WorldWideScience

Sample records for association injury surveillance

  1. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (TBISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had developed and maintains a surveillance system to understand the magnitude and characteristics of hospitalized and fatal traumatic brain injuries in the United State...

  2. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ?Abstract?Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder? consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  3. Sustainable improvements in injury surveillance in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adofo, Koranteng; Donkor, Peter; Afukaar, Francis; Boateng, Kofi Adomako; Mock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mortuary is an important foundation for injury surveillance. However, mortuary data are incomplete in many developing countries. Methods The KATH mortuary handles most injury deaths for Kumasi, Ghana. During 1994–5, many cases in KATH’s mortuary logbooks had missing information deaths. A low-cost pilot program was adopted to improve recording of injury deaths. During 1996–9, 633 deaths/year were recorded. Results Project sustainability assessment in 2006 showed that reporting was high, with 773 cases per year. Data quality was standard with similar percents of missing values for key variables compared with the pilot period. Supplemental data constituting 20% was obtained from the ICU, for which data recording in the mortuary was incomplete. Conclusion Low-cost improvements can lead to improved mortuary reporting of injury deaths. Collation of data from multiple sources remains a problem at KATH. Improved organization and training could remedy the situation. PMID:20467961

  4. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) On-line

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a national probability sample of hospitals. Patient information is collected for every emergency...

  6. Injury & illness surveillance study: London 2012 Olympic Summer Games

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Injury surveillance provides not only important epidemiological information, but also direction for injury prevention. During the 2004 Olympic Games, the eight international team sports federations (FIBA, FIFA, FINA, the FIH, the FIVB, IBAF, the IHF and the ISF) participated in a study on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in all 14 team sport tournaments using an established injury-surveillance system. The acceptance and compliance of the project was excellent, as demonstrated by ...

  7. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. Sports injuries surveillance during the 2007 IAAF World Athletics Championships

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Juan Manuel; Junge, Astrid; Renström, Per; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo; Dvorak, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze all sports injuries incurred in competitions and/or training during the 2007 World Athletics Championships and to prove the feasibility of the injury surveillance system developed for the 2008 Olympic Games for individual sports. Design: Prospective recording of injuries. Setting: 11th IAAF World Championships in Athletics 2007 in Osaka, Japan. Participants: All national team physicians and physiotherapists; Local Organising Committee (LOC) phys...

  19. Injury surveillance at the 1985 National Boy Scout Jamboree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterhall, S F; Waxweiler, R J

    1988-01-01

    Few studies have examined the rate of injuries for those attending summer camps and other recreational facilities. We developed a surveillance system for the 1985 National Boy Scout Jamboree to determine the incidence, nature, and cause of injuries among participants. To characterize the more severe injuries among scouts, we monitored referral visits to an onsite Army hospital. During the 9 day event there was a total of 179 injuries requiring referral visits among the 24,885 scouts, for an overall incidence of 8.5 injuries per 10,000 person-days. Twenty-eight injuries (16%) involved fractures. Ten injuries required hospitalization, for an overall rate of 0.5 per 10,000 person-days. Thirty-six (20%) of the injuries occurred during six organized athletic activities. Of these six, two new Jamboree activities, the bucking bronco and bicycle motocross racing, had the highest event-specific rates, 14.4 and 11.4 injuries per 10,000 participants, respectively. These two events also accounted for one-third of all fractures. In contrast, there were no firearm-related injuries among the 32,616 participants in riflery events. This simple and inexpensive surveillance system provided a mechanism for monitoring activity modifications, as well as useful information for the selection and planning of organized activities at future Jamborees and similar recreational events. PMID:3189688

  20. Rugby World Cup 2003 injury surveillance project

    OpenAIRE

    Best, J; McIntosh, A.; Savage, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To study match injury patterns and incidence during the Rugby World Cup 2003 (RWC 2003); to compare these patterns and rates with comparative rugby injury data; and to assess differences between teams playing at different levels (eight finalists v 12 non-finalists).

  1. Injury Surveillance Among NASA Astronauts Using the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. D.; Laughlin, M. S.; Eudy, D. L.; Wear, M. L.; VanBaalen, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform physically demanding tasks and risk incurring musculoskeletal injuries during both groundbased training and missions. Increased injury rates throughout the history of the U.S. space program have been attributed to numerous factors, including an aging astronaut corps, increased Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training to construct the International Space Station, and improved clinical operations that promote injury prevention and reporting. With NASA program changes through the years (including retirement of the Shuttle program) and an improved training environment (including a new astronaut gym), there is no surveillance program to systematically track injury rates. A limited number of research projects have been conducted over the past 20 years to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries: (1) to evaluate orthopedic injuries from 1987 to 1995, (2) to describe upper extremity injuries, (3) to evaluate EVA spacesuit training related injuries, and (4) to evaluate in-flight musculoskeletal injuries. Nevertheless, there has been no consistently performed comprehensive assessment of musculoskeletal injuries among astronauts. The Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix was introduced at the 2001 meeting of the International Collaborative Effort (ICE) on Injury Statistics. The Matrix proposes a standardized method of classifying body region by nature of injury. Diagnoses are coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and complexity of the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix to classify and track musculoskeletal injuries among NASA astronauts.

  2. Aboriginal Community-Centered Injury Surveillance: A Community-Based Participatory Process Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Brussoni, Mariana; Olsen, Lise L.; Joshi, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    While injuries are a leading health concern for Aboriginal populations, injury rates and types vary substantially across bands. The uniqueness of Aboriginal communities highlights the importance of collecting community-level injury surveillance data to assist with identifying local injury patterns, setting priorities for action and evaluating programs. Secwepemc First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada, implemented the Injury Surveillance Project using the Aboriginal Community-Ce...

  3. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2007 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2007 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2006 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2006 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2006 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2010 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2010 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2010 Nevada National Security Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. Tumor-Associated Glycans and Immune Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas Pashov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in cell surface glycosylation are a hallmark of the transition from normal to inflamed and neoplastic tissue. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs challenge our understanding of immune tolerance, while functioning as immune targets that bridge innate immune surveillance and adaptive antitumor immunity in clinical applications. T-cells, being a part of the adaptive immune response, are the most popular component of the immune system considered for targeting tumor cells. However, for TACAs, T-cells take a back seat to antibodies and natural killer cells as first-line innate defense mechanisms. Here, we briefly highlight the rationale associated with the relative importance of the immune surveillance machinery that might be applicable for developing therapeutics.

  19. 2003 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the East Tennessee Technology Park (K-25).The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. Hand injuries as an indicator of other associated severe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossoughi, Faranak; Krantz, Brent; Fann, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Retrospective data were collected from a level 1 trauma center registry. A total of 472 patients with hand injuries were admitted to the trauma unit between January 2000 and March 2004. Forty-four per cent of patients with hand injuries had life-threatening injuries. Fifty-one per cent of them had motor vehicle crash-related injuries. Motorcycle crashes were the next most common cause followed by explosions, falls, gunshots, machinery, stabs, bites, crushes, and so on. Frequency of associated injuries was as follows: head injuries, 31 per cent, including skull fractures, 22 per cent; spine injuries, 18 per cent, including spine fractures 18 per cent; chest injuries, 36 per cent, including rib fractures, 15 per cent; and abdominal injuries, 13 per cent. The authors focused on the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Motor vehicle crashes were most common cause of hand injuries. The most common organs to be injured were chest and head. The most common head injury was skull fracture. Other injuries in decreasing order were spine and rib fractures. These data may be helpful in assessing ambulatory patients in the emergency room, in those hand injuries maybe indicative of other simultaneous life-threatening or disabling injuries. PMID:17674946

  1. Injury surveillance in low-resource settings using Geospatial and Social Web technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuurman Nadine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive public health gains have benefited high-income countries in recent decades, however, citizens of low and middle-income countries (LMIC have largely not enjoyed the same advancements. This is in part due to the fact that public health data - the foundation for public health advances - are rarely collected in many LMIC. Injury data are particularly scarce in many low-resource settings, despite the huge associated burden of morbidity and mortality. Advances in freely-accessible and easy-to-use information and communication (ICT technology may provide the impetus for increased public health data collection in settings with limited financial and personnel resources. Methods and Results A pilot study was conducted at a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa to assess the utility and feasibility of using free (non-licensed, and easy-to-use Social Web and GeoWeb tools for injury surveillance in low-resource settings. Data entry, geocoding, data exploration, and data visualization were successfully conducted using these technologies, including Google Spreadsheet, Mapalist, BatchGeocode, and Google Earth. Conclusion This study examined the potential for Social Web and GeoWeb technologies to contribute to public health data collection and analysis in low-resource settings through an injury surveillance pilot study conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. The success of this study illustrates the great potential for these technologies to be leveraged for public health surveillance in resource-constrained environments, given their ease-of-use and low-cost, and the sharing and collaboration capabilities they afford. The possibilities and potential limitations of these technologies are discussed in relation to the study, and to the field of public health in general.

  2. Occupational injury surveillance: A study in a metal smelting industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Asim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of occupational injury was undertaken in a metal smelting industry to examine the occurrence and nature of occupational accidents where analysis of occupational injury records was carried out. At the same time, all the workers were interviewed to collect data in relation to personal and occupational characteristics. With this information, the study aimed to examine the role of different factors in the causation of occupational accidents. High incidence of superficial injuries of limbs due mostly to stepping / striking against objects and overexertion / wrong movements of the workers and the frequent association of handling of small tools with work injuries, observed in this study indicated the role of human error in these accidents and highlighted the necessity of proper safety training of the workers. This study also highlighted the need of elevated safety status during summer months and in evening and night shifts (more so in the second half. Moreover, this study could categorize some high-risk groups e.g. young workers, less-experienced workers, obese workers, workers having smoking / chewing habits etc, who need special attention so far as workplace safety is concerned.

  3. 2007 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2008 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2008 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2007 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-03-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2009 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-07-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2008 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2003 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2003 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Pantex Plant. DOE is commited to assuring the health and safety of its workers. This includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2007 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2003 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for the Hanford site. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The prpogram is part of DOE's commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers and includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers.

  14. 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2003 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Y-12. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2003 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-02

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Brookhaven National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2003 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Los Alamos National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2003 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Kansas City Plant. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. Radiation-Associated Kidney Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kidneys are the dose-limiting organs for radiotherapy to upper abdominal cancers and during total body irradiation. The incidence of radiotherapy-associated kidney injury is likely underreported owing to its long latency and because the toxicity is often attributed to more common causes of kidney injury. The pathophysiology of radiation injury is poorly understood. Its presentation can be acute and irreversible or subtle, with a gradual progressive dysfunction over years. A variety of dose and volume parameters have been associated with renal toxicity and are reviewed to provide treatment guidelines. The available predictive models are suboptimal and require validation. Mitigation of radiation nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other compounds has been shown in animal models and, more recently, in patients.

  3. Poisson Regression Analysis of Illness and Injury Surveillance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frome E.L., Watkins J.P., Ellis E.D.

    2012-12-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) uses illness and injury surveillance to monitor morbidity and assess the overall health of the work force. Data collected from each participating site include health events and a roster file with demographic information. The source data files are maintained in a relational data base, and are used to obtain stratified tables of health event counts and person time at risk that serve as the starting point for Poisson regression analysis. The explanatory variables that define these tables are age, gender, occupational group, and time. Typical response variables of interest are the number of absences due to illness or injury, i.e., the response variable is a count. Poisson regression methods are used to describe the effect of the explanatory variables on the health event rates using a log-linear main effects model. Results of fitting the main effects model are summarized in a tabular and graphical form and interpretation of model parameters is provided. An analysis of deviance table is used to evaluate the importance of each of the explanatory variables on the event rate of interest and to determine if interaction terms should be considered in the analysis. Although Poisson regression methods are widely used in the analysis of count data, there are situations in which over-dispersion occurs. This could be due to lack-of-fit of the regression model, extra-Poisson variation, or both. A score test statistic and regression diagnostics are used to identify over-dispersion. A quasi-likelihood method of moments procedure is used to evaluate and adjust for extra-Poisson variation when necessary. Two examples are presented using respiratory disease absence rates at two DOE sites to illustrate the methods and interpretation of the results. In the first example the Poisson main effects model is adequate. In the second example the score test indicates considerable over-dispersion and a more detailed analysis attributes the over-dispersion to extra-Poisson variation. The R open source software environment for statistical computing and graphics is used for analysis. Additional details about R and the data that were used in this report are provided in an Appendix. Information on how to obtain R and utility functions that can be used to duplicate results in this report are provided.

  4. Understanding unintentional childhood home injuries: pilot surveillance data from Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Nukhba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood injuries, an important public health issue, globally affects more than 95% of children living in low-and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of childhood unintentional injuries in Karachi, Pakistan with a specific focus on those occurring within the home environment. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a childhood unintentional injury surveillance database setup in the emergency department of the Aga Khan Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan for 3 months. The data was collected by interviewing caretakers of children under 12 years of age presenting with an unintentional injury to the emergency departments of the four major tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Results The surveillance included 566 injured children of which 409 (72% injuries had taken place at/around home. Of 409 children, 66% were males and mostly between 5 and 11 years of age. Injuries commonly occurred during play time (51%. Fall (59%, dog bites (11% and burns (9% were the commonest mechanisms of injury. The majority of the children (78% were directly discharged from the emergency room with predicted short term disability (42%. There were 2 deaths in the emergency department both due to falls. Conclusion Childhood injury surveillance system provides valuable in-depth information on child injuries. The majority of these unintentional childhood injuries occur at home; with falls, dog bites and burns being the most common types of unintentional childhood home injuries. Specific surveillance systems for child injuries can provide new and valuable information for countries like Pakistan.

  5. A profile of Injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainiqolo Iris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (?12 hours stay in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. Results The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29% and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%. The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Conclusions Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.

  6. Alaska's model program for surveillance and prevention of occupational injury deaths.

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, G.A.; Lincoln, J. M.; Husberg, B J; Manwaring, J C; Klatt, M L; Thomas, T. K.

    1999-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established its Alaska Field Station in Anchorage in 1991 after identifying Alaska as the highest-risk state for traumatic worker fatalities. Since then, the Field Station, working in collaboration with other agencies, organizations, and individuals, has established a program for occupational injury surveillance in Alaska and formed interagency working groups to address the risk factors leading to occupational death and injury ...

  7. Surveillance of School Violence, Injury, and Disciplinary Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Paul M.; Coggeshall, Mark B.

    2001-01-01

    Examines how data from student self-report surveys and other sources can be used to assess the weaknesses in current school iincidentreporting systems and improve the validity of surveillance data on school violence. Assesses the validity of data from Gun-Free Schools Act reports on the number of guns in school in light of nationally…

  8. A road traffic injury surveillance system using combined data sources in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Medina, Yliana; Espitia-Hardeman, Victoria; Dellinger, Ann M; Loayza, Manuel; Leiva, Rene; Cisneros, Gloria

    2011-03-01

    A national hospital-based nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance system was established at sentinel units across Peru in 2007 under the leadership of the Ministry of Health. Surveillance data are drawn from three different sources (hospital records, police reports, and vehicle insurance reports) and include nonfatal road traffic injuries initially attended at emergency rooms. A single data collection form is used to record information about the injured, event characteristics related to the driver of the vehicle(s), and the vehicle(s). Data are analyzed periodically and disseminated to all surveillance system participants. Results indicated young adult males (15-29 years old) were most affected by nonfatal road traffic injuries and were most often the drivers of the vehicles involved in the collision. Four-wheeled vehicle occupants comprised one-half of cases in most regions of the country, and pedestrians injured in the event accounted for almost another half. The system established in Peru could serve as a model for the use of multiple data sources in national nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance. Based on this study, the challenges of this type of system include sustaining and increasing participation among sentinel units nationwide and identifying appropriate prevention interventions at the local level based on the resulting data. PMID:21484019

  9. Clothing-related motorcycle injuries in Pakistan: findings from a surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Uzma R; Bhatti, Junaid A; Shamim, M Shahzad; Zia, Nukhba; Razzak, Junaid A; Jooma, Rashid

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the burden and patterns of clothing-related motorcycle injuries in Karachi, Pakistan. Data were extracted from an ongoing traffic injury surveillance system. In three years (2007-2009), out of 99155 road traffic injury cases there were 986 (0.9%) cases of clothing-related motorcycle injuries. Most cases were females (73.9%) and pillion riders (80.6%). The crashes involving clothing-related injuries were mostly single vehicle (98.5%), and largely resulted in injuries to the external body (60.3%), limbs (51.0%), head (41.5%) and face (35.9%). One-third of injuries were either moderate (26.7%) or severe (10.2%) while 10 (1.01%) deaths were reported. Female gender (11.4%), age ? 45 years (19.4%), pillion riding (11.3%) and crashes occurring at intersections (12.3%) were more likely to result in moderate or severe injury as compared to other users (P < 0.001). Injuries due to entanglement of loose fitting clothing in motorcycles are not uncommon in Karachi. Awareness campaigns for prevention of such injuries may involve promotion of appropriate dressing for motorcycle riding including close wrapping of clothes and encouraging installations of covers on the rear wheels and drive chains. PMID:24881928

  10. Injury caused by airbag VS. injuries associated with airbag deploys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Popa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of airbags systems in motor vehicles designed to transport of persons led in time to a significant decrease of the rate of death among passengers involved in car accidents. However airbag systems are not harmless, it produces lesions that vary in intensity depending on many factors. But decidedly, we can meet injuries associated with the triggering of the airbag system. Therefore, it must be made a clear difference between the two types of injuries, this being particularly important in terms of medico-legal especially regarding the mechanism of injury.

  11. Implementing a hospital based injury surveillance system in Africa: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavalaa, Diego E; Bokongo, Simon; John, I A; Senoga, Ismail Mpanga; Mtonga, Robert E; Mohammed, A Z; Anjango, Walter Odhiambo; Olupot-Olupot, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A multinational injury surveillance pilot project was carried out in five African countries in the first half of 2007 (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia). Hospitals were selected in each country and a uniform methodology was applied in all sites, including an injury surveillance questionnaire designed by a joint programme of the Pan American Health Organization and the United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. A total of 4207 injury cases were registered in all hospitals. More than half of all injury cases were due to road traffic accidents (58.3%) and 40% were due to interpersonal violence. Self-inflicted injuries were minimal (1.2% of all cases). This report provides an assessment of the implementation of the project and a preliminary comparison between the five African countries on the context in which inter-personal injury cases occurred. Strengths and weaknesses of the project as well as opportunities and threats identified by medical personnel are summarized and discussed. A call is made to transform this pilot project into a sustainable public health strategy. PMID:19065866

  12. Feasibility of National Surveillance of Health-Care-Associated Infections in Home-Care Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Manangan, Lilia P.; Pearson, Michele L.; Tokars, Jerome I.; Miller, Elaine; Jarvis, William R.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the rationale and strategies for surveillance of health-care-associated infections in home-care settings, the challenges of nonhospital-based surveillance, and the feasibility of developing a national surveillance system.

  13. Electronic Data Capture for Injury and Illness Surveillance : A usability study

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, David

    2013-01-01

    Despite the development of injury surveillance systems for use at large multi sportsevents (Junge 2008), their implementation is still methodologically and practicallychallenging. Edouard (2013) and Engebretsen (2013) have pointed out that thecontext of athletics championships feature unique constraints, such as a limiteddata-collection window and large amounts of data to be recorded and rapidlyvalidated. To manage these logistical issues, Electronic Data Capture (EDC) methodshave been propos...

  14. Hospital Costs Associated With Pediatric Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Matthew B; Hollingworth, William; Rivara, Frederick P; Kramer, C. Bradley; Askay, Shelley W.; Heimbach, David M.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2008-01-01

    Modern burn care is a resource intensive endeavor requiring specialized equipment, personnel, and facilities in order to provide optimum care. The costs associated with burn injury to both patients and society as a whole can be multifaceted and large. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hospital costs, patient characteristics, and injury factors in a cohort of pediatric patients admitted to a regional burn center. We performed a review of the hospital charges acc...

  15. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  16. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  17. Injuries associated with child safety seat misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, C J; Kittredge, D; Stuemky, J H

    1992-12-01

    The charts of 370 children under the age of two years who presented to a pediatric emergency department between September 1988 and August 1989 were reviewed. Twenty-seven patients (7% of the total) had injuries associated with child safety seat (CSS) misuse. Thirteen were infants and toddlers injured as motor vehicle occupants when improperly restrained--CSS harness not properly connected (8), use of an improper device (3), and CSS not anchored to the car seat (2). Fourteen were infants under one year of age who were injured falling in their CSS. Injuries included minor head trauma (17), linear skull fracture (5), concussion (1), femoral fracture (1), depressed skull fracture with epidural hematoma (1), cervical vertebral fracture (1), and intraventricular hemorrhage (1). Nine patients were hospitalized. Injuries associated with CSS misuse may be more common than previously recognized and can result in significant injury. Educational efforts should focus on correct usage. PMID:1454645

  18. Patterns of injury associated with automobile airbag use.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, A. A.; Banerjee, A.(Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, 700064, India)

    1998-01-01

    The wide use of automobile airbags has undoubtedly reduced the mortality and the incidence of serious injuries from motor vehicle accidents. However, automobile airbags appear to be associated with a variety of injuries including fatal injuries, ocular injuries, upper limb and chest injuries. Further improvements in airbag design together with education of the general public in their use should help reduce airbag-related injuries.

  19. Dengue-associated acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, João Fernando Picollo; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is presently the most relevant viral infection transmitted by a mosquito bite that represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious and potentially lethal complication of this disease, and the actual incidence is unknown. In this review, we will assess the most relevant epidemiological and clinical data regarding dengue and the available evidence on the frequency, etiopathogenesis, outcomes and treatment of dengue-associated AKI. PMID:26613023

  20. Intraocular cilia associated with perforating injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case series of penetrating injury complicated by occurrence of intraocular cilia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of charts of 11 eyes of 11 patients with penetrating injury and intraocular cilia, presenting between September 1978 and November 1998. Ten eyes underwent surgery for trauma-related problems such as cataract, vitritis, retinal detachment etc., at which time intraocular cilia were removed. One eye did not have surgery and continues to harbour cilia at the posterior perforation site. Results: Metallic wire was responsible for injury in 6 of 11 eyes with intraocular cilia. Five eyes had significant intraocular inflammation. The cilia were located in the anterior segment in 4 eyes; in the posterior segment in 6 eyes and in both in one eye. At the last follow up, 72.7% had 6/18 or better vision. Poor vision in the rest was due to recurrent retinal detachment (2 eyes and macular scarring (1 eye. Conclusion: Intraocular cilia are more commonly associated with injury by a metallic wire. The presentation and management of an injured eye does not seem to be influenced by the presence of cilia in the eye.

  1. Injuries associated with snowmobiles, Alaska, 1993-1994.

    OpenAIRE

    Landen, M G; Middaugh, J; Dannenberg, A L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the nature and burden of snowmobile injuries in Alaska by examining injury deaths and hospitalizations associated with snowmobiles and comparing these with injury deaths and hospitalizations associated with on-road motor vehicles. METHODS: The authors used vital statistics, medical examiner, Department of Public Safety, and Department of Transportation records to identify snowmobile injury deaths, and used vital statistics mortality files to identify on-road motor v...

  2. A surveillance of needle-stick injuries amongst student nurses at the University of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Ackerman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Needle-stick injuries have the potential to change a student nurse’s life; yet they are dealt with covertly and many go unreported. This could create difficulties when evaluating a curriculum, because potential risk issues in nursing education might go undetected. In addition, needlestick injuries are inherently preventable occupational health hazards. The fact that there has been, until now, no information available on the incidence of, and context in which needlestick injuries occur amongst student nurses in Namibia, is of particular concern for nurse educators in that country. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the incidence of needle-stick injuries and to describe the context of their occurrences. A framework known as Haddon’s matrix made it possible to approach this survey from both an occupational and a nursing education perspective.

    The questionnaire was completed by 198 students and it was found that, during 2008 alone, 17% of student nurses sustained needle-stick injuries, but only 55% of these reported it. In addition, in 55% of the occasions on which the student nurses were injured, they were not accompanied by a registered nurse. The recommendations made are based on the three phases of Haddon’s matrix, namely pre-injury, injury and post-injury phases. These recommendations focussed on student accompaniment by registered nurses, the completion of reflective exercises, sensitisation sessions before placement in clinical areas, as well as the utilisation of independent student counsellors.

    Opsomming

    Enige naaldprik-insident kan ‘n groot omwenteling in ‘n student-verpleegkundige se lewe te weeg bring. Ten spyte hiervan word sodanige insidente nie openlik hanteer nie, en dikwels word dit nie eers gerapporteer nie. Dit mag egter kurrikulering-evaluerings kompliseer want potensiële risiko-aspekte in verpleegonderwys mag dalk nie geidentifisser word nie. Naaldprik-ongelukke is in wese beroepsgesondheidsaspekte, wat inherent voorkombaar is. Dit was dan ook ‘n bron van kommmer onder verpleegopvoeders in Namibië, aangesien geen inligting beskikbaar was oor die voorkoms en konteks van naaldprik-ongelukke onder student-verpleegkundiges in Namibië nie. Die doel van hierdie studie was dus on die voorkoms en konteks waarbinne naaldprik-ongelukke plaasvind te beskryf. Daar was reeds a raamwerk beskikbaar, naamlik die Haddon-matriks. Diè raamwerk het dit moontlik gemaak om die opname te benader vanuit sowel ‘n beroepsgesondheids-perspektief as ‘n verpleegopvoedkundige perspektief.

    Die vraelys is voltooi deur 198 studente en van die bevindings was dat gedurende 2008 alleen, 17% van die student-verpleegkundiges naaldprik-insidente gehad het, maar dat slegs 55% van die beseerdes dit aangemeld het. Daar is ook gevind dat in 55% van die gevalle, hulle nie deur ‘n geregistreerde verpleegkundige vergesel was nie. Aanbevelings wat gemaak is, is gebaseer op die drie fases van die Haddon-matriks, naamlik die voor-beserings-fase, die beseringsfase en die na-beserings-fase. Die aanbevelings is gefokus op student-begeleiding, reflektiewe oefeninge, sensitiseringsessies voor die plasings in kliniese areas, asook ondersteuning van ‘n onafhanklike berader.

    How to cite this article: Small, L., Pretorius, L., Walters, A. & Ackerman,M.J., 2011, ‘A surveillance of needle-stick injuries amongst student nurses at the University of Namibia’, Health SA Gesondheid 16(1, Art. #507, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.4102/hsag.v161.507

     

  3. Quality of Life Following Brain Injury: Perspectives from Brain Injury Association of America State Affiliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Tucker, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to examine the perspectives of brain injury professionals concerning family members' feelings about the quality of life experienced by individuals with brain injuries. Participants: participating in the study were 28 individuals in leadership positions with the state affiliates of the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA). Methods:…

  4. Advancing the science of ventilator-associated pneumonia surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Klompas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The landmark Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control definitively demonstrated that infection surveillance and control programs prevent hospital-acquired infections. The rise of public reporting, benchmarking, and pay for performance movements, however, has considerably changed the infection surveillance landscape in the 27 years since this study was published. Clinically nuanced surveillance definitions that served the profession well for many years have fallen into disfavor be...

  5. Eye injuries associated with war games

    OpenAIRE

    Easterbrook, Michael; Pashby, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    War games, an outdoor activity combining recreation, military maneuvers and fantasy, are becoming a popular recreational sport. Increasing numbers of players are suffering eye injuries. In the last year 26 cases of serious eye injuries were reported to Canadian ophthalmologists; in 15 eyes vision was reduced to 6/24 or less. Although eyeguards are provided, all the injuries had occurred when the participants were not wearing them. Methods of preventing eye injuries in war games are discussed.

  6. MR imaging of medial collateral ligament injury and associated internal knee joint injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chae Ha; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Sook; Byun, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee [Chosun Univ. College of Medicine, GwangJu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To assess the value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of medial collateral ligament injury of the knee, we used MR imaging to evaluate the characteristic findings in MCL tears and the frequency of associated knee joint injury. We retrospectively reviewed 26 patients within four weeks of MCL injury, analysed MR findings and correlated them with surgical findings. We evaluated discontinuity, heterogeneous signal intensity of MCL, thin band- like low signal intensity at MCL, facial edema, loss of clear demarcation of adjacent fat also combined bone injury, meniscus injury and other ligament injury. Complete MCL tears were present in 14 patients and partial tears in 12. Complete tears showed discontinuity of MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in 11 patients(79%);proximal MCL tears are more common than distal tears. Partial tears showed thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in seven patients (58%);all patient s with MCL injury showed fascial edema;in 12 patients there was loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. We could not, however, distinguish between complete tears and partial tears when MCL showed heterogeneous high signal intensity. Combined bone injury in MCL tears was found in eight patients(62%);the most common sites of this were the lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau. There was associated injury involving other ligaments(ACL:50%;PCL:27%). Combined meniscus injury in MCL tears was present in 17 patients and the most common meniscus site(50%) is the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Complete MCL tears showed discontinuity of MCL and partial tears showed a thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL. All patients with MCL injury showed fascial edema, and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. Various other injuries combine with MCL tears. MR imaging is therefore useful in the evaluation of medial collateral ligament injury and asssociated knee joint injury.

  7. MR imaging of medial collateral ligament injury and associated internal knee joint injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of medial collateral ligament injury of the knee, we used MR imaging to evaluate the characteristic findings in MCL tears and the frequency of associated knee joint injury. We retrospectively reviewed 26 patients within four weeks of MCL injury, analysed MR findings and correlated them with surgical findings. We evaluated discontinuity, heterogeneous signal intensity of MCL, thin band- like low signal intensity at MCL, facial edema, loss of clear demarcation of adjacent fat also combined bone injury, meniscus injury and other ligament injury. Complete MCL tears were present in 14 patients and partial tears in 12. Complete tears showed discontinuity of MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in 11 patients(79%);proximal MCL tears are more common than distal tears. Partial tears showed thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in seven patients (58%);all patient s with MCL injury showed fascial edema;in 12 patients there was loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. We could not, however, distinguish between complete tears and partial tears when MCL showed heterogeneous high signal intensity. Combined bone injury in MCL tears was found in eight patients(62%);the most common sites of this were the lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau. There was associated injury involving other ligaments(ACL:50%;PCL:27%). Combined meniscus injury in MCL tears was present in 17 patients and the most common meniscus site(50%) is the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Complete MCL tears showed discontinuity of MCL and partial tears showed a thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL. All patients with MCL injury showed fascial edema, and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. Various other injuries combine with MCL tears. MR imaging is therefore useful in the evaluation of medial collateral ligament injury and asssociated knee joint injury

  8. Incidence Rate of Needlestick and Sharps Injuries in 67 Japanese Hospitals: A National Surveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Toru; Wada, Koji; Lee, Jong Ja; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Kidouchi, Kiyoshi; Kurosu, Hitomi; Morisawa, Yuji; Aminaka, Mayumi; Okubo, Takashi; Kimura, Satoshi; Moriya, Kyoji

    2013-01-01

    Background Determining incidence rates of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs) using data from multiple hospitals may help hospitals to compare their in-house data with national averages and thereby institute relevant measures to minimize NSIs. We aimed to determine the incidence rate of NSIs using the nationwide EPINet surveillance system. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were analyzed from 5,463 cases collected between April 2009 and March 2011 from 67 Japanese HIV/AIDS referral hospitals that participated in EPINet-Japan. The NSI incidence rate was calculated as the annual number of cases with NSIs per 100 occupied beds, according to the demographic characteristics of the injured person, place, timing, device, and the patients’ infectious status. The NSI incidence rates according to hospital size were analyzed by a non-parametric test of trend. The mean number of cases with NSIs per 100 occupied beds per year was 4.8 (95% confidence interval, 4.1–5.6) for 25 hospitals with 399 or fewer beds, 6.7 (5.9–7.4) for 24 hospitals with 400–799 beds, and 7.6 (6.7–8.5) for 18 hospitals with 800 or more beds (p-trend<0.01). NSIs frequently occurred in health care workers in their 20 s; the NSI incidence rate for this age group was 2.1 (1.6–2.5) for hospitals having 399 or fewer beds, 3.5 (3.0–4.1) for hospitals with 400–799 beds, and 4.5 (3.9–5.0) for hospitals with 800 or more beds (p-trend<0.01). Conclusions/Significance The incidence rate of NSIs tended to be higher for larger hospitals and in workers aged less than 40 years; injury occurrence was more likely to occur in places such as patient rooms and operating rooms. Application of the NSI incidence rates by hospital size, as a benchmark, could allow individual hospitals to compare their NSI incidence rates with those of other institutions, which could facilitate the development of adequate control strategies. PMID:24204856

  9. Unintentional Childhood Injury Patterns, Odds, and Outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Ovuga; Leif Svanstrom; Catherine Nansamba; Stephen Lawoko; Milton Mutto

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. METHODS: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 ...

  10. Treatment of vascular injuries associated with limb fractures.

    OpenAIRE

    Cakir, Omer; Subasi, Mehmet; ERDEM, Kemalettin; Eren, Nesimi

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The goal of therapy in all patients with combined orthopaedic and vascular injuries of the extremities is salvage of a functional limb. In this study, we have evaluated our experience with a subset of patients who had a combination of vascular injury and limb fracture. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of 192 patients with vascular injuries of the lower and upper limbs associated with bone fractures were reviewed. Of these, 168 were males and 24 were females; the mean age was 26...

  11. Direct cost associated with acquired brain injury in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Amy; Bushmeneva Ksenia; Zagorski Brandon; Colantonio Angela; Parsons Daria; Wodchis Walter P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) from traumatic and non traumatic causes is a leading cause of disability worldwide yet there is limited research summarizing the health system economic burden associated with ABI. The objective of this study was to determine the direct cost of publicly funded health care services from the initial hospitalization to three years post-injury for individuals with traumatic (TBI) and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI) in Ontario Canada. Methods A popu...

  12. U.S. Department of Energy, Illness and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health Summary, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program has created an opportunity to assess illness and injury rates and patterns among workers at participating sites for well over a decade. The Worker Health Summary introduces an additional perspective on worker health with the introduction of analyses comparing the experience of sites in different program offices and a focus on time trends covering a decade of worker illness and injury experience. These analyses by program office suggest that illness and injury patterns among National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) workers diverge in many ways from those seen among Environmental Management (EM) and Science workers for reasons not yet understood. These differences will receive further investigation in future special focus studies, as will other findings of interest. With the time depth now available in our data, the Worker Health Summary reveals an additional nuance in worker health trends: changing health patterns in a specialized and skilled but aging work force. Older workers are becoming an increasing percentage of the work force, and their absence rates for diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are increasing as well. The impact of these emerging health issues, if properly addressed, can be managed to maintain or even enhance worker health and productivity. Prevention strategies designed to reduce the toll of these health conditions appear warranted, and this report gives us an indication of where to focus them. The analyses that follow reflect the Illness and Injury Surveillance Program’s continued commitment to apply a public health perspective in protecting the health of DOE’s work force.

  13. Next Generation Surveillance System (NGSS): Field Implementation & Associated Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NGSS is the product of more than five years of development between the IAEA, other Inspectorates, Member State Support Programmes, and commercial vendors. The product of these efforts has now matured into the field implementation stage. This paper details the goals, achievements and challenges experienced during the implementation phase and associated developments of the project. NGSS procurement was subject to the IAEA's stringent procurement policies involving independent third party assessments to assure supplier reliability and competitive pricing controls. More than 1200 surveillance cameras currently installed in facilities worldwide will be replaced by NGSS within the next 4 to 5 years. Joint use procedures have been established taking advantage of the technical capabilities integrated within the design of the NGSS which allow for multiple inspectorates and States to securely and independently share and review data. Utilization of outdated facility infrastructure poses many challenges to implementation efforts; these were met with innovative technical solutions to take advantage of cost benefits allowed in its re-utilization. New partnerships were established with Member States, regulatory bodies and nuclear power plant operators for new nuclear facilities under construction, to address infrastructural requirements spanning the next half century. The utilization of the IAEA's well-established PKI infrastructure enhances data security features and usability with regard to data sharing, key management and joint use of the NGSS system data. Embedded inventory reporting capability aids electronic inventory verification of safeguards equipment, simplifying accountability, configuration control and troubleshooting of installed systems. Current developments ongoing within the project include the design of hardware and software components for use of the system in special applications (e.g., underwater and outdoor installations, mechanism to authenticate external sensors). The lessons learned within the project can contribute a great deal to future developments and continued implementation efforts. (author)

  14. Use of surveillance data for prevention of healthcare-associated infection: risk adjustment and reporting dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Eoghan

    2009-08-01

    Healthcare-associated or nosocomial infection (HCAI) is of increasing importance to healthcare providers and the public. Surveillance is crucial but must be adjusted for risk, especially when used for interhospital comparisons or for public reporting.

  15. Surveillance of device-associated infections at a teaching hospital in rural Gujarat - India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh S; Pandya Y; Patel R; Paliwal M; Wilson A; Trivedi S

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Surveillance of hospital-acquired infection (HAI), particularly device-associated infection (DAI), helps in determining the infection rates, risk factors, and in planning the preventive strategies to ensure a quality healthcare in any hospital. The present study was carried out to know the prevalence of DAI in a tertiary care teaching hospital of rural Gujarat. Materials and Methods: A prospective, site-specific surveillance of three common DAIs that is catheter-associated urinary tr...

  16. Bowel injury associated with pelvic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, Agnes [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/Institut Gustave-Roussy, UPRES EA 2710, Radiosensibilite des Tumeurs et des Tissus Sains, PR1, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94 800 Villejuif Cedex (France)]. E-mail: Francois@igr.fr; Milliat, Fabien [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/Institut Gustave-Roussy, UPRES EA 2710, Radiosensibilite des Tumeurs et des Tissus Sains, PR1, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94 800 Villejuif Cedex (France); Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/Institut Gustave-Roussy, UPRES EA 2710, Radiosensibilite des Tumeurs et des Tissus Sains, PR1, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94 800 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2005-02-01

    Radiation therapists have to deal with the difficulty to give an efficient radiation dose to the tumor without generating unacceptable normal tissue injury. Acute reactions are experienced in most of the patients and are characterized by diarrhea resulting from intestinal mucosal injury. In some cases, intestinal wall fibrosis may develop, with hazard of occlusion syndrome. The only therapeutic recourse consists of surgical resection of the injured bowel.

  17. A survey of musculoskeletal injuries associated with Zumba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Jill; Nichols, Andrew; Maskarinec, Gregory; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2013-12-01

    Zumba is a highly popular Latin-inspired dance fitness program with ?14 million participants in 150 countries. However, there is little published data on the rates or types of injuries among participants. We surveyed a convenience sample of 49 adults (100% participation) in 5 Zumba classes in Hawai'i. Participants described any prior Zumba-related injuries. We used t-tests and logistic regression to determine if participant demographics or intensity of Zumba classes were associated with injuries. Participants were mostly female (82%), averaged 43.9 years of age (range 19 to 69 years), and took an average of 3 classes/week (1-2 hours/class) for an average of 11 months. Fourteen participants (29%) reported 21 prior Zumba-related injuries. Half of the 14 injured sought care from medical providers for their injuries. Of the 21 injuries, the most frequently injured sites were knees (42%), ankles (14%), and shoulders (14%). Participants with Zumba-related injuries did not differ significantly in age, months of Zumba, or hours/class compared to those who did not experience injuries. However, participants who reported injuries took significantly more classes/week (3.8 versus 2.7 classes, P = .006) than non-injured participants. In logistic regression, taking more classes/week remained significantly associated with injuries (odds ratio 3.6 [95% confidence interval 1.5 - 8.9, P = .006]) after controlling for age, gender, months of Zumba, and hours/class. Given Zumba's health benefits, our finding that 1 in 4 Zumba participants have experienced injuries indicates the need to improve Zumba routines, instructor training, and health provider counseling to reduce injury risk. PMID:24377078

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Illness, and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health At A Glance, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program (IISP) has monitored the health of contractor workers at selected DOE sites since 1990. For the first time, the IISP has sufficient data to describe, in a collective manner, the health trends occurring among workers at a number of DOE sites during a 10-year period. This brief report and the more detailed Worker Health Summary assess illness and injury trends of DOE workers according to gender, age, occupational group, and program office over the 10-year period, 1995 through 2004. During this time, over 137,000 individual contractor workers were employed at the 15 DOE sites participating in the IISP.

  19. Chronic disease surveillance systems within the US Associated Pacific Island jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosey, Gwen; Ichiho, Henry; Satterfield, Dawn; Dankwa-Mullan, Irene; Kuartei, Stevenson; Rhee, Kyu; Belyeu-Camacho, Tayna; deBrum, Ione; Demei, Yorah; Lippwe, Kipier; Luces, Patrick Solidum; Roby, Faiese

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, illness and death due to chronic disease in the US Associated Pacific Islands (USAPI) jurisdictions have dramatically increased. Effective chronic disease surveillance can help monitor disease trends, evaluate public policy, prioritize resource allocation, and guide program planning, evaluation, and research. Although chronic disease surveillance is being conducted in the USAPI, no recently published capacity assessments for chronic disease surveillance are available. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of existing USAPI chronic disease data sources and identify jurisdictional capacity for chronic disease surveillance. The assessment included a chronic disease data source inventory, literature review, and review of surveillance documentation available from the web or through individual jurisdictions. We used the World Health Organization's Health Metric Network Framework to assess data source quality and to identify jurisdictional capacity. Results showed that USAPI data sources are generally aligned with widely accepted chronic disease surveillance indicators and use standardized data collection methodology to measure chronic disease behavioral risks, preventive practices, illness, and death. However, all jurisdictions need to strengthen chronic disease surveillance through continued assessment and expanded support for valid and reliable data collection, analysis and reporting, dissemination, and integration among population-based and institution-based data sources. For sustained improvement, we recommend investment and technical assistance in support of a chronic disease surveillance system that integrates population-based and institution-based data sources. An integrated strategy that bridges and links USAPI data sources can support evidence-based policy and population health interventions. PMID:21672410

  20. Unintentional Childhood Injury Patterns, Odds, and Outcomes in Kampala City: an analysis of surveillance data from the National Pediatric Emergency Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ovuga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintentional Childhood Injuries pose a major public health challenge in Africa and Uganda. Previous estimates of the problem may have underestimated the childhood problem. We set to determine unintentional childhood injury pattern, odds, and outcomes at the National Paediatric Emergency unit in Kampala city using surveillance data. METHODS: Incident proportions, odds and proportional rates were calculated and used to determine unintentional injury patterns across childhood (1-12 years. RESULTS: A total of 556 cases recorded between January and May 2008 were analyzed: majority had been transported to hospital by mothers using mini-buses, private cars, and motorcycles. Median distance from injury location to hospital was 5 km. Homes, roads, and schools were leading injury locations. Males constituted 60% of the cases. Play and daily living activities were commonest injury time activities. Falls, burns and traffic accounted for 70.5% of unintentional childhood injuries. Burns, open wounds, fractures were commonest injury types. Motorcycles, buses and passenger-cars caused most crashes. Play grounds, furniture, stairs and trees were commonest source of falls. Most burn injuries were caused by liquids, fires and hot objects. 43.8% of cases were admitted. 30% were discharged without disability; 10%, were disabled; 1%, died. Injury odds and proportional incidence rates varied with age, place and cause. Poisoning and drowning were rare. Local pediatric injury priorities should include home, road and school safety. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries are common causes of hospital visit by children under 13 years especially boys. Homes, roads and educational facilities are commonest unintentional injury sites. Significant age and gender differences exist in intentional injury causation, characteristics and outcomes. In its current form, our surveillance system seems inefficient in capturing poisoning and drowning. The local prevention priorities could include home, road and school safety; especially dissemination and uptake of proven interventions. Burns should be focus of domestic injury prevention among under-fives. Commercial passenger motorcycles require better regulation and control.

  1. Road traffic injuries in one local health unit in the Lazio region: results of a surveillance system integrating police and health data

    OpenAIRE

    Camilloni Laura; Rossi Paolo; Antoniozzi Tranquillo; Ciaramella Ivana; Farchi Sara; Chini Francesco; Valenti Massimo; Borgia Piero

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective Different sources are available for the surveillance of Road Traffic injuries (RTI), but studied individually they present several limits. In this paper we present the results of a surveillance integrating healthcare data with the data gathered by the municipal police in the southeastern area of Rome (630,000 inhabitants) during the year 2003. Methods The Municipal police RTI reports, which list the exact location, circumstances and some risk factor of the crash, were searc...

  2. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: associated findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Gi Seok; Kang, Heung Sik; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Chu Wan; Cho, Kyu Hyung; Seong, Sang Cheol [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-15

    Authors investigated the associated findings and their value in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in MR image. The knee MR images of 47 patients with ACL injury (complete;24, partial;23) and 61 patients with normal ACL confirmed by the knee arthroscopy or operation were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of anterior translocation of tibia and the degree of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) buckling were evaluated. The prevalence and pattern of associated adjacent bone, ligament and meniscus injuries were studied. The means({+-} 2 standard errors) of anterior translocation were different significantly in statistical analysis ({rho} < 0.001, student t-test) between injury group (7.51 {+-} 1.16 mm) and normal group (-0.56 {+-} 0.92mm). In the level of 5mm of anterior translocation for the criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 78.7%, 89.5%, 84.3% for each. The means of PCL buckling ratio were also different statistically between injury group(0.23 {+-} 0.02) and normal group(0.17 {+-} 0.01)({rho} < 0.001). In the level of 0.20 for diagnostic criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 71.4%, 83.6%, 78.4% for each. Thirty one medial meniscus tear (66%), thirteen lateral meniscus tear (28%), ten medial collateral ligament injury (28%), one PCL injury(2%) were associated with ACL injury. The twenty nine bone marrow changes were found in twenty patients (43%) which included acutely injured seven patients. In acute cases, the bone marrow changes were depicted as diffuse or focal high signal intensity lesions in lateral femoral or tibial condyles in contrast to the changes in chronic cases depicted as focal low signal intensity lesions in variable location. Lateral femoral condylar notch depression were found in nine patients (19%) and avulsion fractures of anterior tibial spine in four patients(9%). The associated findings with ACL injury (anterior translocation, buckling of PCL, associated bone, ligament and meniscus injuries) are considered to be helpful in the diagnosis of ACL injury on Knee MR images, when the findings of anterior cruciate ligament itself are not confirmative.

  3. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: associated findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors investigated the associated findings and their value in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in MR image. The knee MR images of 47 patients with ACL injury (complete;24, partial;23) and 61 patients with normal ACL confirmed by the knee arthroscopy or operation were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of anterior translocation of tibia and the degree of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) buckling were evaluated. The prevalence and pattern of associated adjacent bone, ligament and meniscus injuries were studied. The means(± 2 standard errors) of anterior translocation were different significantly in statistical analysis (? < 0.001, student t-test) between injury group (7.51 ± 1.16 mm) and normal group (-0.56 ± 0.92mm). In the level of 5mm of anterior translocation for the criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 78.7%, 89.5%, 84.3% for each. The means of PCL buckling ratio were also different statistically between injury group(0.23 ± 0.02) and normal group(0.17 ± 0.01)(? < 0.001). In the level of 0.20 for diagnostic criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 71.4%, 83.6%, 78.4% for each. Thirty one medial meniscus tear (66%), thirteen lateral meniscus tear (28%), ten medial collateral ligament injury (28%), one PCL injury(2%) were associated with ACL injury. The twenty nine bone marrow changes were found in twenty patients (43%) which included acutely injured seven patients. In acute cases, the bone marrow changes were depicted as diffuse or focal high signal intensity lesions in lateral femoral or tibial condyles in contrast to the changes in chronic cases depicted as focal low signal intensity lesions in variable location. Lateral femoral condylar notch depression were found in nine patients (19%) and avulsion fractures of anterior tibial spine in four patients(9%). The associated findings with ACL injury (anterior translocation, buckling of PCL, associated bone, ligament and meniscus injuries) are considered to be helpful in the diagnosis of ACL injury on Knee MR images, when the findings of anterior cruciate ligament itself are not confirmative

  4. Improving the work efficiency of healthcare-associated infection surveillance using electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Wen-Sen; Chen, Guo-Bin; Liu, Chien-Tsai

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we developed an integrated hospital-associated urinary tract infection (HAUTI) surveillance information system (called iHAUTISIS) based on existing electronic medical records (EMR) systems for improving the work efficiency of infection control professionals (ICPs) in a 730-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Taiwan. The iHAUTISIS can automatically collect data relevant to HAUTI surveillance from the different EMR systems, and provides a visualization dashboard that helps ICPs make better surveillance plans and facilitates their surveillance work. In order to measure the system performance, we also created a generic model for comparing the ICPs' work efficiency when using existing electronic culture-based surveillance information system (eCBSIS) and iHAUTISIS, respectively. This model can demonstrate a patient's state (unsuspected, suspected, and confirmed) and corresponding time spent on surveillance tasks performed by ICPs for the patient in that state. The study results showed that the iHAUTISIS performed better than the eCBSIS in terms of ICPs' time cost. It reduced the time by 73.27 s, when using iHAUTISIS (114.26 s) and eCBSIS (187.53 s), for each patient on average. With increased adoption of EMR systems, the development of the integrated HAI surveillance information systems would be more and more cost-effective. Moreover, the iHAUTISIS adopted web-based technology that enables ICPs to online access patient's surveillance information using laptops or mobile devices. Therefore, our system can further facilitate the HAI surveillance and reduce ICPs' surveillance workloads. PMID:25154644

  5. Injuries Associated with Femoral Shaft Fractures with Special Emphasis on Occult Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Fractures of the femoral shaft are mostly the result of high-energy accidents that also cause multiple trauma injuries, in particular ipsilateral knee and hip injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures and how many of them were undetected. Methods: We studied 148 patients (150 femoral shaft fractures with an average age of 52 (range: 18-97. Femoral shaft fractures were treated with antegrade intramedullary nailing in 118 cases (78.7%, and with open reduction and internal fixation in 32 cases (21.3%. Unlocked reamed intramedullary nailing was performed in Winquist type I and type II fractures, while statically locked unreamed intramedullary nailing was carried out in Winquist type III and type IV fractures. Results: There were 70 patients with associated injuries (46.4%. The associated injuries went undetected in 18 out of 70 patients (25.5%. Six femoral nonunions (4% occurred in patients under 70 years of age (high-energy accidents treated by open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusion: Injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures were very frequent (46.4% in our series, with 25.5% undetected. Open reduction and internal fixation was a poor prognostic factor of nonunion in these fractures.

