days post injury. The study identifies targets of regulation relating to both ion channels and receptors implicated in the endogenous expression of plateaux. The regulation of excitatory and inhibitory signal transduction indicates a shift in the balance towards increased excitability, where the glutamatergic NMDA receptor complex together with cholinergic system is up-regulated and the GABAA receptor system is down-regulated. The genes of the pore-forming proteins Cav1.3 and Nav1.6 were not up-regulated, while genes of proteins such as non-pore forming subunits and intracellular pathways known to modulate receptor and channel trafficking, kinetics and conductivity showed marked regulation. On the basis of the identified changes in global gene expression in motor neurons, the present investigation opens up for new potential targets for treatment of motor dysfunction following spinal cord injury.

  9. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy. PMID:11140886

  10. Association of a common genetic variant within ANKK1 with six-month cognitive performance after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, John K; Pronger, Angela M; Ferguson, Adam R; Temkin, Nancy R; Sharma, Sourabh; Rosand, Jonathan; Sorani, Marco D; McAllister, Thomas W; Barber, Jason; Winkler, Ethan A; Burchard, Esteban G; Hu, Donglei; Lingsma, Hester F; Cooper, Shelly R; Puccio, Ava M; Okonkwo, David O; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Genetic association analyses suggest that certain common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may adversely impact recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Delineating their causal relationship may aid in development of novel interventions and in identifying patients likely to respond to targeted therapies. We examined the influence of the (C/T) SNP rs1800497 of ANKK1 on post-TBI outcome using data from two prospective multicenter studies: the Citicoline Brain Injury Treatment (COBRIT) trial and Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot). We included patients with ANKK1 genotyping results and cognitive outcomes at six months post-TBI (n?=?492: COBRIT n?=?272, TRACK-TBI Pilot n?=?220). Using the California Verbal Learning Test Second Edition (CVLT-II) Trial 1-5 Standard Score, we found a dose-dependent effect for the T allele, with T/T homozygotes scoring lowest on the CVLT-II Trial 1-5 Standard Score (T/T 45.1, C/T 51.1, C/C 52.1, ANOVA, p?=?0.008). Post hoc testing with multiple comparison-correction indicated that T/T patients performed significantly worse than C/T and C/C patients. Similar effects were observed in a test of non-verbal processing (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Processing Speed Index). Our findings extend those of previous studies reporting a negative relationship of the ANKK1 T allele with cognitive performance after TBI. In this study, we demonstrate the value of pooling shared clinical, biomarker, and outcome variables from two large datasets applying the NIH TBI Common Data Elements. The results have implications for future multicenter investigations to further elucidate the role of ANKK1 in post-TBI outcome. PMID:25633559

  11. The association between self-injurious behaviors and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minshawi NF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Noha F Minshawi,1 Sarah Hurwitz,2 Jill C Fodstad,1 Sara Biebl,3 Danielle H Morriss,4 Christopher J McDougle51Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA; 3Child and Adolescent Behavioral Health, Sanford Health, Fargo, ND, USA; 4Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 5Departments of Psychiatry and Pediatrics, Lurie Center for Autism, Massachusetts General Hospital and MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: A key area of concern in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are self-injurious behaviors (SIBs. These are behaviors that an individual engages in that may cause physical harm, such as head banging, or self-biting. SIBs are more common in children with ASD than those who are typically developing or have other neurodevelopmental disabilities. Therefore, it is important that clinicians who work with children with ASD have a solid understanding of SIB. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on the epidemiology of SIB in children with ASD, factors that predict the presence of SIB in this population, and the empirically supported behavioral treatments available.Keywords: self-injury, autism spectrum disorders, applied behavior analysis

  12. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries : 1. Fractures and luxations of permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, Anthony J; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) of permanent teeth occur frequently in children and young adults. Crown fractures and luxations are the most commonly occurring of all dental injuries. Proper diagnosis, treatment planning and followup are important for improving a favorable outcome. Guidelines should assist dentists and patients in decision making and for providing the best care effectively and efficiently. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialties were included in the group. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion of the IADT board members. The guidelines represent the best current evidence based on literature search and professional opinion. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of TDIs. In this first article, the IADT Guidelines for management of fractures and luxations of permanent teeth will be presented.

  13. Distinctive response of CNS glial cells in oro-facial pain associated with injury, infection and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-da-Silva Alfredo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oro-facial pain following injury and infection is frequently observed in dental clinics. While neuropathic pain evoked by injury associated with nerve lesion has an involvement of glia/immune cells, inflammatory hyperalgesia has an exaggerated sensitization mediated by local and circulating immune mediators. To better understand the contribution of central nervous system (CNS glial cells in these different pathological conditions, in this study we sought to characterize functional phenotypes of glial cells in response to trigeminal nerve injury (loose ligation of the mental branch, infection (subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide-LPS and to sterile inflammation (subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant-CFA on the lower lip. Each of the three insults triggered a specific pattern of mechanical allodynia. In parallel with changes in sensory response, CNS glial cells reacted distinctively to the challenges. Following ligation of the mental nerve, both microglia and astrocytes in the trigeminal nuclear complex were highly activated, more prominent in the principal sensory nucleus (Pr5 and subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C area. Microglial response was initiated early (days 3-14, followed by delayed astrocytes activation (days 7-28. Although the temporal profile of microglial and astrocyte reaction corresponded respectively to the initiation and chronic stage of neuropathic pain, these activated glial cells exhibited a low profile of cytokine expression. Local injection of LPS in the lower lip skin also triggered a microglial reaction in the brain, which started in the circumventricular organs (CVOs at 5 hours post-injection and diffused progressively into the brain parenchyma at 48 hours. This LPS-induced microglial reaction was accompanied by a robust induction of I?B-? mRNA and pro-inflammatory cytokines within the CVOs. However, LPS induced microglial activation did not specifically occur along the pain signaling pathway. In contrast, CFA injection led to minor microglial morphological changes and an induction of I?B-? mRNA in the CVO regions; a significant increase in IL-1? and IL-6 mRNA started only at 48 hours post-injection, when the induced pain-related behavior started to resolve. Our detailed analysis of CNS glial response clearly revealed that both nerve injury and oro-facial infection/inflammation induced CNS glial activation, but in a completely different pattern, which suggests a remarkable plasticity of glial cells in response to dynamic changes in their microenvironment and different potential involvement of this non-neuronal cell population in pathological pain development.

  14. Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardiopulmonary Emergency Department Visits Assessed Through Syndromic Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution is...

  15. No association between q-angle and foot posture with running-related injuries : A 10 week prospective follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount of running performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if kilometers to running-related injury (RRI) differ among novice runners with different foot postures and Q-angles when running in a neutral running shoe.

  16. No association between q-angle and foot posture with running-related injuries : a 10 week prospective follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Jensen, M L

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount of running performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if kilometers to running-related injury (RRI) differ among novice runners with different foot postures and Q-angles when running in a neutral running shoe.

  17. The management of femur shaft fracture associated with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, S; Gaussiat, F; Geeraerts, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the management of femoral shaft fractures in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This is a major problem and two questions remain currently of interest: When and how to perform orthopedic surgery in severe TBI patients? The main point of perioperative management remains the prevention of secondary brain insults and the monitoring of intracranial pressure is essential especially in patients with intracranial lesions on the CT-scan. The "double hit" concept, suggesting that surgery by itself might increase the preexisting systemic inflammatory response, gives argument for very early or delayed surgery. Early definitive femoral osteosynthesis, if requires lengthy surgical procedure, does not seem appropriate in this context and "damage-control orthopedics" with external fixation seems to be a good alternative. PMID:23910064

  18. The short-term association of temperature and rainfall with mortality in Vadu Health and Demographic Surveillance System: a population level time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Muralidharan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research in mainly developed countries has shown that some changes in weather are associated with increased mortality. However, due to the lack of accessible data, few studies have examined such effects of weather on mortality, particularly in rural regions in developing countries. Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between temperature and rainfall with daily mortality in rural India. Design: Daily mortality data were obtained from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS in Vadu, India. Daily mean temperature and rainfall data were obtained from a regional meteorological center, India Meteorological Department (IMD, Pune. A Poisson regression model was established over the study period (January 2003–May 2010 to assess the short-term relationship between weather variables and total mortality, adjusting for time trends and stratifying by both age and sex. Result: Mortality was found to be significantly associated with daily ambient temperatures and rainfall, after controlling for seasonality and long-term time trends. Children aged 5 years or below appear particularly susceptible to the effects of warm and cold temperatures and heavy rainfall. The population aged 20–59 years appeared to face increased mortality on hot days. Most age groups were found to have increased mortality rates 7–13 days after rainfall events. This association was particularly evident in women. Conclusion: We found the level of mortality in Vadu HDSS in rural India to be highly affected by both high and low temperatures and rainfall events, with time lags of up to 2 weeks. These results suggest that weather-related mortality may be a public health problem in rural India today. Furthermore, as changes in local climate occur, adaptation measures should be considered to mitigate the potentially negative impacts on public health in these rural communities.

  19. Early Activation of Pulmonary TGF-?1/Smad2 Signaling in Mice with Acute Pancreatitis-Associated Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Akbarshahi; Asha Sam; Chaolei Chen; Rosendahl, Ann H.; Roland Andersson

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury is caused by many factors including acute pancreatitis. There is no specific therapy directed at underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for acute lung injury. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is involved in the resolution of lung injury in later phases of the disease. Some evidence exists demonstrating that TGF-? not only is involved in the late stages, but also contributes to lung injury early on in the progress of the disease. Acute pancreatitis was induced using ...