  6. Injuries Associated with the 580 km University Student Grand Voluntary Road March: Focus on Foot Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sang-Cheon; Min, Young-gi; Lee, In-Soo; Yoon, Gi-Ho; Kang, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Joon-Pil; Kim, Gi-Woon

    2013-01-01

    College student volunteers (n = 142) completed a 580 km road march for 21 consecutive days. Each volunteer carried a backpack that weighed 14.1 ± 1.4 kg on the average. We investigated the incidence and location of blisters associated with the road march using a foot map along with other injuries. Overall, 95.1% of the subjects (135 of 142) sustained one or more injuries. All injured subjects had foot blisters, and 18% had other foot injuries. The most common locations of blister development ...

  7. Effect of standardized surveillance of intensive care unit-acquired infections on ventilator-associated pneumonia incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénet, Thomas; Ecochard, René; Voirin, Nicolas; Machut, Anaïs; Lepape, Alain; Savey, Anne; Vanhems, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    In a multicenter surveillance of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections, adjusted ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence diminished by -1.0% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.8 to -0.2; P = .02) in ICUs with continuous surveillance but increased by +16.1% (95% CI, 0.5%-34.1%; P = .04) in the year following surveillance disruption, suggesting a preventive effect of surveillance on VAP. PMID:25203184

  8. Patterns of injury and outcomes associated with motocross accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Tito F; Gorski, Yara C; McLeod, Ginger; Suh, David; Cordero, Raymund; Essien, Francis; Berry, Dessia; Dada, Festus

    2003-10-01

    Motocross has become a popular recreation activity in Southern California, particularly in the Inland Empire area. In order to evaluate the patterns of injury and outcomes associated with motocross accidents, the Trauma Registry data and charts of all patients with motocross-related injuries from January 2000 to December 2001 were reviewed. Of the 270 patients studied, 265 were males and 5 were females, with a mean age of 26 years (range, 5-61). The mean Injury Severity Score was 6.8 (range, 1-38). Injuries involved extremity trauma in 52 per cent of patients closed head injuries in 33 per cent, blunt chest trauma in 23 per cent, abdominal trauma in 15 per cent, spinal trauma in 14 per cent, and pelvic trauma in 8 per cent. Surgery was required in 96 patients (36%), most commonly for treatment of orthopedic injuries. After initial evaluation, 179 patients were admitted (66%), 60 were discharged home (22%), 29 were transferred for higher level of care (11%), and two expired (1%). The mean hospital length of stay was 2.3 days (range, 1-9). Motocross accidents are most commonly associated with extremity injuries and closed head trauma. Although the overall mortality is low, the morbidity is high, with a large proportion of patients requiring surgery. PMID:14570370

  9. A surveillance of needle-stick injuries amongst student nurses at the University of Namibia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Louis, Small; Louise, Pretorius; Althea, Walters; Maria J., Ackerman.

    Full Text Available Needle-stick injuries have the potential to change a student nurse's life; yet they are dealt with covertly and many go unreported. This could create difficulties when evaluating a curriculum, because potential risk issues in nursing education might go undetected. In addition, needle-stick injuries [...] are inherently preventable occupational health hazards. The fact that there has been, until now, no information available on the incidence of, and context in which needle-stick injuries occur amongst student nurses in Namibia, is of particular concern for nurse educators in that country. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the incidence of needle-stick injuries and to describe the context of their occurrences. A framework known as Haddon's matrix made it possible to approach this survey from both an occupational and a nursing education perspective. The questionnaire was completed by 198 students and it was found that, during 2008 alone, 17% of student nurses sustained needle-stick injuries, but only 55% of these reported it. In addition, in 55% of the occasions on which the student nurses were injured, they were not accompanied by a registered nurse. The recommendations made are based on the three phases of Haddon's matrix, namely pre-injury, injury and post-injury phases. These recommendations focussed on student accompaniment by registered nurses, the completion of reflective exercises, sensitisation sessions before placement in clinical areas, as well as the utilisation of independent student counsellors.

  10. Injuries in children associated with trampolinelike air cushions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, P A

    1988-01-01

    During a 7-month period, we registered 112 children who had been injured in an amusement park. Despite the large number of other playground apparatuses, 78 injuries were associated with jumping on three giant air cushion trampolinelike apparatuses. Moreover, the air cushions caused a significantly larger number of severe and moderate injuries than did other apparatuses (p less than 0.01). Thirty-one percent of the injuries were fractures or growth plate lesions. Seventy percent of the children explained that they had either been pushed or had lost their balance because of the constantly changing rhythm of the canvas. We therefore warn against this trampolinelike apparatus. PMID:3392199

  11. Evaluating Epidemiology and Improving Surveillance of Infections Associated with Health Care, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Shelley S; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Ray, Susan M; Fridkin, Scott K

    2015-09-01

    The Healthcare-Associated Infections Community Interface (HAIC), launched in 2009, is the newest major activity of the Emerging Infections Program. The HAIC activity addresses population- and laboratory-based surveillance for Clostridium difficile infections, candidemia, and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Other activities include special projects: the multistate Healthcare-Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Use Prevalence Survey and projects that evaluate new approaches for improving surveillance. The HAIC activity has provided information about the epidemiology and adverse health outcomes of health care-associated infections and antimicrobial drug use in the United States and informs efforts to improve patient safety through prevention of these infections. PMID:26291035

  12. A Survey of Musculoskeletal Injuries Associated with Zumba

    OpenAIRE

    Inouye, Jill; Nichols, Andrew; Maskarinec, Gregory; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Zumba is a highly popular Latin-inspired dance fitness program with ?14 million participants in 150 countries. However, there is little published data on the rates or types of injuries among participants. We surveyed a convenience sample of 49 adults (100% participation) in 5 Zumba classes in Hawai‘i. Participants described any prior Zumba-related injuries. We used t-tests and logistic regression to determine if participant demographics or intensity of Zumba classes were associated with injur...

  13. Impact of associated injuries in the Floating knee: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesupalan Rajam S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Floating knee injuries are usually associated with other significant injuries. Do these injuries have implications on the management of the floating knee and the final outcome of patients? Our study aims to assess the implications of associated injuries in the management and final outcome of floating knee. Methods 29 patients with floating knees were assessed in our institution. A retrospective analysis of medical records and radiographs were done and all associated injuries were identified. The impact of associated injuries on delay in initial surgical management, delay in rehabilitation & final outcome of the floating knee were assessed. Results 38 associated injuries were noted. 7 were associated with ipsilateral knee injuries. Lower limb injuries were most commonly associated with the floating knee. Patients with some associated injuries had a delay in surgical management and others a delay in post-operative rehabilitation. Knee ligament and vascular injuries were associated with poor outcome. Conclusion The associated injuries were quite frequent with the floating knee. Some of the associated injuries caused a delay in surgical management and post-operative rehabilitation. In assessment of the final outcome, patients with associated knee and vascular injuries had a poor prognosis. Majority of the patients with associated injuries had a good or excellent outcome.

  14. Impact of associated injuries in the Floating knee: A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Yesupalan Rajam S; Rethnam Ulfin; Nair Rajagopalan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Floating knee injuries are usually associated with other significant injuries. Do these injuries have implications on the management of the floating knee and the final outcome of patients? Our study aims to assess the implications of associated injuries in the management and final outcome of floating knee. Methods 29 patients with floating knees were assessed in our institution. A retrospective analysis of medical records and radiographs were done and all associated injuri...

  15. Cholestatic Hepatitis with Small Duct Injury Associated with Celecoxib

    OpenAIRE

    Masooma Niazi; Bhavna Balar; Suresh Kumar Nayudu; Shanti Badipatla

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a common clinical entity but is underreported due to various reasons. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors like Celecoxib have been proven to be associated with lesser incidence of adverse drug reactions compared to other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). However, Celecoxib has been rarely reported to be associated with cholestasis and hepatitis. We present a young Hispanic female presented with cholestatic liver chemistries who has been taking Celecoxib...

  16. Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56% with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injuries received financial assistance from workers compensation claims, 36% did not apply for financial assistance and 5% applied but did not receive any financial assistance. The most common types of workplace injuries incurred were: sprains and strains (30%, chronic joint/muscle conditions (18% and cuts/open wounds (16% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. The total economic cost from workplace injuries in Australia for the 2005-06 financial year was estimated at $57.5 billion, representing 5.9% of GDP for the financial year (Australian Safety and Compensation Council, 2009. Workplace injuries also incur immeasurable personal costs to Australian workers and their families. Individual lives are altered, even lost; individual hopes and dreams of a better life are shattered. Family roles, responsibilities and relationships become strained due to changes in income earnings and the imposed challenging needs for increased social support and increased caring needs within the home due to workplace injury. Why do Australian workers get injured in their workplaces? Is it due to their individual worker factors, or is it due to social factors associated with their work and workplace? While individual worker factors, such as: gender, age, personality, ethnicity, and substance use, do contribute to workplace injuries and fatalities, broader social and organizational workplace factors, such as: workload, work hours, work environment, safety culture, provision of quality supervision, and provision of occupational health and safety training, socially structure, and influence individual worker attitudes and behaviours in workplace injury and fatalities.

  17. Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available 636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56% with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injuries received financial assistance from workers compensation claims, 36% did not apply for financial assistance and 5% applied but did not receive any financial assistance. The most common types of workplace injuries incurred were: sprains and strains (30%, chronic joint/muscle conditions (18% and cuts/open wounds (16% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. The total economic cost from workplace injuries in Australia for the 2005-06 financial year was  estimated at $57.5 billion, representing 5.9% of GDP for the financial year (Australian Safety and Compensation Council, 2009. Workplace injuries also incur immeasurable personal costs to Australian workers and their families. Individual lives are altered, even lost; individual hopes and dreams of a better life are shattered. Family roles, responsibilities and relationships become strained due to changes in income earnings and the imposed challenging needs for increased social support and increased caring needs within the home due to workplace injury. Why do Australian workers get injured in their workplaces? Is it due to their individual worker factors, or is it due to social factors associated with their work and workplace? While individual worker factors, such as: gender, age, personality, ethnicity, and substance use, do contribute to workplace injuries and fatalities, broader social and organisational workplace factors, such as: workload, work hours, work environment, safety culture, provision of quality supervision, and provision of occupational health and safety training, socially structure, and influence individual worker attitudes and behaviours in workplace injury and fatalities.

  18. Injury surveillance during a national female youth football tournament in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Lislevand, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Background: Participation of girls in football is growing in Kenya. Football in Kenya is not only a leisure time activity it is also used as a tool for community and individual development. Injuries in developing countries are often neglected. Most epidemiological studies on female youth football players are from Europe or North-America. Epidemiological studies on female youth football players in Africa are limited. Objective: To analyze the incidence, characteristics and circumstance of inju...

  19. Building and Validating a Computerized Algorithm for Surveillance of Ventilator-Associated Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Tal; Ellsworth, Joseph; Huda, Najia; Neelakanta, Anupama; Chevalier, Thomas; Sims, Kristin L; Dhar, Sorabh; Robinson, Mary E; Kaye, Keith S

    2015-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop an automated method for ventilator-associated condition (VAC) surveillance and to compare its accuracy and efficiency with manual VAC surveillance SETTING The intensive care units (ICUs) of 4 hospitals METHODS This study was conducted at Detroit Medical Center, a tertiary care center in metropolitan Detroit. A total of 128 ICU beds in 4 acute care hospitals were included during the study period from August to October 2013. The automated VAC algorithm was implemented and utilized for 1 month by all study hospitals. Simultaneous manual VAC surveillance was conducted by 2 infection preventionists and 1 infection control fellow who were blinded to each another's findings and to the automated VAC algorithm results. The VACs identified by the 2 surveillance processes were compared. RESULTS During the study period, 110 patients from all the included hospitals were mechanically ventilated and were evaluated for VAC for a total of 992 mechanical ventilation days. The automated VAC algorithm identified 39 VACs with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. In comparison, the combined efforts of the IPs and the infection control fellow detected 58.9% of VACs, with 59% sensitivity, 99% specificity, 91% PPV, and 92% NPV. Moreover, the automated VAC algorithm was extremely efficient, requiring only 1 minute to detect VACs over a 1-month period, compared to 60.7 minutes using manual surveillance. CONCLUSIONS The automated VAC algorithm is efficient and accurate and is ready to be used routinely for VAC surveillance. Furthermore, its implementation can optimize the sensitivity and specificity of VAC identification. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(9):999-1003. PMID:26072660

  20. Occult bony lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine bony lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on 55 knees with ACL injuries. With respect to the period between ACL injuries and MR imaging, the knees were divided into acute (within one month), subacute (from one month to one year) and chronic (over one year) groups, containing 19, 16 and 20 knees, respectively. Occult bony lesions not shown in roentgenography were observed more frequently in the acute group (13/19) than in the other two groups (subacute group, 5/16; chronic group, 1/20), located in the lateral compartment of the knee joint. In the acute group, bony lesions had high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on proton density images. In the subacute and chronic groups, bony lesions were less pronounced and had low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. These findings suggest that bony lesions are frequently associated with and occur simultaneously with ACL injury. (author)

  1. Nutritional parameters are associated with mortality in acute kidney injury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Nogueira, Berbel; Cassiana Regina, de Góes; André Luis, Balbi; Daniela, Ponce.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a nutritional assessment of acute kidney injury patients and to identify the relationship between nutritional markers and outcomes. METHOD: This was a prospective and observational study. Patients who were hospitalized at the Hospital of Botuca [...] tu School of Medicine were evaluated between January 2009 and December 2011. We evaluated a total of 133 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute kidney injury and a clinical presentation suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. We explored the associations between clinical, laboratory and nutritional markers and in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding and selection bias. RESULTS: Non-survivor patients were older (67±14 vs. 59±16 years) and exhibited a higher prevalence of sepsis (57.1 vs. 21.4%) and higher Acute Tubular Necrosis-Individual Severity Scores (0.60±0.22 vs. 0.41±0.21) than did survivor patients. Based on the multivariable analysis, laboratorial parameters such as blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein were associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 1.013, p?=?0.0052; OR: 1.050, p?=?0.01, respectively), and nutritional parameters such as low calorie intake, higher levels of edema, lower resistance based on bioelectrical impedance analysis and a more negative nitrogen balance were significantly associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 0.950, p?=?0.01; OR: 1.138, p?=?0.03; OR: 0.995, p?=?0.03; OR: 0.934, p?=?0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In acute kidney injury patients, a nutritional assessment seems to identify nutritional markers that are associated with outcome. In this study, a low caloric intake, higher C-reactive protein levels, the presence of edema, a lower resistance measured during a bioelectrical impedance analysis and a lower nitrogen balance were significantly associated with risk of death in acute kidney injury patients.

  2. A road traffic injury surveillance system using combined data sources in Peru Sistema de vigilancia de traumatismos por accidentes de tránsito con fuentes de datos combinadas en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Yliana Rojas Medina; Victoria Espitia-Hardeman; Dellinger, Ann M; Manuel Loayza; Rene Leiva; Gloria Cisneros

    2011-01-01

    A national hospital-based nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance system was established at sentinel units across Peru in 2007 under the leadership of the Ministry of Health. Surveillance data are drawn from three different sources (hospital records, police reports, and vehicle insurance reports) and include nonfatal road traffic injuries initially attended at emergency rooms. A single data collection form is used to record information about the injured, event characteristics related to the...

  3. The Clinical Impact of Ventilator-Associated Events: A Prospective Multi-Center Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shichao; Cai, Lin; Ma, Chunhua; Zeng, Hongmei; Guo, Hua; Mao, Xiaoqing; Zeng, Chenghui; Li, Xiaohong; Zhao, Hua; Liu, Yongfang; Liu, Shilian; Sun, Juhua; Zhang, Ling; Peng, Tingyong; Dong, Mina; Chen, Liping; Zong, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed an approach to ventilator-associated events (VAE) surveillance. Using these methods, this study was performed to investigate VAE incidences and to test whether VAEs are associated with poorer outcomes in China. DESIGN A 4-month, prospective multicenter surveillance study between April and July 2013. SETTING Our study included 15 adult intensive care units (ICUs) of 15 hospitals in China. PATIENTS Patients admitted to ICUs during the study period METHODS Patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) were monitored for VAEs: ventilator-associated conditions (VACs), infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), and possible or probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Patients with and without VACs were compared with regard to duration of MV, ICU length of stay (LOS), overall hospital LOS, and mortality rate. RESULTS During the study period, 2,356 of the 5,256 patients admitted to ICUs received MV for 8,438 ventilator days. Of these patients, 636 were on MV >2 days. VACs were identified in 94 cases (4.0%; 11.1 cases per 1,000 ventilator days), including 31 patients with IVACs and 16 with possible VAP but none with probable VAP. Compared with patients without VACs, patients with VACs had longer ICU LOS (by 6.2 days), longer duration on MV (by 7.7 days), and higher hospital mortality rate (50.0% vs 27.3%). The mortality rate attributable to VACs was 11.7%. Compared with those with VACs alone, patients with IVACs had longer duration on MV and increased ICU LOS but no higher mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS In China, surveillance of VACs and IVACs is able to identify MV patients with poorer outcomes. However, surveillance of possible and probable VAP can be problematic. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1388-1395. PMID:26310838

  4. Knee ligament injuries associated with long bone fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaseb M.H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibial and femoral fractures, commonly seen in emergency departments, may be associated with various knee ligament injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of such fracture-associated knee ligament problems, with especial attention to rapid diagnosis. Methods: This study was carried out in patients with femoral or tibial fractures who were operated on in Imam Khomeini Medical Center from March 2003 to March 2005. All patients underwent surgical repair immediately after acute fracture, followed by a thorough knee examination. Patients with positive clinical findings were further evaluated using the stress view and arthroscopy. Results: We enrolled 470 cases in this study, of which 266 were tibial and 204 were femoral fractures. There were 404 men and 67 women, with an average age of tibial fracture patients was 34.5 and 44.6 years for those with femoral fractures. Of all fractures, 66% were due to car accidents, 16% to industrial accidents and 8% due to falling. The overall prevalence of ligament injuries in tibial fractures was as follows: 6.58% ACL tearing, 2.5% PCL, 21.95% MCL and 14.63% LCL. The overall prevalence of ligament injuries in femoral fractures was as follows: 6% ACL tearing, 3% PCL, 14% MCL and 8% LCL. Conclusion: The prevalence of ligament injuries of the knee was highest in distal femoral and tibial plateau fractures. It is prudent to perform a thorough knee examination once the fracture is stabilized in the operating room for the early detection of ligament injuries and prevention of further complications.

  5. VEGF Promotes Malaria-Associated Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Epiphanio, Sabrina; Campos, Marta G.; Pamplona, Ana; Carapau, Daniel; Pena, Ana C.; Ataíde, Ricardo; Monteiro, Carla A. A.; Félix, Nuno; Costa-Silva, Artur; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Dias, Sérgio; Mota, Maria M

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of the clinical presentation and severity of malaria infections is broad, ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to severe forms of disease such as cerebral malaria (CM), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or severe anemia (SA). Rodent models that mimic human CM, PAM and SA syndromes have been established. Here, we show that DBA/2 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA constitute a new model for malaria-associat...

  6. Environmental reduplication associated with right frontal and parietal lobe injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruff, R.L.; Volpe, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with environmental reduplication, a specific form of spatial disorientation and confabulation are described. The patients maintained that their hospital rooms were located in their homes. Each patients had evidence of right frontal or right parietal injury based upon computed tomography, neurosurgery, and neuropsychological testing. The factors associated with environmental reduplication were: impaired spatial perception and visual memory, inability of the patients to recognise ...

  7. Improving Ventilator-Associated Event Surveillance in the National Healthcare Safety Network and Addressing Knowledge Gaps: Update and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Shelley; Rhodes, Barry; Klompas, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently transitioned from ventilator-associated pneumonia surveillance to ventilator-associated event (VAE) surveillance in adult inpatient settings. Since the transition, several modifications have been made to improve surveillance methods, and there is a growing body of data regarding the epidemiology, risk factors, and preventability of VAEs. Recent findings The VAE surveillance definition algorithm is based on objective criteria and includes three tiers: Ventilator-Associated Conditions, Infection-related Ventilator-Associated Complications, and Possible and Probable VAP. VAE surveillance expands the purview of surveillance beyond pneumonia alone to include additional complications of mechanical ventilation. Most VAEs are caused by pneumonia, pulmonary edema, atelectasis, and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome. VAEs are associated with adverse outcomes including prolonged mechanical ventilation, longer intensive care and hospital lengths-of-stay, and higher mortality rates. Studies to date suggest that minimizing sedation and optimizing fluid management can reduce VAE rates. Summary We review CDC’s recent updates on VAE surveillance definitions, methods, and tools, and provide an overview of the growing evidence base for VAE as a patient safety measure. Further work is needed to affirm and extend current knowledge about how best to prevent VAEs. PMID:24945615

  8. Surveillance of device-associated infections at a teaching hospital in rural Gujarat - India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Surveillance of hospital-acquired infection (HAI, particularly device-associated infection (DAI, helps in determining the infection rates, risk factors, and in planning the preventive strategies to ensure a quality healthcare in any hospital. The present study was carried out to know the prevalence of DAI in a tertiary care teaching hospital of rural Gujarat. Materials and Methods: A prospective, site-specific surveillance of three common DAIs that is catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI, IV-catheter-related bloodstream infection (IV-CRBSI, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP was carried out between July 2007 and April 2008, in different wards/ICUs. A surveillance plan, with guidelines and responsibilities of nurses, clinicians and microbiologist was prepared. Infection surveillance form for each patient suspected to have DAI was filled. The most representative clinical sample, depending on the type of suspected DAI, was collected using standard aseptic techniques and processed for aerobes and facultative anaerobes. All the isolates were identified and antimicrobial sensitivity testing performed as per CLSI guidelines. An accurate record of total device days for each of the indwelling devices under surveillance was also maintained. Data, collected in the prescribed formats, were analysed on monthly basis; and then, compiled at the end of the study. Descriptive analysis of the data was done and DAI rate was expressed as number of DAI per 1000 device days. Results: The overall infection rate for CA-UTI, IV-CRBSI, and VAP were found to be 0.6, 0.48, and 21.92 per 1000 device days, respectively. The organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, CONS, Enterococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Duration of indwelling devices was found to be the major risk-factor for acquiring DAIs. Low DAI rate might have been due to use of antibiotics, often prophylactic. Active surveillance is quite a tedious and time-consuming process; however the outcome is useful in prevention and control of DAIs.

  9. Direct cost associated with acquired brain injury in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Amy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired Brain Injury (ABI from traumatic and non traumatic causes is a leading cause of disability worldwide yet there is limited research summarizing the health system economic burden associated with ABI. The objective of this study was to determine the direct cost of publicly funded health care services from the initial hospitalization to three years post-injury for individuals with traumatic (TBI and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI in Ontario Canada. Methods A population-based cohort of patients discharged from acute hospital with an ABI code in any diagnosis position in 2004 through 2007 in Ontario was identified from administrative data. Publicly funded health care utilization was obtained from several Ontario administrative healthcare databases. Patients were stratified according to traumatic and non-traumatic causes of brain injury and whether or not they were discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation center. Health system costs were calculated across a continuum of institutional and community settings for up to three years after initial discharge. The continuum of settings included acute care emergency departments inpatient rehabilitation (IR complex continuing care home care services and physician visits. All costs were calculated retrospectively assuming the government payer’s perspective. Results Direct medical costs in an ABI population are substantial with mean cost in the first year post-injury per TBI and nTBI patient being $32132 and $38018 respectively. Among both TBI and nTBI patients those discharged to IR had significantly higher treatment costs than those not discharged to IR across all institutional and community settings. This tendency remained during the entire three-year follow-up period. Annual medical costs of patients hospitalized with a brain injury in Ontario in the first follow-up year were approximately $120.7 million for TBI and $368.7 million for nTBI. Acute care cost accounted for 46-65% of the total treatment cost in the first year overwhelming all other cost components. Conclusions The main finding of this study is that direct medical costs in ABI population are substantial and vary considerably by the injury cause. Although most expenses occur in the first follow-up year ABI patients continue to use variety of medical services in the second and third year with emphasis shifting over time from acute care and inpatient rehabilitation towards homecare physician services and long-term institutional care. More research is needed to capture economic costs for ABI patients not admitted to acute care.

  10. Association between infantile spasms and nonaccidental head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birca, Ala; D'Anjou, Guy; Carmant, Lionel

    2014-05-01

    Infantile spasms constitute a severe epileptic encephalopathy of infancy with poor long-term developmental outcome. Many diverse etiologies have been associated with infantile spasms, but the pathophysiological process is still not fully understood. We describe 2 cases of previously healthy 1- and 3-month-old infants who suffered a nonaccidental head injury with extensive cerebral lesions. Both presented with acute focal seizures rapidly controlled with phenobarbital. Nevertheless, they developed infantile spasms after a latency period of 3-4 months. Spasms were rapidly controlled with vigabatrin. Both children manifested with developmental delay, either exacerbated (case 1) or elicited (case 2) by infantile spasms. Our report highlights nonaccidental head injury as a risk factor for developing infantile spasms following a seizure-free latency period. A better understanding of the pathophysiology linking accidental brain trauma with infantile spasms could lead to more effective neuroprotective strategies. In the meantime, increased awareness and follow-up are warranted. PMID:23580697

  11. Acute traumatic injuries in automotive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, M; Baker, S P; Li, G; Smith, G S

    1998-10-01

    Motor vehicle manufacturing, with its varied tasks, challenging work environment, and diverse worker populations, presents many hazards to employees. This study examined routinely collected surveillance data from a major motor vehicle manufacturer to identify injury types, high-risk workers, causes of injury, and factors associated with work loss. Injury and personnel data were used to calculate injury rates. Injury data were from the routinely collected medical and safety surveillance system on occupational injuries. The number of persons working in the plants was estimated using year-end personnel reports. Key word searches supplementing the analyses provided insight into the specific circumstances of injury. The most common injuries were sprains/strains (39% of the total), lacerations (22%), and contusions (15%). Forty-nine percent of the injuries resulted in one or more lost or restricted workdays; 25% resulted in 7 or more lost or restricted workdays. The injuries most likely to result in work loss were amputations, hernias and fractures. Sprains/strains accounted for 65% of all lost workdays. Injury rates ranged from 13.8 per 100 person-years at stamping plants to 28.7 at parts depots. Even within similar types of plants, injury rates varied widely, with a twofold difference among the individual assembly plants in overall injury rates. Injury surveillance systems with descriptive data on injury events shed light on the circumstances under which certain types of injuries occur and can provide the basis for preventive interventions. Sources of variation and potential biases are discussed, providing guidance for those interested in designing and using surveillance systems for occupational injuries. PMID:9750941

  12. Frequency of co-morbidities associated with spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequencies of comorbidities (dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) of duration > 1 year. Study Design: Case control. Place and Duration of Study: Spinal Cord Injury Department, Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM) Rawalpindi and Department of Chemical Pathology, Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), from October 2013 to March 2014. Patients and Methods: Thirty six patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI), level C5 to T12 were included by non-probability, convenience sampling. Control group consisted of age and sex matched healthy individuals. A detailed medical history was obtained. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for plasma glucose and serum lipid profile. Results: Out of thirty six patients, 31 (86.1%) were male and 5 (13.9%) were females; their mean age was 36.6 ± 11 years. Mean duration of injury was 6.04 ± 3.35 years. Among cases, dyslipidemias were detected in 25 (69.4%) patients while 7 (19.4%) patients had diabetes mellitus. Whereas in control group, frequency of dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus were significantly lower than cases i.e 13.8% and 5.5% respectively. Also no significant difference was found between blood pressures of study group when compared with control group. Conclusion: Individuals with chronic SCI had more frequent associated co-morbid conditions like dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus than normal individuals. Early screening is recommended in patients having SCI >6 months for better patient care and reduction in long term comorbidities in such patients. (author)

  13. Resilience Is Associated with Outcome from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losoi, Heidi; Silverberg, Noah D; Wäljas, Minna; Turunen, Senni; Rosti-Otajärvi, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Luoto, Teemu Miikka Artturi; Julkunen, Juhani; Öhman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L

    2015-07-01

    Resilient individuals manifest adaptive behavior and are better able to recover from adversity. The association between resilience and outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is examined, and the reliability and validity of the Resilience Scale and its short form in mTBI research is evaluated. Patients with mTBI (n=74) and orthopedic controls (n=39) completed the Resilience Scale at one, six, and 12 months after injury. Additionally, self-reported post-concussion symptoms, fatigue, insomnia, pain, post-traumatic stress, and depression, as well as quality of life, were evaluated. The internal consistency of the Resilience Scale and the short form ranged from 0.91 to 0.93 for the mTBI group and from 0.86 to 0.95 for controls. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.70 to 0.82. Patients with mTBI and moderate-to-high resilience reported significantly fewer post-concussion symptoms, less fatigue, insomnia, traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms, and better quality of life, than the patients with low resilience. No association between resilience and time to return to work was found. Resilience was associated with self-reported outcome from mTBI, and based on this preliminary study, can be reliably evaluated with Resilience Scale and its short form in those with mTBIs. PMID:25764398

  14. Thermal injury associated with infant walking-aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, M A; Henderson, H P

    1988-06-01

    Leicester Royal Infirmary and Government statistics have shown that an increase in the use of baby-walkers has been accompanied by a rise in the incidence of burns associated with their use. These burns tend to be more severe than the average for this age-group. Three case histories are presented as illustrations. The head, neck and hands are particularly affected. Three mechanisms of injury are identified. Safety guidelines are unrealistic and not enforced, testing is inadequate, and the devices hinder normal motor development. PMID:3167590

  15. Luxatio erecta humeri: Report of a swimming injury with analysis of the mechanism of the injury and associated injuries in literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökku?, Kemal; Sagtas, Ergin; Saylik, Murat; Ayd?n, Ahmet Turan; Atmaca, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Inferior shoulder dislocation also referred to as luxatio erecta is an unusual and rare type of shoulder dislocation. Its incidence is about 0.5% among all shoulder dislocations. After an exhaustive search of all the available literature we were unable to find a swimming accident case that did not have other associated injuries and an uneventful reduction. The mechanism of the injury was mostly related to direct axial loading and indirect hyperabduction lever arm. We would like to emphasize the importance of this being a swimming accident, a type of accident that requires awareness of the possibility of dangerous asphyxia injuries caused by panic in the water (swimming pool, river, lake, sea, etc.). We described the nature of the injury and review the literature concerning the mechanism of the injury and associated neurovascular impairment at admission time. We also presented a supplemental video to contribute to the education of young residents and orthopedic surgeons. PMID:25709253

  16. A proposta da rede de serviços sentinela como estratégia da vigilância de violências e acidentes The injury surveillance system based on sentinel health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as bases de dados oficiais permitem o monitoramento da mortalidade e internações no SUS, decorrentes dos acidentes e violências. É preciso conhecer a magnitude e o perfil dessas causas que demandam os serviços de emergência, bem como identificar alguns problemas ocultos tais como as violências doméstica e sexual. O propósito deste artigo é apresentar a proposta do Ministério da Saúde de implantação da Rede de Serviços Sentinela de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes - Rede VIVA, iniciada em 2006, que visa complementar o sistema de informações existente para a vigilância dessas causas. Para obter um quadro mais completo do problema e atender à legislação vigente no País, foram estabelecidos dois componentes: 1 Vigilância de acidentes e violências em emergências hospitalares selecionadas: coleta em um mês a cada ano, através de uma amostra; 2 Vigilância das violências sexual, doméstica e/ou outras violências interpessoais em serviços de referência: coleta universal e contínua. O estabelecimento da Rede VIVA foi realizado pelo Ministério da Saúde em parceria com as Secretarias Estaduais e Municipais de Saúde a partir de critérios previamente estabelecidos. A adesão ao projeto foi acima das expectativas, todas as regiões do Brasil foram representadas.In Brazil, the official data sets allow monitoring the impact of injury deaths and injury hospitalization in the public health system. But it is necessary to gather more information about the magnitude and the characteristics of injuries at Emergency Departments (ED, as well as to identify some hidden problems, such as domestic and sexual violence. The purpose of this article is to present the new Injury Surveillance System based on Sentinel Health Services, carried out by the Ministry of Health in order to broaden the knowledge of these causes.To have a more accurate picture of injuries and to enforce the law which made mandatory the information about violence against women in the country, the measures to be taken were twofold: 1 injury surveillance in ED, carried out in chosen services, collecting one-month data yearly, through a sample; 2 domestic, sexual and interpersonal violence surveillance carried out in violence reference services, through universal and continuous data collection, involving a larger number of services. The implementation of that Health Sentinel Services Network has been conducted by the Ministry of Health in partnership with the State and Municipal Health Departments based on pre-established criteria. The adherence to the project has been taken place all over Brazil.

  17. Floating Knee Injury Associated with Patellar Tendon Rupture: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Singaravadivelu Vaidyanathan; Jagannath Panchanathan Ganesan; Mugundhan Moongilpatti Sengodan

    2012-01-01

    Floating knee injuries are frequently associated with other concomitant injuries to the ipsilateral limb or other parts of body of which injury to the ipsilateral knee ligaments carries significance for various reasons. A middle-aged man sustained a floating knee injury following RTA. DCS fixation by bridge plating technique for the distal femur and lateral buttress plating by MIPO technique for proximal tibia were planned and executed under spinal anesthesia with image intensifier. In additi...

  18. Aggravating andmitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Vavatsoulas,, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is one of the leading cycling nations, where cycling trips constitute a large share of the total trips, and cycling safety assumes a top priority position in the agenda of policy makers. The current study sheds light on the aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity on Danish roads by examining a comprehensive set of accidents involving a cyclist and a collision partner between 2007 and 2011. Method: This study estimates a generalized ordered logit model of the severity of cyclist injuries because of its ability to accommodate the ordered-response nature of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Results: Model estimates show that cyclist fragility (children under 10 years old and elderly cyclists over 60 years of age) and cyclist intoxication are aggravating individual factors,while helmet use is a mitigating factor. Speed limits above 70–80 km/h, slippery road surface, and location of the crash on road sections are aggravating infrastructure factors, while the availability of cycling paths and dense urban development are mitigating factors. Heavy vehicle involvement and conflicts between cyclists going straight or turning left and other vehicles going straight are aggravating vehicle involvement factors. Practical applications: The results are discussed in the context of applied policies, engineering, and traffic management solutions for bicycle safety in Denmark.

  19. VEGF promotes malaria-associated acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epiphanio, Sabrina; Campos, Marta G; Pamplona, Ana; Carapau, Daniel; Pena, Ana C; Ataíde, Ricardo; Monteiro, Carla A A; Félix, Nuno; Costa-Silva, Artur; Marinho, Claudio R F; Dias, Sérgio; Mota, Maria M

    2010-05-01

    The spectrum of the clinical presentation and severity of malaria infections is broad, ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to severe forms of disease such as cerebral malaria (CM), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or severe anemia (SA). Rodent models that mimic human CM, PAM and SA syndromes have been established. Here, we show that DBA/2 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA constitute a new model for malaria-associated ALI. Up to 60% of the mice showed dyspnea, airway obstruction and hypoxemia and died between days 7 and 12 post-infection. The most common pathological findings were pleural effusion, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, consistent with increased lung vessel permeability, while the blood-brain barrier was intact. Malaria-associated ALI correlated with high levels of circulating VEGF, produced de novo in the spleen, and its blockage led to protection of mice from this syndrome. In addition, either splenectomization or administration of the anti-inflammatory molecule carbon monoxide led to a significant reduction in the levels of sera VEGF and to protection from ALI. The similarities between the physiopathological lesions described here and the ones occurring in humans, as well as the demonstration that VEGF is a critical host factor in the onset of malaria-associated ALI in mice, not only offers important mechanistic insights into the processes underlying the pathology related with malaria but may also pave the way for interventional studies. PMID:20502682

  20. Injury surveillance in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Contreiras, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    In Portugal, the National Health Service (NHS) is responsible for providing health care to its ten and a half million inhabitants. Health service planning and regulation take largely place at the central level in the Ministry of Health (MoH) and its institutions, through its National Health Plan. The management of the NHS is devolved to the 5 health regions, Norte, Centro, Lisboa e Vale do Tejo, Alentejo and Algarve, and to the 2 autonomous regions, Açores and Madeira. Primary care centres...

  1. A practical tool for public health surveillance: Semi-automated coding of short injury narratives from large administrative databases using Naïve Bayes algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen R; Lehto, Mark R; Corns, Helen L

    2015-11-01

    Public health surveillance programs in the U.S. are undergoing landmark changes with the availability of electronic health records and advancements in information technology. Injury narratives gathered from hospital records, workers compensation claims or national surveys can be very useful for identifying antecedents to injury or emerging risks. However, classifying narratives manually can become prohibitive for large datasets. The purpose of this study was to develop a human-machine system that could be relatively easily tailored to routinely and accurately classify injury narratives from large administrative databases such as workers compensation. We used a semi-automated approach based on two Naïve Bayesian algorithms to classify 15,000 workers compensation narratives into two-digit Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) event (leading to injury) codes. Narratives were filtered out for manual review if the algorithms disagreed or made weak predictions. This approach resulted in an overall accuracy of 87%, with consistently high positive predictive values across all two-digit BLS event categories including the very small categories (e.g., exposure to noise, needle sticks). The Naïve Bayes algorithms were able to identify and accurately machine code most narratives leaving only 32% (4853) for manual review. This strategy substantially reduces the need for resources compared with manual review alone. PMID:26412196

  2. Poor association between the progression criteria in active surveillance and subsequent histopathological findings following radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between active surveillance (AS) progression criteria and histopathology features in subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 229 patients managed on AS, 80 patients underwent RP, of whom 68 met at least one of the following three progression criteria: progression on rebiopsy, short prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (PSAdt) and increase clinical tumour category (cT). Patients revealing histopathological features in the RP specimens involving GS ? 7 (3 + 4) were considered to have achieved a potential survival gain from the procedure (timely RP). The association between the progression criteria and timely RP was analysed using univariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 68 patients who met at least one of the progression criteria, 66% had timely RP features. Progression on rebiopsy was significantly associated with timely RP [odds ratio (OR) = 5.00, 95% confidence interval (CI)1.51-16.51]. Although not statistically significant, progression defined by PSAdt was negatively associated with timely RP (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-1.00). Increase in cT showed no association with timely RP (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.35-3.87). CONCLUSIONS: A poor association was found between the progression criteria employed in the AS programme and histopathology features after subsequent RP. Only progression on rebiopsy was significantly associated with final histopathology.

  3. Death following traumatic brain injury in Drosophila is associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Katzenberger, Rebeccah J; Chtarbanova, Stanislava; Rimkus, Stacey A; Fischer, Julie A; Kaur, Gulpreet; Seppala, Jocelyn M; Swanson, Laura C; Zajac, Jocelyn E; Ganetzky, Barry; Wassarman, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Unfavorable TBI outcomes result from primary mechanical injuries to the brain and ensuing secondary non-mechanical injuries that are not limited to the brain. Our genome-wide association study of Drosophila melanogaster revealed that the probability of death following TBI is associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in tissue barrier function and glucose homeostasis. We found that TBI caus...

  4. Is the use of oral contraceptives associated with operatively treated anterior cruciate ligament injury?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahr-Wagner, Lene; Thillemann, Theis Muncholm; Mehnert, Frank; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Lind, Martin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is 2 to 9 times higher in women than in men. In addition, in vitro studies have demonstrated that ACL is an estrogen target tissue, and some studies have therefore suggested a protective association between oral contraceptives (OC) and the likelihood of sustaining ACL injury. HYPOTHESIS: There is a protective association between OC use and the likelihood of operatively treated ACL injury. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Lev...

  5. Pain and Injury Associated with Powerlifting Training in Visually Impaired Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykowsky, Mark J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed occurrence and level of pain and injury history associated with powerlifting training in 11 adults with visual impairments. Powerlifting training was associated with an elevated occurrence of pain in shoulders, elbows, lower back, and knee regions. Injury rate, however, was lower than for athletes without visual impairments.…

  6. Wild bird mortality and West Nile virus surveillance: Biases associated with detection, reporting, and carcass persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M.R.; Stallknecht, D.E.; Willis, J.; Conroy, M.J.; Davidson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance targeting dead wild birds, in particular American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), plays a critical role in West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance in the United States. Using crow decoy surrogates, detection and reporting of crow carcasses within urban and rural environments of DeKalb County, Georgia were assessed for potential biases that might occur in the county's WNV surveillance program. In each of two replicated trials, during July and September 2003, 400 decoys were labeled with reporting instructions and distributed along randomly chosen routes throughout designated urban and rural areas within DeKalb County. Information-theoretic methods were used to compare alternative models incorporating the effects of area and trial on probabilities of detection and reporting. The model with the best empirical support included the effects of area on both detection and reporting of decoys. The proportion of decoys detected in the urban area (0.605, SE=0.024) was approximately twice that of the rural area (0.293, SE =0.023), and the proportion of decoys reported in the urban area (0.273, SE =0.023) was approximately three times that of the rural area (0.103, SE=0.028). These results suggest that human density and associated factors can substantially influence dead crow detection and reporting and, thus, the perceived distribution of WNV. In a second and separate study, the persistence and fate of American crow and house sparrow (Passer domesticus) carcasses were assessed in urban and rural environments in Athens-Clarke, Madison, and Oconee counties, Georgia. Two replicated trials using 96 carcasses of each species were conducted during July and September 2004. For a portion of the carcasses, motion sensitive cameras were used to monitor scavenging species visits. Most carcasses (82%) disappeared or were decayed by the end of the 6-day study. Carcass persistence averaged 1.6 days in rural areas and 2.1 days in urban areas. We analyzed carcass persistence rates using a known-fate model framework in program MARK. Model selection based on Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC) indicated that the best model explaining carcass persistence rates included species and number of days of exposure; however, the model including area and number of days of exposure received approximately equal support. Model-averaged carcass persistence rates were higher for urban areas and for crow carcasses. Six mammalian and one avian species were documented scavenging upon carcasses. Dead wild birds could represent potential sources of oral WNV exposure to these scavenging species. Species composition of the scavenger assemblage was similar in urban and rural areas but "scavenging pressure" was greater in rural areas. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  7. Multiligament knee injuries with associated tibial plateau fractures: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabesan, Vani J; Danielsky, Paul J; Childs, Abby; Valikodath, Tom

    2015-04-18

    The management of a combination of fracture and multiligament knee injury (MKI) in traumatic knee injury remains controversial, and there are evolving treatment recommendations. Currently, there are no studies focusing on older adult patients with MKI's in combination with tibia fractures. As a result, there is no well-established treatment algorithm for older adult patients with these complex injuries. We report two cases of MKI's with concomitant fractures in patients fifty years of age or older. Both patients were treated surgically for their associated tibial plateau fractures, but were managed with conservative treatment of the multiligamentous knee injuries. We also provide a review of the literature and guidelines for older adult patients with these types of complex traumatic injuries. Early to mid term acceptable outcomes were achieved for both patients through surgical fixation of the tibial plateau fracture and conservative treatment of the ligament injuries. We propose a comprehensive treatment algorithm for management of these complex injuries. PMID:25893180

  8. Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey: Association Between Part-time Employment and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Myung-Soo; Jeong, Hyunsuk; Lee, Won-Chul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the association between in-school students' part-time work and 1-year suicide attempts in Korea. The authors analyzed Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (2008), which included 75 238 samples that represent Korean middle and high school students. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between part-time work and suicide attempt during the past 1 year, controlled by sociodemographic, school-related, lifestyle, and psychological factors. Among high school students, there was no association between part-time work and suicide attempts. However, part-time work was associated with suicide attempts significantly among middle school students (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval = 1.37-1.83). Despite the limitation that details of the part-time work were not included in this study, it was found that middle school students' part-time work may increase suicide attempts, and the circumstances of Korean adolescents' employment, especially that of younger adolescents, would need to be reconsidered to prevent their suicide attempts. PMID:24566603

  9. Subtle Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Mild Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lawson, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,345 high school students and 2,321 university students found that 30-37% reported having experienced a head injury, with 12-15% reporting loss of consciousness. Significant relationships were found between mild head injury incidence and gender; sleep difficulties; social difficulties; handedness pattern; and diagnoses of attention…

  10. Vigilancia epidemiológica de infecciones asociadas a la asistencia sanitaria / Epidemiological surveillance of healthcare-associated infections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vicente Mario, Pacheco Licor; Dianelys de la Caridad, Gutiérrez Castañeda; Marly, Serradet Gómez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la vigilancia epidemiológica es una herramienta útil para identificar el riesgo de adquirir una infección asociada a la asistencia sanitaria en los hospitales y los factores de riesgo relacionados. Objetivo: demostrar los resultados de la vigilancia epidemiológica de infecciones en el [...] Hospital General Abel Santamaría Cuadrado de la provincia Pinar del Río. Material y método: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, prospectivo. El universo de estudio quedó constituido por los 25786 pacientes egresados en el año 2012 y la muestra por los 578 pacientes que adquirieron una infección asociada a la asistencia sanitaria. Se utilizaron las variables: servicio de procedencia, localización de la infección, microorganismo aislado y defunción. La información se obtuvo mediante la revisión de historias clínicas, registros de microbiología, registros de anatomía patológica y certificados de defunción. Resultados: se obtuvo una tasa global de infección de 2,2 por cada 100 egresos del servicio. El 47,5% de los pacientes con infecciones tuvo una afección respiratoria. Las enterobacterias fueron los gérmenes de mayor frecuencia de aislamiento, predominando entre ellos la E. Coli y el enterobacter. El riesgo de morir por infecciones asociadas a la asistencia fue de 4 por 1000 egresos hospitalarios, con un letalidad de un 20,1%. Conclusiones: la vigilancia epidemiológica mostró ser efectiva para la identificación de infecciones asociadas a la asistencia, con una tasa de incidencia hospitalaria adecuada, siendo más frecuentes las infecciones respiratorias sobre todo por enterobacterias, con una mortalidad y letalidad adecuada para este tipo de hospital. Abstract in english Introduction: epidemiological surveillance is useful for identifying the risk of acquiring in hospitals a healthcare-associated infection and other related risk factors. Objective: show the results of epidemiological surveillance of infections in Abel Santamaría Cuadrado General Hospital of Pinar de [...] l Río Province. Material and method: An observational, descriptive, prospective study. The study group was composed of the 25 786 patients discharged in 2012 and the sample, by the 578 patients who acquired an infection associated to healthcare. The following variables were used: service of origin, location of infection, isolated organism and death. The information was obtained by reviewing medical, microbiology and pathological anatomy records and death certificates. Results: a generalized infection rate of 2.2 per 100 discharges from service was obtained. 47.5% of patients with infections had a respiratory condition. Enterobacteria were germs isolated the most, predominantly including E. coli and Enterobacter. The risk of dying from healthcare-associated infections was 4 per 1000 hospital discharges with a fatality rate of 20.1%. Conclusions: epidemiological surveillance was effective for identifying healthcare-associated infections with an adequate rate of hospital incidence, being more frequent respiratory infections, especially Enterobacteriaceae, with mortality and lethality suitable for this type of hospital.

  11. Individual and social factors associated with workplace injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Kumar

    2011-01-01

    636,000 Australians injured themselves in a work-related injury in the period 2009-2010. Of these injured Australians, 88% continued to work in their same place, 5.2% had to change their jobs, and 6.9% were no longer employed. Men continue to be the most injured individuals in workplace injuries (56%) with the highest rates of injury in the 45-49 years (72 per 1000 people) and 20-24 years (63 per 1000 people) age groups. Furthermore, 59% of these 636,000 Australians injured in workplace injur...

  12. Is perceived racial privilege associated with health? Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori

    2009-03-01

    While racial discrimination has gained increasing attention in public health research, little is known about perceived racial privilege and health. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, this study explored the relationship of both perceived racial discrimination and privilege with well-being in the USA. Data were extracted from the BRFSS 2004 data set, in which 22,412 respondents in seven states and one major city provided data on perceived racial discrimination and privilege at work. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationships of differential racial treatment to self-rated general health status and the number of physically and mentally unhealthy days. Racially stratified analyses found that perceived racial privilege was significantly associated with more days of poor physical and mental health. This relationship was consistent for Whites, but for racial minorities it appeared on only some outcome measures. Reports of being treated worse than other races in the workplace were associated with poor health for all racial groups, as had been reported in previous studies on racial discrimination. Because racial discrimination and racial privilege are both products of racism, this study's findings suggest that racism may harm all involved. Impacts of perceived racial privilege deserve more attention in the literature on racism and health. PMID:19136189

  13. Prevalence of COPD and its association with socioeconomic status in China: Findings from China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Yong; Li Yichong; Zhang Mei; Yin Peng; Zhao Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Socioeconomic status is likely an independent risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), but little research has been done in China to study this association in a nationwide sample. Methods We used data from the 2007 China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance of 49,363 Chinese men and women aged 15-69 years to examine the association between the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnosed COPD and socioeconomic status defined by both educational ...

  14. Characteristics and associated factors with sports injuries among children and adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Franciele M., Vanderlei; Luiz C. M., Vanderlei; Fabio N., Bastos; Jayme, Netto Júnior; Carlos M., Pastre.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in childr [...] en and adolescents. METHOD: Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. RESULTS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice.