  20. A valuable animal model of spinal cord injury to study motor dysfunctions, comorbid conditions, and aging associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Pascal; Guertin, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    Most animal models of contused, compressed or transected spinal cord injury (SCI) require a laminectomy to be performed. However, despite advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these models, the laminectomy itself is generally associated with significant problems including longer surgery and anaesthesia (related post-operative complications), neuropathic pain, spinal instabilities, deformities, lordosis, and biomechanical problems, etc. This review provides an overview of findings obtained mainly from our laboratory that are associated with the development and characterization of a novel murine model of spinal cord transection that does not require a laminectomy. A number of studies successfully conducted with this model provided strong evidence that it constitutes a simple, reliable and reproducible transection model of complete paraplegia which is particularly useful for studies on large cohorts of wild-type or mutant animals - e.g., drug screening studies in vivo or studies aimed at characterizing neuronal and non-neuronal adaptive changes post-trauma. It is highly suitable also for studies aimed at identifying and developing new pharmacological treatments against aging associated comorbid problems and specific SCI-related dysfunctions (e.g., stereotyped motor behaviours such as locomotion, sexual response, defecation and micturition) largely related with 'command centers' located in lumbosacral areas of the spinal cord. PMID:23360275

  1. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ?14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged???18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p? Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

  2. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries : 2. Avulsion of permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Avulsion of permanent teeth is one of the most serious dental injuries, and a prompt and correct emergency management is very important for the prognosis. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialties were included in the task group. The guidelines represent the current best evidence and practice based on literature research and professionals' opinion. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion or majority decision of the task group. Finally, the IADT board members were giving their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of avulsed permanent teeth.

  3. Injury incidence and injury patterns in qualification runs versus final runs in FIS World Cup snowboard cross and ski cross

    OpenAIRE

    Steenstrup, Sophie Elspeth

    2011-01-01

    Background: No previous studies have investigated the injury incidence in individual qualification runs vs. final runs in heats of 4 or more athletes in FIS World Cup (WC) Snowboard Cross (SBX) and Ski Cross (SX). Objective: To investigate the injury incidence and injury patterns in individual qualification runs vs. final runs of SBX and SX during four seasons of the FIS WC. Methods: Injuries were recorded by the FIS Injury Surveillance System (FIS ISS) through retrospective athlete interview...

  4. Camp Sports Injuries: Analysis of Causes, Modes and Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Papageorgiou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the description of sports injuries sustained by campers at summer camps, aged 7-15 years. A sample of 8 camps from the Greek camp population participated in this sport injury surveillance study. Doctors and camp directors completed reports detailing the number of sports injuries events sustained and provided specific information about each event. During the period of the study, 337 sport injury reports were completed. A total of 237 (70.3% boys and 100 (29.7% girls reported having a sport injury. Age of campers sustaining a sport injury was 10-12 years old (60.8%. The frequency of sports injuries was highest during the first camp season. The leading causes of sports injuries in children’s were: falls, crushed by object, collision with other person and slips. Cut/scratch injuries were the most common diagnoses (38.9%. Football, basketball and volleyball were the most frequent sport activities for injuries. Reports based surveillance systems can be successfully used to conducts sport injury surveillance among children attending summer camps. Data collected via such systems can be used to calculate sports injury rates, to describe patterns of sport injury and to identify risk factors for camper – related sport injuries. The results provide necessary information to develop prevention interventions to decrease the number of youth whose camp experiences are negatively affected by sport injury.

  5. Mild head injury in preschool children: evidence that it can be associated with a persisting cognitive defect.

    OpenAIRE

    Wrightson, P; McGinn, V; Gronwall, D

    1995-01-01

    This study describes the effect of mild head injury in preschool children on aspects of their cognitive performance in the year after injury and at the age of 6.5 years, with particular reference to the development of reading skills. Mild head injury was defined by diagnosis at a hospital emergency department of a head injury which was not severe enough to need admission for observation. Seventy eight such children were compared with a group of 86 with a minor injury elsewhere. The groups had...

  6. Association of Traumatic Dental Injuries with Individual-, Sociodemographic- and School-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the association of untreated traumatic dental injuries (TDI with individual-, sociodemographic- and school-related factors among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 in the city of Goiania, Brazil. A random sample of 2075 schoolchildren was examined and interviewed. Untreated TDI in the permanent incisors was assessed using the methodology of the Brazilian National Oral Health Survey. Rao-Scott test and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the associations between independent variables and three categories of TDI, using a hierarchical method. Independent variables were children’s sex, self rated color/race and size of incisal overjet, their mother’s level of schooling, and the schools’ type and geographic location. The prevalence of trauma was 17.3% (CI 95% = 15.2–19.4; enamel fractures were the most common TDI (13.1%. In the adjusted model, a higher chance of having two or more teeth with TDI was found among boys, those whose mothers had lowest level of schooling, and those attending schools located in health districts with lower socioeconomic indicators. It was concluded that the prevalence of TDI was low and that it was associated with individual factors as well as the school environments.

  7. Surveillance practices for the next millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difficulty of defining the term 'standard practice' for surveillance in dam safety management is highlighted. A good dam safety surveillance program needs to contain all the key parts embodied in the Canadian Dam Association's (CDA) Dam Safety Guidelines. They have a basic role in defining what standard practice is, but the present CDA guidelines require strengthening as surveillance practice evolves in the near future. Surveillance is mainly a means of providing an owner, or in the case of BC Hydro, the Director of Dam Safety, senior management and the Board of Directors with up-to-date performance information which is essential for the continuing risk control of the residual risks associated with the dams. Although automated systems are being more commonly applied in a proactive manner in special situations as a real time risk control process, surveillance practice today is reactive. The need is stressed for dam owners to go beyond today's standard practice, by utilizing proactive performance-based practice, and better integrating surveillance within dam risk management. The establishment of a good surveillance program and its ongoing success is dependent on a comprehensive dam safety management program. There is a commitment on the part of BC Hydro to moving from the standard practice of the past to new directions outlined herein, which includes a detailed and comprehensive, auditable surveillance management system, with a policy of continued improvement. 11 reh a policy of continued improvement. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  8. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hard and it protects your brain. But other head injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries can be open or closed. A closed injury ...

  9. INJURIES TO THE SPINE -MECHANICS , ANATOMICAL AND ORTHOPEDIC ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaq ul Hassan; Sajid Shafi; Rahil Muzzafar; Zahida Rasool; Muneeb ul Hassan; Ghulam Hassan; Altaf Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral injuries can occur as isolated injuries or may be associated with other injuries. Recognition of the level of injury is important along with the mechanism of injury. The article describes the various types of injuries of the vertebral column along with the main mechanisms and the difference between the types of injuries in the vertebral column.

  10. INJURIES TO THE SPINE -MECHANICS , ANATOMICAL AND ORTHOPEDIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq ul Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral injuries can occur as isolated injuries or may be associated with other injuries. Recognition of the level of injury is important along with the mechanism of injury. The article describes the various types of injuries of the vertebral column along with the main mechanisms and the difference between the types of injuries in the vertebral column.

  11. Caput succedaneum and facial petechiae--birth-associated injuries in healthy newborns under forensic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, Matthias; Rothschild, Markus A; Schmolling, Jan C; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2012-05-01

    In cases of suspected neonaticide, the results of a forensic autopsy might be important for conviction or acquittal. But autopsy findings in dead newborns are often unspecific and can rarely provide corroborative evidence of inflicted injury, as they are known to occur during normal birth as well. In our study, we examined 59 vaginally delivered, healthy newborns within the first 30 min after birth to know more about the prevalence and possible correlations of a caput succedaneum and facial petechiae. Caput succedaneum occurred in 33.9%, facial petechiae in 20.3%. As for the occurrence of caput succedaneum, statistically significant differences could be shown for the duration of delivery and the mother's parity. These correlations could not be shown for the occurrence of facial petechiae. Within the scope of our study, we could demonstrate that neither caput succedaneum nor facial petechiae are rare findings in healthy newborns. In the forensic investigation of suspected neonaticide, their potential significance can only be ascertained together with further investigations of the circumstances of death and a thorough forensic pathological autopsy. PMID:22120972

  12. Using cranial electrotherapy stimulation to treat pain associated with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gabriel; Rintala, Diana H; Thornby, John I; Yang, June; Wade, Walter; Vasilev, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Treatments for chronic pain in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been less than effective. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), a noninvasive technique that delivers a microcurrent to the brain via ear clip electrodes, has been shown to effectively treat several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The present study examined the effects of daily 1-hour active CES or sham CES treatment (randomly assigned) for 21 days on pain intensity and interference with activities in 38 males with SCI. The active CES group (n = 18) reported significantly decreased daily pain intensity compared with the sham CES group (n = 20) (mean change: active CES = -0.73, sham CES = -0.08; p = 0.03). Additionally, the active CES group reported significantly decreased pain interference (-14.6 pre- vs postintervention, p = 0.004) in contrast to the nonsignificant decrease in the sham CES group (-4.7 pre- vs postintervention, p = 0.24). These results suggest that CES can effectively treat chronic pain in persons with SCI. PMID:17123186

  13. Association of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and heterotopic ossification in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina V. Oleson, MD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to explore the relationship between low vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and heterotopic ossification (HO in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI. Ninety-six subjects with acute or chronic motor complete SCI participated. Levels of serum vitamin D25(OH, calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH were collected, and information regarding nutritional patterns and fracture history was obtained from subjects. Evidence of current or previous HO was ascertained through chart review. Of the 96 subjects, 12 were found to have developed HO, 11 with serum vitamin D25(OH between 5 and 17 ng/mL. Nine subjects exhibited secondary hyperparathyroidism in the range of 72 to 169 pg/mL. Only one subject demonstrated HO in the absence of low vitamin D. However, many subjects with low vitamin D (5–31 ng/mL did not have hyperparathyroidism or HO. Statistical testing demonstrated a correlation between hyperparathyroidism and HO (>p < 0.001 as well as hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL. Direct correlation between HO and low vitamin D was not observed, but hyperparathyroidism may increase this risk. We believe that those patients who demonstrate low vitamin D and elevated PTH should be screened for HO in addition to beginning vitamin supplementation. Initiating early treatment of low vitamin D to restore therapeutic levels may prevent development of HO.

  14. Prohibitin is associated with antioxidative protection in hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian-Biao; Qin, Yuan-Han; Lei, Feng-Ying; Huang, Wei-Fang; Drummen, Gregor P. C.

    2013-11-01

    Prohibitin is an evolutionary conserved and pleiotropic protein that has been implicated in various cellular functions, including proliferation, tumour suppression, apoptosis, transcription, and mitochondrial protein folding. We recently demonstrated that prohibitin downregulation results in increased renal interstitial fibrosis. Here we investigated the role of oxidative stress and prohibitin expression in a hypoxia/reoxygenation injury system in renal tubular epithelial cells with lentivirus-based delivery vectors to knockdown or overexpress prohibitin. Our results show that increased prohibitin expression was negatively correlated with reactive oxygen species, malon dialdehyde, transforming-growth-factor-?1, collagen-IV, fibronectin, and apoptosis (r = -0.895, -0.764, -0.798, -0.826, -0.817, -0.735 each P < 0.01), but positively correlated with superoxide dismutase, glutathione and mitochondrial membrane potential (r = 0.807, 0.815, 0.739; each P < 0.01). We postulate that prohibitin acts as a positive regulator of mechanisms that counteract oxidative stress and extracellular matrix accumulation and therefore has an antioxidative effect.

  15. Is a history of work-related low back injury associated with prevalent low back pain and depression in the general population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy J David

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role of prior occupational low back injury in future episodes of low back pain and disability in the general population. We conducted a study to determine if a lifetime history of work-related low back injury is associated with prevalent severity-graded low back pain, depressive symptoms, or both, in the general population. Methods We used data from the Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey – a population-based cross-sectional survey mailed to a random, stratified sample of 2,184 Saskatchewan adults 20 to 69 years of age in 1995. Information on the main independent variable was gathered by asking respondents whether they had ever injured their low back at work. Our outcomes, the 6-month period prevalence of severity-graded low back pain and depressive symptoms during the past week, were measured with valid and reliable questionnaires. The associations between prior work-related low back injury and our outcomes were estimated through multinomial and binary multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for age, gender, and other important covariates. Results Fifty-five percent of the eligible population participated. Of the 1,086 participants who responded to the question about the main independent variable, 38.0% reported a history of work-related low back injury. A history of work-related low back injury was positively associated with low intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 3.66; 95%CI, 2.48–5.42, with high intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 4.03; 95%CI, 2.41–6.76, and with high disability low back pain (OR, 6.76; 95%CI, 3.80–12.01. No association was found between a history of work-related low back injury and depression (OR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.55–1.30. Conclusion Our analysis shows an association between past occupational low back injury and increasing severity of prevalent low back pain, but not depression. These results suggest that past work-related low back injury may be an important risk factor for future episodes of low back pain and disability in the general population.

  16. Catastrophic Head Injuries in High School and Collegiate Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Frederick O.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the incidence of catastrophic head injuries within high school and college sports. Data from a national surveillance system indicated that a football-related fatality occurred every year except one from 1945-99, mainly related to head injuries. From 1984-99, 69 football head-related injuries resulted in permanent disability. Deaths and…

  17. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities

  18. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-12-21

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

  19. Foodborne Outbreaks Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outbreak Tracking and Reporting Food Safety Share Compartir Surveillance for Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Captures outbreak data from ... and, how to prevent infection. 2 How Does Surveillance and Reporting for Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Work? State, ...

  20. Meningococcal Disease: Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Surveillance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... strains") of the disease in the United States. Surveillance Systems Meningococcal disease is a reportable condition in ...

  1. Ameliorating effects of low tidal volume ventilation with associated hypercapnia on pneumoperitoneum-induced lung injury by inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shenqiang; Guan, Shanhui; Li, Hongyan; Su, Aiping; Wang, Yuelan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mechanical ventilation using lower tidal volume ventilation with associated hypercapnia is supported to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study was intended to explore whether low tidal volume ventilation with associated hypercapnia would ameliorate pneumoperitoneum-induced lung injury and whether this protection strategy might work through mediating inflammation and oxidative stress via TLR 4 signaling pathway. Materials and methods: 50 anesthetized Wistar Rats were randomized to be mechanically ventilated for 4 h at 7 groups: Group A, ventilated with 12 ml/kg; Group B, similar to Group A but injected with LPS (Toll receptor 4 agonist); Group C, similar to Group A but injected with Pam3Cys (Toll receptor 2 agonist); Group D, ventilated with 12 ml/kg and subjected to pneumoperitoneum; Group E, ventilated with 6 ml/kg and subjected to pneumoperitoneum; Group F, similar to Group E but injected with LPS; Group G, similar to Group E but injected with Pam3Cys. After animals were killed, indices of lung Injury, inflammation markers and oxidative stress markes of the lungs tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood were assessed. Results: The group subjected to pneumoperitoneum (Group D) had elevated values of indices of lung Injury, inflammation oxidative stress markers compared with the controls (Group A). The low tidal volume ventilation group (Group E) had significantly decreased values of markers of lung Injury, inflammation and oxidative stress compared with the high tidal volume ventilation group (Group D). LPS treatment reversed all the results of Group E, while Pam3Cys treatment had no significant effect. Conclusions: Low tidal volume ventilation with associated hypercapnia ameliorated pneumoperitoneum-induced lung injury by reducing TLR 4-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress.

  2. Identification of regeneration-associated genes after central and peripheral nerve injury in the adult rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Gary A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that neurons of the peripheral nervous system have the capacity to regenerate a severed axon leading to functional recovery, whereas neurons of the central nervous system do not regenerate successfully after injury. The underlying molecular programs initiated by axotomized peripheral and central nervous system neurons are not yet fully understood. Results To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration in the nervous system, differential display polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify differentially expressed genes following axotomy of peripheral and central nerve fibers. For this purpose, axotomy induced changes of regenerating facial nucleus neurons, and non-regenerating red nucleus and Clarke's nucleus neurons have been analyzed in an intra-animal side-to-side comparison. One hundred and thirty five gene fragments have been isolated, of which 69 correspond to known genes encoding for a number of different functional classes of proteins such as transcription factors, signaling molecules, homeobox-genes, receptors and proteins involved in metabolism. Sixty gene fragments correspond to genomic mouse sequences without known function. In situ-hybridization has been used to confirm differential expression and to analyze the cellular localization of these gene fragments. Twenty one genes (~15% have been demonstrated to be differentially expressed. Conclusions The detailed analysis of differentially expressed genes in different lesion paradigms provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration and may lead to the identification of genes which play key roles in functional repair of central nervous tissues.

  3. Surveillance and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiadou, Yola; Fischer-hu?bner, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Recent social and technical developments are expanding surveillance by the government and private sector and intensifying privacy concerns, resulting in a surveillance-privacy dilemma. Governments establish surveillance schemes to fight terrorism and crime. Private organizations use profiling and data mining techniques to target marketing endeavors, to analyze customer behavior and monitor the work practices of employees. Social networks bring to the fore new means for the surveillance of ind...

  4. Secondary Surveillance Radar Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Schejbal, Vladimír; Bezoušek, Pavel; Pidani?, Jan; Chyba, Milan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a secondary surveillance radar (SSR) array antenna, which is intended for a system combining the secondary surveillance radar antenna and the primary surveillance radar antenna. It describes the patch array elements and the synthesis for the secondary surveillance radar array, considering both elevation and azimuth patterns for sum, difference, and sidelobe-suppression beams, and suspended stripline couplers. The utilization of multilayer techniques allows the connection...

  5. FTY720 prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury-associated arrhythmias in an ex vivo rat heart model via activation of Pak1/Akt signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Egom, Ee; Ke, Y.; Musa, H.; Mohamed, Tm; Wang, T.; Cartwright, E.; Solaro, Rj; Lei, M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated a role of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in the protection against the stress of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In experiments reported here, we have investigated the signaling through the S1P cascade by FTY720, a sphingolipid drug candidate displaying structural similarity to S1P, underlying the S1P cardioprotective effect. In ex vivo rat heart and isolated sinoatrial node models, FTY720 significantly prevented arrhythmic events associated with I/R injury inclu...