  15. Bucillamine, a thiol antioxidant, prevents transplantation-associated reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Amersi, Farin; Nelson, Sally K.; Shen, Xiu Da; Kato, Hirohisa; Melinek, Judy; Jerzy W. Kupiec-Weglinski; Horwitz, Lawrence D.; Busuttil, Ronald W; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2002-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious potential threat to outcomes in organ transplantation and other clinical arenas in which there is temporary interruption of blood flow. I/R is a frequent cause of primary failure in organ transplantation. We hypothesized that the antioxidant bucillamine, a potent sulfhydryl donor, would protect against I/R injury in high-risk organ transplants. Because livers subjected to prolonged ischemia and very fatty livers are highly susceptible to severe I...

  16. Management of Neuropathic Pain Associated with Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Ellen M.; Rekand, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an injury to the spinal cord that leads to varying degrees of motor and/or sensory deficits and paralysis. Chronic pain of both neuropathic and nociceptive type is common and contributes to reduced quality of life. The aim of the review is to provide current clinical understanding as well as discuss and evaluate efficacy of pharmacological interventions demonstrated in the clinical studies. The review was based on literature search in PubMed and Medline with words ...

  17. The prevalence and impact of overuse injuries in five Norwegian sports: Application of a new surveillance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarsen, B; Bahr, R; Heymans, M W; Engedahl, M; Midtsundstad, G; Rosenlund, L; Thorsen, G; Myklebust, G

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the true extent and severity of overuse injuries in sport, largely because of methodological challenges involved in recording them. This study assessed the prevalence of overuse injuries among Norwegian athletes from five sports using a newly developed method designed specifically for this purpose. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire was distributed weekly by e-mail to 45 cross-country skiers, 98 cyclists, 50 floorball players, 55 handball players, and 65 volleyball players for 13 weeks. The prevalence of overuse problems at the shoulder, lower back, knee, and anterior thigh was monitored throughout the study and summary measures of an injury severity score derived from athletes' questionnaire responses were used to gauge the relative impact of overuse problems in each area. The area where overuse injuries had the greatest impact was the knee in volleyball where, on average, 36% of players had some form of complaint (95% CI 32-39%). Other prevalent areas included the shoulder in handball (22%, 95% CI 16-27%) the knee in cycling (23%, 95% CI 17-28%), and the knee and lower back in floorball (27%, 95% CI 24-31% and 29%, 95% CI 25-33%, respectively). PMID:24684525

  18. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in an American Indian Reservation Community: Results from the White Mountain Apache Surveillance System, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Mary F.; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Walkup, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe characteristics and correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among the White Mountain Apache Tribe. NSSI has not been studied before in American Indian samples despite associated risks for suicide, which disproportionately affect American Indian youth. Method: Apache case managers collected data through a tribally…

  19. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagener, G.; Gubitosa, G.; Wang, S.; Borregaard, N.; Kim, M.; Lee, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is proposed as an early marker of kidney injury. We report the association of urinary NGAL with indexes of intraoperative renal hypoperfusion (cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time) and acute kidney injury (AKI) after adult cardiac surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Diagnostic test accuracy. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adult cardiac surgical patients (n = 426) in a single center from 2004 to 2006. INDEX TEST: Urinary NGAL immediatel...

  20. Phaeohyphomycosis in transplant recipients: Results from the Transplant Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Todd P; Baddley, John W; Walsh, Thomas J; Alexander, Barbara D; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Perl, Trish M; Walker, Randall; Patterson, Thomas F; Schuster, Mindy G; Lyon, G Marshall; Wingard, John R; Andes, David R; Park, Benjamin J; Brandt, Mary E; Pappas, Peter G

    2015-06-01

    Transplant recipients are at a high risk for developing invasive fungal infections. The agents of phaeohyphomycosis are environmental molds found worldwide, and they cause a broad spectrum of disease including skin and subcutaneous lesions, pneumonia, central nervous system disease, fungemia, and disseminated disease. Using data from the Transplant Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET), we evaluated patients with proven and probable phaeohyphomycosis. Centers collected data on demographics, co-morbid conditions, clinical features, treatment, and three-month mortality. Fifty-six patients with phaeohyphomycosis were identified from 15 centers, comprising 26 stem cell transplant (SCT) and 30 solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Median time to diagnosis post-transplant was 358 days (SCT 100 days; SOT 685 days; P = <.001). The most frequent pathogen was Alternaria species (32%). Disseminated disease was found in 55.4%. Cutaneous infection was more common in SOT (53.3% vs 23.1%; P = .021), while pulmonary disease was more common in SCT (57.7 vs. 26.7; P = .019). Voriconazole (44.6%) and amphotericin B preparations (37.5%) were the most common antifungal therapies. Overall mortality was 25% and was higher in SCT than in SOT (42% vs 10%; P = <.001). A wide variety of organisms encompass phaeohyphomycosis contributing to varying types of infection in transplant recipients. Site of infection, time to disease, and mortality varies significantly between SCT and SOT recipients. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B and voriconazole were the most common antifungals used to treat this disorder. PMID:25908651

  1. Data sharing for prevention: a case study in the development of a comprehensive emergency department injury surveillance system and its use in preventing violence and alcohol-related harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine emergency department (ED) data sharing via a local injury surveillance system and assess its contribution to the prevention of violence and alcohol-related harms. Methods 6-year (2004–2010) exploratory study analysing injury attendances to one ED in the North West of England using descriptive and trend analyses. Results Over the 6-year period, there were 242?796 ED injury attendances, including 21?683 for intentional injuries. Compared with unintentional injury patients, intentional injury patients were more likely to be men, aged 18–34?years, live in the most deprived communities, have attended the ED at night/weekends, have been injured in a public place and have consumed alcohol prior to the injury. Detailed data collected on alcohol and violence-related ED attendances were shared with local partners to monitor local trends and inform prevention activity including targeted policing and licensing enforcement. Over the 6-year period, intentional ED injury attendances decreased by 35.6% and alcohol-related assault attendances decreased by 30.3%. Conclusions The collection of additional ED data on assault details and alcohol use prior to injury, and its integration into multi-agency policy and practice, played an important role in driving local violence prevention activity. Further research is needed to assess the direct contribution ED data sharing makes to reductions in violence. PMID:22210640

  2. Surveillance of multidrug resistance-associated genes in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe DONG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective?To understand the status of multidrug resistance-associated genes carried by Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from elderly patients in our hospital in order to provide a basis for surveillance of drug-resistance and inflection control. Methods?One hundred and twenty A. baumannii isolates were collected from elderly patients between 2008 and 2010. The mean age of the patients was 85 (65 to 95 years. Whonet 5.6 software was used to analyze the resistance rate of 16 antimicrobial agents. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the sequencing method were adopted to detect 10 kinds of resistance genes (blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA- 23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaTEM, blaampC, armA, ISAba1, intI 1, and intI 2. The corresponding resistance gene profiling(RGP was analyzed and designated according to the status of resistance genes. Results?The resistance rates to the remaining 15 kinds of antibiotics varied between 70.8% and 97.5%, with the exception of the sensitivity rate to polymyxin B by up to more than 90%. The positivity rates of blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaTEM, blaampC, armA, ISAba1 and intI 1 were 100%, 81.7%, 0.8%, 10.8%, 91.7%, 81.7%, 86.7%, and 83.3% respectively. A total of 18 kinds of drug-resistant gene maps were found, but blaOXA-24-like and intI 2 were not detected. Among these gene maps, the rate of RGP1 (blaOXA-23-like+blaampC+armA+ISAba1+ intI 1 was as high as 60.8%. Conclusions A. baumannii isolates from elderly patients have a higher carrying rate of drug-resistant genes, resulting in severe multidrugresistant conditions. Therefore, full-time infection control personnel and clinical physicians should actively participate in the surveillance, prevention, and control of infections caused by A. baumannii in the elderly.

  3. Association football injuries to the brain. A preliminary report.

    OpenAIRE

    Tysvaer, A.; Storli, O.

    1981-01-01

    In 1975 the authors sent a questionnaire to all players in the Norwegian First Division League Clubs to record the incidence of head injuries due to heading. The conclusion of the questionnaire is that there seems to be a low percentage of serious head injuries. None of the players had been operated on for epi- or subdural hematoma or other brain damage and only a few have had concussion due to heading. In sixty per cent of the players a full neurological examination and EEG recording was und...

  4. Hematochezia Associated with Sevalamer-Induced Mucosal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintamaneni, Preethi; Das, Rohit; Kuan, Shih-Fan; Kermanshahi, Taher R; Hashash, Jana G

    2014-04-01

    We present a case of a 61-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who developed painless hematochezia following initiation of anticoagulation. Work-up revealed a large ulceration in the sigmoid colon, and histologic images revealed sevelamer crystals embedded in the colonic mucosa, consistent with sevelamer crystal-mediated injury. This is a novel cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage that has not previously been described in the literature. Physicians should be aware of the potential for sevelamer-induced injury. PMID:26157856

  5. A Critical Role for Muscle Ring Finger-1 in Acute Lung Injury–associated Skeletal Muscle Wasting

    OpenAIRE

    Files, D. Clark; D'Alessio, Franco R; Johnston, Laura F.; Kesari, Priya; Aggarwal, Neil R.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Mock, Jason R.; Simmers, Jessica L.; DeGorordo, Antonio; Murdoch, Jared; Monte S Willis; Patterson, Cam; Tankersley, Clarke G.; Messi, Maria L.; Liu, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a debilitating condition associated with severe skeletal muscle weakness that persists in humans long after lung injury has resolved. The molecular mechanisms underlying this condition are unknown.

  6. Facebook Surveillance of Former Romantic Partners: Associations with PostBreakup Recovery and Personal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Tara C.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that continuing offline contact with an ex-romantic partner following a breakup may disrupt emotional recovery. The present study examined whether continuing online contact with an ex-partner through remaining Facebook friends and/or engaging in surveillance of the ex-partner's Facebook page inhibited postbreakup adjustment and growth above and beyond offline contact. Analysis of the data provided by 464 participants revealed that Facebook surveillance was associat...

  7. MR imaging of tibial plateau fractures : evaluation of fracture types and associated soft tissue injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing fracture types and soft tissue injuries associated with tibial plateau fractures. MRI was performed in 38 patients with tibial plateau fractures, each of which was classified according to the Schatzker system. We evaluated MR images and assessed the prevalence of each fracture type and accompanying soft tissue injuries. We also assessed whether ligamentous injury correlated with the extent of articular depression, splitting, and comminution. In 24 patients, diagnosis was based on MRI and operative or arthroscopic findings, and in 14 patients, on MRI alone. The totals of fracture types I, II, III, IV, V and VI were 4(11%), 15(39%), 6(16%), 4(11%), 4(11%), and 5 cases (13%), respectively. In 30 cases (79%), there were associated ligamentous or meniscal injuries. Medial collateral ligaments and lateral menisci were injured in 17(45%) and 14 cases (37%), respectively. Type II and IV fracture patterns were associated with soft tissue injuries in 14 of 15 cases (93%) and 4 of 4 cases (100%), respectively. As the extent of articular depression increased and the extent of bony comminution decreased, there was an increased prevalence of accompanying ligamentous injuries. In tibial plateau fractures, MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality for the evaluation of both fracture type and accompanying ligamentous or meniscal injuries

  8. Bloodstream Infections and Clinical Significance of Healthcare-associated Bacteremia: A Multicenter Surveillance Study in Korean Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Jun Seong; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo; Yeom, Joon Sup; Ki, Hyun Kyun; Kim, Shin-Woo; Chang, Hyun-Ha; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Jung, Sook-In; Shin, Sang Yop; Oh, Hee Bok; Lee, Yeong Seon; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lee, Nam Yong

    2010-01-01

    Recent changes in healthcare systems have changed the epidemiologic paradigms in many infectious fields including bloodstream infection (BSI). We compared clinical characteristics of community-acquired (CA), hospital-acquired (HA), and healthcare-associated (HCA) BSI. We performed a prospective nationwide multicenter surveillance study from 9 university hospitals in Korea. Total 1,605 blood isolates were collected from 2006 to 2007, and 1,144 isolates were considered true pathogens. HA-BSI ac...

  9. Results from the First 12 Months of the National Surveillance of Healthcare Associated Outbreaks in Germany, 2011/2012

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, Sebastian; Eckmanns, Tim; Benzler, Justus; Tolksdorf, Kristin; Claus, Hermann; Gilsdorf, Andreas; Abu Sin, Muna

    2014-01-01

    Background: In August 2011, the German Protection against Infection Act was amended, mandating the reporting of healthcare associated infection (HAI) outbreak notifications by all healthcare workers in Germany via local public health authorities and federal states to the Robert Koch Institute (RKI). Objective: To describe the reported HAI-outbreaks and the surveillance system’s structure and capabilities. Methods: Information on each outbreak was collected using standard paper form...

  10. Factors Associated with Significant Ocular Injury in Conservatively Treated Orbital Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine factors associated with the presence of significant ocular injury in subjects with orbital fractures. Subjects. A consecutive prospective cohort of 161 patients presenting to a general tertiary referral hospital with orbital fractures and undergoing initial conservative treatment was identified. Subjects were assessed at time of injury for the need for emergency surgery, and those initially treated conservatively were subsequently followed up by the Ophthalmology Department to assess for ocular injury requiring ophthalmic management at 1–7 days after injury. Associations between ocular injury and age, sex, visual acuity, presence of blowout fracture, extent of orbital involvement, and presence of distant facial fractures were assessed. Results. 142 male (average age of 32 [95% CI 30–35]) and 19 female (average age of 49 [95% CI 39–59]) subjects were identified. 17 subjects were diagnosed with significant ocular injury. Ocular injury was significantly associated with LogMAR VA worse than 0.2 (OR 49 [95% CI 11–217, P < 0.0001]), but no relationship was noted for age, sex, presence of blowout fracture, extent of fractures, or presence of distal facial fractures. LogMAR visual acuity worse than or equal to 0.2 had a 98% negative predictive value for ocular injury in the setting of orbital fractures. Conclusions. Demographic and nonophthalmic fracture characteristics were not useful predictors of ocular injury in orbital fractures. LogMAR visual acuity worse than or equal to 0.2 is a highly sensitive and useful guide of the need for ophthalmic referral in subjects with orbital fractures. PMID:25580279

  11. Device-associated nosocomial infection surveillance in a Turkish pediatric intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra ?evketo?lu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate invasive device-related nosocomial infection rate in a Turkish pediatric intensive care unit (PICU. Material and Method: Two hundred forty patient included in the prospective active surveillance study that was conducted in Bak?rköy Dr. Sadi Konuk Research and Training Hospital PICU department between January 2008 and July 2009. Center of Disease Control methodology has been used for data collecting and calculating rates. Results: Eleven invasive device related nosocomial infection were detected in 240 patients and 2909 patient days for overall rate of 4.58% and 3.78 infections per 1000 days. Ventilator utilisation rate was found to be 53% and ventilator-associated pneumonia per 1000 ventilator day was 4.53. Urinary catheter utilization rate was 14%, urinary catheter related urinary system infection rate was 4.75/1000 urinary catheter days. Central catheter utilization rate was 22%, central catheter related bloodstream infection rate was 3.16/1000 catheter days. Coagulase-negative stafilococcus (%26.09, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (%13.04, Escherichia coli (%13.04, Staphylococcus aureus (%8.70, Candida spp (%8.70, Acinetobacter baumannii (%4.35, Enterobacter aerogenes (%4.35, enterococcus faecium (%4.35, Proteus mirabilis (%4.35 were the most common microorganisms isolated. Ceftriaxon, cefaperazon-sulbactam and piperacilllin-tazobactam were the most effective antibiotics against gram-negative bacteria. The overall methicillin resistance rate was 100% among gram positive bacteria and all of them were sensitive to vancomycine. Conclusions: To best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Turkey to document that the invasive device related nosocomial infection in PICU. Invasive device related infection rates of our PICU were similar to those reported in many developed countries.(Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45: 13-7

  12. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries : 3. Injuries in the primary dentition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition present special problems and the management is often different as compared with the permanent dentition. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialities were included in the task group. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion or majority decision of the task group. Finally, the IADT board members were giving their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care for management of primary teeth injuries. The IADT cannot and does not guarantee favorable outcomes from strict adherence to the guidelines, but believe that their application can maximize the chances of a positive outcome.

  13. Inferior alveolar nerve injuries associated with mandibular fractures at risk: a two-center retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Gallesio, Cesare; Karagozoglu, K; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury in mandibular fractures. This study is based on two databases that have continuously recorded patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures in two departments-Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Vrije Universiteit University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Turin, Italy. Demographic, anatomic, and etiology variables were considered for each patient and statistically assessed in relation to the neurosensory IAN impairment. Statistically significant associations were found between IAN injury and fracture displacement (p?=?0.03), isolated mandibular fractures (p?=?0.01), and angle fractures (p?=?0.004). A statistically significant association was also found between IAN injury and assaults (p?=?0.03). Displaced isolated mandibular angle fractures could be considered at risk for increased incidence of IAN injury. Assaults seem to be the most important etiological factor that is responsible for IAN lesions. PMID:25383147

  14. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Young people are a risk to themselves and other road users, as motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of their death. A thorough understanding of the most important factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young drivers is important for designing well-targeted restrictive measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred...

  15. Risk Factors Associated with Injury and Mortality from Paediatric Low Speed Vehicle Incidents: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Paul Anthikkat; Andrew Page; Ruth Barker

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO) incidents involving children aged 0–15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, met...

  16. Factors Associated with Significant Ocular Injury in Conservatively Treated Orbital Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine factors associated with the presence of significant ocular injury in subjects with orbital fractures. Subjects. A consecutive prospective cohort of 161 patients presenting to a general tertiary referral hospital with orbital fractures and undergoing initial conservative treatment was identified. Subjects were assessed at time of injury for the need for emergency surgery, and those initially treated conservatively were subsequently followed up by the Ophthalmology Departm...

  17. Creatine protects against mitochondrial dysfunction associated with HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Patrick R.; Gawryluk, Jeremy W.; Hui, Liang; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infected individuals are living longer but experiencing a prevalence rate of over 50% for HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for which no effective treatment is available. Viral and cellular factors secreted by HIV-1 infected cells leads to neuronal injury and HIV-1 Tat continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND. Here we tested the hypothesis that creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury by preventing mitochondrial bioenergetic crisis and/or...

  18. Analysis of the pediatric health information system database as a surveillance tool for travel-associated infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel; Birkholz, Meghan; Gaensbauer, James T; Asturias, Edwin J; Todd, James K

    2015-05-01

    The Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database collects admission, diagnostic, and treatment data among 44 children's hospitals across the United States (U.S.) and presents an opportunity for travel-associated infectious disease (TAID) surveillance. We calculated cumulative incidence rates among children admitted to 16 PHIS hospitals for dengue, malaria, and typhoid, and pooled TAID using discharge codes from 1999 to 2012. We compared incidence rates before, during, and after the 2007-2009 economic recession. Among 16 PHIS hospitals during the study period (1999-2012), incidence of dengue and pooled TAID (malaria, dengue, typhoid fever) increased significantly, and rates of malaria and typhoid trended upward. Admissions for dengue and pooled TAIDs increased significantly among 16 children's hospitals across the United States from 1999 to 2012. The PHIS database may provide a useful surveillance tool for TAIDs among children in the United States. PMID:25778506

  19. A roentgenographic study of the posterior urethral injury associated with pelvic bone fracture in male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analyzed detailed pattern of pelvic bone fracture in 52 cases of posterior urethral injury associated with pelvic bone fracture in male. The relationship between fracture and urethral injury was reviewed in 38 cases who received retrograde urethography at the time of injury. The pattern of urethral injury due to pelvic bone fracture was newly classified. The results were as follows: 1. In age distribution, the most common was 5th decade (26.9%). 2 . The most frequent type of pelvic rami fracture was two rami fracture (52%). 3. There was no case with only the superior ramus fracture, and all cases were associated with inferior ramus fracture with or without superior ramus fracture. 4. In inferior ramus fracture, the ratio of ischial ramus fracture to pubic ramus fracture was 46.1 : 17.4. 5. In cases with only the ischial ramus or pubic ramus fracture, unilateral fracture exceed bilateral fracture (44.2 : 19.3). 6. The bladder rupture was found in 10 among the total 52 cases, 9 of which were associated with superior ramus fracture, and 8 were extraperitoneal type. 7. The most common type of urethral injury was Tpye III (73.7%), and followed by Type II (10.5%), Type I (7.9%), and Type IV (7.9%). 8. These results strongly suggested that the superior ramus fracture was related to bladder rapture, and inferior ramus fracture to urethal injury

  20. Sub-regional hippocampal injury is associated with fornix degeneration in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    OwenThomasCarmichael; DongYoungLee; MichaelHBuonocore

    2012-01-01

    We examined in vivo evidence of axonal degeneration in association with neuronal pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) through analysis of fornix microstructural integrity and measures of hippocampal subfield atrophy. Based on known anatomical topography, we hypothesized that the local thickness of subiculum and CA1 hippocampus fields would be associated with fornix integrity, reflecting an association between AD-related injury to hippocampal neurons and degeneration of associated axon fibers...

  1. Sub-Regional Hippocampal Injury is Associated with Fornix Degeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong Young; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen Thomas; Singh, Baljeet; Mungas, Dan; Reed , Bruce; Martinez, Oliver; BUONOCORE, MICHAEL H.; Persianinova, Maria; DeCarli, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We examined in vivo evidence of axonal degeneration in association with neuronal pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) through analysis of fornix microstructural integrity and measures of hippocampal subfield atrophy. Based on known anatomical topography, we hypothesized that the local thickness of subiculum and CA1 hippocampus fields would be associated with fornix integrity, reflecting an association between AD-related injury to hippocampal neurons and degeneration of associated axon fibers...

  2. The Etiology, Associated Injuries and Clinical Presentation of Post Traumatic Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeezula Lone

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiology, associated injurers and clinical presentation of post traumatic diaphragmatic hernia.Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study being conducted in the department of Cardiovascular, thoracic surgery (CVTS and Pediatric Surgery, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS, Srinagar, Kashmir, India. All patients of post traumatic diaphragmatic hernia who were admitted in the department of CVTS and Pediatric Surgery, SKIMS, during the course of study (May 2009 to Nov. 2011 were included.Results: From the commencement of the study 21 patients had traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Most common presenting symptoms in traumatic diaphragmatic hernia were, chest discomfort and pain abdomen presented in 81% of patients, followed by breathlessness in 61.9% and vomiting in 47.6%. Common associated injuries in traumatic diaphragmatic hernia in our study group were, rib fracture in 47.6%, splenic injury in 28.6%, head injury in 23.8%, soft tissue injury in 23.8%, gut perforation in 19%, limb fracture in 14.3%, liver injury in 9.5%, pancreatic injury in 4.8% and renal injury in 4.8%.Conclusion: Usually the patients of Post traumatic diaphragmatic hernia presents as emergency, early recognition and prompt surgical treatment is needed for better outcome. The Incidence of post traumatic diaphragmatic hernia when associated with blunt trauma abdomen and chest is very high (81%. A high level of suspicion is needed in these injuries. The 9.5% of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia may have delayed presentation. Early diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia is most difficult when herniation is delayed.

  3. Acute kidney injury associated with Plasmodium malariae infection

    OpenAIRE

    Badiane, Aida S.; Diongue, Khadim; Diallo, Seydou; Ndongo, Aliou A; Diedhiou, Cyrille K; Deme, Awa B; Ma, Diallo; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Seck, Mame C; Dieng, Therese; Ndir, Omar; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndiaye, Daouda

    2014-01-01

    According to current estimates, Plasmodium malariae is not very common in Senegal, as more than 98% of malaria cases are suspected to be due to Plasmodium falciparum. However, it is possible that other malarial species are being under-reported or misdiagnosed. This is a report of a case of P. malariae in a 30-year-old man previously hospitalized with acute kidney injury after treatment with quinine and re-hospitalized three months later. He was diagnosed with renal cortical necrosis post mala...

  4. Injury Profiles Associated with Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tarkwa, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calys-Tagoe, Benedict N L; Ovadje, Lauretta; Clarke, Edith; Basu, Niladri; Robins, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is inherently risky, but little is known about mining-associated hazards and injuries despite the tremendous growth worldwide of ASGM and the benefits it offers. The current study aimed to characterize the physical injuries associated with ASGM in Ghana to guide policy formulation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Tarkwa mining district of the Western Region of Ghana in 2014. A total of 404 small-scale miners were recruited and interviewed regarding their occupational injury experiences over the preceding 10 years using a paper-based structured questionnaire. Nearly one-quarter (23.5%) of the miners interviewed reported getting injured over the previous 10 years, and the overall injury rate was calculated to be 5.39 per 100 person years. The rate was significantly higher for women (11.93 per 100 person years) and those with little mining experience (e.g., 25.31 per 100 person years for those with less than one year of work experience). The most injury-prone mining activities were excavation (58.7%) and crushing (23.1%), and over 70% of the injuries were reported to be due to miners being hit by an object. The majority of the injuries (57%) were lacerations, and nearly 70% of the injuries were to the upper or lower limbs. Approximately one-third (34.7%) of the injuries resulted in miners missing more than two weeks of work. One-quarter of the injured workers believed that abnormal work pressure played a role in their injuries, and nearly two-fifths believed that their injuries could have been prevented, with many citing personal protective equipment as a solution. About one-quarter of the employees reported that their employers never seemed to be interested in the welfare or safety of their employees. These findings greatly advance our understanding of occupational hazards and injuries amongst ASGM workers and help identify several intervention points. PMID:26184264

  5. Type II collagen C2C epitope in human synovial fluid and serum after knee injury - associations with molecular and structural markers of injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumahashi, N; Swärd, P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Investigate in a cross-sectional study time-dependent changes of synovial fluid type II collagen epitope C2C concentrations after knee injury and correlate to other joint injury biomarkers. METHODS: Synovial fluid samples were aspirated between 0 days and 7 years after injury (n = 235). Serum was collected from 71 of the knee injured patients. Synovial fluid from 8 knee-healthy subjects was used as reference. C2C was quantified by immunoassay and structural injury was determined from magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the injured knee acquired 1-38 days after injury (n = 98). Additional joint injury biomarker results were from earlier investigations of the same samples. RESULTS: Synovial fluid C2C concentrations were higher in injured knees than in knees of reference subjects from 1 day up to 7 years after injury. C2C concentrations in synovial fluid and serum were correlated (r = 0.403, P < 0.001). In synovial fluid from subjects early after injury (0-33 days), C2C concentrations were correlated with cross-linked C-telopeptide of type II collagen (r = 0.444, P = 0.003), ARGS-aggrecan (r = 0.337, P < 0.001), osteocalcin (r = 0.345, P < 0.001), osteopontin (r = 0.371, P < 0.001) and IL-8 (r = -0.385, P < 0.001), but not with structural joint injury as visualized on MRI. CONCLUSION: The increased levels of synovial fluid C2C after injury, together with the associations seen with several other injury-related biomarkers, suggest that an acute knee injury is associated with an immediate and sustained local degradation of type II collagen.

  6. Contractor-, steward-, and coworker-safety practice: associations with musculoskeletal pain and injury-related absence among construction apprentices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Dutra, Lauren M.; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper sought to assess organizational safety practices at three different levels of hierarchical workplace structure and to examine their association with injury outcomes among construction apprentices.

  7. Tears of anterior cruciate ligament and associated injury in the knee joint: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jong; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Ahn, Jin Whan; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the characteristic findings in tears of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and associated injury at MR imaging. We reviewed the findings of MR images and the corresponding arthroscopic results of 32 patients with ACL tears. We evaluated the signal intensity and contour of ACL surrounding bony structures, menisci and associated injury of the knee joint. Complete ACL tears were present in 25 patients and partial ACL tears were in 7 patients. Complete ACL tears showed heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of the ACL in 14 patients (56%) and without bulging or absence in 11 patients(44%). Most patients torn ACL with contour bulging(12/14) had bone bruise, but only one patient torn ACL without bulging contour had bone bruise. ACL with thin continuous low signal band surrounding heterogenously increased signal intensity suggests partial tear which was seen in three patients of seven proved partial ACL tears. Combined bone injury in ACL tear were in 23 patients (73%) and most of these(22/23) were at midportion of lateral notch of femur and/or posterior portion of lateral tibial plateu. Deepening of lateral notch of femur were noted in 17 patients(53%). Associated injuries of the other ligaments of knee joint were buckling of the posterior cruciate ligament(16/32, 50%) and tears of the medial collateral ligament(11/32, 34%). Posterior horns of menisci were more frequent site of combined injury within menisci in patients with ACL tear. Acute tearing of ACL in MRI is seen as heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of ACL and combined bone bruises. Patients with torn ACL frequently have various combined injury. In patient with knee injury, these associated or ancillary findings suggest that ACL tear is present.

  8. Tears of anterior cruciate ligament and associated injury in the knee joint: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the characteristic findings in tears of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and associated injury at MR imaging. We reviewed the findings of MR images and the corresponding arthroscopic results of 32 patients with ACL tears. We evaluated the signal intensity and contour of ACL surrounding bony structures, menisci and associated injury of the knee joint. Complete ACL tears were present in 25 patients and partial ACL tears were in 7 patients. Complete ACL tears showed heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of the ACL in 14 patients (56%) and without bulging or absence in 11 patients(44%). Most patients torn ACL with contour bulging(12/14) had bone bruise, but only one patient torn ACL without bulging contour had bone bruise. ACL with thin continuous low signal band surrounding heterogenously increased signal intensity suggests partial tear which was seen in three patients of seven proved partial ACL tears. Combined bone injury in ACL tear were in 23 patients (73%) and most of these(22/23) were at midportion of lateral notch of femur and/or posterior portion of lateral tibial plateu. Deepening of lateral notch of femur were noted in 17 patients(53%). Associated injuries of the other ligaments of knee joint were buckling of the posterior cruciate ligament(16/32, 50%) and tears of the medial collateral ligament(11/32, 34%). Posterior horns of menisci were more frequent site of combined injury within menisci in patients with ACL tear. Acute tearing of ACL in MRI is seen as heterogenously increased signal intensity with contour bulging of ACL and combined bone bruises. Patients with torn ACL frequently have various combined injury. In patient with knee injury, these associated or ancillary findings suggest that ACL tear is present

  9. Acute liver injury associated with a newer formulation of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, James L; Worman, Howard J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDS), serious cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported. The popular herbal weight loss supplement, Hydroxycut, has previously been implicated in acute liver injury. Since its introduction, Hydroxycut has undergone successive transformations in its formulation; yet, cases of liver injury have remained an ongoing problem. We report a case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man who developed acute hepatocellular liver injury with associated nausea, vomiting, jaundice, fatigue and asterixis attributed to the use of a newer formulation of Hydroxycut, SX-7 Clean Sensory. The patient required hospitalisation and improved with supportive therapy. Despite successive transformations in its formulation, potential liver injury appears to remain an ongoing problem with Hydroxycut. Our case illustrates the importance of obtaining a thorough medication history, including HDS, regardless of new or reformulated product marketing efforts. PMID:25948859

  10. Posterolateral Corner Injury Associated with a Schatzker Type 2 Tibial Plateau Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Boris A.; Heaberlin, James R.; Murray, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries are rarely seen with tibial plateau fractures and can be missed during the initial assessment. The objective of this paper is to present a case of a Schatzker type 2 tibial plateau fracture with associated isolated PLC injury and give a discussion on physical exam, diagnostic studies, and treatment options. A twenty-five-year-old female sustained a concomitant Schatzker type 2 fracture and PLC injury. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed an isolated PLC disruption. Open reduction-internal fixation was performed with subsequent PLC repair. At sixteen months postoperatively, the patient had full range of motion and strength of her knee and no signs of laxity. This case emphasizes the importance of physical exam and appropriate imaging modalities in order to diagnose and treat this significant injury in a prompt fashion. In this case, surgical fracture fixation and subsequent repair of the PLC provided a good clinical outcome.

  11. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Young people are a risk to themselves and other road users, as motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of their death. A thorough understanding of the most important factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young drivers is important for designing well-targeted restrictive measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred. The analysis examined a comprehensive set of single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes involving at least one 15–24year-old driver in New Zealand between 2002 and 2011 that resulted in minor, serious or fatal injuries. A mixed logit model accounting for heterogeneity and heteroscedasticity in the propensity to injury severity outcomes and for correlation between serious and fatal injuries proved a better fit than a binary and a generalized ordered logit. Results show that the young drivers’ behavior, the presence of passengers and the involvement of vulnerable road users were the most relevant factors associated with higher injury severity in both single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes. Seatbelt non-use, inexperience and alcohol use were the deadliest behavioral factors in single-vehicle crashes, while fatigue, reckless driving and seatbelt non-use were the deadliest factors in two-vehicle crashes. The presence of passengers in the young drivers’ vehicle, and in particular a combination of males and females, dramatically increased the probability of serious and fatal injuries. The involvement of vulnerable road users, in particular on rural highways and open roads, considerably amplified the probability of higher crash injury severity.

  12. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Goncalves, Arliani; Paulo Santoro, Belangero; Jose Luiz, Runco; Moisés, Cohen.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previ [...] ous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  13. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Goncalves Arliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  14. MR imaging of the combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament tears: focussing on the ratterns of injuries and associated findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the patterns of injuries and frequency of associated findings on MR imaging in patients with both anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)tears;to compare the associated findings, as seen on MR imaging, in cases with both ACL and PCL tears with those with ACL or PCL tears. Ten patients with compbined ACL and PCL tears, 16 with ACL tears and 18 with PCL tears, all confirmed by arthroscopy or open surgery, were involved in this study. To identify the associated knee injuries, MR images were retrospectively evaluated. In ten patients with combined ACL and PCL tears, open surgery led to the identification of six complete ACL tears (60%), four partial ACL tears (40%), eitht complete PCL tears (80%) and two partial PCL tears (20%). Injuries associated with these combined tears, and revealed by MR imaging, comprised six medial collateral ligament injuries (60%), six lateral collateral ligament jnjuries (60%), five medial meniscal injuries (50%), three lateral meniscal injuries (30%), nine bony injuries (90%), two posterior capsular injuries (20%), and three popliteus muscle injuries (30%). The frequency of popliteus muscle injury was significantly different (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test) between the group with both ACL and PCL tears and that with ACL or PCL tears. Associated findings in patients with combined ACL and PCL tears are more frequent than in those with ACL or PCL tears. In cases involving combined ACL and PCL tears, associated findings-as seen on MR images-should thus be carefully examined

  15. Analysis of crash parameters and driver characteristics associated with lower limb injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Poplin, Gerald; Bose, Dipan; Forbes, Aaron; Hurwitz, Shepard; Shaw, Greg; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate changes in frequency, risk, and patterns of lower limb injuries due to vehicle and occupant parameters as a function of vehicle model year. From the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System, 10,988 observations were sampled and analyzed, representing 4.7 million belted drivers involved in frontal crashes for the years 1998-2010. A logistic regression model was developed to understand the association of sustaining knee and below knee lower limb injuries of moderate or greater severity with motor vehicle crash characteristics such as vehicle type and model years, toepan and instrument panel intrusions in addition to the occupant's age, gender, height and weight. Toepan intrusion greater than 2cm was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of injury (odds ratio: 9.10, 95% confidence interval 1.82-45.42). Females sustained a higher likelihood of distal lower limb injuries (OR: 6.83, 1.56-29.93) as compared to males. Increased mass of the driver was also found to have a positive association with injury (OR: 1.04, 1.02-1.06), while age and height were not associated with injury likelihood. Relative to passenger cars, vans exhibited a protective effect against sustaining lower limb injury (OR: 0.24, 0.07-0.78), whereas no association was shown for light trucks (OR: 1.31, 0.69-2.49) or SUVs (OR: 0.76, 0.28-2.02). To examine whether current crash testing results are representative of real-world NASS-CDS findings, data from frontal offset crash tests performed by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) were examined. IIHS data indicated a decreasing trend in vehicle foot well and toepan intrusion, foot accelerations, tibia axial forces and tibia index in relation to increasing vehicle model year between the year 1995 and 2013. Over 90% of vehicles received the highest IIHS rating, with steady improvement from the upper and lower tibia index, tibia axial force and the resultant foot acceleration considering both left and right extremities. Passenger cars received the highest rating followed by SUVs and light trucks, while vans attained the lowest rating. These results demonstrate that while there has been steady improvement in vehicle crash test performance, below-knee lower extremity injuries remain the most common AIS 2+ injury in real-world frontal crashes. PMID:26196465

  16. Hepatoxicity associated with weight-loss supplements: A case for better post-marketing surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ano Lobb

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing number of case reports of hepatoxicity from the widely marketed weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut, which contains the botanical ingredient Garcinia cambogia. These case reports may substantially undercount the true magnitude of harm. Based on the past experience with harmful dietary supplements, US regulators should assume the more precautionary approach favored by Canada and Europe. Lacking effective adverse event surveillance for supplements, or the requirements to prove ...

  17. Injuries associated with soccer goalposts--United States, 1979-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-11

    Injuries associated with sports can be related to a variety of factors, including participant's level of conditioning or training, failure to use safety equipment, contact, overexertion, difficulty in conducting the task required, mismatch in skill or size between players, and adverse environmental conditions. A rare but often fatal event is a blow caused by a falling soccer goalpost resulting from improper installation or use. From 1979 through 1993, 27 persons were injured or killed from falling soccer goalposts. This report describes three (two fatal) injuries associated with soccer goalposts and summarizes an analysis of all fatal and nonfatal soccer goalpost-related injuries reported in the United States to the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) during 1979-1993. PMID:8164639

  18. Overuse Injuries Associated with Mountain Biking: Is Single-Speed Riding a Predisposing Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lebec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though mountain bikers are at significant risk for overuse injury, there is minimal quality research describing this relationship. Single-speed mountain biking, in which participants pedal a bike with only a single gear, may place riders at even greater risk for overuse problems due to the disproportionate physical effort associated with this type of riding. The focus of this study was to provide additional perspective on overuse injuries sustained by mountain bikers and to determine if single-speed mountain biking places participants at greater risk for overuse conditions. Four hundred and four (404 mountain bikers were surveyed concerning overuse injuries sustained during the previous year. Findings indicate that 63% of respondents reported an overuse injury affecting at least one area with the most commonly reported areas being the lumbar spine, knees, hand/wrist, and cervical spine. Individuals riding single-speed mountain bikes did not have a higher incidence of overuse injuries than riders of multiple-geared bikes. However, respondents who split time between riding single-speed and multiple-geared bikes were significantly more likely to report an overuse syndrome than those only riding single-speed or multiple-geared bikes (p = 0.0104. This group of riders may be at greater risk for overuse injury due to excessive fatigue and poor biomechanics.

  19. Sub-regional hippocampal injury is associated with fornix degeneration in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Young Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined in vivo evidence of axonal degeneration in association with neuronal pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD through analysis of fornix microstructural integrity and measures of hippocampal subfield atrophy. Based on known anatomical topography, we hypothesized that the local thickness of subiculum and CA1 hippocampus fields would be associated with fornix integrity, reflecting an association between AD-related injury to hippocampal neurons and degeneration of associated axon fibers. To test this hypothesis, multi-modal imaging, combining measures of local hippocampal radii with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, was applied to 44 individuals clinically diagnosed with AD, 44 individuals clinically diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and 96 cognitively normal individuals. Fornix microstructural degradation, as measured by reduced DTI-based fractional anisotropy (FA, was prominent in both MCI and AD, and was associated with reduced hippocampal volumes. Further, reduced fornix FA was associated with reduced anterior CA1 and antero-medial subiculum thickness. Finally, while both lesser fornix FA and lesser hippocampal volume were associated with lesser episodic memory, only the hippocampal measures were significant predictors of episodic memory in models including both hippocampal and fornix predictors. The region-specific association between fornix integrity and hippocampal neuronal death may provide in vivo evidence for degenerative white matter injury in AD: axonal pathology that is closely linked to neuronal injury.

  20. Sharps injuries among radiographers: Dangers associated with opening bottles of contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Injuries associated with the use of glass bottles in the healthcare setting have been largely overlooked in the literature. Such injuries are sustained if the glass is broken, but more often during the opening of the bottles, either directly on the sharp edges of the aluminium crimp-top seals or indirectly when another instrument is used to prise open the bottle after the crimp-top opening mechanism fails. Such injuries are not inconsequential; of sharps injuries (excluding those caused by hollow-bore needles), an estimated 16% are caused by glass and a further 15% by other sharp items. Furthermore, any puncture wound in the healthcare setting carries a threat of transmission of infectious blood-borne diseases. This survey is the first of its kind to be done in Europe, and offers an insight into the risk of bottle-opening associated injuries in radiology departments. Results: The findings indicate that radiographers/technologists are injured up to 24.4 times (±22.2) a year during the opening of glass bottles of contrast agents, translating into 3.5 h a month of lost time in an average radiology department of 24.4 radiographers or technologists; although almost half (47%) of the injuries draw blood, few are reported and the respondents in this survey were generally unconcerned by the risks. Conclusion: The injuries discussed can be a nuisance and disturb the workflow of the department and are, importantly, avoidable, with polymer bottles available that pose no threat during opening or when damaged

  1. The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

  2. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functions of Non Suicidal Self-Injury: Associations with Emotional and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brianna J.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Layden, Brianne K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the functions of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has important implications for the development and refinement of theoretical models and treatments of NSSI. Emotional and social vulnerabilities associated with five common functions of NSSI-emotion relief (ER), feeling generation (FG), self-punishment (SP), interpersonal influence…

  3. Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL – Early Biomarker for Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Grigorescu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: NGAL (Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin is a biomarker recently introduced into clinical practice for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI. The aim of this study was to correlate the plasmatic NGAL value determined at admission with clinical progression and severity of AKI in critically ill patients.

  4. Hepatotoxicity associated with sulfasalazine in inflammatory arthritis: A case series from a local surveillance of serious adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous reporting systems for adverse drug reactions (ADRs are handicapped by under-reporting and limited detail on individual cases. We report an investigation from a local surveillance for serious adverse drug reactions associated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs that was triggered by the occurrence of liver failure in two of our patients. Methods Serious ADR reports have been solicited from local clinicians by regular postcards over the past seven years. Patients', who had hepatotoxicity on sulfasalazine and met a definition of a serious ADR, were identified. Two clinicians reviewed structured case reports and assessed causality by consensus and by using a causality assessment instrument. The likely frequency of hepatotoxicity with sulfasalazine was estimated by making a series of conservative assumptions. Results Ten cases were identified: eight occurred during surveillance. Eight patients were hospitalised, two in hepatic failure – one died after a liver transplant. All but one event occurred within 6 weeks of treatment. Seven patients had a skin rash, three eosinophilia and one interstitial nephritis. Five patients were of Black British of African or Caribbean descent. Liver enzymes showed a hepatocellular pattern in four cases and a mixed pattern in six. Drug-related hepatotoxicity was judged probable or highly probable in 8 patients. The likely frequency of serious hepatotoxicity with sulfasalazine was estimated at 0.4% of treated patients. Conclusion Serious hepatotoxicity associated with sulfasalazine appears to be under-appreciated and intensive monitoring and vigilance in the first 6 weeks of treatment is especially important.

  5. Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma. Methods: This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results: Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79% with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54% followed by fall from height (30%. Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62% followed by headache (33%. Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%. Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries. Conclusion: Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.

  6. Hepatoxicity associated with weight-loss supplements: A case for better post-marketing surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ano Lobb

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing number of case reports of hepatoxicity from the widely marketed weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut, which contains the botanical ingredient Garcinia cambogia. These case reports may substantially undercount the true magnitude of harm. Based on the past experience with harmful dietary supplements, US regulators should assume the more precautionary approach favored by Canada and Europe. Lacking effective adverse event surveillance for supplements, or the requirements to prove safety prior to coming to the market, case reports such as those summarized here assume added importance.

  7. Technical Considerations in the Treatment of Syndesmotic Injuries Associated With Ankle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael J; Graves, Matthew L; Higgins, Thomas F; Nork, Sean E

    2015-08-01

    Malleolar ankle fractures associated with syndesmotic injuries are common. Diagnosis of the syndesmotic injury can be difficult and often requires intraoperative fluoroscopic stress testing. Accurate reduction and stable fixation of the syndesmosis are critical to maximize patient outcomes. Recent literature has demonstrated that the unstable syndesmosis is particularly prone to iatrogenic malreduction. Multiple types of malreduction can occur, including translational, rotational, and overcompression. Knowledge of the technical details regarding intraoperative reduction methods and reduction assessment can minimize the risk of syndesmotic malreduction and improve patient outcomes. PMID:26209146

  8. The Association of Postcardiac Surgery Acute Kidney Injury with Intraoperative Systolic Blood Pressure Hypotension

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon Aronson; Barbara Phillips-Bute; Mark Stafford-Smith; Manuel Fontes; Jeffrey Gaca; Mathew, Joseph P; Newman, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high mortality and substantial cost after aortocoronary bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We tested the hypothesis that intraoperative systolic blood pressure variation is associated with postoperative AKI. Methods. We gathered demographic, procedural, blood pressure, and renal outcome data for 7,247 CABG surgeries at a single institution between 1996 and 2005. A development/validation cohort methodology was randomly divided (6...

  9. MicroRNA changes in rat mesentery and serum associated with drug-induced vascular injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Roberta A., E-mail: Roberta.A.Thomas@gsk.com; Scicchitano, Marshall S.; Mirabile, Rosanna C.; Chau, Nancy T.; Frazier, Kendall S.; Thomas, Heath C.

    2012-08-01

    Regulatory miRNAs play a role in vascular biology and are involved in biochemical and molecular pathways dysregulated during vascular injury. Collection and integration of functional miRNA data into these pathways can provide insight into pathogenesis at the site of injury; the same technologies applied to biofluids may provide diagnostic or surrogate biomarkers. miRNA was analyzed from mesentery and serum from rats given vasculotoxic compounds for 4 days. Fenoldopam, dopamine and midodrine each alter hemodynamics and are associated with histologic evidence of vascular injury, while yohimbine is vasoactive but does not cause histologic evidence of vascular injury in rat. There were 38 and 35 miRNAs altered in a statistically significant manner with a fold change of 2 or greater in mesenteries of fenoldopam- and dopamine-dosed rats, respectively, with 9 of these miRNAs shared. 10 miRNAs were altered in rats given midodrine; 6 were shared with either fenoldopam or dopamine. In situ hybridization demonstrated strong expression and co-localization of miR-134 in affected but not in adjacent unaffected vessels. Mesenteric miRNA expression may provide clarity or avenues of research into mechanisms involved in vascular injury once the functional role of specific miRNAs becomes better characterized. 102 miRNAs were altered in serum from rats with drug-induced vascular injury. 10 miRNAs were commonly altered in serum from dopamine and either fenoldopam or midodrine dosed rats; 18 of these 102 were also altered in mesenteries from rats with drug-induced vascular injury, suggesting their possible utility as peripheral biomarkers. -- Highlights: ? Mesentery and serum were examined from rats given vasoactive compounds for 4 days. ? 72 miRNAs were altered in mesenteries from rats with vascular injury. ? miR-134 was localized to affected but not adjacent unaffected vessels. ? 102 miRNAs were changed in serum from rats with vascular injury. ? 18 miRNAs changed in both mesenteries and serum from rats with vascular injury.

  10. Renal neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Mei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL is a highly predictive biomarker of acute kidney injury. To understand the role of NGAL in renal injury during sepsis, we investigated the temporal changes and biological sources of NGAL in a rat model of acute kidney injury, and explored the relationship between renal inflammation, humoral NGAL and NGAL expression during endotoxemia. Methods To induce acute renal injury, rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 3.5 mg/kg, ip, and the location of NGAL mRNA was evaluated by in situ hybridization. Quantitative RT-PCR was also used to determine the dynamic changes in NGAL, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF? and interleukin (IL-6 mRNA expression 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours following LPS treatment. The correlation among NGAL, TNF? and IL-6 was analyzed. Urinary and plasma NGAL (u/pNGAL levels were measured, and the relationship between humoral NGAL and NGAL expression in the kidney was investigated. Results Renal function was affected 3–12 hours after LPS. NGAL mRNA was significantly upregulated in tubular epithelia at the same time (P P P P Conclusions NGAL upregulation is sensitive to LPS-induced renal TNF? increase and injury, which are observed in the tubular epithelia. Urinary NGAL levels accurately reflect changes in NGAL in the kidney.

  11. Albumin-induced podocyte injury and protection are associated with regulation of COX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shipra; Guess, Adam J; Chanley, Melinda A; Smoyer, William E

    2014-12-01

    Albuminuria is both a hallmark and a risk factor for progressive glomerular disease, and results in increased exposure of podocytes to serum albumin with its associated factors. Here in vivo and in vitro models of serum albumin-overload were used to test the hypothesis that albumin-induced proteinuria and podocyte injury directly correlate with COX-2 induction. Albumin induced COX-2, MCP-1, CXCL1, and the stress protein HSP25 in both rat glomeruli and cultured podocytes, whereas B7-1 and HSP70i were also induced in podocytes. Podocyte exposure to albumin induced both mRNA and protein and enhanced the mRNA stability of COX-2, a key regulator of renal hemodynamics and inflammation, which renders podocytes susceptible to injury. Podocyte exposure to albumin also stimulated several kinases (p38 MAPK, MK2, JNK/SAPK, and ERK1/2), inhibitors of which (except JNK/SAPK) downregulated albumin-induced COX-2. Inhibition of AMPK, PKC, and NF?B also downregulated albumin-induced COX-2. Critically, albumin-induced COX-2 was also inhibited by glucocorticoids and thiazolidinediones, both of which directly protect podocytes against injury. Furthermore, specific albumin-associated fatty acids were identified as important contributors to COX-2 induction, podocyte injury, and proteinuria. Thus, COX-2 is associated with podocyte injury during albuminuria, as well as with the known podocyte protection imparted by glucocorticoids and thiazolidinediones. Moreover, COX-2 induction, podocyte damage, and albuminuria appear mediated largely by serum albumin-associated fatty acids. PMID:24918154

  12. Excessive Progression in Weekly Running Distance and Risk of Running-related Injuries : An Association Which Varies According to Injury Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, Erik Thorlund

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. METHODS: A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. RESULTS: A total of 202 runners sustained a running-related injury. Using Cox regression analysis, no statistically significant differences in injury rates were found acrossthe 3 exposure groups. An increased rate of distance-related injuries (patellofemoral pain, iliotibial band syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, gluteus medius injury, greater trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those who progressed their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those who progressed less than 10% (hazard ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.66; P = .07). CONCLUSION: Novice runners who progressed their running distance by more than 30% over a 2-week period seem to be more vulnerable to distance-related injuries than runners who increase their running distance by less than 10%. Owing to the exploratory nature of the present study, randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these results, and more experimental studies are needed to validate the assumptions. Still, novice runners may be well advised to progress their weekly distances by less than 30% per week over a 2-week period.

  13. Syndesmosis injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis commonly result from high-energy ankle injuries. They can occur as isolated ligamentous injuries and can be associated with ankle fractures. Syndesmotic injuries can create a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for musculoskeletal physicians. Recent literature has added considerably to the body of knowledge pertaining to injury mechanics and treatment outcomes, but there remain a number of controversies regarding diagnostic tests, imp...

  14. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Needle Stick Injuries among Registered Nurses in Public Sector Tertiary Care Hospitals of Pakistan '

    OpenAIRE

    Haris Habib; Ejaz Ahmed Khan; Anwar Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Background: Needle stick injuries remain the main cause of Hep B, Hep C and HIV which lead to mortality and morbidity in health care providers especially in nurses all over the world. Although needle stick injuries have been well studied in developed countries, data from developing countries is limited.Aim & Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of needle stick injuries among nurses and its associated factors in public sector tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional...

  15. Global childhood unintentional injury surveillance in four cities in developing countries: a pilot study / Surveillance internationale des traumatismes non intentionnels de l'enfant dans quatre métropoles de pays en développement: étude pilote / Vigilancia mundial de las lesiones infantiles no intencionales en cuatro ciudades de países en desarrollo: estudio piloto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adnan A, Hyder; David E, Sugerman; Prasanthi, Puvanachandra; Junaid, Razzak; Hesham, El-Sayed; Andres, Isaza; Fazlur, Rahman; Margie, Peden.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia y naturaleza de las lesiones infantiles y explorar sus factores de riesgo en países de bajos ingresos, utilizando para ello los datos de vigilancia de los departamentos de urgencias (DU). MÉTODOS: Este estudio piloto representa la fase inicial de un proyecto plurin [...] acional de vigilancia mundial de las lesiones infantiles no intencionales y se basó en una muestra secuencial de menores de 11 años, de ambos sexos, que se presentaron en 2007 en DU seleccionados de Bangladesh, Colombia, Egipto y Pakistán a lo largo de un periodo de 3 a 4 meses, variable según el centro. RESULTADOS: De 1559 niños lesionados observados en todos los centros, 1010 (65%) eran varones; 941 (60%) tenían³ 5 años, y 32 (2%) Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and nature of childhood injuries and to explore the risk factors for such injuries in low-income countries by using emergency department (ED) surveillance data. METHODS: This pilot study represents the initial phase of a multi-country global childhood unintentio [...] nal injury surveillance (GCUIS) project and was based on a sequential sample of children 5 years, 32 (2%) were

  16. Occult bony lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury; Assessment with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawata, Koji; Toshima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Yoshizo (Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine); Suzuki, Toshiro; Date, Shinya

    1993-09-01

    To examine bony lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on 55 knees with ACL injuries. With respect to the period between ACL injuries and MR imaging, the knees were divided into acute (within one month), subacute (from one month to one year) and chronic (over one year) groups, containing 19, 16 and 20 knees, respectively. Occult bony lesions not shown in roentgenography were observed more frequently in the acute group (13/19) than in the other two groups (subacute group, 5/16; chronic group, 1/20), located in the lateral compartment of the knee joint. In the acute group, bony lesions had high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on proton density images. In the subacute and chronic groups, bony lesions were less pronounced and had low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. These findings suggest that bony lesions are frequently associated with and occur simultaneously with ACL injury. (author).

  17. Governmental surveillance system of healthcare-associated infection in Brazil / Governmental surveillance system of healthcare-associated infection in Brazil / Sistemas gubernamentales de vigilancia de las infecciones relacionadas con la atención a la salud en brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cassimiro Nogueira, Junior; Maria Clara, Padoveze; Rúbia Aparecida, Lacerda.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:Este estudo objetivou descrever a estrutura dos sistemas governamentais de vigilância de Infecções relacionadas à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS) nos Estados do Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Método: Estudo transversal, descritivo e exploratório, com coleta de dados por meio de duas fases: caracteriza [...] ção das estruturas de assistência à saúde e do sistema de vigilância de IRAS. Resultados: As equipes governamentais para a prevenção e controle de IRAS em cada Estado variou de um a seis membros, tendo pelo menos um enfermeiro. Todos os Estados implantaram um sistema de vigilância próprio. Os sistemas de informação foram classificados em cadeia (n=2), círculo (n=4) e roda (n=1). Conclusão: Foram identificadas variações na estrutura e fluxo de informação dos sistemas governamentais de vigilância, podendo limitar sua uniformização em âmbito nacional. O presente estudo aponta a necessidade de estabelecer requisitos mínimos em políticas públicas para orientar o desenvolvimento dos sistemas de vigilância de IRAS.? Abstract in spanish ?Objetivo: El presente estudio ha tenido como objetivo describir la estructura de los sistemas gubernamentales de vigilancia de las Infecciones Relacionadas con la Atención a la Salud (IRAS) en Sureste y Sur de Brasil. Método: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y exploratorio, con recolección de datos [...] en dos fases: caracterización de las estructuras de asistencia a la salud y del sistema de vigilancia de las IRAS. Resultados: Los equipos gubernamentales para la prevención y el control de las IRAS en cada Estado variaron de uno a seis miembros, con al menos un enfermero. Todos los Estados implantaron su propio sistema de vigilancia. Los sistemas de información fueron clasificados en cadena (n = 2), círculo (n = 4) y rueda (n = 1). Conclusión: Se han identificado variaciones en la estructura y el flujo de información de los sistemas gubernamentales de vigilancia que pueden limitar su uniformización en ámbito nacional. Este estudio apunta la necesidad de establecer requisitos mínimos en políticas públicas para guiar el desarrollo de los sistemas de vigilancia de las IRAS.? Abstract in english ?Objective: This study aimed to describe the structure of governmental surveillance systems for Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI) in the Brazilian Southeastern and Southern States. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory study, with data collection by means of two-phases: characte [...] rization of the healthcare structure and of the HAI surveillance system. Results: The governmental teams for prevention and control of HAI in each State ranged from one to six members, having at least one nurse. All States implemented their own surveillance system. The information systems were classified into chain (n=2), circle (n=4) or wheel (n=1). Conclusion: Were identified differences in the structure and information flow from governmental surveillance systems, possibly limiting a nationwide standardization. The present study points to the need for establishing minimum requirements in public policies, in order to guide the development of HAI surveillance systems.?

  18. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a marker of acute kidney injury after orthotopic liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Wagener, Gebhard; Minhaz, Moury; Mattis, Fallon A.; Kim, Mihwa; EMOND, JEAN C.; Lee, H. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel, sensitive and specific biomarker that is rapidly released after kidney injury. It predicts acute kidney injury (AKI) in multiple clinical scenarios. We hypothesized that urinary NGAL can predict AKI after liver transplantation.

  19. MR imaging of the combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament tears: focussing on the ratterns of injuries and associated findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seon Young; Choi, Chang Lak; Park, Dal Soo; Park, Eun Hee; Lee, Sang Ho; Song, Mun Kab; Lee, Kwang Won [Eulji Medical College, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    To evaluate the patterns of injuries and frequency of associated findings on MR imaging in patients with both anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)tears;to compare the associated findings, as seen on MR imaging, in cases with both ACL and PCL tears with those with ACL or PCL tears. Ten patients with compbined ACL and PCL tears, 16 with ACL tears and 18 with PCL tears, all confirmed by arthroscopy or open surgery, were involved in this study. To identify the associated knee injuries, MR images were retrospectively evaluated. In ten patients with combined ACL and PCL tears, open surgery led to the identification of six complete ACL tears (60%), four partial ACL tears (40%), eitht complete PCL tears (80%) and two partial PCL tears (20%). Injuries associated with these combined tears, and revealed by MR imaging, comprised six medial collateral ligament injuries (60%), six lateral collateral ligament jnjuries (60%), five medial meniscal injuries (50%), three lateral meniscal injuries (30%), nine bony injuries (90%), two posterior capsular injuries (20%), and three popliteus muscle injuries (30%). The frequency of popliteus muscle injury was significantly different (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test) between the group with both ACL and PCL tears and that with ACL or PCL tears. Associated findings in patients with combined ACL and PCL tears are more frequent than in those with ACL or PCL tears. In cases involving combined ACL and PCL tears, associated findings-as seen on MR images-should thus be carefully examined.

  20. Prevalence of COPD and its association with socioeconomic status in China: Findings from China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status is likely an independent risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, but little research has been done in China to study this association in a nationwide sample. Methods We used data from the 2007 China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance of 49,363 Chinese men and women aged 15-69 years to examine the association between the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnosed COPD and socioeconomic status defined by both educational level and annual household income. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was performed with adjustement for potential confounders. Results Both low educational attainment and low household income were independently associated with higher risk of physician-diagnosed COPD. Compared to subjects with high educational level, subjects with low educational level had a significantly increased risk of COPD (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.32-2.13, p for trend Conclusions Socioeconomic status is a risk factor for self-reported physician-diagnosed COPD independently of current or passive smoking. Prospective studies are needed in China to better understand the association between socioeconomic status and COPD.

  1. Injury of anterior cruciate ligament with associated bony lesions: MR image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon; Oh, Yeon Hee; Lee, Chang Wook [Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Min [Chungbuk Univ. College of Medicine, Chongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Sung Woo [Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate the characteristic MR findings in injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with associated bony lesions. We reviewed MR findings and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative results of 48 patients with ACL injuries, and evaluated ACL signal intensity and contour. In associated bony lesions, we determined the location of avulsion fracture and bony bruise. Complete ACL tears were seen in 27 cases, partial tears in 13, and avulsion injury in eight. Complete tears showed heterogeneously increased signal intensity with contour bulging in ten cases (37%), and combined bony lesion in 14 (52%). ACL with a thin continous low signal intensity band surrounding heterogeneously-increased signal intensity suggested partial tears, and was seen in three of 13 proven cases (23%) of partial ACL tears;combined bony lesion was seen in four such cases(31%). There were eight cases of avulsion fracture;the most frequent site was the anterolateral portion of the tibial spine (n=6). The most frequent sites of bony lesion were at the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle (n=6), and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=6);the next most frequent site was the anterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=5). Tearing of the ACL was seen on MRI as ligament discontinuity, and heterogeneously increased signal intensity with ACL contour bulging. The most frequent sites of associated bony lesions were the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle, and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau. In associated bony lesions, bony contusion suggested ACL tearing, but avulsion fracture suggested ligament avulsion injury without tear.

  2. Acute kidney injury is independently associated with higher mortality after cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandler, Kristian; Jensen, Mathias E; Nilsson, Jens C; Møller, Christian H; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery and its association with mortality in a patient population receiving ibuprofen and gentamicin perioperatively. DESIGN: Retrospective study with Cox regression analysis to control for possible preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative confounders. SETTING: University hospital-based single-center study. PARTICIPANTS: All patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting ± valve surgery during 2012. INTE...

  3. Furosemide is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, T.M.; Rocha, M. S.; Almeida, D.N.; Martins, R.T.C.; M.G.C. Silva; N.C.P. Santana; Sanjuan, I.T.; C.M.S. Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU) and if there is an association between the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (...

  4. An Immunohistochemical Panel to Assess Ultraviolet Radiation Associated Oxidative Skin Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mamalis, A; Fiadorchanka, N; ADAMS, L; Serravallo, M; Heilman, E; Siegel, D.; Brody, N; Jagdeo, J

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation results in a significant loss in years of healthy life, approximately 1.5 million disability-adjusted life years, and is associated with greater than 60,000 deaths annually worldwide that are attributed to melanoma and other skin cancers. Currently, there are no standardized biomarkers or assay panels to assess oxidative stress skin injury patterns in human skin exposed to ionizing radiation. Using biopsy specimens from chronic solar UV-exposed and UV-protected skin...

  5. Results of Posterior Dislocation of Elbow Associated with Bony and Soft Tissue Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavsar, Neel M; Patel, Jyotish G; Patel, Pankaj R; Chhapan, Jigar B

    2013-01-01

    Elbow trauma is challenging to manage by virtue of its complex articular structure and capsuloligamentous and musculotendinous arrangements. We included 17 patients with elbow dislocation and associated injuries in this study. The study protocol included early elbow reduction and planned fixation of the medial or lateral condyle, coronoid and radial head. The sample was 73% male and 27% female with mean duration follow-up of 8 months, and mean age of 37 years. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance ...

  6. Injury of anterior cruciate ligament with associated bony lesions: MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the characteristic MR findings in injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with associated bony lesions. We reviewed MR findings and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative results of 48 patients with ACL injuries, and evaluated ACL signal intensity and contour. In associated bony lesions, we determined the location of avulsion fracture and bony bruise. Complete ACL tears were seen in 27 cases, partial tears in 13, and avulsion injury in eight. Complete tears showed heterogeneously increased signal intensity with contour bulging in ten cases (37%), and combined bony lesion in 14 (52%). ACL with a thin continous low signal intensity band surrounding heterogeneously-increased signal intensity suggested partial tears, and was seen in three of 13 proven cases (23%) of partial ACL tears;combined bony lesion was seen in four such cases(31%). There were eight cases of avulsion fracture;the most frequent site was the anterolateral portion of the tibial spine (n=6). The most frequent sites of bony lesion were at the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle (n=6), and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=6);the next most frequent site was the anterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau (n=5). Tearing of the ACL was seen on MRI as ligament discontinuity, and heterogeneously increased signal intensity with ACL contour bulging. The most frequent sites of associated bony lesions were the midportion of the lateral femoral condyle, and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial plateau. In associated bony lesions, bony contusion suggested ACL tearing, but avulsion fracture suggested ligament avulsion injury without tear

  7. Radioactive waste disposal areas and associated environmental surveillance data at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance data have been collected around radioactive waste disposal areas for the past thirty years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The wealth of data collected around the ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds is presented in this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the solid waste burial grounds in detail along with the environmental monitoring data. The various monitoring systems are reviewed, and the liquid discharge trends are discussed. Monitoring at White Oak Dam, the last liquid control point for the Laboratory, was started in the late 1940's and is continuing. Presently, a network of five environmental monitoring stations is in operation to monitor the radionuclide content of surface waters in the White Oak Creek watershed. Facts observed during the lifetime of the disposal sites include: (1) a large amount of 106Ru released during 1959 to 1964 due to the fact that Conasauga shale did not retain this element as well as it retained other radionuclides. (2) Large quantities of tritiated water have been released to the Clinch River in recent years, but, from a practical standpoint, little can be done to inhibit or control these releases. (3) A general downward trend in the number of curies released has been observed for all other radionuclides. A number of corrective measures that have been initiated at ORNL to reduce the radioactive liquid discharges are outlined in the paper

  8. Incidence of work injuries amongst Danish adolescents and their association with work environment factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. METHODS: We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from a birth cohort comprising all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3,687) living in Ringkjobing County, Denmark. The questionnaire contained items on self-reported number of accidents and number of working hours in both rounds and on work environment factors in the second round. RESULTS: Approximately 5% of the adolescents who held a job, experienced a work injury at the age of 17. This equals an incidence of 65 accidents per million working hours. Most adolescents had decent working conditions, although nearly half reported that their work was heavy, monotonous or psychologically demanding. Heavy work, high psychological demands and low social support increased the risk of experiencing work injuries after adjustment for a number of factors. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of work injuries among adolescents appears to be higher than the incidence among their older colleagues. Lack of social support from management significantly raised adolescents' risk of experiencing a work injury. This suggests that more direct supervision may be a good way of preventing accidents in this age group

  9. Botulinum toxin injection for bruxism associated with brain injury: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Kesikburun, MD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bruxism is involuntary grinding of the teeth and can occur as a complication of brain injury. If untreated, bruxism can lead to severe occlusal trauma. Herein, we present a patient with traumatic brain injury and nocturnal bruxism that was treated with botulinum toxin injection. A 21 yr old male patient with traumatic brain injury from a car accident was admitted to our inpatient rehabilitation unit. He had a history of coma for 2 wk in the intensive care unit. The initial cranial computed tomography scan indicated a superior thalamic hemorrhage. On admission to our department 3 mo postinjury, his mental status was good and he was able to walk without assistance, but he had mild ataxia. He complained about severe teeth grinding at night, which began 2 mo postinjury. Botulinum toxin-A was injected into the masseter muscles (20 U in each muscle and temporalis muscles (15 U in each muscle bilaterally. A decrease in bruxism was reported within 3 d. Clinical improvement persisted at assessment 4 mo posttreatment. Botulinum toxin injection can be used as an effective treatment for bruxism associated with brain injury.

  10. Factors Associated With Length of Stay and Hospital Charges among Pediatric Burn Injury in Kermanshah, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2015-01-01

    This study highlights that the independent predictors affecting hospital costs and LOS associated with pediatric burn injury in Kermanshah. Also, our study indicates the BBS was the main factors affecting hospital costs and LOS for the study population. 

  11. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia associated with small bowel injury-case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Vlad; Carâp, Alexandru; Bobic, Simona; Albu, M?d?lina; Nica, Elvira; Socea, Bogdan

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWHs) are rare. Their diagnosis is mostly clinical and can be overlooked in the setting of trauma and distracting injuries or they can be misinterpreted as parietal hematomas. Associated lesions can influence decision making regarding time of operation and surgical technique. Our case highlights the management of a high-energy TAWH that associates a small bowel traumatic lesion. Surgical repair of TAWHs should follow general hernia repair principles. Further exploration of surgical options is necessary for a consensus to be reached. PMID:25972687

  12. Acute kidney injury is independently associated with higher mortality after cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandler, Kristian; Jensen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery and its association with mortality in a patient population receiving ibuprofen and gentamicin perioperatively. DESIGN: Retrospective study with Cox regression analysis to control for possible preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative confounders. SETTING: University hospital-based single-center study. PARTICIPANTS: All patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting ± valve surgery during 2012. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Acute surgery within 24 hours of coronary angiography, previous nephrectomy, preoperative sCr >2.26 mg/dL and selective cerebral perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass were used as exclusion criteria. Acute kidney injury was defined, using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Six hundred eight patients were included in the study. Mean age was 68.2 ± 9.7 years, and 81% were males. Acute kidney injury was seen in 28.1% of the patients. Overall mortality at one year was 7% and 3% in the no-AKI group. At one year, mortality was 15% in patients with AKIN stage 1 and AKIN stage 2 compared to 70% in AKIN stage 3. A hazard ratio of 2.34 (95% CI: 1.21-4.51, p = 0.011) and 5.62 (95% CI: 2.42-13.06), p<0.0001) were found for AKIN stage 1 and 2/3 combined, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: More than 28% of the patients undergoing elective or subacute cardiac surgery developed AKI in this contemporary cohort. Furthermore, acute kidney injury was an independent predictor of increased mortality irrespective of the perioperative risk factors.

  13. Avaliação da evolução de lesões associadas à lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior Progress assessment of injuries associated to anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dias da Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PROPOSTA: Revisamos 71 pacientes com diagnóstico de lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior em 72 joelhos. Foi avaliado a incidência de lesões associadas (meniscais ou condrais de acordo com o tempo até a cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Estudo retrospectivo de série de casos. MÉTODOS: Realizado análise estatística do efeito do tempo até a cirurgia com o aumento de lesões associadas. RESULTADOS: Não houve alteração, estatisticamente significante, da incidência de lesões condrais e meniscais avaliadas nos períodos 2 a 3 meses, 4 a 6 meses, 7 a 12 meses, 13 a 24 meses e mais que 24 meses. CONCLUSÕES: Embora haja uma tendência de aumento de lesões meniscais após 6 meses e de lesões condrais após 12 meses da lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior, tal fato não mostrou significância estatistica.PURPOSE: We reviewed 71 patients diagnosed with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury on 72 knees. The incidence of associated injuries (meniscal and joint cartilage injuries were evaluated according to the time elapsed until ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Statistical analysis of the relationship between the time elapsed until surgery and the increase of associated lesions. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference on the incidence of joint-cartilage and meniscal injuries assessed for the periods within 2-3 months, 4-6 months, 7-12 months, 13-24 months and above 24 months. CONCLUSION: Although a trend towards a higher number of meniscal injuries after 6 months, and of joint-cartilage injuries after 12 months since the primary anterior cruciate ligament injury, such fact showed no statistical significance.

  14. Avaliação da evolução de lesões associadas à lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior / Progress assessment of injuries associated to anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan Dias da, Rocha; Tomás Mosaner de Souza, Moraes; Márcia Uchoa de, Rezende; José Ricardo, Pécora.

    Full Text Available PROPOSTA: Revisamos 71 pacientes com diagnóstico de lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior em 72 joelhos. Foi avaliado a incidência de lesões associadas (meniscais ou condrais) de acordo com o tempo até a cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Estudo retrospectivo de série de casos. MÉT [...] ODOS: Realizado análise estatística do efeito do tempo até a cirurgia com o aumento de lesões associadas. RESULTADOS: Não houve alteração, estatisticamente significante, da incidência de lesões condrais e meniscais avaliadas nos períodos 2 a 3 meses, 4 a 6 meses, 7 a 12 meses, 13 a 24 meses e mais que 24 meses. CONCLUSÕES: Embora haja uma tendência de aumento de lesões meniscais após 6 meses e de lesões condrais após 12 meses da lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior, tal fato não mostrou significância estatistica. Abstract in english PURPOSE: We reviewed 71 patients diagnosed with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury on 72 knees. The incidence of associated injuries (meniscal and joint cartilage injuries) were evaluated according to the time elapsed until ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: S [...] tatistical analysis of the relationship between the time elapsed until surgery and the increase of associated lesions. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference on the incidence of joint-cartilage and meniscal injuries assessed for the periods within 2-3 months, 4-6 months, 7-12 months, 13-24 months and above 24 months. CONCLUSION: Although a trend towards a higher number of meniscal injuries after 6 months, and of joint-cartilage injuries after 12 months since the primary anterior cruciate ligament injury, such fact showed no statistical significance.

  15. The Association of Weight Percentile and Motor Vehicle Crash Injury Among 3 to 8 Year Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Nelson, Kyle A; Durbin, Dennis R.; Kallan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of age-appropriate child restraint systems significantly reduces injury and death associated with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic. Although recent evidence suggests a possible association between pediatric obesity and MVC-related injury, there are potential misclassifications of body mass index from under-estimated height in younger children. Given this limitation, age- and sex-specific weight percentiles can be used as a proxy of weight st...

  16. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, So Young [University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  17. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Chaplin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  18. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  19. Bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee joint MRI : relationship between its location and associated injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Baek Hyun; Jung, Hoe Seok; Na, Eui Sung; Seol, Hye Young; Cha, In Ho; Lim, Hong Chul [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the location of bone signal abnormality and associated injury, as seen on MR, in patients with acute knee joint injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with acute knee injury and bone signal abnormalities on MR were included in this study. The femur and tibia were each divided into six compartments, namely the anteromedial, medial, posteromedial,anterolateral, lateral, and posterolateral ; these were obtained in each knee joint. We evaluated the location of bone signal abnormality and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative findings of injury to ligaments and menisci. Cases with signal abnormalities involving more than three compartments were excluded. Results : Bone signal abnormalities were demonstrated in 51 compartments. Most(84%, 43/51) were noted in the lateral half of the knee joint, the most common location being the tibio- posterolateral compartment(13/51). The femoro-lateral(11/51) and tibio- anterolateral compartment(8/51) were the next most common locations. All cases(13/13)with bone signal abnormality in the tibio- posterolateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament,while 9 of 11 cases(81%) with abnormality in the femoro- lateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the tibio- anterolateral compartment had tears at the posterior cruciate ligament ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint had tears at the medial collateral ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the medial half of the knee joint had tears at the medial meniscus, but no lateral meniscal tear was found. Among patients with signal abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint, the tear was lateral meniscal in nine of 43 cases(21%) and medial meniscal in six of 43(14%). Conclusion : The location of bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee MR, inpatients with acute knee joint injury could be an important finding suggesting associated injury.

  20. Bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee joint MRI : relationship between its location and associated injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the location of bone signal abnormality and associated injury, as seen on MR, in patients with acute knee joint injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with acute knee injury and bone signal abnormalities on MR were included in this study. The femur and tibia were each divided into six compartments, namely the anteromedial, medial, posteromedial,anterolateral, lateral, and posterolateral ; these were obtained in each knee joint. We evaluated the location of bone signal abnormality and the corresponding arthroscopic or operative findings of injury to ligaments and menisci. Cases with signal abnormalities involving more than three compartments were excluded. Results : Bone signal abnormalities were demonstrated in 51 compartments. Most(84%, 43/51) were noted in the lateral half of the knee joint, the most common location being the tibio- posterolateral compartment(13/51). The femoro-lateral(11/51) and tibio- anterolateral compartment(8/51) were the next most common locations. All cases(13/13)with bone signal abnormality in the tibio- posterolateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament,while 9 of 11 cases(81%) with abnormality in the femoro- lateral compartment had tears at the anterior cruciate ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the tibio- anterolateral compartment had tears at the posterior cruciate ligament ; 31 of 43 cases (72%) with abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint had tears at the medial collateral ligament. Six of eight cases(75%) with signal abnormality in the medial half of the knee joint had tears at the medial meniscus, but no lateral meniscal tear was found. Among patients with signal abnormality in the lateral half of the knee joint, the tear was lateral meniscal in nine of 43 cases(21%) and medial meniscal in six of 43(14%). Conclusion : The location of bone signal abnormality, as seen on knee MR, inpatients with acute knee joint injury could be an important finding suggesting associated injury

  1. Association of initial CT findings with quality-of-life outcomes for traumatic brain injury in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Jonathan O. [Seattle Children' s Hospital and University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Vavilala, Monica S.; Wang, Jin; Rivara, Frederick P. [Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle, WA (United States); Pruthi, Sumit [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt University, Department of Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Fink, James [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Jaffe, Kenneth M. [University of Washington, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Dennis [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pediatrics, Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Koepsell, Thomas [University of Washington, Department of Epidemiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Temkin, Nancy [University of Washington, Biostatistics, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired disability in children and adolescents. To demonstrate the association between specific findings on initial noncontrast head CT and long-term outcomes in children who have suffered TBI. This was an IRB-approved prospective study of children ages 2-17 years treated in emergency departments for TBI and who underwent a head CT as part of the initial work-up (n = 347). The change in quality of life at 12 months after injury was measured by the PedsQL scale. Children with TBI who had intracranial injuries identified on the initial head CT had a significantly lower quality-of-life scores compared to children with TBI whose initial head CTs were normal. In multivariate analysis, children whose initial head CT scans demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, midline shift {>=}5 mm, hemorrhagic shear injury, abnormal cisterns or subdural hematomas {>=}3 mm had lower quality of life scores 1 year after injury than children whose initial CTs did not have these same injuries. Associations exist between findings from the initial noncontrast head CT and quality of life score 12 months after injury in children with TBI. (orig.)

  2. Association of initial CT findings with quality-of-life outcomes for traumatic brain injury in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired disability in children and adolescents. To demonstrate the association between specific findings on initial noncontrast head CT and long-term outcomes in children who have suffered TBI. This was an IRB-approved prospective study of children ages 2-17 years treated in emergency departments for TBI and who underwent a head CT as part of the initial work-up (n = 347). The change in quality of life at 12 months after injury was measured by the PedsQL scale. Children with TBI who had intracranial injuries identified on the initial head CT had a significantly lower quality-of-life scores compared to children with TBI whose initial head CTs were normal. In multivariate analysis, children whose initial head CT scans demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, midline shift ?5 mm, hemorrhagic shear injury, abnormal cisterns or subdural hematomas ?3 mm had lower quality of life scores 1 year after injury than children whose initial CTs did not have these same injuries. Associations exist between findings from the initial noncontrast head CT and quality of life score 12 months after injury in children with TBI. (orig.)

  3. Clinical Application Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 as Indicators of Inflammation Persistence and Acute Kidney Injury in Children with Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zorana Jelic-Ivanovic; Dusan Paripovic; Miron Sopic; Jelena Kotur-Stevuljevic; Amira Peco-Antic; Ivana Ivanisevic; Natasa Bogavac-Stanojevic; Stanislava Petrovic

    2013-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to examine the novel renal biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) to assist pediatricians in the assessment of longer duration of inflammation and acute kidney injury (AKI) development during urinary tract infection (UTI). Methods. The patients enrolled in the study comprised 50 children (mean age was 6 months) with UTI. NGAL in serum and urine (sNGAL and uNGAL, resp.) and KIM-1 in urine were meas...

  4. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  5. Popliteal Artery Injury Associated with Blunt Trauma to the Knee without Fracture or Dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Imerci; Kemal Özaksar; Yusuf Gürbüz; Tahir Sadik Sügün; Umut Canbek; Ahmet Savran

    2014-01-01

    Popliteal artery injuries are frequently seen with fractures, dislocations, or penetrating injuries. Concern about arterial injury and early recognition of the possibility of arterial injury is crucial for the salvage of the extremity. This article provides an outline of the diagnostic challenges related to these rare vascular injuries and emphasizes the necessity for a high level of suspicion, even in the absence of a significant penetrating injury, knee dislocation, fracture, or high-veloci...

  6. Excessive progression in weekly running distance and risk of running-related injuries : an association which varies according to type of injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Parner, Erik Thorlund

    2014-01-01

    Study Design An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. Background It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. Methods A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. Results A total of 202 runners sustained a running-related injury. Using Cox regression analysis, no statistically significant differences in injury rates were found across the 3 exposure groups. An increased rate of distance-related injuries (patellofemoral pain, iliotibial band syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, gluteus medius injury, greater trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those who progressed their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those who progressed less than 10% (hazard ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.66; P = .07). Conclusion Novice runners who progressed their running distance by more than 30% over a 2-week period seem to be more vulnerable to distance-related injuries than runners who increase their running distance by less than 10%. Owing to the exploratory nature of the present study, randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these results, and more experimental studies are needed to validate the assumptions. Still, novice runners may be well advised to progress their weekly distances by less than 30% per week over a 2-week period. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 1b-. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(10):739-747. Epub 25 August 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.5164.

  7. Part V. Surveillance activities

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, C; Brink, A.; Govender, N.; Lewis, D. A.; Perovic, Olga; Botha, M.; Harris, B.; Keddy, Karen H.; Gelband, H; Duse, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The critical importance of robust antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance in South Africa cannot be overemphasised. Without knowing what the resistance situation is, it is impossible to develop appropriate antibiotic treatment guidelines and associated essential drug lists (EDLs) and to create and update evidence-based policies both at institutional and national levels. The broader benefits of AMR surveillance data include: • Determining incidence rates of hospital-ac...

  8. Association of Symptoms Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder vs Postconcussion Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagarde, E.; Salmi, L. R.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE A proportion of patients experience long-lasting symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). The postconcussion syndrome (PCS), included in the DSM-IV, has been proposed to describe this condition. Because these symptoms are subjective and common to other conditions, there is controversy whether PCS deserves to be identified as a diagnostic syndrome. OBJECTIVE To assess whether persistent symptoms 3 months following head injury are specific to MTBI or whether they are better described as part of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a prospective cohort study of injured patients recruited at the adult emergency department of the University Hospital of Bordeaux from December 4, 2007, to February 25, 2009. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES At 3-month follow-up, we compared the prevalence and risk factors for PCS and PTSD. Multiple correspondence analyses were used to assess clustering of symptoms and their associations with the type of injury. RESULTS We included 534 patients with head injury and 827 control patients with other nonhead injuries. Three months following the trauma, 21.2% of head-injured and 16.3% of nonhead-injured patients fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnosis of PCS; 8.8% of head-injured patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for PTSD compared with 2.2% of control patients. In multivariate analysis, MTBI was a predictor of PTSD (odds ratio, 4.47; 95% CI, 2.38-8.40) but not of PCS (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.82-1.55). Correspondence analysis suggested that symptoms considered part of PCS behave similarly to PTSD symptoms in the hyperarousal dimension. None of these 22 symptoms showed any pattern of clustering, and no clear proximity with head or nonhead injury status could be found. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Persistent subjective symptoms frequently reported 3 months after MTBI are not specific enough to be identified as a unique PCS and should be considered part of the hyperarousal dimension of PTSD.

  9. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 3.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition present special problems and the management is often different as compared with the permanent dentition. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialities were included in the task group. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion or majority decision of the task group. Finally, the IADT board members were giving their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care for management of primary teeth injuries. The IADT cannot and does not guarantee favorable outcomes from strict adherence to the guidelines, but believe that their application can maximize the chances of a positive outcome. The Hebrew Edition is part of the IADT global effort to provide a worldwide accessibility to these guidelines. This third part will discuss injuries in the primary dentition.

  10. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Hammoud, Riad I.; Cem S. Sahin; Blasch, Erik P.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Tao Wang

    2014-01-01

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natur...

  11. Development, Implementation and Use of Electronic Surveillance for Ventilator-Associated Events (VAE) in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Resetar, Ervina; McMullen, Kathleen M.; Anthony J Russo; Doherty, Joshua A; Gase, Kathleen A.; Woeltje, Keith F.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation provides an important, life-saving therapy for severely ill patients, but ventilated patients are at an increased risk for complications, poor outcomes, and death during hospitalization.1 The timely measurement of negative outcomes is important in order to identify potential issues and to minimize the risk to patients. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created an algorithm for identifying Ventilator-Associated Events (VAE) in adult patients for report...

  12. From Cues to Nudge: A Knowledge-Based Framework for Surveillance of Healthcare-Associated Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Mamiya, Hiroshi; Riazanov, Alexandre; Forster, Alan J; Baker, Christopher J O; Tamblyn, Robyn; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated semantic web framework consisting of formal ontologies, web services, a reasoner and a rule engine that together recommend appropriate level of patient-care based on the defined semantic rules and guidelines. The classification of healthcare-associated infections within the HAIKU (Hospital Acquired Infections - Knowledge in Use) framework enables hospitals to consistently follow the standards along with their routine clinical practice and diagnosis coding to improve quality of care and patient safety. The HAI ontology (HAIO) groups over thousands of codes into a consistent hierarchy of concepts, along with relationships and axioms to capture knowledge on hospital-associated infections and complications with focus on the big four types, surgical site infections (SSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI); hospital-acquired pneumonia, and blood stream infection. By employing statistical inferencing in our study we use a set of heuristics to define the rule axioms to improve the SSI case detection. We also demonstrate how the occurrence of an SSI is identified using semantic e-triggers. The e-triggers will be used to improve our risk assessment of post-operative surgical site infections (SSIs) for patients undergoing certain type of surgeries (e.g., coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)). PMID:26537131

  13. The Warfighter Associate: decision-support software agent for the management of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Marusich, Laura R.; Sokoloff, Stacey

    2014-06-01

    A unique and promising intelligent agent plug-in technology for Mission Command Systems— the Warfighter Associate (WA)— is described that enables individuals and teams to respond more effectively to the cognitive challenges of Mission Command, such as managing limited intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assets and information sharing in a networked environment. The WA uses a doctrinally-based knowledge representation to model role-specific workflows and continuously monitors the state of the operational environment to enable decision-support, delivering the right information to the right person at the right time. Capabilities include: (1) analyzing combat events reported in chat rooms and other sources for relevance based on role, order-of-battle, time, and geographic location, (2) combining seemingly disparate pieces of data into meaningful information, (3) driving displays to provide users with map based and textual descriptions of the current tactical situation, and (4) recommending courses of action with respect to necessary staff collaborations, execution of battle-drills, re-tasking of ISR assets, and required reporting. The results of a scenario-based human-in-the-loop experiment are reported. The underlying WA knowledge-graph representation serves as state traces, measuring aspects of Soldier decision-making performance (e.g. improved efficiency in allocating limited ISR assets) across runtime as dynamic events unfold on a simulated battlefield.

  14. Factors associated with ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae: analysis of South African national surveillance data, 2003 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mollendorf, Claire; Cohen, Cheryl; de Gouveia, Linda; Quan, Vanessa; Meiring, Susan; Feldman, Charles; Klugman, Keith P; von Gottberg, Anne

    2014-06-01

    It is important to monitor ?-lactam antimicrobial nonsusceptibility trends for Streptococcus pneumoniae to inform empirical treatment guidelines. In this study, we describe penicillin and ceftriaxone susceptibility trends using national laboratory-based pneumococcal surveillance data from 2003 to 2010. A sentinel enhanced-site patient subset (2009 to 2010) contributed to the risk factor and mortality analyses. We included 9,218 invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases for trend analyses and 2,854 IPD cases for risk factor and mortality analyses. Overall, we detected no significant changes in penicillin (patients ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility rates (patients ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility on multivariate analysis were an age of meningitis who were treated according to current guidelines, HIV-infected patients (aOR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.32 to 6.54) and patients infected with ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible isolates (aOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.27 to 7.89) had increased mortality rates. Among children meningitis, mortality was increased in HIV-infected patients (aOR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.56) but not in those with ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible isolates. Penicillin and ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility remained stable over the study period. Ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility was associated with increased mortality among patients ?5 years of age with meningitis. The introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may reduce ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible meningitis. PMID:24687499

  15. ERG Protein Expression in Diagnostic Specimens Is Associated with Increased Risk of Progression During Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Vainer, Ben

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compelling biomarkers identifying prostate cancer patients with a high risk of progression during active surveillance (AS) are needed. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between ERG expression at diagnosis and the risk of progression during AS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study included 265 patients followed on AS with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements, clinical examinations, and 10-12 core rebiopsies from 2002 to 2012 in a prospectively maintained database. ERG immunohistochemical staining was performed on diagnostic paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed sections with a ready-to-use kit (anti-ERG, EPR3864). Men were characterised as ERG positive if a minimum of one tumour focus demonstrated ERG expression. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Overall AS progression was defined as clinical progression: increased clinical tumour category ?cT2b by digital rectal examination and ultrasound, and/or histopathologic progression: upgrade of Gleason score, more than threepositive cores or bilateral positive cores, and/or PSA progression: PSA doubling time <3 yr. Risk of progression was analysed using multiple cause-specific Cox regression and stratified cumulative incidences (Aalen-Johansen method). Curatively intended treatment, watchful waiting, and death without progression were treated as competing events. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 121 of 142 ERG-negative and 96 of 123 ERG-positive patients had complete diagnostic information. In competing risk models, the ERG-positive group showed significantly higher incidences of overall AS progression (p<0.0001) and of the subgroups PSA progression (p<0.0001) and histopathologic progression (p<0.0001). The 2-yr cumulative incidence of overall AS progression was 21.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.3-29.1) in the ERG-negative group compared with 58.6% (95% CI, 48.7-68.5) in the ERG-positive group. ERG positivity was a significant predictor of overall AS progression in multiple Cox regression (hazard ratio: 2.45; 95% CI, 1.62-3.72; p<0.0001). The main limitation of this study is its observational nature. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, ERG positivity at diagnosis can be used to estimate the risk of progression during AS. If confirmed, ERG status can be used to individualise AS programmes. PATIENT SUMMARY: The tissue biomarker ERG identifies active surveillance patients with an increased risk of disease progression.

  16. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad I. Hammoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER. VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1 a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2 an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs and targets of interest (TOIs by movement type and geolocation; and (3 a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV. VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  17. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activated Protein Kinase 2 Regulates Actin Polymerization and Vascular Leak in Ventilator Associated Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Damarla, Mahendra; Hasan, Emile; Boueiz, Adel; Le, Anne; Pae, Hyun Hae; Montouchet, Calypso; Kolb, Todd; Simms, Tiffany; Myers, Allen; Kayyali, Usamah S.; GAESTEL, MATTHIAS; Peng, Xinqi; Reddy, Sekhar P; Damico, Rachel; Hassoun, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation, a fundamental therapy for acute lung injury, worsens pulmonary vascular permeability by exacting mechanical stress on various components of the respiratory system causing ventilator associated lung injury. We postulated that MK2 activation via p38 MAP kinase induced HSP25 phosphorylation, in response to mechanical stress, leading to actin stress fiber formation and endothelial barrier dysfunction. We sought to determine the role of p38 MAP kinase and its downstream eff...

  18. Trauma patient adverse outcomes are independently associated with rib cage fracture burden and severity of lung, head, and abdominal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham, C. Michael; Hileman, Barbara M; Ransom, Kenneth J; Malik, Rema J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that lung injury and rib cage fracture quantification would be associated with adverse outcomes. Subjects and methods: Consecutive admissions to a trauma center with Injury Severity Score ? 9, age 18-75, and blunt trauma. CT scans were reviewed to score rib and sternal fractures and lung infiltrates. Sternum and each anterior, lateral, and posterior rib fracture was scored 1 = non-displaced and 2 = displaced. Rib cage fracture score (RCFS) = total rib fracture score...

  19. Interleukin-6 mediates pulmonary vascular permeability in a two-hit model of ventilator-associated lung injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gurkan, Ozlem U.; He, Chaoxia; Zielinski, Rachel; Rabb, Hamid; King, Landon S.; Dodd-o, Jeffrey M.; D’Alessio, Franco R.; Aggarwal, Neil; Pearse, David; Becker, Patrice M.

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that IL-6 contributes to the development of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI), IL-6-deficient (IL6?/?) and wild-type control (WT) mice received intratracheal hydrochloric acid followed by randomization to MV (MV+IT HCl) or spontaneous ventilation (IT HCl). After 4 hr, injury was assessed by estimation of lung lavage protein concentration and total and differential cell counts, wet/dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary cell death, histologic inflammation score (LIS), a...

  20. Identification of indicator proteins associated with flooding injury in soybean seedlings using label-free quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Nakamura, Takuji; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-11-01

    Flooding injury is one of the abiotic constraints on soybean growth. An experimental system established for evaluating flooding injury in soybean seedlings indicated that the degree of injury is dependent on seedling density in floodwater. Dissolved oxygen levels in the floodwater were decreased by the seedlings and correlated with the degree of injury. To understand the molecular mechanism responsible for the injury, proteomic alterations in soybean seedlings that correlated with severity of stress were analyzed using label-free quantitative proteomics. The analysis showed that the abundance of proteins involved in cell wall modification, such as polygalacturonase inhibitor-like and expansin-like B1-like proteins, which may be associated with the defense system, increased dependence on stress at both the protein and mRNA levels in all organs during flooding. The manner of alteration in abundance of these proteins was distinct from those of other responsive proteins. Furthermore, proteins also showing specific changes in abundance in the root tip included protein phosphatase 2A subunit-like proteins, which are possibly involved in flooding-induced root tip cell death. Additionally, decreases in abundance of cell wall synthesis-related proteins, such as cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase and cellulose synthase-interactive protein-like proteins, were identified in hypocotyls of seedlings grown for 3 days after flooding, and these proteins may be associated with suppression of growth after flooding. These flooding injury-associated proteins can be defined as indicator proteins for severity of flooding stress in soybean. PMID:23659366

  1. A road traffic injury surveillance system using combined data sources in Peru / Sistema de vigilancia de traumatismos por accidentes de tránsito con fuentes de datos combinadas en el Perú

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yliana Rojas, Medina; Victoria, Espitia-Hardeman; Ann M., Dellinger; Manuel, Loayza; Rene, Leiva; Gloria, Cisneros.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el liderazgo del Ministerio de Salud, en el 2007 se estableció un sistema hospitalario nacional de vigilancia de traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito en unidades centinela de todo el Perú. Los datos de vigilancia se extraen de tres fuentes diferentes (registros hospitalarios, info [...] rmes policiales e informes del seguro del vehículo) e incluyen los traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito atendidos inicialmente en las salas de urgencia. Se usa un único formulario de recopilación de datos para registrar la información sobre los heridos, las características del hecho relacionadas con el conductor o los conductores de los vehículos y del vehículo o los vehículos involucrados. Los datos se analizan periódicamente y se comunican a todos los participantes del sistema de vigilancia. Los resultados indicaron que los hombres adultos jóvenes (de 15 a 29 años) fueron los más afectados por traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito y con mayor frecuencia eran los conductores de los vehículos que participaron en la colisión. Los ocupantes de vehículos de cuatro ruedas representaron la mitad de los casos en la mayoría de las zonas del país y los peatones lesionados en el hecho representaron prácticamente la otra mitad. El sistema establecido en el Perú podría servir de modelo del uso de múltiples fuentes de datos para la vigilancia a nivel nacional de traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito. Según los resultados de este estudio, los retos de un sistema de este tipo consisten en mantener y aumentar la participación de las unidades de vigilancia de todo el país y determinar las intervenciones de prevención adecuadas en el nivel local según los datos obtenidos. Abstract in english A national hospital-based nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance system was established at sentinel units across Peru in 2007 under the leadership of the Ministry of Health. Surveillance data are drawn from three different sources (hospital records, police reports, and vehicle insurance reports) [...] and include nonfatal road traffic injuries initially attended at emergency rooms. A single data collection form is used to record information about the injured, event characteristics related to the driver of the vehicle(s), and the vehicle(s). Data are analyzed periodically and disseminated to all surveillance system participants. Results indicated young adult males (15-29 years old) were most affected by nonfatal road traffic injuries and were most often the drivers of the vehicles involved in the collision. Four-wheeled vehicle occupants comprised one-half of cases in most regions of the country, and pedestrians injured in the event accounted for almost another half. The system established in Peru could serve as a model for the use of multiple data sources in national nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance. Based on this study, the challenges of this type of system include sustaining and increasing participation among sentinel units nationwide and identifying appropriate prevention interventions at the local level based on the resulting data.

  2. A road traffic injury surveillance system using combined data sources in Peru Sistema de vigilancia de traumatismos por accidentes de tránsito con fuentes de datos combinadas en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yliana Rojas Medina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A national hospital-based nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance system was established at sentinel units across Peru in 2007 under the leadership of the Ministry of Health. Surveillance data are drawn from three different sources (hospital records, police reports, and vehicle insurance reports and include nonfatal road traffic injuries initially attended at emergency rooms. A single data collection form is used to record information about the injured, event characteristics related to the driver of the vehicle(s, and the vehicle(s. Data are analyzed periodically and disseminated to all surveillance system participants. Results indicated young adult males (15-29 years old were most affected by nonfatal road traffic injuries and were most often the drivers of the vehicles involved in the collision. Four-wheeled vehicle occupants comprised one-half of cases in most regions of the country, and pedestrians injured in the event accounted for almost another half. The system established in Peru could serve as a model for the use of multiple data sources in national nonfatal road traffic injury surveillance. Based on this study, the challenges of this type of system include sustaining and increasing participation among sentinel units nationwide and identifying appropriate prevention interventions at the local level based on the resulting data.Con el liderazgo del Ministerio de Salud, en el 2007 se estableció un sistema hospitalario nacional de vigilancia de traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito en unidades centinela de todo el Perú. Los datos de vigilancia se extraen de tres fuentes diferentes (registros hospitalarios, informes policiales e informes del seguro del vehículo e incluyen los traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito atendidos inicialmente en las salas de urgencia. Se usa un único formulario de recopilación de datos para registrar la información sobre los heridos, las características del hecho relacionadas con el conductor o los conductores de los vehículos y del vehículo o los vehículos involucrados. Los datos se analizan periódicamente y se comunican a todos los participantes del sistema de vigilancia. Los resultados indicaron que los hombres adultos jóvenes (de 15 a 29 años fueron los más afectados por traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito y con mayor frecuencia eran los conductores de los vehículos que participaron en la colisión. Los ocupantes de vehículos de cuatro ruedas representaron la mitad de los casos en la mayoría de las zonas del país y los peatones lesionados en el hecho representaron prácticamente la otra mitad. El sistema establecido en el Perú podría servir de modelo del uso de múltiples fuentes de datos para la vigilancia a nivel nacional de traumatismos no mortales por accidentes de tránsito. Según los resultados de este estudio, los retos de un sistema de este tipo consisten en mantener y aumentar la participación de las unidades de vigilancia de todo el país y determinar las intervenciones de prevención adecuadas en el nivel local según los datos obtenidos.

  3. Treatment With Tetrahydrobiopterin Overcomes Brain Death-Associated Injury in a Murine Model of Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, R; Ritschl, P; Fabritius, C; Nguyen, A-V; Hermann, M; Obrist, P; Werner, E R; Maglione, M; Flörchinger, B; Ebner, S; Resch, T; Pratschke, J; Kotsch, K

    2015-11-01

    Brain death (BD) has been associated with an immunological priming of donor organs and is thought to exacerbate ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Recently, we showed that the essential nitric oxide synthase co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) abrogates IRI following experimental pancreas transplantation. We therefore studied the effects of BD in a murine model of syngeneic pancreas transplantation and tested the therapeutic potential of BH4 treatment. Compared with sham-operated controls, donor BD resulted in intragraft inflammation reflected by induced IL-1ß, IL-6, VCAM-1, and P-selectin mRNA expression levels and impaired microcirculation after reperfusion (p?damage in pancreatic grafts was significantly more pronounced in organs from BD donors than from sham or non-BD donors (p?associated injury after transplantation. PMID:26104062

  4. Association Between Mental Health and Traffic Accidents Injuries in Iranian Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Masoumi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of psychological consequences in traffic accident injured has received little attention in Iran. This study aimed to examine association between mental health and traffic related injuries in injured patients admitted into Emergency Department of Golestan hospital affiliated to Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Ahvaz, Iran. This study was done on a total of 102 injured men involved in traffic accidents as driver. The controls were consisted of 87 men that were selected from general population and had no history of traffic accident. The data was gathered using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and analyzed through multiple univariate Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs. There was a significant difference between individuals with traffic accident and control group in mental health, physical symptoms, depression and social functioning all (p0.05. There were significant differences between two group in education, occupation status and marital status all (p<0.001. Traffic injuries were associated with mental health and physical symptoms, depression and social functioning components of GHQ. These results highlight the individual burden related to traffic accidents in Iran.