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid volume depletion in chronic whiplash-associated disorders from motor vehicle-related spinal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume depletion in chronic cases of whiplash-associated disorders, 111In radioisotope (RI) cisternography, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and lumbar MR myelography were consecutively conducted on 460 individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorders resulting from motor vehicle collision (Group A, n=225) and other traumatic injuries (Group B, n=57), spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndromes and other miscellaneous disorders (Group C, n=155), iatrogenic intracranial hypotension syndrome (Group D, n=11), and communicating hydrocephalus (Group E, n=12). Movement of intrathecally administered RI via a lumbar puncture was sequentially scanned at 1, 2 or 3, 5 and 24 hours. A whole body neuroaxis scanned figure showing high spinal parathecal activity at any time was considered to be a CSF leak, if small enough meningeal diverticula evidenced by MR myelography were present. Retention rate (%) of intrathecal RI for each scan was calculated using the formula: (whole body count-urinary bladder count)/whole body count (cpm) at 1 h x 100. All CSF leaks, although having single to multiple poles, were located in the spinal canal. CSF leakage was observed in 99/225 (44%), 24/57 (42%), 61/155 (39%), 9/11 (82%), and 4/12 (33%), in Groups A, B, C, D and E respectively. All CSF leakages was involved with the lumbar spine in Group A, although 20 cases extended to mid-thoracic levels. In Group A, spinal vertebrae were concls. In Group A, spinal vertebrae were concomitantly injured in 7 cases (1 cervical spine dislocation, 1 cervical spine fracture, 2 thoracic and 1 lumbar compression fracture (s), and 2 lumbar disc hernia). CSF leakage for 2 cervical spine injuries was not at the injured site but at the lumbar spinal canal. CSF leakage limited to the lumbar spine involved 22 and 43 cases in groups B and C, respectively. Of all CSF leaks, 24 h retention rates less than 30% accounted for 90% of cases. In Group A, early CSF excretion and less than a 30% retention rate at 24 h was also observed in 37 out of 128 subjects without CSF leakage. In Group A, therefore, over half the individuals were postulated to have CSF volume depletion, with the most vulnerable sites for CSF leakage at lumbar spine levels. CSF leakage and/or depletion is likely to be at least partly responsible for chronic complex complaints in whiplash-associated disorders. (author)

  7. In silico analysis of HLA associations with drug-induced liver injury: use of a HLA-genotyped DNA archive from healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Alfirevic, Ana; Gonzalez-Galarza, Faviel; Bell, Catherine; Martinsson, Klara; Platt, Vivien; Bretland, Giovanna; Evely, Jane; Lichtenfels, Maike; Cederbrant, Karin; FRENCH, Neil; Naisbitt, Dean; Park, B. Kevin, Prof; Jones, Andrew R.; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the most common adverse reactions leading to product withdrawal post-marketing. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified a number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles associated with DILI; however, the cellular and chemical mechanisms are not fully understood. METHODS: To study these mechanisms, we established an HLA-typed cell archive from 400 healthy volunteers. In addition, we utilized HLA genotype data from more t...

  8. Prostate Cancer Surveillance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medlineplus/videos/news/Cancer_Surveillance_070115.html Prostate Cancer Surveillance HealthDay News Video - July 2, 2015 To ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Prostate Cancer Surveillance For closed captioning, click the CC button ...

  9. Thoracolumbar spine injuries associated with vertical plunges: reappraisal with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen patients who had fallen or jumped, and who had sustained fractures of the thoracolumbar spine, were examined with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Two distinctive patterns of fracture were demonstrated: compression, or wedge, fractures of the vertebral body were present in seven patients, but they were not associated with permanent neurological deficit; and burst fractures with sagittal cleavage into two fragments occurred in five of 11 patients, and they were associated with permanent neurological deficit. CT provided precise and unique information that aided in clinical decision making for this group of patients

  10. GM1 improves neurofascin155 association with lipid rafts and prevents rat brain myelin injury after hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Huang, Q L; Zhao, C M; Tang, J L; Wang, Y L

    2011-06-01

    White matter injury characterized by damage to myelin is an important process in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Because the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin, neurofascin 155 (NF155), and its association with lipid rafts are essential for the establishment and stabilization of the paranodal junction, which is required for tight interaction between myelin and axons, we analyzed the effect of monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) on NF155 expression and its association with lipid rafts after HIBD in Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-15 g, on day 7 post-partum (P7; N = 20 per group). HIBD was induced on P7 and the rats were divided into two groups: one group received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg GM1 three times and the other group an injection of saline. There was also a group of 20 sham-operated rats. After sacrifice, the brains of the rats were removed on P30 and studied by immunochemistry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Staining showed that the saline group had definite rarefaction and fragmentation of brain myelin sheaths, whereas the GM1 group had no obvious structural changes. The GM1 group had 1.9-2.9-fold more GM1 in lipid rafts than the saline group (fraction 3-6; all P < 0.05) and 0.5-2.4-fold higher expression of NF155 in lipid rafts (fraction 3-5; all P < 0.05). Injection of GM1 increased the content of GM1 in lipid rafts as well as NF155 expression and its lipid raft association in HIBD rat brains. GM1 may repair the structure of lipid rafts, promote the association of NF155 (or other important proteins) with lipid rafts, stabilize the structure of paranodes, and eventually prevent myelin sheath damage, suggesting a novel mechanism for its neuroprotective properties. PMID:21670940

  11. GM1 improves neurofascin155 association with lipid rafts and prevents rat brain myelin injury after hypoxia-ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.P. Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White matter injury characterized by damage to myelin is an important process in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD. Because the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin, neurofascin 155 (NF155, and its association with lipid rafts are essential for the establishment and stabilization of the paranodal junction, which is required for tight interaction between myelin and axons, we analyzed the effect of monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1 on NF155 expression and its association with lipid rafts after HIBD in Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-15 g, on day 7 post-partum (P7; N = 20 per group. HIBD was induced on P7 and the rats were divided into two groups: one group received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg GM1 three times and the other group an injection of saline. There was also a group of 20 sham-operated rats. After sacrifice, the brains of the rats were removed on P30 and studied by immunochemistry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Staining showed that the saline group had definite rarefaction and fragmentation of brain myelin sheaths, whereas the GM1 group had no obvious structural changes. The GM1 group had 1.9-2.9-fold more GM1 in lipid rafts than the saline group (fraction 3-6; all P < 0.05 and 0.5-2.4-fold higher expression of NF155 in lipid rafts (fraction 3-5; all P < 0.05. Injection of GM1 increased the content of GM1 in lipid rafts as well as NF155 expression and its lipid raft association in HIBD rat brains. GM1 may repair the structure of lipid rafts, promote the association of NF155 (or other important proteins with lipid rafts, stabilize the structure of paranodes, and eventually prevent myelin sheath damage, suggesting a novel mechanism for its neuroprotective properties.

  12. GM1 improves neurofascin155 association with lipid rafts and prevents rat brain myelin injury after hypoxia-ischemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y.P., Zhang; Q.L., Huang; C.M., Zhao; J.L., Tang; Y.L., Wang.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White matter injury characterized by damage to myelin is an important process in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Because the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin, neurofascin 155 (NF155), and its association with lipid rafts are essential for the establishment and stabilization of t [...] he paranodal junction, which is required for tight interaction between myelin and axons, we analyzed the effect of monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) on NF155 expression and its association with lipid rafts after HIBD in Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-15 g, on day 7 post-partum (P7; N = 20 per group). HIBD was induced on P7 and the rats were divided into two groups: one group received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg GM1 three times and the other group an injection of saline. There was also a group of 20 sham-operated rats. After sacrifice, the brains of the rats were removed on P30 and studied by immunochemistry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Staining showed that the saline group had definite rarefaction and fragmentation of brain myelin sheaths, whereas the GM1 group had no obvious structural changes. The GM1 group had 1.9-2.9-fold more GM1 in lipid rafts than the saline group (fraction 3-6; all P

  13. Preventable maternal mortality: Geographic/rural-urban differences and associated factors from the population-based maternal mortality surveillance system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Rong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most maternal deaths in developing countries can be prevented. China is among the 13 countries with the most maternal deaths; however, there has been a marked decrease in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR over the last 3 decades. China's reduction in the MMR has contributed significantly to the global decline of the MMR. This study examined the geographic and rural-urban differences, time trends and related factors in preventable maternal deaths in China during 1996-2005, with the aim of providing reliable evidence for effective interventions. Methods Data were retrieved from the population-based maternal mortality surveillance system in China. Each death was reviewed by three committees to determine whether it was avoidable. The preventable maternal mortality ratio (PMMR, the ratios of PMMR (risk ratio, RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to analyze regional disparities (coastal, inland and remote regions and rural-urban variations. Time trends in the MMR, along with underlying causes and associated factors of death, were also analysed. Results Overall, 86.1% of maternal mortality was preventable. The RR of preventable maternal mortality adjusted by region was 2.79 (95% CI 2.42-3.21 and 2.38 (95% CI: 2.01-2.81 in rural areas compared to urban areas during the 1996-2000 and 2001-2005 periods, respectively. Meanwhile, the RR was the highest in remote areas, which was 4.80(95%CI: 4.10-5.61 and 4.74(95%CI: 3.86-5.83 times as much as that of coastal areas. Obstetric haemorrhage accounted for over 50% of preventable deaths during the 2001-2005 period. Insufficient information about pregnancy among women in remote areas and out-of-date knowledge and skills of health professionals and substandard obstetric services in coastal regions were the factors frequently associated with MMR. Conclusions Preventable maternal mortality and the distribution of its associated factors in China revealed obvious regional differences. The PMMR was higher in underdeveloped regions. In future interventions in remote and inland areas, more emphasis should be placed on improving women's ability to utilize healthcare services, enhancing the service capability of health institutions, and increasing the accessibility of obstetric services. These approaches will effectively lower PMMR in those regions and narrow the gap among the different regions.

  14. T cells infiltrate the liver and kill hepatocytes in HLA-B(?)57:01-associated floxacillin-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuillemin, Natascha; Terracciano, Luigi; Beltraminelli, Helmut; Schlapbach, Christoph; Fontana, Stefano; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Pichler, Werner J; Yerly, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major safety issue. It can cause severe disease and is a common cause of the withdrawal of drugs from the pharmaceutical market. Recent studies have identified the HLA-B(?)57:01 allele as a risk factor for floxacillin (FLUX)-induced liver injury and have suggested a role for cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in the pathomechanism of liver injury caused by FLUX. This study aimed to confirm the importance of FLUX-reacting cytotoxic lymphocytes in the pathomechanism of liver injury and to dissect the involved mechanisms of cytotoxicity. IHC staining of a liver biopsy from a patient with FLUX-induced liver injury revealed periportal inflammation and the infiltration of cytotoxic CD3(+) CD8(+) lymphocytes into the liver. The infiltration of cytotoxic lymphocytes into the liver of a patient with FLUX-induced liver injury demonstrates the importance of FLUX-reacting T cells in the underlying pathomechanism. Cytotoxicity of FLUX-reacting T cells from 10 HLA-B(?)57:01(+) healthy donors toward autologous target cells and HLA-B(?)57:01-transduced hepatocytes was analyzed in vitro. Cytotoxicity of FLUX-reacting T cells was concentration dependent and required concentrations in the range of peak serum levels after FLUX administration. Killing of target cells was mediated by different cytotoxic mechanisms. Our findings emphasize the role of the adaptive immune system and especially of activated drug-reacting T cells in human leukocyte antigen-associated, drug-induced liver injury. PMID:24731753

  15. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  16. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Chaplin; Smith, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit) provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of...

  17. Post-injury multiple organ failure and late outcome. Is it just an association?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonelli, Massimo; Caricato, Anselmo

    2007-01-01

    Multiple organ failure (MOF) is associated with a high rate of mortality in trauma patients. Several studies focused on long-term outcome in these patients, and showed that MOF is related to both in-hospital and late mortality and functional status. Exact mechanism of sequelae in MOF is still unclear. The distinction between early and late MOF probably helps to separate two different clinical conditions and find a stronger relationship with outcome.

  18. Systematic review and comparison of pharmacologic therapies for neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sj, Snedecor; Sudharshan L; Jc, Cappelleri; Sadosky A; Desai P.; Yj, Jalundhwala; Botteman M

    2013-01-01

    Sonya J Snedecor,1 Lavanya Sudharshan,1 Joseph C Cappelleri,2 Alesia Sadosky,3 Pooja Desai,4 Yash J Jalundhwala,5 Marc Botteman1 1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Global Research and Development, Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA; 3Biostatistics, Pfizer, New York, NY, USA; 4College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 5Pharmacy Administration, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Background: Management of neuropathic pain (NeP) associated with spinal c...

  19. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with carbon dioxide under various pressures (620 to 1062 kPa), and depressurized rapidly to investigate how carbon dioxide is undissolved, exsolution, and its effects on the surrounding environment. Cavities grow as a result of convective diffusion: They move before depleting carbon dioxide in a given region. The radius of a cavity in this environment grows at a faster rate [...] than that of a cavity at rest [...]. Bubble growth rates were inferred by measuring the bulk liquid using high speed motion pictures. Water in the test-cell is accelerated as a result of buoyancy induced by cavity growth. Cavities are elliptical in shape and grow until mutual interaction causes them to fragment. Accelerations range from 10 to 100 g were measured with velocities ranging from 7 to 13 m/s.

  20. Head injury (moderate to severe)

    OpenAIRE

    Maconochie, Ian; Ross, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Head injury in young adults is often associated with motor vehicle accidents, violence, and sports injuries. In older adults it is often associated with falls. This review covers only moderate to severe head injury. Severe head injury can lead to secondary brain damage from cerebral ischaemia resulting from hypotension, hypercapnia, and raised intracranial pressure.Poor outcome correlates with low post-resuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, older age, eye pupil abnormalities, hypoxi...

  1. Civilian popliteal artery injuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M A, Banderker; P H, Navsaria; S, Edu; W, Bekker; A J, Nicol; N, Naidoo.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Civilian popliteal artery injuries are associated with significant amputation rates. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with limb loss in patients with popliteal artery injuries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of prospectively c [...] ollected data on patients with popliteal artery injuries presenting to the Trauma Centre at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2008. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, haemodynamic status, limb viability, special investigations, associated injuries, ischaemic time, surgical treatment and amputation rates were analysed. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-six patients with popliteal artery injuries were identified. Penetrating and blunt trauma accounted for 81 (59.6%) and 55 (40.4%) injuries, respectively. Associated injuries included fractures in 66 patients (48.6%), knee dislocations in 29 (21.3%) and popliteal vein injuries in 59 (43.4%). Fifty-seven patients (41.9%) presented with a compartment syndrome. Arterial injuries were treated with reversed vein grafting in 68 patients, primary anastomosis in 33, prosthetic graft insertion in 11, and primary amputation in 7. Thirty-two patients underwent delayed amputation, giving an overall amputation rate of 37.5%. A delay of more than 7 hours of ischaemic time between injury and definitive repair (p=0.0236) and the presence of a compartment syndrome (p=0.003) were significantly associated with an increased amputation rate. CONCLUSION: The most significant factors associated with the high amputation rate of 37.5% were an ischaemic time longer than 7 hours, and the presence of a compartment syndrome.

  2. Penetrating eye injuries from writing instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly SP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simon P Kelly, Graham MB ReevesThe Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UKPurpose: To consider the potential for ocular injury from writing implements by presenting four such cases, and to consider the incidence of such eye injuries from analysis of a national trauma database.Methods: The Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System was searched for records of eye injuries from writing instruments to provide UK estimates of such injuries. Four patients with ocular penetrating injury from pens or pencils (especially when caused by children, and examined by the authors, are described which illustrate mechanisms of injury.Results: It is estimated that around 748 ocular pen injuries and 892 ocular pencil injuries of undetermined severity occurred annually in the UK during the database surveillance period 2000–2002. No eye injuries from swords, including toy swords and fencing foils, were reported.Conclusion: Ocular perforation sometimes occur from writing instruments that are thrown in the community, especially by children. Implications for policy and prevention are discussed. Non-specialists should have a low threshold for referring patients with eye injuries if suspicious of ocular penetration, even where caused by everyday objects, such as writing instruments.Keywords: eye injury, eye, children, mechanism, writing instruments, prevention

  3. Genetic Deletion of Cell Division Autoantigen 1 Retards Diabetes-Associated Renal Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Zhonglin; Dai, Aozhi; Tu, Yugang; Li, Jiaze; Wu, Tieqiao; Wang, Yu; Hale, Lorna J.; Koentgen, Frank; Thomas, Merlin C; Cooper, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Cell division autoantigen 1 (CDA1) enhances TGF-? signaling in renal and vascular cells, and renal expression of CDA1 is elevated in animal models of diabetes. In this study, we investigated the genetic deletion of Tspyl2, the gene encoding CDA1, in C57BL6 and ApoE knockout mice. The increased renal expression of TGF-?1, TGF-? type I and II receptors, and phosphorylated Smad3 associated with diabetes in wild-type mice was attenuated in diabetic CDA1 knockout mice. Notably, CDA1 deletion signi...

  4. An Epidemiological Examination of the Association of Selected Products with Related Injuries in Football 1975-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kenneth S.; And Others

    The National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) was established to serve as a system for continuous collection and interpretation of information on injuries and illnesses incurred by participants in sports. A description is given in this report of the genesis of NAIRS, its significance for athletic directors in conducting safe sports…

  5. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at BNL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  6. Performance enhancement effects of Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention training program in youth futsal players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, Ivan; Rebelo, António

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate if Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention program improves physical fitness and technical performance in youth futsal players. DESIGN:: Randomized cohort study. SETTING:: Futsal club. PARTICIPANTS:: Thirty-six futsal players (17.3 ± 0.7 years). INTERVENTION:: Players were randomized to an intervention group (n = 18) or a control group (n = 18). Intervention group performed "The 11+" twice per week for 12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Isokinetic testing to access maximal quadriceps (Q) and hamstring (H) strength, vertical jump (squat jump, SJ; countermovement jump, CMJ), 5-m and 30-m sprint, agility, slalom, and balance performances were also measured. RESULTS:: Intervention group increased (P <0.05) quadriceps concentric (14.7%-27.3%) and hamstrings concentric (9.3%-13.3%) and eccentric (12.7%) peak torque. Intervention group improved functional H:Q ratio by 1.8% to 8.5% (P <0.05). Intervention group improved (P <0.05) SJ (13.8%) and CMJ (9.9%)and 5-m and 30-m sprint (8.9% and 3.3%, respectively), agility (4.7%), and slalom (4.8%) performances. Intervention group also improved balance, by decreasing the number of falls by 30% in the nondominant limb. No changes were observed in control group. CONCLUSIONS:: The results suggest that 'The 11+' can be used as an effective conditioning means for improving physical fitness and technical performance of youth futsal players.