  5. [Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to respiratory complications of transfusion. Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined as an acute lung injury that is temporally associated with blood transfusion. TRALI is one of the leading causes of mortality. Although the etiology of TRALI is not fully understood, one of its main causes is thought to be anti-leukocyte antibodies, such as HLA antibody or HNA antibody. A precautionary male-predominant plasma strategy has been implemented in many developed countries, which has resulted in considerable achievements in reducing the incidence of TRALI. Meanwhile, transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) has emerged as a major differential diagnosis of TRALI. TACO is a well-known complication of transfusion, which has been considered not as a side effect of transfusion but a result of erroneous medical practice. It has long been an under-reported complication of transfusion and has not been investigated scientifically. Recent data on transfusion mortality from the Food and Drug Administration revealed that TACO was the second highest cause of death in the United States. Our data also suggested a steep increase in the reported cases of TACO in Japan. Precautionary measures should also be implemented for this emerging complication. PMID:23947178

  6. Assessment of the association between overweight/obesity and traumatic dental injury among Brazilian schoolchildren

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Veruska M, Martins; Raulison V, Sousa; Eveline S, Rocha; Rafaella B, Leite; Monalisa C, Gomes; Ana F, Granville-Garcia.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a associacao entre o sobrepeso/obesidade e a ocorrencia do trauma dentario entre escolares de 7 a 14 anos de idade. Caracterizou-se como um estudo transversal realizado com 590 escolares de escolas publicas de Campina Grande, Brasil. Utilizou-se como criteri [...] o de diagnostico para traumatismo dentario a classificacao proposta por O’Brien (1994) e para sobrepeso/obesidade o indice IMC. Os exames clinicos foram feitos por dois examinadores previamente calibrados (Kappa intra e inter de 0,87 e 0,90, respectivamente). Os testes estatisticos utilizados foram Qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher (significancia de 5%). Os individuos sem sobrepeso/obesidade apresentaram mais lesoes de trauma dentario que aqueles com sobrepeso/obesidade (13,3% vs 8,7%). Quando estratificada a amostra em relacao ao sexo, idade e grupo etnico, o traumatismo dentario foi mais prevalente entre criancas/adolescentes sem sobrepeso/obesidade, com excecao do grupo etnico, que apresentaram prevalencias similares. No grupo total nao foi observada associacao entre sobrepeso/obesidade e trauma dentario (p=0,253). A presenca de sobrepeso/obesidade em escolares de 7 a 14 anos nao foi associada ao traumatismo dentario. A analise da atividade fisica pode ser um fator importante para melhor elucidar a tematica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between overweight/obesity and the occurrence of traumatic dental injury among schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 590 students at public schools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. The classifi [...] cation proposed by O’Brien (1994) was used for the diagnosis of traumatic dental injury. Overweight/obesity was determined based on the body mass index. Clinical examinations were performed by two examiners who had undergone a calibration exercise (Kappa statistics of 0.87 and 0.90 for intra-examiner and inter-examiner, respectively). Data analysis involved the chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test with a 5% level of significance. Traumatic dental injury was less prevalent among the schoolchildren with overweight/obesity than those without this condition (8.7% and 13.3%, respectively). When the sample was stratified by gender and age, traumatic dental injury was also more prevalent among schoolchildren without overweight/obesity. When the sample was stratified based on ethnicity, prevalence rates were similar between those with and without overweight/obesity. In the overall sample, no significant association was found between overweight/obesity and traumatic dental injury (p = 0.253). Overweight/obesity among schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years was not associated with traumatic dental injury in this study. The analysis of physical activity may be important to gain a better understanding of this finding.

  7. Surveillance of artemether-lumefantrine associated Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 gene polymorphisms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavishe, Reginald A; Paulo, Petro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-malarials is a major public health problem worldwide. After deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) there have been reports of reduced sensitivity to ACT by malarial parasites in South-East Asia. In Tanzania, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) is the recommended first-line drug in treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This study surveyed the distribution of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased parasite tolerance to ALu, in Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 687 Plasmodium falciparum positive dried blood spots on filter paper and rapid diagnostic test strips collected by finger pricks from patients attending health facilities in six regions of Tanzania mainland between June 2010 and August 2011 were used. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to detect Pfmdr1 SNPs N86Y, Y184F and D1246Y. RESULTS: There were variations in the distribution of Pfmdr1 polymorphisms among regions. Tanga region had exceptionally high prevalence of mutant alleles, while Mbeya had the highest prevalence of wild type alleles. The haplotype YFY was exclusively most prevalent in Tanga (29.6%) whereas the NYD haplotype was the most prevalent in all other regions. Excluding Tanga and Mbeya, four, most common Pfmdr1 haplotypes did not vary between the remaining four regions (chi2 = 2.3, p = 0.512). The NFD haplotype was the second most prevalent haplotype in all regions, ranging from 17% - 26%. CONCLUSION: This is the first country-wide survey on Pfmdr1 mutations associated with ACT resistance. Distribution of individual Pfmdr1 mutations at codons 86, 184 and 1246 varies throughout Tanzanian regions. There is a general homogeneity in distribution of common Pfmdr1 haplotypes reflecting strict implementation of ALu policy in Tanzania with overall prevalence of NFD haplotype ranging from 17 to 26% among other haplotypes. With continuation of ALu as first-line drug this haplotype is expected to keep rising, thus there is need for continued pharmacovigilance studies to monitor any delayed parasite clearance by the drug.

  8. 10 CFR 850.34 - Medical surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...employer must establish and implement a medical surveillance program for beryllium-associated...employer must designate a Site Occupational Medical Director (SOMD) who is responsible for administering the medical surveillance program. (3) The...

  9. INJURIES IN AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Wayne T; Pollard, Henry

    2003-01-01

    Background: Australian Rules Football is one of the most popular sports in Australia. Successful injury prevention relies on injury surveillance to establish the extent of injuries, to monitor injury patterns and to evaluate prevention strategies. Despite the popularity of participation at the community level, few injury surveillance studies have been published, so a detailed review of the literature is vital. There is limited information available outside of the elite level. Injury statistic...

  10. Paintball: dermatologic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambay, Aparna R; Stratman, Erik J

    2007-07-01

    The popularity of paintball as an extreme sport has gained momentum in recent years. Injuries related to paintball are growing as the number of participants increases. An increasing percentage of paintball-related injuries have occurred in noncommercial settings, such as backyards. We report distinctive follicular stippling and annular scars resulting from paintball injuries in 2 males. Dermatologists may encounter paintball-related injuries during routinely scheduled visits for acne or nevi surveillance. Patients should be verbally reminded to use protective gear to prevent injuries. PMID:17725065

  11. The Association Between Apolipoprotein E and Functional Outcome After Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lizhuo; Bao, Yijun; He, Songbai; Wang, Gang; Guan, Yanlei; Ma, Dexuan; Wu, Rile; Wang, Pengfei; Huang, Xiaolong; Tao, Shanwei; Liu, Qiwen; Wang, Yunjie; Yang, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. Previous studies have investigated the association of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 with functional outcome after TBI and reported inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic literature search and conduct meta-analyses to examine whether APOE ?4 is associated with poorer functional outcome in patients with TBI. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, and HuGE. The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: Patients had TBI; the studies reported APOE genotype data or provided odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs); the functional outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) or the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE); and patients were followed for at least 3 months after TBI. In all meta-analyses, we used random-effects models to calculate the odds ratio as a measure of association. We examined the association of APOE ?4 with functional outcome at different time points after TBI. A total of 12 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analyses. We did not find a significant association between APOE ?4 and functional outcome at 6 (P?=?0.23), 12 (P?=?0.44), and 24 months (P?=?0.85) after TBI. However, APOE ?4 was associated with an increased risk of unfavorable long-term (?6 months) functional outcome after TBI (OR?=?1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.74, P?=?0.01). Limitations of this study include The sample size was limited; the initial severity of TBI varied within and across studies; we could not control for potential confounding factors, such as age at injury and sex; a meta-analysis of the genotype dosage effect was not feasible; and we could not examine the association with specific factors such as neurobehavioral or specific cognitive functions. Our meta-analysis indicates APOE ?4 is associated with the long-term functional outcome of patients with TBI. Future studies that control for confounding factors, with large sample sizes and more homogeneous initial TBI severity levels, are needed to validate the findings from this study. PMID:26579811

  12. Factors associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario 2001-2007: implications for food animal syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alton Gillian D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1 describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, the number of weeks abattoirs process cattle, geographical distribution, types of whole carcass condemnations reported, and the distance animals are shipped for slaughter; and (2 identify various seasonal, secular, disease and non-disease factors that might bias the results of quantitative methods, such as cluster detection methods, used for food animal syndromic surveillance. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and the Ontario Cattlemen's Association regarding whole carcass condemnation rates for cattle animal classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for various cattle classes from 2001-2007. To analyze the association between condemnation rates and potential explanatory variables including abattoir characteristics, season, year and commodity price, as well as animal class, negative binomial regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations (GEE to account for autocorrelation among observations from the same abattoir. Results of the fitted model found animal class, year, season, price, and audit rating are associated with condemnation rates in Ontario abattoirs. In addition, a subset of data was used to estimate the average distance cattle are shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs. The median distance from the farm to the abattoir was approximately 82 km, and 75% of cattle were shipped less than 100 km. Conclusions The results suggest that secular and seasonal trends, as well as some non-disease factors will need to be corrected for when applying quantitative methods for syndromic surveillance involving these data. This study also demonstrated that animals shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs come from relatively local farms, which is important when considering the use of spatial surveillance methods for these data.

  13. Factors associated with the likelihood of injury resulting from collisions between four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Robert W; Narine, Lutchmie; Clarke, S Ross; Baker, Daryl R

    2003-09-01

    The specific effects of vehicular type on the likelihood of an injury occurring are relatively unexplored. This study sought to assess the relative risk of injury to occupants of four-wheel drive vehicles and their counterparts in passenger cars. Data for 1143 occupants from all of the 454 crashes in Oklahoma, in 1995 that involved a four-wheel drive vehicle were used. Multiple logistic regression analysis determined the association between potential predictive factors and vehicular injury. Odds ratios revealed occupancy in a passenger car to be a major predictor of the likelihood of injury. Other factors include the driver being female, driving too fast, travel on curved or level roadways, and being hit laterally or from the rear. PMID:12850068

  14. Comparison between a clinical diagnosis method and the surveillance technique of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention for identification of mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltrick, Renata; Possamai, Dimitri Sauter; de Aguiar, Fernanda Perito; Dadam, Micheli; de Souza, Valmir João; Ramos, Lucas Rocker; Laurett, Renata da Silva; Fujiwara, Kênia; Caldeira, Milton; Koenig, Álvaro; Westphal, Glauco Adrieno

    2015-01-01

    Objective >To evaluate the agreement between a new epidemiological surveillance method of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the clinical pulmonary infection score for mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia detection. Methods This was a prospective cohort study that evaluated patients in the intensive care units of two hospitals who were intubated for more than 48 hours between August 2013 and June 2014. Patients were evaluated daily by physical therapist using the clinical pulmonary infection score. A nurse independently applied the new surveillance method proposed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The diagnostic agreement between the methods was evaluated. A clinical pulmonary infection score of ? 7 indicated a clinical diagnosis of mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia, and the association of a clinical pulmonary infection score ? 7 with an isolated semiquantitative culture consisting of ? 104 colony-forming units indicated a definitive diagnosis. Results Of the 801 patients admitted to the intensive care units, 198 required mechanical ventilation. Of these, 168 were intubated for more than 48 hours. A total of 18 (10.7%) cases of mechanical ventilation-associated infectious conditions were identified, 14 (8.3%) of which exhibited possible or probable mechanical ventilatorassociated pneumonia, which represented 35% (14/38) of mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia cases. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention method identified cases of mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia with a sensitivity of 0.37, specificity of 1.0, positive predictive value of 1.0, and negative predictive value of 0.84. The differences resulted in discrepancies in the mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia incidence density (CDC, 5.2/1000 days of mechanical ventilation; clinical pulmonary infection score ? 7, 13.1/1000 days of mechanical ventilation). Conclusion The Center for Disease Control and Prevention method failed to detect mechanical ventilatorassociated pneumonia cases and may not be satisfactory as a surveillance method. PMID:26465248

  15. Posterior cruciate ligament injury: characteristics and associations of most frequent injuries / Lesoes do ligamento cruzado posterior: caracteristicas e associacoes mais frequentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco Tulio Lopes, Caldas; Gilberto Ferreira, Braga; Samuel Lopes, Mendes; Juliano Martins da, Silveira; Robson Massi, Kopke.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a prevalência das lesões do ligamento cruzado posterior (LCP) e suas combinações e correlações com o mecanismo e a ocorrência de luxação evidente e fratura associada. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de 85 lesões do LCP operadas entre 2003 e 2010. Diagnóstico por meio do exame [...] físico e da radiografia dinâmica, confrontados com achados cirúrgicos. RESULTADOS: Lesões que envolveram o LCP foram mais prevalentes nos homens (78,8%) com média de idade de 33 anos. A causa principal foi o acidente de trânsito (73,80%), dos quais 49,4% de motocicleta. Lesão isolada do LCP ocorreu em 15,3% dos casos e combinada em 84,7%. Dentre as lesões isoladas, nove foram avulsões ósseas (10,6%). O ligamento mais associado às lesões do LCP foi o cruzado anterior (48,2%), seguido da lesão combinada do LCP com o ligamento colateral lateral/canto póstero-lateral (22,4%). Fraturas estiveram mais associadas à combinação LCP + LCL/CPL e não apareceram nas lesões do LCP + ligamento colateral medial/canto póstero-medial. Complicações além de fraturas: lesão de nervo periférico (4,8%) e vascular (1,2%). Luxação evidente no primeiro atendimento (16,7%), mais prevalente na combinação LCP + LCA + LCM/CPM (44,4%). Metade dos pacientes foi operada na fase aguda. Houve diferença estatística significativa (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and combinations of PCL injuries and their correlations with the mechanism, the occurrence of evident dislocation and associated fracture. METHOD: A retrospective study of 85 lesions of PCL operated between 2003 and 2010. Diagnosis by physical examinati [...] on and dynamic radiography, compared with surgical findings. RESULTS: Injuries involving the PCL were more prevalent in men (78.8%) with a mean age of 33 years. The main cause was traffic accidents (73.80%), and (49.4%) motorcycle. Isolated PCL injury occurred in (15.3%) cases, and combined (84.7%). Among the isolated lesions, bone avulsions were nine (10.6%). The most associated PCL injuries were the ACL (48.2%), followed by LCL PCL/PLC (22.4%). Fractures were more associated with combining PCL + LCL/PLC injuries and did not appear in the PCL + MCL/PMC. Complications beyond fractures: peripheral nerve injury (4.8%) and vascular (1.2%). Evident dislocation in primary care (16.7%) was more prevalent in combined ACL + PCL + MCL/PMC (44.4%). Half the patients were operated during the acute phase. There was a statistically significant difference (p

  16. Association between risk factors for injurious falls and new benzodiazepine prescribing in elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvestre Marie-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed to elderly patients' despite concerns about adverse effects leading to injurious falls. Previous studies have not investigated the extent to which patients with pre-existing risk factors for falls are prescribed benzodiazepines. The objective of this study is to assess if some of the risk factors for falls are associated with new benzodiazepine prescriptions in elderly persons. Methods Using provincial administrative databases, elderly Quebec residents were screened in 1989 for benzodiazepine use and non-users were followed for up to 5 years. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate potential predictors of new benzodiazepine use among patient baseline characteristics. Results In the 252,811 elderly patients who had no benzodiazepine prescription during the baseline year (1989, 174,444 (69% never filled a benzodiazepine prescription and 78,367 (31% filled at least one benzodiazepine prescription. In the adjusted analysis, several risk factors for falls were associated with statistically significant increases in the risk of receiving a new benzodiazepine prescription including the number of prescribing physicians seen at baseline (OR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.11–1.13, being female (OR: 1.20; 95% CI 1.18–1.22 or a diagnosis of arthritis (OR: 1.11; 95% CI 1.09–1.14, depression (OR: 1.42; 95% CI 1.35–1.49 or alcohol abuse (OR: 1.24; 95% CI 1.05–1.46. The strongest predictor for starting a benzodiazepine was the use of other medications, particularly anti-depressants (OR: 1.85; 95% CI 1.75–1.95. Conclusion Patients with pre-existing conditions that increase the risk of injurious falls are significantly more likely to receive a new prescription for a benzodiazepine. The strength of the association between previous medication use and new benzodiazepine prescriptions highlights an important medication safety issue.

  17. Annual report for Hanford Site: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupational and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities.This report provides the final summary for the Hanford Reservation.

  18. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for EG&G Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences resulting from illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This report presents the 1994 morbidity data for the Rocky Flats plant.

  19. Amended annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations and do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated work activities. This report provides a final summary for BNL.

  20. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 1.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) of permanent teeth occur frequently in children and young adults. Crown fractures and luxations are the most commonly occurring of all dental injuries. Proper diagnosis, treatment planning and follow up are important for improving a favorable outcome. Guidelines should assist dentists and patients in decision making and for providing the best care effectively and efficiently. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialties were included in the group. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion of the IADT board members. The guidelines represent the best current evidence based on literature search and professional opinion. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of TDIs. In this first article, the IADT Guidelines for management of fractures and luxations of permanent teeth will be presented. The Hebrew Edition is part of the IADT global effort to provide accessibility to these guidelines worldwide.

  1. Radial nerve injury associated with humeral shaft fracture: a retrospective study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávia Pessoni Faleiros Macêdo, Ricci; Rafael Inácio, Barbosa; Valéria Meirelles Carril, Elui; Cláudio Henrique, Barbieri; Nilton, Mazzer; Marisa de Cássia Registro, Fonseca.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the profile of patients with humeral diaphyseal fractures in a tertiary hospital. Methods: We conducted a survey from January 2010 to July 2012, including data from [...] patients classified under humeral diaphyseal fracture (S42.3) according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The variables analyzed were: age, gender, presence of radial nerve injury, causal agent and the type of treatment carried out. Results: The main causes of trauma were car accidents. The radial nerve lesion was present in some cases and was caused by the same trauma that caused the fracture or iatrogenic injury. Most of these fractures occurred in the middle third of humeral diaphysis and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: The profile of patients with fracture of humeral shaft, in this specific sample, was composed mainly of adult men involved in traffic accidents; the associated radial nerve lesion was present in most of these fractures and its cause was strongly related to the trauma mechanism. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study.

  2. Therapeutic temperature modulation is associated with pulmonary complications in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Phelan, Kristine H; Merenda, Amedeo; Denny, Katherine G; Zaila, Kassandra E; Gonzalez, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine complications associated with the use of therapeutic temperature modulation (mild hypothermia and normothermia) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: One hundred and fourteen charts were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: severe TBI with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 24 h and non-penetrating TBI. Patients were divided into two cohorts: the treatment group received therapeutic temperature modulation (TTM) with continuous surface cooling and indwelling bladder temperature probes. The control group received standard treatment with intermittent acetaminophen for fever. Information regarding complications during the time in the ICU was collected as follows: Pneumonia was identified using a combination of clinical and laboratory data. Pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax and deep venous thrombosis were identified based on imaging results. Cardiac arrhythmias and renal failure were extracted from the clinical documentation. acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury were determined based on chest imaging and arterial blood gas results. A logistic regression was conducted to predict hospital mortality and a multiple regression was used to assess number and type of clinical complications. RESULTS: One hundred and fourteen patients were included in the analysis (mean age = 41.4, SD = 19.1, 93 males), admitted to the Jackson Memorial Hospital Neuroscience ICU and Ryder Trauma Center (mean GCS = 4.67, range 3-9), were identified and included in the analysis. Method of injury included motor vehicle accident (n = 29), motor cycle crash (n = 220), blunt head trauma (n = 212), fall (n = 229), pedestrian hit by car (n = 216), and gunshot wound to the head (n = 27). Ethnicity was primarily Caucasian (n = 260), as well as Hispanic (n = 227) and African American (n = 223); four patients had unknown ethnicity. Patients received either TTM (43) or standard therapy (71). Within the TTM group eight patients were treated with normothermia after TBI and 35 patients were treated with hypothermia. A logistic regression predicting in hospital mortality with age, GCS, and TM demonstrated that GCS (Beta = 0.572, P < 0.01) and age (Beta = -0.029) but not temperature modulation (Beta = 0.797, ns) were significant predictors of in-hospital mortality [?2 (3) = 22.27, P < 0.01] A multiple regression predicting number of complications demonstrated that receiving TTM was the main contributor and was associated with a higher number of pulmonary complications (t = -3.425, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Exposure to TTM is associated with an increase in pulmonary complications. These findings support more attention to these complications in studies of TTM in TBI patients. PMID:26557480

  3. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    2006-01-01

    The notorious intensification and digitalization of surveillance technologies and practices in today’s society has brought about numerous changes. These changes have been widely noticed, described and discussed across many academic disciplines. However, the contexts of entertainment, play and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in ...

  4. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-29

    Equine influenza in England and Scotland, Significant numbers of outbreaks of equine herpesvirus 1 neurological disease in the USA, Summary of surveillance testing, April to June 2014. These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:25431382

  5. Podocyte-specific RAP1GAP expression contributes to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis–associated glomerular injury

    OpenAIRE

    Potla, Uma; Ni, Jie; Vadaparampil, Justin; Yang, Guozhe; LEVENTHAL, JEREMY S.; Campbell, Kirk N.; Chuang, Peter Y; Morozov, Alexei(ITEP, Moscow, Russia); He, John C.; D’Agati, Vivette D.; Klotman, Paul E.; Kaufman, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Injury to the specialized epithelial cells of the glomerulus (podocytes) underlies the pathogenesis of all forms of proteinuric kidney disease; however, the specific genetic changes that mediate podocyte dysfunction after injury are not fully understood. Here, we performed a large-scale insertional mutagenic screen of injury-resistant podocytes isolated from mice and found that increased expression of the gene Rap1gap, encoding a RAP1 activation inhibitor, ameliorated podocyte injury resistan...

  6. The Association between Sleep and Injury among School-Aged Children in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Forugh Rafii; Fatemeh Oskouie; Mahnaz Shoghi

    2013-01-01

    Background. A good night's sleep plays a key role in diseases resistance, injury prevention, and mood stability. The objective of this study was to examine relationship between sleep problems and accidental injury occurrences in school-aged children. Method. A retrospective study was conducted for comparing two groups of children. Children who have experienced injuries for at least two times during an academic year are the participants in the injury group (IG) and those who have not experienc...

  7. Self-injurious behavior and eating disorders: the extent and nature of the association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirko, Elena; Hawton, Keith

    2007-08-01

    We have reviewed the literature on the association between self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and eating disorders from the psychological-behavioral perspective. Our aims were to investigate the extent and possible reasons for the association. A literature search was conducted using the following electronic databases (1989-2005): Medline, PsychInfo and EMBASE. References in identified articles were also screened. The reported occurrence of SIB in eating disorder patients ranged between 25.4% and 55.2%. The figures for occurrence of eating disorders in SIB patients ranged between 54% and 61%. These figures indicate that there is a strong association between these disorders. Impulsivity, obsessive-compulsive characteristics, affect dysregulation, dissociation, self-criticizing cognitive style and need for control were identified as potential factors involved in the association. Early trauma such as childhood sexual abuse and possibly certain characteristics of early family environment might contribute to the development of these factors. We present a hypothetical model which includes these factors and argue that the co-existence of eating disorders and SIB in patients results from several factors being present. SIB and eating disorder symptoms may provide a means whereby patients can deal with each factor simultaneously. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:17896881

  8. Risk Factors Associated with Suicide Attempts and Other Self-Injury among Hong Kong Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joy P. S.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Ho, S. Y.; Lam, T. H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined 1,361 Chinese adolescents who reported self-injurious behaviors. Groups A and B both acknowledged deliberate self-injury, but only Group A had made a suicide attempt. Group C reported accidental self-injury. Deliberate self-injurers (Groups A and B) were more frequently girls, older, and with more suicidal ideation. Group A had…

  9. Risk Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behavior among a National Sample of Undergraduate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality among undergraduates represent important public health issues. This analysis identified risk factors that distinguished 3 groups, those who reported no history of self-harm; self-injury, but no suicide attempts (NSSI only); and self-injury and a suicide attempt (NSSI + SA) in the past year.…

  10. 77 FR 73366 - Secondary Service Connection for Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...between traumatic brain injury (TBI...The intended effect of this amendment...with Traumatic Brain Injury...dementia); depression (which also...have no such effect on State, local...d) Traumatic brain injury. (1...TBI; (iv) Depression if manifest...

  11. Genetic variants in the TIRAP gene are associated with increased risk of sepsis-associated acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jinjun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll like receptors (TLRs signaling pathways, including the adaptor protein Mal encoded by the TIRAP gene, play a central role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. Recently, the TIRAP variants have been described association with susceptibility to inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants in TIRAP are associated with the development of ALI. Methods A case-control collection from Han Chinese of 298 healthy subjects, 278 sepsis-associated ALI and 288 sepsis alone patients were included. Three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the TIRAP gene and two additional SNPs that have previously showed association with susceptibility to other inflammatory diseases were genotyped by direct sequencing. The differences of allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were evaluated between three groups. Results The minor allele frequencies of both rs595209 and rs8177375 were significantly increased in ALI patients compared with both healthy subjects (odds ratio (OR = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI:1.15-1.88, P = 0.0027 and OR = 1.97, 95% CI: (1.38-2.80, P = 0.0001, respectively and sepsis alone patients (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.12-1.85, P = 0.0041 and OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.28-2.57, P = 0.00079, respectively. Haplotype consisting of these two associated SNPs strengthened the association with ALI susceptibility. The frequency of haplotype AG (rs595209A, rs8177375G in the ALI samples was significantly higher than that in the healthy control group (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.46-3.09, P = 0.00006 and the sepsis alone group (OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.52-3.29, P = 0.00003. Carriers of the haplotype CA (rs595209C, rs8177375A had a lower risk for ALI compared with healthy control group (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54-0.88, P = 0.0003 and sepsis alone group (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.91, P = 0.0006. These associations remained significant after adjustment for covariates in multiple logistic regression analysis and for multiple comparisons. Conclusions These results indicated that genetic variants in the TIRAP gene might be associated with susceptibility to sepsis-associated ALI in Han Chinese population. However, the association needs to be replicated in independent studies.

  12. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 2.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O

    2014-01-01

    Avulsion of permanent teeth is one of the most serious dental injuries, and a prompt and correct emergency management is very important for the prognosis. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialties were included in the task group. The guidelines represent the current best evidence and practice based on literature research and professionals' opinion. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion or majority decision of the task group. Finally, the IADT board members were giving their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of avulsed permanent teeth. The Hebrew Edition is part of the IADT global effort to provide a worldwide accessibility to these guidelines. This scond part of the guidelines will focus on avulsion of permanent teeth.

  13. Vigilância para acidentes e violência: instrumento para estratégias de prevenção e controle Injury surveillance: a tool for prevention and control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Alves Waldman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A rápida e expressiva elevação da morbi-mortalidade por acidentes e violência constituiu um dos pontos mais relevantes da transição epidemiológica no Brasil, a partir dos anos 80. A complexidade do problema implica a aplicação de medidas no âmbito de políticas sociais, elaboração de legislação específica e desenvolvimento de instrumentos de intervenção voltados à prevenção, ao tratamento e à reabilitação dos atingidos, o que pressupõe a identificação de grupos e fatores de risco. O objetivo deste texto é discutir aspectos conceituais e operacionais da utilização da vigilância em eventos adversos à saúde relacionados a acidentes e à violência. Apresentados os conceitos, características comuns e aspectos relativos à operacionalização dos sistemas de vigilância, independente do evento adverso à saúde a que se destinam, foram discutidas algumas questões específicas relativas à elaboração de definições de caso, à identificação de fontes de informação e à coleta dos dados de interesse, buscando identificar diferenças da utilização da vigilância para acidentes e violência se comparadas com a aplicação deste instrumento para doenças infecciosas, salientando entre elas que, para a identificação de fatores de risco, geralmente, se faz necessário complementar os resultados obtidos pela vigilância com pesquisas epidemiológicas.The fast and important increase in morbidity and mortality due to accidents and violence has been one of the most relevant aspects of the epidemiological transition in Brazil since the 80s. This intricate problem calls for social and political measures, and the development of specific legislation and tools for intervening in terms of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of those affected, so that risk groups and factors can be identified. The aim of the present paper is to discuss conceptual and operational aspects of using surveillance in adverse health events related to accidents and violence/trauma. Some specific issues related to case definition, identification of sources of information and collecting relevant data are discussed after presenting the concepts, common features and operational aspects related to surveillance systems, regardless of the adverse health events they are aimed at. These issues are discussed in order to try to identify the differences of applying surveillance to accidents and violence in comparison to applying it to infectious diseases. Among the differences one must point out that it is generally necessary to supplement results obtained through surveillance with epidemiological studies in order to identify risk factors.

  14. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagener, G.; Gubitosa, G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is proposed as an early marker of kidney injury. We report the association of urinary NGAL with indexes of intraoperative renal hypoperfusion (cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time) and acute kidney injury (AKI) after adult cardiac surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Diagnostic test accuracy. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adult cardiac surgical patients (n = 426) in a single center from 2004 to 2006. INDEX TEST: Urinary NGAL immediately and 3, 18, and 24 hours after cardiac surgery, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. REFERENCE TEST OR OUTCOME: Serum creatinine-based definition for AKI (increase in serum creatinine from preoperative values by >50% or >0.3 mg/dL within 48 hours). RESULTS: Mean urinary NGAL level was 165 +/- 663 (SD) ng/mL preoperatively, peaked immediately after cardiac surgery at 1,490 +/- 102 ng/mL, and remained significantly higher 3, 18, and 24 hours after surgery. 85 patients (20%) developed AKI. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for urinary NGAL immediately after and 3, 18, and 24 hours later as a predictor for AKI were 0.573 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.506 to 0.640), 0.603 (95% CI, 0.533 to 0.674), 0.611 (95% CI, 0.544 to 0.679), and 0.584 (95% CI, 0.510 to 0.657), respectively. Urinary NGAL, but not serum creatinine, level correlated significantly with cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves for cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time to predict AKI were 0.592 (95% CI, 0.518 to 0.666) and 0.593 (95% CI, 0.523 to 0.665), respectively. LIMITATIONS: Limited sensitivity of changes in serum creatinine levels for kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary NGAL has limited diagnostic accuracy to predict AKI defined by change in serum creatinine after cardiac surgery Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9

  15. Early initiation of prophylactic heparin in severe traumatic brain injury is associated with accelerated improvement on brain imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Venous thromboembolic prophylaxis (VTEp is often delayed following traumatic brain injury (TBI, yet animal data suggest that it may reduce cerebral inflammation and improve cognitive recovery. We hypothesized that earlier VTEp initiation in severe TBI patients would result in more rapid neurologic recovery and reduced progression of brain injury on radiologic imaging. Study Design: Medical charts of severe TBI patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center in 2009-2010 were queried for admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, head Abbreviated Injury Scale, Injury Severity Score (ISS, osmotherapy use, emergency neurosurgery, and delay to VTEp initiation. Progression (+1 = better, 0 = no change, ?1 = worse of brain injury on head CTs and neurologic exam (by bedside MD, nurse was collected from patient charts. Head CT scan Marshall scores were calculated from the initial head CT results. Results: A total of 22, 34, and 19 patients received VTEp at early (5 days time intervals, respectively. Clinical and radiologic brain injury characteristics on admission were similar among the three groups (P > 0.05, but ISS was greatest in the early group (P < 0.05. Initial head CT Marshall scores were similar in early and late groups. The slowest progression of brain injury on repeated head CT scans was in the early VTEp group up to 10 days after admission. Conclusion: Early initiation of prophylactic heparin in severe TBI is not associated with deterioration neurologic exam and may result in less progression of injury on brain imaging. Possible neuroprotective effects of heparin in humans need further investigation.

  16. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Short-term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury-associated Hyponatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Tetsuya; Sato, Keiji; Ugawa, Toyomu; Ichiba, Shingo; Ujike, Yoshihito

    2015-08-01

    Hyponatremia, a common electrolyte disorder associated with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), has high mortality and morbidity rates. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for hyponatremia associated with TBI. We retrospectively analyzed the cases of TBI patients who were admitted to the emergency intensive care unit at Okayama University Hospital between October 2011 and September 2014. A total of 82 TBI patients were enrolled. The incidences of hyponatremia (serum sodium level of?135mEq/L) and severe hyponatremia (serum sodium level of?130mEq/L) within the first 14 days after admission were 51% (n?42) and 20% (n?16), respectively. After admission, hyponatremia took a median period of 7 days to develop and lasted for a median of 3 days. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that higher fluid intake from days 1 to 3 and the presence of cranial fractures were risk factors for hyponatremia. The 58 patients with hyponatremia experienced fewer ventilator-free days, longer intensive care unit stays, and less favorable outcomes compared to the 24 patients without hyponatremia;however, these differences were not significant. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal management strategy for TBI-associated hyponatremia in the intensive care unit setting. PMID:26289912

  17. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, SØren; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry METHODS: The study included data sets of annual sales of local anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent, prilocaine 3 percent, and articaine 4 percent sold in cartridges. RESULTS: The study results showed a highly significant overrepresentation of NSDs associated with articaine 4 percent, in particular with mandibular blocks. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of NSDs was disproportionate to the market share of three of the four drugs in both national registry data and clinical data. These findings indicate that the main cause of injury was neurotoxicity resulting from administration of the local anesthetic rather than the needle penetration. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians may consider avoiding use of high-concentration (4 percent) anesthetic formulations fo

  18. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics : Needle lesion or neurotoxicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, SØren; Jensen, Rigmor H.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry. Methods. The study included data sets of annual sales of local anesthetics (from 1995 through 2007), 292 reports to the Danish Medicines Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, of adverse reactions to local anesthetic drugs, and a clinical sample of 115 patients with NSD associated with local anesthetics. The authors assessed lidocaine 2 percent, mepivacaine 2 percent and 3 percent, prilocaine 3 percent, and articaine 4 percent sold in cartridges. Results. The study results showed a highly significant overrepresentation of NSDs associated with articaine 4 percent, in particular with mandibular blocks. Conclusions. The distribution of NSDs was disproportionate to the market share of three of the four drugs in both national registry data and clinical data. These findings indicate that the main cause of injury was neurotoxicity resulting from administration of the local anesthetic rather than the needle penetration. Clinical Implications. Clinicians may consider avoiding use of high-concentration (4 percent) anesthetic formulations for blockanesthesia in the trigeminal area in cases in which there are viable alternatives.

  19. Annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory 1994 epidemiologic surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-80 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  20. Identification and validation of a logistic regression model for predicting serious injuries associated with motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononen, Douglas W; Flannagan, Carol A C; Wang, Stewart C

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate logistic regression model, based upon National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data for calendar years 1999-2008, was developed to predict the probability that a crash-involved vehicle will contain one or more occupants with serious or incapacitating injuries. These vehicles were defined as containing at least one occupant coded with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than or equal to 15, in planar, non-rollover crash events involving Model Year 2000 and newer cars, light trucks, and vans. The target injury outcome measure was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led National Expert Panel on Field Triage in their recent revision of the Field Triage Decision Scheme (American College of Surgeons, 2006). The parameters to be used for crash injury prediction were subsequently specified by the National Expert Panel. Model input parameters included: crash direction (front, left, right, and rear), change in velocity (delta-V), multiple vs. single impacts, belt use, presence of at least one older occupant (? 55 years old), presence of at least one female in the vehicle, and vehicle type (car, pickup truck, van, and sport utility). The model was developed using predictor variables that may be readily available, post-crash, from OnStar-like telematics systems. Model sensitivity and specificity were 40% and 98%, respectively, using a probability cutpoint of 0.20. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the final model was 0.84. Delta-V (mph), seat belt use and crash direction were the most important predictors of serious injury. Due to the complexity of factors associated with rollover-related injuries, a separate screening algorithm is needed to model injuries associated with this crash mode. PMID:21094304

  1. TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

  2. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Fernandez Nuria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI. Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery.

  3. Attaching Hollywood to a Surveillant Assemblage: Normalizing Discourses of Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy K Lippert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines video surveillance images in Hollywood film. It moves beyond previous accounts of video surveillance in relation to film by theoretically situating the use of these surveillance images in a broader “surveillant assemblage”. To this end, scenes from a sample of thirty-five (35 films of several genres are examined to discern dominant discourses and how they lend themselves to normalization of video surveillance. Four discourses are discovered and elaborated by providing examples from Hollywood films. While the films provide video surveillance with a positive associative association it is not without nuance and limitations. Thus, it is found that some forms of resistance to video surveillance are shown while its deterrent effect is not. It is ultimately argued that Hollywood film is becoming attached to a video surveillant assemblage discursively through these normalizing discourses as well as structurally to the extent actual video surveillance technology to produce the images is used.

  4. Weekend catch-up sleep is independently associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Gul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju; Lim, Weonjeong; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Park, Young-Min; Cho, In Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-02-01

    The current study aims to determine the associations of insufficient sleep with suicide attempts and self-injury in a large, school-based Korean adolescent sample. A sample of 4553 middle- and high-school students (grades 7-10) was recruited in this study. Finally, 4145 students completed self-report questionnaires including items on sleep duration (weekday/weekend), self-injury, suicide attempts during the past year, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A multiple linear regression model showed that higher SIQ scores were associated with longer weekend catch-up sleep duration (p=0.009), higher BDI score (psleep duration (p=0.011), higher BDI score (pacademic record (p=0.029) were associated with suicide attempt and self-injury during the past year. The present results suggest that weekend catch-up sleep duration--which is an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep--might be associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents. PMID:24267542

  5. PET/CT surveillance in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma in first remission is associated with low positive predictive value and high costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Mylam, Karen Juul

    2012-01-01

    Background. The value of performing post-therapy routine surveillance imaging in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma is controversial. This study evaluates the utility of positron emission tomography / computed tomography using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (PET/CT) for this purpose and in situations with suspected lymphoma relapse. Design and Methods. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study. Patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma achieving at least a partial remission on first-line therapy were eligible if they received PET/CT surveillance during follow-up. Two types of surveillance PET/CTs were analyzed; routine PET/CT when patients showed no signs of relapse at referral to PET/CT, and clinically indicated PET/CT when recurrence was suspected. Results. A total of 211 routine and 88 clinically indicated PET/CTs were performed in 161 patients. In ten of 22 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma recurrence, a routine PET/CT was the primary tool for the diagnosis of relapse. Extranodal disease, interim PET positive lesions and PET activity at response evaluation were all associated with a PET/CT diagnosed preclinical relapse. The true positive rates of routine PET/CT vs. clinically indicated PET/CT were 5 and 13%, respectively (p=0.02). The overall positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PET/CT was 28% and 100%, respectively. The estimated cost per routine PET/CT diagnosed relapse was 50.778 USD. Conclusions. A negative PET/CT reliably rules out a relapse. The high false positive rate, however, is an important limitation and a confirmatory biopsy is mandatory for the diagnosis of a relapse. With no proven survival benefit for patients with a pre-clinically diagnosed relapse, the high costs and low positive predictive value make PET/CT unfit for routine surveillance of Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

  6. Association between age at diagnosis and degree of liver injury in hepatitis C

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Cláudia de, Oliveira; Ana Clara, Bortotti; Nathália Neves, Nunes; Ibrahin A.H. El, Bacha; Edison Roberto, Parise.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A population-based survey conducted in Brazilian capital cities found that only 16% of the population had ever been tested for hepatitis C. These data suggest that much of the Brazilian population with HCV infection remains undiagnosed. The distribution of age ranges at diagnosis and [...] its association with the degree of hepatitis C are still unknown in Brazilian patients. Material and methods: Patients with HCV infection, diagnosed by HCV RNA (Amplicor-HCV, Roche), were included in the study. Patients with HBV or HIV coinfection, autoimmune diseases, or alcohol intake > 20 g/day were excluded. HCV genotyping was performed by sequence analysis, and viral load by quantitative RT-PCR (Amplicor, Roche). The METAVIR classification was used to assess structural liver injury. The Chi-square (?2) test and student's t-test were used for between-group comparisons. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for analysing the correlation between parameters. Results: A total of 525 charts were reviewed. Of the patients included, 49.5% were male, only 10% of the patients were aged less than 30 years; peak prevalence of HCV infection occurred in the 51-to-60 years age range. Genotype 1 accounted for 65.4% of the cases. Information on HCV subtype was obtained in 227 patients; 105 had subtype 1a and 122 had 1b. According to the degree of structural liver injury, 8.3% had F0, 23.4% F1, 19.8% F2, 11.9% F3, and 36.5% F4. Age at diagnosis of hepatitis correlated significantly with fibrosis (rs = 0.307, p

  7. Association of Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Traffic Injuries in Tabriz - Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Jodeiri Eslami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Nowadays, it is well known that the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is not confined to children and adolescents. Recent data showed that a considerable portion of the general adult population may be affected by ADHD. On the other hand, the impact of ADHD on driving performance, a major area of adult life, has gained enthusiasm. More recent studies revealed an association between adult ADHD and undesirable driving problems. This study was performed to determine the association between presence of adult ADHD and traffic injuries. "nMethods: In this case-control study, in a 13 month period,  140 subjects (70 drivers/riders injured in traffic accidents ,and 70 age- and sex-matched non traumatic controls were selected to participate in the study and were placed in two groups . Subjects with psychiatric comorbidities were excluded. The Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS self-report (screening version was used for screening adult ADHD in both groups. Finally, the occurrence of this condition was compared between the case and control groups. "nResults: Sixty- nine males and one female were recruited in each group with a mean age of 29.31±9.32 (18-61 years in the case and 29.03±9.07 (range: 18-60 years in the control groups (P > 0.05. Previous history of traffic accident was significantly higher in the case group (15.7% vs. 4.3%, P=0.024. The mean driving time in a day was also significantly higher in the case group. In the case group, the scores of CAARS (the ADHD index, ADHD symptoms total, inattentive subscale and hyperactive/impulsive subscale were positive (higher than 70 in 4.3, 10, 7.1 and 10 percent of patients respectively. Among the controls, the corresponding proportions were 4.3, 14.3, 8.6 and 8.6 percent respectively. The two groups were comparable for the mentioned rates. "nConclusion: The results of this study revealed no significant association between ADHD and traffic injuries in Tabriz- Iran

  8. Volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal joint in association with a Bennett's fracture of the thumb: a rare injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, J P

    2012-02-03

    We describe a case of volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal (CMC) joint in association with a Bennett\\'s fracture of the thumb following a motorcycle accident. Volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal joint is an exceedingly rare but easily missed injury, with only a few reported cases in the literature. This report highlights the importance of a true lateral radiograph and close scrutiny of the film to detect this injury. Closed reduction supplemented with Kirschner wire fixation restored normal anatomical relations and achieved an excellent clinical result.

  9. The association of coffee intake with liver cancer risk is mediated by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Drogan, Dagmar; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Pischon, Tobias; Tsilidis, Kostas; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Bouton-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Tsironis, Christos; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Saitakis, George; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lukic, Marko; Braaten, Tonje; Quirós, J Ramón; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez, María-José; Chilarque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanas, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Wallström, Peter; Ohlsson, Bodil; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Assi, Nada; Murphy, Neil; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Higher coffee intake has been purportedly related to a lower risk of liver cancer. However, it remains unclear whether this association may be accounted for by specific biological mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the potential mediating roles of inflammatory, metabolic, liver injury, and iron metabolism biomarkers on the association between coffee intake and the primary form of liver cancer-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). DESIGN: We conducted a prospective nested case-cont...

  10. Post-partum sequential occurrence of two diverse transfusion reactions (transfusion associated circulatory overload and transfusion related acute lung injury)

    OpenAIRE

    Haldar, Rudrashish; Samanta, Sukhen

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) are two dissimilar pathological conditions associated with transfusion of blood products where the time course of the events and clinical presentation overlap leading to uncertainty in establishing the diagnosis and initiating the treatment, which otherwise differs. We encountered a case where a patient of post-partum hemorrhage developed TACO in the immediate post-operative period due to aggr...

  11. Subgroups of US IRAQ and Afghanistan veterans: associations with traumatic brain injury and mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos A; Cooper, Douglas B; Wang, Chen-Pin; Tate, David F; Eapen, Blessen C; York, Gerald E; Pugh, Mary Jo

    2015-09-01

    U. S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan are known to have a high prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression, which are often comorbid and share many symptoms. Attempts to describe this cohort by single diagnoses have limited our understanding of the complex nature of this population. The objective of this study was to identify subgroups of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (IAVs) with distinct compositions of symptoms associated with TBI, PTSD, and depression. Our cross-sectional, observational study included 303,716 IAVs who received care in the Veterans Health Administration in 2010-2011. Symptoms and conditions were defined using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes and symptom-clusters were identified using latent class analysis. We identified seven classes with distinct symptom compositions. One class had low probability of any condition and low health care utilization (HCU) (48 %). Other classes were characterized by high probabilities of mental health comorbidities (14 %); chronic pain and sleep disturbance (20 %); headaches and memory problems (6 %); and auditory problems (2.5 %). Another class had mental health comorbidities and chronic pain (7 %), and the last had high probabilities of most symptoms examined (3 %). These last two classes had the highest likelihood of TBI, PTSD, and depression and were identified as high healthcare utilizers. There are subgroups of IAVs with distinct clusters of symptom that are meaningfully associated with TBI, PTSD, depression, and HCU. Additional studies examining these veteran subgroups could improve our understanding of this complex comorbid patient population. PMID:25963862

  12. Thalamocortical Sensorimotor Circuit Damage Associated with Disorders of Consciousness for Diffuse Axonal Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shun; Song, Jian; Gao, Lichen; Yan, Yan; Huang, Cheng; Ding, Huichao; Huang, He; He, Yuanzhi; Sun, Ronghui; Xu, Guozheng

    2015-09-15

    The relationship of structural and functional brain damage and disorders of consciousness (DOC) for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is still not fully explored. We employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) to examine the changes of resting activations and white matter (WM) integrity for DAI with DOC. WM damages were observed in the body and genu of the corpus callosum, right external capsule (EC) and superior corona radiate (SCR), left superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) and posterior thalamic radiation (PTR). The RS-fMRI revealed augmented amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, insula, amygdala and putamen, and reduced ALFF in the precuneus, thalamus, pre-central and post-central gyri. Correlation analysis identified positive associations between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and activation of the precuneus and between GCS and DTI measurements in the left PTR and SCP, but a negative correlation was found between GCS and activation of the thalamus. Cross modality association analyses indicated that activations of the amygdala and postcentral gyrus were correlated with DTI measurements of the right EC and left PTR respectively. These results implicate that the WM damages in thalamocortical sensorimotor circuit and aberrant brain activity responding to self-awareness and sensation are critical factors to DOC, which expand the current understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying DAI. PMID:26165776

  13. Multiligament knee injuries with associated tibial plateau fractures: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sabesan, Vani J; Danielsky, Paul J; Childs, Abby; Valikodath, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The management of a combination of fracture and multiligament knee injury (MKI) in traumatic knee injury remains controversial, and there are evolving treatment recommendations. Currently, there are no studies focusing on older adult patients with MKI’s in combination with tibia fractures. As a result, there is no well-established treatment algorithm for older adult patients with these complex injuries. We report two cases of MKI’s with concomitant fractures in patients fifty years of age or ...

  14. Noncontingent Reinforcement as Treatment for Food Refusal and Associated Self-Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder, David A.; Normand, Matthew; Atwell, Julie

    2005-01-01

    We examined the use of noncontingent reinforcement to decrease self-injury and increase bite acceptance in a child who exhibited food refusal. First, a brief functional analysis suggested that self-injury was maintained by escape from food presentation. Next, we evaluated an intervention that involved noncontingent access to a video during feeding sessions. Results of the intervention showed a decrease in self-injury and an increase in bite acceptance.

  15. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the surveillance committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010: General view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kadota, Junichi; Aoki, Nobuki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Masaki; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Oguri, Toyoko; Sato, Junko; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Watanabe, Akira; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Watari, Tomohisa; Toyoshima, Eri; Takeuchi, Kenichi; Shiokoshi, Mayumi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Miki, Makoto; Kumagai, Toshio; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Nishiya, Hajime; Kawakami, Sayoko; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takasaki, Jin; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Konosaki, Hisami; Aoki, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Shoji, Michi; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Niki, Yoshihito; Yoshida, Koichiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Saionji, Katsu; Fujikura, Yuji; Miyazawa, Naoki; Kudo, Makoto; Sato, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Yoshida, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Tsukada, Hiroki; Imai, Yumiko; Tsukada, Ayami; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Honma, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Ban, Nobuyoshi; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Sawamura, Haruki; Miyara, Takayuki; Toda, Hirofumi; Sato, Kaori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Mitsuno, Noriko; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Sano, Reiko; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Asari, Seishi; Nishi, Isao; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Koguchi, Yutaka; Kusano, Nobuchika; Mihara, Eiichirou; Kuwabara, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Masui, Kayoko; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Aoki, Yosuke; Fukuoka, Mami; Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Suga, Moritaka; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Honda, Junichi; Fujita, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period from January and April 2010 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institutes using maximum 45 antibacterial agents. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 954 strains (206 Staphylococcus aureus, 189 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 182 Haemophilus influenzae, 74 Moraxella catarrhalis, 139 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 160 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was as high as 50.5%, and those of penicillin-intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae were 1.1% and 0.0%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 17.6% of them were found to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant, 33.5% to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant and 11.0% to be ?-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant strains. Extended spectrum ?-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo ?-lactamase were 2.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Continuous national surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial in order to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis. PMID:25817352

  16. Factors Associated with Ceftriaxone Nonsusceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Analysis of South African National Surveillance Data, 2003 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    von Mollendorf, Claire; Cohen, Cheryl; de Gouveia, Linda; Quan, Vanessa; Meiring, Susan; Feldman, Charles; Klugman, Keith P; von Gottberg, Anne

    2014-01-01

    It is important to monitor ?-lactam antimicrobial nonsusceptibility trends for Streptococcus pneumoniae to inform empirical treatment guidelines. In this study, we describe penicillin and ceftriaxone susceptibility trends using national laboratory-based pneumococcal surveillance data from 2003 to 2010. A sentinel enhanced-site patient subset (2009 to 2010) contributed to the risk factor and mortality analyses. We included 9,218 invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases for trend analyses and ...

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Health, Safety and Security Illness and Injury Surveillance Program Worker Health at a Glance, 2000-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-01-23

    The Worker Health at a Glance, 2000 – 2009 provides an overview of selected illness and injury patterns among the current DOE contractor workforce that have emerged over the 10-years covered by this report. This report is a roll-up of data from 16 individual DOE sites, assigned to one of three program offices (Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration). In this report, an absences is defined as 40 or more consecutive work hours (5+ calendar days) off the job. Shorter absences were not included.

  18. Association between Traumatic Dental Injury, Obesity, and Socioeconomic Status in 6- and 13-Year-Old Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sakeenabi; Mohammad, Roshan Noor; Swamy, Hiremath Shivalinga; Sexena, Vrinda

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and poverty are independent risk factors in trauma-related morbidity in children as well as adolescents. The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between traumatic dental injury, obesity, and socioeconomic status in 6- and 13-year-old schoolchildren in Davangere city, Karnataka, India. Data were obtained from 1,550 schoolchildren. Dental trauma was classified according to Andreasen's criteria. The medical evaluation assessed the Body Mass Index. Overjet was considered a risk factor when it presented values higher than 3 mm, whereas lip coverage was classified as adequate or inadequate. With appropriate sample weighting, relationships between traumatic dental injury and other variables were assessed using the chi-squared test and multivariable logistic regression. Overall prevalence of dental injuries was 10.52% (3.6% in 6-year-olds and 17.2% in 13-year-olds). Boys experienced more injuries than girls, 11.03% and 9.97%, respectively (p>.05). There was a statistically significant difference between traumatic dental injury and overjet (95% confidence interval [CI] [2.06, 4.78], p poverty. PMID:25812163

  19. Factors associated with injuries in adolescents, from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of injuries among teenagers and to examine the associated risk factors, such as sociodemographic characteristics, risk behaviors, family ties and other factors. METHOD: The prevalence of the outcome (injury was estimated with a 95%confidence interval. In order to verify factors associated with the injury, a bivariate analysis was made with estimated odds ratio (OR and its respective confidence intervals. Then, a multivariate analysis was carried out, only with variables whose descriptive level was equal to or lower than 5% (p < 0.05 remaining in the model. RESULTS: The study of injury in adolescents, based on the data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE, pointed out that 10.3% of the teenagers suffered severe injuries in the past 12 months, such as cuts or perforations, broken bones or dislocated joints. The following variables remained independently associated with "suffering severe injuries": being a male teenager; black, mulatto or indigenous race/color and working. Factors related to family ties are significant when the relations are fragile amongst members: adolescents that are injured the most are the ones who suffer most aggressions at home, who skip classes without notifying their parents, those who do not live with their parents and have low family control. The most relevant aspects of mental health are insomnia and loneliness. The factors associated to the exposure to situations of violence that remained in the model were: insecurity in school and in the route home-school; getting a ride with someone inebriated; drinking and driving motorized vehicles; not wearing the seatbelt; not wearing a helmet and being bullied. Among the factors of individual behavior, the following can be emphasized: use of alcohol, cigarettes, trying illicit drugs and early sexual intercourse. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the determinants for suffering injuries in childhood and adolescence shows the complex relationship between associated factors, which points to the need for action towards several aspects to reduce social inequalities, strengthen family ties and prevent violent contexts and individual risk factors.

  20. A Critical Role for Muscle Ring Finger-1 in Acute Lung Injury–associated Skeletal Muscle Wasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, D. Clark; D'Alessio, Franco R.; Johnston, Laura F.; Kesari, Priya; Aggarwal, Neil R.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Mock, Jason R.; Simmers, Jessica L.; DeGorordo, Antonio; Murdoch, Jared; Willis, Monte S.; Patterson, Cam; Tankersley, Clarke G.; Messi, Maria L.; Liu, Chun; Delbono, Osvaldo; Furlow, J. David; Bodine, Sue C.; Cohn, Ronald D.; King, Landon S.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a debilitating condition associated with severe skeletal muscle weakness that persists in humans long after lung injury has resolved. The molecular mechanisms underlying this condition are unknown. Objectives: To identify the muscle-specific molecular mechanisms responsible for muscle wasting in a mouse model of ALI. Methods: Changes in skeletal muscle weight, fiber size, in vivo contractile performance, and expression of mRNAs and proteins encoding muscle atrophy–associated genes for muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1) and atrogin1 were measured. Genetic inactivation of MuRF1 or electroporation-mediated transduction of miRNA-based short hairpin RNAs targeting either MuRF1 or atrogin1 were used to identify their role in ALI-associated skeletal muscle wasting. Measurements and Main Results: Mice with ALI developed profound muscle atrophy and preferential loss of muscle contractile proteins associated with reduced muscle function in vivo. Although mRNA expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1 and atrogin1, was increased in ALI mice, only MuRF1 protein levels were up-regulated. Consistent with these changes, suppression of MuRF1 by genetic or biochemical approaches prevented muscle fiber atrophy, whereas suppression of atrogin1 expression was without effect. Despite resolution of lung injury and down-regulation of MuRF1 and atrogin1, force generation in ALI mice remained suppressed. Conclusions: These data show that MuRF1 is responsible for mediating muscle atrophy that occurs during the period of active lung injury in ALI mice and that, as in humans, skeletal muscle dysfunction persists despite resolution of lung injury. PMID:22312013

  1. Association between maximal hamstring strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Husted, Rasmus; Bencke, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Hölmich, Per; Andersen, Lars Louis; Myklebust, Grethe; Gliese, Bjørn; Bloch Lauridsen, Hanne; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reduced hamstring pre-activity during side-cutting may predispose for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part of ACL injury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a strong hamstring (ACL-agonist) musculature is associated with a high level of hamstring muscle pre-activity during high risk movements such as side-cutting. The purpose of this study was to examine the relat...

  2. Disrupted autophagy after spinal cord injury is associated with ER stress and neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Sarkar, C; Dinizo, M; Faden, A I; Koh, E Y; Lipinski, M M; Wu, J

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic mechanism facilitating degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles in a lysosome-dependent manner. Autophagy flux is necessary for normal neuronal homeostasis and its dysfunction contributes to neuronal cell death in several neurodegenerative diseases. Elevated autophagy has been reported after spinal cord injury (SCI); however, its mechanism, cell type specificity and relationship to cell death are unknown. Using a rat model of contusive SCI, we observed accumulation of LC3-II-positive autophagosomes starting at posttrauma day 1. This was accompanied by a pronounced accumulation of autophagy substrate protein p62, indicating that early elevation of autophagy markers reflected disrupted autophagosome degradation. Levels of lysosomal protease cathepsin D and numbers of cathepsin-D-positive lysosomes were also decreased at this time, suggesting that lysosomal damage may contribute to the observed defect in autophagy flux. Normalization of p62 levels started by day 7 after SCI, and was associated with increased cathepsin D levels. At day 1 after SCI, accumulation of autophagosomes was pronounced in ventral horn motor neurons and dorsal column oligodendrocytes and microglia. In motor neurons, disruption of autophagy strongly correlated with evidence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. As autophagy is thought to protect against ER stress, its disruption after SCI could contribute to ER-stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Consistently, motor neurons showing disrupted autophagy co-expressed ER-stress-associated initiator caspase 12 and cleaved executioner caspase 3. Together, these findings indicate that SCI causes lysosomal dysfunction that contributes to autophagy disruption and associated ER-stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. PMID:25569099

  3. Responsiveness to therapy for increased intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury is associated with neurological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, K; Yang, S; Hu, P F; Chen, H H; Stansbury, L G; Scalea, T M; Stein, D M

    2014-12-01

    In patients with severe traumatic brain injury, increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is associated with poor functional outcome or death. Hypertonic saline (HTS) is a hyperosmolar therapy commonly used to treat increased ICP; this study aimed to measure initial patient response to HTS and look for association with patient outcome. Patients >17 years old, admitted and requiring ICP monitoring between 2008 and 2010 at a large urban tertiary care facility were retrospectively enrolled. The first dose of hypertonic saline administered after admission for ICP >19mmHg was recorded and correlated with vital signs recorded at the bedside. The absolute and relative change in ICP at 1 and 2h after HTS administration was calculated. Patients were stratified by mortality and long-term (?6 months) functional neurological outcome. We identified 46 patients who received at least 1 dose of HTS for ICP>19, of whom 80% were male, mean age 34.4, with a median post-resuscitation GCS score of 6. All patients showed a significant decrease in ICP 1h after HTS administration. Two hours post-administration, survivors showed a further decrease in ICP (43% reduction from baseline), while ICP began to rebound in non-survivors (17% reduction from baseline). When patients were stratified for long-term neurological outcome, results were similar, with a significant difference in groups by 2h after HTS administration. In patients treated with HTS for intracranial hypertension, those who survived or had good neurological outcome, when compared to those who died or had poor outcomes, showed a significantly larger sustained decrease in ICP 2h after administration. This suggests that even early in a patient's treatment, treatment responsiveness is associated with mortality or poor functional outcome. While this work is preliminary, it suggests that early failure to obtain a sustainable response to hyperosmolar therapy may warrant greater treatment intensity or therapy escalation. PMID:25304159

  4. Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, J; Chivers, I; Aldous, D; Bennell, K; SEWARD, H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

  5. The spatial epidemiology of trauma: the potential of geographic information science to organize data and reveal patterns of injury and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Nadine; Hameed, S Morad; Fiedler, Robert; Bell, Nathaniel; Simons, Richard K

    2008-10-01

    Despite important advances in the prevention and treatment of trauma, preventable injuries continue to impact the lives of millions of people. Motor vehicle collisions and violence claim close to 3 million lives each year worldwide. Public health agencies have promoted the need for systematic and ongoing surveillance as a foundation for successful injury control. Surveillance has been used to quantify the incidence of injury for the prioritization of further research, monitor trends over time, identify new injury patterns, and plan and evaluate prevention and intervention efforts. Advances in capability to handle spatial data and substantial increases in computing power have positioned geographic information science (GIS) as a potentially important tool for health surveillance and the spatial organization of health care, and for informing prevention and acute care interventions. Two themes emerge in the trauma literature with respect to GIS theory and techniques: identifying determinants associated with the risk of trauma to guide injury prevention efforts and evaluating the spatial organization and accessibility of acute trauma care systems. We review the current literature on trauma and GIS research and provide examples of the importance of accounting for spatial scale when using spatial analysis for surveillance. The examples illustrate the effect of scale on incident analysis, the geographic variation of major injury across British Columbia's health service delivery areas (HSDAs) and the rates of variation of injury within individual HSDAs. PMID:18841227

  6. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL as a biomarker for acute canine kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ya-Jane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomarkers for the early prediction of canine acute kidney injury (AKI are clinically important. Recently, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL was found to be a sensitive biomarker for the prediction of human AKI at a very early stage and the development of AKI after surgery. However, NGAL has not yet been studied with respect to dog kidney diseases. The application of NGAL canine AKI was investigated in this study. Results The canine NGAL gene was successfully cloned and expressed. Polyclonal antibodies against canine NGAL were generated and used to develop an ELISA for measuring NGAL protein in serum and urine samples that were collected from 39 dogs at different time points after surgery. AKI was defined by the standard method, namely a serum creatinine increase of greater than or equal to 26.5 ?mol/L from baseline within 48 h. At 12 h after surgery, compared to the group without AKI (12 dogs, the NGAL level in the urine of seven dogs with AKI was significantly increased (median 178.4 pg/mL vs. 88.0 pg/mL, and this difference was sustained to 72 h. Conclusion As the increase in NGAL occurred much earlier than the increase in serum creatinine, urine NGAL seems to be able to serve as a sensitive and specific biomarker for the prediction of AKI in dogs.

  7. Associations of deceased donor kidney injury with kidney discard and function after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, I E; Schröppel, B; Doshi, M D; Ficek, J; Weng, F L; Hasz, R D; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Reese, P P; Parikh, C R

    2015-06-01

    Deceased donor kidneys with acute kidney injury (AKI) are often discarded due to fear of poor outcomes. We performed a multicenter study to determine associations of AKI (increasing admission-to-terminal serum creatinine by AKI Network stages) with kidney discard, delayed graft function (DGF) and 6-month estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In 1632 donors, kidney discard risk increased for AKI stages 1, 2 and 3 (compared to no AKI) with adjusted relative risks of 1.28 (1.08-1.52), 1.82 (1.45-2.30) and 2.74 (2.0-3.75), respectively. Adjusted relative risk for DGF also increased by donor AKI stage: 1.27 (1.09-1.49), 1.70 (1.37-2.12) and 2.25 (1.74-2.91), respectively. Six-month eGFR, however, was similar across AKI categories but was lower for recipients with DGF (48 [interquartile range: 31-61] vs. 58 [45-75] ml/min/1.73m(2) for no DGF, p?discard and DGF, but given acceptable 6-month allograft function, clinicians should consider cautious expansion into this donor pool. PMID:25762442

  8. Daño pulmonar agudo asociado a ventilación mecánica / Ventilator associated acute lung injury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio Antonio, Ñamendys-Silva; Juan Gabriel, Posadas-Calleja.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de la asistencia mecánica ventilatoria (AMV) en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) es indiscutible; sin embargo, su uso está ligado con complicaciones como neumonía nosocomial y deterioro del rendimiento cardiaco, que en algunas ocasiones ponen en peligro la vida del enfermo. Una [...] de las complicaciones más graves es el daño pulmonar asociado a la ventilación mecánica (DPVM). El DPVM se caracteriza por la presencia de edema pulmonar rico en proteínas. Se recomienda establecer cierto número de estrategias de protección pulmonar (EPP) para prevenir este tipo de lesión. Una vez instituidas, las EPP han demostrado una disminución de la mortalidad de aproximadamente 10%. Abstract in english Mechanical ventilation plays a central role In the critical care setting; but its use is closely related with some life threatening complications as nosocomial pneumonia and low cardiac performance. One of the most severe complications is called ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) and it includ [...] es: Barotrauma, volutrauma, atelectrauma, biotrauma and oxygen-mediated toxic effects and it is related with an inflammatory response secondary to the stretching and recruitment process of alveoli within mechanical ventilation. The use of some protective ventilatory strategies has lowered the mortality rate 10% approximately.

  9. Low-frequency connectivity is associated with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Dunkley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI occurs from a closed-head impact. Often referred to as concussion, about 20% of cases complain of secondary psychological sequelae, such as disorders of attention and memory. Known as post-concussive symptoms (PCS, these problems can severely disrupt the patient's quality of life. Changes in local spectral power, particularly low-frequency amplitude increases and/or peak alpha slowing have been reported in mTBI, but large-scale connectivity metrics based on inter-regional amplitude correlations relevant for integration and segregation in functional brain networks, and their association with disorders in cognition and behaviour, remain relatively unexplored. Here, we used non-invasive neuroimaging with magnetoencephalography to examine functional connectivity in a resting-state protocol in a group with mTBI (n = 20, and a control group (n = 21. We observed a trend for atypical slow-wave power changes in subcortical, temporal and parietal regions in mTBI, as well as significant long-range increases in amplitude envelope correlations among deep-source, temporal, and frontal regions in the delta, theta, and alpha bands. Subsequently, we conducted an exploratory analysis of patterns of connectivity most associated with variability in secondary symptoms of mTBI, including inattention, anxiety, and depression. Differential patterns of altered resting state neurophysiological network connectivity were found across frequency bands. This indicated that multiple network and frequency specific alterations in large scale brain connectivity may contribute to overlapping cognitive sequelae in mTBI. In conclusion, we show that local spectral power content can be supplemented with measures of correlations in amplitude to define general networks that are atypical in mTBI, and suggest that certain cognitive difficulties are mediated by disturbances in a variety of alterations in network interactions which are differentially expressed across canonical neurophysiological frequency ranges.

  10. Effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinda Amit

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palm olein oil (PO, obtained from refining of palm oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant vitamins and is widely used as oil in diet in many parts of the world including India. Palm oil has been reported to have beneficial effects in oxidative stress associated with hypertension and arterial thrombosis. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the etiopathology of myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI which is a common sequel of ischemic heart disease. Antioxidants have potent therapeutic effects on both ischemic heart disease and ischemic-reperfusion injury. Information on the effect of PO on ischemic-reperfusion injury is, however, lacking. In the present study, the effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with IRI was investigated in an isolated rat heart model. Wistar rats (150–200 gm of either sex were divided into three different groups (n = 16. Rats were fed with palm olein oil supplemented commercial rat diet, in two different doses [5% v / w (PO 5 and 10% v / w (PO 10 of diet] for 30 days. Control rats (C were fed with normal diet. After 30 days, half the rats from each group were subjected to in vitro myocardial IRI (20 min of global ischemia, followed by 40 min of reperfusion. Hearts from all the groups were then processed for biochemical and histopathological studies. One way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test was applied to test for significance and values are expressed as mean ± SE (p Results There was a significant increase in myocardial catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities with no significant change in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS only in group PO 5 as compared to group C. There was no light microscopic evidence of tissue injury. A significant rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of myocardial endogenous antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GPx along with significant myocyte injury was observed in control rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (C IR. Hearts from palm olein oil fed rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (PO 5 IR and PO 10 IR were protected from increase in TBARS and depletion of endogenous antioxidants as compared to C IR group. No significant myocyte injury was present in the treated groups. Conclusions The present study demonstrated for the first time that dietary palm olein oil protected rat heart from oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury.

  11. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  12. Clinical Application Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 as Indicators of Inflammation Persistence and Acute Kidney Injury in Children with Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Peco-Antic, Amira; Paripovic, Dusan; Sopic, Miron; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to examine the novel renal biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) to assist pediatricians in the assessment of longer duration of inflammation and acute kidney injury (AKI) development during urinary tract infection (UTI). Methods. The patients enrolled in the study comprised 50 children (mean age was 6 months) with UTI. NGAL in serum and urine (sNGAL and uNGAL, resp.) and KIM-1 in urine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results. uNGAL levels in subjects with longer duration of inflammation were higher (115.37?ng/mL) than uNGAL levels in subjects with shorter duration of inflammation (67.87?ng/mL, P = 0.022). Difference in sNGAL and KIM-1 levels was not significant (P = 0.155 and P = 0.198, resp.). Significant difference was seen in KIM-1 excretion among groups with and without AKI (P = 0.038). KIM-1 was not able to discriminate between subjects with and without AKI (area under the curves (AUC)?=?0.620, P = 0.175). Conclusions. uNGAL cannot be used for screening of the duration of inflammation during UTI. Accuracy of KIM-1 in screening of AKI development in children with UTI is low. We suggest larger studies to check the negative predictive value of KIM-1 for the development of AKI. PMID:23936859

  13. Upregulation of PIAS1 protects against sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis associated with acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Huang, Liya; Sun, Yunwei; Yuan, Yaozong

    2011-06-01

    The regulator of cytokine signaling known as protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1 (PIAS1) is increasingly understood to have diverse regulatory functions for inflammation, but its effect in inflammatory conditions such as severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has not previously been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of upregulation of PIAS1 on SAP associated with acute lung injury (ALI), and its subsequent effect on disease severity. Sprague-Dawley rats were given an IV injection of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)/F35-PIAS1, Ad5/F35-vector or saline before induction of SAP. The control group received only a sham operation. Lung and pancreas samples were harvested 16h after induction. The protein levels of PIAS1 in tissue were investigated. The severity of pancreatic injury was determined by a histological score of pancreatic injury, serum amylase, and pancreatic water content. The lung injury was evaluated by measurement of pulmonary microvascular permeability, lung myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde levels. The survival rates of rats were also analyzed. The results found that in Ad5/F35-PIAS1 treated rats, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 levels were decreased but showed no influence on the levels of IL-10, and the severity of pancreatic tissue injury was less compared with either untreated SAP or Ad5/F35-vector treated rats (PPIAS1 in SAP-induced rats downregulated the activity of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) pathway and the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 protein in lung. Thus, compared with the untreated SAP rats, the inflammatory response and the severity of ALI decreased, and the survival rates increased (PPIAS1 could augment anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting STAT1, thus attenuating the severity of SAP associated with ALI. PMID:21419645

  14. Is single-dose prophylactic gentamicin associated with acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe Viemose; Fedosova, Maria; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although aminoglycoside treatment has been associated with nephrotoxic effects, single-dose gentamicin has been considered safe in surgery. However, the effect of a single-dose prophylactic aminoglycoside on the risk of acute kidney injury among patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains uncertain. METHODS: A population-based cohort study with matched-pair analysis of 2892 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, was performed. Two diffe...

  15. Association of plasma level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances with extent of hepatocellular injury in preterm infants with cholestatic jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Bhutia, Rinchen D; Upadhyay, Bhumika; Maneesh, M

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the association between extent of hepatocellular injury and plasma level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in pre term infants with cholestasis. Preterm infants (2 mg/dl) (n=25) or in the control group (n=16). Blood samples for measurement of TBARS, direct bilirubin and transaminases were obtained with-in 24 hours of enrollment. The cholestasis and control groups were comparable with respect to gestational age, birth weight and Apga...

  16. Performance enhancement effects of Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention training program in youth futsal players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, Ivan; Rebelo, António; Krustrup, Peter; Brito, João

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate if Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention program improves physical fitness and technical performance in youth futsal players. DESIGN:: Randomized cohort study. SETTING:: Futsal club. PARTICIPANTS:: Thirty-six futsal players (17.3 ± 0.7 years). INTERVENTION:: Players were randomized to an intervention group (n = 18) or a control group (n = 18). Intervention group performed "The 11+" twice per week for 12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE...

  17. Traumatic dental injuries and their association with malocclusion in the primary dentition of Irish children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Norton, Eimear

    2012-02-01

    This study sought to establish the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition of Irish children and to investigate the relationship between dental trauma and non-nutritive sucking habits.

  18. Factors associated with self-reported arthritis 7 to 24 years after a traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Chan, Sharon; Badley, Elizabeth; Dawson, Deirdre R; Ratcliff, Graham; Colantonio, Angela

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to profile characteristics of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who self-reported arthritis 7 to 24 yr. post-injury. Pre- and post-injury socio-demographic factors, injury-related factors, and postinjury standardized assessments measuring health, activity, and participation outcomes were assessed in a retrospective cohort study of 274 participants. The group self-reporting arthritis had significantly more sleep disturbances, poorer overall health, lower mental health and physical function, and decreased productivity. Also, they were older and reported a shorter length of loss of consciousness from TBI. These resulted suggest that musculoskeletal complaints from long-term survivors of TBI sholud be addressed in post-acute care and could guide future research on arthritis in the TBI population. PMID:24724527

  19. Association of Symptoms Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder vs Postconcussion Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagarde, E.; Salmi, L. R.; Holm, L. W.; Contrand, B.; Masson, F.; Ribereau-Gayon, R.; Laborey, M.; Cassidy, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE A proportion of patients experience long-lasting symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). The postconcussion syndrome (PCS), included in the DSM-IV, has been proposed to describe this condition. Because these symptoms are subjective and common to other conditions, there is controversy whether PCS deserves to be identified as a diagnostic syndrome. OBJECTIVE To assess whether persistent symptoms 3 months following head injury are specific to MTBI or whether they are bette...

  20. Kinetic energy less lethal weapons and their associated blunt trauma injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Tawell, Miles G.

    2010-01-01

    A widely used class of Less Lethal Weapon is the kinetic energy projectile. This can cause blunt trauma to the targeted person and, under certain circumstances, its use can result in permanent injury or death. The low velocity at which Less Lethal projectiles are launched results in inaccuracy of use thus increasing the possibility that non targeted areas of the body susceptible to injury by blunt trauma will be hit. This research has been focused to investigate the impact characteristics of ...

  1. Impact of Education and Process Surveillance on Device-Associated Health Care-Associated Infection Rates in a Turkish ICU: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dilek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of process and outcome surveillance on rates of device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAI in an intensive care unit (ICU in Turkey over a four-year period.Material and Methods: An open label, prospective cohort, active DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted on 685 patients admitted to the ICU of a university hospital in Turkey from January 2004 to December 2007, implementing the methodology developed by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. DA-HAI rates were recorded according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN definitions. We analyzed the rates of DA-HAI, mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI, as well as microorganism profile, extra length of stay, and hand hygiene compliance. Pooled DA-HAI rates were calculated and compared by year.Results: The DA-HAI rate per 100 patients declined as follows: for 2004, the DA-HAI rate was 58.4%; for 2005, it was 38.9%; for 2006, it was 34.8%; and for 2007, it was 10.9%. The DA-HAI rate per 1,000 bed-days also declined: for 2004, it was 42.8, and for 2007 it was 10.7. The rates decreased from 25.8 to 13.4 for VAP; from 29.9 to 25.0 for CLA-BSI; and from 9.2 to 6.2 for CAUTI cases per 1,000 device-days during the study period. Conclusion: Process and outcome surveillance of DA-HAI significantly reduced DA-HAI.

  2. Cancer surveillance in ulcerative colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, WM; Warren, BF; Jewell, DP; Mortensen, NJ

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with ulcerative colitis are at a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer than those without the disease. Surveillance programmes are used routinely to detect dysplasia and cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, such programmes are poorly effective. This article discusses possible improvements suggested by recent research. METHODS: Papers relating to cancer associated with ulcerative colitis and surveillance programmes to detect such cancer were identifie...

  3. Furosemide is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.M., Levi; M.S., Rocha; D.N., Almeida; R.T.C., Martins; M.G.C., Silva; N.C.P., Santana; I.T., Sanjuan; C.M.S., Cruz.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU) and if there is an association between [...] the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (75 females and 57 males, average age 64 years) remained for analysis. Most exclusions were related to ICU discharge in the first 24 h. Laboratory, sociodemographic and clinical data were collected until the development of AKI, medical discharge or patient death. The incidence of AKI was 55% (95%CI = 46-64). The predictors of AKI found by univariate analysis were septic shock: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.36-7.14; use of furosemide: OR = 3.27, 95%CI = 1.57-6.80, and age: OR = 1.02 (95%CI = 1.00-1.04). Analysis of the subgroup of patients with septic shock showed that the odds ratio of furosemide was 5.5 (95%CI = 1.16-26.02) for development of AKI. Age, use of furosemide, and septic shock were predictors of AKI in critically ill patients. Use of furosemide in the subgroup of patients with sepsis/septic shock increased (68.4%) the chance of development of AKI when compared to the sample as a whole (43.9%).

  4. Furosemide is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Levi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU and if there is an association between the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (75 females and 57 males, average age 64 years remained for analysis. Most exclusions were related to ICU discharge in the first 24 h. Laboratory, sociodemographic and clinical data were collected until the development of AKI, medical discharge or patient death. The incidence of AKI was 55% (95%CI = 46-64. The predictors of AKI found by univariate analysis were septic shock: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.36-7.14; use of furosemide: OR = 3.27, 95%CI = 1.57-6.80, and age: OR = 1.02 (95%CI = 1.00-1.04. Analysis of the subgroup of patients with septic shock showed that the odds ratio of furosemide was 5.5 (95%CI = 1.16-26.02 for development of AKI. Age, use of furosemide, and septic shock were predictors of AKI in critically ill patients. Use of furosemide in the subgroup of patients with sepsis/septic shock increased (68.4% the chance of development of AKI when compared to the sample as a whole (43.9%.

  5. Prevalência de lesões em corredores de rua e fatores associados Prevalence of injuries and associated factors among street runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Akira Ferreira Hino

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalência de lesões esportivas e os fatores associados em corredores de rua por meio de um inquérito de morbidade referida. Os participantes foram selecionados por convite e por voluntariedade entre os corredores do Circuito de Ruas da Cidade de Curitiba-PR. Foram entrevistados 295 indivíduos (77,3% homens. As prevalências foram descritas de acordo com as variáveis de estudo e a regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para testar as associações (p The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of sports-related injuries and associated factors in street runners through a referred morbidity survey. Participants were selected by invitation and by volunteering among the runners from the Curitiba City Street Running Circuit during the months of September to November. 295 runners were interviewed (77.3% men. Prevalence rates were described accordingly to the study variables and Poisson regression was employed to test associations (p/ associated with self-reported sport injuries. The majority of injured subjects (60.5% remained less than three months away from training and those with training volume between 31 and 60 min/day were more likely to show this condition (prevalence ratio/ =/ 2.44; CI95% = 0.99-6.06; p = 0.05. It is concluded that sports injuries prevalence is observed in 1/3 of men and 1/4 of women. The variables investigated were not associated with prevalence of sport injuries in street runners and the injuries severity is associated with training volume.

  6. Ocular superglue injury.

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of ocular injuries associated with superglue. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients attending an accident and emergency department over a 12 month period with ocular superglue injuries. RESULTS: 14 patients who suffered ocular injuries due to superglue were identified. No patients had long term complications from their injury. Management is discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Superglue eye injuries do not appear to cause long term morbidity.

  7. Emergency room visits for work-related injuries: characteristics and associated factors - Capitals and the Federal District, Brazil, 2011 / Atendimentos de emergência por lesões relacionadas ao trabalho: características e fatores associados - Capitais e Distrito Federal, Brasil, 2011

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio Dênis Medeiros, Mascarenhas; Mariana Gonçalves de, Freitas; Rosane Aparecida, Monteiro; Marta Maria Alves da, Silva; Deborah Carvalho, Malta; Carlos Minayo, Gómez.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesões relacionadas ao trabalho, geralmente classificadas como acidentes de trabalho (AT), destacam-se dentre atendimentos por causas externas (acidentes e violência) nos serviços de saúde. Para descrever as características e os fatores associados aos atendimentos de emergência por AT, realizou-se e [...] studo transversal com dados do Inquérito de Violências e Acidentes em Serviços de Emergência (VIVA Inquérito 2011), em 24 capitais e no Distrito Federal. Estimaram-se prevalências de atendimentos por AT e razões de prevalência (RP) com respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Foram incluídos 29.463 atendimentos de emergência por causas acidentais na população a partir de 18 anos de idade. A prevalência de AT foi de 33,4% e apresentou associação positiva e significante com sexo masculino, faixa etária de 30 a 59 anos, ser trabalhador de indústrias, setor agropecuário ou serviços de reparação e manutenção. A ocorrência de AT foi significativamente maior nos atendimentos por queda de objeto sobre pessoa (RP = 3,37; IC95% 2,80-4,05) e ferimento por objeto perfurocortante (RP = 3,01; IC95% 2,50-3,65). Os resultados podem subsidiar a vigilância de causas externas e direcionar políticas públicas voltadas para a promoção da saúde do trabalhador. Abstract in english Work-related injuries, often classified as occupational injuries (OI), stand out among visits due to external causes (accidents and violence) in health services. To describe the characteristics and factors associated with emergency room visits for OI, a cross-sectional study was conducted using data [...] from the Survey of Violence and Injuries in Emergency Services (VIVA Inquérito 2011) in 24 state capitals and the Federal District. The prevalence of treatment for OI and prevalence ratios (PR) with confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) were calculated. There were 29,463 emergency room visits due to accidental injuries in the population above 18 years of age. The prevalence of OI was 33.4% and was positively and significantly associated with the male gender, age 30-59 years old, industrial workers, agricultural sector or repair and maintenance services. The occurrence of OI was significantly higher in attendance for objects falling on people (PR = 3.37, 95% CI 2.80 to 4.05) and injuries due to perforating object (PR = 3.01, 95% CI 2.50-3.65). The results support the surveillance of external causes and direct public policies to promote occupational health.

  8. In vivo DTI longitudinal measurements of acute sciatic nerve traction injury and the association with pathological and functional changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinchun [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Chen, Jingcong [Department of Radiology, The Center People Hospital of Huizhou, Huizhou 516001 (China); Hong, Goubin [Department of Radiology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519000 (China); Sun, Congpeng; Wu, Xiaomen [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Peng, Matthew Jianqiao, E-mail: PengJQshl@163.com [Department of Joint Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Orthopedic Implantation Key Lab of Guangdong Province, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Zeng, Guangqiao, E-mail: zgqiao@vip.163.com [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of longitudinally measuring acute traction injury to the sciatic nerve using 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to analyze the associations of the measurements [regarding fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), eigenvalue (?{sub ||} and ?{sub ?})] with limb function and pathology. Materials and methods: Acute traction injuries to the sciatic nerve were created in the right hind limbs of 32 New Zealand white rabbits, the left hind limbs were chosen as sham operation nerves. MRI scans were performed at intervals from pre-operation through 8 weeks post-operation follow up. Scanning sequences included T2WI, STIR, and single shot spin echo DTI with single shot EPI acquisition (SE-DTI-SSEPI). Parameters of FA, ADC, axial diffusivity (?{sub ||}) and radial diffusivity (?{sub ?}) were then calculated from the DTI. The limb functions and pathologic changes were evaluated and compared. Results: Diffusion Tensor Tractography (DTT) only revealed the proximal portion of the injured nerves 1–3 days after traction injury but did not reveal the nerve of the distal and traction portions at all. Nerve fibers of the distal and traction portions were not revealed by DTT until after the 1st week. They were elongated gradually and recovered almost to the normal at 8th week. The value of FA and ?{sub ?}of the injured nerves, which varied in different portions, were significantly different between the traction injury nerves and the sham operation nerves, whereas the value of ADC and ?{sub ||} were not significantly different. The curve lines of FA value-time for the proximal, traction and distal portions of the injured nerve correlated well to the functional and pathological changes of the limb affected, while the DTI parameters did not change that much in the sham-operated nerves. Conclusions: DTI obtained on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner can demonstrate early abnormal changes following traction injury to the sciatic nerve in rabbits. The curve lines of FA-time and ?{sub ?}-time for nerve traction injury are consistent with the pathological and functional changes of the limb affected. DTI may thus be a sensitive and reliable method to evaluate degeneration and regeneration of the nerve after traction injury.

  9. Heart injury following intestinal ischemia reperfusion in rats is attenuated by association of ischemic preconditioning and adenosine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Micaela Frasson, Montero; Rafael, Saurim; Wesley Guedes Sava, Bonservizi; Marcia Kiyomi, Koike; Murched Omar, Taha.

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and adenosine as strategies to protect cardiac injury caused by intestinal IR in rats, based on increasing in adenosine bioavailability and improvement of cell energy state by IPC. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to 6 [...] 0 minutes of intestinal ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. Intravenous injections of saline or Adenosine (AD) was administered five minutes before ischemia, five minutes before reperfusion and after 55 minutes reperfusion. Cardiac samples were obtained, fixed in formalin solution, embedded in paraffin, and sections of 5 ?m were stained by hematoxylin-eosin. Histological analysis of myocardium was performed according occurrence of necrosis signs: piknosis, band contraction, eosinophilic cytoplasm, karyorrhexis and vacuolization (score - zero to 5). RESULTS: The groups submitted to ischemia alone (I=4.0), and reperfusion (IR=4.5) showed highest level of lesion compared to the others (I+IPC=3.3, IR+IPC=3.6, I+AD=3.0, IR+AD=3.8). The most interesting result was association of IPC and AD in IR model (IR+IPC+AD=1.2, p=0.002), showing preservation of the heart tissue, with fibers showing typical cross-striations and nuclei characteristics. Rare and small areas of tissue necrosis was observed and suggestion of capillaries congestion. CONCLUSION: Intestinal ischemia reperfusion promotes cardiac tissue injury. Ischemic preconditioning in association with adenosine is an efficient strategy to protect the heart against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  10. New thoughts on the origin of Pellegrini-Stieda: the association of PCL injury and medial femoral epicondylar periosteal stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAnally, James L.; Southam, Samuel L.; Mlady, Gary W. [University of New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-02-15

    For the past 100 years, Pellegrini-Stieda disease has been described as calcification and ossification within the tibial collateral ligament, although these typical radiographic findings are often located more superior than the most proximal extent of the ligament. In this article, we demonstrate four magnetic resonance imaging cases of knee trauma with complete posterior cruciate ligament tear or avulsion, each demonstrating that injury to the medial collateral ligamentous complex can involve significant stripping of the tissue proximal to the medial epicondyle. Classic radiographic findings of Pellegrini-Stieda calcifications can be caused by stripping of the femoral periosteum proximal to the femoral attachment of the tibial collateral ligament, which appears to be associated with a complete posterior cruciate ligament injury. (orig.)

  11. Information surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiders, Barbara AB; McQuerry, Dennis L.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-15

    Biological weapons are within reach of individuals, small groups, terrorist organizations, as well as nations. With pervasive integration of civilian and military populations worldwide, the ill winds of biological warfare stand to affect military troops and civilians alike. A variety of technologies are emerging - such as pathogen detection devices, streaming internet characterization tools, information exploitation techniques, automated feature extraction, and ubiquitous wireless communication - that can help. These technologies, if taken together within an integrated analytical framework, could make possible the monitoring of diverse parameters that may indicate a change in the state of health of a given population - either the emergence of a naturally occurring disease or the outbreak of a disease as a result of hostile intent. This presentation will discuss the application of new information surveillance tools and technologies as they apply to health and disease monitoring, particularly within the context of potential terrorist or hostile nation use of biological warfare. Although discussed within the specific context of health surveillance, the tools and processes described here are generally applicable within other domains of subject matter expertise.

  12. Association between nationality and occupational injury risk on Danish non-passenger merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maritime occupational accidents can be determined by several factors, among which human characteristics play a crucial role. Worker's safety behaviour depends on individual physical and mental characteristics as well as on his/her social and cultural background. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime Authority were collected. Publicly available employment data were used to calculate the cumulative incidence rates for Danish, non-Danish European Union (EU) and non-EU employees working on non-passenger ships. Crude injury rates and rates adjusted for occupational status were statistically compared. RESULTS: The majority of accidents happened to Danish and non-EU workers on non-passenger ships. The injury rate varied around 70 per 1000 among Danish seafarers, while the rate for non-Danish employees was about 30 per 1000. Crude and adjusted relative risk was found significantly lower for EU (0.33-0.46;0.26-0.39) and for non-EU (0.41-0.53; 0.54-0.65) workers compared to Danish seafarers. The difference decreased, but remained significant in most cases for serious injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational injury rates show considerable nationality differences as reported from non-passenger ships registered under the Danish flag. The differences can only be partly explained by varying reporting practices. The findings confirm the results of previous studies and point out the need for effective interventions in the high-risk groups.

  13. The first description of severe anemia associated with acute kidney injury and adult minimal change disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yimei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute kidney injury in the setting of adult minimal change disease is associated with proteinuria, hypertension and hyperlipidemia but anemia is usually absent. Renal biopsies exhibit foot process effacement as well as tubular interstitial inflammation, acute tubular necrosis or intratubular obstruction. We recently managed a patient with unique clinical and pathological features of minimal change disease, who presented with severe anemia and acute kidney injury, an association not previously reported in the literature. Case presentation A 60-year-old Indian-American woman with a history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus for 10 years presented with progressive oliguria over 2 days. Laboratory data revealed severe hyperkalemia, azotemia, heavy proteinuria and progressively worsening anemia. Urine eosinophils were not seen. Emergent hemodialysis, erythropoietin and blood transfusion were initiated. Serologic tests for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative. Complement levels (C3, C4 and CH50 were normal. Renal biopsy unexpectedly displayed 100% foot process effacement. A 24-hour urine collection detected 6.38 g of protein. Proteinuria and anemia resolved during six weeks of steroid therapy. Renal function recovered completely. No signs of relapse were observed at 8-month follow-up. Conclusion Adult minimal change disease should be considered when a patient presents with proteinuria and severe acute kidney injury even when accompanied by severe anemia. This report adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in addition to steroid therapy, prompt initiation of erythropoietin therapy may facilitate full recovery of renal function in acute kidney injury.

  14. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  15. Group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin expression is associated with injury of lung epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Nizet, V; Gibson, R. L.; Chi, E. Y.; Framson, P E; Hulse, M; Rubens, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are the leading cause of serious bacterial infection in newborns. Early-onset disease is heralded by pneumonia and lung injury, and the lung may serve as a portal of entry for GBS into the bloodstream. To examine a potential role for GBS beta-hemolysin in lung epithelial injury, five wild-type strains varying in beta-hemolysin expression were chosen, along with five nonhemolytic (NH) and five hyperhemolytic (HH) variants of these strains derived by chemical or trans...

  16. Firearms injuries and deaths: a critical public health issue. American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The prevention of firearm deaths and injuries is one of the most complex and controversial issues facing the public health profession in recent years. Laws have been enacted to control or discourage private gun ownership, and especially to eliminate guns from the hands of criminals, but the laws' effects in reducing crime and firearm-related injuries and deaths have been disappointing. Gunshot wounds are the 12th leading cause of death in the United States and more than half of all suicides a...

  17. Nail Bed Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Nail Bed Injuries Email to a friend * required fields ... and customize your collection. DESCRIPTION Injuries to the nail are often associated with damage to other structures ...

  18. Correlation of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin with acute kidney injury in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel ML

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ML Patel,1 Rekha Sachan,2 Radheyshyam Gangwar,3 Pushpalata Sachan,4 SM Natu51Department of Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 3Department of Critical Care, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 4Department of Physiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 5Department of Pathology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP remain one of the largest single causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, accounting for 16.1% of maternal deaths in developed countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate acute kidney injury (AKI in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and to examine the correlation of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL with acute kidney injury. This prospective case control study was carried out over a period of 1 year. After written, informed consent and ethical clearance, 149 cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were screened, and seven were lost to follow-up. Acute kidney injury was detected in 88 cases and acute renal failure in 30 cases of HDP. Thirty-one healthy pregnant nonhypertensive women were enrolled as controls. Quantitative measurement of serum NGAL levels was done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. As per the Kidney Diseases Improving Global Outcomes International guidelines acute kidney injury network (AKIN, 50 cases (42.37% of AKI stage I, 38 (32.2% cases of AKI stage II, and 30 (25.42% cases of renal failure were detected. Serum NGAL had a positive association with increasing proteinuria. It also had a positive correlation with systolic blood pressure (r~0.36, diastolic blood pressure (r~0.37, and serum creatinine (r~0.4. NGAL was found to be significantly correlated with creatinine in the cases with the value of the correlation coefficient being 0.4. This direct correlation might be a consequence of endothelial dysfunction on which hypertension and proteinuria probably depends.Keywords: hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preeclampsia, eclampsia, serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, acute kidney injury

  19. Identification of Genes Associated with Smad3-dependent Renal Injury by RNA-seq-based Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Xiong, Yuanyan; Huang, Xiao R; Tang, Patrick; Yu, Xueqing; Lan, Hui Y

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-?/Smad3 signaling plays a critical role in the process of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but targeting Smad3 systematically may cause autoimmune disease by impairing immunity. In this study, we used whole-transcriptome RNA-sequencing to identify the differential gene expression profile, gene ontology, pathways, and alternative splicing related to TGF-?/Smad3 in CKD. To explore common dysregulation of genes associated with Smad3-depednent renal injury, kidney tissues of Smad3 wild-type and knockout mice with immune (anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis) and non-immune (obstructive nephropathy)-mediated CKD were used for RNA-sequencing analysis. Totally 1922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were commonly found in these CKD models. The up-regulated genes are inflammatory and immune response associated, while decreased genes are material or electron transportation and metabolism related. Only 9 common DEGs were found to be Smad3-dependent in two models, including 6 immunoglobulin genes (Ighg1, Ighg2c, Igkv12-41, Ighv14-3, Ighv5-6 and Ighg2b) and 3 metabolic genes (Ugt2b37, Slc22a19, and Mfsd2a). Our results identify transcriptomes associated with renal injury may represent a common mechanism for the pathogenesis of CKD and reveal novel Smad3 associated transcriptomes in the development of CKD. PMID:26648110

  20. Is the use of oral contraceptives associated with operatively treated anterior cruciate ligament injury? : A case-control study from the Danish Knee Ligament Reconstruction Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahr-Wagner, Lene; Thillemann, Theis Muncholm

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is 2 to 9 times higher in women than in men. In addition, in vitro studies have demonstrated that ACL is an estrogen target tissue, and some studies have therefore suggested a protective association between oral contraceptives (OC) and the likelihood of sustaining ACL injury. HYPOTHESIS: There is a protective association between OC use and the likelihood of operatively treated ACL injury. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: The study population included 4497 women with an operatively treated ACL injury registered in the Danish Knee Ligament Reconstruction Registry for the 2005 to 2011 period and 8858 age-matched controls with no ACL injury. The study evaluated exposure to OC use at the time of ACL injury (index date) and in the 5 previous years ("ever user") or no OC use ("never user"). Ever users were further classified as either new users (patients who redeemed their first prescription within the first year before the index date), long-term users (redeemed additional prescriptions 1 to 5 years before the index date), or recent users (redeemed their most recent prescription >1 year before the index date). Finally, a dose-response analysis of OC use was performed. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the relative risk (RR) with a 95% CI of sustaining an operatively treated ACL injury according to OC use. RESULTS: The adjusted RR associating OC with ACL injury was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-0.90) between ever users and never users. Furthermore, there was a decreased RR of sustaining ACL injury of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.74-0.91) in long-term users and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.89) in recent users. Using OC for more than 4 years did not seem to alter the likelihood of sustaining an operatively treated ACL injury. CONCLUSION: This population-based pharmacoepidemiological study including 13,355 women indicates that a protective association exists between OC use and the likelihood of sustaining an operatively treated ACL injury. Although this study does indicate a protective association of OC use, OC should not be used as a prophylactic measure before additional clinical studies have further clarified the biological and causal association between OC use and the likelihood of sustaining operatively treated ACL injury.

  1. Early pulmonary immune hyporesponsiveness is associated with mortality after burn and smoke inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher S; Albright, Joslyn M; Carter, Stewart R; Ramirez, Luis; Kim, Hajwa; Gamelli, Richard L; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aims to address mortality in the context of the early pulmonary immune response to burn and inhalation injury. The authors collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 60 burn patients within 14 hours of their injury when smoke inhalation was suspected. Clinical and laboratory parameters and immune mediator profiles were compared with patient outcomes. Patients who succumbed to their injuries were older (P = .005), had a larger % TBSA burn (P Baux scores to account for the effects of age and % TBSA burn on mortality, nonsurvivors also had reduced levels of IL-2, IL-4, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interferon-?, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? (P < .05 for all). The apparent pulmonary immune hyporesponsiveness in those who died was confirmed by in vitro culture, which revealed that pulmonary leukocytes from nonsurvivors had a blunted production of numerous immune mediators. This study demonstrates that the early pulmonary immune response to burn and smoke inhalation may be attenuated in patients who succumb to their injuries. PMID:21979852

  2. Linguistic Factors Associated with Self-Inflicted Injury in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Benjamin Park

    2009-01-01

    The present study builds on previous research, which demonstrated higher levels of depressive and interpersonal conflict language in first-person narrative accounts of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA) in borderline personality disorder. The present study was designed to examine the semantic similarity of time-sequences…

  3. Updates in the management of orthopedic soft-tissue injuries associated with lower extremity trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Justin J; Campbell, Kirk A; Mercuri, John J; Tejwani, Nirmal C

    2012-02-01

    Management of traumatic soft-tissue injuries remains a challenging and ever evolving field within orthopedic surgery. The basic principle of addressing life before limb in the initial assessment of critically injured patients has not changed. Although arteriography remains the gold standard for vascular injury screening, computed tomography angiography is being used more often to determine limb viability, and its sensitivity and specificity for detecting vascular lesions are reported to be excellent. Thorough debridement and irrigation with early institution of antibiotics are crucial in preventing infection; debridement should be performed urgently once life-threatening conditions have been addressed. Increasing use of vacuum-assisted closure therapy has created a trend down the reconstructive ladder, with improvements in resulting wound closure. Although the orthoplastics approach and new microsurgical techniques have made limb salvage possible in even the most severely injured extremities, it is important to clearly identify the zone of injury and to inform patients and their families of the outcomes of limb salvage versus amputation. Results from the LEAP (Lower Extremity Assessment Project) trials and similar studies should guide orthopedic surgeons in the management of these complex injuries. Nevertheless, it is important to individualize management plans according to patient factors. PMID:22482099

  4. Constipation Associated with Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior Exhibited by a Child Diagnosed with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tory J.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Bosch, Joni J.; Falcomata, Terry S.; Luke, Jeffrey R.; Andelman, Marc S.

    2009-01-01

    A functional analysis was conducted to identify the role environmental variables had on the maintenance of self-injury and aggression. At the outset of the evaluation, an abdominal x-ray showed a moderate to large amount of stool throughout the colon (i.e., constipation). Consequently, medication was administered to promote bowel emptying. Initial…

  5. Type II collagen C2C epitope in human synovial fluid and serum after knee injury - associations with molecular and structural markers of injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumahashi, N; Swärd, P; Larsson, S; Lohmander, L S; Frobell, R; Struglics, A

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Investigate in a cross-sectional study time-dependent changes of synovial fluid type II collagen epitope C2C concentrations after knee injury and correlate to other joint injury biomarkers. METHODS: Synovial fluid samples were aspirated between 0 days and 7 years after injury (n = 235). Serum was collected from 71 of the knee injured patients. Synovial fluid from 8 knee-healthy subjects was used as reference. C2C was quantified by immunoassay and structural injury was determined from ma...