  7. Pólipos de pregas vocais e alterações estruturais mínimas: lesões associadas? / Vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations: associated injuries?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flavio Akira, Sakae; Fernando, Sasaki; Luiz Ubirajara, Sennes; Domingos Hiroshi, Tsuji; Rui, Imamura.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pólipos são lesões comuns de pregas vocais. O fonotrauma é o principal fator relacionado com o início desta lesão. A associação entre pólipos de pregas vocais e alterações estruturais mínimas de cobertura mucosa (sulco vocal, cisto epidermóide, ponte de mucosa, microdiafragma laríngeo e vasculodisge [...] nesia) foi pouco estudada na literatura, por isso o objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar e analisar essa associação. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Realizamos um estudo retrospectivo com 68 pacientes, idade média de 39,5 anos, operados de pólipo de pregas vocais no período entre janeiro de 1999 e maio de 2003. Procuramos analisar a presença de pólipo de pregas vocais e as possíveis AEMC associadas no levantamento realizado. RESULTADOS: A presença de AEMC associada ao pólipo ocorreu em 16 (23,5%) pacientes, sendo que em 8 (50%) pacientes o achado foi o sulco vocal (7 sulco estria e 1 sulco bolsa). Em 4 (25%) pacientes o achado foi o cisto de prega vocal, em 2 (12,5%) pacientes a ponte mucosa, em 1 (6,25%) a vasculodisgenesia e em 1 (6,25%) paciente o microdiafragma laríngeo. A AEMC era contralateral ao pólipo de prega vocal em 11 pacientes. Dos sulcos, 6 (75%) eram contralaterais e dos cistos, 3 (75%) eram contralaterais ao pólipo. CONCLUSÃO: A associação entre pólipos de pregas vocais e alterações estruturais mínimas de cobertura mucosa é relativamente freqüente, 23,5% em nosso estudo. A exploração cuidadosa de ambas pregas vocais é essencial no intraoperatório das cirurgias de exérese de pólipo na procura destas alterações estruturais associadas. Abstract in english Polyps are common injuries of the vocal folds. Voice trauma is the main factor related with the onset of this injury. The association between vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations (sulcus, epidermoid cyst, mucosal bridge, laryngeal web and varicosity) has been little studied in [...] literature; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to quantify and to analyze this association. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study with 68 patients, mean age 39.5 years, surgically submitted to exeresis of vocal fold polyps in the period between January 1999 and May 2003. We analyzed the presence of vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations. RESULTS: The presence of cover minimum structural alterations associated with the polyp occurred in 16 (23.5%) patients. In 8 (50%) patients, the finding was sulcus vocalis. In 4 (25%) patients, the finding was epidermoid cyst, in 2 (12.5%) patients, mucosal bridge, in 1 (6.25%), varicosity and in 1 (6.25%) patient, laryngeal web. Cover minimum structural alterations were contralateral to the vocal fold polyp in 11 patients. Of the sulcus, 6 (75%) were contralateral and among the cysts, 3 (75%) were contralateral to the polyp. CONCLUSION: The association between vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations is relatively frequent and it was 23.5% in our study. Careful intraoperative exploration of vocal folds in search for these alterations is essential.

  8. Serum Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin as a Predictor of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically-ill Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of evolving Acute Kidney Injury (AKI in critically ill neonates can lead to better preventive and therapeutic interventions. Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL is a promising biomarker of AKI, which was also shown to increase in inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of serum NGAL (sNGAL as an early marker of evolving AKI in critically-ill neonates with and without sepsis. sNGAL levels were estimated in 60 critically-ill neonates at the time of admission to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, in comparison to 20 healthy matched control. Patients were categorized as sepsis (n = 35 and no-sepsis (n = 25 subgroups on basis of clinical and laboratory criteria. They were subsequently discriminated according to creatinine and urine output criteria of the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN, into AKI (n = 34 and no-AKI (n = 26 subgroups. sNGAL levels were significantly higher in the patient group as compared to control (132.7±67.8 vs. 55±10.3 ng mL-1, p = 0.0001. Elevated levels were comparable between sepsis and no-sepsis groups (130.1±69.4 vs. 136.5±66.6 ng mL-1, p = 0.7 and they positively correlated with 48-hour post-admission serum creatinine (p = 0.0001. Patients of AKI group had significantly higher sNGAL than those of no-AKI group (176.2±55.9 vs. 75.9±28.3 ng mL-1, p = 0.0001. A cut-off value for sNGAL of 117.5 ng mL-1, was predictive of AKI with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 88.5%. It could be speculated that measurement of serum NGAL can serve as a clinically useful marker for early prediction of evolving AKI in critically-ill neonates with and without sepsis.

  9. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and albuminuria as predictors of acute kidney injury in patients treated with goal-directed haemodynamic therapy after major abdominal surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullen, Mr

    2013-10-11

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is emerging as a new biomarker for the early identification of acute kidney injury (AKI). There is also increasing evidence of an association between urinary albumin\\/creatinine ratio (ACR) and AKI. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of these biomarkers to predict AKI in a population of perioperative patients treated with goal-directed haemodynamic therapy (GDHT). Secondary aims were to examine NGAL and ACR as sensitive biomarkers to detect the effects of GDHT and to investigate the association of these biomarkers with secondary outcomes.

  10. Domestic violence against children and adolescents: prevalence of physical injuries in a southern Brazilian metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Leidielly Aline; Dalledone, Mariana; Pizzatto, Eduardo; Zaiter, Wellington; de Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Losso, Estela Maris

    2015-01-01

    Violence against children and adolescents is a public health issue worldwide that threatens physical and mental wellbeing and causes irreparable harm. Reports on this violence are an essential way to prevent it and to protect the children and adolescents. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of physical injuries that occur in domestic environments and reported to the Child and Adolescent Protection Network. This retrospective study was conducted at the Epidemiology Center of the Municipality of Curitiba. A total of 10,483 reports for the years 2010 (5,112) and 2011 (5,371) were analyzed and from them were selected reports of physical injuries that occurred in the family environment. The children and adolescents were 0-17 years old, comprising 322 cases of physical abuse within the family in 2010. Out of these, 57.1% were male and 42.9% were female, and 58% (187) presented head and neck injuries. There were 342 reports in 2011, 49% were male and 51% were female; head and neck injuries corresponded to 65% (222) of the reported cases. The prevalence of injuries increased by 6% and head and neck injury increased by 19% between 2010 and 2011. It may be concluded that physical abuse is associated with a high prevalence of head and neck injury, which is easily observed by the health and education professionals. Notification organs should be created in Brazilian hospitals and health centers, which is essential to conduct epidemiological surveillance and appropriate policies. PMID:25672385

  11. The emergency department in surveillance of attempted suicide: findings and methodologic considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Birkhead, G. S.; Galvin, V. G.; Meehan, P. J.; O Carroll, P. W.; Mercy, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors conducted one of the first active, population-based public health surveillance systems for detecting suicide attempts in the United States. Surveillance was conducted in all four hospital emergency departments serving a county suburban to Atlanta, GA, with a population of 426,000. Emergency department staff gathered information from all patients who presented with an intentionally self-inflicted injury (suicide attempt) or with thoughts about self-injury (suicidal ideation). Durin...

  12. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

  13. Crush injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    A crush injury occurs when force or pressure is put on a body part. This type of injury most ... squeezed between two heavy objects. Damage related to crush injuries include: Bleeding Bruising Compartment syndrome (increased pressure ...

  14. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swallowing Objects Like Magnets, Coins or Batteries School & Sports Injuries Safety Helmets Save Lives, Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury School sports Injuries can land students in the ER. Text Messaging: ...

  15. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually occur from blunt trauma, such as a sports injury or a fall with injury to the nose ... of protective goggles at all times. Even in sports like baseball, eye injuries can be prevented by using batting helmets that ...

  16. Conquering Athletic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

  17. Youth injury data in the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: do they represent the Canadian experience?

    OpenAIRE

    Pickett, W.; Brison, R.; Mackenzie, S.; Garner, M.; King, M.; Greenberg, T.; Boyce, W.

    2000-01-01

    Objective—Injuries to Canadian youth (11–15 years) identified from a population based health survey (World Health Organization—Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey, or WHO-HBSC) were compared with youth injuries from a national, emergency department based surveillance system. Comparisons focused on external causes of injury, and examined whether similar rankings of injury patterns and hence priorities for intervention were identified by the different systems.

  18. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its direction and oversee activities. Methods The panel will consist of 4 presenters and 1 moderator, who are members of the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP leadership team. Each presenter will bring a unique perspective of the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance: CDC, state department of health, a local department of health, and a PC. Royal Law from the CDC National Center for Environmental Health will present on using PC data for identification of exposures and illnesses of public health significance identified from NPDS data collected from all 57 PCs. Dr. Jay Schauben from the Florida/USVI Poison Information Center - Jacksonville will discuss PC participation in surveillance and use of PC data for tracking and mitigation of PH events in Florida. Dr. Prakash Mulay from the Florida Department of Health will discuss utilization of PC data to enhance ESSENCE-based chemical-associated exposure and illness surveillance in Florida. Katherine Wheeler from the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene will discuss NYC’s use of PC data in surveillance of potential emerging issues, from energy drinks to synthetic marijuana. Each presenter will discuss the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance in his or her organization and jurisdiction, the successes of using PC data, and their challenges. Results The moderator will engage the audience by facilitating discussion of the successes and challenges to using PC data for PH practice and surveillance with the audience. Sample questions: What are your current capacities and collaborative activities between your state/local health department and your poison center? What non-funding related barriers hinder the collaboration between your state/local health department and poison center? If more funding were available, how would you use this funding to increase the level of interactivity with the poison center and state/local health department?

  19. Measuring injury risk factors: question reliability in a statewide sample

    OpenAIRE

    Koziol-McLain, J; Brand, D.; Morgan, D.; Leff, M; Lowenstein, S.

    2000-01-01

    Background—Recently (1996–98), Colorado added 15 questions pertaining to injury related risks and behaviors to the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS). Questions addressed bicycle helmet use, traffic crashes, exposure to violence, suicidal behavior, and gun storage.

  20. Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury in Children With Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohammed Youssef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is proposed as a marker of chronic kidney disease (CKD. This study was designed to find whether there is a correlation between urine NGAL and progression of kidney damage in children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. Materials and Methods. Data were collected at the initial diagnosis of FSGS and after 12 months of treatment based on the Mendoza protocol. Twelve children with FSGS  and 15 healthy children were included. Urine NGAL was assessed at the initiation of the study in the two groups and after 1 year of receiving the treatment in the FSGS group. Results. Urine NGAL was elevated in the FSGS group (350.0 ± 67.2 ng/mL as compared to that in the control group (9.3 ± 3.8 ng/mL; P P = -0.589, P = .03, and after 1 year (r = -0.76, P = .009. There was a significant correlation between urine NGAL and urinary protein excretion in FSGS patients at diagnosis (r = 0.628, P = .005. Conclusions. Urine NGAL in children with FSGS can be used as a marker of progression of kidney damage as expressed in its positive correlation with both declining in glomerular filtration rate and the level of proteinuria even in those with remission.