  6. Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andishe Ranjbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iran is a country with one of the highest rates of traffic crash fatality and injury, and seventy percent of these fatalities happen on rural roads. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors influencing injury severity among drivers involved in crashes on two kinds of major rural roads in Iran: two-lane, two-way roads and freeways. METHODS: According to the dataset, 213569 drivers were involved in rural road crashes in Iran, over the 3 years from 2006 to 2008. The Classification And Regression Tree method (CART was applied for 13 independent variables, and one target variable of injury severity with 3 classes of no-injury, injury and fatality. Some of the independent variables were cause of crash, collision type, weather conditions, road surface conditions, driver's age and gender and seat belt usage. The CART model was trained by 70% of these data, and tested with the rest. RESULTS: It was indicated that seat belt use is the most important safety factor for two-lane, two-way rural roads, but on freeways, the importance of this variable is less. Cause of crash, also turned out to be the next most important variable. The results showed that for two-lane, two-way rural roads, "improper overtaking" and "speeding", and for rural freeways, "inattention to traffic ahead", "vehicle defect", and "movement of pedestrians, livestock and unauthorized vehicles on freeways" are the most serious causes of increasing injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis results revealed seat belt use, cause of crash and collision type as the most important variables influencing the injury severity of traffic crashes. To deal with these problems, intensifying police enforcement by means of mobile patrol vehicles, constructing overtaking lanes where necessary, and prohibiting the crossing of pedestrians and livestock and the driving of unauthorized vehicles on freeways are necessary. Moreover, creating a rumble strip on the two edges of roads, and paying attention to the design consistency of roads can be a helpful factor in order to prevent events such as "overturning" and improve the overall safety of freeways.

  7. Interleukin-6 mediates pulmonary vascular permeability in a two-hit model of ventilator-associated lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkan, Ozlem U; He, Chaoxia; Zielinski, Rachel; Rabb, Hamid; King, Landon S; Dodd-o, Jeffrey M; D'Alessio, Franco R; Aggarwal, Neil; Pearse, David; Becker, Patrice M

    2011-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that interleukin-6 (IL-6) contributes to the development of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI), IL-6-deficient (IL6(-/-)) and wild-type control (WT) mice received intratracheal hydrochloric acid followed by randomization to mechanical ventilation (MV + IT HCl) or spontaneous ventilation (IT HCl). After 4 hours, injury was assessed by estimation of lung lavage protein concentration and total and differential cell counts, wet/dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary cell death, histologic inflammation score (LIS), and parenchymal myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration was measured in lung lavage and homogenate, as IL-6 and stretch both regulate expression of this potent mediator of permeability. MV-induced increases in alveolar barrier dysfunction and lavage VEGF were attenuated in IL6(-/-) mice as compared with WT controls, whereas tissue VEGF concentration increased. The effects of IL-6 deletion on alveolar permeability and VEGF concentration were inflammation independent, as parenchymal MPO concentration, LIS, and lavage total and differential cell counts did not differ between WT and IL6(-/-) mice following MV + IT HCl. These data support a role for IL-6 in promoting VALI in this two-hit model. Strategies to interfere with IL-6 expression or signaling may represent important therapeutic targets to limit the injurious effects of MV in inflamed lungs. PMID:22044313

  8. Number of casual male sexual partners and associated factors among men who have sex with men: Results from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Laura F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the majority of new HIV infections were in MSM. We sought to describe numbers of casual sex partners among US MSM. Methods Data are from the first MSM cycle of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system, conducted from 2003 to 2005. Relationships between number of casual male sex partners within the previous year and demographic information, self-reported HIV status, and risk behaviors were determined through regression models. Results Among 11,191 sexually active MSM, 76% reported a casual male partner. The median casual partner number was three. Lower number of casual partners was associated with black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and having a main sex partner in the previous year. Factors associated with a higher number included gay identity, exchange sex, both injection and non-injection drug use. Being HIV-positive was associated with more partners among non-blacks only. Age differences in partner number were seen only among chat room users. Conclusions MSM who were black, Hispanic or had a main sex partner reported fewer casual sex partners. Our results suggest specific populations of MSM who may benefit most from interventions to reduce casual partner numbers.

  9. Association between treated/untreated traumatic dental injuries and impact on quality of life of Brazilian schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Pordeus Isabela A; Goursand Daniela; Oliveira Ana C; Torres Cíntia S; Paiva Saul M; Bendo Cristiane B; Vale Miriam P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Traumatic dental injury (TDI) could have physical and psychosocial consequences for children. Thus, it is important to measure the impact of TDI on the quality of life of children (QoL). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between treated/untreated TDI and the impact on the quality of life of 11-to-14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 1612 male and female schoolchildren aged 11 to 14 yea...

  10. Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardiopulmonary Emergency Department Visits Assessed through Syndromic Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Rappold, Ana G; Stone, Susan L; Cascio, Wayne E; Neas, Lucas M.; Kilaru, Vasu J; Carraway, Martha Sue; Szykman, James J.; Ising, Amy; Cleve, William E.; Meredith, John T.; Vaughan-Batten, Heather; Deyneka, Lana; Devlin, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In June 2008, burning peat deposits produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina. Although the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution is well established, the health effects associated with exposure to wildfire emissions are less well understood.

  11. Association between Peripheral Oxidative Stress and White Matter Damage in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Ming Lin; Meng-Hsiang Chen; Hung-Chen Wang; Cheng-Hsien Lu; Pei-Chin Chen; Hsiu-Ling Chen; Nai-Wen Tsai; Yu-Jih Su; Shau-Hsuan Li; Chia-Te Kung; Tsui-Min Chiu; Hsu-Huei Weng,; Wei-Che Lin

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative stress is believed to be one of the mechanisms involved in the neuronal damage after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the disease severity correlation between oxidative stress biomarker level and deep brain microstructural changes in acute TBI remains unknown. In present study, twenty-four patients with acute TBI and 24 healthy volunteers underwent DTI. The peripheral blood oxidative biomarkers, like serum thiol and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) con...

  12. Identification of regeneration-associated genes after central and peripheral nerve injury in the adult rat

    OpenAIRE

    Brook Gary A; Hol Elly M; Pech Katrin; Schlangen Christiane; Buss Armin; Liman Jan; Breuer Sebastian; Schmitt Andreas B; Noth Johannes; Schwaiger Franz-Werner

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background It is well known that neurons of the peripheral nervous system have the capacity to regenerate a severed axon leading to functional recovery, whereas neurons of the central nervous system do not regenerate successfully after injury. The underlying molecular programs initiated by axotomized peripheral and central nervous system neurons are not yet fully understood. Results To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration in the nervous sy...

  13. Comparing the impact of socio-demographic factors associated with traffic injury among older road users and the general population in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata Takashi; Takamori Ayako; Berg Hans-Yngve; Hasselberg Marie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing number of older road users represents a public health issue because older individuals are more susceptible to traffic injury and mortality than the general population. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors and traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Methods An ecological study was conducted using national data in Japan. Multivariate regression methods were applie...

  14. Propositions for the implementation and reinforcement of surveillance activities of exposure and risks associated to radon inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report treats exclusively of exposure by inhalation. It expresses the propositions relative to the implantation and the development of an information network allowing to characterize the radon exposures by inhalation and associated risks. (N.C.)

  15. Spectrum of surgical trauma and associated head injuries at a university hospital in eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bajracharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trauma is one of the common surgical emergencies presenting at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS, Nepal, a tertiary referral center catering to the needs of the population of Eastern Nepal and nearby districts of India. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the magnitude, epidemiological, clinical profile and outcome of trauma at B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. Materials and Methods: This descriptive case series study includes all patients with history of trauma coming to BPKIHS emergency and referred to the surgery department. We noted the detailed clinical history and examination, demographics, mechanism of injury, nature of injury, time of reporting in emergency, treatment offered (operative or non operative management and analyzed details of operative procedure (i.e. laparotomy, thoracotomy, craniotomy etc., average length of hospital stay, morbidity and outcome (according to Glasgow outcome scale. Collected data were analyzed using EpiInfo 2000 statistical software. Results: There were 1848 patients eligible to be included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 28.9 ± 19.3 years. Majority of the patients (38% belonged to the age group of 21 - 40 years and the male to female ratio was 2.7:1. Most of the trauma victims were students (30% followed by laborers (27% and farmers (22% respectively. The commonest causes of injury were fall from height (39%, road traffic accident (38% and physical assault (18%; 78% of the patients were managed conservatively and 22% underwent operative management. Postoperative complications were seen in 18%. Wound infection 7.5%, neurological deficit including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF otrorrhea was seen in 2.2% patients. Good recovery was seen in 84%, moderate disability in 5.2% patients and severe disability in 1.4% patients. The mortally was 6.3% and most of the deaths were related to traumatic brain injuries. Conclusions: In Nepal, trauma-related injury contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality and is the third leading cause of death. There are very few studies on trauma from this country and hence this study will help in understanding the etiology and outcome particularly in the Eastern region of Nepal.

  16. No increase in kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin excretion following intravenous contrast enhanced-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (N-GAL) excretion post-intravenous contrast enhanced-CT (CE-CT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients were enrolled in a trial on hydration regimes to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Blood and urine samples were taken at baseline, 4 - 6, and 48 - 96 h post CE-CT. Urinary KIM-1 and N-GAL values were normalized for urinary creatinine levels, presented as medians with 2.5 - 97.5 percentiles. Of the enrolled 511 patients, 10 (2 %) were lost to follow-up. CI-AKI occurred in 3.9 % of patients (20/501). Median KIM-1 values were 1.2 (0.1 - 7.7) at baseline, 1.3 (0.1 - 8.6) at 4 - 6 h, and 1.3 ng/mg (0.1 - 8.1) at 48 - 96 h post CE-CT (P = 0.39). Median N-GAL values were 41.0 (4.4 - 3,174.4), 48.9 (5.7 - 3,406.1), and 37.8 ?g/mg (3.5 - 3,200.4), respectively (P = 0.07). The amount of KIM-1 and N-GAL excretion in follow-up was similar for patients with and without CI-AKI (P-value KIM-1 0.08, P-value N-GAL 0.73). Neither patient characteristics at baseline including severe CKD, medication use, nor contrast dose were associated with increased excretion of KIM-1 or N-GAL during follow-up. KIM-1 and N-GAL excretion were unaffected by CE-CT both in patients with and without CI-AKI, suggesting that CI-AKI was not accompanied by tubular injury. (orig.)

  17. No increase in kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin excretion following intravenous contrast enhanced-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooiman, Judith [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Leiden (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, Leiden (Netherlands); Peppel, Wilke R. van de; Huisman, Menno V. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Leiden (Netherlands); Sijpkens, Yvo W.J. [Bronovo Hospital, Department of Nephrology, The Hague (Netherlands); Brulez, Harald F.H. [Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Nephrology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vries, P.M. de [St. Antonius Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Nicolaie, Mioara A.; Putter, H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kooij, W. van der; Kooten, Cees van; Rabelink, Ton J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    To analyze kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (N-GAL) excretion post-intravenous contrast enhanced-CT (CE-CT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients were enrolled in a trial on hydration regimes to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Blood and urine samples were taken at baseline, 4 - 6, and 48 - 96 h post CE-CT. Urinary KIM-1 and N-GAL values were normalized for urinary creatinine levels, presented as medians with 2.5 - 97.5 percentiles. Of the enrolled 511 patients, 10 (2 %) were lost to follow-up. CI-AKI occurred in 3.9 % of patients (20/501). Median KIM-1 values were 1.2 (0.1 - 7.7) at baseline, 1.3 (0.1 - 8.6) at 4 - 6 h, and 1.3 ng/mg (0.1 - 8.1) at 48 - 96 h post CE-CT (P = 0.39). Median N-GAL values were 41.0 (4.4 - 3,174.4), 48.9 (5.7 - 3,406.1), and 37.8 ?g/mg (3.5 - 3,200.4), respectively (P = 0.07). The amount of KIM-1 and N-GAL excretion in follow-up was similar for patients with and without CI-AKI (P-value KIM-1 0.08, P-value N-GAL 0.73). Neither patient characteristics at baseline including severe CKD, medication use, nor contrast dose were associated with increased excretion of KIM-1 or N-GAL during follow-up. KIM-1 and N-GAL excretion were unaffected by CE-CT both in patients with and without CI-AKI, suggesting that CI-AKI was not accompanied by tubular injury. (orig.)

  18. APACHE III Outcome Prediction in Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with Sepsis Associated Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score has been widely used for prediction of clinical outcomes in mixed critically ill patients. However, it has not been validated in patients with sepsis-associated acute lung injury (ALI). The aim of the study was to explore the calibration and predictive value of APACHE III in patients with sepsis-associated ALI. Method The study was a secondary analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of rosuvastatin in sepsis-associated ALI (Statins for Acutely Injured Lungs from Sepsis, SAILS). The study population was sepsis-related ALI patients. The primary outcome of the current study was the same as in the original trial, 60-day in-hospital mortality, defined as death before hospital discharge, censored 60 days after enrollment. Discrimination of APACHE III was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) with its 95% CI. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic was used to assess the calibration of APACHE III. The Brier score was reported to represent the overall performance of APACHE III in predicting outcome. Main results A total of 745 patients were included in the study, including 540 survivors and 205 non-survivors. Non-survivors were significantly older than survivors (59.71±16.17 vs 52.00±15.92 years, pAPACHE III score was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (106.72±27.30 vs. 88.42±26.86; pAPACHE III to predict mortality in ALI patients was moderate with an AUC of 0.68 (95% confidence interval: 0.64–0.73). Conclusion this study for the first time validated the discrimination of APACHE III in sepsis associated ALI patients. The result shows that APACHE III score has moderate predictive value for in-hospital mortality among adults with sepsis-associated acute lung injury. PMID:26422633

  19. Prevalência de lesões em corredores de rua e fatores associados / Prevalence of injuries and associated factors among street runners

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Akira Ferreira, Hino; Rodrigo Siqueira, Reis; Ciro Romélio, Rodriguez-Añez; Rogério César, Fermino.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalência de lesões esportivas e os fatores associados em corredores de rua por meio de um inquérito de morbidade referida. Os participantes foram selecionados por convite e por voluntariedade entre os corredores do Circuito de Ruas da Cidade de Curitiba-PR. [...] Foram entrevistados 295 indivíduos (77,3% homens). As prevalências foram descritas de acordo com as variáveis de estudo e a regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para testar as associações (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of sports-related injuries and associated factors in street runners through a referred morbidity survey. Participants were selected by invitation and by volunteering among the runners from the Curitiba City Street Running Circuit during the months [...] of September to November. 295 runners were interviewed (77.3% men). Prevalence rates were described accordingly to the study variables and Poisson regression was employed to test associations (p/

  20. Post-partum sequential occurrence of two diverse transfusion reactions (transfusion associated circulatory overload and transfusion related acute lung injury).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Rudrashish; Samanta, Sukhen

    2013-10-01

    Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) are two dissimilar pathological conditions associated with transfusion of blood products where the time course of the events and clinical presentation overlap leading to uncertainty in establishing the diagnosis and initiating the treatment, which otherwise differs. We encountered a case where a patient of post-partum hemorrhage developed TACO in the immediate post-operative period due to aggressive resuscitative attempts with blood products. The patient's condition was appropriately diagnosed and was managed according to the clinical scenario, and the condition abated. Subsequently, on the third post-operative day the patient again required blood product transfusions following which the patient developed TRALI, the diagnosis of which was also established and adequate treatment strategy was undertaken. PMID:24339663

  1. Post-partum sequential occurrence of two diverse transfusion reactions (transfusion associated circulatory overload and transfusion related acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudrashish Haldar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI are two dissimilar pathological conditions associated with transfusion of blood products where the time course of the events and clinical presentation overlap leading to uncertainty in establishing the diagnosis and initiating the treatment, which otherwise differs. We encountered a case where a patient of post-partum hemorrhage developed TACO in the immediate post-operative period due to aggressive resuscitative attempts with blood products. The patient?s condition was appropriately diagnosed and was managed according to the clinical scenario, and the condition abated. Subsequently, on the third post-operative day the patient again required blood product transfusions following which the patient developed TRALI, the diagnosis of which was also established and adequate treatment strategy was undertaken.

  2. Injuries and Traumatic Psychological Exposures Associated with the South Napa Earthquake - California, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attfield, Kathleen R; Dobson, Christine B; Henn, Jennifer B; Acosta, Meileen; Smorodinsky, Svetlana; Wilken, Jason A; Barreau, Tracy; Schreiber, Merritt; Windham, Gayle C; Materna, Barbara L; Roisman, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    On August 24, 2014, at 3:20 a.m., a magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck California, with its epicenter in Napa County (1). The earthquake was the largest to affect the San Francisco Bay area in 25 years and caused significant damage in Napa and Solano counties, including widespread power outages, five residential fires, and damage to roadways, waterlines, and 1,600 buildings (2). Two deaths resulted (2). On August 25, Napa County Public Health asked the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) for assistance in assessing postdisaster health effects, including earthquake-related injuries and effects on mental health. On September 23, Solano County Public Health requested similar assistance. A household-level Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) was conducted for these counties in two cities (Napa, 3 weeks after the earthquake, and Vallejo, 6 weeks after the earthquake). Among households reporting injuries, a substantial proportion (48% in Napa and 37% in western Vallejo) reported that the injuries occurred during the cleanup period, suggesting that increased messaging on safety precautions after a disaster might be needed. One fifth of respondents overall (27% in Napa and 9% in western Vallejo) reported one or more traumatic psychological exposures in their households. These findings were used by Napa County Mental Health to guide immediate-term mental health resource allocations and to conduct public training sessions and education campaigns to support persons with mental health risks following the earthquake. In addition, to promote community resilience and future earthquake preparedness, Napa County Public Health subsequently conducted community events on the earthquake anniversary and provided outreach workers with psychological first aid training. PMID:26355257

  3. Effect of Model Year and Vehicle Type on Rollover Crashes and Associated Injuries to Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kallan, Michael J.; Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    In child-involved crashes, there was a greater risk of rollover in pickups and SUVs than in passenger cars and minivans. Risk of injury to the corresponding child occupants in rollovers was significantly higher than for those in non-rollover crashes. There has been little change in overall rollover rates for passenger cars, pickup trucks, and minivans in the most recent model years (since 2002); however, there has been evidence of a declining rollover rate in SUVs during this same period. Eve...

  4. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL predicts renal injury in acute decompensated cardiac failure: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macdonald Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute Decompensated Cardiac Failure (ADCF is frequently associated with deterioration in renal function. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is an early marker of kidney injury. We aimed to determine if NGAL measured at admission predicts in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI in ADCF. Methods A prospective observational study measured NGAL and B-natriuretic peptide (BNP from patients with ADCF presenting to two tertiary hospitals. Patients received standard care and were followed up daily as inpatients. ADCF was defined by PRIDE score ? 6 and AKI by RIFLE criteria. Results One hundred and two patients (median age 80, IQR 69-84 years, 52% male were enrolled. AKI developed in 22 (25% of 90 for whom outcome data was available. Seven patients died. NGAL was significantly elevated in those who developed AKI versus those who did not (median 130 ng/ml vs 69 ng/ml, p = 0.002. NGAL was also higher in those who died (median 136 ng/ml vs 68 ng/ml, p = 0.005. AKI was significantly associated with risk of death (5/22 (23% vs 1/68 (1.5%, p = 0.001, but not length of hospital stay. NGAL significantly correlated with admission eGFR but not BNP. For prediction of AKI, NGAL > 89 ng/ml had sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 70% with area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve of 0.71 (0.58-0.84. After adjustment for baseline renal function, the odds ratio (OR for AKI was 3.73 (1.26-11.01 if admission NGAL > 89 ng/ml. Conclusions Elevated NGAL at admission is associated with in-hospital AKI and mortality in patients with ADCF. However, it has only moderate diagnostic accuracy in this setting.

  5. Global gene expression analysis of rodent motor neurons following spinal cord injury associates molecular mechanisms with development of post-injury spasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Westerdahl, Ann-Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury leads to severe problems involving impaired motor, sensory and autonomic functions. After spinal injury there is an initial phase of hypo-reflexia followed by hyper-reflexia, often referred to as spasticity. Previous studies have suggested a relationship between the reappearance of endogenous plateau potentials in motor neurons and the development of spasticity after spinalization. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased excitability of motor neurons and the return of plateau potentials below a spinal cord injury we investigated changes in gene expression in this cell population. We adopted a rat tail-spasticity model with a caudal spinal transection that causes a progressive development of spasticity from its onset after two to three weeks until two months post injury. Gene expression changes of fluorescently identified tail motor neurons were studied 21 and 60 days post injury. The motor neurons undergo substantial transcriptional regulation in response to injury. Thepatterns of differential expression show similarities at both time points, though there are 20 % more differentially expressed genes 60 days compared to 21 days post injury. The study identifies targets of regulation relating to both ion channels and receptors implicated in the endogenous expression of plateaux. The regulation of excitatory and inhibitory signal transduction indicates a shift in the balance towards increased excitability, where the glutamatergic NMDA receptor complex together with cholinergic system is up-regulated and the GABAA receptor system is down-regulated. The genes of the pore-forming proteins Cav1.3 and Nav1.6 were not up-regulated, while genes of proteins such as non-pore forming subunits and intracellular pathways known to modulate receptor and channel trafficking, kinetics and conductivity showed marked regulation. On the basis of the identified changes in global gene expression in motor neurons, the present investigation opens up for new potential targets for treatment of motor dysfunction following spinal cord injury.

  6. How to define surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to explore and compare ways of defining surveillance. In order to give meaning to concepts that describe the realities of society, social theory is needed. Therefore social theory is employed in this paper for discussing ways of defining surveillance. “Living in ‘surveillance societies’ may throw up challenges of a fundamental – ontological – kind” (Lyon, 1994, p.19. Social theory is a way of clarifying such ontological questions that concern the basic nature and reality of surveillance. A distinction between neutral and negative concepts of surveillance is drawn. Some potential disadvantages of neutral concepts of surveillance are outlined. This paper wants to contribute to the discussion of how to best define surveillance and wants to show that one of the main theoretical differences and questions in surveillance theory is if surveillance should be defined as a negative or a neutral concept.

  7. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 1993. CDC Surveillance Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Laura; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Systems monitor six categories of priority health risk behaviors among youth and young adults: (1) behaviors that contribute to intentional or unintentional injuries; (2) tobacco use (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases;…

  8. The short-term association of temperature and rainfall with mortality in Vadu Health and Demographic Surveillance System: a population level time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Muralidharan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research in mainly developed countries has shown that some changes in weather are associated with increased mortality. However, due to the lack of accessible data, few studies have examined such effects of weather on mortality, particularly in rural regions in developing countries. Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between temperature and rainfall with daily mortality in rural India. Design: Daily mortality data were obtained from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS in Vadu, India. Daily mean temperature and rainfall data were obtained from a regional meteorological center, India Meteorological Department (IMD, Pune. A Poisson regression model was established over the study period (January 2003–May 2010 to assess the short-term relationship between weather variables and total mortality, adjusting for time trends and stratifying by both age and sex. Result: Mortality was found to be significantly associated with daily ambient temperatures and rainfall, after controlling for seasonality and long-term time trends. Children aged 5 years or below appear particularly susceptible to the effects of warm and cold temperatures and heavy rainfall. The population aged 20–59 years appeared to face increased mortality on hot days. Most age groups were found to have increased mortality rates 7–13 days after rainfall events. This association was particularly evident in women. Conclusion: We found the level of mortality in Vadu HDSS in rural India to be highly affected by both high and low temperatures and rainfall events, with time lags of up to 2 weeks. These results suggest that weather-related mortality may be a public health problem in rural India today. Furthermore, as changes in local climate occur, adaptation measures should be considered to mitigate the potentially negative impacts on public health in these rural communities.

  9. Improved hospital-level risk adjustment for surveillance of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jones MA; Haynes MA; Clements ACA; Tong ENC; Morton AP; Whitby M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To allow direct comparison of bloodstream infection (BSI) rates between hospitals for performance measurement, observed rates need to be risk adjusted according to the types of patients cared for by the hospital. However, attribute data on all individual patients are often unavailable and hospital-level risk adjustment needs to be done using indirect indicator variables of patient case mix, such as hospital level. We aimed to identify medical services associated with high ...

  10. Association of a common genetic variant within ANKK1 with six-month cognitive performance after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, John K; Pronger, Angela M; Ferguson, Adam R; Temkin, Nancy R; Sharma, Sourabh; Rosand, Jonathan; Sorani, Marco D; McAllister, Thomas W; Barber, Jason; Winkler, Ethan A; Burchard, Esteban G; Hu, Donglei; Lingsma, Hester F; Cooper, Shelly R; Puccio, Ava M; Okonkwo, David O; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Genetic association analyses suggest that certain common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may adversely impact recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Delineating their causal relationship may aid in development of novel interventions and in identifying patients likely to respond to targeted therapies. We examined the influence of the (C/T) SNP rs1800497 of ANKK1 on post-TBI outcome using data from two prospective multicenter studies: the Citicoline Brain Injury Treatment (COBRIT) trial and Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot). We included patients with ANKK1 genotyping results and cognitive outcomes at six months post-TBI (n?=?492: COBRIT n?=?272, TRACK-TBI Pilot n?=?220). Using the California Verbal Learning Test Second Edition (CVLT-II) Trial 1-5 Standard Score, we found a dose-dependent effect for the T allele, with T/T homozygotes scoring lowest on the CVLT-II Trial 1-5 Standard Score (T/T 45.1, C/T 51.1, C/C 52.1, ANOVA, p?=?0.008). Post hoc testing with multiple comparison-correction indicated that T/T patients performed significantly worse than C/T and C/C patients. Similar effects were observed in a test of non-verbal processing (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Processing Speed Index). Our findings extend those of previous studies reporting a negative relationship of the ANKK1 T allele with cognitive performance after TBI. In this study, we demonstrate the value of pooling shared clinical, biomarker, and outcome variables from two large datasets applying the NIH TBI Common Data Elements. The results have implications for future multicenter investigations to further elucidate the role of ANKK1 in post-TBI outcome. PMID:25633559

  11. Risk of leukemia associated with the first course of cancer treatment: an analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of leukemia associated with the first course of cancer treatment was evaluated in over 440,000 patients diagnosed during 1973-80 (average follow-up . 1.91 yr) from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Although the reporting of the first course of therapy probably was incomplete, 34 acute nonlymphocytic leukemias (ANLL) developed compared with 7.6 expected among 70,674 patients known to receive initial chemotherapy [relative risk (RR) . 4.5, 95% confidence interval (Cl) . 3.1-6.3]. Significant ANLL excesses were observed following chemotherapy for breast cancer (RR . 8.1), ovarian cancer (RR . 22.2), and multiple myeloma (RR . 9.5). Patients initially treated with radiation (with no record of chemotherapy) also had a significantly increased ANLL risk; 45 leukemias occurred versus 17.9 expected (RR . 2.5, 95% Cl . 1.8-3.4). In this group, excess ANLL were found following irradiation for uterine corpus cancer (RR . 4.0). Kidney and renal pelvis cancer patients had a twofold leukemia risk (all types) that was unrelated to treatment (RR . 2.2)

  12. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ?14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged???18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p? Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

  13. In Vivo Effects of Quercetin in Association with Moderate Exercise Training in Improving Streptozotocin-Induced Aortic Tissue Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina C. Chis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine-metabolic disorder associated with endothelial dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and abnormal nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation are the major causal factors in the development of endothelial dysfunction in DM. The prevention of endothelial dysfunction may be a first target against the appearance of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the synergistic protective effects of quercetin administration and moderate exercise training on thoracic aorta injuries induced by diabetes. Methods: Diabetic rats that performed exercise training were subjected to a swimming training program (1 h/day, 5 days/week, 4 weeks. The diabetic rats received quercetin (30 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, the thoracic aorta was isolated and divided into two parts; one part was immersed in 10% formalin for histopathological evaluations and the other was frozen for the assessment of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, MDA and protein carbonyls groups, PC, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT, nitrite plus nitrate (NOx production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein expression. Results: Diabetic rats showed significantly increased MDA and PC levels, NOx production and iNOS expression and a reduction of SOD and CAT activity in aortic tissues. A decrease in the levels of oxidative stress markers, NOx production and iNOS expression associated with elevated activity of antioxidant enzymes in the aortic tissue were observed in quercetin-treated diabetic trained rats. Conclusions: These findings suggest that quercetin administration in association with moderate exercise training reduces vascular complications and tissue injuries induced by diabetes in rat aorta by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO bioavailability.

  14. The tell-tale heart: population-based surveillance reveals an association of rofecoxib and celecoxib with myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Brownstein, John Samuel; Sordo, Margarita; Kohane, Isaac Samuel; Mandl, Kenneth David

    2007-01-01

    Background: COX-2 selective inhibitors are associated with myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to determine whether population health monitoring would have revealed the effect of COX-2 inhibitors on population-level patterns of MI. Methodology/Principal Findings: We conducted a retrospective study of inpatients at two Boston hospitals, from January 1997 to March 2006. There was a population-level rise in the rate of MI that reached 52.0 MI-related hospitalizations per 100,000 (a two standar...

  15. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries : 1. Fractures and luxations of permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, Anthony J; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) of permanent teeth occur frequently in children and young adults. Crown fractures and luxations are the most commonly occurring of all dental injuries. Proper diagnosis, treatment planning and followup are important for improving a favorable outcome. Guidelines should assist dentists and patients in decision making and for providing the best care effectively and efficiently. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialties were included in the group. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion of the IADT board members. The guidelines represent the best current evidence based on literature search and professional opinion. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of TDIs. In this first article, the IADT Guidelines for management of fractures and luxations of permanent teeth will be presented.

  16. The association of non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior according to DSM-5 in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Kaess, Michael; Fischer, Gloria; Ameis, Nina; Schulze, Ulrike M E; Brunner, Romuald; Koelch, Michael; Plener, Paul L

    2015-08-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors frequently occur among adolescent psychiatric patients. Although those behaviors are distinct with regards to intent, NSSI has been shown to be an important risk-factor for suicide attempts. However, the association of NSSI and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) according to DSM-5 criteria has not yet been investigated. For investigating distinctive features and mutual risk-factors of NSSI-disorder and SBD, adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N=111, aged 12-19 years; 65.8% females) were interviewed using the Self-Injurious-Thoughts-And-Behaviors-Interview-German (SITBI-G). NSSI started significantly earlier in life (M=12.5 years, SD=2.2) than first suicide attempts (M=14.1 years, SD=2.0). Patients meeting NSSI-disorder and/or SBD were significantly more likely to be female and to be diagnosed with an affective disorder. NSSI-disorder and SBD seem to have several distinctive features (i.e. age of onset or frequency), but also seem to share certain mutual risk-factors (i.e. affective disorders, female gender). While both NSSI and SBD seem to be maintained by mainly automatic negative reinforcement, positive automatic and social functions were rated significantly higher for NSSI. Most importantly, NSSI seems to be a strong risk factor for the occurrence of SBD (even when controlling for suicidal ideation) and should therefore always be assessed when dealing with psychiatric adolescent patients. PMID:26144578

  17. Distinctive response of CNS glial cells in oro-facial pain associated with injury, infection and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-da-Silva Alfredo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oro-facial pain following injury and infection is frequently observed in dental clinics. While neuropathic pain evoked by injury associated with nerve lesion has an involvement of glia/immune cells, inflammatory hyperalgesia has an exaggerated sensitization mediated by local and circulating immune mediators. To better understand the contribution of central nervous system (CNS glial cells in these different pathological conditions, in this study we sought to characterize functional phenotypes of glial cells in response to trigeminal nerve injury (loose ligation of the mental branch, infection (subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide-LPS and to sterile inflammation (subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant-CFA on the lower lip. Each of the three insults triggered a specific pattern of mechanical allodynia. In parallel with changes in sensory response, CNS glial cells reacted distinctively to the challenges. Following ligation of the mental nerve, both microglia and astrocytes in the trigeminal nuclear complex were highly activated, more prominent in the principal sensory nucleus (Pr5 and subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C area. Microglial response was initiated early (days 3-14, followed by delayed astrocytes activation (days 7-28. Although the temporal profile of microglial and astrocyte reaction corresponded respectively to the initiation and chronic stage of neuropathic pain, these activated glial cells exhibited a low profile of cytokine expression. Local injection of LPS in the lower lip skin also triggered a microglial reaction in the brain, which started in the circumventricular organs (CVOs at 5 hours post-injection and diffused progressively into the brain parenchyma at 48 hours. This LPS-induced microglial reaction was accompanied by a robust induction of I?B-? mRNA and pro-inflammatory cytokines within the CVOs. However, LPS induced microglial activation did not specifically occur along the pain signaling pathway. In contrast, CFA injection led to minor microglial morphological changes and an induction of I?B-? mRNA in the CVO regions; a significant increase in IL-1? and IL-6 mRNA started only at 48 hours post-injection, when the induced pain-related behavior started to resolve. Our detailed analysis of CNS glial response clearly revealed that both nerve injury and oro-facial infection/inflammation induced CNS glial activation, but in a completely different pattern, which suggests a remarkable plasticity of glial cells in response to dynamic changes in their microenvironment and different potential involvement of this non-neuronal cell population in pathological pain development.

  18. No association between q-angle and foot posture with running-related injuries : a 10 week prospective follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Jensen, M L

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount of running performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if kilometers to running-related injury (RRI) differ among novice runners with different foot postures and Q-angles when running in a neutral running shoe.

  19. No association between q-angle and foot posture with running-related injuries : A 10 week prospective follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the association between different foot posture quantified by Foot Posture Index (FPI) and Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) with development of running-related injuries. Earlier studies investigating these associations did not include an objective measure of the amount of running performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if kilometers to running-related injury (RRI) differ among novice runners with different foot postures and Q-angles when running in a neutral running shoe.

  20. Acute kidney injury associated with androgenic steroids and nutritional supplements in bodybuilders†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhtar, Safa E.; Abbas, Alaa A.; Muhealdeen, Dana N.; Hughson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Four bodybuilders who injected anabolic steroids and ingested commercial protein (78–104 g/day) and creatine (15 g/day) products presented with serum creatinine levels between 229.84 and 335.92 µmol/L (2.6–3.8 mg/dL). Renal biopsies revealed acute tubular necrosis. Four weeks after discontinuing injections and supplements, serum creatinine was in the normal range and estimated glomerular filtration rate > 1.00 mL/s (60 mL/min), including two patients with biopsies showing >30% interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The findings highlight a risk for acute and potentially chronic kidney injury among young men abusing anabolic steroids and using excessive amounts of nutritional supplements. PMID:26251708

  1. A spectrum of skeletal anomalies associated with pulmonary agenesis: possible neural crest injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, J; Masel, J; McCredie, J

    1989-01-01

    Six cases of unilateral pulmonary agenesis with skeletal and other deformities have been diagnosed in our hospitals. The various pulmonary, spinal, rib and limb anomalies with their possible inter-relationships were examined and described in detail and comparison with previously reported cases was made. It became apparent that the limb abnormalities which most constantly involved hypoplasia of the phalanges of a thumb with varying metacarpal and radial anomalies, were ipsilateral to the pulmonary agenesis in all cases. The spinal deformities involved degrees of failure of segementation of T1-T3 with other vertebrae randomly involved. Rib abnormalities also varied and did not necessarily correspond to the same side as the pulmonary agenesis. The concept of the anomalies all being part of a group of neural crest injuries was then explored. PMID:2771482

  2. A spectrum of skeletal anomalies associated with pulmonary agenesis: Possible neural crest injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, J.; Masel, J.; McCredie, J.

    1989-07-01

    Six cases of unilateral pulmonary agenesis with skeletal and other deformities have been diagnosed in our hospitals. The various pulmonary, spinal, rib and limb anomalies with their possible interrelationships were examined and described in detail and comparison with previously reported cases was made. It became apparent that the limb abnormalities which most constantly involved hypoplasia of the phalanges of a thumb with varying metacarpal and radial anomalies, were ipsilateral to the pulmonary agenesis in all cases. The spinal deformities involved degrees of failure of segementation of T1-T3 with other vertebrae randomly involved. Rib abnormalities also varied and did not necessarily correspond to the same side as the pulmonary agenesis. The concept of the anomalies all being part of a group of neural crest injuries was then explored. (orig.).

  3. A spectrum of skeletal anomalies associated with pulmonary agenesis: Possible neural crest injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six cases of unilateral pulmonary agenesis with skeletal and other deformities have been diagnosed in our hospitals. The various pulmonary, spinal, rib and limb anomalies with their possible interrelationships were examined and described in detail and comparison with previously reported cases was made. It became apparent that the limb abnormalities which most constantly involved hypoplasia of the phalanges of a thumb with varying metacarpal and radial anomalies, were ipsilateral to the pulmonary agenesis in all cases. The spinal deformities involved degrees of failure of segementation of T1-T3 with other vertebrae randomly involved. Rib abnormalities also varied and did not necessarily correspond to the same side as the pulmonary agenesis. The concept of the anomalies all being part of a group of neural crest injuries was then explored. (orig.)

  4. Motor ability: protective or risk for school injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofin, Rosa; Donchin, Milka; Schulrof, Boaz

    2004-01-01

    The study aims were to assess the independent contribution of motor ability to the incidence of school injuries. The study included 2057 pupils in grades 3-6 of primary schools in a city in the north of Israel. A surveillance system gathered information about injuries that occurred on school premises or during school related activities and required medical treatment or caused limitation of usual activities. Children provided information on sensation seeking, self-appraisal of health, academic performance, physical activity, and dominant hand; anthropometric measurements and motor ability tests were performed. The incidence of injury events was 4% (95% CI=3.2-5.0). Injuries increased with increased balance and agility, but there were no differences according to reaction time. No other study variables were associated with the incidence of injuries. Our findings of an increase in the incidence of injuries with better motor ability may express differences in exposure to risk situations between children with better and poorer motor abilities. PMID:14572826

  5. NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

  6. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  7. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries : 2. Avulsion of permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Avulsion of permanent teeth is one of the most serious dental injuries, and a prompt and correct emergency management is very important for the prognosis. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialties were included in the task group. The guidelines represent the current best evidence and practice based on literature research and professionals' opinion. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion or majority decision of the task group. Finally, the IADT board members were giving their opinion and approval. The primary goal of these guidelines is to delineate an approach for the immediate or urgent care of avulsed permanent teeth.

  8. Surveillance and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiadou, Yola; Fischer-Hübner, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Recent social and technical developments are expanding surveillance by the government and private sector and intensifying privacy concerns, resulting in a surveillance-privacy dilemma. Governments establish surveillance schemes to fight terrorism and crime. Private organizations use profiling and data mining techniques to target marketing endeavors, to analyze customer behavior and monitor the work practices of employees. Social networks bring to the fore new means for the surveillance of ind...

  9. Who is Surveilling Whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns the particular form of counter-surveillance termed “sousveillance”, which aims to turn surveillance at the institutions responsible for surveillance. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives “mediatization” and “aerial surveillance,” the article studies WikiLeaks’ publication in 2010 of a US military gun camera tape as an example of sousveillance. The gun camera tape had initially been used as aerial reconnaissance from an Apache helicopter during a US military operation in ...

  10. Secondary Surveillance Radar Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Schejbal, Vladimír; Bezoušek, Pavel; Pidani?, Jan; Chyba, Milan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a secondary surveillance radar (SSR) array antenna, which is intended for a system combining the secondary surveillance radar antenna and the primary surveillance radar antenna. It describes the patch array elements and the synthesis for the secondary surveillance radar array, considering both elevation and azimuth patterns for sum, difference, and sidelobe-suppression beams, and suspended stripline couplers. The utilization of multilayer techniques allows the connection...

  11. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities

  12. Camp Sports Injuries: Analysis of Causes, Modes and Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Papageorgiou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the description of sports injuries sustained by campers at summer camps, aged 7-15 years. A sample of 8 camps from the Greek camp population participated in this sport injury surveillance study. Doctors and camp directors completed reports detailing the number of sports injuries events sustained and provided specific information about each event. During the period of the study, 337 sport injury reports were completed. A total of 237 (70.3% boys and 100 (29.7% girls reported having a sport injury. Age of campers sustaining a sport injury was 10-12 years old (60.8%. The frequency of sports injuries was highest during the first camp season. The leading causes of sports injuries in children’s were: falls, crushed by object, collision with other person and slips. Cut/scratch injuries were the most common diagnoses (38.9%. Football, basketball and volleyball were the most frequent sport activities for injuries. Reports based surveillance systems can be successfully used to conducts sport injury surveillance among children attending summer camps. Data collected via such systems can be used to calculate sports injury rates, to describe patterns of sport injury and to identify risk factors for camper – related sport injuries. The results provide necessary information to develop prevention interventions to decrease the number of youth whose camp experiences are negatively affected by sport injury.

  13. Improved hospital-level risk adjustment for surveillance of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones MA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To allow direct comparison of bloodstream infection (BSI rates between hospitals for performance measurement, observed rates need to be risk adjusted according to the types of patients cared for by the hospital. However, attribute data on all individual patients are often unavailable and hospital-level risk adjustment needs to be done using indirect indicator variables of patient case mix, such as hospital level. We aimed to identify medical services associated with high or low BSI rates, and to evaluate the services provided by the hospital as indicators that can be used for more objective hospital-level risk adjustment. Methods From February 2001-December 2007, 1719 monthly BSI counts were available from 18 hospitals in Queensland, Australia. BSI outcomes were stratified into four groups: overall BSI (OBSI, Staphylococcus aureus BSI (STAPH, intravascular device-related S. aureus BSI (IVD-STAPH and methicillin-resistant S. aureus BSI (MRSA. Twelve services were considered as candidate risk-adjustment variables. For OBSI, STAPH and IVD-STAPH, we developed generalized estimating equation Poisson regression models that accounted for autocorrelation in longitudinal counts. Due to a lack of autocorrelation, a standard logistic regression model was specified for MRSA. Results Four risk services were identified for OBSI: AIDS (IRR 2.14, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.82, infectious diseases (IRR 2.72, 95% CI 1.97 to 3.76, oncology (IRR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.98 and bone marrow transplants (IRR 1.52, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.03. Four protective services were also found. A similar but smaller group of risk and protective services were found for the other outcomes. Acceptable agreement between observed and fitted values was found for the OBSI and STAPH models but not for the IVD-STAPH and MRSA models. However, the IVD-STAPH and MRSA models successfully discriminated between hospitals with higher and lower BSI rates. Conclusion The high model goodness-of-fit and the higher frequency of OBSI and STAPH outcomes indicated that hospital-specific risk adjustment based on medical services provided would be useful for these outcomes in Queensland. The low frequency of IVD-STAPH and MRSA outcomes indicated that development of a hospital-level risk score was a more valid method of risk adjustment for these outcomes.

  14. Association of Traumatic Dental Injuries with Individual-, Sociodemographic- and School-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the association of untreated traumatic dental injuries (TDI with individual-, sociodemographic- and school-related factors among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 in the city of Goiania, Brazil. A random sample of 2075 schoolchildren was examined and interviewed. Untreated TDI in the permanent incisors was assessed using the methodology of the Brazilian National Oral Health Survey. Rao-Scott test and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the associations between independent variables and three categories of TDI, using a hierarchical method. Independent variables were children’s sex, self rated color/race and size of incisal overjet, their mother’s level of schooling, and the schools’ type and geographic location. The prevalence of trauma was 17.3% (CI 95% = 15.2–19.4; enamel fractures were the most common TDI (13.1%. In the adjusted model, a higher chance of having two or more teeth with TDI was found among boys, those whose mothers had lowest level of schooling, and those attending schools located in health districts with lower socioeconomic indicators. It was concluded that the prevalence of TDI was low and that it was associated with individual factors as well as the school environments.

  15. Burn injuries associated with the water tank of motorfarming tricycles in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-long; Li, Yan-ping; Zhang, Dan-ping; Yu, Ming-xing; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Wei

    2003-12-01

    Burns caused by hot coolant from the reservoir of motorfarming tricycles have not been reported previously. We performed retrospective studies of such cases in 126 patients with complete records in rural areas of China. The majority of victims were unmarried (59.5%), young (20, 55.6%), and male (male to female ratio 9:1). The burn accident occurred mostly during the busy seasons of spring and summer (66.7%). The mechanism of injury was usually the same. The drivers were trapped under the farming tricycle in a traffic accident and then hot coolant leaked from the mouth of the coolant, resulting in long contact with the hot fluid. The burn wounds were located mostly on the areas of the buttocks and lower extremities (especially on the thigh) (64.3%). The generally burned patients had moderate burn areas, about 20-50% total burn surface area (TBSA) of deep partial thickness or full thickness burn wound. For the purpose of decreasing the number of burns presenting, or at least making them less severe, the suggestions include: (1) the design of motorfarming tricycle should be changed; obviously separation of the coolant tank from the seat is the most important factor in reducing such burns. (2) Road conditions should be improved to reduce traffic accidents and loading regulations introduced. (3) Traffic control should be enhanced, especially in rural areas. PMID:14636757

  16. Open extensor tendon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirtharajah, Mohana; Lattanza, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    The extensor tendons in the dorsum of the hand lie relatively superficially, making open injuries to the extensor mechanism a common source of morbidity. These injuries can range from simple clean lacerations to complex open injuries associated with severe skin and soft tissue loss. Although many advances in the treatment of tendon injuries focused on the flexor tendon, the extensor tendon has begun to receive more attention in recent literature. Knowledge of modern repair techniques and rehabilitation protocols may improve patient outcomes. This Current Concepts article summarizes the treatment of open extensor tendon injuries with a focus on the recent literature. PMID:25557773

  17. Epidemiological Features of violence-related Injuries in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Tazhmoye V Crawford; Donovan A. McGrowder; Barnett, Jasper D.; Shaw-Sanderson, Jewel H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence-related injuries are common in Caribbean countries such as Jamaica and are a major cause of mortality and morbidity. The study examined the epidemiology of violence-related injuries and ascertained the extent to which the utilization of violence-related injury reports and surveillances inform health policy and programme planning implementation in Jamaica.

  18. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  19. Is a history of work-related low back injury associated with prevalent low back pain and depression in the general population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy J David

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role of prior occupational low back injury in future episodes of low back pain and disability in the general population. We conducted a study to determine if a lifetime history of work-related low back injury is associated with prevalent severity-graded low back pain, depressive symptoms, or both, in the general population. Methods We used data from the Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey – a population-based cross-sectional survey mailed to a random, stratified sample of 2,184 Saskatchewan adults 20 to 69 years of age in 1995. Information on the main independent variable was gathered by asking respondents whether they had ever injured their low back at work. Our outcomes, the 6-month period prevalence of severity-graded low back pain and depressive symptoms during the past week, were measured with valid and reliable questionnaires. The associations between prior work-related low back injury and our outcomes were estimated through multinomial and binary multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for age, gender, and other important covariates. Results Fifty-five percent of the eligible population participated. Of the 1,086 participants who responded to the question about the main independent variable, 38.0% reported a history of work-related low back injury. A history of work-related low back injury was positively associated with low intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 3.66; 95%CI, 2.48–5.42, with high intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 4.03; 95%CI, 2.41–6.76, and with high disability low back pain (OR, 6.76; 95%CI, 3.80–12.01. No association was found between a history of work-related low back injury and depression (OR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.55–1.30. Conclusion Our analysis shows an association between past occupational low back injury and increasing severity of prevalent low back pain, but not depression. These results suggest that past work-related low back injury may be an important risk factor for future episodes of low back pain and disability in the general population.

  20. Hospitalisations at the end of life: using a sentinel surveillance network to study hospital use and associated patient, disease and healthcare factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilsen Johan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital deaths following several hospital admissions or long hospital stays may be indicative of a low quality of dying. Although place of death has been extensively investigated at population level, hospital use in the last months of life and its determinants have been studied less often, especially in Europe and with a general end-of-life patient population. In this study we aim to describe hospital use in the last three months of life in Belgium and identify associated patient, disease and healthcare factors. Methods We conducted a retrospective registration study (13 weeks in 2004 with the Belgian Sentinel Network of General Practitioners, an epidemiological surveillance system representative of all GPs in Belgium, covering 1.75% of the total Belgian patient population. All registered non-sudden or expected deaths of patients (aged one year or older at the GPs' practices were included. Bivariate and regression analyses were performed. Results The response rate was 87%. The GPs registered 319 deaths that met inclusion criteria. Sixty percent had been hospitalised at least once in the last three months of life, for a median of 19 days. The percentage of patients hospitalised increased exponentially in the last weeks before death; one fifth was admitted in the final week of life. Seventy-two percent of patients hospitalised at least once in the final three months died in hospital. A palliative treatment goal, death from cardiovascular diseases, the expression of a wish to die in an elderly home and palliative care delivery by the GP were associated with lower hospitalisation odds. Conclusion Hospital care plays a large role in the end of patients' lives in Belgium, especially in the final weeks of life. The result is a high rate of hospital deaths, showing the institutionalised nature of dying. Patients' clinical conditions, the expression of preferences and also healthcare characteristics such as being treated as a palliative care patient, seem to be associated with hospital transfers. It is recommended that hospitalisation decisions are only made after careful consideration. Short admissions in the final days of life should be prevented in order to make dying at home more feasible.

  1. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM1) in patients with diabetic nephropathy: a cross-sectional study and the effects of lisinopril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S E; Schjoedt, K J; Astrup, A S; Tarnow, Lise; Lajer, Marianne; Hansen, P R; Parving, H-H; Rossing, Pia

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the markers of tubulointerstitial damage, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule1 (KIM1) in Type 1 diabetic patients with different levels of albuminuria and in control subjects. In addition, the effect of renoprotective treatment on urinary NGAL was evaluated in diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Preoperative Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Is Associated with Increased Risk for Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiovascular Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Pradeep; Rajagopalam, Srini; Ranjan, Rajiv; Kolli, Hari; Singh, Manpreet; Venuto, Rocco; Lohr, James

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly after cardiac surgery. Most patients who undergo cardiac surgery receive long-term treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB). The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term use of ACEI/ARB is associated with an increased incidence of AKI after cardiac surgery.