  1. The association between brain injury, perioperative anesthetic exposure, and 12-month neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andropoulos, Dean B.; Ahmad, Hasan B.; Haq, Taha; Brady, Ken; Stayer, Stephen A.; Meador, Marcie R.; Hunter, Jill V.; Rivera, Carlos; Voigt, Robert G.; Turcich, Marie; He, Cathy Q.; Shekerdemian, Lara S.; Dickerson, Heather A.; Fraser, Charles D.; McKenzie, E. Dean; Heinle, Jeffrey S.; Easley, R. Blaine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are observed in up to 50% of infants after complex cardiac surgery. We sought to determine the association of perioperative anesthetic exposure with neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 12 months in neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery and to determine the effect of brain injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Retrospective cohort study of neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery who had preoperative and 7-day postoperative brain MRI and 12-month neurodevelopmental testing with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). Doses of volatile anesthetics (VAA), benzodiazepines, and opioids were determined during the first 12 months of life. Results From a database of 97 infants, 59 met inclusion criteria. Mean ± sd composite standard scores were as follows: cognitive = 102.1 ± 13.3, language = 87.8 ± 12.5, and motor = 89.6 ± 14.1. After forward stepwise multivariable analysis, new postoperative MRI injury (P = 0.039) and higher VAA exposure (P = 0.028) were associated with lower cognitive scores. ICU length of stay (independent of brain injury) was associated with lower performance on all categories of the Bayley-III (P < 0.02). Conclusions After adjustment for multiple relevant covariates, we demonstrated an association between VAA exposure, brain injury, ICU length of stay, and lower neurodevelopmental outcome scores at 12 months of age. These findings support the need for further studies to identify potential modifiable factors in the perioperative care of neonates with CHD to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:24467569

  2. Foot pronation is not associated with increased injury risk in novice runners wearing a neutral shoe : a 1-year prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Buist, Ida

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if running distance to first running-related injury varies between foot postures in novice runners wearing neutral shoes. DESIGN: A 1-year epidemiological observational prospective cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 927 novice runners equivalent to 1854 feet were included. At baseline, foot posture on each foot was evaluated using the foot-posture index and categorised into highly supinated (n=53), supinated (n=369), neutral (n=1292), pronated (n=122) or highly pronated (n=18). Participants then had to start running in a neutral running shoe and to use global positioning system watch to quantify the running distance in every training session. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A running-related injury was defined as any musculoskeletal complaint of the lower extremity or back caused by running, which restricted the amount of running for at least 1 week. RESULTS: During 1 year of follow-up, the 1854 feet included in the analyses ran a total of 326 803 km until injury or censoring. A total of 252 participants sustained a running-related injury. Of these, 63 were bilateral injuries. Compared with a neutral foot posture, no significant body mass index-adjusted cumulative risk differences (RD) were found after 250 km of running for highly supinated feet (RD=11.0% (-10% to 32.1%), p=0.30), supinated feet (RD=-1.4% (-8.4% to 5.5%), p=0.69), pronated feet (RD=-8.1% (-17.6% to 1.3%), p=0.09) and highly pronated feet (RD=9.8% (-19.3% to 38.8%), p=0.51). In addition, the incidence-rate difference/1000 km of running, revealed that pronators had a significantly lower number of injuries/1000 km of running of -0.37 (-0.03 to -0.70), p=0.03 than neutrals. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study contradict the widespread belief that moderate foot pronation is associated with an increased risk of injury among novice runners taking up running in a neutral running shoe. More work is needed to ascertain if highly pronated feet face a higher risk of injury than neutral feet.

  3. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments and near perimeters and borders. The S4 is compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE®) standards. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  4. Containment and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of containment and surveillance measures in complementing nuclear materials accountancy to achieve safeguards objectives is discussed. The variety of techniques used, particularly optical surveillance and sealing systems, is described. Containment and surveillance reduce the cost of IAEA inspections and reduce the intrusiveness of the IAEA into normal plant operations by reducing the frequency of physical inventory measurements. 10 refs., 12 figs., poster presentations included

  5. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  6. Assessing liver injury associated with antimycotics: Concise literature review and clues from data mining of the FAERS database

    OpenAIRE

    Raschi, Emanuel; Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Koci, Ariola; Caraceni, Paolo; Ponti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To inform clinicians on the level of hepatotoxic risk among antimycotics in the post-marketing setting, following the marketing suspension of oral ketoconazole for drug-induced liver injury (DILI).

  7. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  8. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  9. Early magnetic resonance detection of cortical necrosis and acute network injury associated with neonatal and infantile cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Nozawa, Kumiko [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Niwa, Tetsu [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isehara (Japan); Shibasaki, Jun [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neonatology, Yokohama (Japan); Osaka, Hitoshi [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    Knowledge of MRI findings in pediatric cerebral infarction is limited. To determine whether cortical necrosis and network injury appear in the acute phase in post-stroke children and to identify anatomical location of acute network injury and the ages at which these phenomena are seen. Images from 12 children (age range: 0-9 years; neonates [<1 month], n=5; infants [1 month-12 months], n=3; others [?1 year], n=4) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortical infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Cortical necrosis was defined as hyperintense cortical lesions on T1-weighted imaging that lacked evidence of hemorrhage. Acute network injury was defined as hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging that were not in the MCA territory and had fiber connections with the affected cerebral cortex. MRI was performed within the first week after disease onset. Cortical necrosis was only found in three neonates. Acute network injury was seen in the corticospinal tract (CST), thalamus and corpus callosum. Acute network injury along the CST was found in five neonates and one 7-month-old infant. Acute network injury was evident in the thalamus of four neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months) and in the corpus callosum of five neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months). The entire thalamus was involved in three children when infarction of MCA was complete. In acute MCA cortical infarction, MRI findings indicating cortical necrosis or acute network injury was frequently found in neonates and early infants. Response to injury in a developing brain may be faster than that in a mature one. (orig.)

  10. Associations between occupational factors and occupational injury and the interplay of personal factors in Indian and French coal miners.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacherjee, A.; Kunar, Bm; Baumann, Miche?le

    2011-01-01

    Research studies during the last decade have shown the roles of occupational and individual factors in occupational injury but a few information is available regarding their interplay. This study aimed at assessing the roles of occupational hazards and exploring their contributions to the occurrences of injuries among the Indian and French coal miners. In this study two surveys were conducted. The survey in India was a matched case-control study including 245 miners with an occupational injur...

  11. Medical Care Costs Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury over the Full Spectrum of Disease: A Controlled Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Leibson, Cynthia L; Brown, Allen W.; Hall Long, Kirsten; Ransom, Jeanine E; Mandrekar, Jay; Osler, Turner M.; Malec, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Data on traumatic brain injury (TBI) economic outcomes are limited. We used Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) resources to estimate long-term medical costs for clinically-confirmed incident TBI across the full range of severity after controlling for pre-existing conditions and co-occurring injuries. All Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents with diagnoses indicative of potential TBI from 1985–2000 (n=46,114) were identified, and a random sample (n=7175) was selected for medical record rev...

  12. Early magnetic resonance detection of cortical necrosis and acute network injury associated with neonatal and infantile cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of MRI findings in pediatric cerebral infarction is limited. To determine whether cortical necrosis and network injury appear in the acute phase in post-stroke children and to identify anatomical location of acute network injury and the ages at which these phenomena are seen. Images from 12 children (age range: 0-9 years; neonates [<1 month], n=5; infants [1 month-12 months], n=3; others [?1 year], n=4) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortical infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Cortical necrosis was defined as hyperintense cortical lesions on T1-weighted imaging that lacked evidence of hemorrhage. Acute network injury was defined as hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging that were not in the MCA territory and had fiber connections with the affected cerebral cortex. MRI was performed within the first week after disease onset. Cortical necrosis was only found in three neonates. Acute network injury was seen in the corticospinal tract (CST), thalamus and corpus callosum. Acute network injury along the CST was found in five neonates and one 7-month-old infant. Acute network injury was evident in the thalamus of four neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months) and in the corpus callosum of five neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months). The entire thalamus was involved in three children when infarction of MCA was complete. In acute MCA cortical infarction, MRI findings indicating cortical necrosis or acute network injury was frequently found in neonates and early infants. Response to injury in a developing brain may be faster than that in a mature one. (orig.)

  13. Association between treated/untreated traumatic dental injuries and impact on quality of life of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pordeus Isabela A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic dental injury (TDI could have physical and psychosocial consequences for children. Thus, it is important to measure the impact of TDI on the quality of life of children (QoL. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between treated/untreated TDI and the impact on the quality of life of 11-to-14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 1612 male and female schoolchildren aged 11 to 14 years attending public and private elementary schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select the children. Three calibrated examiners used the Andreasen classification for the diagnosis of TDI. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 - Impact Short Form (ISF:16, composed of 16 items and self-administered by all children. Other oral conditions (dental caries and malocclusion and the Social Vulnerability Index were determined and used as controlling variables. Results Two hundred nineteen children were diagnosed with untreated TDI and 64 were diagnosed with treated TDI. There were no statistically significant associations between untreated or treated TDI and overall CPQ11-14 (Fisher = 0.368 and Fisher = 0.610, respectively. Children with an untreated TDI were 1.4-fold (95% CI = 1.1-2.1 more likely to report impact on the item "avoided smiling/laughing" than those without TDI, whereas children with a treated TDI were twofold (95% CI = 1.1-3.5 more likely to report impact on the item "other children asked questions" than those without TDI. Conclusions Neither treated nor untreated TDI was associated with oral symptoms, functional limitations or emotional wellbeing. However, children with a TDI in the anterior teeth experienced a negative impact on social wellbeing, mainly with regard to avoiding smiling or laughing and being concerned about what other people may think or say.