  3. Identification of regeneration-associated genes after central and peripheral nerve injury in the adult rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Gary A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that neurons of the peripheral nervous system have the capacity to regenerate a severed axon leading to functional recovery, whereas neurons of the central nervous system do not regenerate successfully after injury. The underlying molecular programs initiated by axotomized peripheral and central nervous system neurons are not yet fully understood. Results To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration in the nervous system, differential display polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify differentially expressed genes following axotomy of peripheral and central nerve fibers. For this purpose, axotomy induced changes of regenerating facial nucleus neurons, and non-regenerating red nucleus and Clarke's nucleus neurons have been analyzed in an intra-animal side-to-side comparison. One hundred and thirty five gene fragments have been isolated, of which 69 correspond to known genes encoding for a number of different functional classes of proteins such as transcription factors, signaling molecules, homeobox-genes, receptors and proteins involved in metabolism. Sixty gene fragments correspond to genomic mouse sequences without known function. In situ-hybridization has been used to confirm differential expression and to analyze the cellular localization of these gene fragments. Twenty one genes (~15% have been demonstrated to be differentially expressed. Conclusions The detailed analysis of differentially expressed genes in different lesion paradigms provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration and may lead to the identification of genes which play key roles in functional repair of central nervous tissues.

  4. Lipoic acid enhances survival of transplanted neural stem cells by reducing transplantation-associated injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Junling Gao,1,* Jason R Thonhoff,1,2,* Tiffany J Dunn,1 Ping Wu1 1Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; 2Department of Neurology, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The efficacy of stem cell-based therapy for neurological diseases depends highly on cell survival post-transplantation. One of the key factors affecting cell survival is the grafting procedure. The current study aims to determine whether needle insertion into intact rat spinal cords creates a hypoxic environment that is prone to lipid peroxidation damage upon reperfusion, and whether an antioxidant protects human neural stem cells (hNSCs both in vitro and post-transplantation into rat spinal cords. We show here that a single needle injection creates a hypoxic environment within the rat spinal cord that peaks at approximately 12 hours before reperfusion occurs. Lipid peroxidation damage at the transplantation site is evident by 48 hours post-needle insertion. In an in vitro model, hypoxia-reperfusion results in apoptotic death of hNSCs. Pretreatment with the antioxidant, ?-lipoic acid, protects hNSCs against hypoxia-reperfusion injury and oxidative stress–mediated cell death. Increasing glutathione, but not Akt signaling, contributes to the protective effect of lipoic acid. Pretreating hNSCs with lipoic acid also increases the cell survival rate 1 month post-transplantation. Further investigation is warranted to develop improved techniques to maximize the survival of transplanted stem cells. Keywords: neural stem cell, transplantation, hypoxia-reperfusion, antioxidant, cell survival, lipoic acid

  5. A descriptive analysis of children's playground injuries in the United States 1990-4.

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, M. G.; Hudson, S.; Thompson, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review playground injury statistics over a five year period in order to develop an awareness of how and where children in the United States are being injured. METHODS: All data are based on the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) for playground related injuries during 1990-4. The surveillance data includes injuries recorded in more than 90 hospital emergency departments located throughout the United States. R...

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid volume depletion in chronic whiplash-associated disorders from motor vehicle-related spinal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume depletion in chronic cases of whiplash-associated disorders, 111In radioisotope (RI) cisternography, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and lumbar MR myelography were consecutively conducted on 460 individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorders resulting from motor vehicle collision (Group A, n=225) and other traumatic injuries (Group B, n=57), spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndromes and other miscellaneous disorders (Group C, n=155), iatrogenic intracranial hypotension syndrome (Group D, n=11), and communicating hydrocephalus (Group E, n=12). Movement of intrathecally administered RI via a lumbar puncture was sequentially scanned at 1, 2 or 3, 5 and 24 hours. A whole body neuroaxis scanned figure showing high spinal parathecal activity at any time was considered to be a CSF leak, if small enough meningeal diverticula evidenced by MR myelography were present. Retention rate (%) of intrathecal RI for each scan was calculated using the formula: (whole body count-urinary bladder count)/whole body count (cpm) at 1 h x 100. All CSF leaks, although having single to multiple poles, were located in the spinal canal. CSF leakage was observed in 99/225 (44%), 24/57 (42%), 61/155 (39%), 9/11 (82%), and 4/12 (33%), in Groups A, B, C, D and E respectively. All CSF leakages was involved with the lumbar spine in Group A, although 20 cases extended to mid-thoracic levels. In Group A, spinal vertebrae were concomitantly injured in 7 cases (1 cervical spine dislocation, 1 cervical spine fracture, 2 thoracic and 1 lumbar compression fracture (s), and 2 lumbar disc hernia). CSF leakage for 2 cervical spine injuries was not at the injured site but at the lumbar spinal canal. CSF leakage limited to the lumbar spine involved 22 and 43 cases in groups B and C, respectively. Of all CSF leaks, 24 h retention rates less than 30% accounted for 90% of cases. In Group A, early CSF excretion and less than a 30% retention rate at 24 h was also observed in 37 out of 128 subjects without CSF leakage. In Group A, therefore, over half the individuals were postulated to have CSF volume depletion, with the most vulnerable sites for CSF leakage at lumbar spine levels. CSF leakage and/or depletion is likely to be at least partly responsible for chronic complex complaints in whiplash-associated disorders. (author)

  7. GM1 improves neurofascin155 association with lipid rafts and prevents rat brain myelin injury after hypoxia-ischemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y.P., Zhang; Q.L., Huang; C.M., Zhao; J.L., Tang; Y.L., Wang.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White matter injury characterized by damage to myelin is an important process in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Because the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin, neurofascin 155 (NF155), and its association with lipid rafts are essential for the establishment and stabilization of t [...] he paranodal junction, which is required for tight interaction between myelin and axons, we analyzed the effect of monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) on NF155 expression and its association with lipid rafts after HIBD in Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-15 g, on day 7 post-partum (P7; N = 20 per group). HIBD was induced on P7 and the rats were divided into two groups: one group received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg GM1 three times and the other group an injection of saline. There was also a group of 20 sham-operated rats. After sacrifice, the brains of the rats were removed on P30 and studied by immunochemistry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Staining showed that the saline group had definite rarefaction and fragmentation of brain myelin sheaths, whereas the GM1 group had no obvious structural changes. The GM1 group had 1.9-2.9-fold more GM1 in lipid rafts than the saline group (fraction 3-6; all P

  8. Genetic variation in the TNF receptor-associated factor 6 gene is associated with susceptibility to sepsis-induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhenju

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies showed that overwhelming inflammatory response mediated by the toll-like receptor (TLR-related pathway was important in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. The aim of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in four genes of the TLR signaling pathway were associated with sepsis-induced ALI susceptibility and risk of death in Chinese Han population. Methods Fourteen tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs in MyD88, IRAK1, IRAK4 and TRAF6 were genotyped in samples of sepsis-induced ALI (n?=?272 and sepsis alone patients (n?=?276, and tested for association in this case-control collection. Then, we investigated correlation between the associated SNP and the mRNA expression level of the corresponding gene. And we also investigated correlation between the associated SNP and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-? as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6 concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS ex vivo. The mRNA expression level was determined using real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assays, and concentrations of TNF-? and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results The association analysis revealed that rs4755453, an intronic SNP of TRAF6, was significantly associated with susceptibility to sepsis-induced ALI. The C allele frequency of rs4755453 in the sepsis alone group was significantly higher than that in the sepsis-induced ALI group (P?=?0.00026, odds ratio (OR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.37–0.74. These associations remained significant after adjustment for covariates in multiple logistic regression analysis and for multiple comparisons. TRAF6 mRNA expression levels in PBMCs from homozygotes of the rs4755453G allele were significantly higher than that in heterozygotes and homozygotes of the rs4755453C allele at baseline (P?=?0.012 and P?=?0.003, respectively as well as after LPS stimulation (P?=?0.009 and P?=?0.005. Moreover, the concentrations of TNF-? and IL-6 in cell culture supernatants were also significantly higher in the subjects with rs4755453GG genotype than in subjects with CG and CC genotype. None of the 14 tagSNPs showed associations with risk of death and severity among ALI cases. Conclusions Our findings indicated that common genetic variants in TRAF6 were significantly associated with susceptibility to sepsis-induced ALI in Chinese Han population. This was the first genetic evidence supporting a role for TRAF6 in ALI.

  9. The association between price of regular-grade gasoline and injury and mortality rates among occupants involved in motorcycle- and automobile-related motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Eddie; Griffin, Russell; Rue, Loring W; McGwin, Gerald

    2009-09-01

    Motorcyclists have been reported to be more likely to die in a motor vehicle collision (MVC) than automobile occupants. With the recent increase in the pump price of gasoline, it has been reported that people are switching to motorcycles as main modes of transportation. This study evaluated the association between motor vehicle collision-related injury and mortality rates and increases in gasoline prices for occupants of automobiles and riders of motorcycles. There were an estimated 1,270,512 motorcycle MVC and 238,390,853 automobile MVC involved occupants in the U.S. from 1992 to 2007. Higher gasoline prices were associated with increased motorcycle-related injuries and deaths; however, this association no longer remained after accounting for changes in the number of registered vehicles. The current study observed that, while the number of injuries and fatalities in motorcycle-related MVCs increase with increasing gasoline price, rates remained largely unchanged. This suggests that the observed increase in motorcycle-related injuries and fatalities with increasing gasoline price is more a factor of the number of motorcycles on the road rather than operator characteristics. PMID:19664448

  10. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at BNL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  11. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 in HIV Infection and Associated Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Medders, Kathryn E.; Kaul, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) often leads to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) prior to the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). At the cellular level, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) provide a family of signal transducers that regulate many processes in response to extracellular stimuli and environmental stress, such as viral infection. Recently, evidence has accumulated suggesting that p38 MAPK plays crucial roles in various...

  12. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Chaplin; Andrew P. Smith

    2011-01-01

    One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit) provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of...

  13. Association of Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Traffic Injuries in Tabriz - Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Jodeiri Eslami; Homayon Sadeghi-Bazargani; Fatemeh Ranjbar; Shahrokh Amiri; Amir mohammad Navali; Farnaz Saedi

    2011-01-01

    "nObjective: Nowadays, it is well known that the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not confined to children and adolescents. Recent data showed that a considerable portion of the general adult population may be affected by ADHD. On the other hand, the impact of ADHD on driving performance, a major area of adult life, has gained enthusiasm. More recent studies revealed an association between adult ADHD and undesirable driving problems. This study was performed to determine the...

  14. Association between biomarkers of endothelial injury and hypocoagulability in patients with severe sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Haase, Nicolai; Müller, Rasmus Beier; Møller, Morten Hylander; Pott, Frank Christian; Perner, Anders; Johansson, Pär Ingemar

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with severe sepsis often present with concurrent coagulopathy, microcirculatory failure and evidence of vascular endothelial activation and damage. Given the critical role of the endothelium in balancing hemostasis, we investigated single-point associations between whole blood coagulopathy by thrombelastography (TEG) and plasma/serum markers of endothelial activation and damage in patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: A post-hoc multicenter prospective observational study ...

  15. Incidence of work injuries amongst Danish adolescents and their association with work environment factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D.; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. Methods We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from a birth cohort comprising all adolescents born in 1989 (n?=?3,687) living in Ringkjøbing County, Denmark. The questionnaire contained items on self-reported number of accidents and number of working hours in...

  16. Civilian popliteal artery injuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M A, Banderker; P H, Navsaria; S, Edu; W, Bekker; A J, Nicol; N, Naidoo.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Civilian popliteal artery injuries are associated with significant amputation rates. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with limb loss in patients with popliteal artery injuries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of prospectively c [...] ollected data on patients with popliteal artery injuries presenting to the Trauma Centre at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2008. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, haemodynamic status, limb viability, special investigations, associated injuries, ischaemic time, surgical treatment and amputation rates were analysed. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-six patients with popliteal artery injuries were identified. Penetrating and blunt trauma accounted for 81 (59.6%) and 55 (40.4%) injuries, respectively. Associated injuries included fractures in 66 patients (48.6%), knee dislocations in 29 (21.3%) and popliteal vein injuries in 59 (43.4%). Fifty-seven patients (41.9%) presented with a compartment syndrome. Arterial injuries were treated with reversed vein grafting in 68 patients, primary anastomosis in 33, prosthetic graft insertion in 11, and primary amputation in 7. Thirty-two patients underwent delayed amputation, giving an overall amputation rate of 37.5%. A delay of more than 7 hours of ischaemic time between injury and definitive repair (p=0.0236) and the presence of a compartment syndrome (p=0.003) were significantly associated with an increased amputation rate. CONCLUSION: The most significant factors associated with the high amputation rate of 37.5% were an ischaemic time longer than 7 hours, and the presence of a compartment syndrome.

  17. ETHOS, a Health Surveillance Data Base System

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, W. Wayne; Allen, James W.; Bilella, James; O'Neill, Pat

    1982-01-01

    The basic purpose of a health surveillance system is to detect changes in an employee's health status. These changes may uncover health threats from newly introduced or existing industrial/consumer substances. Stewart-Todd Associates has provided employee health monitoring services to a variety of industries for over 10 years. From these experiences the company developed a computerized health surveillance system called ETHOS. Advanced features of ETHOS include its adaptability to a variety of...

  18. Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in Leptospirosis Acute Kidney Injury: A Multicenter Study in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisawat, Nattachai; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Patarakul, Kanitha; Techapornrung, Malee; Daraswang, Tinnapop; Sukmark, Theerapon; Khositrangsikun, Kamol; Fakthongyoo, Apinya; Oranrigsupak, Petchdee; Praderm, Laksamon; Suwattanasilpa, Ummarit; Peerapornratana, Sadudee; Loahaveeravat, Passisd; Suwachittanont, Nattachai; Wirotwan, Thaksa-on; Phonork, Chayanat; Kumpunya, Sarinya; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Chirathaworn, Chintana; Eiam-ong, Somchai; Tungsanga, Kriang; Sitprija, Visith; Kellum, John A.; Townamchai, Natavudh

    2015-01-01

    AKI is one of the most serious complications of leptospirosis, an important zoonosis in the tropics. Recently, NGAL, one of the novel AKI biomarkers, is extensively studied in various specific settings such as sepsis, cardiac surgery, and radiocontrast nephropathy. In this multicenter study, we aimed to study the role of NGAL as an early marker and an outcome predictor of leptospirosis associated AKI. Patients who presented with clinical suspiciousness of leptospirosis were prospectively enrolled in 9 centers from August 2012 to November 2014. The first day of enrollment was the first day of clinical suspicious leptospirosis. Blood and urine samples were serially collected on the first three days and day 7 after enrollment. We used three standard techniques (microscopic agglutination test, direct culture, and PCR technique) to confirm the diagnosis of leptospirosis. KDIGO criteria were used for AKI diagnosis. Recovery was defined as alive and not requiring dialysis during hospitalization or maintaining maximum KDIGO stage at hospital discharge. Of the 221 recruited cases, 113 cases were leptospirosis confirmed cases. Thirty seven percent developed AKI. Median uNGAL and pNGAL levels in those developing AKI were significantly higher than in patients not developing AKI [253.8 (631.4) vs 24.1 (49.6) ng/ml, p < 0.001] and [1,030 (802.5) vs 192.0 (209.0) ng/ml, p < 0.001], respectively. uNGAL and pNGAL levels associated with AKI had AUC-ROC of 0.91, and 0.92, respectively. Both of urine NGAL and pNGAL level between AKI-recovery group and AKI-non recovery were comparable. From this multicenter study, uNGAL and pNGAL provided the promising result to be a marker for leptospirosis associated AKI. However, both of them did not show the potential role to be the predictor of renal recovery in this specific setting. PMID:26629810

  19. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. In addition, the S4 is compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE) standards to efficiently discover, access, use, and control heterogeneous sensors and their metadata. These S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. The S4 system is directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  20. Case Report: Human Bocavirus Associated Pneumonia as Cause of Acute Injury, Cologne, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakau, Michael; Gerbershagen, Kathrin; Frost, Ulrich; Hinzke, Markus; Brockmann, Michael; Schildgen, Verena; Gomann, Axel; Limmroth, Volker; Dormann, Arno; Schildgen, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Although the human bocavirus (HBoV) is known since a decade, limited information about its pathogenesis is available due to the lack of an animal model. Thus, clinical cases and studies are the major source of novel information about the course of infection and the related pathophysiology.In this context, a clinical case of an adult patient suffering from severe HBoV-pneumonia is described that was associated with loss of consciousness followed by acute rib fracture and subsequent neurological disorder.Following initial global respiratory dysfunction the clinical respiratory symptoms recovered but the neurological symptoms maintained after weaning and intensive care in the stroke unit. During the initial phase, an acute active HBoV infection was confirmed by positive polymerase chain reactions from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum.The case further demonstrates that HBoV can cause severe pneumonia, induce secondary disease also in adults, and may be associated with neurological symptoms as previously assumed. PMID:26496262

  1. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23856373

  2. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  3. Surveillance : Philosophical Inquiries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance.

  4. Performance enhancement effects of Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention training program in youth futsal players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, Ivan; Rebelo, António

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate if Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention program improves physical fitness and technical performance in youth futsal players. DESIGN:: Randomized cohort study. SETTING:: Futsal club. PARTICIPANTS:: Thirty-six futsal players (17.3 ± 0.7 years). INTERVENTION:: Players were randomized to an intervention group (n = 18) or a control group (n = 18). Intervention group performed "The 11+" twice per week for 12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Isokinetic testing to access maximal quadriceps (Q) and hamstring (H) strength, vertical jump (squat jump, SJ; countermovement jump, CMJ), 5-m and 30-m sprint, agility, slalom, and balance performances were also measured. RESULTS:: Intervention group increased (P <0.05) quadriceps concentric (14.7%-27.3%) and hamstrings concentric (9.3%-13.3%) and eccentric (12.7%) peak torque. Intervention group improved functional H:Q ratio by 1.8% to 8.5% (P <0.05). Intervention group improved (P <0.05) SJ (13.8%) and CMJ (9.9%) and 5-m and 30-m sprint (8.9% and 3.3%, respectively), agility (4.7%), and slalom (4.8%) performances. Intervention group also improved balance, by decreasing the number of falls by 30% in the nondominant limb. No changes were observed in control group. CONCLUSIONS:: The results suggest that 'The 11+' can be used as an effective conditioning means for improving physical fitness and technical performance of youth futsal players.

  5. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  6. Pólipos de pregas vocais e alterações estruturais mínimas: lesões associadas? / Vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations: associated injuries?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flavio Akira, Sakae; Fernando, Sasaki; Luiz Ubirajara, Sennes; Domingos Hiroshi, Tsuji; Rui, Imamura.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pólipos são lesões comuns de pregas vocais. O fonotrauma é o principal fator relacionado com o início desta lesão. A associação entre pólipos de pregas vocais e alterações estruturais mínimas de cobertura mucosa (sulco vocal, cisto epidermóide, ponte de mucosa, microdiafragma laríngeo e vasculodisge [...] nesia) foi pouco estudada na literatura, por isso o objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar e analisar essa associação. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Realizamos um estudo retrospectivo com 68 pacientes, idade média de 39,5 anos, operados de pólipo de pregas vocais no período entre janeiro de 1999 e maio de 2003. Procuramos analisar a presença de pólipo de pregas vocais e as possíveis AEMC associadas no levantamento realizado. RESULTADOS: A presença de AEMC associada ao pólipo ocorreu em 16 (23,5%) pacientes, sendo que em 8 (50%) pacientes o achado foi o sulco vocal (7 sulco estria e 1 sulco bolsa). Em 4 (25%) pacientes o achado foi o cisto de prega vocal, em 2 (12,5%) pacientes a ponte mucosa, em 1 (6,25%) a vasculodisgenesia e em 1 (6,25%) paciente o microdiafragma laríngeo. A AEMC era contralateral ao pólipo de prega vocal em 11 pacientes. Dos sulcos, 6 (75%) eram contralaterais e dos cistos, 3 (75%) eram contralaterais ao pólipo. CONCLUSÃO: A associação entre pólipos de pregas vocais e alterações estruturais mínimas de cobertura mucosa é relativamente freqüente, 23,5% em nosso estudo. A exploração cuidadosa de ambas pregas vocais é essencial no intraoperatório das cirurgias de exérese de pólipo na procura destas alterações estruturais associadas. Abstract in english Polyps are common injuries of the vocal folds. Voice trauma is the main factor related with the onset of this injury. The association between vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations (sulcus, epidermoid cyst, mucosal bridge, laryngeal web and varicosity) has been little studied in [...] literature; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to quantify and to analyze this association. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study with 68 patients, mean age 39.5 years, surgically submitted to exeresis of vocal fold polyps in the period between January 1999 and May 2003. We analyzed the presence of vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations. RESULTS: The presence of cover minimum structural alterations associated with the polyp occurred in 16 (23.5%) patients. In 8 (50%) patients, the finding was sulcus vocalis. In 4 (25%) patients, the finding was epidermoid cyst, in 2 (12.5%) patients, mucosal bridge, in 1 (6.25%), varicosity and in 1 (6.25%) patient, laryngeal web. Cover minimum structural alterations were contralateral to the vocal fold polyp in 11 patients. Of the sulcus, 6 (75%) were contralateral and among the cysts, 3 (75%) were contralateral to the polyp. CONCLUSION: The association between vocal fold polyps and cover minimum structural alterations is relatively frequent and it was 23.5% in our study. Careful intraoperative exploration of vocal folds in search for these alterations is essential.

  7. Serum Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin as a Predictor of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically-ill Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of evolving Acute Kidney Injury (AKI in critically ill neonates can lead to better preventive and therapeutic interventions. Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL is a promising biomarker of AKI, which was also shown to increase in inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of serum NGAL (sNGAL as an early marker of evolving AKI in critically-ill neonates with and without sepsis. sNGAL levels were estimated in 60 critically-ill neonates at the time of admission to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, in comparison to 20 healthy matched control. Patients were categorized as sepsis (n = 35 and no-sepsis (n = 25 subgroups on basis of clinical and laboratory criteria. They were subsequently discriminated according to creatinine and urine output criteria of the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN, into AKI (n = 34 and no-AKI (n = 26 subgroups. sNGAL levels were significantly higher in the patient group as compared to control (132.7±67.8 vs. 55±10.3 ng mL-1, p = 0.0001. Elevated levels were comparable between sepsis and no-sepsis groups (130.1±69.4 vs. 136.5±66.6 ng mL-1, p = 0.7 and they positively correlated with 48-hour post-admission serum creatinine (p = 0.0001. Patients of AKI group had significantly higher sNGAL than those of no-AKI group (176.2±55.9 vs. 75.9±28.3 ng mL-1, p = 0.0001. A cut-off value for sNGAL of 117.5 ng mL-1, was predictive of AKI with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 88.5%. It could be speculated that measurement of serum NGAL can serve as a clinically useful marker for early prediction of evolving AKI in critically-ill neonates with and without sepsis.

  8. Effect of pentoxifylline on preventing acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery by measuring urinary neutrophil gelatinase - associated lipocalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefshahi Fardin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN criteria, we considered acute kidney injury (AKI as an absolute increase in the serum creatinine (sCr level of more than or equal to 0.3 mg/dl or 50%. The introduction of Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (UNGAL has conferred earlier diagnosis of AKI. Pentoxifylline (PTX, a non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, can suppress the production of some factors of inflammatory response and presumably prevent AKI. We examined the PTX on the development of AKI in cardiac surgery patients by measuring the levels of UNGAL. Materials and methods We performed a double blind randomized clinical trial, enrolling 28 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. Patients were divided into two groups, one to receive PTX 5 mg/kg intravenous bolus injection, followed by 1.5 mg/kg/h continuous intravenous infusion until 3 hours after cessation of CPB and the other group received placebo. UNGAL was measured before, 3 and 24 hours after surgery. In addition serum creatinine was measured before and 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after surgery and C-reactive protein (CRP only 24 hours postoperatively. Results Both groups did not differ in demographic and baseline characteristics. 12 patients developed AKI 48 hours after surgery; 5 of them were in the intervention group and 7 in the control group (p= 0.445. There was an increase of UNGAL in both groups postoperatively, although not significant. Mean sCr was significantly increased in the control group at 24 and 48 hours after surgery (24-h mean: 0.79 ± 0.18 mg/dl vs. 1.03 ± 0.43 mg/dl, P value = 0.02; 48-h mean: 1.17 ± 0.24 mg/dl vs. 0.98 ± 0.20 mg/dl, P value = 0.03, respectively. PTX had a positive effect in preventing AKI reflecting in changes in sCr, and the increase of UNGAL was consistent with the emergence of AKI (Pearson's correlation = 0.30. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a weak correlation between UNGAL and sCr after cardiac surgery. The rise of UNGAL in these patients may be reduced by administration of PTX although we did not show significance. PTX could reduce the occurrence of AKI as determined by attenuation of sCr rise without causing hemodynamic instability or increased bleeding. Overall, we suggest future studies with larger sample sizes to elucidate this effect and determine the different aspects of administrating PTX. Trial Registration ISRCTN: IRCT138807302622N1

  9. Mechanisms of injuries in world cup alpine skiing

    OpenAIRE

    Bere, Tone Tufte

    2013-01-01

    The International Ski Federation (FIS) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) has reported that during the five-month winter season, one in every three World Cup (WC) alpine skiers sustains an injury. Similar to recreational skiers, the most common problem in ski racers is knee injuries, and the most frequent specific diagnosis is a complete rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Our knowledge of injury mechanisms in alpine skiing is limited, particularly among competitive skiers. Video o...

  10. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and albuminuria as predictors of acute kidney injury in patients treated with goal-directed haemodynamic therapy after major abdominal surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullen, Mr

    2013-10-11

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is emerging as a new biomarker for the early identification of acute kidney injury (AKI). There is also increasing evidence of an association between urinary albumin\\/creatinine ratio (ACR) and AKI. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of these biomarkers to predict AKI in a population of perioperative patients treated with goal-directed haemodynamic therapy (GDHT). Secondary aims were to examine NGAL and ACR as sensitive biomarkers to detect the effects of GDHT and to investigate the association of these biomarkers with secondary outcomes.

  11. Obsessive passion: a dependency associated with injury-related risky behaviour in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akehurst, Sally; Oliver, Emily J

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory, obsessive passion for an activity has been associated with increased risky behaviour and rigid persistence, both symptomatic of dependence. However, it is unknown whether obsessive passion may predict the development of dependence, and furthermore, theoretically important relationships between basic need satisfaction, passion, exercise dependence and subsequent risky behaviour have not been fully explored. A sample of 100 professional dancers (50(fs); 50(ms); Mage = 20.88; SD = 2.69) completed self-ratings of risk-related behaviours (doctor visits; following treatment, and warming up), passion for dance and dance dependence. Findings supported the maladaptive nature of obsessive passion in relation to risky behaviour and as predicted dance dependence mediated this relationship. Interestingly, need satisfaction was positively related to both obsessive passion and harmonious passion. Results are discussed in the light of self-determination theory and dysfunctions of obsessive passion, suggesting that professional dancers are at risk of employing maladaptive behaviours if high in obsessive passion, which may be detectable via symptoms of dance dependence. PMID:24016203

  12. Domestic violence against children and adolescents: prevalence of physical injuries in a southern Brazilian metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Leidielly Aline; Dalledone, Mariana; Pizzatto, Eduardo; Zaiter, Wellington; de Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Losso, Estela Maris

    2015-01-01

    Violence against children and adolescents is a public health issue worldwide that threatens physical and mental wellbeing and causes irreparable harm. Reports on this violence are an essential way to prevent it and to protect the children and adolescents. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of physical injuries that occur in domestic environments and reported to the Child and Adolescent Protection Network. This retrospective study was conducted at the Epidemiology Center of the Municipality of Curitiba. A total of 10,483 reports for the years 2010 (5,112) and 2011 (5,371) were analyzed and from them were selected reports of physical injuries that occurred in the family environment. The children and adolescents were 0-17 years old, comprising 322 cases of physical abuse within the family in 2010. Out of these, 57.1% were male and 42.9% were female, and 58% (187) presented head and neck injuries. There were 342 reports in 2011, 49% were male and 51% were female; head and neck injuries corresponded to 65% (222) of the reported cases. The prevalence of injuries increased by 6% and head and neck injury increased by 19% between 2010 and 2011. It may be concluded that physical abuse is associated with a high prevalence of head and neck injury, which is easily observed by the health and education professionals. Notification organs should be created in Brazilian hospitals and health centers, which is essential to conduct epidemiological surveillance and appropriate policies. PMID:25672385

  13. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  14. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  15. Measuring injury risk factors: question reliability in a statewide sample

    OpenAIRE

    Koziol-McLain, J; Brand, D; Morgan, D; Leff, M.; Lowenstein, S.

    2000-01-01

    Background—Recently (1996–98), Colorado added 15 questions pertaining to injury related risks and behaviors to the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS). Questions addressed bicycle helmet use, traffic crashes, exposure to violence, suicidal behavior, and gun storage.

  16. Number of casual male sexual partners and associated factors among men who have sex with men: Results from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Laura F; DiNenno Elizabeth A; Sullivan Patrick S; Rosenberg Eli S; Sanchez Travis H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2006, the majority of new HIV infections were in MSM. We sought to describe numbers of casual sex partners among US MSM. Methods Data are from the first MSM cycle of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system, conducted from 2003 to 2005. Relationships between number of casual male sex partners within the previous year and demographic information, self-reported HIV status, and risk behaviors were determined through regression models. Results Among 11,191 sexually a...

  17. PET/CT surveillance in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma in first remission is associated with low positive predictive value and high costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec; Mylam, Karen Juul; Brown, Peter De Nully; Specht, Lena; Christiansen, Ilse; Munksgaard, Lars; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Loft, Annika; Bukh, Anne; Iyer, Victor; Lerberg Nielsen, Anne; Hutchings, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background. The value of performing post-therapy routine surveillance imaging in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma is controversial. This study evaluates the utility of positron emission tomography / computed tomography using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (PET/CT) for this purpose and in situations with suspected lymphoma relapse. Design and Methods. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study. Patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma achieving at least a partial remission on first-line the...

  18. Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury in Children With Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohammed Youssef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is proposed as a marker of chronic kidney disease (CKD. This study was designed to find whether there is a correlation between urine NGAL and progression of kidney damage in children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. Materials and Methods. Data were collected at the initial diagnosis of FSGS and after 12 months of treatment based on the Mendoza protocol. Twelve children with FSGS  and 15 healthy children were included. Urine NGAL was assessed at the initiation of the study in the two groups and after 1 year of receiving the treatment in the FSGS group. Results. Urine NGAL was elevated in the FSGS group (350.0 ± 67.2 ng/mL as compared to that in the control group (9.3 ± 3.8 ng/mL; P P = -0.589, P = .03, and after 1 year (r = -0.76, P = .009. There was a significant correlation between urine NGAL and urinary protein excretion in FSGS patients at diagnosis (r = 0.628, P = .005. Conclusions. Urine NGAL in children with FSGS can be used as a marker of progression of kidney damage as expressed in its positive correlation with both declining in glomerular filtration rate and the level of proteinuria even in those with remission.

  19. Stress injuries of the ischiopubic synchondrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Jean; Smith, Marvin K; Silverman, Edward; Lesniak, Bryson P; Kaplan, Lee D

    2013-03-01

    A 12-year-old competitive runner with enlarged symptomatic right-sided ischiopubic synchondrosis (IPS) is presented, highlighting the pertinent clinical and radiographic findings as well as the basic principles of conservative management and appropriate follow-up surveillance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies revealed remarkable asymmetric enlargement of the right inferior pubic ramus with axial fat-suppressed proton density MRI demonstrating an irregular low signal intensity intramedullary line within the right ischiopubic junction. In symptomatic patients, a thorough review of radiologic imaging is warranted in order to confirm the diagnosis of IPS and investigate potential associated injuries. The pertinent radiographic findings vital to making an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan are reviewed. PMID:23527329

  20. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  1. Regression of Albuminuria and Hypertension and Arrest of Severe Renal Injury by a Losartan-Hydrochlorothiazide Association in a Model of Very Advanced Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Simone Costa Alarcon; Valente, Carla Perez; Machado, Flavia Gomes; Fanelli, Camilla; Origassa, Clarice Silvia Taemi; De Brito, Thales; Camara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Malheiros, Denise Maria Avancini Costa; Zatz, Roberto; Fujihara, Clarice Kazue

    2013-01-01

    Treatments that effectively prevent chronic kidney disease (CKD) when initiated early often yield disappointing results when started at more advanced phases. We examined the long-term evolution of renal injury in the 5/6 nephrectomy model (Nx) and the effect of an association between an AT-1 receptor blocker, losartan (L), and hydrochlorothiazide (H), shown previously to be effective when started one month after Nx. Adult male Munich-Wistar rats underwent Nx, being divided into four groups: N...

  2. Clinical Associations of Deliberate Self-Injury and Its Impact on the Outcome of Community-Based and Long-Term Inpatient Treatment for Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chiesa, M.; R. Sharp; Fonagy, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-injury (DSI) is significantly associated with personality disorder (PD). There are gaps in our knowledge of DSI as an indicator of severity of psychopathology, as moderator of outcome and with regard to its response to different treatment programs and settings. Methods: We compare 2 samples of PD with (n = 59) and without (n = 64) DSI in terms of clinical presentation, response to psychosocial treatment and relative outcome when treated with specialist long-term re...

  3. Foot pronation is not associated with increased injury risk in novice runners wearing a neutral shoe : a 1-year prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Buist, Ida

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if running distance to first running-related injury varies between foot postures in novice runners wearing neutral shoes. DESIGN: A 1-year epidemiological observational prospective cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 927 novice runners equivalent to 1854 feet were included. At baseline, foot posture on each foot was evaluated using the foot-posture index and categorised into highly supinated (n=53), supinated (n=369), neutral (n=1292), pronated (n=122) or highly pronated (n=18). Participants then had to start running in a neutral running shoe and to use global positioning system watch to quantify the running distance in every training session. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A running-related injury was defined as any musculoskeletal complaint of the lower extremity or back caused by running, which restricted the amount of running for at least 1 week. RESULTS: During 1 year of follow-up, the 1854 feet included in the analyses ran a total of 326 803 km until injury or censoring. A total of 252 participants sustained a running-related injury. Of these, 63 were bilateral injuries. Compared with a neutral foot posture, no significant body mass index-adjusted cumulative risk differences (RD) were found after 250 km of running for highly supinated feet (RD=11.0% (-10% to 32.1%), p=0.30), supinated feet (RD=-1.4% (-8.4% to 5.5%), p=0.69), pronated feet (RD=-8.1% (-17.6% to 1.3%), p=0.09) and highly pronated feet (RD=9.8% (-19.3% to 38.8%), p=0.51). In addition, the incidence-rate difference/1000 km of running, revealed that pronators had a significantly lower number of injuries/1000 km of running of -0.37 (-0.03 to -0.70), p=0.03 than neutrals. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study contradict the widespread belief that moderate foot pronation is associated with an increased risk of injury among novice runners taking up running in a neutral running shoe. More work is needed to ascertain if highly pronated feet face a higher risk of injury than neutral feet.

  4. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  5. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities. However, ongoing S and M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations

  6. Eye injuries in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolsum, L

    1999-02-01

    In a retrospective study from 1988 to 1998, eye injuries were found in 553 patients. Seventy-six (13.7%) of these injuries were associated with sport. The mechanism of trauma was for the most part a ball (71.1%) or a club (13.2%). Most eye injuries occurred in soccer (35.5%), which is, by far, the most widespread sport in this region of Norway. A disproportionately high number of the injuries occurred in floorball (17.1%), bandy (13.2%), and squash (10.5%). The rules in these sports may, in theory, be strict enough to prevent eye injuries in most cases. However, these rules are often neglected in informal activities. Strategies for educating the general public about the potentially serious effect of eye injuries in sports exposed to such risk are of great importance. PMID:9974198

  7. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  8. Examining the associations between physical work demands and work injury rates between men and women in Ontario, 1990–2000

    OpenAIRE

    SMITH, P.; Mustard, C

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To describe the decline in injury rates between 1990 and 2000 within occupations stratified across three levels of physical demands and gender, adjusting for industry, in Canada's largest province.

  9. Assessing liver injury associated with antimycotics: Concise literature review and clues from data mining of the FAERS database

    OpenAIRE

    Raschi, Emanuel; Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Koci, Ariola; Caraceni, Paolo; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To inform clinicians on the level of hepatotoxic risk among antimycotics in the post-marketing setting, following the marketing suspension of oral ketoconazole for drug-induced liver injury (DILI).

  10. Association between Femoral Anteversion and Lower Extremity Posture upon Single-leg Landing: Implications for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Masaaki; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Increased femoral anteversion may occur with hip internal rotation and valgus knee alignment upon landing and is considered a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. We examined the relationship between femoral anteversion and joint motion and muscle activity of the lower extremity in terms of the risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury. [Subjects] Sixteen healthy females were divided on the basis of femoral anteversion into low and high groups. ...

  11. Early magnetic resonance detection of cortical necrosis and acute network injury associated with neonatal and infantile cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Nozawa, Kumiko [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Niwa, Tetsu [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isehara (Japan); Shibasaki, Jun [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neonatology, Yokohama (Japan); Osaka, Hitoshi [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    Knowledge of MRI findings in pediatric cerebral infarction is limited. To determine whether cortical necrosis and network injury appear in the acute phase in post-stroke children and to identify anatomical location of acute network injury and the ages at which these phenomena are seen. Images from 12 children (age range: 0-9 years; neonates [<1 month], n=5; infants [1 month-12 months], n=3; others [?1 year], n=4) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortical infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Cortical necrosis was defined as hyperintense cortical lesions on T1-weighted imaging that lacked evidence of hemorrhage. Acute network injury was defined as hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging that were not in the MCA territory and had fiber connections with the affected cerebral cortex. MRI was performed within the first week after disease onset. Cortical necrosis was only found in three neonates. Acute network injury was seen in the corticospinal tract (CST), thalamus and corpus callosum. Acute network injury along the CST was found in five neonates and one 7-month-old infant. Acute network injury was evident in the thalamus of four neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months) and in the corpus callosum of five neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months). The entire thalamus was involved in three children when infarction of MCA was complete. In acute MCA cortical infarction, MRI findings indicating cortical necrosis or acute network injury was frequently found in neonates and early infants. Response to injury in a developing brain may be faster than that in a mature one. (orig.)

  12. Managing Injuries of the Neck Trial (MINT): design of a randomised controlled trial of treatments for whiplash associated disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson Esther M; Williams Mark A; Szczepura Ala; Ashby Deborah; Cooke Matthew W; Underwood Martin R; Gates Simon; Lamb Sarah E; Withers Emma J; Mt Isa Shahrul; Gumber Anil

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A substantial proportion of patients with whiplash injuries develop chronic symptoms. However, the best treatment of acute injuries to prevent long-term problems is uncertain. A stepped care treatment pathway has been proposed, in which patients are given advice and education at their initial visit to the emergency department (ED), followed by review at three weeks and physiotherapy for those with persisting symptoms. MINT is a two-stage randomised controlled trial to eval...

  13. Early magnetic resonance detection of cortical necrosis and acute network injury associated with neonatal and infantile cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of MRI findings in pediatric cerebral infarction is limited. To determine whether cortical necrosis and network injury appear in the acute phase in post-stroke children and to identify anatomical location of acute network injury and the ages at which these phenomena are seen. Images from 12 children (age range: 0-9 years; neonates [<1 month], n=5; infants [1 month-12 months], n=3; others [?1 year], n=4) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortical infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Cortical necrosis was defined as hyperintense cortical lesions on T1-weighted imaging that lacked evidence of hemorrhage. Acute network injury was defined as hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging that were not in the MCA territory and had fiber connections with the affected cerebral cortex. MRI was performed within the first week after disease onset. Cortical necrosis was only found in three neonates. Acute network injury was seen in the corticospinal tract (CST), thalamus and corpus callosum. Acute network injury along the CST was found in five neonates and one 7-month-old infant. Acute network injury was evident in the thalamus of four neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months) and in the corpus callosum of five neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months). The entire thalamus was involved in three children when infarction of MCA was complete. In acute MCA cortical infarction, MRI findings indicating cortical necrosis or acute network injury was frequently found in neonates and early infants. Response to injury in a developing brain may be faster than that in a mature one. (orig.)

  14. Association between treated/untreated traumatic dental injuries and impact on quality of life of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pordeus Isabela A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic dental injury (TDI could have physical and psychosocial consequences for children. Thus, it is important to measure the impact of TDI on the quality of life of children (QoL. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between treated/untreated TDI and the impact on the quality of life of 11-to-14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 1612 male and female schoolchildren aged 11 to 14 years attending public and private elementary schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select the children. Three calibrated examiners used the Andreasen classification for the diagnosis of TDI. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 - Impact Short Form (ISF:16, composed of 16 items and self-administered by all children. Other oral conditions (dental caries and malocclusion and the Social Vulnerability Index were determined and used as controlling variables. Results Two hundred nineteen children were diagnosed with untreated TDI and 64 were diagnosed with treated TDI. There were no statistically significant associations between untreated or treated TDI and overall CPQ11-14 (Fisher = 0.368 and Fisher = 0.610, respectively. Children with an untreated TDI were 1.4-fold (95% CI = 1.1-2.1 more likely to report impact on the item "avoided smiling/laughing" than those without TDI, whereas children with a treated TDI were twofold (95% CI = 1.1-3.5 more likely to report impact on the item "other children asked questions" than those without TDI. Conclusions Neither treated nor untreated TDI was associated with oral symptoms, functional limitations or emotional wellbeing. However, children with a TDI in the anterior teeth experienced a negative impact on social wellbeing, mainly with regard to avoiding smiling or laughing and being concerned about what other people may think or say.

  15. Rapid detection of acute kidney injury by urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery by comparing with serum creatinine. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, AFIP in collaboration with AFIC/ NIHD, Rawalpindi, from April to December 2011. Methodology: Eighty eight patients undergoing CPB surgery in AFIC/NIHD were included by consecutive sampling. Blood samples of subjects for serum creatinine analysis were drawn pre-operatively, 4 h, 24 h and 48 h after CPB surgery. Spot urine samples for NGAL were collected at 4 h after CPB surgery. Urine samples were analyzed on Abbott ARCHITECT i2000SR analyzer whereas serum creatinine samples were measured on Beckman UniCel DxC 600 Synchron Clinical System. Results: Out of 88 patients, 11 (13%) cases developed AKI 4 h postoperatively. Urinary NGAL increased markedly at 4 h postoperatively as compared to serum creatinine which showed rise at 24 - 48 h after cardiac surgery. Analysis of urine NGAL at a cutoff value of 87 ng/ml showed area under the curve of 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83 - 0.96] with sensitivity of 90.9% (95% CI 58.7 - 98.5) and specificity of 98.7% (95% CI 92.9-99.8). There was a positive correlation of 4 h urine NGAL and serum delta creatinine at 48 h, which was statistically significant (rs = 0.33, p = 0.001). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that levels of urine NGAL in patients suffering from AKI increased significantly at 4 h as compared to serum creatinine levels. Urine NGAL is an early predictive biomarker of AKI after CPB. (author)

  16. Comparison of urine with plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in detecting acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of urine with plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. Study Design: A prospective cohort study. Place and duration of study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, AFIP from December 2011 to July 2012. Patients and Methods: Ninety three adult patients planned for CPB surgery in AFIC/NIHD were consecutively included. Blood for serum creatinine were collected preoperatively, 4, 24 and 48 hours (h) after CPB surgery. Blood and urine samples for NGAL analysis were collected only at 4 h. Serum creatinine, plasma and urine NGAL samples were analyzed on UniCel at the rate DxC 600 (Beckman), TRIAGE meter pro (Biosite) and ARCHITECT i2000SR analyzer (Abbott) respectively. Results: Out of 93 patients undergoing CPB surgery, 12 (13%) developed AKI. AKI patients had significantly higher median interquartile range (IQR) urine NGAL of 180 ng/ml (105-277 ng/ml) as compared to control of 6 ng/ml (2-15 ng/ml) and median plasma NGAL of 170 ng/ml (126-274 ng/ml) as compared to control of 75 ng/ml (61-131 ng/ml). The patients had increased urine vs plasma NGAL area under curve (AUC) ( 0.91 vs 0.70 (p = <0.001)), better sensitivity (91% vs 82%) and specificity (98% vs 65%). Conclusion: Plasma and urine NGAL values increased significantly in AKI patients as compared to serum creatinine values. Urine in comparison to plasma NGAL revealed more sensitivity and specificity in detecting AKI following CPB surgery. (author)

  17. Urine and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin cut-off point for the prediction of acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Merrikhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the optimum cut-off point of urine and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL for the predictive diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective observational study which was performed at Alzahra hospital and Emam Hussein Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. During a period of 4 months, from February 2012 to May 2012, consecutive patients admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU aged between 1 month and 15 years with glomerular filtration rate (GFR more than 90 ml/min were enrolled in the study. In all the patients who were enrolled in the study, blood and urine samples were attained on the first, third, and fifth day of admission. Serum and urine NGAL were assessed and compared between patients who developed AKI and who didn?t. Results: Of 25 patients who enrolled in the study, 13 developed AKI. For the serum NGAL, the most accurate cut-off point was the fifth day cut-off point which was 163 375 pg/ml (sensitivity: 61.5%, specificity: 94.6%, AUC: 0.76 and urine NGAL cut-off point was 86 040 pg/ml (sensitivity: 50%, specificity: 92.5%, AUC: 0.73. Conclusions: In conclusion, we deduced that serum NGAL level significantly elevates in critically ill patients admitted in PICU who develop AKI. Serum and urine NGAL on the fifth day are the best predictors for the AKI with cut-off points 163 375 and 86 040.

  18. Clinical review : Predictive value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for acute kidney injury in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Haase, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may be an early marker of acute kidney injury (AKI), but elevated NGAL occurs in a wide range of systemic diseases. Because intensive care patients have high levels of comorbidity, our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the value of plasma and urinary NGAL to predict AKI in these patients. We conducted a systematic electronic literature search of MEDLINE through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for all English language research publications evaluating the predictive value of plasma or urinary NGAL (or both) for AKI in adult intensive care patients. Two authors independently extracted data by using a standardized extraction sheet including study characteristics, type of NGAL measurements, and type of outcome measures. The primary summary measure was area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AuROC) for NGAL to predict study outcomes. Eleven studies with a total of 2,875 (range of 20 to 632) participants were included: seven studies assessed urinary NGAL and six assessed plasma NGAL. The included studies varied in design, including observation period from NGAL sampling to AKI follow-up (range of 12 hours to 7 days), definition of baseline creatinine value, and urinary NGAL quantification method (normalizing to urinary creatinine or absolute concentration). AuROC values for the prediction of AKI ranged from 0.54 to 0.98. Five studies reported AuROC for use of renal replacement therapy ranging from 0.73 to 0.89, and four studies reported AuROC for mortality ranging from 0.58 to 0.83. There were no differences in the predictive values of urinary and plasma NGAL. The heterogeneity in study design and results made it difficult to evaluate the value of NGAL to predict AKI in intensive care patients. NGAL seems to have reasonable value in predicting use of renal replacement therapy but not mortality.

  19. Pattern of occupational injury and its effect on the health of male police officers in Calicut, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Thejus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Police officers play an important role in the society by ensuring security and are an occupational group at high risk for sustaining injuries, which is associated with an increased risk of adverse physical and mental health. Studies suggest that they die at an earlier age than expected for the general population for all causes of death. Risks for occupational injury and illness among policemen have not been tracked adequately; the relationships between chronic disease and mortality have not been adequately evaluated and health and hazard surveillance system have not been yet developed in India. Objectives: The main objective was to document the pattern of injuries and associated factors among police officers and to study its effect on their health. Materials and Methods: The study was cross sectional and covered 900 policemen (n = 900. Details of injury and related history were elicited using a semi structured questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were carried out using standard techniques. Multivariate analysis was done to identify associated risks and to assess the impact of injury on the physical and mental health of policemen. Results: Injury was reported by 20% of the policemen. The main cause of injury was encounters (52.7% followed by accidents (35.5%. Commonest type of injury was laceration (43.2% followed by fractures (36.7%. The injury group had higher prevalence of smoking, frequency of alcohol consumption, less satisfaction levels, and also reported more joint pain and body aches. Though the perceived stress and metabolic syndrome were high it was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study indicates high susceptibility of police officers to injury. Availability of equipments for personal protection of police should be improved and its compliance ensured for the safety of the police and the community.

  20. Injuries from paintball game related activities in the United States, 1997–2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, J; Annest, J; Gilchrist, J; Ryan, G

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To quantify and characterize injuries resulting from paintball game related activities among persons ?7 years in the United States. Setting: Hospitals included in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS); these are composed of a stratified probability sample of all hospitals in the United States with emergency departments. Methods: Using NEISS, non-fatal injury data for paintball game related injury cases from 1997–2001 were obtained from emergency department records. Participation estimates used to calculate injury rates were obtained from a yearly survey funded by the National Sporting Goods Association. Results: An estimated 11 998 persons ?7 years with paintball game related injuries were treated in emergency departments from 1997–2001, with an annual average rate of 4.5 per 10 000 participants (95% confidence interval 3.3 to 5.7). The paintball game related injury rate was highest for 18–24 year olds (4.9 per 10 000 participants) and most injuries (94.0%) occurred among males. Almost 60% of all injured persons ?7 years were treated for paintball pellet wounds of which most were to the eye. While 76.9% of injured persons ages 7–17 years were treated for paintball pellet wounds, almost 40% of those ?18 years were treated for injuries resulting from overexertion or a fall. Lower extremity injuries were also common (23.0%), mostly from overexertion. Most injured persons (95.5%) were treated and released. Conclusions: As paintball games become more popular, efforts are needed to increase training, enforce rules, and educate participants about how to stay safe, such as wearing protective eye gear, when engaged in paintball games at home, in a public area, or in a sports field. PMID:15178668