  14. Postmarketing surveillance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirik, O

    1988-01-01

    Authorities in developing countries need to monitor the possible adverse consequences of the increasing use of drugs in their countries. Definite differences exist in the risk-benefit ratios for developed and developing countries, particularly with fertility-regulating drugs. Some physicians believe that the increased risk of thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives (OCs) should not be considered as important in developing countries due to the fact that the background level of venous thrombosis is so low in developing countries that even a 50- or 100-fold increase in relative risk would neither be detectable nor important compared to the risk of unwanted pregnancy. In addition, evidence exists of geographically linked factors in the etiology of some adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Authorities in Brazil, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and Venezuela have established voluntary ADR reporting systems. Several developing countries also actively follow the World Health Organization's International Drug Monitoring Program and have access to its data base. A number of other methodological approaches to postmarketing surveillance are in use in addition to voluntary ADR reporting systems. These include cross-sectional surveys, studies of temporal and geographic correlations of diseases and drug use, and case-control and cohort studies. Each of these approaches offers specific advantages. Postmarketing surveillance should begin at the time new drugs, including contraceptive methods are introduced. Surveillance needs to be an integral part of plans for the introduction of new contraceptive methods in settings where the infrastructure to carry out such surveillance is in place. 3 major public sector agencies, Family Health International, the Population Council, and the World Health Organization, developed a plan to obtain funding for the postmarketing surveillance of a contraceptive implant, Norplant-R. A controlled cohort study will be conducted in 6-10 developing countries. The pilot phase of the surveillance began in 1987. The project objective is to detect possible adverse effects of Norplant-R as well as any health benefits of the method. It also will assess the feasibility of the cohort methodology for postmarketing surveillance in developing countries. PMID:12280953

  15. Is the Serum Vitamin D Level at the Time of Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury Diagnosis Associated with Prognosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjiao; Xie, Qionghong; You, Huaizhou; Zhou, Ying; Ma, Shuai; Hao, Chuanming; Gu, Yong; Ding, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Low circulating vitamin D levels have been suggested to potentially contribute to acute complications in critically ill patients. However, in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), whether vitamin D deficiency occurs and is a potential contributor to worse early outcomes at the time of AKI diagnosis remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Two hundred patients with AKI were enrolled in our study. Healthy subjects and critically ill patients without AKI served as controls. Serum vitamin D concentrations were measured in the three groups. The patients with AKI were followed up for 90 days and grouped according to median serum vitamin D concentrations. In addition, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms (BsmI and FokI) were measured in these patients; they were also followed up for 90 days and grouped according to vitamin D receptor gene mutations. Low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels (59.56±53.00 pmol/L) were detected in patients with AKI and decreased with increasing severity of AKI. There were no significant findings with respect to 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The 90-day survival curves of individuals with high vitamin D concentrations showed no significant differences compared with the curves of individuals with low concentrations. The survival curves of patients with BB/Bb or FF/Ff genotypes also showed no significant differences compared with patients with bb or ff genotypes. In Cox regression analysis, the vitamin D status in patients with AKI was not an independent prognostic factor as adjusted by age, sex, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, or vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. Conclusions/Significance Patients with AKI manifested a marked decrease in the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level at the time of AKI diagnosis, and the degree of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D deficiency increased with the severity of AKI. No association between the serum vitamin D level at the time of AKI diagnosis and 90-day all-cause mortality was found in patients with AKI. PMID:23717679

  16. Glucosamine protects neonatal cardiomyocytes from ischemia-reperfusion injury via increased protein-associated O-GlcNAc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champattanachai, Voraratt; Marchase, Richard B; Chatham, John C

    2007-01-01

    Increased levels of protein O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) have been shown to increase cell survival following stress. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether in isolated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) an increase in protein O-GlcNAcylation resulted in improved survival and viability following ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). NRVMs were exposed to 4 h of ischemia and 16 h of reperfusion, and cell viability, necrosis, apoptosis, and O-GlcNAc levels were assessed. Treatment of cells with glucosamine, hyperglycemia, or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)-amino-N-phenylcarbamate(PUGNAc), an inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase, significantly increased O-GlcNAc levels and improved cell viability, as well as reducing both necrosis and apoptosis compared with untreated cells following I/R. Alloxan, an inhibitor of O-GlcNAc transferase, markedly reduced O-GlcNAc levels and exacerbated I/R injury. The improved survival with hyperglycemia was attenuated by azaserine, which inhibits glucose metabolism via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway. Reperfusion in the absence of glucose reduced O-GlcNAc levels on reperfusion compared with normal glucose conditions and decreased cell viability. O-GlcNAc levels significantly correlated with cell viability during reperfusion. The effects of glucosamine and PUGNAc on cellular viability were associated with reduced calcineurin activation as measured by translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells, suggesting that increased O-GlcNAc levels may attenuate I/R induced increase in cytosolic Ca(2+). These data support the concept that activation of metabolic pathways leading to an increase in O-GlcNAc levels is an endogenous stress-activated response and that augmentation of this response improves cell survival. Thus strategies designed to activate these pathways may represent novel interventions for inducing cardioprotection. PMID:16899550

  17. Rapid detection of acute kidney injury by urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery by comparing with serum creatinine. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, AFIP in collaboration with AFIC/ NIHD, Rawalpindi, from April to December 2011. Methodology: Eighty eight patients undergoing CPB surgery in AFIC/NIHD were included by consecutive sampling. Blood samples of subjects for serum creatinine analysis were drawn pre-operatively, 4 h, 24 h and 48 h after CPB surgery. Spot urine samples for NGAL were collected at 4 h after CPB surgery. Urine samples were analyzed on Abbott ARCHITECT i2000SR analyzer whereas serum creatinine samples were measured on Beckman UniCel DxC 600 Synchron Clinical System. Results: Out of 88 patients, 11 (13%) cases developed AKI 4 h postoperatively. Urinary NGAL increased markedly at 4 h postoperatively as compared to serum creatinine which showed rise at 24 - 48 h after cardiac surgery. Analysis of urine NGAL at a cutoff value of 87 ng/ml showed area under the curve of 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83 - 0.96] with sensitivity of 90.9% (95% CI 58.7 - 98.5) and specificity of 98.7% (95% CI 92.9-99.8). There was a positive correlation of 4 h urine NGAL and serum delta creatinine at 48 h, which was statistically significant (rs = 0.33, p = 0.001). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that levels of urine NGAL in patients suffering from AKI increased significantly at 4 h as compared to serum creatinine levels. Urine NGAL is an early predictive biomarker of AKI after CPB. (author)

  18. Comparison of urine with plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in detecting acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of urine with plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. Study Design: A prospective cohort study. Place and duration of study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, AFIP from December 2011 to July 2012. Patients and Methods: Ninety three adult patients planned for CPB surgery in AFIC/NIHD were consecutively included. Blood for serum creatinine were collected preoperatively, 4, 24 and 48 hours (h) after CPB surgery. Blood and urine samples for NGAL analysis were collected only at 4 h. Serum creatinine, plasma and urine NGAL samples were analyzed on UniCel at the rate DxC 600 (Beckman), TRIAGE meter pro (Biosite) and ARCHITECT i2000SR analyzer (Abbott) respectively. Results: Out of 93 patients undergoing CPB surgery, 12 (13%) developed AKI. AKI patients had significantly higher median interquartile range (IQR) urine NGAL of 180 ng/ml (105-277 ng/ml) as compared to control of 6 ng/ml (2-15 ng/ml) and median plasma NGAL of 170 ng/ml (126-274 ng/ml) as compared to control of 75 ng/ml (61-131 ng/ml). The patients had increased urine vs plasma NGAL area under curve (AUC) ( 0.91 vs 0.70 (p = <0.001)), better sensitivity (91% vs 82%) and specificity (98% vs 65%). Conclusion: Plasma and urine NGAL values increased significantly in AKI patients as compared to serum creatinine values. Urine in comparison to plasma NGAL revealed more sensitivity and specificity in detecting AKI following CPB surgery. (author)

  19. ACTIVE BACTERIAL CORE SURVEILLANCE (ABCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Bacterial Core Surveillance is population based surveillance system. Surveillance of invasive bacterial diseases due to pathogens at nine Emerging Infections Program sites. The coverage is the based on a study population, nationwide....

  20. Occupational Injuries of Veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoun Aghazadeh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Focus of this paper is on the occupational hazards faced by the veterinarians. It contains a literature review and analyses the injury/illness data. The data includes one year of the AVMA (American Veterinary Medicine Association workers compensation claims for four different classes of veterinarians (equines, large animals, mixed-small animals, and exclusively small animals. The data reveals a large number of injuries occur in the veterinary profession, and also the monetary implications are substantial. Veterinarians who deal with exclusively small animals are at a higher risk and their practice involves dealing with a larger number of cases. For all the four classes of veterinarian, major causes of injury are due to slips, trips, falls and animal lifting. Regarding various cost associated with different injuries, no specific trend is found. Cost varies significantly for similar injuries from class to class.